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Sample records for acute biological effects

  1. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  2. Biologic effects of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (a highly active vitamin D metabolite) in acutely uremic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Richard G.; Norman, Anthony W.; Reddy, Chilumula R.; Coburn, Jack W.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a vitamin D-resistant state in the course of renal failure may be responsible for reduced intestinal absorption of calcium and an impaired response of skeletal tissue. Moreover, the kidney has been shown to carry out the conversion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-CC) to a highly biologically active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-diOH-CC). In the present studies, vitamin D-deficient rats, made acutely uremic by either bilateral nephrectomy or urethral ligation, received physiological doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (CC), 25-OH-CC or 1,25-diOH-CC; 24 hr later intestinal calcium transport, in vitro, and bone calcium mobilization, in vivo, were assessed. Whereas CC and 25-OH-CC stimulated calcium transport in sham-operated controls, they were without effect in the uremic animals. In contrast, administration of 1,25-diOH-CC stimulated calcium transport in both groups of uremic animals. Administration of 1,25-diOH-CC also stimulated calcium mobilization from bone in each group of animals. However, CC and 25-OH-CC were only effective in the sham controls and the uremic group produced by urethral ligation and had little or no effect in animals without kidneys. These results indicate that renal conversion of calciferol to a more biologically active form is necessary for the stimulation of intestinal calcium absorption and calcium mobilization from bone, and that 1,25-diOH-CC may bypass a possible defect in vitamin D metabolism in uremia. From these studies it is likely that uremia, per se, may also impair intestinal calcium transport. PMID:4341503

  3. Effects of short-term propofol and dexmedetomidine on pulmonary morphofunction and biological markers in experimental mild acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Vinícius; Santos, Cintia Lourenço; Samary, Cynthia Santos; Araújo, Mariana Neves; Heil, Luciana Boavista Barros; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Silva, Pedro Leme; Pelosi, Paolo; Fernandes, Fatima Carneiro; Villela, Nivaldo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated whether the short-term use of dexmedetomidine and propofol may attenuate inflammatory response and improve lung morphofunction in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Control (C) and ALI animals received sterile saline solution and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide by intraperitoneal injection respectively. After 24h, ALI animals were randomly treated with dexmedetomidine, propofol, or thiopental sodium for 1h. Propofol reduced static lung elastance and resistive pressure and was associated with less alveolar collapse compared to thiopental sodium and dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine improved oxygenation, but did not modify lung mechanics or histology. Propofol was associated with lower IL (interleukin)-6 and IL-1β expression, whereas dexmedetomidine led to reduced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression in lung tissue compared to thiopental sodium. In conclusion, in this model of mild ALI, short-term use of dexmedetomidine and propofol led to different functional effects and activation of biological markers associated with pulmonary inflammation.

  4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and developmental biology

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Toboso-Navasa, Amparo; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Barajas-Diego, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The latest scientific findings in the field of cancer research are redefining our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, moving the emphasis toward the study of the mechanisms underlying the alteration of the normal processes of cellular differentiation. The concepts best exemplifying this new vision are those of cancer stem cells and tumoral reprogramming. The study of the biology of acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) has provided seminal experimental evidence supporting these new points of view. Furthermore, in the case of B cells, it has been shown that all the stages of their normal development show a tremendous degree of plasticity, allowing them to be reprogrammed to other cellular types, either normal or leukemic. Here we revise the most recent discoveries in the fields of B-cell developmental plasticity and B-ALL research and discuss their interrelationships and their implications for our understanding of the biology of the disease. PMID:22031225

  5. [BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF FISSION SPECTRUM NEUTRONS AND PROTONS WITH ENERGIES OF 60-126 MEV DURING ACUTE AND PROLONGED IRRADIATION].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons of the fission spectrum are characterized by relatively high values of linear energy transfer (LET). Data about their effects on biological objects are used to evaluate the risk of delayed effects of accelerated ions within the same LET range that serve as an experimental model of the nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Additionally, risks of delayed consequences to cosmonaut's health and average lifetime from certain GCR fluxes and secondary neutrons can be also prognosticated. The article deals with comparative analysis of the literature on reduction of average lifespan (ALS) of animals exposed to neutron reactor spectrum, 60-126 MeV protons, and X- and γ-rays in a broad range of radiation intensity and duration. It was shown that a minimal lifespan reduction by 5% occurs due to a brief exposure to neutrons with the absorbed dose of 5 cGy, whereas same lifespan reduction due to hard X- and γ-radiation occurs after absorption of a minimal dose of 100 cGy. Therefore, according to the estimated minimal ALS reduction in mice, neutron effectiveness is 20-fold higher. Biological effectiveness of protons as regards ALS reduction is virtually equal to that of standard types of radiation. Exposure to X- and γ-radiation with decreasing daily doses, and increasing number of fractions and duration gives rise to an apparent trend toward a less dramatic ALS reduction in mice; on the contrary, exposure to neutrons of varying duration had no effect on threshold doses for the specified ALS reductions. Factors of relative biological effectiveness of neutrons reached 40.

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  7. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, Steven X.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Cengel, Keith A.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5–10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose–response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure. PMID:24027300

  8. Relative biological effectiveness of simulated solar particle event proton radiation to induce acute hematological change in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Wan, Steven X; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Cengel, Keith A; Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for simulated solar particle event (SPE) radiation on peripheral blood cells using Yucatan minipigs and electron-simulated SPE as the reference radiation. The results demonstrated a generally downward trend in the RBE values with increasing doses of simulated SPE radiation for leukocytes in the irradiated animals. The fitted RBE values for white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils were above 1.0 in all three radiation dose groups at all time-points evaluated, and the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals were > 1.0 in the majority of the dose groups at different time-points, which together suggest that proton-simulated SPE radiation is more effective than electron-simulated SPE radiation in reducing the number of peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils, especially at the low end of the 5-10 Gy dose range evaluated. Other than the RBE values, the responses of leukocytes to electron-simulated SPE radiation and proton-simulated SPE radiation exposure are highly similar with respect to the time-course, the most radiosensitive cell type (the lymphocytes), and the shape of the dose-response curves, which is generally log-linear. These findings provide additional evidence that electron-simulated SPE radiation is an appropriate reference radiation for determination of RBE values for the simulated SPE radiations, and the RBE estimations using electron-simulated SPE radiation as the reference radiation are not complicated by other characteristics of the leukocyte response to radiation exposure.

  9. Decavanadate effects in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Aureliano, Manuel; Gândara, Ricardo M C

    2005-05-01

    Vanadium biological studies often disregarded the formation of decameric vanadate species known to interact, in vitro, with high-affinity with many proteins such as myosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump and also to inhibit these biochemical systems involved in energy transduction. Moreover, very few in vivo animal studies involving vanadium consider the contribution of decavanadate to vanadium biological effects. Recently, it has been shown that an acute exposure to decavanadate but not to other vanadate oligomers induced oxidative stress and a different fate in vanadium intracellular accumulation. Several markers of oxidative stress analyzed on hepatic and cardiac tissue were monitored after in vivo effect of an acute exposure (12, 24 h and 7 days), to a sub-lethal concentration (5 mM; 1 mg/kg) of two vanadium solutions ("metavanadate" and "decavanadate"). It was observed that "decavanadate" promote different effects than other vanadate oligomers in catalase activity, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial superoxide anion production and vanadium accumulation, whereas both solutions seem to equally depress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as total intracellular reducing power. Vanadium is accumulated in mitochondria in particular when "decavanadate" is administered. These recent findings, that are now summarized, point out the decameric vanadate species contributions to in vivo and in vitro effects induced by vanadium in biological systems.

  10. The biology of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Downing, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) comprises between 4% and 15% of newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients. AMKL in children with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by a founding GATA1 mutation that cooperates with trisomy 21, followed by the acquisition of additional somatic mutations. In contrast, non–DS-AMKL is characterized by chimeric oncogenes consisting of genes known to play a role in normal hematopoiesis. CBFA2T3-GLIS2 is the most frequent chimeric oncogene identified to date in this subset of patients and confers a poor prognosis. PMID:26186939

  11. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  12. Acute neurobehavioural effects of toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L; Langolf, G; Schork, A; Sampaio, C

    1989-01-01

    An acute inhalation chamber study of 42 college students was performed to investigate the relation between exposure to 0, 75, and 150 ppm of toluene and changes in central nervous system function and symptoms. Paid subjects were exposed for seven hours over three days. Verbal and visual short term memory (Sternberg, digit span, Benton, pattern memory); perception (pattern recognition); psychomotor skill (simple reaction time, continuous performance, digit symbol, hand-eye coordination, finger tapping, and critical tracking); manual dexterity (one hole); mood (profile of mood scales (POMS]; fatigue (fatigue checklist); and verbal ability were evaluated at 0800, 1200, and 1600 hours. Voluntary symptoms and observations of sleep were collected daily. An analysis of variance and test for trend was performed on the difference and score for each concentration reflecting an eight hour workday where each subject was their own control. A 3 x 3 Latin square study design evaluated toluene effects simultaneously, controlling for learning across the three days and the solvent order. Intersubject variation in solvent uptake was monitored in breath and urine. A 5-10% decrement in performance was considered significant if it was consistent with a linear trend at p less than 0.05. Adverse performance at 150 ppm toluene was found at 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5.0% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3.0% for critical tracking. The number of headaches and eye irritation also increased in a dose response manner. The greatest effect was found for an increasing number of observations of sleep. Overall, no clear pattern of neurobehavioural effects was found consistent with the type 1 central nervous system as classified by the World Health Organisation. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological

  13. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  14. Bustling argon: biological effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Argon is a noble gas in group 18 of the periodic table. Certificated to exist in air atmosphere merely one century ago, discovery of argon shows interesting stories of researching and exploring. It was assumed to have no chemical activity. However, argon indeed present its biological effect on mammals. Narcotic effect of argon in diving operation and neur-protective function of argon in cerebral injury demonstrate that argon has crucial effect and be concentrated on is necessary. Furthermore, consider to be harmless to human, argon clinical application in therapy would be another option. PMID:24088583

  15. Quantum Effects in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  16. [Acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T progenitors: from biology to clinics].

    PubMed

    Genescà, Eulàlia; Ribera, Jordi; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2015-03-09

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children and the main cause of morbidity among childhood blood disorders. There are 2 subtypes according to the affected lymphoid progenitor: B-ALL and T-ALL. The T-ALL is the less common and, although historically was associated with poor prognosis in both adults and children, at present, treatment outcomes do not differ significantly between the 2 types of ALL. The T-ALL subtype is the most complex and heterogeneous at the genetic level and currently the one with less new therapeutic alternatives available. This trend is changing thanks to the remarkable progress upon understanding its biology. This review summarizes the most recent and important biological findings in T-ALL and their possible therapeutic implications.

  17. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and developmental biology: a crucial interrelationship.

    PubMed

    Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Toboso-Navasa, Amparo; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Sanchez-García, Isidro; Cobaleda, César

    2011-10-15

    The latest scientific findings in the field of cancer research are redefining our understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, moving the emphasis toward the study of the mechanisms underlying the alteration of the normal processes of cellular differentiation. The concepts best exemplifying this new vision are those of cancer stem cells and tumoral reprogramming. The study of the biology of acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) has provided seminal experimental evidence supporting these new points of view. Furthermore, in the case of B cells, it has been shown that all the stages of their normal development show a tremendous degree of plasticity, allowing them to be reprogrammed to other cellular types, either normal or leukemic. Here we revise the most recent discoveries in the fields of B-cell developmental plasticity and B-ALL research and discuss their interrelationships and their implications for our understanding of the biology of the disease.

  18. Study of biological effects of varying mixtures of Cf-252 and gamma radiation on the acute radiation syndromes: Relevance to clinical radiotherapy of radioresistant cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Y.; Wierzbicki, J. Univ. of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY ); Feola, J.M. )

    1993-11-15

    Data for the 30 day bone marrow syndrome (BM-50) and the 6-10 day gastrointestinal (GI-50) syndrome for a one and two fraction schedule and acute and low dose rate irradiation using pure and mixed Cf-252 and photon radiation are presented. The radiation of Cf-252 is a mixture of neutrons and gamma rays. Balb/c mice of both sexes were total body irradiated with acute Co-60, low dose rate Cs-137 and Cf-252 using a 1 x and 2 x schedule. For low linear energy transfer radiations of Co-60 or Cs-137 there was expected to be an increase in the dose to produce the gastrointestinal and bone marrow syndromes with minimal change for Cf-252 neutrons. The proportion of photons in the Cf-252 radiation field were further altered by mixing Cs-137 with the Cf-252 sources and mice were total body irradiated with different proportions of photons to determine the effect on the radiation syndromes. The effects of mixing Cf-252 neutrons with different proportions of photons on the syndromes was determined. There was increase in BM-50 and GI-50 doses with fractionated or low dose rate photon irradiations and the dose modifying factors were 1.3-1.4 for the GI syndrome and 1.2 for the bone marrow syndrome. For Cf-252 there was minimal fractionation effect for the GI-50 syndrome, which increased by 1.1 for x 1 vs. x 2 fractions; for the BM-50 syndrome it rose by a 1.1 factor. For LDR Cs-137 the dose for the GI-50 syndrome rose 2.2-fold. For mixed neutron-photon radiation of 0%, 15%, 35%, and 65% [eta]/[gamma] mixtures, the dose to produce the BM-50 and GI-50 endpoints dropped sharply from 0 to 35% neutrons and remained flat thereafter. For major tissues such as the bone marrow and GI tract, Cf-252 behaved as high linear energy transfer for mixtures of neutrons and gamma rays when the radiations were delivered simultaneously at the low dose rates studied. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Biological effects summary report: pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Keimig, S.D.; Pattillo, R.W.

    1984-11-01

    A comprehensive review of pyrene was conducted to assess the potential health effects of this polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and to evaluate the need for recommending an interim occupational exposure limit to protect the health of exposed workers. Pyrene is formed as a trace pollutant during incomplete combustion of organic matter. Concentrations of pyrene in urban and industrial settings are generally higher than the levels recorded for benzo(a)pyrene. Concentrations of pyrene vary but are usually less than 50% of the total PAH, depending on the industry sampled. In humans, pyrene is a photosensitive material. Acute photo irritation effects may persist as chronic skin discoloration for as long as five months. No other documented clinical or epidemiological studies were found on effects of pure pyrene. There is evidence of co-carcinogenicity of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in mice. There is no clear evidence that pyrene is a tumor initiator. At this time, we do not recommend that a standard be set specific to pyrene in mixtures since available data on biological effects are limited, and since possible effects due to interactions of pyrene and the myriad of polynuclear aromatic compounds present during typical exposures have not been assessed. An exposure limit of 0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ would likely prevent photosensitization and irritation effects of pure pyrene. We recommend that the coal tar pitch volatile standard (CTPV) continue to be used for mixtures containing less than 50% pyrene. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable since in animals, pyrene appears to be a co-carcinogen with benzo(a)pyrene. 112 refs., 11 tabs.

  20. Acute radiation disease and biological dosimetry in 1993.

    PubMed

    Vorobiev, A I

    1997-01-01

    Mankind is at risk for accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. The experience in evaluating and treating victims of radiation exposure is briefly reviewed based upon accidents occurring over the past 25 years. Individual cases of acute toxicities to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver and bone marrow are presented. Biodosimetry (utilizing chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow and electron spin resonance spectrometry of dental enamel) has been utilized in radiation accidents to assess individual dose. Variability in the dose of ionizing radiation received is typical among the population affected by the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the acute radiation syndrome resulting in a high mortality has been well-documented, little information is available regarding the effects of chronic, low-level exposure from the Chernobyl accident.

  1. Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Bevington, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how far the Moon causes biological effects has continued for two millennia. Pliny the Elder argued for lunar power "penetrating all things", including plants, fish, animals and humans. He also linked the Moon with tides, confirmed mathematically by Newton. A review of modern studies of biological effects, especially from plants and animals, confirms the pervasive nature of this lunar force. However calculations from physics and other arguments refute the supposed mechanisms of gravity and light. Recent space exploration allows a new approach with evidence of electromagnetic fields associated with the Earth's magnetotail at full moon during the night, and similar, but more limited, effects from the Moon's wake on the magnetosphere at new moon during the day. The disturbance of the magnetotail is perhaps shown by measurements of electric fields of up to 16V/m compared with the usual <1V/m, suggesting the possibility of weak biological effects on some sensitive organisms. Similar intensities found in sferics, geomagnetic storms, aurora disturbance, sensations of a 'presence' and pre-seismic electromagnetic radiation are known to affect animals and 10-20% of the human population. There is now evidence for mechanisms such as calcium flux, melatonin disruption, magnetite and cryptochromes. Both environmental and receptor variations explain confounding factors and inconsistencies in the evidence. Electromagnetic effects might also account for some evolutionary changes. Further research on lunar biological effects, such as acute myocardial infarction, could help the development of strategies to reduce adverse effects for people sensitive to geomagnetic disturbance.

  2. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  3. Biological effects of tremolite.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J. C.; Chamberlain, M.; Brown, R. C.; Berry, G.; Pooley, F. D.; Davies, R.; Griffiths, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Tremolite is an amphibole which has been implicated in a variety of disease patterns in different parts of the world. It occurs in a number of phases, which are chemically identical but have specific physical characteristics. In an attempt to clarify the epidemiological findings, tremolite fibres of 3 specific forms--A, B and C--were characterized and studied for biological activity by: (i) in vivo intrapleural injection of rats (2 separate experiments--1 with poor survival). (ii) in vitro enzyme release from mouse peritoneal macrophages (iii) in vitro giant-cell formation in A549 cultures (iv) in vitro cytotoxicity for V79-4 cells. Sample C, which contained more long thin fibres than A and B, was alone in producing mesotheliomas. C, but not A or B, induced LDH and B-glucuronidase enzyme release, and induced giant cells. A was not cytotoxic, B moderately cytotoxic and C as highly cytotoxic as UICC crocidolite. The in vivo studies were marred by being split between 2 experiments, of which the second had poor survival. We are aware of the weakness of our in vivo data, but as Tremolite C was being considered for commercial use on the European market we felt it timely to submit our findings for publication. Images Fig. 4 PMID:6280741

  4. Biological Effects of Directed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, Thomas; Beason, Charles; Hitt, M. K.; Rogers, Walter; Cook, Michael

    2002-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the biological effects research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological effects research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR) health and safety, non-lethal weapon biological effects research, the newly formed Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence, and Biotechnology. The report is organized by research efforts within the major research areas, providing title, objective, a brief description, relevance to the AF or DoD, funding, and products.

  5. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  6. Acute Biological Effects of Simulating the Whole-Body Radiation Dose Distribution from a Solar Particle Event Using a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Yee, Stephanie S.; Seykora, John T.; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Litt, Harold I.; Reetz, Jennifer A.; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R.; Cengel, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses. PMID:21859326

  7. Acute biological effects of simulating the whole-body radiation dose distribution from a solar particle event using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Yee, Stephanie S; Seykora, John T; Maks, Casey; Ware, Jeffrey H; Litt, Harold I; Reetz, Jennifer A; McDonough, James; Weissman, Drew; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2011-11-01

    In a solar particle event (SPE), an unshielded astronaut would receive proton radiation with an energy profile that produces a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution (skin receiving a greater dose than internal organs). The novel concept of using megavoltage electron-beam radiation to more accurately reproduce both the total dose and the dose distribution of SPE protons and make meaningful RBE comparisons between protons and conventional radiation has been described previously. Here, Yucatan minipigs were used to determine the effects of a superficial, SPE-like proton dose distribution using megavoltage electrons. In these experiments, dose-dependent increases in skin pigmentation, ulceration, keratinocyte necrosis and pigment incontinence were observed. Five of 18 animals (one each exposed to 7.5 Gy and 12.5 Gy radiation and three exposed to 25 Gy radiation) developed symptomatic, radiation-associated pneumonopathy approximately 90 days postirradiation. The three animals from the highest dose group showed evidence of mycoplasmal pneumonia along with radiation pneumonitis. Moreover, delayed-type hypersensitivity was found to be altered, suggesting that superficial irradiation of the skin with ionizing radiation might cause immune dysfunction or dysregulation. In conclusion, using total doses, patterns of dose distribution, and dose rates that are compatible with potential astronaut exposure to SPE radiation, animals experienced significant toxicities that were qualitatively different from toxicities previously reported in pigs for homogeneously delivered radiation at similar doses.

  8. (Biological effects of atomic radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The traveler attended the thirty-ninth session of UNSCEAR, where he took part in the meetings of the Biological Subgroup and the Working Group of the full UNSCEAR Committee. He listened to the discussion of the many documents under preparation and provided advice on questions related to genetics. He was extensively involved in discussion of the document entitled Hereditary effects of radiation.'' During the discussion of that document, he served as the rapporteur of the Biological Subgroup. Important contacts were made with many internationally prominent scientists involved in radiation protection and risk evaluation. Since mouse data, many of them collected in the ORNL Biology Division, form a major component of genetic risk estimation, the traveler was able to provide first-hand information and to play an active role in the deliberations.

  9. Acute effects of solar particle event radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wan, X. Steven; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, L.; Cengel, K.

    2014-01-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animals exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations: gamma rays or electrons). All animal studies described have been approved by the University of PA IACUC. Some conclusions from recent CARR investigations are as follows: (i) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for SPE-like protons compared with standard reference radiations (gammas or electrons) for white blood cells (WBCs) vary greatly between mice, ferrets and pigs, with the RBE values being greater in ferrets than those in mice, and considerably greater in pigs compared with those in ferrets or mice [1, 2]. This trend for the data suggests that the RBE values for WBCs in humans could be considerably greater than those observed in small mammals, and SPE proton radiation may be far more hazardous to humans than previously estimated from small animal studies. (ii) Very low doses of SPE proton radiation (25 cGy) increase blood clotting times in ferrets, and the low SPE-like dose rate has more severe effects than high dose rate radiation [3]. (iii) Results from pig and ferret studies suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a major cause of death at doses near the LD50 level for SPE-like proton and gamma radiation. (iv) Exposure to SPE-like proton or gamma radiation, in combination with

  10. Biologics as countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Romaine, Patricia L P; Newman, Victoria L

    2015-04-01

    Despite significant scientific advances toward the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) over the past six decades, no drug has been approved by the US FDA. Several biologics are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for ARS, of which three have received FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) status for clinical investigation. Presently, two of these agents, entolimod (CBLB502) and HemaMax (recombinant human IL-12) are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. Neupogen (G-CSF, filgrastim) has recently been recommended for approval by an FDA Advisory Committee. Filgrastim, GM-CSF (Leukine, sargramostim), and PEGylated G-CSF (Neulasta) have high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the FDA in the future. The former two biologics are available in the US Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) for use in the event of nuclear or radiological emergency. The Emergency Use Authorization (EAU) application for entolimod may be filed soon with the FDA. Biologics are attractive agents that are progressing along the path for FDA approval, to fill the unmet need for ARS countermeasures.

  11. Biologics as countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K; Romaine, Patricia LP; Newman, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant scientific advances toward the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) over the past six decades, no drug has been approved by the US FDA. Several biologics are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for ARS, of which three have received FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) status for clinical investigation. Presently, two of these agents, entolimod (CBLB502) and HemaMax (recombinant human IL-12) are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. Neupogen (G-CSF, filgrastim) has recently been recommended for approval by an FDA Advisory Committee. Filgrastim, GM-CSF (Leukine, sargramostim), and PEGylated G-CSF (Neulasta) have high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the FDA in the future. The former two biologics are available in the US Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) for use in the event of nuclear or radiological emergency. The Emergency Use Authorization (EAU) application for entolimod may be filed soon with the FDA. Biologics are attractive agents that are progressing along the path for FDA approval, to fill the unmet need for ARS countermeasures. PMID:25416452

  12. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sisir

    2014-07-01

    The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

  13. [Molecular biology in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemias "smoldering"].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Sartor, Chiara; Papayannidis, Cristina; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Paolini, Stefania; Clissa, Cristina; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Finelli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage characterized by peripheral cytopenias and frequent leukemic evolution. MDS differ for clinical presentation, disease behavior and progression and this is the reflection of remarkable variability at molecular level. To this moment disease diagnosis is still dependent on bone marrow morphology that, although high concordance rates among experts are reported, remains subjective. Karyotype analysis is mandatory but diagnosis may be difficult in presence of normal karyotype or non-informative cytogenetics. Standardized molecular markers are needed to better define diagnosis, prediction of disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, a molecular biology analysis could provide an important therapeutic tool towards tailored therapy and new insights in the disease's biology.

  14. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  15. Alcohol Acute Effects in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    we derive the name "whiskey." In the Elizabethan era the physiological effects were known to Shakespeare , who in Hamlet noted that alcohol provoked...the Elizabethan era the physiological effects were alluded to by Porter in Hamlet , who noted alcohol provoked only "nose-painting, sleep and urine" (8...atlas of wine. London: Mitchell Beazley Pub, 1985. 7. Lord T. The World Guide to Spirits. pp. 6-27, 1979. 8. Shakespeare W. Macbeth. Act II, Scene 3

  16. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  17. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  18. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  19. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  20. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption.

  1. Exploiting Allee effects for managing biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Berec, Luděk; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    Biological invasions are a global and increasing threat to the function and diversity of ecosystems. Allee effects (positive density dependence) have been shown to play an important role in the establishment and spread of non-native species. Although Allee effects can be considered a bane in conservation efforts, they can be a benefit in attempts to manage non-native species. Many biological invaders are subject to some form of an Allee effect, whether due to a need to locate mates, cooperatively feed or reproduce or avoid becoming a meal, yet attempts to highlight the specific exploitation of Allee effects in biological invasions are surprisingly unprecedented. In this review, we highlight current strategies that effectively exploit an Allee effect, and propose novel means by which Allee effects can be manipulated to the detriment of biological invaders. We also illustrate how the concept of Allee effects can be integral in risk assessments and in the prioritization of resources allocated to manage non-native species, as some species beset by strong Allee effects could be less successful as invaders. We describe how tactics that strengthen an existing Allee effect or create new ones could be used to manage biological invasions more effectively.

  2. Biological effects of ozone reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of increased UV radiation on the biosphere are described with ongoing research, and research areas that should be investigated. Some mention is also made of the potential climatic effects of ozone reduction on agriculture and the biosphere.

  3. Minireview: Biological effects of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Mustarelli, P. ); Caprotti, M. )

    1991-01-01

    The literature about the biological effects of magnetic fields is reviewed. The authors begin by discussing the weak and/or time variable fields, responsible for subtle changes in the circadian rhythms of superior animals, which are believed to be induced by same sort of resonant mechanism. The safety issues related with the strong magnetic fields and gradients generated by clinical NMR magnets are then considered. The last portion summarizes the debate about the biological effects of strong and uniform magnetic fields.

  4. Intragenic ERG Deletions Do Not Explain the Biology of ERG-Related Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Potuckova, Eliska; Zuna, Jan; Hovorkova, Lenka; Starkova, Julia; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zaliova, Marketa

    2016-01-01

    Intragenic ERG deletions occur in 3–5% of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, specifically in B-other subtype lacking the classifying genetic lesions. They represent the only genetic lesion described so far present in the majority of cases clustering into a subgroup of B-other subtype characterized by a unique gene expression profile, probably sharing a common, however, not yet fully described, biological background. We aimed to elucidate whether ERG deletions could drive the specific biology of this ERG-related leukemia subgroup through expression of aberrant or decreased expression of wild type ERG isoforms. We showed that leukemic cells with endogenous ERG deletion express an aberrant transcript translated into two proteins in transfected cell lines and that one of these proteins colocalizes with wild type ERG. However, we did not confirm expression of the proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases with endogenous ERG deletion. ERG deletions resulted in significantly lower expression of wild type ERG transcripts compared to B-other cases without ERG deletion. However, cases with subclonal ERG deletion, clustering to the same ERG deletion associated subgroup, presented similar levels of wild type ERG as cases without ERG deletion. In conclusion, our data suggest that neither the expression of aberrant proteins from internally deleted allele nor the reduced expression of wild type ERG seem to provide a plausible explanation of the specific biology of ERG -related leukemia subgroup. PMID:27494621

  5. The biological effects of UVA radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Urbach, F.; Gange, R.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the biological effects of longwave radiation has increased dramatically in the last few years. The contributors to this state of the art volume discuss the most current knowledge of biological effects of UVA and provide guidelines regarding acceptable human exposure to this type of radiation. Contents include: historical aspects of UVA effects; mechanisms of UVA photosensitization; photorecovery by UVA; photoaugmentation of UVB effects by UVA; effects of UVA radiation on tissues of the eye; new UVA sunscreen; and recommendations for future research and possible actions.

  6. Biology, Risk Stratification, and Therapy of Pediatric Acute Leukemias: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Carroll, William L.; Meshinchi, Soheil; Arceci, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We review recent advances in the biologic understanding and treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), identify therapeutically challenging subgroups, and suggest future directions of research. Methods A review of English literature on childhood acute leukemias from the past 5 years was performed. Results Contemporary treatments have resulted in 5-year event-free survival rates of approximately 80% for childhood ALL and almost 60% for pediatric AML. The advent of high-resolution genome-wide analyses has provided new insights into leukemogenesis and identified many novel subtypes of leukemia. Virtually all ALL and the vast majority of AML cases can be classified according to specific genetic abnormalities. Cooperative mutations involved in cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, tumor suppression, drug responsiveness, and apoptosis have also been identified in many cases. The development of new formulations of existing drugs, molecularly targeted therapy, and immunotherapies promises to further advance the cure rates and improve quality of life of patients. Conclusion The application of new high-throughput sequencing techniques to define the complete DNA sequence of leukemia and host normal cells and the development of new agents targeted to leukemogenic pathways promise to further improve outcome in the coming decade. PMID:21220611

  7. Resolution of Acute Inflammation and the Role of Resolvins in Immunity, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

    PubMed

    Sansbury, Brian E; Spite, Matthew

    2016-06-24

    Acute inflammation is a host-protective response that is mounted in response to tissue injury and infection. Initiated and perpetuated by exogenous and endogenous mediators, acute inflammation must be resolved for tissue repair to proceed and for homeostasis to be restored. Resolution of inflammation is an actively regulated process governed by an array of mediators as diverse as those that initiate inflammation. Among these, resolvins have emerged as a genus of evolutionarily conserved proresolving mediators that act on specific cellular receptors to regulate leukocyte trafficking and blunt production of inflammatory mediators, while also promoting clearance of dead cells and tissue repair. Given that chronic unresolved inflammation is emerging as a central causative factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, an understanding of the endogenous processes that govern normal resolution of acute inflammation is critical for determining why sterile maladaptive cardiovascular inflammation perpetuates. Here, we provide an overview of the process of resolution with a focus on the enzymatic biosynthesis and receptor-dependent actions of resolvins and related proresolving mediators in immunity, thrombosis, and vascular biology. We discuss how nutritional and current therapeutic approaches modulate resolution and propose that harnessing resolution concepts could potentially lead to the development of new approaches for treating chronic cardiovascular inflammation in a manner that is not host disruptive.

  8. Biological effects of sexual freedom.

    PubMed

    Catterall, R D

    1981-02-07

    It is difficult to determine the true incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Underreporting of STD is widespread. In the United Kingdom the available figures exclude patients treated by general practitioners or patients in the armed forces. The incidence of STDs is rising. In 1979 the figure for the United Kingdom was about 500,000 new cases. The most common STD in England and Wales is non-specific urethritis or non-specific genital infection. The increase in gonorrhea has been less dramatic in England and Wales than it has been in other industrial and urbanized countries. Regardless, between 1960 and 1979 the incidence of the disease doubled to 60,000 new cases a year. Recent research has shown another group of sexually transmissible infectious agents which are now more common than the older venereal infections. Viruses are responsible for reversal of this 2nd generation of STDs. Their manifestations range from local discomfort to chronic disability, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, and neonatal death. There are many medical, social and economic factors which contribute to this increase in the incidence of STD and the recognition of the 2nd generation of sexual infections. Some of these are known, others unknown. The introduction of penicillin and other antibiotics has had a great effect on some STDs, notably syphilis. Pelvic inflammatory disease has been the most important cause of increases in female infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The new generation of STDs has serious and potentially dangerous effects on both expectant mothers and their infants.

  9. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  10. Integrating microRNAs into a system biology approach to acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Garcia, Joe G N; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI), including the ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are common and complex inflammatory lung diseases potentially affected by various genetic and nongenetic factors. Using the candidate gene approach, genetic variants associated with immune response and inflammatory pathways have been identified and implicated in ALI. Because gene expression is an intermediate phenotype that resides between the DNA sequence variation and the higher level cellular or whole-body phenotypes, the illustration of gene expression regulatory networks potentially could enhance understanding of disease susceptibility and the development of inflammatory lung syndromes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a novel class of gene regulators that play critical roles in complex diseases including ALI. Comparisons of global miRNA profiles in animal models of ALI and VILI identified several miRNAs (eg, miR-146a and miR-155) previously implicated in immune response and inflammatory pathways. Therefore, via regulation of target genes in these biological processes and pathways, miRNAs potentially contribute to the development of ALI. Although this line of inquiry exists at a nascent stage, miRNAs have the potential to be critical components of a comprehensive model for inflammatory lung disease built by a systems biology approach that integrates genetic, genomic, proteomic, epigenetic as well as environmental stimuli information. Given their particularly recognized role in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, miRNAs also serve as novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for ALI/ARDS or VILI, thus facilitating the realization of personalized medicine for individuals with acute inflammatory lung disease.

  11. Static fields: biological effects and mechanisms relevant to exposure limits.

    PubMed

    van Rongen, Eric; Saunders, Richard D; van Deventer, Emilie T; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    Recently, the International EMF Project of the World Health Organization (WHO) published an Environmental Health Criteria monograph on static electric and magnetic fields. In the present paper a short overview is given of the biological and health effects discussed in this document. The main conclusions are that no acute effects other than transient phenomena such as vertigo and nausea have been observed with exposure to static magnetic flux densities up to 8 T. There are no reports of long term or chronic adverse effects following prolonged static magnetic field exposure, but few data are available on which to base any judgment. The guidelines on static field exposure recommended by ICNIRP in 1994 are discussed in the light of current scientific knowledge.

  12. Effectiveness of Biologic Factors in Shoulder Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Aryaei, Ashkan; Vasilakakos, Theofanis; Paschos, Nikolaos K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pathology can cause significant pain, discomfort, and loss of function that all interfere with activities of daily living and may lead to poor quality of life. Primary osteoarthritis and rotator cuff diseases with its sequalae are the main culprits. Management of shoulder disorders using biological factors gained an increasing interest over the last years. This interest reveals the need of effective treatments for shoulder degenerative disorders, and highlights the importance of a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the rapidly increasing knowledge in the field. Methods: This study will describe most of the available biology-based strategies that have been recently developed, focusing on their effectiveness in animal and clinical studies. Results: Data from in vitro work will also be briefly presented; in order to further elucidate newly acquired knowledge regarding mechanisms of tissue degeneration and repair that would probably drive translational work in the next decade. The role of platelet rich-plasma, growth factors, stem cells and other alternative treatments will be described in an evidence-based approach, in an attempt to provide guidelines for their clinical application. Finally, certain challenges that biologic treatments face today will be described as an initiative for future strategies. Conclusion: The application of different growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells appears as promising approaches for enhancing biologic repair. However, data from clinical studies are still limited, and future studies need to improve understanding of the repair process in cellular and molecular level and evaluate the effectiveness of biologic factors in the management of shoulder disorders.

  13. Mechanistic Effects of Calcitriol in Cancer Biology

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Lorenza; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; García-Gaytán, Ana Cristina; Méndez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, promotes cell differentiation and acts as anti-inflammatory factor within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we address the different mechanisms of action involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol. PMID:26102214

  14. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  15. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    PubMed

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  16. Chronic and acute effects of endurance training on telomere length.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Andrea; Giardini, Guido; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Mercuri, Antonella; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Sposta, Simona Mrakic; Moretti, Sarah; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Pratali, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Telomere shortening is considered a cellular marker of health status and biological ageing. Exercise may influence the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length (TL). However, it is unclear whether different endurance exercise levels may have beneficial or detrimental effects on biological aging. The aims of the study were to assess both chronic and acute effects of endurance training on TL after an exceptional and extreme trail race. TL was assessed in 20 endurance athletes (17 males; age = 45.4 ± 9.2 years) and 42 age- and gender-matched sedentary controls (32 males; age = 45.9 ± 9.5 years) with quantitative real-time PCR at baseline conditions. Of the 20 runners enrolled in the 'Tor des Géants ®' ultra-distance trail race, 15 athletes (12 males; age = 47.2 ± 8.5 years) were re-evaluated at the intermediate point and 14 athletes (11 males; age = 47.1 ± 8.8 years) completed the competition and were analysed at the final point. Comparison between the two groups (endurance athletes vs. sedentary controls) revealed a significant difference in TL (1.28 ± 0.4 vs. 1.02 ± 0.3, P = 0.005). TL was better preserved in elder endurance runners compared with the same age control group (1.3 ± 0.27 vs. 0.91 ± 0.21, P = 0.003). TL was significantly reduced at the intermediate (0.88 ± 0.36 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.002) and final point compared with baseline measurements (0.86 ± 0.4 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.0006) for athletes engaged in the ultra-marathon race. Our data suggest that chronic endurance training may provide protective effects on TL attenuating biological aging. Conversely, acute exposure to an ultra-distance endurance trail race implies telomere shortening probably caused by oxidative DNA damage.

  17. Biological effects of magnetic fluids: toxicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, Z. G. M.; Azevedo, R. B.; Martins, E. V.; Lacava, L. M.; Freitas, M. L. L.; Garcia, V. A. P.; Rébula, C. A.; Lemos, A. P. C.; Sousa, M. H.; Tourinho, F. A.; Da Silva, M. F.; Morais, P. C.

    1999-07-01

    Toxicity of ionic and citrate-based magnetic fluids administrated intraperitoneally to mice was investigated through cytogenetic analysis, evaluation of mitotic index and morphological and cytometric alterations. Both magnetic fluid samples cause severe inflammatory reactions, being very toxic and thus not biocompatible. Peritoneal cells and tissues studies may provide a useful strategy to investigate the in vivo biological effects of magnetic nanoparticles.

  18. Diurnal Spectral Sensitivity of the Acute Alerting Effects of Light

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Aeschbach, Daniel; Brainard, George C.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated short-wavelength sensitivity for the acute alerting response to nocturnal light exposure. We assessed daytime spectral sensitivity in alertness, performance, and waking electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Between-subjects (n = 8 per group). Setting: Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit. Participants: Sixteen healthy young adults (mean age ± standard deviation = 23.8 ± 2.7 y). Interventions: Equal photon density exposure (2.8 × 1013 photons/cm2/s) to monochromatic 460 nm (blue) or 555 nm (green) light for 6.5 h centered in the middle of the 16-h episode of wakefulness during the biological day. Results were compared retrospectively to 16 individuals who were administered the same light exposure during the night. Measurements and Results: Daytime and nighttime 460-nm light exposure significantly improved auditory reaction time (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and reduced attentional lapses (P < 0.05), and improved EEG correlates of alertness compared to 555-nm exposure. Whereas subjective sleepiness ratings did not differ between the two spectral conditions during the daytime (P > 0.05), 460-nm light exposure at night significantly reduced subjective sleepiness compared to 555-nm light exposure at night (P < 0.05). Moreover, nighttime 460-nm exposure improved alertness to near-daytime levels. Conclusions: The alerting effects of short-wavelength 460-nm light are mediated by counteracting both the circadian drive for sleepiness and homeostatic sleep pressure at night, but only via reducing the effects of homeostatic sleep pressure during the day. Citation: Rahman SA; Flynn-Evans EE; Aeschbach D; Brainard GC; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Diurnal spectral sensitivity of the acute alerting effects of light. SLEEP 2014;37(2):271-281. PMID:24501435

  19. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    PubMed

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  20. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 Apr 05, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week! Mar 23, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week is ONE ... 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week (NPAW) 2017 date: Mar 1, 2017 FDA Meeting for Acute Porphyrias is ...

  1. The biological effects and possible modes of action of nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Völker, Carolin; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Novel physicochemical and biological properties have led to a versatile spectrum of applications for nanosized silver particles. Silver nanoparticles are applied primarily for their antimicrobial effects, and may variety of commercially available products have emerged. To better predict and prevent possible environmental impacts from silver nanoparticles that are derived from increasing production volumes and environmental release, more data on the biological effects are needed on appropriate model organisms. We examined the literature that addressed the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on different levels of biological integration, including in vitro and in vivo test systems. Results of in vitro studies indicate a dose-dependent programmed cell death included by oxidative stress as main possible pathway of toxicity. Furthermore, silver nanoparticles may affect cellular enzymes by interference with free thiol groups and mimicry of endogenous ions. Similar mechanisms may apply for antibacterial effects produced by nonasilver. These effects are primary from the interference nanosilver has with bacterial cell membranes. Few in vivo studies have been performed to evaluated the toxic mode of action of nanosilver or to provide evidence for oxidative stress as an important mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. Organisms that are most acutely sensitive to nanosilver toxicity are the freshwater filter-freeding organisms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated tha silver ions released from nanoparticle surface contribute to the toxicity, and, indeed, some findings indicated a unique nanoparticles effect. For an adequate evaluation of the environmental impact of nanosilver, greater emphasis should be placed on combining mechanistic investigations that are performed in vitro, with results obtained in in vivo test systems. Future in vivo test system studies should emphasize long-term exposure scenarios. Moreover, the dietary uptake of silver nanoparticles and

  2. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  3. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  4. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  5. Effect of a synbiotic on infantile acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Z

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is still a common disease worldwide. Synbiotics are being used to alleviate the effects of acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhoea. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a synbiotic in reducing the duration of diarrhoea in children with acute gastroenteritis. The study has been carried out on data gathered from children with acute gastroenteritis between the age of three months and 14 years seen in paediatric polyclinics between August 2009 and April 2010. While synbiotic group patients got a sachet containing Bifidobacterium lactis 2211 with a minimum of 5×10⁶ cfu active bacteria and 900 mg chicory inulin twice daily for five days together with an oral rehydration solution, the control group only received an oral rehydration solution. Therapy with synbiotic plus an oral rehydration solution shortened the duration of acute diarrhoea in children by approximately one day compared to oral rehydration solution only.

  6. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium. PMID:11834466

  7. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium.

  8. The cell biology of disease: Acute promyelocytic leukemia, arsenic, and PML bodies.

    PubMed

    de Thé, Hugues; Le Bras, Morgane; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

    2012-07-09

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is driven by a chromosomal translocation whose product, the PML/retinoic acid (RA) receptor α (RARA) fusion protein, affects both nuclear receptor signaling and PML body assembly. Dissection of APL pathogenesis has led to the rediscovery of PML bodies and revealed their role in cell senescence, disease pathogenesis, and responsiveness to treatment. APL is remarkable because of the fortuitous identification of two clinically effective therapies, RA and arsenic, both of which degrade PML/RARA oncoprotein and, together, cure APL. Analysis of arsenic-induced PML or PML/RARA degradation has implicated oxidative stress in the biogenesis of nuclear bodies and SUMO in their degradation.

  9. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950’s, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:26829016

  10. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.

    2000-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  11. Assessing biological effects from highway-runoff constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1999-01-01

    local ecosystem were reviewed to provide information on (1) the suitability of the existing data for a quantitative national synthesis, (2) the methods available to study the effects of highway runoff on local ecosystems, and (3) the potential for adverse effects on the roadside environment and receiving waters. Although many biological studies have been done, the use of different methods and a general lack of sufficient documentation precludes a quantitative national synthesis on the basis of the existing data. The Federal Highway Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, and the National Resources Conservation Service all have developed and documented methods for assessing the effects of contaminants on ecosystems in receiving waters. These published methods can be used to formulate a set of protocols to provide consistent information from highway-runoff studies. Review of the literature indicates (qualitatively) that highway runoff (even from highways with high traffic volume) may not usually be acutely toxic. Tissue analysis and community assessments, however, indicate effects from highway- runoff sediments near discharge points (even from sites near highways with relatively low traffic volumes). At many sites, elevated concentrations of highway-runoff constituents were measured in tissues of species associated with aquatic sediments. Community assessments also indicate decreases in the diversity and productivity of aquatic ecosystems at some sites receiving highway runoff. These results are not definitive, however, and depend on many site-specific criteria that were not sufficiently documented in most of the studies reviewed.

  12. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  13. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  14. Acute and long term health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1986-11-19

    This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects are threshold effects, meaning that the dose must exceed a certain threshold before one sees these effects. Less than the threshold dose results in no observable organ or whole body effect. The severity of the effects correlate directly with the amount of cell damage or cell death that has occurred. 15 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Biological effects summary report: 4,4'-methylenedianiline

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.; Morris, S.C. III; Brower, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The Center for Assessment of Chemical and Physical Hazards was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a Biological Effects Summary Report for 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA). The literature regarding MDA toxicity was reviewed and a risk assessment analysis was performed based on animal tumor data, structurally similar compounds, and human effects data. In man, acute exposures to MDA have caused epigastric pain, fever, jaundice, and oher symptoms consistent with hepatitis. These effects appear to be reversible. No liver damage has yet been observed from chronic exposure. Chronic skin effects disappear when MDA exposure stops. Skin sensitivity also occurs in some individuals. Recent findings suggest a link between exposure to MDA and the occurrence of bladder cancer in man. Studies indicate that the skin is a major route of exposure in the development of these health effects. In animals, chronic administration of MDA produces hepatic cirrhosis, liver lesions, and enlargement of the spleen, liver, and kidneys. MDA has also proved to be carcinogenic in rats and mice, causing liver, thyroid and several other tumors. Compounds structurally similar to MDA are also known to be carcinogenic in man and animals. Based on these findings, an interim exposure limit of 0.08 mg/m/sup 3/ (0.01 ppM) was recommended for an average concentration exposure to employees during an 8-h work shift. 52 refs., 5 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. A Prospective Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma as Biological Augmentation for Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jian; Mo, Xiaolian; Li, Tanzhu; Xue, Jianfeng; Mei, Guohua; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Acute Achilles tendon rupture is one of the most common tendon injuries in adults. We hypothesized that Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) can be used as biological augmentation for surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Our study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture undergoing surgical repair were randomly assigned into either control group or PRP group. End-to-end modified Krackow suture was performed in both groups. In the PRP group, PRP was injected into the paratenon sheath and around the ruptured tissue after the tendon was repaired. Postoperatively we evaluated isokinetic muscle strength at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, ankle ROM, calf circumference, Leppilahti score, and the SF-36 score were evaluated at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. At 3 months, the PRP group had better isokinetic muscle. The PRP group also achieved higher SF-36 and Leppilahti scores at 6 and 12 months. At 24 months, the PRP group had an improved ankle range of motion compared to the control group. Our study results suggest that PRP can serve as a biological augmentation to acute Achilles tendon rupture repair and improves both short and midterm functional outcomes. PMID:28116306

  17. Electron Correlation Effects in Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. L.; Endres, R.; Kulkarni, R. V.; Labute, M.; Singh, R. R. P.

    2002-07-01

    Allosteric (conformation changing) proteins with transition metal atoms are at the heart of much important biological function (e.g., myoglobin hemoglobin used for storing and transporting oxygen in the bloodstream). In the case of myoglobin and hemoglobin, oxygen ligation to the iron center induces a spin crossover (high to low) coupled to a structural change; apart from the role of Hunds' exchange in the spin crossover, electron interaction effects have been ignored. We argue that the spin crossover/structure change observed in the similarly structured but far simpler cobalt valence tautomer molecules1 necessitates an inclusion of underscreened Kondo like correlations for a complete description of the energetics of the transition and dynamics, e.g., for x-ray absorption data. We carry this study out with Varma-Yafet-Gunnarsson-Schonhammer wave functions, which, in chemistry language, are basis set restricted configuration interaction in character. We briefly review the applicability of such wave functions to the description of the putative Kondo molecules cerocene (Ce[(CH)5]2) and ytterbocene bipyridine (Yb[(CH)5]2(bipy)) and to the problem of electron transfer in biological molecules and organic conductors, where anomalous long range tunneling may occur.

  18. Electron Correlation Effects in Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. L.; Endres, R.; Kulkarni, R. V.; Labute, M.; Singh, R. R. P.

    Allosteric (conformation changing) proteins with transition metal atoms are at the heart of much important biological function (e.g., myoglobin hemoglobin used for storing and transporting oxygen in the bloodstream). In the case of myoglobin and hemoglobin, oxygen ligation to the iron center induces a spin crossover (high to low) coupled to a structural change; apart from the role of Hunds' exchange in the spin crossover, electron interaction effects have been ignored. We argue that the spin crossover/structure change observed in the similarly structured but far simpler cobalt valence tautomer molecules1 necessitates an inclusion of underscreened Kondo like correlations for a complete description of the energetics of the transition and dynamics, e.g., for x-ray absorption data. We carry this study out with Varma-Yafet-Gunnarsson-Schonhammer wave functions, which, in chemistry language, are basis set restricted configuration interaction in character. We briefly review the applicability of such wave functions to the description of the putative Kondo molecules cerocene (Ce[(CH)5]2) and ytterbocene bipyridine (Yb[(CH)5]2(bipy)) and to the problem of electron transfer in biological molecules and organic conductors, where anomalous long range tunneling may occur. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Research.

  19. Class III Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Acute Leukemia – Biological Functions and Modern Laboratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berenstein, Rimma

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a complex disease caused by deregulation of multiple signaling pathways. Mutations in class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been implicated in alteration of cell signals concerning the growth and differentiation of leukemic cells. Point mutations, insertions, or deletions of RTKs as well as chromosomal translocations induce constitutive activation of the receptor, leading to uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid blasts. Aberrations can occur in all domains of RTKs causing either the ligand-independent activation or mimicking the activated conformation. The World Health Organization recommended including RTK mutations in the AML classification since their detection in routine laboratory diagnostics is a major factor for prognostic stratification of patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods are well-validated for the detection of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations and can easily be applied for other RTKs. However, when methodological limitations are reached, accessory techniques can be applied. For a higher resolution and more quantitative approach compared to agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR fragments can be separated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore, high-resolution melting and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography are reliable presequencing screening methods that reduce the sample amount for Sanger sequencing. Because traditional DNA sequencing is time-consuming, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an innovative modern possibility to analyze a high amount of samples simultaneously in a short period of time. At present, standardized procedures for NGS are not established, but when this barrier is resolved, it will provide a new platform for rapid and reliable laboratory diagnostic of RTK mutations in patients with AML. In this article, the biological and physiological role of RTK mutations in AML as well as possible laboratory methods for their detection will be

  20. Effects of an Acute Seizure on Associative Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Andrew J.; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed an adult 129SvEvTac mouse to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1 hour, but not 6 hours, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared to controls 24 hours later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1 hour after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open field test 2 hours but not 24 hours later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge. PMID:26655449

  1. [Titanium dioxide nanoparticles--biological effects].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide occurs as particles of various sizes. Particles of up to 100 nm, corresponding to nanoparticles, and in the size range of 0.1-3 mm are the most frequently used. Titanium dioxide in a bulk form is not classified as dangerous substance, nevertheless nanoparticles may cause adverse health effects. Inhalation exposure to nano-TiO2, causes pulmonary inflammation that may lead to fibrotic and proliferative changes in the lungs. Many studies confirm the genotoxic effect of TiO2, especially in the form of nanoparticles, on mammal and human cells. In rats exposed to TiO2-nanoparticles by inhalation the development of tumors has been observed. However, there is no evidence of additional lung cancer risk or mortality in workers exposed to TiO2 dust. There are some studies demonstrating the adverse effect of TiO2-nanoparticles on fetal development, as well as on reproduction of animals. TiO2 nanoparticles find a still wider application and thus the risk of occupational exposure to this substance increases as well. Considering such alarming data on the biological activity of TiO2 nanoparticles, more attention should be paid to occupational exposure and its health effects. Properties of the nanoparticles, due to their larger surface area and reactivity, differ significantly from the inhalable dust of TiO2, for which the hygiene standards are mandatory in Poland.

  2. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  3. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  4. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  5. Formation and Biological Targets of Quinones: Cytotoxic versus Cytoprotective Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates, which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo including, acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. In contrast, quinones can induce cytoprotection through the induction of detoxification enzymes, anti-inflammatory activities, and modification of redox status. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. The various biological targets of quinones depend on their rate and site of formation and their reactivity. Quinones are formed through a variety of mechanisms from simple oxidation of catechols/hydroquinones catalyzed by a variety of oxidative enzymes and metal ions to more complex mechanisms involving initial P450-catalyzed hydroxylation reactions followed by two-electron oxidation. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and modification of cellular processes could occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radical anions leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can alter redox balance within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and DNA. This perspective explores the varied biological targets of quinones including GSH, NADPH, protein sulfhydryls [heat shock proteins, P450s, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, (NQO1), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), IκB kinase (IKK), and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)], and DNA. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone modulations (i.e., alkylation versus oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology/cytoprotection of the parent compound(s) that is best described by an inverse U-shaped dose–response curve. PMID:27617882

  6. Biological effects of a nano red elemental selenium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Gao, X Y; Zhang, L D; Bao, Y P

    2001-01-01

    A novel selenium form, nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se) was prepared by adding bovine serum albumin to the redox system of selenite and glutathione. Nano-Se has a 7-fold lower acute toxicity than sodium selenite in mice (LD(50) 113 and 15 mg Se/kg body weight respectively). In Se-deficient rat, both Nano-Se and selenite can increase tissue selenium and GPx activity. The biological activities of Nano-Se and selenite were compared in terms of cell proliferation, enzyme induction and protection against free racial-mediated damage in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nano-Se and selenite are similarly cell growth inhibited and stimulated synthesis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR). When HepG2 cells were co-treated with selenium and glutathione, Nano-Se showed less pro-oxidative effects than selenite, as measured by cell growth. These results demonstrate that Nano-Se has a similar bioavailability in the rat and antioxidant effects on cells.

  7. Noise effects in two different biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, B.; Spezia, S.; Curcio, L.; Pizzolato, N.; Fiasconaro, A.; Valenti, D.; Lo Bue, P.; Peri, E.; Colazza, S.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the role of the colored noise in two biological systems: (i) adults of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and (ii) polymer translocation. In the first system we analyze, by directionality tests, the response of N. viridula individuals to subthreshold signals plus noise in their mating behaviour. The percentage of insects that react to the subthreshold signal shows a nonmonotonic behaviour, characterized by the presence of a maximum, as a function of the noise intensity. This is the signature of the non-dynamical stochastic resonance phenomenon. By using a “soft” threshold model we find that the maximum of the input-output cross correlation occurs in the same range of noise intensity values for which the behavioural activation of the insects has a maximum. Moreover this maximum value is lowered and shifted towards higher noise intensities, compared to the case of white noise. In the second biological system the noise driven translocation of short polymers in crowded solutions is analyzed. An improved version of the Rouse model for a flexible polymer is adopted to mimic the molecular dynamics by taking into account both the interactions between adjacent monomers and the effects of a Lennard-Jones potential between all beads. The polymer dynamics is simulated in a two-dimensional domain by numerically solving the Langevin equations of motion in the presence of thermal fluctuations and a colored noise source. At low temperatures or for strong colored noise intensities the translocation process of the polymer chain is delayed. At low noise intensity, as the polymer length increases, we find a nonmonotonic behaviour for the mean first translocation time of the polymer centre of inertia. We show how colored noise influences the motion of short polymers, by inducing two different regimes of translocation in the dynamics of molecule transport.

  8. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  9. [Optimization of treatment of children with acute intestinal infections by application of Russian biological microbial preparations].

    PubMed

    Feklisova, L V

    2005-01-01

    The article presents the results of long-term (several years) use of Russian bifido- and lactocontaing probiotics and data on the clinicolaboratory effectiveness of bifidumbacterin forte, probifor, bifidin, bifilis, calcidum, florin forte, acipol and acilact in children with various intestinal infections of known and unknown etiology. The presented results were obtained by studies conducted according to the requirements of The Governmental Program of L. A. Tarasevich State Institute of Standartization and Medical Biological Preparation Control, which included randomization of groups of patients receiving codified preparations or placebo according to their age, nosology, the degree of the process severity, premorbid status, and the time when the treatment was started. Each of the programs included several hundreds of children, receiving probiotics; in which of the programs the studies were multicentered. The courses of treatment with probiotics were short (1 to 2 weeks). No significant adverse effects were observed.

  10. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  11. What Makes Biology Learning Difficult and Effective: Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimer, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the biological topics that students have difficulties learning, the reasons why secondary school students have difficulties in learning biology, and ways to improve the effectiveness of students' biology learning. For these purposes, a self-administered questionnaire including three open-ended questions was…

  12. Bioactivity of food peptides: biological response of rats to bovine milk whey peptides following acute exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Risso, Eder Muller; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH. All animals were submitted to acute exercise, except for control. Results: lle-Leu stimulated immune response, hepatic and muscle glycogen and HSP60 expression, whereas Leu-Val enhanced HSP90 expression. All dipeptides reduced glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, no changes were observed on leptin. All peptides inhibited NF-kB expression. The plasma amino acid time-course showed peptide-specific and isomer-specific metabolic features, including increases of the BCAAs. Conclusion: The data indicate that lle-Leu was effective to attenuate immune-suppression exercise-induced, promoted glycogen content and stimulated anti-stress effect (HSP). Furthermore, Leu-Val increased HSP90, p-4EBP1, p-mTOR and p-AMPK expression. The data suggest the involvement of these peptides in various beneficial functions of WPH consumption. PMID:28326005

  13. Effect of acute ethanol and acute allopregnanolone on spatial memory in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivien S; Van Skike, Candice E; Berry, Raymond B; Kirk, Roger E; Diaz-Granados, Jamie; Matthews, Douglas B

    2011-08-01

    The effects of ethanol differ in adolescent and adult rats on a number of measures. The evidence of the effects of ethanol on spatial memory in adolescents and adults is equivocal. Whether adolescents are more or less sensitive to ethanol-induced impairment of spatial memory acquisition remains unclear; with regard to the effects of acute ethanol on spatial memory retrieval there is almost no research looking into any age difference. Thus, we examined the effects of acute ethanol on spatial memory in the Morris Watermaze in adolescents and adults. Allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a modulator of the GABA(A) receptor and has similar behavioral effects as ethanol. We sought to also determine the effects of allopreganolone on spatial memory in adolescent and adults. Male adolescent (post natal [PN]28-30) and adult (PN70-72) rats were trained in the Morris Watermaze for 6 days and acute doses of ethanol (saline, 1.5 and 2.0 g/kg) or ALLO (vehicle, 9 and 18 mg/kg) were administered on Day 7. A probe trial followed on Day 8. As expected, there were dose effects; higher doses of both ethanol and ALLO impaired spatial memory. However, in both the ethanol and ALLO conditions adolescents and adults had similar spatial memory impairments. The current results suggest that ethanol and ALLO both impair hippocampal-dependent spatial memory regardless of age in that once learning has occurred, ethanol or ALLO does not differentially impair the retrieval of spatial memory in adolescents and adults. Given the mixed results on the effect of ethanol on cognition in adolescent rats, additional research is needed to ascertain the factors critical for the reported differential results.

  14. Biology, clinical, and hematologic features of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Romero-Guzman, Lina; Lopez-Santiago, Norma; Trejo, Rosa Arana

    2003-06-01

    To assess the incidence, clinical features at presentation, hematologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic characteristics of AMKL in children we prospectively studied 834 consecutive non selected children with newly diagnosed acute leukemia (AL) admitted to the Hematology Department at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP), Mexico, D.F. We found 682 cases (81.8%) with a typical ALL immunophenotype, and the remaining 152 (18.2%) were considered to have AML. In 29 of the 152 patients with AML studied, a diagnosis of AMKL was established. These 29 cases represented 19.1% of the cases of AML and 3.48% of the total cases of AL during the time span covered by the study. Twenty-four percent of the cases occurred in infants 2 years old or younger and 41.4% occurred in children 41 months of age or younger. In contrast, in only 18.6% of the patients with AML (M0-M6), the diagnosis was established before 42 months of age and in 17% before their second year of life. Clinical presentation was not strikingly different than that observed in patients with other types of AML, and the time interval from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was also similar, though in a small subset of patients, the clinical course was characterized by a chronic slowly progressive disorder extending over weeks or months resembling smoldering leukemia or chronic myelofibrosis with agnogenic myeloid metaplasia. Bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was a constant features in our patients; 75% of the patients studied showed this complication at the time of diagnosis. Some rather unusual findings in this study were intense skeletal pains from multiple osteolytic lesions, the presence of soft-tissue tumor, and the presence of cohesive scanty clusters of primitive-looking blast cells in BM aspirates. Several interesting cytogenetic findings in our study were t(1;22)(p13;q13) in a 14-year-old boy, t(9;22)(q34;q11) in one patient, and monosomy 7 in two patients. Another important finding in our study was the clinical

  15. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  16. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  17. Effects of melatonin on gallbladder neuromuscular function in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2007-10-01

    Gallbladder stasis is associated to experimental acute cholecystitis. Impaired contractility could be, at least in part, the result of inflammation-induced alterations in the neuromuscular function. This study was designed to determine the changes in gallbladder neurotransmission evoked by acute inflammation and to evaluate the protective and therapeutic effects of melatonin. Experimental acute cholecystitis was induced in guinea pigs by common bile duct ligation for 2 days, and then the neuromuscular function was evaluated using electrical field stimulation (EFS; 5-40 Hz). In a group of animals with the bile duct ligated for 2 days, a deligation of the duct was performed, and after 2 days, the neuromuscular function was studied. The EFS-evoked isometric gallbladder contraction was significantly lower in cholecystitic tissue. In addition, inflammation changed the pharmacological profile of these contractions that were insensitive to tetrodotoxin but sensitive to atropine and omega-conotoxin, indicating that acute cholecystitis affects action potential propagation in the intrinsic nerves. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated neurotransmission was reduced by inflammation, which also increased the reactivity of sensitive fibers. Melatonin treatment prevented qualitative changes in gallbladder neurotransmission, but it did not improve EFS-induced contractility. The hormone recovered gallbladder neuromuscular function once the biliary obstruction was resolved, even when the treatment was started after the onset of gallbladder inflammation. These findings show for the first time the therapeutic potential of melatonin in the recovery of gallbladder neuromuscular function during acute cholecystitis.

  18. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Josefina; Cifuentes, Lorena

    2016-05-06

    This article updates the December 2015 Living FRISBEE (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos), based on the detection of two systematic reviews not identified in the previous version. Gastroenteritis or acute watery diarrhea is usually a self-limited disease, but it is still associated to substantial healthcare costs and remains a frequent demand for medical care. Racecadotril, an intestinal enkephalinase inhibitor, has been used as treatment because it would decrease the duration of acute diarrhea and fluid loss. However there is still no evidence supporting its routine use. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified five systematic reviews including nine randomized trials relevant for our question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded racecadotril probably reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in pediatric patients, without increasing adverse effects.

  19. Clinical and biological role of secretory phospholipase A2 in acute respiratory distress syndrome infants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Secretory phospholipase A2 is supposed to play a role in acute lung injury but no data are available for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is not clear which enzyme subtypes are secreted and what the relationships are between enzyme activity, biophysical and biochemical parameters, and clinical outcomes. We aimed to measure the enzyme and identify its subtypes and to study its biochemical and biophysical effect. The secondary aim was to correlate enzyme activity with clinical outcome. Methods Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 24 infants with ARDS and 14 controls with no lung disease. Samples were assayed for secretory phospholipase A2 and molecules related to its activity and expression. Western blotting and captive bubble surfactometry were also performed. Clinical data were real time downloaded. Results Tumor necrosis factor-α (814 (506-2,499) vs. 287 (111-1,315) pg/mL; P = 0.04), enzyme activity (430 (253-600) vs. 149 (61-387) IU/mL; P = 0.01), free fatty acids (4.3 (2.8-8.6) vs. 2 (0.8-4.6) mM; P = 0.026), and minimum surface tension (25.6 ± 6.1 vs. 18 ± 1.8 mN/m; P = 0.006) were higher in ARDS than in controls. Phospholipids are lower in ARDS than in controls (76.5 (54-100) vs. 1,094 (536-2,907) μg/mL; P = 0.0001). Three enzyme subtypes were identified (-IIA, -V, -X), although in lower quantities in controls; another subtype (-IB) was mainly detected in ARDS. Significant correlations exist between enzyme activity, free fatty acids (ρ = 0.823; P < 0.001), and surface tension (ρ = 0.55; P < 0.028). Correlations also exist with intensive care stay (ρ = 0.54; P = 0.001), PRISM-III24 (ρ = 0.79; P< 0.001), duration of ventilation (ρ = 0.53; P = 0.002), and oxygen therapy (ρ = 0.54; P = 0.001). Conclusions Secretory phospholipase A2 activity is raised in pediatric ARDS and constituted of four subtypes. Enzyme correlates with some inflammatory mediators, surface tension, and major clinical outcomes. Secretory

  20. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.

  1. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of epidemiologic studies using multistage

  2. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  3. Effects of acute hypoxia on cerebrovascular responses to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Shibasaki, Manabu; Subudhi, Andrew W; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2014-06-01

    In normoxic conditions, a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension causes cerebral vasoconstriction, thereby reducing cerebral blood flow and modifying dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). It is unclear to what extent these effects are altered by acute hypoxia and the associated hypoxic ventilatory response (respiratory chemoreflex). This study tested the hypothesis that acute hypoxia attenuates arterial CO2 tension-mediated regulation of cerebral blood flow to help maintain cerebral O2 homeostasis. Eight subjects performed three randomly assigned respiratory interventions following a resting baseline period, as follows: (1) normoxia (21% O2); (2) hypoxia (12% O2); and (3) hypoxia with wilful restraint of the respiratory chemoreflex. During each intervention, 0, 2.0, 3.5 or 5.0% CO2 was sequentially added (8 min stages) to inspired gas mixtures to assess changes in steady-state cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and dCA. During normoxia, the addition of CO2 increased internal carotid artery blood flow and middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean), while reducing dCA (change in phase = -0.73 ± 0.22 rad, P = 0.005). During acute hypoxia, internal carotid artery blood flow and MCA Vmean remained unchanged, but cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (internal carotid artery, P = 0.003; MCA Vmean, P = 0.031) and CO2-mediated effects on dCA (P = 0.008) were attenuated. The effects of hypoxia were not further altered when the respiratory chemoreflex was restrained. These findings support the hypothesis that arterial CO2 tension-mediated effects on the cerebral vasculature are reduced during acute hypoxia. These effects could limit the degree of hypocapnic vasoconstriction and may help to regulate cerebral blood flow and cerebral O2 homeostasis during acute periods of hypoxia.

  4. Novel targets and future strategies for acute cardioprotection: Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart.

    PubMed

    Hausenloy, Derek J; Garcia-Dorado, David; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Davidson, Sean M; Downey, James; Engel, Felix B; Jennings, Robert; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Ovize, Michel; Perrino, Cinzia; Prunier, Fabrice; Schulz, Rainer; Sluijter, Joost P G; Van Laake, Linda W; Vinten-Johansen, Jakob; Yellon, Derek M; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Heusch, Gerd; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-17

    Ischaemic heart disease and the heart failure that often results, remain the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and worldwide. As such, in order to prevent heart failure and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, novel therapies are required to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. During the last three decades, a wide variety of ischaemic conditioning strategies and pharmacological treatments have been tested in the clinic - however, their translation from experimental to clinical studies for improving patient outcomes has been both challenging and disappointing. Therefore, in this Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart, we critically analyse the current state of ischaemic conditioning in both the experimental and clinical settings, provide recommendations for improving its translation into the clinical setting, and highlight novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies for reducing acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

  5. Spatial mapping of the biologic effectiveness of scanned particle beams: towards biologically optimized particle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fada; Bronk, Lawrence; Titt, Uwe; Lin, Steven H.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Kerr, Matthew D.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Dinh, Jeffrey; Sobieski, Mary; Stephan, Clifford; Peeler, Christopher R.; Taleei, Reza; Mohan, Radhe; Grosshans, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of particles used in radiation therapy, such as protons, have been well characterized, and their dose distributions are superior to photon-based treatments. However, proton therapy may also have inherent biologic advantages that have not been capitalized on. Unlike photon beams, the linear energy transfer (LET) and hence biologic effectiveness of particle beams varies along the beam path. Selective placement of areas of high effectiveness could enhance tumor cell kill and simultaneously spare normal tissues. However, previous methods for mapping spatial variations in biologic effectiveness are time-consuming and often yield inconsistent results with large uncertainties. Thus the data needed to accurately model relative biological effectiveness to guide novel treatment planning approaches are limited. We used Monte Carlo modeling and high-content automated clonogenic survival assays to spatially map the biologic effectiveness of scanned proton beams with high accuracy and throughput while minimizing biological uncertainties. We found that the relationship between cell kill, dose, and LET, is complex and non-unique. Measured biologic effects were substantially greater than in most previous reports, and non-linear surviving fraction response was observed even for the highest LET values. Extension of this approach could generate data needed to optimize proton therapy plans incorporating variable RBE. PMID:25984967

  6. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  7. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit.

  8. The Acute and Chronic Biochemical and Behavioral Effects of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-31

    Behavioral Studies - Barbiturate slieptimes were determined using hexabar- bital according to the standard technique used in our labora- tory, in which rats...the in vitro study (Table 4 D). - These results show that CMT does not produce an acute effect on Ouptake of duration over 6 hours. Nor does chronic...results of a study of the toxic effects of cyclomethylenetrinitramine on the brain after chronic admin.istration to male rats. In 1973 the Department

  9. Valdecoxib provides effective pain relief following acute ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Diaz, J A; Cuervo, C; Valderrama, A M; Kohles, J

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine whether valdecoxib is as effective as diclofenac in treating acute ankle sprain. Patients (n=202) with acute first- and second-degree ankle sprain were randomized to valdecoxib (40 mg twice daily on day 1 followed by 40 mg once daily on days 2-7) or diclofenac (75 mg twice daily). The primary efficacy end-point was the Patient's Assessment of Ankle Pain visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-100 mm) value on day 4. Valdecoxib was as efficacious as diclofenac in treating the signs and symptoms of acute ankle sprain. The mean VAS reduction in ankle pain on day 4 was not different between groups; the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference was within the prespecified limit for non-inferiority (10 mm). There were no significant differences between groups for all secondary efficacy end-points. The two treatments were similarly effective and well tolerated for treatment of acute ankle sprain.

  10. Mechanisms of cell protection by adaptation to chronic and acute hypoxia: molecular biology and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Marchi, A; Lettieri, B; Luongo, C

    2005-11-01

    Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that specific biochemical and molecular pathways are involved in the myocardial and skeletal muscle cell tolerance to acute and/or chronic hypoxic injury. A number of different factors were proposed to play a role in the preservation of tissue viability, but to a few of them a pivotal role in the adaptive mechanisms to hypoxic stimuli could be ascribed. Starting from the observation that mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzymic complexes are the targets of oxygen reduced availability, most of data are compatible with a mechanism of enzymic adaptation in which the nitric oxide (NO) generation plays the major role. If the partial and reversible NO-induced inhibition of ETC enzymic complexes represents the most rapid and prominent adaptive mechanism in counteracting the damaging effects of hypoxia, the sarcolemmal and mitochondrial K+(ATP) channels activation results to be closely involved in cytoprotection. This process is depending on protein kinase C (PKC) isoform activation triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and Ca++ overload. It is well known that all these factors are present in hypoxia-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial Ca++ altered pools represent powerful stimuli in the damaging processes. The activation of mitochondrial K+(ATP) channels leads to a significant reduction of Ca++ influx and attenuation of mitochondrial Ca++ overload. Closely linked to these adaptive changes signal transduction pathways are involved in the nuclear DNA damage and repair mechanisms. On this context, an essential role is played by the hypoxia-induced factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in terms of key transcription factor involved in oxygen-dependent gene regulation. The knowledge of the biochemical and molecular sequences involved in these adaptive processes call for a re-evaluation of the therapeutic approach to hypoxia-induced pathologies. On this light

  11. Biological effects of anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, B.; Adelsbach, T.; Brown, C.; Hunt, J.; Kuwabara, J.; Neale, J.; Ohlendorf, H.; Schwarzbach, S.; Spies, R.; Taberski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of many anthropogenic contaminants in the San Francisco Estuary exist at levels that have been associated with biological effects elsewhere, so there is a potential for them to cause biological effects in the Estuary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information about biological effects on the Estuary's plankton, benthos, fish, birds, and mammals, gathered since the early 1990s, focusing on key accomplishments. These studies have been conducted at all levels of biological organization (sub-cellular through communities), but have included only a small fraction of the organisms and contaminants of concern in the region. The studies summarized provide a body of evidence that some contaminants are causing biological impacts in some biological resources in the Estuary. However, no general patterns of effects were apparent in space and time, and no single contaminant was consistently related to effects among the biota considered. These conclusions reflect the difficulty in demonstrating biological effects due specifically to contamination because there is a wide range of sensitivity to contaminants among the Estuary's many organisms. Additionally, the spatial and temporal distribution of contamination in the Estuary is highly variable, and levels of contamination covary with other environmental factors, such as freshwater inflow or sediment-type. Federal and State regulatory agencies desire to develop biological criteria to protect the Estuary's biological resources. Future studies of biological effects in San Francisco Estuary should focus on the development of meaningful indicators of biological effects, and on key organism and contaminants of concern in long-term, multifaceted studies that include laboratory and field experiments to determine cause and effect to adequately inform management and regulatory decisions. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Effect of solcoseryl on antitumour action and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Danysz, A; Sołtysiak-Pawluczuk, D; Czyzewska-Szafran, H; Jedrych, A; Jastrzebski, Z

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo effect of Solcoseryl on the antitumour activity and acute toxicity of some antineoplastic drugs was examined. It was found that Solcoseryl does not inhibit the antineoplastic effectiveness of the drugs against transplantable P 388 leukaemia in mice. Studies of the effect of Solcoseryl on acute toxicity of selected antineoplastic drugs in mice revealed that the biostimulator could exert a modifying influence. The prior administration of Solcoseryl significantly decreases the acute toxicity of methotrexate but has no effect on acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, increases the acute toxicity of bleomycin and vinblastine and has no effect on acute toxicity of methotrexate and mitoxantron. On the other hand, Solcoseryl administered simultaneously with the antineoplastic drugs increases acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and mitoxantron. The protective effect of the biostimulator noted exclusively against acute toxicity of 5-fluorouracil was also observed after multiple administration of this anticancer drug.

  14. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  15. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma: natural history and biology of an uncommon manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M Yadira; Ghahramani, Grant K; Frisch, Stephanie; Armbrecht, Eric S; Lind, Anne C; Nguyen, Tudung T; Hassan, Anjum; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L

    2013-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of patients with cutaneous myeloid sarcoma, from 2 tertiary care institutions. Eighty-three patients presented, with a mean age of 52 years. Diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma in the skin was difficult due to the low frequency of myeloperoxidase and/or CD34+ cases (56% and 19% of tested cases, respectively). Seventy-one of the 83 patients (86%) had ≥ 1 bone marrow biopsy. Twenty-eight (39%) had acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation. Twenty-three had other de novo acute myeloid leukemia subtypes. Thirteen patients had other myeloid neoplasms, of which 4 ultimately progressed to an acute myeloid leukemia. Seven had no bone marrow malignancy. Ninety-eight percent of the patients received chemotherapy, and approximately 89% died of causes related to their disease. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma in most cases represents an aggressive manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. Diagnosis can be challenging due to lack of myeloblast-associated antigen expression in many cases, and difficulty in distinguishing monocyte-lineage blasts from neoplastic and non-neoplastic mature monocytes.

  16. Perceived Control Alters the Effect of Acute Stress on Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, Jamil P.; Kim, Eunbin S.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2015-01-01

    We often encounter setbacks while pursuing our goals. Success requires that we cope with these negative outcomes and choose to persist in spite of them. For example, learners may be more likely to continue a course after failing an assessment if they control their emotional reactions to the setback and study harder. However, the ability to effectively cope with the negative emotion inherent in such setbacks can be compromised by acute stress present in daily life (e.g., struggles in the household), which can subsequently lead to problems with persisting with a goal. The present study examined whether increasing the perception of control over setbacks (e.g., belief that a setback was caused by a correctable mistake rather than uncontrollable factors) can guard against the influence of a prior acute stressor on reactions to setbacks. Participants underwent a socially-evaluated cold water stress or a non-stress control procedure. Afterwards, they performed a behavioral task designed to measure persistence through controllable and uncontrollable setbacks. We observed that exposure to an acute stressor led to a detrimental effect on decision making by decreasing persistence behavior. Importantly, we also observed that the perception of control protected against the effect of preexisting stress and helped promote persistence. That is, stress impaired persistence through uncontrollable setbacks, but the impairment was alleviated by presenting setbacks as controllable. The findings demonstrate a potential avenue for improving the maintenance of goals aimed at behavior change, which can be susceptible to effects of stress. PMID:26726915

  17. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  18. Effects of acute exercise on long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Labban, Jeffrey D; Etnier, Jennifer L

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: exercise prior to exposure, exercise after exposure, or no-exercise. Exercise consisted of 30 min on a cycle ergometer including 20 min at moderate intensity. Only the exercise prior group recalled significantly more than the control group (p < .05). Differences among the exercise groups failed to reach significance (p = .09). Results indicated that acute exercise positively influenced recall and that exercise timing relative to memory task may have an impact on this effect.

  19. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  20. The effect of menthol on acute experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi-Pirbaluti, Masoumeh; Motaghi, Ehsan; Bozorgi, Homan

    2017-03-18

    Menthol is an aromatic compound with high antiinflammatory activity. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the effectiveness of menthol on acetic acid induced acute colitis in rats. Animals were injected with menthol (20 and 50 and 80mg/kg, i.p.) 24h prior to induction of colitis for 3 consecutive days. Menthol at medium and higher doses similar to dexamethasone as a reference drug significantly reduced body weight loss, macroscopic damage score, ulcer area, colon weight, colon length and improved hematocrit in rats with colitis. The histopathological examination also confirmed anti-colitic effects of menthol. Menthol also reduced significantly the colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in inflamed colons. Thus, the findings of the current study provide evidence that menthol may be beneficial in patients suffering from acute ulcerative colitis.

  1. Acute ethanol administration affects zebrafish preference for a biologically inspired robot.

    PubMed

    Spinello, Chiara; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-08-01

    Preclinical animal models constitute a cornerstone against which the reward processes involved in drug addiction are often studied and dissected. While rodents have traditionally represented the species of choice, a growing body of literature indicates that zebrafish are emerging as a valuable model organism. Specifically, several studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at the level of emotional- and cognitive-related domains can be reliably investigated using zebrafish. The rapidly evolving nature of these efforts allows substantial room for the development of novel experimental paradigms suited to this freshwater species. The field of ethorobotics may prove particularly beneficial, due to its ability to convey fully controllable and easily reproducible experimental tools. In this study, we addressed the possibility of using a biologically inspired robot to investigate the emotionally related properties of ethanol in a preference task in zebrafish. To this aim, we evaluated wild-type zebrafish preference toward a robotic stimulus and addressed whether ethanol administration (0.25% and 1.00% ethanol/water concentration) may alter such preferences. In accordance with our previous studies, we observed that zebrafish exhibit a natural attraction toward the robot. Additionally, in agreement with our predictions, we showed that ethanol administration abolishes such preferences. This work is the first to demonstrate that robotic stimuli can be used in zebrafish to investigate the reward-related properties of alcohol.

  2. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  3. The acute (cerebro)vascular effects of statins.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Vincent; Endres, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e., statins, constitutes a milestone in the prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular disease. The effects of statins extend far beyond their effects on cholesterol levels: pleiotropic effects include vasoprotective mechanisms, comprising improved endothelial function, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties, stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, as well as antioxidant and stem cell-regulating capacities. Large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that statins reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Recent experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that in addition to risk reduction, statins may also improve outcome after stroke and myocardial infarction, even when statins were administered after the event. Moreover, abrupt discontinuation of statin therapy after acute cardio- or cerebrovascular events may impair vascular function and increase morbidity and mortality. Beyond stroke, statin treatment also has been shown to provide protective effects in critically ill patients, e.g., after major surgery, sepsis, or in patients at high-vascular risk. However, although large randomized controlled trials are missing, ongoing trials will clarify the impact of acute statin treatment in these conditions. Although evidence is presently limited, acute statin therapy is emerging as a new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of the critically ill. Until now, statins were only available as oral drugs. An IV formulation may be warranted for acute treatment of severely ill patients, for example, those who are unable to swallow or scheduled for surgery. Hydrophilic statins would be suitable for an IV formulation and have been safely tested in healthy volunteers.

  4. Effect of roxithromycin on acute toxoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H R; Pechere, J C

    1987-01-01

    Roxithromycin effectively treated acute peritoneal murine toxoplasmosis. After five doses, starting 24 h after challenge, the 100 and 50% survival doses were 540 and 336 mg/kg per day, respectively. After 14 doses, starting 3 h after challenge, the 50% survival dose was 360 mg/kg per day. Toxoplasma gondii was recovered from the brain in 59 and 28% of surviving mice treated with 5 and 14 doses, respectively. PMID:3662475

  5. Biological mechanism analysis of acute renal allograft rejection: integrated of mRNA and microRNA expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shi-Ming; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Renal transplantation is the preferred method for most patients with end-stage renal disease, however, acute renal allograft rejection is still a major risk factor for recipients leading to renal injury. To improve the early diagnosis and treatment of acute rejection, study on the molecular mechanism of it is urgent. Methods: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profile and mRNA expression profile of acute renal allograft rejection and well-functioning allograft downloaded from ArrayExpress database were applied to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and DE mRNAs. DE miRNAs targets were predicted by combining five algorithm. By overlapping the DE mRNAs and DE miRNAs targets, common genes were obtained. Differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) were identified by differential co-expression profile (DCp) and differential co-expression enrichment (DCe) methods in Differentially Co-expressed Genes and Links (DCGL) package. Then, co-expression network of DCGs and the cluster analysis were performed. Functional enrichment analysis for DCGs was undergone. Results: A total of 1270 miRNA targets were predicted and 698 DE mRNAs were obtained. While overlapping miRNA targets and DE mRNAs, 59 common genes were gained. We obtained 103 DCGs and 5 transcription factors (TFs) based on regulatory impact factors (RIF), then built the regulation network of miRNA targets and DE mRNAs. By clustering the co-expression network, 5 modules were obtained. Thereinto, module 1 had the highest degree and module 2 showed the most number of DCGs and common genes. TF CEBPB and several common genes, such as RXRA, BASP1 and AKAP10, were mapped on the co-expression network. C1R showed the highest degree in the network. These genes might be associated with human acute renal allograft rejection. Conclusions: We conducted biological analysis on integration of DE mRNA and DE miRNA in acute renal allograft rejection, displayed gene expression patterns and screened out genes and TFs that may

  6. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-03-01

    The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.

  7. Glucocorticoid therapy-induced memory deficits: acute versus chronic effects.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Daniel; Wolf, Oliver T; Kollias, Spyros; Roozendaal, Benno; Forster, Adrian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2008-03-26

    Conditions with chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are usually associated with declarative memory deficits. Considerable evidence suggests that long-term glucocorticoid exposure may cause cognitive impairment via cumulative and long-lasting influences on hippocampal function and morphology. However, because elevated glucocorticoid levels at the time of retention testing are also known to have direct impairing effects on memory retrieval, it is possible that such acute hormonal influences on retrieval processes contribute to the memory deficits found with chronic glucocorticoid exposure. To investigate this issue, we examined memory functions and hippocampal volume in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were treated either chronically (5.3 +/- 1.0 years, mean +/- SE) with low to moderate doses of prednisone (7.5 +/- 0.8 mg, mean +/- SE) or without glucocorticoids. In both groups, delayed recall of words learned 24 h earlier was assessed under conditions of either elevated or basal glucocorticoid levels in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Although the findings in this patient population did not provide evidence for harmful effects of a history of chronic prednisone treatment on memory performance or hippocampal volume per se, acute prednisone administration 1 h before retention testing to either the steroid or nonsteroid group impaired word recall. Thus, these findings indicate that memory deficits observed under chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels result, at least in part, from acute and reversible glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval.

  8. Biological Effects of Millimeter-Wave Irradiation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    CODES I8 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Millimeter waves Bacillus megaterium 1...reported by earlier workers. Experiments were also performed to determine the Raman spectra of cultures of Bacillus megaterium to investigate if these are...L. and 0. P. Gandhi, "Absence of biologically related Raman lines in cultures of Bacillus megaterium ," Physics Letters, Vol. 102A, 1984, pp. 380-382

  9. Effects of acute hippocampal stimulation on EEG dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandeep P; Sackellares, J Chris; Shiau, Deng-Shan; Norman, Wendy M; Dance, Linda K; Pardalos, Panos M; Principe, Jose C; Carney, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    Progressive preictal dynamical convergence and postictal divergence of dynamical EEG descriptors among brain regions has been reported in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a rodent model of TLE. There are also reports of anticonvulsant effects of high frequency stimulation of the hippocampus in humans. We postulate that this anticonvulsant effect is due to dynamical resetting by the electrical stimulation. The following study investigated the effects of acute hippocampal electrical stimulation on dynamical transitions in the brain of a spontaneously seizing animal model of TLE to test the hypothesis of divergence in dynamical values by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus.

  10. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Antunes, S C; Correia, A T; Nunes, B

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  11. The effects of acute sleep deprivation during residency training.

    PubMed

    Bartle, E J; Sun, J H; Thompson, L; Light, A I; McCool, C; Heaton, S

    1988-08-01

    Verbal and symbol concentration, learning, problem solving, clear thinking, manual skills, and memory were tested in 42 surgical residents to assess the effects of acute sleep deprivation on specific neuropsychological parameters. A series of eight neuropsychological tests--digit symbols, digit vigilance, story memory, trail making, PASAT, Raven matrices, delayed story, and pegboard--and a questionnaire on mood states were completed by the residents both when fatigued (less than 4 hours of sleep: mean, 2.0 +/- 1.5 hours) and when rested (more than 4 hours of sleep: mean, 6.5 +/- 1.0 hours), with at least 7 days between tests. In order to eliminate the effects of learning from the first test series, randomization of residents was performed so that one half were first evaluated when rested and one half when fatigued. ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, and the Student t test were used to assess differences. In the acute sleep-deprived state, residents were less vigorous and more fatigued, depressed, tense, confused, and angry (p less than 0.05) than they were in rested state. Despite these changes in mood, however, the responses on all of the functional tests were no different statistically in those who were rested and those who were fatigued (even in those with less than 2 hours' sleep). We conclude that acute sleep deprivation of less than 4 hours alters mood state but does not change performance in test situations in which concentration, clear thinking, and problem solving are important.

  12. Effects of acute ingestion of salbutamol during submaximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Candau, R; Collomp, R; Carra, J; Lasne, F; Préfaut, C; De Ceaurriz, J

    2000-10-01

    To assess the eventual effects of acute oral salbutamol intake on performance and metabolism during submaximal exercise, nine healthy volunteers completed two cycling trials at a power corresponding to 80-85% VO2max, after either placebo (Pla) or salbutamol (Sal, 6 mg) treatment, according to a double-blind randomized protocol. Blood samples were collected both at rest and during exercise (5 min-, 10 min-, 15 min-exhaustion) for C-peptide, FFA, lactate and blood glucose measurements. Cycling performance was significantly improved in the Sal vs. Pla trials (p < 0.05). After Sal intake, resting C-peptide, lactate, FFA and blood glucose values were higher whereas exercise lactate and free fatty acid concentrations were greater during and at the conclusion of the exercise period (p < 0.05). These results suggest that acute salbutamol ingestion improved performance during submaximal exercise probably through an enhancement of the overall contribution to energy production from both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms.

  13. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants.

  14. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  15. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed. PMID:22247595

  16. Radon exposure of the skin: I. Biological effects.

    PubMed

    Charles, M W

    2007-09-01

    Radon progeny can plate out on skin and give rise to exposure of the superficial epidermis from alpha emitters Po-218 (7.7 MeV, range approximately 66 microm) and Po-214 (6 MeV, range approximately 44 microm). Dose rates from beta/gamma emitters Pb-214 and Bi-214 are low and only predominate at depths in excess of the alpha range. This paper reviews the evidence for a causal link between exposure from radon and its progeny, and deterministic and stochastic biological effects in human skin. Radiation induced skin effects such as ulceration and dermal atrophy, which require irradiation of the dermis, are ruled out for alpha irradiation from radon progeny because the target cells are considerably deeper than the range of alpha particles. They have not been observed in man or animals. Effects such as erythema and acute epidermal necrosis have been observed in a few cases of very high dose alpha particle exposures in man and after acute high dose exposure in animals from low energy beta radiations with similar depth doses to radon progeny. The required skin surface absorbed doses are in excess of 100 Gy. Such effects would require extremely high levels of radon progeny. They would involve quite exceptional circumstances, way outside the normal range of radon exposures in man. There is no definitive identification of the target cells for skin cancer induction in animals or man. The stem cells in the basal layer which maintain the epidermis are the most plausible contenders for target cells. The majority of these cells are near the end of the range of radon progeny alpha particles, even on the thinnest body sites. The nominal depth of these cells, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), is 70 microm. There is evidence however that some irradiation of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is also necessary for skin cancer induction. Alpha irradiation of rodent skin that is

  17. Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2003-03-01

    A review was conducted of studies that assessed the effects of acute bouts of physical activity on adults' cognitive performance. Three groups of studies were constituted on the basis of the type of exercise protocol employed. Each group was then evaluated in terms of information-processing theory. It was concluded that submaximal aerobic exercise performed for periods up to 60 min facilitate specific aspects of information processing; however, extended exercise that leads to dehydration compromises both information processing and memory functions. The selective effects of exercise on cognitive performance are explained in terms of Sanders' [Acta Psychol. 53 (1983) 61] cognitive-energetic model.

  18. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Bahareh; Nakhsaz, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST). Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg) and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration. PMID:26468466

  19. Remote effects of acute kidney injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David S; De Brot, Simone; Dunford, Louise J; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Welham, Simon J M; Fallman, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Oh, Weng; Devonald, Mark A J

    2016-02-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition with no specific treatment. An episode of AKI may affect organs distant from the kidney, further increasing the morbidity associated with AKI. The mechanism of organ cross talk after AKI is unclear. The renal and immune systems of pigs and humans are alike. Using a preclinical animal (porcine) model, we tested the hypothesis that early effects of AKI on distant organs is by immune cell infiltration, leading to inflammatory cytokine production, extravasation, and edema. In 29 pigs exposed to either sham surgery or renal ischemia-reperfusion (control, n = 12; AKI, n = 17), we assessed remote organ (liver, lung, brain) effects in the short (from 2- to 48-h reperfusion) and longer term (5 wk later) using immunofluorescence (for leukocyte infiltration, apoptosis), a cytokine array, tissue elemental analysis (e.g., electrolytes), blood hematology and chemistry (e.g., liver enzymes), and PCR (for inflammatory markers). AKI elicited significant, short-term (∼24 h) increments in enzymes indicative of acute liver damage (e.g. , AST: ALT ratio; P = 0.02) and influenced tissue biochemistry in some remote organs (e.g., lung tissue [Ca(2+)] increased; P = 0.04). These effects largely resolved after 48 h, and no further histopathology, edema, apoptosis, or immune cell infiltration was noted in the liver, lung, or hippocampus in the short and longer term. AKI has subtle biochemical effects on remote organs in the short term, including a transient increment in markers of acute liver damage. These effects resolved by 48 h, and no further remote organ histopathology, apoptosis, edema, or immune cell infiltration was noted.

  20. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Singer, Bret C.

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  1. Towards an understanding of the biology and targeted treatment of paediatric relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A E

    2016-03-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most common childhood cancer and for those children who relapse, prognosis is poor and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Recurrent pathways implicated in relapse include RAS, JAK STAT, cell cycle, epigenetic regulation, B cell development, glucocorticoid response, nucleotide metabolism and DNA repair. Targeting these pathways is a rational therapeutic strategy and may deliver novel, targeted therapies into the clinic. Relapse often stems from a minor clone present at diagnosis and thus analysis of persisting leukaemia during upfront therapy may allow targeted drug intervention to prevent relapse.

  2. Magnetic field effects in chemistry and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulten, Klaus

    Chemical and biological photoprocesses which involve bimolecular reactions between non-zero spin intermediates, e.g. doublet molecules 2A+2B, often produce the intermediate molecular pair in a pure overall spin state, e.g. a singlet state 1(2A+2B). and select for the reaction channels again such spin states, e.g. a triplet state 3(2A+2B). The necessery transition 1(2A+2B)→3(2A+2B) is affected by magnetic interactions (hyperfine, Zeeman, zero field splitting) and can be influenced by magnetic fields. Examples are photoinduced electron transfer processes, e.g. the primary reaction of photosynthesis.

  3. Effects of diazoxide in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Andrade, Roberta; Kunitake, Tiago; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Machado, Marcel C C; Souza, Heraldo Possolo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of diazoxide on the mortality, pancreatic injury, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200–400 g) were divided randomly into two groups. Fifteen minutes before surgery, animals received physiological (0.9%) saline (3 mL/kg) (control group) or 45 mg/kg diazoxide (treatment group) via the intravenous route. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of 2.5% sodium taurocholate via the biliopancreatic duct. Mortality (n=38) was observed for 72 h and analyzed by the Mantel–Cox Log-rank test. To study pancreatic lesions and systemic inflammation, rats (10 from each group) were killed 3 h after acute pancreatitis induction; ascites volume was measured and blood as well as pancreases were collected. Pancreatic injury was assessed according to Schmidt’s scale. Cytokine expression in plasma was evaluated by the multiplex method. RESULTS: Mortality at 72 h was 33% in the control group and 60% in the treatment group (p=0.07). Ascites volumes and plasma levels of cytokines between groups were similar. No difference was observed in edema or infiltration of inflammatory cells in pancreatic tissues from either group. However, necrosis of acinar cells was lower in the treatment group compared to the control group (3.5 vs. 3.75, p=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with diazoxide can reduce necrosis of acinar cells in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis, but does not affect the inflammatory response or mortality after 72 h. PMID:28273237

  4. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  5. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  6. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  7. [Computational radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Kudryashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    Given growing computational resources, radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry is becoming more vital in the study of biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. The study analyzes numerical methods which are used in theoretical dosimetry to assess the exposure level and specific absorption rate distribution. The advances of theoretical dosimetry are shown. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods are analyzed in respect to electromagnetic field biological effects. The finite-difference time-domain method was implemented in detail; also evaluated were possible uncertainties of complex biological structure simulation for bioelectromagnetic investigations.

  8. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  9. Matrix effect marker for multianalyte analysis by LC-MS/MS in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Eva; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús A

    2012-07-15

    Matrix effects (ion suppression/enhancement) are a well-observed phenomenon in analyses of biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, few simple solutions for detecting and minimizing these adverse effects have been described so far in multianalyte analysis, especially in the field of doping control. This study describes an exhaustive characterization of matrix effects in one hundred urine samples fortified with 41 analytes (glucocorticoids and diuretics). It introduces a novel marker to identify samples in which the reliability of the results is compromised because of acute ion suppression. This new strategy strengthens the rigor of the analysis for screening purposes. Once the matrix effect is identified, a selective sample preparation is introduced to minimize the adverse ion suppression effect. That selective extraction together with the use of a deuterated internal standard permits enhancing the ruggedness of the estimation of glucocorticoid concentration in urine.

  10. Possible role of NO modulators in protective effect of trazodone and citalopram (antidepressants) in acute immobilization stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika; Gaur, Vaibhav; Kumar, Puneet

    2010-11-01

    Stress is an aversive stimulus which disturbs physiological homeostasis and is reflected on a variety of biological systems. The present study was designed to investigate the nitric oxide mechanism in neuroprotective effect of trazodone and citalopram against acute immobilization-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice. Mice were immobilized for a 6 h. Acute immobilization stress caused anxiety, hyperalgesia, impaired locomotor activity and oxidative damage. Pretreatment with trazodone and citalopram significantly reversed immobilized stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. L-arginine, pretreatment with trazodone or citalopram significantly reversed their protective effects. However, L-NAME or methylene blue pretreatment with trazodone or citalopram significantly potentiated their protective effects alone. Results suggest the involvement of nitric oxide pathways in the protective effect of trazodone and citalopram against immobilization stress induced behavioral and biochemical alterations.

  11. Review of Literature on High Power Microwave Pulse Biological Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    AFRL-RH-BR-TR-2009-0068 Review of Literature on High Power Microwave Pulse Biological Effects Ronald L. Seaman General...2009 Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed Energy Bioeffects...Performance Wing Human Effectiveness Directorate This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange

  12. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients.

  13. Investigation of acute effects of graphene oxide on wastewater microbial community: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farid; Rodrigues, Debora F

    2013-07-15

    The market for graphene-based products, such as graphene oxide (GO), is projected to reach nearly $675 million by 2020, hence it is expected that large quantities of graphene-based wastes will be generated by then. Wastewater treatment plants will be one of the ultimate repositories for these wastes. Efficient waste treatment relies heavily on the functions of diverse microbial communities. Therefore, systematic investigation of any potential toxic effects of GO in wastewater microbial communities is essential to determine the potential adverse effects and the fate of these nanomaterials in the environment. In the present study, we investigate the acute toxicity, i.e. short-term and high load, effect of GO on the microbial functions related to the biological wastewater treatment process. The results showed that toxic effects of GO on microbial communities were dose dependent, especially in concentrations between 50 and 300mg/L. Bacterial metabolic activity, bacterial viability, and biological removal of nutrients, such as organics, nitrogen and phosphorus, were significantly impacted by the presence of GO in the activated sludge. Furthermore, the presence of GO deteriorated the final effluent quality by increasing the water turbidity and reducing the sludge dewaterability. Microscopic techniques confirmed penetration and accumulation of GO inside the activated sludge floc matrix. Results demonstrated that the interaction of GO with wastewater produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be one of the responsible mechanisms for the toxic effect of GO.

  14. Basics of particle therapy II: relative biological effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinhyun

    2012-01-01

    In the previous review, the physical aspect of heavy particles, with a focus on the carbon beam was introduced. Particle beam therapy has many potential advantages for cancer treatment without increasing severe side effects in normal tissue, these kinds of radiation have different biologic characteristics and have advantages over using conventional photon beam radiation during treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used for many biological, clinical endpoints among different radiation types and is the only convenient way to transfer the clinical experience in radiotherapy with photons to another type of radiation therapy. However, the RBE varies dependent on the energy of the beam, the fractionation, cell types, oxygenation status, and the biological endpoint studied. Thus this review describes the concerns about RBE related to particle beam to increase interests of the Korean radiation oncologists' society. PMID:23120738

  15. [Acute and long-term effects of ecstasy].

    PubMed

    Salzmann, Julie; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Noble, Florence

    2004-10-23

    Side effects in the short term Recreational use of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), a synthetic drug, has considerably increased over the last decade. Since its appearance it is associated with the rave culture, but its use has spread to other social settings. The drug produces euphoria and empathy, but can lead to side effects, notably acute, potentially lethal, toxicity (malignant hyperthermia and/or hepatitis). Neurotoxicity in the long-term Moreover, MDMA has been shown to induce long-term deleterious effects and provoke neurotoxic affecting the serotoninergic system. However, the psychopathological consequences of such neurotoxicity are still controversial, particularly since many ecstasy consumers are multi-drug users. A complex pharmacological profile The mechanism of action of MDMA involves various neurobiological systems (serotonin, dopamine, noradrenalin), that may all interact.

  16. Biological effects of high DC magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1981-06-01

    The principal focus of the program is the analysis of magnetic field effects on physiological functions in experimental animals and selected organ and tissue systems. A major research effort has involved the use of electrical recording techniques to detect functional alterations in the cardiovascular, neural, and visual systems during the application of DC magnetic fields. These systems involve ionic conduction processes, and are therefore potentially sensitive to electrodynamic interactions with an applied magnetic field. In the specific case of the visual system, magnetic interactions could also arise through orientational effects on the magnetically anisotropic photopigment molecules within retinal photoreceptor cells. In addition to studies with potentially sensitive target tissues, an evaluation is being made of magnetic field effects on a broad range of other physiological functions in laboratory mammals, including the measurement of circadian rhythms using noninvasive recording techniques. Results of investigations of magnetic field effects on the conformation of DNA, and on the growth and development of plants and insects are also reported. Figures and tables provide a brief summary of some representative observations in each of the research areas described. No significant alterations were observed in any of the physiological parameters examined to date, with the exception of major changes that occur in the electrocardiogram during magnetic field exposure. Studies with several species of animals have provided evidence that this phenomenon is attributable to electrical potentials that are induced during pulsatile blood flow in the aorta and in other major vessels of the circulatory system.

  17. Evolutionary indirect effects of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-09-01

    Just as ecological indirect effects can have a wide range of consequences for community structure and ecosystem function, theory suggests that evolutionary indirect effects can also influence community dynamics and the outcome of species interactions. There is little empirical evidence documenting such effects, however. Here, I use a multi-generation selection experiment in the field to investigate: (1) how the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis affect the evolution of anti-herbivore resistance traits in the native plant Lotus wrangelianus and (2) how observed Lotus evolutionary responses to Hypera alter interactions between Lotus and other members of the herbivore community. In one of two study populations, I document rapid evolutionary changes in Lotus resistance to Hypera in response to insecticide treatments that experimentally reduced Hypera abundance, and in response to Medicago-removal treatments that also reduced Hypera abundance. These evolutionary changes in response to Hypera result in reduced attack by aphids. Thus, an evolutionary change caused by one herbivore species alters interactions with other herbivore taxa, an example of an eco-evolutionary feedback. Given that many traits mediate interactions with multiple species, the effects of evolutionary changes in response to one key biotic selective agent may often cascade through interaction webs to influence additional community members.

  18. Modelling and predicting the biological effects of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Winkler, D A; Burden, F R; Yan, B; Weissleder, R; Tassa, C; Shaw, S; Epa, V C

    2014-01-01

    The commercial applications of nanoparticles are growing rapidly, but we know relatively little about how nanoparticles interact with biological systems. Their value--but also their risk--is related to their nanophase properties being markedly different to those of the same material in bulk. Experiments to determine how nanoparticles are taken up, distributed, modified, and elicit any adverse effects are essential. However, cost and time considerations mean that predictive models would also be extremely valuable, particularly assisting regulators to minimize health and environmental risks. We used novel sparse machine learning methods that employ Bayesian neural networks to model three nanoparticle data sets using both linear and nonlinear machine learning methods. The first data comprised iron oxide nanoparticles decorated with 108 different molecules tested against five cell lines, HUVEC, pancreatic cancer, and three macrophage or macrophage-like lines. The second data set comprised 52 nanoparticles with various core compositions, coatings, and surface attachments. The nanoparticles were characterized using four descriptors (size, relaxivities, and zeta potential), and their biological effects on four cells lines assessed using four biological assays per cell line and four concentrations per assay. The third data set involved the biological responses to gold nanoparticles functionalized by 80 different small molecules. Nonspecific binding and binding to AChE were the biological endpoints modelled. The biological effects of nanoparticles were modelled using molecular descriptors for the molecules that decorated the nanoparticle surface. Models with good statistical quality were constructed for most biological endpoints. These proof-of-concept models show that modelling biological effects of nanomaterials is possible using modern modelling methods.

  19. Protective effects of endothelin-1 on acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kogire, M; Inoue, K; Higashide, S; Takaori, K; Echigo, Y; Gu, Y J; Sumi, S; Uchida, K; Imamura, M

    1995-06-01

    Endothelin-1, a 21-residue peptide isolated from vascular endothelial cells, has a broad spectrum of actions. To clarify the involvement of endothelin-1 in acute pancreatitis, we examined the effects of endothelin-1 and its receptor antagonist BQ-123 on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Rats were infused intravenously with heparin-saline (control), endothelin-1 (100 pmol/kg/hr), cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/hr), or cerulein plus endothelin-1 for 3.5 hr. In another experiment, cerulein or cerulein plus BQ-123 (3 mg/kg/hr) was infused. Infusion of cerulein caused hyperamylasemia and pancreatic edema. Endothelin-1, when infused with cerulein, decreased the extent of pancreatic edema with a significant increase in the pancreatic dry- to wet-weight ratio. Histological changes induced by cerulein were markedly attenuated when endothelin-1 was given with cerulein. In contrast, endothelin-receptor blockade with BQ-123 further augmented pancreatic edema caused by cerulein. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration was greater than BQ-123 was given with cerulein. Endothelin-1 or BQ-123 had no influence on hyperamylasemia. This study suggests that endothelin-1 has protective effects on experimental acute pancreatitis.

  20. Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Howard, Meagan A; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2010-12-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of glucose energy drinks (e.g., Amp, Monster, and Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among high school and college students. However, little laboratory research has examined the acute objective and subjective effects of energy drinks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a glucose energy drink (Red Bull) on cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to one of five conditions: 1.8 ml/kg energy drink, 3.6 ml/kg energy drink, 5.4 ml/kg energy drink, placebo beverage, or no drink. Participants completed a well-validated behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, and mental fatigue both before and 30 minutes following beverage administration. The results indicated that compared with the placebo and no drink conditions, the energy drink doses decreased reaction times on the behavioral control task, increased subjective ratings of stimulation and decreased ratings of mental fatigue. Greatest improvements in reaction times and subjective measures were observed with the lowest dose and improvements diminished as the dose increased. The findings suggest that energy drink consumption can improve cognitive performance on a behavioral control task, potentially explaining the dramatic rise in popularity of these controversial new beverages.

  1. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis Reveals Diverse Effects of Acute Nicotine Exposure on Neuronal Function-Related Genes and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Cui, Wenyan; Wei, Jinxue; Sun, Dongxiao; Gutala, Ramana; Gu, Jun; Li, Ming D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous human and animal studies demonstrate that acute nicotine exposure has complicated influences on the function of the nervous system, which may lead to long-lasting effects on the behavior and physiology of the subject. To determine the genes and pathways that might account for long-term changes after acute nicotine exposure, a pathway-focused oligoarray specifically designed for drug addiction research was used to assess acute nicotine effect on gene expression in the neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that 295 genes involved in various biological functions were differentially regulated by 1 h of nicotine treatment. Among these genes, the expression changes of 221 were blocked by mecamylamine, indicating that the majority of nicotine-modulated genes were altered through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-mediated signaling process. We further identified 14 biochemical pathways enriched among the nicotine-modulated genes, among which were those involved in neural development/synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival/death, immune response, or cellular metabolism. In the genes significantly regulated by nicotine but blocked by mecamylamine, 13 enriched pathways were detected. Nine of these pathways were shared with those enriched in the genes regulated by nicotine, including neuronal function-related pathways such as glucocorticoid receptor signaling, p38 MAPK signaling, PI3K/AKT signaling, and PTEN signaling, implying that nAChRs play important roles in the regulation of these biological processes. Together, our results not only provide insights into the mechanism underlying the acute response of neuronal cells to nicotine but also provide clues to how acute nicotine exposure exerts long-term effects on the nervous system. PMID:21556275

  2. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO2/FiO2), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (P<0.05), of which TBIL and ALT were decreased more significantly (P<0.01) in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups. Only changes in the PE+HP+CVVHDF and PE+CVVHDF groups were statistically significant after prothrombin time and albumin treatment (P<0.05). The difference between the decrease in TBIL in the PE+HP+CVVHDF group and that in the HP+CVVHDF group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment of the 61 patients using the artificial liver support system yielded a survival rate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure. PMID:28105119

  3. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  4. Acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of four pharmaceuticals drugs on cladoceran Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Laira L Damasceno; Antunes, Sara Cristina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Rocha, Odete; Nunes, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has received increasing attention in recent years, as concerns have risen about their environmental persistence, biological activity and different effects toward nontarget organisms. Considering the magnitude of concentrations (ng L(-1) to mg L(-1)) and their often-specific modes of action, the assessment of physiological responses of exposed aquatic biota may provide significant information regarding the potential ecological consequences of exposure to these contaminants. The present study intended to assess the acute and chronic effects of four pharmaceuticals: acetaminophen, chlorpromazine, diclofenac sodium and propranolol in the cladoceran species Daphnia magna. Parameters such as immobility, total of offspring and rate of population increase were analyzed. Results of acute exposures showed a considerable variability of toxicity among pharmaceuticals, with the following ranking of toxicity: diclofenac (EC50 = 123.3 mg L(-1)) < propranolol (EC50 = 5.531 mg L(-1)) < acetaminophen (EC50 = 2.831 mg L(-1)) < chlorpromazine (EC50 = 1.805 mg L(-1)). The chronic toxicity data showed the exertion of reproductive adverse effects. The compounds chlorpromazine and propranolol caused a significant decrease in fecundity, and the rate of population increase parameter suffered a significant decrease from 0.33 mg L(-1) to 0.128 mg L(-1) onwards, respectively. The levels of exposure to which our test organism was acutely and chronically exposed were above those already reported in the wild. Nevertheless, the extensive production, prescription and release of pharmaceuticals drugs will continue to grow in the future, and consequently their loadings to the environment can result in potential long-term ecological risks to aquatic biota.

  5. Acute and neuropathic orofacial antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol.

    PubMed

    Melo Júnior, José de Maria de Albuquerque de; Damasceno, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal; Santos, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues; Barbosa, Talita Matias; Araújo, João Ronielly Campêlo; Vieira-Neto, Antonio Eufrásio; Wong, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa; Lima-Júnior, Roberto César Pereira; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2017-04-01

    Terpenes have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antinociceptive action. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of eucalyptol are well established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of eucalyptol on acute and neuropathic orofacial pain in rodent models. Acute orofacial and corneal nociception was induced with formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and hypertonic saline in mice. In another series, animals were pretreated with capsazepine or ruthenium red to evaluate the involvement of TRPV1 receptors in the effect of eucalyptol. In a separate experiment, perinasal tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were measured. Rats were pretreated with eucalyptol before induction of temporomandibular joint pain with formalin or mustard oil. In another experiment, rats were submitted to infraorbital nerve transection (IONX) to induce chronic pain, followed by induction of mechanical hypersensitivity using Von Frey hairs. Locomotor performance was evaluated with the open-field test, and molecular docking was conducted on the TRPV1 channel. Pretreatment with eucalyptol significantly reduced formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors in all mouse strains, but response was more homogenous in the Swiss strain. Eucalyptol produced antinociceptive effects in all tests. The effect was sensitive to capsazepine but not to ruthenium red. Moreover, eucalyptol significantly reduced IFN-γ levels. Matching the results of the experiment in vivo, the docking study indicated an interaction between eucalyptol and TRPV1. No locomotor activity changes were observed. Our study shows that eucalyptol may be a clinically relevant aid in the treatment of orofacial pain, possibly by acting as a TRPV1 channel antagonist.

  6. Biological effects of stellar collapse neutrinos

    PubMed

    Collar, J I

    1996-02-05

    Massive stars in their final stages of collapse radiate most of their binding energy in the form of MeV neutrinos. The recoil atoms that they produce in elastic scattering off nuclei in organic tissue create radiation damage which is highly effective in the production of irreparable DNA harm, leading to cellular mutation, neoplasia, and oncogenesis. Using a conventional model of the galaxy and of the collapse mechanism, the periodicity of nearby stellar collapses and the radiation dose are calculated. The possible contribution of this process to the paleontological record of mass extinctions is examined.

  7. [Nanosilver - harmful effects of biological activity].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC) for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction.

  8. Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, T. P.; Turco, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to estimate the changes in biologically effective radiation (UV-BE) at the earth's surface produced by the El Chichon (1982) and Mount Pinatubo (1991) eruptions. It is found that in both cases surface intensity can increase because the effect of ozone depletion outweighs the increased scattering.

  9. Acute off-target effects of neural circuit manipulations.

    PubMed

    Otchy, Timothy M; Wolff, Steffen B E; Rhee, Juliana Y; Pehlevan, Cengiz; Kawai, Risa; Kempf, Alexandre; Gobes, Sharon M H; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2015-12-17

    Rapid and reversible manipulations of neural activity in behaving animals are transforming our understanding of brain function. An important assumption underlying much of this work is that evoked behavioural changes reflect the function of the manipulated circuits. We show that this assumption is problematic because it disregards indirect effects on the independent functions of downstream circuits. Transient inactivations of motor cortex in rats and nucleus interface (Nif) in songbirds severely degraded task-specific movement patterns and courtship songs, respectively, which are learned skills that recover spontaneously after permanent lesions of the same areas. We resolve this discrepancy in songbirds, showing that Nif silencing acutely affects the function of HVC, a downstream song control nucleus. Paralleling song recovery, the off-target effects resolved within days of Nif lesions, a recovery consistent with homeostatic regulation of neural activity in HVC. These results have implications for interpreting transient circuit manipulations and for understanding recovery after brain lesions.

  10. Biological aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. Gannet; Huffman, J. Alex; Fridlind, Ann

    2012-12-01

    Bioaerosol Effects on Clouds Workshop;Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 5-6August 2012 Bioaerosols such as bacteria have been proposed as significant contributors to cloud ice nucleation, but too little is known about the properties and impacts of bioaerosol and other ice nuclei to make reliable conclusions about their wide-scale impact on clouds and precipitation. During late summer an international group of 40 participants met at a Steamboat Springs ski resort to share perspectives on bioaerosol sources, activity, and influence on clouds. Participants who were invited collectively spanned a broad range of expertise, including atmospheric chemistry, microbiology, micrometeorology, and cloud physics, as well as a broad range of research approaches, including laboratory measurement, field measurement, and modeling. Tours of Storm Peak Laboratory (http://www.stormpeak.dri.edu) were offered before and after the workshop.

  11. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects.Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers ofpulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that ado

  12. Biological Signatures of Brain Damage Associated with High Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Millán, Mónica; Sobrino, Tomás; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; García, María; Nombela, Florentino; Castellanos, Mar; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; Cuadras, Patricia; Serena, Joaquín; Castillo, José; Dávalos, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Increased body iron stores have been related to greater oxidative stress and brain injury in clinical and experimental cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We aimed to investigate the biological signatures of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption potentially associated with high serum ferritin levels-related damage in acute stroke patients treated with i.v. t-PA. Methods: Serum levels of ferritin (as index of increased cellular iron stores), glutamate, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cellular fibronectin were determined in 134 patients treated with i.v. t-PA within 3 hours from stroke onset in blood samples obtained before t-PA treatment, at 24 and 72 hours. Results: Serum ferritin levels before t-PA infusion correlated to glutamate (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and interleukin-6 (r = 0.55, p <0.001) levels at baseline, and with glutamate (r = 0.57,p <0.001), interleukin-6 (r = 0.49,p <0.001), metalloproteinase-9 (r = 0.23, p = 0.007) and cellular fibronectin (r = 0.27, p = 0.002) levels measured at 24 hours and glutamate (r = 0.415, p < 0.001), interleukin-6 (r = 0.359, p < 0.001) and metalloproteinase-9 (r = 0.261, p = 0.004) at 72 hours. The association between ferritin and glutamate levels remained after adjustment for confounding factors in generalized linear models. Conclusions: Brain damage associated with increased iron stores in acute ischemic stroke patients treated with iv. tPA may be mediated by mechanisms linked to excitotoxic damage. The role of inflammation, blood brain barrier disruption and oxidative stress in this condition needs further research. PMID:19096131

  13. Inhibitory effect of anethole in nonimmune acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Talita Perdigão; Dalalio, Márcia Machado de Oliveira; Silva, Expedito Leite; Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Estevão-Silva, Camila Fernanda; Ramos, Fernando Seara; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2013-04-01

    Anethole [1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene] occurs naturally as a major component of the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f., family Illiciaceae), comprising more than 90 % of its volatile components. Studies showed that this substance has antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anesthetic properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory properties of anethole in animal models of nonimmune acute inflammation such as croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy were investigated. The investigated parameters were edema formation, leukocyte migration, and inflammatory mediators involved. Oral administration of anethole at a dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced both the volume of pleural exudates and the number of migrated leukocytes. Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGE2) in the inflammatory exudate were reduced by treatment with anethole, but levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were not significantly altered. In ear edema, the oral treatment with anethole inhibited the formation of exudate and the activity of myeloperoxidase, but not after topical administration. These results suggest that the anethole may be effective in controlling some nonimmune acute inflammation-related disease, probably by an inhibitory action on production and/or release of PGE2 and NO.

  14. Effect of dexamethasone on brain oedema following acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A K; Mohammad, Q D; Ullah, M A; Ahsan, M M; Rahman, A; Shakoor, M A

    2011-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial was conducted to asses the effects of dexamethasone on brain oedema following acute ischemic stroke in the departments of Medicine of different hospitals from July, 2003 to December, 2006. A total of 60 patients were included in the study. They were divided into two groups keeping the similarity regarding the age, sex and severity of the stroke between two groups. There were 30 patients in experimental group and 30 in control group. The level of consciousness was compared by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on 3rd, 7th and 10th day of intervention and improvement was found in both the groups, but the improvement of level of consciousness was statistically significant in Dexamethasone treated group. The volume of hypodense area did not differ significantly in two groups in CT scans before and after treatment (p=0.74). The study results demonstrate that Dexamethasone improves the level of consciousness in acute ischemic stroke associated with brain oedema but did not reduce volume of hypodense area.

  15. Effects of clotrimazol on the acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Arif Burak; Alhan, Etem; Usta, Arif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Kural, Birgül Vanizor; Erçin, Cengiz

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of clotrimazol (CLTZ) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. Rats were divided into five groups as sham + saline, sham + CLTZ, sham + polyethylene glycol, ANP + saline, and ANP + CLTZ. ANP in rats was induced by glycodeoxycholic acid. The extent of acinar cell injury, mortality, systemic cardiorespiratory variables, functional capillary density (FCD), renal/hepatic functions, and changes in some enzyme markers for pancreatic and lung tissue were investigated during ANP in rats. The use of CLTZ after the induction of ANP resulted in a significant decrease in the mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis, and serum activity of amylase, alanine aminotransferase, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum concentration of urea, and tissue activity of myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde in the pancreas and lung and a significant increase in concentrations of calcium, blood pressure, urine output, pO2, and FCD. This study showed that CLTZ demonstrated beneficial effect on the course of ANP in rats. Therefore, it may be used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  16. Application of ToxCast to evaluate potential biological effects ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the development of “high throughput” in-vitro biological assays, screening-level information on potential adverse biological effects is available for a rapidly increasing number of chemicals. The U.S. EPA ToxCast program has now evaluated several thousand chemicals with more than 800 assays. The original intent of this data was to evaluate potential for human health effects, but it is now being extended to environmental health evaluations. The R package ToxEval was developed as a screening tool to use ToxCast results for evaluation of potential adverse biological effects from trace organic chemicals in water samples. Using ToxEval, trace organic chemical data from water samples and passive samplers collected at 57 Great Lakes tributaries from 2010-2013 were examined to determine the tributaries with the greatest potential for adverse biological effects with prioritization of the most influential contaminants. Results are being used as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative to focus current and future investigations that will help understand likely adverse outcome pathways in biological organisms, and to formulate possible remediation strategies. not applicable

  17. Biological applications and effects of optical masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, William T., Jr.; Mueller, Harold A.; Guerry, R. K.; Guerry, Dupont, III; Cleary, Stephan F.

    1988-09-01

    Threshold radiant exposures for retinal damage in 3 macaque monkeys are given for exposures of 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 seconds duration to laser wavelengths 514.5 and 488 nm. Intravitreal injections of 5 x .00005 gm of Cu-Zn SOD were toxic to cornea, lens and retina of the rhesus monkey after a radiant exposure of 33 j/sq cm of 440 nm light. No further experiments with SOD are contemplated. Similar experiments with catalase will be tried during the first quarter of the second contract year. The effect of oxygen on retinal toxicity during exposure to wave-lengths 540, 640 and 840 nm were delayed by the untimely death of Dr. Millen, our consultant on anesthesiology and oxygen administration. Arrangements have been made to activate this program during the second contract year. Threshold data on 40 microsecond pulse trains cannot be obtained until the acoustic modulator can be incorporated into the Ar-Kr laser which was used during the contract year to produce exposures less than 1 second to 514.5 and 488 nm laser lines. Data on PRF's of 10 and 100 KHz and 1, 10 and 20 MHz will be obtained during the second contract year. The long-term experiment on cataractogenesis on 2 rhesus monkeys exposed to a near UV spectrum (330 to 420 nm) has been completed.

  18. LASTING BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EARLY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Jen; Dubos, René

    1968-01-01

    A lasting depression of body weight was consistently produced in SPF mice by infecting them orally 2 days after birth with a nonlethal, bacteria-free filtrate, prepared from the intestine of young SPF mice previously infected with an unidentified agent. Neonatal infection caused a decrease of muscle DNA and of muscle and brain protein in the adults. No other effect was detected in the chemical composition of various organs. Incorporation of 14C-amino acid into the acid precipitable fractions of liver, kidney, muscle, and brain was lower in infected than in control animals. No difference in incorporation was recognized in the thymus and spleen. The free amino acid pool of adults, measured as blood levels of free amino nitrogen, was decreased by neonatal infection. Surprisingly, the food intake of young animals infected neonatally was higher than that of the controls, measured on the basis of body weight. Their fecal excretion of nitrogen was also higher. The comparative responses of infected and control adults to a stressful situation was measured by giving them intravenously the antituberculous vaccine BCG. Under these conditions, the mice infected neonatally excreted some 20% more nitrogen in their urine and 40% more in their feces than did the controls. The mechanisms through which neonatal infection caused a lasting weight depression are discussed in the light of these metabolic findings. PMID:5691984

  19. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  20. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Ito, Tetsuhide; Qian, Jia-Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection. The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level, local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin. RESULTS: In the Cerulein + Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed, the pancreatic wet weight (11.60 ± 0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490 ± 43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P < 0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P < 0.01). PBF dropped to 38% (93 ± 5 mL/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein + Stress group and partly recovered in the Cerulein + Stress + Rhubarb 150 mg group (135 ± 12 mL/min per 100 g) (P < 0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats. The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb-treated group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas, improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion. PMID:15052683

  1. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-16

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.

  2. Evident Biological Effects of Space Radiation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2004-01-01

    Though cancer risks are the primary concern for astronauts exposed to space radiation and a number of astronauts have developed cancer, identifying a direct association or cause of disease has been somewhat problematic due to a lack of statistics and a lack of an appropriate control group. However, several bio,logical effects observed in astronauts are believed to be primarily due to exposure to space radiation. Among those are, light flashes experienced by astronauts from early missions, cataract development in the crewmembers and excess chromosome aberrations detected in astronauts' lymphocytes postmission. The space radiation environment and evident biological effects will be discussed.

  3. An Investigation of the Interaction Effects of Acute Self-Esteem and Perceived Competence on Conformity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-22

    On the basis of previous research on conformity it was predicted that subjects who were subjected to acute self - esteem manipulations and perceived...a demonstration of the interaction effects of acute self - esteem and perceived competence. Acute self - esteem manipulations (high, low or no) were...role in conformity. The main effect of self - esteem and the interaction of self - esteem and perceived competence did not prove significant. Results were

  4. The relative biological effectiveness of out-of-field dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderson, Michael; Koger, Brandon; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: using simulations and models derived from existing literature, this work investigates relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for out-of-field radiation and attempts to quantify the relative magnitudes of different contributing phenomena (spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects). Specific attention is paid to external beam radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: using different biological models that account for spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects, the RBE was calculated for different points moving radially out from isocentre for a typical single arc VMAT prostate case. The RBE was found by taking the ratio of the equivalent dose with the physical dose. Equivalent doses were calculated by determining what physical dose would be necessary to produce the same overall biological effect as that predicted using the different biological models. Results: spectral effects changed the RBE out-of-field less than 2%, whereas response models incorporating low dose hypersensitivity and bystander effects resulted in a much more profound change of the RBE for out-of-field doses. The bystander effect had the largest RBE for points located just outside the edge of the primary radiation beam in the cranial caudal (z-direction) compared to low dose hypersensitivity and spectral effects. In the coplanar direction, bystander effect played the largest role in enhancing the RBE for points up to 8.75 cm from isocentre. Conclusions: spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects can all increase the RBE for out-of-field radiation doses. In most cases, bystander effects seem to play the largest role followed by low dose hypersensitivity. Spectral effects were unlikely to be of any clinical significance. Bystander, low dose hypersensitivity, and spectral effect increased the RBE much more in the cranial caudal direction (z-direction) compared with the coplanar directions.

  5. Development of Effects-Based Nutrient Criteria using Biological Endpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, R.

    2005-05-01

    Ohio employs biological endpoints to judge the status of aquatic life in rivers and streams. Specifically, numeric criteria derived from biological indices have been incorporated into Ohio's water quality standards for fish and macroinvertebrate communities. When appropriate, chemical-specific water quality standards derived from dose-response curves are used in concert with the biological indices to ascribe the causes and sources of impairment to polluted streams. However, water quality criteria have not been established for all polluting agents, especially those, like nutrients, that do not elicit a simple dose-response curve. In such cases, where biological impairment is observed, the linkage between the impairment and causal agent is made inferentially. Ohio EPA is currently studying the relationship between nutrient concentrations, periphytic chlorophyll a concentrations, and biological indices to ascertain whether a direct relationship exists between nutrient concentration and the biological health of fish and macroinvertebrate communities, with the eventual goal of adopting effects-based nutrient criteria in Ohio's water quality standards. Results from the first field season show a strong relationship between chlorophyll a concentrations, and physical and land use variables. Additionally, 48 h dissolved oxygen flux correlated with periphytic chlorophyll a concentrations and the degree of canopy cover.

  6. Effect of acute smoke exposure on hepatic protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garrett, R J; Jackson, M A

    1979-05-01

    In vivo hepatic protein synthesis was monitored in female rats under control and smoke-exposed conditions. During the 15 min period after i.v. administration of [3H]proline protein synthesis was 206 +/- 35 nmol of proline per mg of DNA for sham-control animals. When animals were subjected to acute exposure to cigarette smoke, protein synthesis was inhibited and the extent of inhibition was positively correlated with the dosage of smoke (32%, 15 puffs; 66%, 60 puffs). The inhibitory effect of whole smoke on protein synthesis was unaltered by passing the smoke through either charcoal or cambridge filters. Carbon monoxide in smoke is not removed by either type of filter. At a level comparable to that in cigarette smoke carbon monoxide depressed hepatic protein synthesis to the same extent as did whole or filtered smoke.

  7. Investigation of acute stroke: what is the most effective strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Dunbabin, D. W.; Sandercock, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques of investigation of acute stroke syndromes have progressed rapidly in recent years, outpacing developments in effective stroke treatment. The clinician is thus faced with a variety of tests, each with different cost implications and each altering management to a greater or lesser extent. This review will concentrate on the basic tests which should be performed for all strokes (full blood count, ESR, biochemical screen, blood glucose, cholesterol, syphilis serology, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be required in selected cases: CT scan to diagnose 'non-stroke' lesions, to exclude cerebral haemorrhage if anti-haemostatic therapy is planned, and to detect strokes which may require emergency intervention (such as cerebellar stroke with hydrocephalus); echocardiography to detect cardiac sources of emboli; and in a few cases lumbar puncture and specialized haematological tests. Other tests, which are currently research tools, may be suitable for widespread use in the future including NMR, SPECT and PET scanning. PMID:2062773

  8. Biological Effects of Nuclear Explosions (BENE) Domain Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    irradiated soil), and the effectiveness of radiation on biological warfare agents. Operation SANDSTONE (Table 1.2) assessed the effects of ionizing...radiation on a variety of seeds, insects , and bacteria. Operation GREENHOUSE (Table 1.3) assessed the effects of nuclear radiation on mice, pigs... irradiated animals as well as dosimeters. Operation IVY (Table 1.4) did surveys of plant and animal specimens before and after Test Mike to determine

  9. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  10. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  12. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay: potential implications for treatment of acute radiation syndrome in radiological mass casualties.

    PubMed

    Romm, Horst; Wilkins, Ruth C; Coleman, C Norman; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia K; Pellmar, Terry C; Livingston, Gordon K; Awa, Akio A; Jenkins, Mark S; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Oestreicher, Ursula; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2011-03-01

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation dose. The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is currently the tool of choice. Because the assay is labor-intensive and time-consuming, strategies are needed to increase throughput for use in radiation mass casualty incidents. One such strategy is to truncate metaphase spread analysis for triage dose estimates by scoring 50 or fewer metaphases, compared to a routine analysis of 500 to 1000 metaphases, and to increase throughput using a large group of scorers in a biodosimetry network. Previously, the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) sponsored a double-blinded interlaboratory comparison among five established international cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories to determine the variability in calibration curves and in dose measurements in unknown, irradiated samples. In the present study, we further analyzed the published data from this previous study to investigate how the number of metaphase spreads influences dose prediction accuracy and how this information could be of value in the triage and management of people at risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Although, as expected, accuracy decreased with lower numbers of metaphase spreads analyzed, predicted doses by the laboratories were in good agreement and were judged to be adequate to guide diagnosis and treatment of ARS. These results demonstrate that for rapid triage, a network of cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories can accurately assess doses even with a lower number of scored metaphases.

  13. Genetic identity, biological phenotype, and evolutionary pathways of transmitted/founder viruses in acute and early HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Salazar, Maria G.; Keele, Brandon F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Giorgi, Elena E.; Li, Hui; Decker, Julie M.; Wang, Shuyi; Baalwa, Joshua; Kraus, Matthias H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Shaw, Katharina S.; Guffey, M. Brad; Bar, Katharine J.; Davis, Katie L.; Ochsenbauer-Jambor, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Saag, Michael S.; Cohen, Myron S.; Mulenga, Joseph; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric; Markowitz, Martin; Hraber, Peter; Perelson, Alan S.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Haynes, Barton F.; Korber, Bette T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of full-length transmitted HIV-1 genomes could be instrumental in HIV-1 pathogenesis, microbicide, and vaccine research by enabling the direct analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection. We show in 12 acutely infected subjects (9 clade B and 3 clade C) that complete HIV-1 genomes of transmitted/founder viruses can be inferred by single genome amplification and sequencing of plasma virion RNA. This allowed for the molecular cloning and biological analysis of transmitted/founder viruses and a comprehensive genome-wide assessment of the genetic imprint left on the evolving virus quasispecies by a composite of host selection pressures. Transmitted viruses encoded intact canonical genes (gag-pol-vif-vpr-tat-rev-vpu-env-nef) and replicated efficiently in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes but much less so in monocyte-derived macrophages. Transmitted viruses were CD4 and CCR5 tropic and demonstrated concealment of coreceptor binding surfaces of the envelope bridging sheet and variable loop 3. 2 mo after infection, transmitted/founder viruses in three subjects were nearly completely replaced by viruses differing at two to five highly selected genomic loci; by 12–20 mo, viruses exhibited concentrated mutations at 17–34 discrete locations. These findings reveal viral properties associated with mucosal HIV-1 transmission and a limited set of rapidly evolving adaptive mutations driven primarily, but not exclusively, by early cytotoxic T cell responses. PMID:19487424

  14. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2016-04-25

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (<10) are found for simple exchanges using a linear dose response model, however in the non-targeted effects model for fibroblast cells large RBE values (>10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Finally, we discuss comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function.

  15. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; ...

    2016-04-25

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictionsmore » of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (<10) are found for simple exchanges using a linear dose response model, however in the non-targeted effects model for fibroblast cells large RBE values (>10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Finally, we discuss comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function.« less

  16. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (<10) are found for simple exchanges using a linear dose response model, however in the non-targeted effects model for fibroblast cells large RBE values (>10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed. PMID:27111667

  17. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  18. WHY DO THE ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OT TOLUENE IN RATS DEPEND ON THE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite evidence suggesting that the acute effects of organic solvents are related to their concentration in the brain, we have observed route-dependent differences in the acute behavioral effects of toluene. Whereas inhaled toluene disrupts the performance of rats on a visual si...

  19. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  20. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials - 1. Nutrients in carbonaceous meteorites, and effects on biological growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    1997-06-01

    Soil nutrient analysis of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous chondrite shows biologically available S, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at levels comparable with terrestrial agricultural soils. Weathering, and aqueous, hydrothermal (121°C, 15 min) and high-temperature (550°C, 3 h) processing increase the extractable nutrients. Extractable phosphorus (by 0.3 M NH 4F + 0.1 M HCl) content, which may be growth-limiting, is 6.3 μg g -1 in the unprocessed meteorite, but increases to 81 μg g -1 by hydrothermal processing and weathering, and to 130 μg g -1 by high temperature processing. The cation exchange capacity (CEC), attributed mainly to the organic fraction, corresponds responds to 345 meq per 100 g of the polymer, suggesting one ionizable COOH or OH group per 3-4 aromatic rings. The Allende C3(V) meteorite has low extractable Ca, Mg and K, in parallel to its low organic content and CEC, but high extractable P levels (160 μg g -1). Biological effects are observed on growth of the soil microorganisms Flavobacterium oryzihabitans and Nocardia asteroides in meteorite extracts, and the population levels suggest that P is the limiting nutrient. Effects on plant growth are examined on Solanum tuberosum (potato), where extracts of the Murchison meteorite lead to enhanced growth and pigmentation. The biologically available organic and inorganic nutrients in carbonaceous chondrites can provide concentrated solutions for prebiotic and early life processes, and serve as soils and fertilizers for future space-based biological expansion.

  1. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  2. Adaptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudritsky, Yu.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    The adoptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations is based on the recognition of the invariability of general biological laws for radiobiology and on the comprehension of life evolution regularities and axiomatic principles of environment and biota unity. The ionizing radiation factor is essential for life which could not exist beyond the radiation field. The possibility of future development of the adaptation hypothesis serves as a basis for it`s transformation into the theoretical foundation of radiobiology. This report discusses the aspects of the adaptation theory.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Effects of Novel Arylimidamide Derivatives against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Bruno Lisboa; da Silva, Patrícia Bernadino; Batista, Marcos Meuser; da Silva, Francisca Hildemagna Guedes; da Silva, Cristiane França; Tidwell, Richard R.; Patrick, Donald A.; Jones, Susan Kilgore; Bakunov, Stanislav A.; Bakunova, Svetlana M.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health problem in several Latin American countries. The available chemotherapies for CD have limited efficacy and exhibit undesirable side effects. Aromatic diamidines and arylimidamides (AIAs) have shown broad-spectrum activity against intracellular parasites, including T. cruzi. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the biological activity of eight novel AIAs (16DAP002, 16SAB079, 18SAB075, 23SMB022, 23SMB026, 23SMB054, 26SMB070, and 27SMB009) against experimental models of T. cruzi infection in vitro and in vivo. Our data show that none of the compounds induced a loss of cellular viability up to 32 μM. Two AIAs, 18SAB075 and 16DAP002, exhibited good in vitro activity against different parasite strains (Y and Tulahuen) and against the two relevant forms of the parasite for mammalian hosts. Due to the excellent selective indexes of 18SAB075, this AIA was moved to in vivo tests for acute toxicity and parasite efficacy; nontoxic doses (no-observed-adverse-effect level [NOAEL], 50 mg/kg) were employed in the tests for parasite efficacy. In experimental models of acute T. cruzi infection, 18SAB075 reduced parasitemia levels only up to 50% and led to 40% protection against mortality (at 5 mg/kg of body weight), being less effective than the reference drug, benznidazole. PMID:24752263

  4. Antidepressant Effects of Mallotus oppositifolius in Acute Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Mante, Priscilla K.; Ameyaw, Elvis O.; Adongo, Donatus W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (MOE), a plant used for CNS conditions in Ghana, was investigated for acute antidepressant effects in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results. In both FST and TST, MOE (10, 30, and 100 mg kg−1) significantly decreased immobility periods and frequencies. A 3-day pretreatment with 200 mg kg−1, i.p., para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reversed the decline in immobility and the increase of swimming score induced by MOE in the modified FST. Pretreatment with reserpine alone (1 mg kg−1), α-methyldopa alone (400 mg kg−1, i.p.), or a combination of both drugs failed to reverse the decline in immobility or the increase in swimming score caused by the extract in the modified FST. The extract potentiated the frequency of head twitch responses induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Pretreatment with d-serine (600 mg kg−1, i.p.), glycine/NMDA agonist, abolished the behavioural effects of MOE while d-cycloserine (2.5 mg kg−1, i.p.), a glycine/NMDA partial agonist, potentiated it in both TST and modified FST. Conclusion. The extract exhibited antidepressant effects in mice which is mediated by enhancement of serotoninergic neurotransmission and inhibition of glycine/NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25045543

  5. Effectiveness and versatility of biological prosthesis in transplanted patients

    PubMed Central

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Mascianà, Gianluca; De Werra, Edoardo; Sandri, Giovanni Battista Levi; Ferraro, Daniele; Burocchi, Mirco; Tortorelli, Giovanni; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of prosthesis, and good tolerance by patients with incisional hernia (IH). METHODS From December 2001 to February 2016, 270 liver transplantations were performed at San Camillo Hospital. IH occurred in 78 patients (28.8%). IH usually appeared early within the first year post-orthotopic liver transplantation. In the first era, fascial defect was repaired by primary closure for defects smaller than 2.5 cm or with synthetic mesh for greater defects. Recently, we started using biological mesh (Permacol™, Covidien). We present a series of five transplanted patients submitted to surgery for abdominal wall defect correction repaired with biological mesh (Permacol™, Covidien). RESULTS In our cases, the use of biological prosthesis (Permacol™, Covidien) have proven to be effective and versatile in repairing hernia defects of different kinds; patients did not suffer infections of the prosthesis and no recurrence was observed. Furthermore, the prosthesis remains intact even in the years after surgery. CONCLUSION The cases that we presented show that the use of biological mesh (Permacol™, Covidien) in transplanted patients may be safe and effective, being careful in the management of perioperative immunosuppression and renal and graft function, although the cost of the product itself has been the main limiting factor and there is need for prospective studies for further evaluations. PMID:28280694

  6. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Sarah M.; Lupis, Sarah B.; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed towards understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body’s capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and sleep quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women’s stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e., having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal HPA functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  7. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  8. Acute and impaired wound healing: pathophysiology and current methods for drug delivery, part 1: normal and chronic wounds: biology, causes, and approaches to care.

    PubMed

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Hamblin, Michael R; Herman, Ira M

    2012-07-01

    This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians' understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing.

  9. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed.

  10. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover

  11. Biological effects of high molecular weight lignin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pessala, Piia; Schultz, Eija; Kukkola, Jukka; Nakari, Tarja; Knuutinen, Juha; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko

    2010-10-01

    A number of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin derivatives possessing varied chemical properties were screened for their biological effects in order to obtain more information on the possible structural features of HMW lignin-related effects. The studied compounds were both commercial and in-house extracted lignin derivatives. Bioassays used include reverse electron transport (RET), Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. The studied lignin derivatives inhibited the in vitro systems and luminescence of V. fischeri bacteria to some extent-daphnids were not affected. It seems that, at least in the RET assay, certain pH-dependent functional groups in lignin may be of importance regarding the biological effects.

  12. Electrophoretically pure mouse interferon exerts multiple biologic effects.

    PubMed Central

    Gresser, I; De Maeyer-Guignard, J; Tovey, M G; De Maeyer, E

    1979-01-01

    Electrophoretically pure mouse interferon was examined for a number of biologic effects previously ascribed to crude or partially purified interferon preparations. These effects include: inhibition of the growth of a transplantable tumor in mice; inhibition of cell multiplication of mouse tumor cells in vitro; enhancement of the expression of histocompatibility antigens on mouse tumor cells in vitro; inhibition of antibody formation in vitro; inhibition of sensitization to sheep erythrocytes and the expression of delayed type hypersensitivity in mice; enhancement of natural killer cell activity in vivo and in vitro; enhancement of cell sensitivity to the toxicity of poly(I)-poly(C); and enhanced production ("priming") of interferon production in vitro. Our results establish that the molecules responsible for the antiviral action of interferon are also responsible for these varied biologic effects. PMID:291948

  13. Sensory and Cognitive Effects of Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Junfeng; Weisel, Clifford; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Olejeme, Kelechi; Lioy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Objectives We hypothesized a dose–response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures. Methods In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (± SD) = 24.7 ± 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 ± 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period. Results Dose–response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose–response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition. Conclusions Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures. PMID:18197303

  14. The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the acute effect of exposure to a local homicide on the cognitive performance of children across a community. Data are from a sample of children age 5–17 y in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. The effect of local homicides on vocabulary and reading assessments is identified by exploiting exogenous variation in the relative timing of homicides and interview assessments among children in the same neighborhood but assessed at different times. Among African-Americans, the strongest results show that exposure to a homicide in the block group that occurs less than a week before the assessment reduces performance on vocabulary and reading assessments by between ∼0.5 and ∼0.66 SD, respectively. Main results are replicated using a second independent dataset from Chicago. Findings suggest the need for broader recognition of the impact that extreme acts of violence have on children across a neighborhood, regardless of whether the violence is witnessed directly. PMID:20547862

  15. Comparative Effects of Various High School Biology Course-Content Backgrounds on Achievement in College Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gordon Ronald

    The purposes of this study are (1) to determine whether college students who have taken Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) High School Biology attain significantly different grades in college biology courses at the University of Missouri than do college students who have taken a non-BSCS high school biology course, and (2) to determine if…

  16. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-26

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy.

  17. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p <0.001). This was manifested primarily by increased myocardial blood flow velocity (0.7 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.1 second(-1), p = 0.01) with unchanged myocardial blood volume (133 ± 7 to 137 ± 7 a.u., p = ns), the same pattern of coronary microvascular response seen with a low-dose β-adrenergic agonist. Indeed, with hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation.

  18. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume I. Review of the Literature on Biological Effects of Laser Radiation-to 1965.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-17

    by block number) Biological Effects of Laser Radiation; Electron Spin Resonance; Spectroscopy; Microscopy: Tissue and Cell Culture Interaction...laser radiation to 1965 is reviewed. Laser production of free radicals, use in microscopy and holography, and tissue and cell culture effects are...Microscopy and Holography 16 4. Tissues and Cell Cultures 20 5. Studies on Interaction with Macromolecular Biochemical Preparations 26 6. The Laser

  19. Acute effects of tianeptine on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Hernández, Gerardo; Orozco, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Simon; Baez, Scarlet

    2006-03-01

    Tianeptine is a serotonin-uptake enhancer drug whose antidepressant effectiveness is based on its ability to reduce rather than increase serotonin availability at the synaptic cleft. This paradoxical neuropharmacological mechanism has raised doubt among neuropharmacologists and psychiatrists as to the role of tianeptine as a trusty-reliable antidepressant drug. This controversial issue led us to investigate the acute effects of a single, oral dose (12.5 mg) of this drug on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters in 50 healthy subjects. The drug provoked a striking and significant reduction of plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma serotonin (f-5-HT) while it increased plasma dopamine (DA) and platelet serotonin (p-5-HT) concentrations within the 4-h study period. No adrenaline (Ad) changes were registered. The NA/Ad ratio and the f-5-HT/p-5-HT ratio showed significant reduction throughout the test. Finally, although diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed significant decrease, neither systolic blood pressure (SBP) nor heart rate (HR) showed significant change. These findings are consistent with the postulation that tianeptine reduces both neural sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activity without affecting adrenal sympathetic activity, enabling us to discuss the possible mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effects of tianeptine. The well-known fact that major depressed patients always show raised NA plus lower than normal p-5-HT levels, both disorders which are normalized by tianeptine, gives neurochemical support to the clinical improvement triggered by the drug in these patients. Summarizing, the results presented in this study demonstrate that tianeptine triggers significant reduction of circulating noradrenaline and plasma serotonin while increasing circulating dopamine and platelet serotonin. Other possible neuropharmacological effects are also discussed.

  20. Acidic precipitation, Vol. 2: Biological and ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano, D.C.; Johnson, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. The chapters in this volume cover a wide array of topics on the biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation. A chapter on soil productivity emphasizes changes in biological and chemical characters of forest soils impacted by acidic deposition. Additional chapters discuss specific effects on soil microorganisms, trees, and crops. The importance of aluminum in this environmental issue is highlighted by a discussion on the mobility and phytotoxicity of this element in acidic soils. This chapter puts into perspective the biology of Al stressed plants. Two major chapters discuss the effect of acidic precipitation on forest ecosystems; one emphasizing North America, and the other Europe. Effects of soil acidification on key soil processes, including litter decomposition and depletion of essential plant nutrients in the soil profile are emphasized. Finally, three major chapters comprehensively cover limnological ecosystems and their response to acidic perturbation. These chapters discuss the response of stream and lake communities, both floral and faunal, to water acidification, including reduced biodiversity in these systems. Ten chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Formica, Domenico; Silvestri, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited. PMID:15104797

  2. [Biologic effects of millimeteric waves (94 GHz). Are there long term consequences?].

    PubMed

    Debouzy, J-C; Crouzier, D; Dabouis, V; Malabiau, R; Bachelet, C; Perrin, A

    2007-06-01

    Active Denial Systems (ADS) is a millimetric wave radiation emitting technology now included in the non lethal weapon arsenal. Such devices emit electromagnetic, thus agitating water in the skin and causing feeling of heat enough that target individual retreats from the beam. They can be used at up to 1 km from the target. We have reviewed the literature on the interactions of millimetric waves (MMW) with biological systems. An opposition appears between the observations performed in the Former Soviet Union and Russia showing potential interaction sometimes deleterious while generally of good influence and used in therapy. By way of contrast, most of the other studies, performed in USA, address local acute effects, exclusively located on the skin and eyes of the target, and considered as completely reversible.

  3. Safety and effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patch in smokers admitted with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Meine, Trip J; Patel, Manesh R; Washam, Jeffrey B; Pappas, Paul A; Jollis, James G

    2005-04-15

    An analysis of smokers admitted with acute coronary syndrome who received transdermal nicotine therapy and those who did not was performed. Propensity analysis was used to match patients. Transdermal nicotine therapy appears safe and does not have an effect on the mortality of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  4. Testing systems for biologic markers of genotoxic exposure and effect

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1986-11-19

    Societal interest in genotoxicity stems from two concerns: the fear of carcinogenesis secondary to somatic mutation; and the fear of birth defects and decreasing genetic fitness secondary to heritable mutation. There is a pressing need to identify agents that can cause these effects, to understand the underlying dose-response relationships, to identify exposed populations, and to estimate both the magnitude of exposure and the risk of adverse health effects in such populations. Biologic markers refer either to evidence in surrogate organisms, or to the expressions of exposure and effect in human populations. 21 refs.

  5. Biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Guo; Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe the difference of biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser with different power and different irradiation time. Methods: The canine bladder was irradiated with different power and different irradiation time. The effects of ablation and thermal coagulation in different laser settings were observed. The damage scale was evaluated macroscopically, with microscope and with electroscope. Results: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on the canine bladder by irradiation of Nd:YAP laser on. Pathology vision shows the thermal coagulation dose on perforation is 10W、6s;20W、4s;30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s;the dose of whole audience wear through is 10W、6s 20W、4s 30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s. Conclusions: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on biological effect of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder. The better safety dose is power 10W、duration time less than 6s; power 20W、duration time less than 4s. power 30W、time less than 3s. power 40W、time less than 2s. The ablation and thermal coagulation effects of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder is homocercal of power and time.

  6. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  7. Some aspects of the biological effects of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Ozheredov, V. A.; Syutkina, E. V.; Rogoza, A. N.

    2008-02-01

    Space weather hazards have been well-studied during the past few decades, mainly in connection with effects on technical systems. The biological effects of solar and geomagnetic activity have been largely ignored because the amplitudes of the electromagnetic fields (EMF) are small, typically one to several hundreds of nanoteslas. This is much weaker than electromagnetic noise of anthropogenic origin and about 10 orders of magnitude less than the characteristic energies of biochemical reactions. During the past 20 years, however, more careful consideration has been given to possible nonthermal mechanisms of interaction of biological systems with weak (<1 mT) low-frequency EMF, which are unavoidably present in the environment, and some progress has been made towards understanding how an interaction can occur.

  8. Effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Kentaro; Adachi, Kenji; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Chiba, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of lysine-induced acute renal failure. Female dogs received a lysine hydrochloride (lysine) of 4500 mg/kg/day (3.75 ml/kg/hr) for 3 consecutive days. The dogs were observed for clinical signs. Body weights were recorded, food consumption and water consumption calculated, and urinalysis and blood biochemistry were performed daily. Plasma samples for amino acid determinations were obtained from all dogs, which were necropsied on Day 3. Histopathological examinations were done on all test animals. Compound-related findings include the following. Blood biochemistry results showed increases in ammonia, blood urea nitrogen, blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, and creatinine. Urinary changes consisted of increases in urine volume, total protein, albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. In addition, macroscopic findings consisted of pale, congested capsule; microscopic findings consisted of hypertrophy of proximal convoluted tubule (mainly S1 segment), and degeneration/desquamation of urinary tubule (mainly S3 segment with hyaline casts) in the kidney. From these findings, it can be concluded that lysine is nephrotoxic in dogs. Nephrotoxicity of lysine may relate to direct tubular toxicity and to tubular obstruction.

  9. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  10. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  11. Protective effect of vitamin E against acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Feng, Yetong; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Yulai; Zhao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    It has been well-known for many years now that vitamin E is an essential nutrient; however, some of the physiological functions of this vitamin are still far from being understood. In recent years, a series of preclinical and clinical studies proposed a protective role of vitamin E on acute kidney injury (AKI), which has a high morbidity rate and mortality rate in clinical investigations. Based on the benefits associated with vitamin E, such as strong antioxidant function, low toxicity, rare side-effects, and low cost, this therapy strategy has garnered an extensive amount of interest in the scientific community for the development of new therapy modes against AKI. In this review, a concise overview of the application of vitamin E in the treatment of AKI is provided as well as a summary of a series of published data regarding the combination therapy modes and detailed therapy mechanisms of vitamin E-based therapy against AKI. At present, there are critical points of this therapy mode that are still in need of further clarification, meaning the current understanding of the role of vitamin E in the treatment of AKI remains incomplete. However, the development of more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical strategies with vitamin E for the eventual treatment of patients with AKI may guide the next chapter of vitamin E research.

  12. Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration.

    PubMed

    Kosel, Markus; Noss, Roger S; Hämmig, Robert; Wielepp, Peter; Bundeli, Petra; Heidbreder, Rebeca; Kinser, Jane A; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Kayser, Sarah; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.v. heroin and 45 s after administration of saline (placebo). Plasma concentration of diacetylmorphine and its metabolites were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus. Our results are in line with recent reports indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids.

  13. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  14. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao-Xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP.

  15. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  16. Effect of Atmospheric Background Aerosols on Biological Agent Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA Chemical and Biological Sensor Standards Study. 32 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory, JBPDS...the Research Program on BW Detection, Space General, AD480357, 1966. (U) The goal of this project was to examine the effects of background...that relied on detection of chemiluminescence resulting from a chemical reaction UNCLASSIFIED 8 UNCLASSIFIED with luminal and porphyrin4. During

  17. Effect of pH on biological phosphorus uptake.

    PubMed

    Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrás, L; Seco, A

    2006-12-05

    An anaerobic aerobic laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to study the effect of pH on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Seven steady states were achieved under different operating conditions. In all of them, a slight variation in the pH value was observed during anaerobic phase. However, pH rose significantly during aerobic phase. The increase observed was due to phosphorus uptake and carbon dioxide stripping. When pH was higher than 8.2-8.25 the phosphorus uptake rate clearly decreased. The capability of Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and Biological Nutrient Removal Model No. 1 (BNRM1) to simulate experimental results was evaluated. Both models successfully characterized the enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance of the SBR. Furthermore, BNRM1 also reproduced the pH variations observed and the decrease in the phosphorus uptake rate. This model includes a switch function in the kinetic expressions to represent the pH inhibition in biological processes. The pH inhibition constants related to polyphosphate storage process were obtained by adjusting model predictions to measured phosphorus concentrations. On the other hand, pH inhibition should be included in ASM2d to accurately simulate experimental phosphorus evolution observed in an A/O SBR.

  18. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response

    PubMed Central

    Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Best, Serena M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1) surface topography, (2) pore size and geometry, (3) porous networks, and (4) macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications. PMID:26501056

  19. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response.

    PubMed

    Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Best, Serena M

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1) surface topography, (2) pore size and geometry, (3) porous networks, and (4) macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  20. Evolutionary Tradeoffs between Economy and Effectiveness in Biological Homeostasis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Pablo; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Biological regulatory systems face a fundamental tradeoff: they must be effective but at the same time also economical. For example, regulatory systems that are designed to repair damage must be effective in reducing damage, but economical in not making too many repair proteins because making excessive proteins carries a fitness cost to the cell, called protein burden. In order to see how biological systems compromise between the two tasks of effectiveness and economy, we applied an approach from economics and engineering called Pareto optimality. This approach allows calculating the best-compromise systems that optimally combine the two tasks. We used a simple and general model for regulation, known as integral feedback, and showed that best-compromise systems have particular combinations of biochemical parameters that control the response rate and basal level. We find that the optimal systems fall on a curve in parameter space. Due to this feature, even if one is able to measure only a small fraction of the system's parameters, one can infer the rest. We applied this approach to estimate parameters in three biological systems: response to heat shock and response to DNA damage in bacteria, and calcium homeostasis in mammals. PMID:23950698

  1. Protective effects of Cuscutae semen against dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Hyun-Sam; Sohn, Youngjoo; Soh, Yunjo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Nak-Won

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Cuscutae semen (CS) on acute liver injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in Sprague-Dawley rats. CS is an important traditional herbal medicine widely used as a tonic and aphrodisiac to nourish the liver and kidney and to treat impotence and seminal emission. Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of DMN (40 mg/kg), and were then treated with CS daily by oral gavage for 4 d. Immunohistochemical studies for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed, along with hydroxyproline and biological assay. Liver injury caused by DMN-injection was significantly inhibited in the CS-treated group compared to the silymarin-treated group. The results of blood biological assay were significantly protected by CS in serum total protein (T-protein), T-bilirubin (T-bili), D-bilirubin (D-bili), GOT, GPT, and ALP. The hydroxyproline content and amount of active alpha-SMA and PCNA were significantly decreased in the CS-treated group than in the silymarin-treated group. CS exhibited an in vivo hepatoprotective effect and anti-fibrogenic effects against DMN-induced acute liver injury and inhibited the formation of hydroxyproline, which suggests that CS may be useful in preventing fibrogenesis after liver injury.

  2. The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By

  3. Intuitive biological thought: Developmental changes and effects of biology education in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Coley, John D; Arenson, Melanie; Xu, Yian; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors). Results reveal clear evidence of persistent intuitive reasoning among all populations studied, consistent but surprisingly small differences between 8th graders and college students on measures of intuitive biological thought, and consistent but again surprisingly small influence of increasing biology education on intuitive biological reasoning. Results speak to the persistence of intuitive reasoning, the importance of taking intuitive knowledge into account in science classrooms, and the necessity of interdisciplinary research to advance biology education. Further studies are necessary to investigate how cultural context and continued acquisition of expertise impact intuitive biology thinking.

  4. Effect of acupuncture on rats with acute gouty arthritis inflammation: a metabonomic method for profiling of both urine and plasma metabolic perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Si-Lan; Liu, Yu-Jie; Yin, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Liu; Xiao, Jin; Zhu, Hong-Yuan; Xue, Jin-Tao; Ye, Li-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is a common inflammation model with multiple pathogenic mechanisms seen in clinical practice, for which acupuncture may potentially be an alternative therapy. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on acute gouty arthritis and search for its mechanism, a metabonomic method was developed in this investigation. Acute gouty arthritis model rats were induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. The urine and plasma samples were collected at several time points and the endogenous metabolites were analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analysis to compare metabolic profiles of MSU crystal-induced acute gouty arthritis rats with MSU crystal-induced acute gouty arthritis, treated with acupuncture rats. The results showed that acupuncture could restore the metabolite network that disturbed by MSU administration. Our study indicates that UPLC-MS-based metabonomics can be used as a potential tool for the investigation of biological effect of acupuncture on acute gouty arthritis.

  5. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  6. The most informative spacing test effectively discovers biologically relevant outliers or multiple modes in expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Edmonson, Michael; Liu, Zhifa; Gruber, Tanja; Zhang, Jinghui; Pounds, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Several outlier and subgroup identification statistics (OASIS) have been proposed to discover transcriptomic features with outliers or multiple modes in expression that are indicative of distinct biological processes or subgroups. Here, we borrow ideas from the OASIS methods in the bioinformatics and statistics literature to develop the ‘most informative spacing test’ (MIST) for unsupervised detection of such transcriptomic features. In an example application involving 14 cases of pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, MIST more robustly identified features that perfectly discriminate subjects according to gender or the presence of a prognostically relevant fusion-gene than did seven other OASIS methods in the analysis of RNA-seq exon expression, RNA-seq exon junction expression and micorarray exon expression data. MIST was also effective at identifying features related to gender or molecular subtype in an example application involving 157 adult cases of acute myeloid leukemia. Availability: MIST will be freely available in the OASIS R package at http://www.stjuderesearch.org/site/depts/biostats Contact: stanley.pounds@stjude.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24458951

  7. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Cihan Suleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biological effects. Extrapolating the biological effects of dietary compounds from in vitro and in vivo animal experiments to humans may lead to over- or under-estimation of the effect and role of these compounds. The present paper will discuss a few of these challenges and suggest directions for future research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds. PMID:27294953

  8. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  9. Acute Effects of Eccentric Overload on Concentric Front Squat Performance.

    PubMed

    Munger, Cameron N; Archer, David C; Leyva, Whitney D; Wong, Megan A; Coburn, Jared W; Costa, Pablo B; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-30

    Eccentric overload is used to enhance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of eccentric overload on concentric front squat performance. Twenty resistance-trained males (age=23.80±1.82yrs, ht=176.95±5.21cm, mass=83.49±10.43kg, 1 Repetition Maximum [1RM] front squat=131.02±21.32kg) volunteered. A dynamic warm-up and warm-up sets of front squat were performed. Eccentric hooks were added to the barbell. They descended for 3 seconds, until eccentric hooks released, and performed the concentric phase as fast as possible. There were three randomly-ordered conditions with the concentric phase always at 90% 1RM and the eccentric phase at 105%, 110%, and 120% of 1RM. Two repetitions were performed for each condition. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine differences. For peak velocity, there were main effects for time and condition (P<0.05), where post (1.01±0.10m/s) was greater than pre (0.96±0.11m/s) and 120% (1.03±1.11m/s) was greater than 105% (0.99±0.13m/s). For peak power, there was a main effect for condition where 120% (2225.00±432.37W) was greater than 105% (2021.84±563.53W). For peak ground reaction force, there were main effects for time and condition, where post was greater than pre and 120% was greater than 105%. For rate of force development, there was no interaction or main effects. Eccentric overload enhanced concentric velocity and power, therefore it can be used by strength coaches and athletes during the power phase of a training program. It can also be used to prescribe supramaximal loads and could be a tool to supplement the clean exercise because the front squat is a precursor.

  10. Subcellular Biological Effects of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Juergen F.; Stacey, Michael

    Membranes of biological cells can be charged by exposure to pulsed electric fields. After the potential difference across the barrier reaches critical values on the order of 1 V, pores will form. For moderate pulse parameters of duration and amplitude, the effect is limited to the outer cell membrane. With the exposure to nanosecond pulses of several tens of kilovolts per centimeter, a similar effect is also expected for subcellular membranes and structures. Cells will respond to the disruption by different biochemical processes. This offers possibilities for the development of novel medical therapies, the manipulation of cells and microbiological decontamination.

  11. Biological Membrane-Packed Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treat Acute Kidney Disease by Ameliorating Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiaodong; Hong, Quan; Wang, Weiwei; Zheng, Wei; Li, Ou; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di

    2017-01-01

    The mortality of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI remains high because no effective therapy exists. We investigated a new therapeutic method using MSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential and anti-apoptotic mechanisms of action of MSCs in the treatment of AKI induced by glycerol in vivo and in vitro. We used Duragen as a biological membrane to pack MSCs on the glycerol-injured renal tissue in vivo. The anti-apoptotic mechanism was investigated. In vitro, HK-2 cells were incubated with ferrous myoglobin and MSCs-conditioned medium, followed by cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. We founded that packing MSCs on the injured renal tissue preserved renal function, ameliorated renal tubular lesions, and reduced apoptosis in the mice with glycerol-induced AKI. The MSC-conditioned medium improved HK-2 cell viability and inhibited apoptosis. These effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Biological membrane packing of MSCs on the renal tissue has a therapeutic rescue function by inhibiting cell apoptosis in vivo. MSCs protect renal cells from apoptosis induced by myoglobin in vitro. We have thus demonstrated MSCs reduced rhabdomyolysis-associated renal injury and cell apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:28117405

  12. Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

    2009-02-01

    Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

  13. Biological effects of high-energy neutrons measured in vivo using a vertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Wendy W; Gersey, Brad B; Wilkins, Richard; Wu, Honglu; Wender, Stephen A; George, Varghese; Dynan, William S

    2009-10-01

    Interaction of solar protons and galactic cosmic radiation with the atmosphere and other materials produces high-energy secondary neutrons from below 1 to 1000 MeV and higher. Although secondary neutrons may provide an appreciable component of the radiation dose equivalent received by space and high-altitude air travelers, the biological effects remain poorly defined, particularly in vivo in intact organisms. Here we describe the acute response of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos to a beam of high-energy spallation neutrons that mimics the energy spectrum of secondary neutrons encountered aboard spacecraft and high-altitude aircraft. To determine RBE, embryos were exposed to 0-0.5 Gy of high-energy neutron radiation or 0-15 Gy of reference gamma radiation. The radiation response was measured by imaging apoptotic cells in situ in defined volumes of the embryo, an assay that provides a quantifiable, linear dose response. The slope of the dose response in the developing head, relative to reference gamma radiation, indicates an RBE of 24.9 (95% CI 13.6-40.7). A higher RBE of 48.1 (95% CI 30.0-66.4) was obtained based on overall survival. A separate analysis of apoptosis in muscle showed an overall nonlinear response, with the greatest effects at doses of less than 0.3 Gy. Results of this experiment indicate that medaka are a useful model for investigating biological damage associated with high-energy neutron exposure.

  14. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  15. Diverse biological effects of electromagnetic-treated water.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Chumseng, Suchintana; Yoohat, Kirana; Srila, Witsanu

    2014-07-01

    The effects of water treated with an electromagnetic field (EMF) were investigated on two biological systems, humans and plants. Purified de-ionised water was treated by (1) boiling, (2) exposure to microwave radiation, and (3) low frequency electromagnetic oscillation molecular resonance effect technology (MRET), before being used to prepare media for culturing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from three healthy females. Our results indicated that PBMC culture in MRET-activated medium showed significantly less oxidative metabolism when compared to media prepared from other types of water. As for the effects on soybean, our results indicated that both MRET- and microwave-treated water greatly enhanced the length of the root. These results suggested that electromagnetic-treated water can have diverse biological effects on both animal and plant cells. Since these effects are related to the 'Memory of Water', hypothesis which has been suggested as an explanation of the action of high homeopathic dilutions, our finding warrant a further investigation on the mechanisms of various types of physically conditioned water on specific cellular activities.

  16. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound.

  17. Acute and chronic effects of ketamine on semantic priming: modeling schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Ana; Brandner, Brigitta; Klaassen, Elissa; Cregg, Roman; Nagaratnam, Mayavaty; Bromley, Lesley M; Das, Ravi K; Rossell, Susan L; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2009-04-01

    Acute administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers; furthermore, a window on ketamine's chronic effects is provided by regular recreational users. The current study utilized both acute ketamine administration in healthy volunteers and chronic ketamine abusers to investigate semantic processing, one of the key cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Semantic processing was examined using a semantic priming paradigm. In experiment 1, acute effects of low (75 ng/mL) and high (150 ng/mL) ketamine doses were compared in a placebo-controlled double-blind independent group design with 48 participants. In experiment 2, 19 regular recreational ketamine users were compared with 19 ketamine-naive polydrug controls and 26 non-drug-using controls. In both experiments, semantic priming parameters were manipulated to distinguish between ketamine's effects on (1) automatic and strategic processing and (2) the facilitation and inhibition components of semantic priming for strongly (directly) related primes and targets. Acute effects of ketamine on semantic priming for weakly (indirectly) related primes and targets were also assessed in experiment 1. Acutely, ketamine impaired the employment of strategic mechanisms but not automatic processing within both the direct and indirect semantic priming tasks. Acute ketamine administration also induced clear schizophrenia-like symptoms. Schizotypy traits in the cognitive and perceptual domains tended to correlate with increased semantic priming in long-term ketamine users. In summary, acute and chronic ketamine-induced changes partially mirrored the findings on semantic priming in schizophrenia.

  18. Acute exposure to acid fog. Effects on mucociliary clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, B.L.; Bowes, S.M. III; Links, J.M.; Thomas, K.K.; Frank, R. )

    1993-05-01

    Submicrometric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) aerosol can affect mucociliary clearance without eliciting irritative symptoms or changes in pulmonary function. The effect of larger fog droplets containing H2SO4 on mucociliary clearance is unknown. We quantified mucociliary clearance from the trachea (n = 4) and small airways (n = 7) of young healthy male adults after an acute exposure to H2SO4 fog (MMAD = 10.3 microns; pH = 2.0; liquid water content = 481 +/- 65 mg/m3; osmolarity = 30 mOsm). Acid fog (AF) or saline fog (SF) (10.9 microns; 492 +/- 116 mg/m3; 30 mOsm) was administered for 40 min of unencumbered breathing (no mouth-piece) at rest and for 20 min of exercise sufficient to produce oronasal breathing. Fog exposures were followed by a methacholine (MCh) challenge (a measure of airway reactivity) or inhalation of technetium-99M radioaerosol (MMAD = 3.4 microns) on 2 study days each. Changes in symptoms and forced ventilatory function were also assessed. Clearance was quantified from computer-assisted analyses of gamma camera images of the lower respiratory tract in terms of %removal/min of the radiolabel from the trachea 25 min after inhalation and from the outer zone of the right lung after 1.9 to 3 h. Symptoms, forced ventilatory function, and MCh response were unaffected by either fog. Tracheal clearance was more rapid in four of four subjects after AF (0.83 +/- 1.58% removal/min) compared with that after SF (-0.54 +/- 0.85% removal/min). Outer zone clearance was more rapid in six of seven subjects after AF (0.22 +/- 0.15% removal/min) compared with that after SF (0.01 +/- 0.09% removal/min).

  19. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıç, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. Materials/Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  20. Predicting the acute behavioral effects in rats inhaling toluene (or up to 24 hrs: Inhaled vs. internal dose metrics.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute toxicity oftoluene, a model volatile organic compound (VOC), depends on the concentration (C) and duration (t) ofexposure, and guidelines for acute exposures have traditionally used ext relationships to extrapolate protective and/or effective concentrations across durat...

  1. Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on ST Segment Height: A Longitudinal Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods: We investigate the acute effects and the time cours...

  2. Protective Effect of Pretreatment with Acenocoumarol in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Sendur, Paweł; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Olszanecki, Rafał; Tomaszewska, Romana; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-10-12

    Coagulation is recognized as a key player in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current research was to examine the effect of pretreatment with acenocoumarol on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) evoked by cerulein.

  3. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  4. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  5. Ionol (BHT). Distribution in the organism, metabolism, and biological effect. II. Biological effects of ionol (survey)

    SciTech Connect

    Degterev, I.A.; Zaikov, G.E.

    1986-08-01

    In these experiments, a 25 mg/kg dose of ionol, administered to mice immediately after transplantation of melanoma B-16 or injection of tumor cells, inhibited the growth of pigmented B-16 cells and somewhat decreased the number of metastases. Ionol inhibited the mutagenic effect of benz(a)pyrene in vitro and in a culture of Salmonella typhimurium. In a mix with butylhydroxyanisole and propyl gallate, it decreased the number of mutations induced by gamma irradiation in the same culture. It protected mice from dominant lethal mutations and hereditary translocations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). When ionol was present in the feed in a dose of 0.75% it reduced the lethal effect in mice of dimethylnitrosamine, EMS, ethylene dibromide and cyclophosphamide.

  6. Acute and chronic effects of rat colon after photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassy, T.; Breiter, N.; Sroka, Ronald; Ernst, Helmut

    1994-03-01

    After clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy (RT) of the colon carcinoma acute and late damages on adjacent normal tissue were seen. Therefore it was the aim of this experimental study to investigate these damages on normal colon tissue of rats after PDT in comparison with RT. Within the first hours after PDT the endoscopic examination showed a severe acute damage. The histopathological examination showed that the acute ulceration depends on the energy density applied within the first three days. This study indicates different progresses of acute effects after PDT and RT, respectively. Late damages were observed only by RT in contrast to PDT. Synthetic diet prevents acute damages after PDT. However, the synthetic diet after RT can prevent the late damage for the duration of the diet administration.

  7. Effect of sesame oil against acetaminophen-induced acute oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Wan, Chang-Hsin; Liu, Li-Lian; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2008-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes acute liver injury or even death in both humans and experimental animals. We investigated the effect of sesame oil on APAP-induced acute liver injury. Male Wistar rats were given APAP (1,000 mg/kg; orally) to induce acute liver injury. Acetaminophen significantly increased aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical generation levels; it also induced glutathione depletion. Sesame oil (8 mL/kg; orally) did not alter the gastric absorption of APAP, but it inhibited all the parameters altered by APAP and protected the rats against APAP-induced acute liver injury. We hypothesize that sesame oil maintained the intracellular glutathione levels, reduced reactive oxygen species levels, and inhibited lipid peroxidation in rats with APAP-induced acute liver injury.

  8. A review of the effects of seamounts on biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.; Genin, Amatzia

    Seamounts interacting with oceanic currents create flow complexities which depend upon current speed, stratification, latitude, and seamount morphology. Seamount effects, which include internal wave generation, eddy formation, local upwelling, and closed circulation patterns called Taylor columns, have important effects upon pelagic and benthic ecosystems over seamounts. The biological effects of these current-topography interactions are poorly understood. Flow acceleration on upper flanks of seamounts may lead to low sedimentation but areas of high standing stocks of benthic fauna, particularly filter feeders. Other effects extend into the water column; nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity occur over some seamounts. Longer observational periods will be necessary to understand the time-varying nature of such enhanced productivity and the extent to which it remains at the seamount or is advected away. At higher trophic levels, unusual patterns of distribution and abundance occur at some seamounts. Maintenance of high standing stocks of seamount-associated micronekton and demersal fishes suggests that seamounts are locations for high rates of energy transfer. The energy driving this biological productivity may either be generated from in situ processes or be advected from elsewhere and concentrated at the seamount; interdisciplinary studies will be necessary to better understand these ecosystems.

  9. Gold nanoparticles enhance the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Petrushev, Bobe; Boca, Sanda; Simon, Timea; Berce, Cristian; Frinc, Ioana; Dima, Delia; Selicean, Sonia; Gafencu, Grigore-Aristide; Tanase, Alina; Zdrenghea, Mihnea; Florea, Adrian; Suarasan, Sorina; Dima, Liana; Stanciu, Raluca; Jurj, Ancuta; Buzoianu, Anca; Cucuianu, Andrei; Astilean, Simion; Irimie, Alexandru; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Every year, in Europe, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is diagnosed in thousands of adults. For most subtypes of AML, the backbone of treatment was introduced nearly 40 years ago as a combination of cytosine arabinoside with an anthracycline. This therapy is still the worldwide standard of care. Two-thirds of patients achieve complete remission, although most of them ultimately relapse. Since the FLT3 mutation is the most frequent, it serves as a key molecular target for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that inhibit FLT3 kinase. In this study, we report the conjugation of TKIs onto spherical gold nanoparticles. Materials and methods The internalization of TKI-nanocarriers was proved by the strongly scattered light from gold nanoparticles and was correlated with the results obtained by transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy. The therapeutic effect of the newly designed drugs was investigated by several methods including cell counting assay as well as the MTT assay. Results We report the newly described bioconjugates to be superior when compared with the drug alone, with data confirmed by state-of-the-art analyses of internalization, cell biology, gene analysis for FLT3-IDT gene, and Western blotting to assess degradation of the FLT3 protein. Conclusion The effective transmembrane delivery and increased efficacy validate its use as a potential therapeutic. PMID:26929621

  10. [Antibodies, human leukocyte antigens, and biomodulators in transfusion-related acute adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Julio César

    2013-01-01

    With the onset of the AIDS epidemic, major changes occurred in blood banking and transfusion medicine. These changes occurred mainly in donor selection and screening tests for infectious diseases, blood centers modified their organizational philosophy regarding quality. Transfusion of blood products are procedures that allow us to correct the haematology deficiencies for which was indicated. But today, despite the strict controls that precede transfusion,recipients may have undesirable effects, which are known as adverse effects or adverse reactions to transfusion. Antibodies and antigens of the HLA system plays a role in a series of events related to transfusion, such as immunological platelet refractoriness, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. The determination of anti-HLA antibodies is evidence that in most developed countries is used on a daily basis in the regular assessment of patients multitransfused or waiting lists for organs from deceased donors. The biomodulators are able to modify biological responses which act in sequence to lead to the differentiation of T lymphocytes. These agents may subcategorizes those which facilitate a normal immune response, those stimulates the immune response, those are capable of inducing immunosuppression not cytotoxic, and those enhancing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic treatment (transfusion or transplant).

  11. [Effect of metformin on acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Huai, Lei; Wang, Cui-Cui; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Li, Qi-Hui; Chen, Yi-Rui; Jia, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Min; Wang, Jian-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of metformin (Met) on biological characteristics of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4. NB4 cells were treated with various concentrations of Met for different time, MTT method was used to detect cell proliferation, the alteration of cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the change of cell adhesion ability was examined by cell adhesion assay. NB4 cells were pretreated with U0126, a specific inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, ERK phosphorylation was assessed by Western blot analysis, apoptosis and cell adhesion ability were evaluated by flow cytometry and cell adhesion test respectively. The results showed that Met could inhibit the cell proliferation, induce the cell apoptosis and increase the ability of cell adhesion. The pretreatment of NB4 cells with 5 µmol/L U0126 could effectively inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK, and reduce cell apoptosis and adhesion induced by 5 mmol/L Met. It is concluded that Met can inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis and adhesion of NB4 cells. MEK/ERK signaling pathway may be one of the molecular mechanisms of metformin on NB4 cells.

  12. Modular elastic patches – mechanical and biological effects

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Monica A.; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Laha, Michael M.; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A modular approach to engineering crosslinked elastic biomaterials is presented for fine tuning of material mechanical and biological properties. The three components, soluble elastin, hyaluronic acid and silk fibroin, contribute with different features to the overall properties of the final material system. The elastic biomaterial is chemically crosslinked via interaction between primary amine groups naturally present on the two proteins, silk and elastin, or chemically introduced on hyaluronan and N-succinimide functionalities of the crosslinker. The materials obtained by crosslinking the three components in different ratios have Young’s moduli ranging from ~700 kPa to 100 kPa, strain to failure between ~ 65-15 % and ultimate tensile strengths of ~ 50 to 20 kPa. The biological effects and enzymatic degradation rates of the different composites are also different based on material composition. These findings further underline the strength of modular, multi-component systems in creating a range of biomaterials, targeted tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, with application-tailored mechanical and biological properties. PMID:20712340

  13. Lung function, biological monitoring, and biological effect monitoring of gemstone cutters exposed to beryls

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, R.; Heinrich-Ramm, R.; Nowak, D.; Olma, K.; Poschadel, B.; Szadkowski, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Gemstone cutters are potentially exposed to various carcinogenic and fibrogenic metals such as chromium, nickel, aluminium, and beryllium, as well as to lead. Increased beryllium concentrations had been reported in the air of workplaces of beryl cutters in Idar-Oberstein, Germany. The aim of the survey was to study the excretion of beryllium in cutters and grinders with occupational exposure to beryls—for example, aquamarines and emeralds—to examine the prevalence of beryllium sensitisation with the beryllium lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT), to examine the prevalence of lung disease induced by beryllium, to describe the internal load of the respective metals relative to work process, and to screen for genotoxic effects in this particular profession.
METHODS—In a cross sectional investigation, 57 out of 100 gemstone cutters working in 12 factories in Idar-Oberstein with occupational exposure to beryls underwent medical examinations, a chest radiograph, lung function testing (spirometry, airway resistance with the interrupter technique), and biological monitoring, including measurements of aluminium, chromium, and nickel in urine as well as lead in blood. Beryllium in urine was measured with a newly developed direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy technique with a measurement limit of 0.06 µg/l. Also, cytogenetic tests (rates of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange), and a BeLT were performed. Airborne concentrations of beryllium were measured in three factories. As no adequate local control group was available, the cutters were categorised into those with an exposure to beryls of >4 hours/week (group A) and ⩽4 hours/week (group B).
RESULTS—Clinical, radiological, or spirometric abnormalities indicating pneumoconiosis were detected in none of the gemstone cutters. Metal concentrations in biological material were far below the respective biological limit values, and beryllium in urine was only measurable in

  14. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, L; Johnsen, A H; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide and carbon monoxide, which are often found in fire victims, are toxic gases emitted from fires. Cyanide and carbon monoxide have similar molecular structure. Cyanide binds to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase a, a3 similar to carbon monoxide, thus blocking the mitochondrial respiration chain causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1 and intra-arterially in Group 2. Blood samples were taken immediately after poisoning, and at one and a half, three and five hours. Blood was drawn from a jugular vein in Group 1 and from a femoral artery in Group 2. Group 1 rats were divided into a control group of 12 rats without HBO2, 10 rats had acute HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly less as compared to controls and acute HBO2-treated rats. Group 2 controls whole-blood-cyanide concentration decreased towards zero throughout the observation period. However

  15. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  16. [New mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, A L; Kuznetsov, D A; Berdinskiĭ, V L

    2006-01-01

    The production of ATP in mitochondria depends on the magnesium nuclear spin and magnetic moment of a Mg2+ ion in creatine kinase and ATPase. This suggests that enzymatic synthesis of ATP is an ion-radical process and thus depends on the external magnetic field (magnetobiology originates from this fact) and microwave fields, which control the spin states of ion-radical pairs and affect the ATP synthesis. The chemical mechanism of ATP synthesis and the origin of biological effects of electromagnetic (microwave) fields are discussed.

  17. Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor for Biological Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Soo; Kim, Sang Kyu; Kim, Moonil

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been great progress in applying FET-type biosensors for highly sensitive biological detection. Among them, the ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor) is one of the most intriguing approaches in electrical biosensing technology. Here, we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore its application prospects, and discuss the main issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing ISFET-based biosensors and extending their applications for reliable and sensitive analysis of various biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, enzymes, and cells. PMID:22423205

  18. A Review: Some biological effects of high LET radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    There are qualitative and quantitative differences in the biological damage observed after exposure to high LET radiation as compared to that caused by low LET radiations. This review is concerned with these differences, which are ultimately reflected at the biochemical, cellular and even whole animal levels. In general, high LET radiations seem to produce biochemical damage which is more severe and possibly less repairable. Experimental data for those effects are presented in terms of biochemical RBE's with consideration of both early and late manifestations. An LET independent process by which significant biochemical damage may result from protons, neutrons and negative pion mesons is discussed.

  19. Polarization Effects in Optical Coherence Tomography of Various Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Srinivas, Shyam M.; Park, B. Hyle; Pham, Tuan H.; Chen, Zhongping; Milner, Thomas E.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to obtain spatially resolved ex vivo images of polarization changes in skeletal muscle, bone, skin and brain. Through coherent detection of two orthogonal polarization states of the signal formed by interference of light reflected from the biological sample and a mirror in the reference arm of a Michelson interferometer, the depth resolved change in polarization was measured. Inasmuch as any fibrous structure will influence the polarization of light, PS-OCT is a potentially powerful technique investigating tissue structural properties. In addition, the effects of single polarization state detection on OCT image formation is demonstrated. PMID:25774083

  20. Linking chemical contamination to biological effects in coastal pollution monitoring.

    PubMed

    Beiras, Ricardo; Durán, Iria; Parra, Santiago; Urrutia, Miren B; Besada, Victoria; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Sánchez-Marín, Paula; González-Quijano, Amelia; Franco, María A; Nieto, Óscar; González, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    To establish the connection between pollutant levels and their harmful effects on living resources, coastal monitoring programmes have incorporated biological tools, such as the scope for growth (SFG) in marine mussels and benthic macrofauna community indices. Although the relation between oxygen-depleting anthropogenic inputs and the alteration of benthic communities is well described, the effects of chemical pollutants are unknown because they are not expected to favour any particular taxa. In this study, the combined efforts of five research teams involved in the investigative monitoring of marine pollution allowed the generation of a multiyear data set for Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula). Multivariate analysis of these data allowed the identification of the chemical-matrix combinations responsible for most of the variability among sites and the construction of a chemical pollution index (CPI) that significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with biological effects at both the individual and the community levels. We report a consistent reduction in the physiological fitness of local populations of mussels as chemical pollution increases. The energy balance was more sensitive to pollution than individual physiological rates, but the reduction in the SFG was primarily due to significantly decreased clearance rates. We also found a decrease in benthic macrofauna diversity as chemical pollution increases. This diversity reduction resulted not from altered evenness, as the classic paradigm might suggest, but from a loss of species richness.

  1. ALTERED IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND THE MECHANISM OF BIOLOGIC EFFECT BY PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several features of the clinical presentation and changes in physiology and pathology following exposure to many diverse ambient air pollution particles are comparable, suggesting a common mechanism for their biological effect. We propose that a mechanism of biological effect com...

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of alpha-particle emitters in vivo at low doses.

    PubMed

    Howell, R W; Azure, M T; Narra, V R; Rao, D V

    1994-03-01

    The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit alpha particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The 224Ra daughters 212Pb and 212Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of alpha and beta particles in their decay to stable 208Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of 212Pb and its daughters. When 212Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters 212Bi, 212Po and 208Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D37) was 0.143 +/- 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D37 for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210Po, was used to obtain an RBE-LET relationship for alpha particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE alpha = 4.8 - 6.1 x 10(-2) LET + 1.0 x 10(-3) LET2. Similarly, the dependence of RBE on alpha-particle energy E alpha was given by RBE alpha = 22 E(-0.73) alpha. These relationships, based on in vivo experimental data, may be valuable in predicting biological effects of alpha-particle emitters.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: differences in metabolism and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2009-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy products from cows and sheep. The most abundant isomer is cis-9,trans-11, which represents up to 80% of total CLA in food. These isomers are metabolized in the body through different metabolic pathways, but important differences, that can have physiological consequences, are observed between the two main isomers. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer is more efficiently oxidized than the cis-9,trans-11 isomer, due to the position of its double bounds. Interest in CLA arose in its anticarcinogenic action but there is an increasing amount of specific scientific literature concerning the biological effects and properties of CLA. Numerous biological effects of CLA are due to the separate action of the most studied isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. It is also likely that some effects are induced and/or enhanced by these isomers acting synergistically. Although the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is mainly responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces body fat and it is referred as the most effective isomer affecting blood lipids. As far as insulin function is concerned, both isomers seem to be responsible for insulin resistance in humans. Finally, with regard to the immune system it is not clear whether individual isomers of CLA could act similarly or differently.

  4. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. [Galactic heavy charged particles damaging effect on biological structures].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Krasavin, E A; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2013-03-01

    A concept of the radiation risk of the manned interplanetary flights is proposed and substantiated. Heavy charged particles that are a component of the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have a high damaging effect on the biological structures as great amount of energy is deposited in heavy particle tracks. The high biological effectiveness of heavy ions is observed in their action on cell genetic structures and the whole organism, including the brain structures. The hippocampus is the part of the central nervous system that is the most sensitive to radiation--first of all, to heavy charged particles. Irradiation of animals with accelerated iron ions at doses corresponding to the real fluxes of GCR heavy nuclei, to which Mars mission crews can be exposed, leads to marked behavioral function disorders in the post-irradiation period. To evaluate the radiation risk for the interplanetary flight crews, the concept of successful mission accomplishment is introduced. In these conditions, the central nervous system structures can be the critical target of GCR heavy nuclei. Their damage can modify the higher integrative functions of the brain and cause disorders in the crew members' operator performances.

  6. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment.

  7. Acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human memory function: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Allen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders.

  8. Acute effect of brisk walking with graduated compression stockings on vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Miura, Takashi; Iwasaki, Tetsuji

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of brisk walking with and without graduated compression stockings (GCSs) on vascular endothelial function and oxidative stress. Ten young healthy subjects walked briskly for 30 min with (GCS trial) and without (CON trial) GCSs in a randomized crossover trial. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured as the per cent rise in the peak diameter from the baseline value at prior occlusion at each FMD measurement using B-mode ultrasonography before and 30 min after walking in the two trials. Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species, and biological anti-oxidant potential (BAP), as an index of anti-oxidant potential, were also measured using a free radical elective evaluator before and 30 min after walking in both trials. FMD significantly decreased after brisk walking in both trials (P<0·05). However, FMD after brisk walking in the GCS trial was significantly higher than that in the CON trial (P<0·05). The d-ROM did not change before and after both trials, whereas the BAP significantly increased after walking in the GCS trial (P<0·05). These findings demonstrate that brisk walking while wearing GCSs suppresses the decrease in FMD and increases BAP.

  9. Caffeine-induced effects on heart rate in zebrafish embryos and possible mechanisms of action: an effective system for experiments in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Rana, Neha; Moond, Mamta; Marthi, Amarnath; Bapatla, Swetha; Sarvepalli, Tejasudha; Chatti, Kiranam; Challa, Anil Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Zebrafish embryos are well suited as a model system to perform chemical biology experiments effectively in educational settings. We studied the effect of caffeine on heart rate (HR) and other phenotypes of zebrafish embryos using visual microscopy and simple imaging. Acute treatment with millimolar concentrations of caffeine in embryo medium caused a dose-dependent decrease in HR in 2-3-day-old zebrafish embryos, ultimately resulting in complete HR cessation. A characteristic pattern of decrease in HR was observed, with an initial acute drop in HR and a period of stabilization followed by complete cessation. The effects of caffeine were not reversed by cotreatment with ruthenium red and adenosine, agents known to be antagonistic to caffeine, or by changes in calcium concentration in embryo medium. Apparent cardiac arrhythmia and a typical kinking effect in the trunk/tail region were also observed because of caffeine treatment. Our results, taken together with previous reports, raise the possibility that caffeine exerts its effects on embryonic HR of zebrafish by inhibition of ether-a-go-go potassium channels. However, further experimentation is required to dissect the molecular basis of caffeine action. We demonstrate that such experiments can be used to explore the effect of small molecules, such as caffeine, on cardiovascular phenotypes and to encourage experimental design in chemical biology.

  10. The Effects of Inhaled Steroids on Recurrent Wheeze After Acute Bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Patricia; Aronoff, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute bronchiolitis infection during infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma later in life. The objective of this study was to determine if inhaled steroids are effective in preventing the development of recurrent wheeze or asthma following acute bronchiolitis. Methods. Multiple databases and bibliographies of selected references were searched. Inclusion required (a) a randomized controlled trial of inhaled steroids and control group, (b) at least 2 weeks duration of therapy started during the acute phase of disease, and (c) identification of the rate of recurrent wheeze or asthma at least 6 months after therapy. Results. Of 1410 studies reviewed, 8 reports were included in this meta-analysis (748 patients). The overall odds ratio for developing recurrent wheeze or asthma with treatment versus without treatment was 1.02 (95% confidence interval = 0.58-1.81). Conclusions. A course of inhaled steroids after acute bronchiolitis is not effective in preventing recurrent wheeze or asthma. PMID:27335972

  11. Biological effects of the respirable dusts from ore mines

    SciTech Connect

    Adamis, Z.; Timar, M.; Koefler, L.; Tatrai, E.; Ungvary, G.

    1986-10-01

    The biological effects of ore dusts were examined on peritoneal macrophages in vitro and on rat lung in vivo. The methylene blue adsorption of the dust samples, cytotoxicity, and phospholipid and hydroxyproline content of the lung were determined. It was realized that the examined ore samples had cytotoxic effects and from the in vitro results one can get information about the type of damage to be expected in the lung tissue. It is supposed that the examined ore dusts are less dangerous and slower acting than quartz, but they cause progressive fibrosis. The in vivo biochemical experiments do not give information about the type of damage to be expected in lung tissue; and the data on ore, bentonite, and coal do not differ from each other. To determine the typical biochemical changes caused by quartz, the authors obtain the most valuable information by determination of lung weight and phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, and hydroxyproline content.

  12. Biological effects of radiation, metabolic and replication kinetics alterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, J.

    1972-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation upon normal and cancerous tissues were studied. A macromolecular precursor of DNA, 3ETdR, was incorporated into the cell nucleus during synthesis and provided intranuclear beta radiation. Tritium labeled cells were studied with autoradiographic methods; cell cycle kinetics were determined and cell functions modified by radiation dosage or by drugs were also evaluated. The long term program has included; (1) effects of radiation on cell replication and the correlation with incorporated dose levels, (2) radiation induced changes in cell function, viz., the response of beta irradiated spleen lymphocytes to antigenic stimulation by sheep red blood cells (SRBC), (3) kinetics of tumor and normal cell replication; and (4) megakaryocyte formation and modification by radiomimetic drugs.

  13. The effect of acute discontinuation of total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Wagman, L D; Newsome, H H; Miller, K B; Thomas, R B; Weir, G C

    1986-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of acute discontinuation (AD) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on serum glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels and on the generation of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Fifty studies were performed in 48 patients. In none of the 30 studies of 1 hour duration nor in the 20 studies of 8 hours duration was there a single episode of symptomatic hypoglycemia. One patient had a glucose below normal (60 mg/dl) during the first hour after AD. Glucose and insulin concentrations were elevated at the start of TPN discontinuation but returned to normal values within 60 minutes and remained there during the successive 7 hours of study. Although glucagon levels were slightly elevated at zero time, no significant decrease occurred. There was no evidence for counter-regulation based on the patterns of glucose and hormone levels. With some restrictions, acute discontinuation is a safe, rapid method of ending a prolonged TPN infusion. PMID:3094465

  14. Paradoxical Effect of Hyperoncotic Albumin in Acutely Burned Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    lob (gnil respiratory acidosis : but within a few hours, she suffered a I 12 2.880 1,8) 1(0.0 cardiac arrest and (tied. Acute tubular necrosis and...only minimally, and the acidosis er- stitial pulmonary edema were found at autopsy. sisted. Thirty-six hours postburn, the patient suffered the first...urea fluids and protein as fluid infusion proceeds (1). .4 nitrogen 48 mg/di. The hyperkalemia was treated with glucose, Certainly, the most

  15. Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2015-0007 Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia Dr. Barbara St...after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA7014-10-2-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...pressure equivalent to an altitude of 8,000 feet , which is considered high altitude, and lacks abundant supplemental oxygen systems, en route care

  17. Effects of Payment Changes on Trends in Post-Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Colla, Carrie Hoverman; Escarce, José J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test how the implementation of new Medicare post-acute payment systems affected the use of inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and home health agencies. Data Sources Medicare acute hospital, IRF, and SNF claims; provider of services file; enrollment file; and Area Resource File data. Study Design We used multinomial logit models to measure realized access to post-acute care and to predict how access to alternative sites of care changed in response to prospective payment systems. Data Extraction Methods A file was constructed linking data for elderly Medicare patients discharged from acute care facilities between 1996 and 2003 with a diagnosis of hip fracture, stroke, or lower extremity joint replacement. Principal Findings Although the effects of the payment systems on the use of post-acute care varied, most reduced the use of the site of care they directly affected and boosted the use of alternative sites of care. Payment system changes do not appear to have differentially affected the severely ill. Conclusions Payment system incentives play a significant role in determining where Medicare beneficiaries receive their post-acute care. Changing these incentives results in shifting of patients between post-acute sites. PMID:19490159

  18. Effect of acute lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin injected rats.

    PubMed

    Murtishaw, Andrew S; Heaney, Chelcie F; Bolton, Monica M; Sabbagh, Jonathan J; Langhardt, Michael A; Kinney, Jefferson W

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to investigate the exacerbatory effects of an immune-related challenge in transgenic models of various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of this inflammatory challenge in an insulin resistant brain state, as seen in diabetes mellitus, a major risk factor for both vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), is not as well characterized. We investigated the effects of an LPS-induced inflammatory challenge on behavioral and biological parameters following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects received a one-time bilateral ICV infusion of STZ (25 mg/mL, 8 μL per ventricle) or ACSF. One week following ICV infusions, LPS (1 mg/mL, i.p.) or saline was administered to activate the immune system. Behavioral testing began on the 22nd day following STZ-ICV infusion, utilizing the open field and Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Proteins related to immune function, learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and key histopathological markers observed in VaD and AD were evaluated. The addition of an LPS-induced immune challenge partially attenuated spatial learning and memory deficits in the MWM in STZ-ICV injected animals. Additionally, LPS administration to STZ-treated animals partially mitigated alterations observed in several protein levels in STZ-ICV alone, including NR2A, GABA(B1), and β-amyloid oligomers. These results suggest that an acute LPS-inflammatory response has a modest protective effect against some of the spatial learning and memory deficits and protein alterations associated with STZ-ICV induction of an insulin resistant brain state.

  19. The effects of acute stress on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    PubMed

    Pielock, Steffi M; Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Pavlovian stimuli invigorate ongoing instrumental action, a phenomenon termed the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) effect. Acute stressors can markedly enhance the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF injection into the nucleus accumbens increases the PIT effect. However, it is unknown whether acute stressors by themselves would amplify the PIT effect. Here, we examined the effects of acute stressors on PIT. Rats first received Pavlovian and instrumental training, and then the impact of the Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding was analyzed in the subsequent PIT test. Acute stressors were applied prior to the PIT test. Because the effects of acute stressors critically depend on stressor type and time of day, we used two acute stressors that involved one or several distinct stressors (denoted here as "single" vs. "multiple" stressors) applied either in the light or the dark period of the light:dark cycle. The results revealed that single and multiple stressors applied in the light period did not alter the PIT effect--that is, the ability of an appetitive Pavlovian stimulus to enhance leverpressing--or the basal leverpress rate. When applied in the dark period, single and multiple stressors also did not alter the PIT effect, but they did markedly reduce the basal leverpress rate. Diazepam pretreatment did not counteract the declines in basal instrumental responding in the PIT test that were induced by either a single or multiple stressors. Our findings suggest that acute stressors were unable to amplify the incentive salience of reward-predictive Pavlovian stimuli to activate instrumental responding, but, depending on the time of day of stressor exposure, they did reduce basal instrumental responding.

  20. Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Niewold, T.A.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes, negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants, they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached. Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need; and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations. PMID:16252337

  1. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

  2. The biological effect of asbestos exposure is dependent on ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that 1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and 2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 50 μg/mL chrysotile resulted in diminished concentrations of mitochondrial iron. Pre-incubation of these cells with 200 μM ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) prevented significant mitochondrial iron loss following the same exposure. The host response to chrysotile included increased expression of the importer divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) supporting a functional iron deficiency. Incubation of BEAS-2B cells with both 200 μM FAC and 50 μg/mL chrysotile was associated with a greater cell accumulation of iron relative to either iron or chrysotile alone reflecting increased import to correct metal deficiency immediately following fiber exposure. Cellular oxidant generation was elevated after chrysotile exposure and this signal was diminished by co-incubation with 200 μM FAC. Similarly, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 50 µg/mL chrysotile was associated with release of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 and these changes were diminished by co-incubation with 200 μM FAC. We conclude that 1) the biological response following exposure to chrysotile is associated with complexation an

  3. The non-haematopoietic biological effects of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Arcasoy, Murat O

    2008-04-01

    In the haematopoietic system, the principal function of erythropoietin (Epo) is the regulation of red blood cell production, mediated by its specific cell surface receptor (EpoR). Following the cloning of the Epo gene (EPO) and characterization of the selective haematopoietic action of Epo in erythroid lineage cells, recombinant Epo forms (epoetin-alfa, epoetin-beta and the long-acting analogue darbepoetin-alfa) have been widely used for treatment of anaemia in chronic kidney disease and chemotherapy-induced anaemia in cancer patients. Ubiquitous EpoR expression in non-erythroid cells has been associated with the discovery of diverse biological functions for Epo in non-haematopoietic tissues. During development, Epo-EpoR signalling is required not only for fetal liver erythropoiesis, but also for embryonic angiogenesis and brain development. A series of recent studies suggest that endogenous Epo-EpoR signalling contributes to wound healing responses, physiological and pathological angiogenesis, and the body's innate response to injury in the brain and heart. Epo and its novel derivatives have emerged as major tissue-protective cytokines that are being investigated in the first human studies involving neurological and cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on the scientific evidence documenting the biological effects of Epo in non-haematopoietic tissues and discusses potential future applications of Epo and its derivatives in the clinic.

  4. Olanzapine-induced early cardiovascular effects are mediated by the biological clock and prevented by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Romo-Nava, Francisco; Buijs, Frederik N; Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Benítez-King, Gloria; Basualdo, MariCarmen; Perusquía, Mercedes; Heinze, Gerhard; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2017-05-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic side effects contributing to premature mortality in patients. While mechanisms mediating these cardiometabolic side effects remain poorly understood, three independent studies recently demonstrated that melatonin was protective against cardiometabolic risk in SGA-treated patients. As one of the main target areas of circulating melatonin in the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), we hypothesized that the SCN is involved in SGA-induced early cardiovascular effects in Wistar rats. We evaluated the acute effects of olanzapine and melatonin in the biological clock, paraventricular nucleus and autonomic nervous system using immunohistochemistry, invasive cardiovascular measurements, and Western blot. Olanzapine induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SCN followed by the paraventricular nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus indicating a potent induction of parasympathetic tone. The involvement of a SCN-parasympathetic neuronal pathway after olanzapine administration was further documented using cholera toxin-B retrograde tracing and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunohistochemistry. Olanzapine-induced decrease in blood pressure and heart rate confirmed this. Melatonin abolished olanzapine-induced SCN c-Fos immunoreactivity, including the parasympathetic pathway and cardiovascular effects while brain areas associated with olanzapine beneficial effects including the striatum, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens remained activated. In the SCN, olanzapine phosphorylated the GSK-3β, a regulator of clock activity, which melatonin prevented. Bilateral lesions of the SCN prevented the effects of olanzapine on parasympathetic activity. Collectively, results demonstrate the SCN as a key region mediating the early effects of olanzapine on cardiovascular function and show melatonin has opposing and potentially protective effects warranting additional investigation.

  5. Biological vs. Physical Mixing Effects on Benthic Food Web Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Braeckman, Ulrike; Provoost, Pieter; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Middelburg, Jack J.; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Biological particle mixing (bioturbation) and solute transfer (bio-irrigation) contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria) and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering) or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator) and Abra alba (bioturbator) compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The 13C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1) microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2) microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3) control microcosms and (4) microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (Δδ13C) of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom 13C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m−2), which included TO13C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food source for

  6. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline; Soukup, Joleen M; Dailey, Lisa A; Kesic, Matthew J; Cohen, Mitchell D

    2015-06-01

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) showed a time- and dose-dependent increase in vanadium relative to PBS. HBE cells exposed to VOSO4 and then exposed to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) significantly increased intracellular iron import supporting an interaction between the two metals. Following exposure to VOSO4, there was an increase (336±73%) in RNA for divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a major iron importer. With inclusion of VOSO4 in the incubation, vanadium could be measured in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions and the supernatant. Non-heme iron in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions were decreased immediately following VOSO4 exposure while there was an increased concentration of non-heme iron in the supernatant. Provision of excess iron inhibited changes in the concentration of this metal provoked by VOSO4 exposures. Using Amplex Red, VOSO4 was shown to significantly increase oxidant generation by HBE cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HBE cells pre-treated with FAC and then exposed to VOSO4 demonstrated a decreased generation of oxidants. Similarly, activation of the transcription factor NF-ĸB promoter and release of interleukin-6 and -8 were increased following VOSO4 exposure and these effects were diminished by pre-treatment with FAC. We conclude that an initiating event in biological effect after exposure to vanadyl sulfate is a loss of requisite cell iron.

  7. Functional Effects of Delivering Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Biological Sutures to an Infarcted Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Katrina J.; Favreau, John T.; Guyette, Jacques P.; Tao, Ze-Wei; Coffin, Spencer T.; Cunha-Gavidia, Anny; D'Amore, Brian; Perreault, Luke R.; Fitzpatrick, John P.; DeMartino, Angelica; Gaudette, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stem cell therapy has the potential to improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI); however, existing methods to deliver cells to the myocardium, including intramyocardial injection, suffer from low engraftment rates. In this study, we used a rat model of acute MI to assess the effects of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-seeded fibrin biological sutures on cardiac function at 1 week after implant. Biological sutures were seeded with quantum dot (Qdot)-loaded hMSCs for 24 h before implantation. At 1 week postinfarct, the heart was imaged to assess mechanical function in the infarct region. Regional parameters assessed were regional stroke work (RSW) and systolic area of contraction (SAC) and global parameters derived from the pressure waveform. MI (n = 6) significantly decreased RSW (0.026 ± 0.011) and SAC (0.022 ± 0.015) when compared with sham operation (RSW: 0.141 ± 0.009; SAC: 0.166 ± 0.005, n = 6) (p < 0.05). The delivery of unseeded biological sutures to the infarcted hearts did not change regional mechanical function compared with the infarcted hearts (RSW: 0.032 ± 0.004, SAC: 0.037 ± 0.008, n = 6). The delivery of hMSC-seeded sutures exerted a trend toward increase of regional mechanical function compared with the infarcted heart (RSW: 0.057 ± 0.011; SAC: 0.051 ± 0.014, n = 6). Global function showed no significant differences between any group (p > 0.05); however, there was a trend toward improved function with the addition of either unseeded or seeded biological suture. Histology demonstrated that Qdot-loaded hMSCs remained present in the infarcted myocardium after 1 week. Analysis of serial sections of Masson's trichrome staining revealed that the greatest infarct size was in the infarct group (7.0% ± 2.2%), where unseeded (3.8% ± 0.6%) and hMSC-seeded (3.7% ± 0.8%) suture groups maintained similar infarct sizes. Furthermore, the remaining suture area

  8. Anticoagulation and antiplatelet effects of semax under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Grigorjeva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2010-07-01

    The effects of semax on anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and platelet components of the anticoagulation system were studied on albino rats under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress. Semax exhibited a protective antistress effect after repeated intranasal administration under conditions of hypercoagulation developing in response to immobilization stress of different degree. The effect manifested in stimulation of the anticoagulation system.

  9. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study

  10. 21 CFR 601.26 - Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or... Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded... for the reclassification of all biological products that have been classified into Category IIIA....

  11. Protective effect of wogonin on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury via reduction of p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Cheng-Yu; Sun, Hai-Lun; Yang, Ming-Ling; Yang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Li-You; Li, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chien-Ying; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious inflammatory disorder which remains the primary cause of incidence and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary inflammation. However, there is still no effective medical strategy available clinically for the improvement of ALI. Wogonin, isolated from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, is a common medicinal herb which presents biological and pharmacological effects, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anticancer. Preadministration of wogonin inhibited not only lung edema but also protein leakage into the alveolar space in murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Moreover, wogonin not only reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but also inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by LPS. We further found wogonin inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK at a concentration lower than ERK. In addition, inhibition of lung edema, protein leakage, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK were all observed in a parallel concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that wogonin possesses potential protective effect against LPS-induced ALI via downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression by blocking phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 397-403, 2017.

  12. Matrix Effects in Biological Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Identification and Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Stevens, Susan; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Laskin, Julia

    2014-07-21

    Matrix effects in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) may affect the observed molecular distribution in chemical and biological systems. In this study, we introduce an experimental approach that efficiently compensates for matrix effects in nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) MSI without introducing any complexity into the experimental protocol. We demonstrate compensation for matrix effects in nano-DESI MSI of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in normal and ischemic mouse brain tissue by doping the nano-DESI solvent with PC standards. Specifically, we use mouse brain tissue of a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model with an ischemic region localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Due to similar suppression in ionization of endogenous PC molecules extracted from the tissue and PC standards added to the solvent, matrix effects are eliminated by normalizing the intensity of the sodium and potassium adducts of endogenous PC to the intensity of the corresponding adduct of the PC standard. This approach efficiently compensates for signal variations resulting from differences in the local concentrations of sodium and potassium in tissue sections and from the complexity of the extracted analyte mixture derived from local variations in molecular composition.

  13. “The Biological Effects of Childhood Trauma”

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; A.B., Abigail Zisk

    2014-01-01

    I. Synopsis Trauma in childhood is a grave psychosocial, medical, and public policy problem that has serious consequences for its victims and for society. Chronic interpersonal violence in children is common worldwide. Developmental traumatology, the systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological effects of chronic overwhelming stress on the developing child, provides a framework and principles when empirically examining the neurobiological effects of pediatric trauma. Despite the widespread prevalence of childhood trauma, less is known about trauma's biological effects in children as compared to adults with child trauma histories; and even less is known about how these pediatric mechanisms underlie trauma's short-term and long-term medical and mental health consequences. This article focuses primarily on the peer-reviewed literature on the neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma in children and adults with histories of childhood trauma. We also review relevant studies of animal models of stress to help us better understand the psychobiological effects of trauma during development. Next, we review the neurobiology of trauma, its clinical applications and the biomarkers that may provide important tools for clinicians and researchers, both as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms and as useful tools to monitor treatment response. Finally, we offer suggestions for future researchers. PMID:24656576

  14. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  15. Ginkgo biloba leave extract: biological, medicinal, and toxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Chan, Po-Chuen; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba leave extract is among the most widely sold herbal dietary supplements in the United States. Its purported biological effects include: scavenging free radical; lowering oxidative stress; reducing neural damages, reducing platelets aggregation; anti-inflammation; anti-tumor activities; and anti-aging. Clinically, it has been prescribed to treat CNS disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and cognitive deficits. It exerts allergy and changes in bleeding time. While its mutagenicity or carcinogenic activity has not been reported, its components, quercetin, kaempferol and rutin have been shown to be genotoxic. There are no standards or guidelines regulating the constituent components of Ginkgo biloba leave extract nor are exposure limits imposed. Safety evaluation of Ginkgo biloba leave extract is being conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program.

  16. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  17. Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: A software solution

    PubMed Central

    Voyant, Cyril; Julian, Daniel; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Lantieri, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Background The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. Aim We, therefore, propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). Materials and methods The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. Results and conclusions The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to an equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers. PMID:24936319

  18. Effect of choline carboxylate ionic liquids on biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Rengstl, Doris; Kraus, Birgit; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D; Kunz, Werner

    2014-11-01

    Choline carboxylates, ChCm, with m=2-10 and choline oleate are known as biocompatible substances, yet their influence on biological membranes is not well-known, and the effect on human skin has not previously been investigated. The short chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m=2, 4, 6 act as hydrotropes, solubilizing hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solution, while the longer chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m=8, 10 and oleate are able to form micelles. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of choline carboxylates was tested using HeLa and SK-MEL-28 cells. The influence of these substances on liposomes prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also evaluated to provide insights on membrane interactions. It was observed that the choline carboxylates with a chain length of m>8 distinctly influence the bilayer, while the shorter ones had minimal interaction with the liposomes.

  19. [The biological effect of fireproof ceramic fibers--literature review].

    PubMed

    Krajnow, A

    1996-01-01

    The work presents reports, selected from the world literature, on the studies of biological effect of refractory ceramic fibres, carried out on experimental animals. The discrepancy between the results of studies performed may originate from differences in the distribution of fibre sizes or the durability of fibres in the organism and their surface properties which, in turn, depend on the chemical composition of fibres. In all studies discussed, ceramic fibres generally activated macrophages and they were characterised by a moderate fibrotic activity. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumor (mesothelioma) observed in several very important experimental studies may suggest that some types of refractory ceramic fibres show a similar carcinogenic potential to that of natural asbestos: crocidolite or chrysotile.

  20. Biological effects of inhaled magnesium sulphate whiskers in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, H; Kasai, T; Haratake, J; Ishimatsu, S; Oyabu, T; Yamato, H; Higashi, T; Tanaka, I

    1994-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to two types of magnesium sulphate whiskers by inhalation for six hours a day, five days a week, for four weeks (sub-chronic study), or for one year (chronic study) to clarify the biological effects of the whiskers. There were few whiskers detected in the rat lungs even at one day after the exposure, suggesting that they are dissolved and eliminated rapidly from the lungs. To measure the clearance rate of the whiskers from the lungs, an intratracheal instillation was performed in golden hamsters. The half life of the whiskers in the lung was determined as 17.6 minutes by temporally measuring the magnesium concentration up to 80 minutes after the instillation. A histopathological examination indicated a frequent occurrence of adenoma and carcinoma in the year after chronic exposure, but it was not significantly different between exposed and control rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8044250

  1. Effect of acute stress on auditory processing: a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing. In this systematic review, the impact of experimental acute stress on the auditory processing of healthy adults was investigated. The results revealed the adverse effects of acute physical and psychological stresses on auditory processing. According to the open field of research on stress and the auditory system and the high possibility of experiencing different types of acute stresses in various life environments, including testing places, it seems that more investigations are needed to identify and manage different types of acute stresses in both clinical and research situations.

  2. Effect of Diazepam on Severity of Acute Pancreatitis: Possible Involvement of Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Safaei, Azadeh; Taheri, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a lethal inflammatory condition of pancreas with high mortality rate. There is a pressing need for research to explore active agents and novel mechanisms involving in the treatment of pancreatitis. Clinical studies have shown after the initial acinar cell injury plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis and the degree of cytokine elevation correlates with disease severity. Diazepam may decrease interleukin release from macrophages, suppress neutrophil activities, and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. So it is expected that in vivo pretreatment of acute pancreatitis with different doses of diazepam can attenuate its severity. Thus, we evaluated the effects of diazepam, intraperitoneally (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg i.p.), intracerebroventricularly (ICV 10 μg), and concurrently with flumazenil (1 mg/kg) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Interestingly, the pretreatment with diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p.) reduced significantly the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis by ameliorating pancreatic edema, amylase and lipase serum levels, myeloperoxidase activity, pancreatic TNF-alpha, and pathological alteration compared to control group. Diazepam i.c.v. was ineffective, suggesting that central benzodiazepine receptors have no significant role in this property. These results demonstrate that pretreatment with diazepam exhibits anti-inflammatory property in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis possibly through peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. PMID:23956866

  3. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    PubMed

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group.

  4. [Effect of Ikaros in B Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ying; Bai, Hai

    2015-08-01

    The Ikaros - a DNA-binding zinc finger protein, acting as a regulator of chromatin remodeling and gene transcription, is crucial for regulating the development and function of the immune system and acting as a master regulator of hematopoietic differentiation. Function-loss mutations of IKZF1, gene encoding Ikaros are frequent in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and are associated with a poor prognosis. This review briefly summarizes the available data regarding the structure and function of Ikaros, the role of Ikaros as a tumor suppressor in B-ALL, and its regulation mechanism.

  5. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, A; Cieszkowski, J; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Tomaszewska, R; Kuwahara, A; Kato, I

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that pretreatment with ghrelin exhibits protective effect in the gut. Administration of ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage, as well as inhibits the development of experimental pancreatitis. However, this protective effect requires administration of ghrelin before gastric or pancreatic damage and thus has a limited clinical value. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of ghrelin administered after development of acute pancreatitis on the course of this disease. Acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein. Ghrelin was administered twice a day for 1, 2, 4, 6 or 9 days at the dose of 4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose. The first dose of ghrelin was given 24 hours after last injection of cerulein. The severity of acute pancreatitis was assessed between 0 h and 10 days after cessation of cerulein administration. Administration of caerulein led to the development of acute edematous pancreatitis and maximal severity of this disease was observed 24 hours after induction of pancreatitis. Treatment with ghrelin reduced morphological signs of pancreatic damage such as pancreatic edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization of acinar cells, and led to earlier regeneration of the pancreas. Also biochemical indexes of the severity of acute pancreatitis, serum activity of lipase and amylase were significantly reduced in animals treated with ghrelin. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the pancreatic DNA synthesis and a decrease in serum level of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1b. Administration of ghrelin improved pancreatic blood flow in rats with acute pancreatitis. We conclude that: (1) treatment with ghrelin exhibits therapeutic effect in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis; (2) this effect is related, at least in part, to the improvement of pancreatic blood flow, reduction in proinflammatory interleukin-1beta and stimulation of pancreatic cell proliferation.

  6. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  7. Effect of Thoracentesis on Intubated Patients with Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Matthew B; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Ault, Mark; Khan, Ahsan; Chung, Rex; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    Pleural effusions occur frequently in mechanically ventilated patients, but no consensus exists regarding the clinical benefit of effusion drainage. We sought to determine the impact of thoracentesis on gas exchange in patients with differing severities of acute lung injury (ALI). A retrospective analysis was conducted on therapeutic thoracenteses performed on intubated patients in an adult surgical intensive care unit of a tertiary center. Effusions judged by ultrasound to be 400 mL or larger were drained. Subjects were divided into groups based on their initial P:F ratios: normal >300, ALI 200 to 300, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) <200. Baseline characteristics, physiologic variables, arterial blood gases, and ventilator settings before and after the intervention were analyzed. The primary end point was the change in measures of oxygenation. Significant improvements in P:F ratios (mean ± SD) were seen only in patients with ARDS (50.4 ± 38.5, P = 0.001) and ALI (90.6 ± 161.7, P = 0.022). Statistically significant improvement was observed in the pO2 (31.1, P = 0.005) and O2 saturation (4.1, P < 0.001) of the ARDS group. The volume of effusion removed did not correlate with changes in individual patient's oxygenation. These data support the role of therapeutic thoracentesis for intubated patients with abnormal P:F ratios.

  8. Effects of acute salbutamol intake during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Le Panse, B; Portier, H; Lecoq, A-M; Jaffre, C; Beaupied, H; Richard, O; Benhamou, L; Courteix, D; De Ceaurriz, J

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the impact of acute salbutamol intake on performance and selected hormonal and metabolic variables during supramaximal exercise, 13 recreational male athletes performed two 30-second Wingate tests after either placebo (PLA, lactose) or salbutamol (SAL, 4 mg) oral administration, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples collected at rest, end of the Wingate test, recovery (5, 10, 15 min) were tested for growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), blood glucose (GLU), and lactate determination. We found the peak and mean power performed significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA (PPSAL: 896 +/- 46; PPPLA: 819 +/- 57 W; MPSAL: 585 +/- 27; MPPLA: 534 +/- 35 W, p < 0.05), whereas no change was observed in the fatigue index. Blood glucose and INS were significantly increased by SAL at rest, at the end of the Wingate test, and during the 5 first minutes of recovery (p < 0.05). Plasma GH was significantly decreased by SAL (p < 0.05) during the recovery whereas end-exercise and recovery blood lactate tended but were not significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA. From these data, acute salbutamol intake at therapeutical dosage did appear to improve peak power and mean power during a supramaximal exercise, but the mechanisms involved need further investigation.

  9. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on neural correlates of attention and inhibition in adolescents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, A W S; MacIntosh, B J; Scavone, A; Ou, X; Korczak, D; Goldstein, B I

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction is common during and between mood episodes in bipolar disorder (BD), causing social and functional impairment. This study investigated the effect of acute exercise on adolescents with BD and healthy control subjects (HC) to test for positive or negative consequences on neural response during an executive task. Fifty adolescents (mean age 16.54±1.47 years, 56% female, 30 with BD) completed an attention and response inhibition task before and after 20 min of recumbent cycling at ~70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed in a whole brain voxel-wise analysis and as regions of interest (ROI), examining Go and NoGo response events. In the whole brain analysis of Go trials, exercise had larger effect in BD vs HC throughout ventral prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus; the profile of these effects was of greater disengagement after exercise. Pre-exercise ROI analysis confirmed this 'deficit in deactivation' for BDs in rostral ACC and found an activation deficit on NoGo errors in accumbens. Pre-exercise accumbens NoGo error activity correlated with depression symptoms and Go activity with mania symptoms; no correlations were present after exercise. Performance was matched to controls and results survived a series of covariate analyses. This study provides evidence that acute aerobic exercise transiently changes neural response during an executive task among adolescents with BD, and that pre-exercise relationships between symptoms and neural response are absent after exercise. Acute aerobic exercise constitutes a biological probe that may provide insights regarding pathophysiology and treatment of BD. PMID:27187236

  10. Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute temperature shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to warm temperature.

    PubMed

    Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how warm acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11°C; control) and warm (20°C) temperature for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I-IV (CI-IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. Warm acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas warm acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute temperature shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by temperature and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma metabolites, with modest additive actions limited to CII and IV state 4. Overall, our results indicate that warm acclimation came at a cost of reduced ETS efficiency and increased sensitivity to added stressors.

  11. Functional biomarkers for the acute effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Zoethout, Remco W M; Delgado, Wilson L; Ippel, Annelies E; Dahan, Albert; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) effects of acute alcohol administration have been frequently assessed. Such studies often use a wide range of methods to study each of these effects. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of these tests has not completely been ascertained. A literature search was performed to recognize the most useful tests (or biomarkers) for identifying the acute CNS effects of alcohol in healthy volunteers. All tests were grouped in clusters and functional domains. Afterwards, the effect of alcohol administration on these tests was scored as improvement, impairment or as no effect. Furthermore, dose–response relationships were established. A total number of 218 studies, describing 342 different tests (or test variants) were evaluated. Alcohol affected a wide range of CNS domains. Divided attention, focused attention, visuo-motor control and scales of feeling high and of subjective drug effects were identified as the most sensitive functional biomarkers for the acute CNS effects of alcohol. The large number of CNS tests that are used to determine the effects of alcohol interferes with the identification of the most sensitive ones and of drug–response relationships. Our results may be helpful in selecting rational biomarkers for studies investigating the acute CNS effects of alcohol or for future alcohol- interaction studies. PMID:21284693

  12. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2012-06-19

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable.

  13. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causative relationship between environmental variability and biological systems. Physiology provides the mechanistic link between environmental change and ecological patterns. Physiological research, therefore, should be integrated into conservation to predict the biological consequences of human activity, and to identify those species or populations that are most vulnerable. PMID:22566670

  14. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively.

  15. Formamidopyrimidines in DNA: mechanisms of formation, repair, and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Dizdaroglu, Miral; Kirkali, Güldal; Jaruga, Pawel

    2008-12-15

    Oxidatively induced damage to DNA results in a plethora of lesions comprising modified bases and sugars, DNA-protein cross-links, tandem lesions, strand breaks, and clustered lesions. Formamidopyrimidines, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyAde) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua), are among the major lesions generated in DNA by hydroxyl radical attack, UV radiation, or photosensitization under numerous in vitro and in vivo conditions. They are formed by one-electron reduction of C8-OH-adduct radicals of purines and thus have a common precursor with 8-hydroxypurines generated upon one-electron oxidation. Methodologies using mass spectrometry exist to accurately measure FapyAde and FapyGua in vitro and in vivo. Formamidopyrimidines are repaired by base excision repair. Numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA glycosylases are highly specific for removal of these lesions from DNA in the first step of this repair pathway, indicating their biological importance. FapyAde and FapyGua are bypassed by DNA polymerases with the insertion of the wrong intact base opposite them, leading to mutagenesis. In mammalian cells, the mutagenicity of FapyGua exceeds that of 8-hydroxyguanine, which is thought to be the most mutagenic of the oxidatively induced lesions in DNA. The background and formation levels of the former in vitro and in vivo equal or exceed those of the latter under various conditions. FapyAde and FapyGua exist in living cells at significant background levels and are abundantly generated upon exposure to oxidative stress. Mice lacking the genes that encode specific DNA glycosylases accumulate these lesions in different organs and, in some cases, exhibit a series of pathological conditions including metabolic syndrome and cancer. Animals exposed to environmental toxins accumulate formamidopyrimidines in their organs. Here, we extensively review the mechanisms of formation, measurement, repair, and biological effects of formamidopyrimidines

  16. Assessing and Managing Acute Pain: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Jungquist, Carla R; Vallerand, April Hazard; Sicoutris, Corinna; Kwon, Kyung N; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2017-03-01

    : Acute pain, which is usually sudden in onset and time limited, serves a biological protective function, warning the body of impending danger. However, while acute pain often resolves over time with normal healing, unrelieved acute pain can disrupt activities of daily living and transition to chronic pain. This article describes the effects of unrelieved acute pain on patients and clinical outcomes. The authors call on nurses to assess and manage acute pain in accordance with evidence-based guidelines, expert consensus reports, and position statements from professional nursing organizations in order to minimize the likelihood of its becoming chronic.

  17. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde; Smith, Jim T; Ford, Alex T

    2015-10-01

    Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive. Current phyla-specific dose levels and limits proposed by major regulatory bodies were found to be inadequate to protect species across a range of endpoints including morbidity, mutation and reproduction and examples are discussed within. These findings serve to prioritise areas for future research that will significantly

  18. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Niluka M; Current, Kelley M; Obare, Sherine O

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism's ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells.

  19. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Niluka M.; Current, Kelley M.; Obare, Sherine O.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism’s ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells. PMID:26437397

  20. Effects of biological weathering on mine soil genesis and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Strip mine spoils derived from overburden rocks of the Pennsylvanian Wise Formation in Buchanan County, Virginia, commonly contain 40% less than 2 mm sized soil material. The physical and chemical properties of these soil materials are related to their rock origin. The soil materials are alkaline due to the presence of carbonates. The principal source of P in the soil materials is apatite, and the principal source of K is mica. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the short-term plant availability of P and K in these soil materials. Growth of sericea lespedeza over a 60-day period was found to be limited by P availability and not to be limited by K availability. Uptake of P by servicea lespedeza from P fertilized and unfertilized soil materials was found to be correlated with NaHCO3 extractable P from pots which received the same fertilizer treatments but did not contain plants. The correlations obtained were soil material specific. A separate greenhouse experiment was conducted in order to identify the effects of biological weathering on soil material properties. Sericea lespedeza and black locust were grown on unfertilized brown sandstone soil material for one year. Soil material pH was uniformly reduced by plant action regardless of proximity to roots. The P present in the soil material, however, was not uniformly depleted. Over half of the P removed from the soil material by sericea lespedeza and black locust was P which cannot be extracted using dilute HCl-H2SO4, but can be extracted using concentrated HCl. The results of the two experiments indicate that the plant availability of P and K in the soil materials is influenced by biological weathering. Acidification of the soil material increases the availability of P present in apatite particles. Uptake of K insures that the soil solution is constantly replenished with K from mica and that mica is transformed into vermiculite.

  1. Acute toxicity and effects analysis of endosulfan sulfate to freshwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M; Gardinali, Piero R; Castro, Joffre

    2011-02-01

    Endosulfan sulfate is a persistent environmental metabolite of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide-acaricide presently registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. There is, however, limited acute fish toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate. This study determines the acute toxicity (LC₅₀s and LC₁₀s) of endosulfan sulfate to three inland Florida native fish species (mosquitofish [Gambusia affinis]; least killifish [Heterandria formosa]; and sailfin mollies [Poecilia latipinna]) as well as fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Ninety-six-h acute toxicity tests were conducted with each fish species under flow-through conditions. For all of the above-mentioned fish species, 96-h LC₅₀ estimates ranged from 2.1 to 3.5 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. The 96-h LC₁₀ estimates ranged from 0.8 to 2.1 μg/L endosulfan sulfate. Of all of the fish tested, the least killifish appeared to be the most sensitive to endosulfan sulfate exposure. The above-mentioned data were combined with previous acute toxicity data for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish for an effects analysis. The effects analysis estimated hazardous concentrations expected to exceed 5, 10, and 50% of the fish species' acute LC₅₀ or LC₁₀ values (HC₅, HC₁₀, and HC₅₀). The endosulfan sulfate freshwater-fish acute tests were also compared with the available freshwater-fish acute toxicity data for technical endosulfan. Technical endosulfan is a mixture of α- and β-endosulfan. The LC₅₀s had a wider range for technical endosulfan, and their distribution produced a lower HC₁₀ than for endosulfan sulfate. The number of freshwater-fish LC₅₀s for endosulfan sulfate is much smaller than the number available for technical endosulfan, reflecting priorities in examining the toxicity of the parent compounds of pesticides. The toxicity test results and effects analyses provided acute effect values for endosulfan sulfate and freshwater fish that might be applied

  2. Renal Protective Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Li; Fu, Ping

    2016-10-18

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of E2 in acute AAN. Compared with male C57BL/6 mice of acute AAN, lower serum creatinine (SCr) and less renal injury, together with RTEC apoptosis in females, were found. Treatment with E2 in male AAN mice reduced SCr levels and attenuated renal tubular injury and RTEC apoptosis. In the mice kidney tissue and human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2 cells), E2 both attenuated AA-induced cell apoptosis and downregulated the expression of phosphor-p53 (Ser15), p53, and cleaved-caspase-3. This study highlights that E2 exhibited protective effects on the renal injury of acute AAN in male mice by reducing RTEC apoptosis, which might be related to inhibiting the p53 signaling pathway.

  3. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.

  4. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  5. Protective effects of imipramine in murine endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Jie-ming; Summah, Hanssa; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Ying-gang; Jiang, Hong-ni

    2010-07-25

    The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has recently emerged as a cytoprotective agent, exerting beneficial effects in inflammatory tissue injury. The present study aimed to investigate therapeutic effects of imipramine in murine model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Mice were administrated intraperitoneally with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Escherichia coli or vehicle. Imipramine was administrated intraperitoneally 30 min before LPS challenge. Pretreatment of mice with imipramine reduced lethality. Impramine also significantly attenuated lung inflammation, lung edema, MPO (myeloperoxidase) activity, lung tissue pathological changes and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. The results of this study suggest that imipramine can exert protective effects in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated expression of inflammatory genes. Thus, imipramine could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for the treatment for acute lung injury.

  6. Central effect of histamine in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Seiednejhad-Yamchi, Sona

    2008-01-01

    In conscious rats implanted with an intracerebroventricular (icv) cannula, effect of icv injections of histamine, chlorpheniramine (H(1)-receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (H(2)-receptor blocker) was investigated in a rat model of acute trigeminal pain. Acute trigeminal pain was induced by putting a drop of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface of the eye and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. Histamine (20, 40 microg) and chlorpheniramine (80 microg) significantly decreased the numbers of eye wipes. Ranitidine alone had no effect. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine did not change the histamine-induced analgesia, whereas the histamine effect on pain was inhibited with ranitidine pretreatment. These results indicate that the brain histamine, through central H(2) receptors, may be involved in the modulation of the acute trigeminal pain in rats.

  7. A QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE INHALED TOLUENE IN HUMAN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of acute exposure to toluene have been explored more thoroughly than other hydrocarbon solvents. These effects have been experimentally studied in humans and other species, e.g., rats, as well as in a number of in vitro preparations. The existence ofdosimetric and eff...

  8. Acute effects of exposure to 56Fe and 16O particles on learning and memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it has been shown that exposure to HZE particles disrupts cognitive performance when tested 2-4 weeks after irradiation, it has not been determined whether exposure to HZE particles can exert acute effects on cognitive performance; i.e., effects within 4-48 hrs after exposure. The present ...

  9. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  10. ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BEHAVIORAL EFFECT OF ACUTE EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN HUMANS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to evaluate potential benefit-cost relationships of controlling exposure to toxic substances. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected to benefit-cost analysis if it's effects were quantitatively compared to tho...

  11. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  12. [Effect of mexicor on oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Golikov, A P; Davydov, B V; Rudnev, D V; Klychnikova, E V; Bykova, N S; Riabinin, V A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Nikolaeva, N Iu; Golikov, P P

    2005-01-01

    Mexicor (5% solution and capsules) was used in 40 of 80 conventionally treated patients with acute myocardial infarction. The drug was given intravenously for 5 days, than intramuscularly (6-9 mg/kg) for 9 days and orally (0.1 mg t.i.d.) thereafter until discharge. Severity of oxidative stress was evaluated by K coefficient. Calculation of this coefficient required data on degree of oxidation of lipids in blood serum, serum levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin. These parameters as well as activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in erythrocytes were measured at admission, on days 2, 3, 7, 14 and at discharge. Mexicor treated compared with untreated (n=40) patients were characterized by diminished severity of oxidative stress at the account of lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and augmented compensatory potential of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  13. New optoelectronic sensor for measuring biologically effective irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyachenko, Leonid A.; Sklyarchuk, Valery M.

    1997-12-01

    A new optoelectronic sensor whose spectral responsivity to UV radiation is almost identical with that of the human skin or of the eyes is presented. The sensor comprises two closely-spaced UV-sensitive Au-SiC diode, one of which is fitted with a glass filter. The photodiodes are connected to electronics that amplifies, combines and subtracts electrical signals generated by radiation in the photodiodes. The responsivity of the Au-SiC diode structure with a semitransparent gold electrode covers the whole UV spectrum, with the long-wavelength end bounded by the semiconductor bandgap. The photodiode with a filter absorbing wavelengths shorter than 315-320 nm is responsive in the UV-A region, while the difference between the electrical signals generated in the filter-containing and filter-free diodes is determined by the UV-B + IV-C radiation. The measuring of biologically effective radiation over the entire UV spectral range is achieved through combining the signal generated by UV-A radiation and the previously amplified difference signal generated by UV-B + UV-C radiation. The sensor spectral responsivity thus obtained is very close to the tabular curve of the relative spectral effectiveness of UV radiation on the normal human skin or eyes.

  14. Biological effects of inorganic phosphate: potential signal of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Somin; Kim, Sanghwa; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays crucial roles in several biological processes and signaling pathways. Pi uptake is regulated by sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) transporters (NPTs). Moreover, Pi is used as a food additive in food items such as sausages, crackers, dairy products, and beverages. However, the high serum concentration of phosphate (> 5.5 mg/dL) can cause adverse renal effects, cardiovascular effects including vascular or valvular calcification, and stimulate bone resorption. In addition, Pi can also alter vital cellular signaling, related to cell growth and cap-dependent protein translation. Moreover, intake of dietary Pi, whether high (1.0%) or low (0.1%), affects organs in developing mice, and is related to tumorigenesis in mice. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of Pi is the daily dietary intake required to maintain levels above the lower limit of the range of normal serum Pi concentration (2.7 mg/dL) for most individuals (97-98%). Thus, adequate intake of Pi (RDA; 700 mg/day) and maintenance of normal Pi concentration (2.7-4.5 mg/dL) are important for health and prevention of diseases caused by inadequate Pi intake.

  15. In vivo biological effects of stereotactic radiosurgery: A primate model

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, L.D.; Altschuler, E.M.; Flickinger, J.C.; Wu, A.; Martinez, A.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Single-fraction, closed skull, small-volume irradiation (radiosurgery) of intact intracranial structures requires accurate knowledge of radiation tolerance. We have developed a baboon model to assess the in vivo destructive radiobiological effects of stereotactic radiosurgery. Three baboons received a single-fraction, 150-Gy lesion of the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, or the pons using the 8-mm diameter collimator of the gamma unit. Serial standard neurodiagnostic tests (neurological examination, computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging, stable xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scan of cerebral blood flow, somatosensory and brain stem evoked potentials, and myelin basic protein levels of cerebrospinal fluid) were compared with preoperative studies. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the development of a lesion at the target site between 45 and 60 days after irradiation. Deterioration of the brain stem evoked potentials preceded imaging changes when the lesion encroached on auditory pathways. Myelin basic protein levels increased subsequent to imaging changes. Postmortem neuropathological examination confirmed a well-demarcated radionecrosis of the target volume. The baboon model appears to be an excellent method to study the in vivo biological effects of radiosurgery.

  16. Triclosan: A Widespread Environmental Toxicant with Many Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Tukey, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been added to personal care products, including hand soaps and cosmetics, and impregnated in numerous different materials ranging from athletic clothing to food packaging. The constant disposal of TCS into the sewage system is creating a major environmental and public health hazard. Owing to its chemical properties of bioaccumulation and resistance to degradation, TCS is widely detected in various environmental compartments in concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per liter. Epidemiology studies indicate that significant levels of TCS are detected in body fluids in all human age groups. We document here the emerging evidence—from in vitro and in vivo animal studies and environmental toxicology studies—demonstrating that TCS exerts adverse effects on different biological systems through various modes of action. Considering the fact that humans are simultaneously exposed to TCS and many TCS-like chemicals, we speculate that TCS-induced adverse effects may be relevant to human health. PMID:26738475

  17. Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellows, D.P.; Newton, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The flea beetle, Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras, is a potentially useful agent for biological control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) in grasslands devoted to wildlife conservation. However, effects of other grassland management practices on the persistence and dynamics of flea beetle populations are not well understood. We conducted small plot tests to evaluate 1) the effect of prerelease burning on establishment of A. nigriscutis colonies, and 2) the ability of established A. nigriscutis colonies to survive prescribed fire. More colonies established on plots that were burned prior to beetle release (83% establishment) than on unburned plots (37% establishment), possibly due to litter reduction and baring of the soil surface. However, most colonies established with the aid of fire did not survive past the first generation unless the habitat was otherwise suitable for the species, and we conclude that the primary benefit of prerelease burning is increased recruitment of A. nigriscutis during the first few generations. Established colonies were not harmed by burns in October and May. Both spring and fall burns resulted in an increase in leafy spurge stem density during the first growing season, but stem density declined to the preburn level by the second growing season.

  18. Captopril: pharmacokinetics, antihypertensive and biological effects in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Richer, C; Giroux, B; Plouin, P F; Maarek, B; Giudicelli, J F

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of captopril plasma levels and of the drug-induced plasma converting enzyme activity (PCEA), plasma renin activity (PRA) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) modifications were studied over 24 h after oral administration of captopril, 1 mg/kg, to ten hypertensive patients. Free unchanged captopril pharmacokinetic parameters were: t1/2, alpha: 0.45 +/- 0.06 h; tmax: 0.98 +/- 0.13 h; Cmax: 1.31 +/- 0.20 mg l-1; t1/2,z: 0.66 +/- 0.13 h; V: 0.614 +/- 0.104 1 kg-1 and CLtot: 0.690 +/- 0.082 l h-1 kg-1. At 6 h captopril was no longer detectable in plasma. The onset of PCEA inhibition and of DBP decrease closely followed the rise of captopril's plasma levels, while that of PRA increase was delayed. In contrast, while captopril rapidly disappeared from plasma, its biological and antihypertensive effects were long-lasting. The lack of correlation between the relative bioavailability of captopril and the induced reduction in DBP (evaluated by the corresponding AUCs) suggests that free unchanged captopril plasma monitoring is not an adequate indicator of hypertensive patients' potential responsiveness to captopril's blood pressure lowering effects. PMID:6324834

  19. Acute health effects of accidental chlorine gas exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to report the course of an accidental release of chlorine gas that occurred in a factory in Gumi-si, South Korea, on March 5, 2013. We describe the analysis results of 2 patients hospitalized because of chlorine-induced acute health problems, as well as the clinical features of 209 non-hospitalized patients. Methods We analyzed the medical records of the 2 hospitalized patients admitted to the hospital, as well as the medical records and self-report questionnaires of 209 non-hospitalized patients completed during outpatient treatment. Results Immediately after the exposure, the 2 hospitalized patients developed acute asthma-like symptoms such as cough and dyspnea, and showed restrictive and combined pattern ventilatory defects on the pulmonary function test. The case 1 showed asthma-like symptoms over six months and diurnal variability in peak expiratory flow rate was 56.7%. In case 2, his FEV1 after treatment (93%) increased by 25% compared to initial FEV1 (68%). Both cases were diagnosed as chlorine-induced reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) on the basis of these clinical features. The most frequent chief complaints of the 209 non-hospitalized patients were headache (22.7%), followed by eye irritation (18.2%), nausea (11.2%), and sore throat (10.8%), with asymptomatic patients accounting for 36.5%. The multiple-response analysis of individual symptom revealed headache (42.4%) to be the most frequent symptom, followed by eye irritation (30.5%), sore throat (30.0%), cough (29.6%), nausea (27.6%), and dizziness (27.3%). Conclusions The 2 patients hospitalized after exposure to chlorine gas at the leakage site showed a clinical course corresponding to RADS. All of the 209 non-hospitalized patients only complained of symptoms of the upper airways and mucous membrane irritation. PMID:25852940

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm.

  1. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  2. Monitoring of metformin-induced lactic acidosis in a diabetic patient with acute kidney failure and effect of hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Claire; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Amiel, Jean-Bernard; Pichon, Nicolas; Merle, Louis

    2013-02-01

    Metformin associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a serious complication occurring especially in elderly patients given high doses of the drug. We report a non-fatal case of MALA with pronounced acidosis (pH 6.76, lactate 30.81 mmol/l) and high metformin concentrations (127 mg/l) in a patient who had developed acute renal failure after undergoing an operation. Multiple measurements of biological parameters and metformin blood concentrations showed the effectiveness of repeated hemodialysis sessions on metformin elimination. Cases previously reported with such a severe MALA were associated with a high mortality rate. We show that close monitoring in an intensive care unit together with prompt and repeated dialysis sessions can lead to a favorable outcome.

  3. Effectiveness, tolerability and safety of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for acute bacterial conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Susannah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Bacterial eye infections are commonly treated with topical antibiotics, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is a new formulation of azithromycin in a gel polymer designed for use in acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Methods: We conducted systematic searches of the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials, PubMed and Google Scholar to find randomized controlled trials of “azithromycin DuraSite®”. These searches of published literature were supplemented with searches for unpublished trials and trials in progress. Results: We found six reports of randomized controlled trials investigating the role of azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® for the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. The quality of these trials was judged to be moderate to high. These trials assessed effectiveness, tolerability and safety outcomes, but we found no trials looking at cost-effectiveness. DuraSite® is a relatively stable formulation and so azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® has a simpler dosing schedule than other available topical antibiotics. It appears to be similar to other topical antibiotics in its effectiveness, but minor side effects are quite common. Conclusion: Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is a relatively mild, typically self-limiting, infection. Antibiotics should seldom be required. If, however, a decision to prescribe antibiotics is made, azithromycin 1% in DuraSite® is likely to be broadly comparable in its effectiveness to most other antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Further research is needed to determine its cost-effectiveness. PMID:20517467

  4. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

  5. [Cardioprotective effect of drugs with antioxidant activity in acute cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Stoliarova, V V

    2001-01-01

    The bioelectric cardiac activity was studied in the experiments on white mice with an acute cerebral blood circulation disorder. It was found that he resulting EEG changes possess a specific character, with the sympathoadrenal system stimulation playing an important role in the acute cerebrocardiac syndrome development. The antioxidant-type agents such as emoxypine (50 mg/kg), mexidol (50 mg/kg), and cytochrome C (10 mg/kg) produce a significant cardioprotective effect in the test animals with experimental cerebral ischemia, which was comparable with the effect of propranolol (obsidane) (0.1 mg/kg).

  6. Comparison of acute behavioral effects of sustained-release and immediate-release methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Kollins, S H; Rush, C R; Pazzaglia, P J; Ali, J A

    1998-11-01

    The rate of onset of a drug's effect is an important determinant of its abuse potential. This experiment examined the acute behavioral effects of orally administered sustained-release methylphenidate (SR; 20-40 mg), immediate-release methylphenidate (IR; 20-40 mg), and placebo in 10 healthy volunteers. Drug effects were assessed before drug administration and periodically afterwards for 6 hr using drug-effect questionnaires and performance measures that are sensitive to the acute effects of stimulants. The IR formulation produced stimulant-like drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of "good effects") that generally varied as a function of dose and time. The SR formulation produced only transient effects on these measures. These findings are consistent with previous research on the influence of rate of onset using other drugs and suggest that the abuse potential of IR methylphenidate may be greater than that of SR methylphenidate.

  7. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics... veterinary biological products, as well as other interested individuals, that we will be holding a public... veterinary biologics labeling. We are also making the concept paper available for review and comment....

  8. Occurrence and Potential Biological Effects of Amphetamine on Stream Communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sylvia S; Paspalof, Alexis M; Snow, Daniel D; Richmond, Erinn K; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kelly, John J

    2016-09-06

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs in aquatic systems, is a topic of environmental significance because of their global occurrence and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, but few studies have examined the ecological effects of illicit drugs. We conducted a survey of several drug residues, including the potentially illicit drug amphetamine, at 6 stream sites along an urban to rural gradient in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. We detected numerous drugs, including amphetamine (3 to 630 ng L(-1)), in all stream sites. We examined the fate and ecological effects of amphetamine on biofilm, seston, and aquatic insect communities in artificial streams exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (1 μg L(-1)) of amphetamine. The amphetamine parent compound decreased in the artificial streams from less than 1 μg L(-1) on day 1 to 0.11 μg L(-1) on day 22. In artificial streams treated with amphetamine, there was up to 45% lower biofilm chlorophyll a per ash-free dry mass, 85% lower biofilm gross primary production, 24% greater seston ash-free dry mass, and 30% lower seston community respiration compared to control streams. Exposing streams to amphetamine also changed the composition of bacterial and diatom communities in biofilms at day 21 and increased cumulative dipteran emergence by 65% and 89% during the first and third weeks of the experiment, respectively. This study demonstrates that amphetamine and other biologically active drugs are present in urban streams and have the potential to affect both structure and function of stream communities.

  9. Examining the Effect of Multiple Writing Tasks on Year 10 Biology Students' Understandings of Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Brian; Hohenshell, Liesl; Prain, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the cumulative effects on students' learning of science, and perceptions of the role of writing in learning, when the students engaged in multiple writing tasks with planning strategy support. The study was conducted with Year 10 biology students who completed two consecutive units on Cells and Molecular…

  10. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: insights from neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Bjork, James M; Gilman, Jodi M

    2014-09-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same structures, where some elements of these decrements normalize with extended sobriety. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication. We then briefly address how chronic alcohol intoxication (as inferred from cross-sectional differences between various drinking populations and controls) may yield individual brain differences between drinking subjects that may confound interpretation of acute alcohol administration effects. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'.

  11. Acute and prolonged effects of clocinnamox and methoclocinnamox on nucleus accumbens dopamine overflow.

    PubMed

    Zernig, G; Fibiger, H C

    1998-01-01

    The mu opioid antagonist clocinnamox (CCAM) insurmountably inhibits opioid self-administration. In contrast, CCAM's prodrug, methoclocinnamox (MCCAM), acts as a weak partial agonist in this paradigm when given acutely and inhibits opioid self-administration for up to 5 days. In vivo microdialysis was employed to determine if these effects are paralleled in basal and opioid-stimulated dopamine (DA) overflow in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC). When given acutely, CCAM (10 mg/kg s.c.) was essentially without effect. CCAM also markedly attenuated the overflow of DA induced by heroin (0.5 mg/kg s.c.; 200% of DA baseline) 24 h later. In contrast, MCCAM (10 mg/kg s.c.) acutely increased NAC DA overflow to 200-245% baseline within 30 min. NAC DA remained at this elevated level for the whole 3-h period of the experiment. Even after 24 h, NAC DA overflow of MCCAM-pretreated animals remained elevated at 165% of VEH-treated animals. Administration of heroin did not result in any further elevation of NAC DA release under these conditions. Thus, the suggested therapeutic profile of MCCAM, i.e., an acute partial agonistic reinforcing effect followed by antagonism of the reinforcing effects of subsequently abused opioids, was confirmed in NAC DA overflow, a neurochemical correlate of the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. The most parsimonious explanation for MCCAM's effect on NAC DA overflow is that it acted as an essentially irreversible partial agonist.

  12. Concentrations, transport and biological effects of dormant spray pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, K.M.; Foe, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The transport and biological effects of dormant spray pesticides were examined in the San Francisco Estuary, California, by measuring dissolved- pesticide concentrations and estimating toxicity using bioassays at a series of sites in January and February 1993. Distinct pulses of pesticides, including diazinon, methidathion, and chlorpyrifos, were detected in the San Joaquin River in January and February and in the Sacramento River in February following rainfall. The higher pesticide loads in the Sacramento River compared with those in the San Joaquin River can be attributed to the greater amount of rainfall in the Sacramento Valley. The use patterns and water solubility of the pesticides can account for the observed temporal and spatial distributions in the two rivers. The pesticide pulses detected at Sacramento were followed through the northern embayment of San Francisco Estuary. In contrast, the pesticide distribution in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta changed from distinct pulses to steady increases in concentration over time. Seven-day bioassays indicated that Sacramento River water at Rio Vista was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (water flea) for 3 consecutive d and San Joaquin River water at Vernalis for 12 consecutive d. These water samples all had the highest diazinon concentrations. Examination of 96-h LC50 values (lethal concentration that kills 50% of test organisms in 96 H) indicates that measured diazinon concentrations could account for most but not all the observed toxicity. Other pesticides present could contribute to the toxicity.

  13. Biological explanations and stigmatizing attitudes: using essentialism and perceived dangerousness to predict antistigma intervention effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Guy A

    2011-01-01

    The theory of essentialism suggests that biological explanations of stigmatized behavior may not be effective at decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. The effects of biological explanations on stigmatizing attitudes were the topic of two experiments. In the first experiment, participants (N = 243) perceived a biological explanation as a less effective in relation to dangerousness and social distancing attitudes about mental illness than about homosexuality. The second experiment (N = 113) compared the effect of biological and free choice explanations on stigmatizing attitudes about abnormal sexual and eating behaviors. The results indicated that a biological explanation increased belief in essentialism and was most effective for attitudes related to anger and blame. These results suggest that the effectiveness of biological explanations as an antistigma tool varies according to the attitude and stigmatized group.

  14. Acute effects of aerobic stretching, health and happiness improving movement exercise on cortical activity of children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungsoo; Park, Sangjun; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Lee, Kwanghee; Rhyu, Hyun-Seung

    2016-08-01

    Acute high-intensity physical exercise is known to improve cognitive performance of children, including those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this work, we investigated the acute effect of an aerobic stretching and moderate-intensity, health and happiness improving movement (HHIM) exercise on the cortical activity of children with and without ADHD using electroencephalography (EEG). Children aged 12 to 14 yr with combined-type ADHD and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study, performing two individual movements (n=79, 35 controls) and a single exercise bout (n=45, 18 controls). electroencephalographic signals were recorded before and immediately after each movement, and before and after acute exercise under resting conditions, to obtain absolute and relative power estimates for the theta (3.5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), sensory motor rhythm (12-16 Hz), and beta (16-25 Hz) bands. After acute HHIM exercise, all children showed significant changes in their relative EEG, mainly in the theta and alpha bands. Individual movements were found to influence relative theta, alpha and beta, and theta-to-beta ratios. He presents aerobic stretching HHIM exercise has demonstrated acute effect on the cortical activity of children.

  15. Effects of acute tryptophan depletion on raphé functional connectivity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Jodi J.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Taylor, Warren D.; Boyd, Brian D.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Shelton, K. Maureen; Salomon, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Depression remains a great societal burden and a major treatment challenge. Most antidepressant medications target serotonergic raphé nuclei. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) modulates serotonin function. To better understand the raphé's role in mood networks, we studied raphé functional connectivity in depression. Fifteen depressed patients were treated with sertraline for 12 weeks and scanned during ATD and sham conditions. Based on our previous findings in a separate cohort, resting state MRI functional connectivity between raphé and other depression-related regions (ROIs) was analyzed in narrow frequency bands. ATD decreased raphé functional connectivity with the bilateral thalamus within 0.025–0.05 Hz, and also decreased raphé functional connectivity with the right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex within 0.05–0.1 Hz. Using the control broadband filtlter 0.01–0.1 Hz, no significant differences in raphé-ROI functional connectivity were observed. Post-hoc analysis by remission status suggested increased raphé functional connectivity with left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in remitters (n = 10) and decreased raphé functional connectivity with left thalamus in non-remitters (n = 5), both within 0.025–0.05 Hz. Reducing serotonin function appears to alter coordination of these mood-related networks in specific, low frequency ranges. For examination of effects of reduced serotonin function on mood-related networks, specific low frequency BOLD fMRI signals can identify regions implicated in neural circuitry and may enable clinically-relevant interpretation of functional connectivity measures. The biological significance of these low frequency signals detected in the raphé merits further study. PMID:26411798

  16. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their combined use on pancreatic enzymes, activity of pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas on treatment of caerulin-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Caerulin-induced acute pancreatitis model was created using a total of 58 male BALB-C mice of 25 gr in seven groups. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity were examined as well as apoptotic values in pancreatic acinar cells through TUNNEL method. Histopathology of pancreas was evaluated for presence of edema, hemorrhage, parenchymal necrosis, fat necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis. Results: In the diclofenac sodium group, apoptotic values in the pancreatic acinar cells were found to be statistically lower than in the acute pancreatitis group in terms of parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage scores (P = 0.007, P = 0.002, and P = 0.052, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in serum level of amylase, lipase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and the other histopathological scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium, a cost-effective agent with a favorable side-effect profile, may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Findings of this study suggest a better efficacy for diclofenac sodium monotherapy as compared to octreotide alone or octreotide/diclofenac combination. PMID:26770346

  17. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  18. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  19. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  20. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE PAGES

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; ...

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  1. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N. europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.

  2. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2017-06-13

    Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.

  3. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  4. Range uncertainty in proton therapy due to variable biological effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabe, Alejandro; Moteabbed, Maryam; Depauw, Nicolas; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2012-03-01

    Traditionally, dose in proton radiotherapy is prescribed as Gy(RBE) by scaling up the physical dose by 10%. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons is considered to vary with dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LETd), dose (d) and (α/β)x. The increase of RBE with depth causes a shift of the falloff of the beam, i.e. a change of the beam range. The magnitude of this shift will depend on dose and (α/β)x. The aim of this project was to quantify the dependence of the range shift on these parameters. Three double-scattered beams of different ranges incident on a computational phantom consisting of different regions of interest (ROIs) were used. Each ROI was assigned with (α/β)x values between 0.5 and 20 Gy. The distribution of LETd within each ROI was obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. The LETd distribution depends on the beam energy and thus its nominal range. The RBE values within the ROIs were calculated for doses between 1 and 15 Gy using an in-house developed biophysical model. Dose-volume histograms of the RBE-weighted doses were extracted for each ROI for a ‘fixed RBE’ (RBE = 1.1) and a ‘variable RBE’ (RBE = f (d, α/β, LETd)), and the percentage difference in range was obtained from the difference of the percentage volumes at the distal 80% of the dose. Range differences in normal tissue ((α/β)x = 3 Gy) of the order of 3-2 mm were obtained, respectively, for a shallow (physical range 4.8 cm) and a deep (physical range 12.8 cm) beam, when a dose of 1 Gy normalized to the mid-SOBP was delivered. As the dose increased to 15 Gy, the variable RBE decreases below 1.1 which induces ranges of about 1 mm shorter than those obtained with an RBE of 1.1. The shift in the range of an SOBP when comparing biological dose distributions obtained with a fixed or a variable RBE was quantified as a function of dose, (α/β)x and physical range (as a surrogate of the initial beam energy). The shift increases with the physical range but

  5. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    PubMed Central

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  6. Effects of acute diabetes on rat cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Tanga, Marcelo Benetti; Buttros, Kemli Raquel; Nakao, Cristiano

    2004-10-01

    INTRODUCTION:: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycaemic disorder. Complicated metabolic mechanisms and increased incidence of infections are clinical hallmarks, mostly associated with its chronicity. There is little information about the early pathological processes in diabetes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the healing process during early phases of experimental diabetes on rat skin. METHODS:: Alloxan induced diabetic rats were used. Non-injected animals were used as control. Punch byopsies on dorsal skin had histopathological evaluation of the healing areas made on days 1, 3 and 7 post-surgery. RESULTS:: The results showed that: (1) in diabetics, the inflammation, the initial healing phase, has a slow beginning and tends to last longer; and (2) diabetic animals showed lower density of neutrophils in healing areas up to 3 days after surgery, and in addition, after day 3, when the neutrophils should leave the healing area, and be replaced by macrophages, compared to controls, diabetic animals showed higher numbers of neutrophils. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSION:: Although diabetes is a chronic progressive disease, acute diabetes can be associated to subclinical alterations, and responsible for deficiencies in defense cells and in repair tissue failures.

  7. Effect of acute ethanol ingestion on fat absorption.

    PubMed

    Boquillon, M

    1976-12-01

    A test meal (300 mg casein, 600 mg sucrose, 100 mg corn oil, tracer dose of 9.10(3)H oleic acid) was given to fasting adult rats with intestinal lymph fistulas. One group received an acute oral dose of ethanol (3.2 g/kg body weight) simultaneously with the test meal. Controls received 2.5 ml of water instead of ethanol. Ingestion of ethanol temporarily delayed the removal of lipid radioactivity from the stomachs. More than 25% of radioactivity fed remained 8 hr after feeding whereas with control rats less than 10% of lipid radioactivity fed remained 6 hr after feeding. In controls and ethanol-treated rats, the amounts of exogenous lipids in the intestinal lumen and mucosa were low and similar enough. Quantities of endogenous and exogenous lipids found in the lymph collected during 24 hr after feeding were similar in the two groups, but the fat absorption peak was found after 6 hr in alcoholic rats and before 6 hr in controls. This delay was probably due to the retention of lipids in the stomach. More of the exogenous lipid was always transported by small particles moving in the region of alpha1 globulins in cellulose acetate electrophoresis than by larger particles remaining at the origin. This proportion was enhanced in the ethanol-treated animals. The larger fat particles were richer in endogenous fatty acids in alcohol-treated rats than in controls.

  8. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  9. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baris, Tara Z; Crawford, Douglas L; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2016-01-15

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range.

  10. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release.

    PubMed

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  11. Acclimation and acute temperature effects on population differences in oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Baris, Tara Z.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes affect metabolism on acute, acclamatory, and evolutionary time scales. To better understand temperature's affect on metabolism at these different time scales, we quantified cardiac oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in three Fundulus taxa acclimated to 12 and 28°C and measured at three acute temperatures (12, 20, and 28°C). The Fundulus taxa (northern Maine and southern Georgia F. heteroclitus, and a sister taxa, F. grandis) were used to identify evolved changes in OxPhos. Cardiac OxPhos metabolism was quantified by measuring six traits: state 3 (ADP and substrate-dependent mitochondrial respiration); E state (uncoupled mitochondrial activity); complex I, II, and IV activities; and LEAK ratio. Acute temperature affected all OxPhos traits. Acclimation only significantly affected state 3 and LEAK ratio. Populations were significantly different for state 3. In addition to direct effects, there were significant interactions between acclimation and population for complex I and between population and acute temperature for state 3. Further analyses suggest that acclimation alters the acute temperature response for state 3, E state, and complexes I and II: at the low acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at low assay temperatures, and at the high acclimation temperature, the acute response was dampened at high assay temperatures. Closer examination of the data also suggests that differences in state 3 respiration and complex I activity between populations were greatest between fish acclimated to low temperatures when assayed at high temperatures, suggesting that differences between the populations become more apparent at the edges of their thermal range. PMID:26582639

  12. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity.

  13. The Effect of Exertion on Heart Rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Acutely Concussed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea; Leddy, John; Freitas, Michael; Czuczman, Natalie; Willer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population. Methods We compared changes in heart rate and perceived effort during graded treadmill exertion in recently concussed patients to elucidate the effect of brain injury on cardiovascular response to exercise. Resting HR, HR on exercise initiation, and changes in HR and RPE during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) were compared on two test visits: When patients were symptomatic (acute) and after recovery. Results were compared with the test-retest results obtained from a control group consisting of healthy, non-concussed individuals. Results Patients had a significantly lower HR at onset of exercise when acutely concussed as compared to when recovered and reported greater perceived exertion at every exercise intensity level when symptomatic, despite exercising at lower workloads, than when recovered. Sympathetic response to increased exertion was not affected by concussion - HR increased in response to exercise at a comparable rate in both tests. These differences observed in response to exercise between the first BCTT and follow-up evaluation in initially concussed patients were not present in non-concussed individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest that during the acute phase after concussion, acutely concussed patients demonstrated an impaired ability to shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic control over heart rate at the onset of exercise. Changes in the autonomic nervous system after concussion may be more complex than previously reported. Continued evaluation of

  14. Effect of Reproductive History on Mammary Epithelial Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    Reproductive History on Mammary Epithelial Biology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lewis A. Chodosh, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : University of Pennsylvania...9348 Organization : University of Pennsylvania Those portions of the technical data contained in this report marked as limited rights data shall not...History on Mammary Epithelial DAMD17-99-1-9348 Biology 6. AUTHOR(S) Lewis A. Chodosh, M.D., Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8

  15. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    PubMed

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions.

  16. State/Trait Anxiety and Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine anxiolytic effects of acute physical exertions in relation to the initial anxiety state and trait in women. Material and methods: A group of 163 women aged 16-56 years, attending fitness clubs in Warsaw, participated in the study. They selected a single exercise to perform--strength, aerobic or mixed, lasting 30 to over 60…

  17. TOWARD COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ACUTE BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TOLUENE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing interest in being able to express the consequences of exposure to potentially toxic compounds in monetary terms in order to evaluate potential cost-benefit relationships of controlling exposure. Behavioral effects of acute toluene exposure could be subjected ...

  18. COMPARISON OF ACUTE NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral and cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting effects of N-methyl carbamate insecticides have not been systematically compared. We evaluated five carbamates - carbaryl (CB), propoxur (PP), oxamyl (OM), methomyl (MM), and methiocarb (MC). Adult male Long-Evans ra...

  19. Protective effect of resveratrol in endotoxemia-induced acute phase response in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Hichem; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Sani, Mamane; Aouani, Ezzedine; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha

    2009-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria can elicit a systemic inflammatory process leading to septic shock and death. Acute phase response is characterized by fever, leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, altered metabolic responses and redox balance by inducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4' trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenol exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the protective effect of resveratrol on endotoxemia-induced acute phase response in rats. When acutely administered by i.p. route, resveratrol (40 mg/kg b.w.) counteracted the effect of a single injection of LPS (4 mg/kg b.w.) which induced fever, a decrease in white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT) counts. When i.p. administered during 7 days at 20 mg/kg per day (subacute treatment), resveratrol abrogated LPS-induced erythrocytes lipoperoxidation and catalase (CAT) activity depression to control levels. In the plasma compartment, LPS increased malondialdehyde (MDA) via nitric monoxide (NO) elevation and decreased iron level. All these deleterious LPS effects were reversed by a subacute resveratrol pre-treatment via a NO independent way. Resveratrol exhibited potent protective effect on LPS-induced acute phase response in rats.

  20. [Renoprotective effects of statins under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis].

    PubMed

    Zamorskiĭ, I I; Zeleniuk, V G

    2014-01-01

    The experiment on white rats was targeted at the examination of influence of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin) under the conditions of acute renal failure, caused by rhabdomyolysis. Renoprotective effects of statins were demonstrated by reduction of hyperazotemia and proteinuria and improvement of renal excretory function, which correlated with antioxidant properties of drugs.

  1. NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC DIETARY AND REPEATED HIGH-LEVEL ACUTE EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lots of information is available surrounding the acute toxicity of anticholinesterase pesticides, but these have been very few detailed studies on the chronic effects of these pesticides. Humans are exposed on a chronic basis and some humans believe that have been affected advers...

  2. Time Scale Effects in Acute Association between Air-Pollution and Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used wavelet analysis and generalized additive models (GAM) to study timescale effects in the acute association between mortality and air-pollution. Daily averages of measured NO2 concentrations in the metropolitan Paris area are used as indicators of human exposure...

  3. The Effects of Acute Stress on Cognitive Performance. A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Determining the relationship of acute stress, anxiety, and salivary a- amylase level with performance of student nurse anesthesiologists during...A., Ramat, L., and Teixeira, A. (2009). Effect of lecturing to 200 students on heart rate variability and alpha- amylase . European Journal of Applied

  4. Acute bilateral glaucoma and panuveitis as a side effect of topiramate for weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Yechezkel

    2014-04-17

    A 54-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with acute angle-closure glaucoma and panuveitis in both eyes after being treated with topiramate for binge eating and obesity. This case report emphasises the hazardous side effects of treatment with topiramate with unusual indication and the precaution a caretaker must take when treating a patient.

  5. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  6. Neurobehavorial effects of acute exposure to four solvents: meta-abalyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meta-and re-analyses of the available data for the neurobehavioral effects of acute inhalation exposure to toluene were reported by Benignus et al. (2007). The present study was designed to test the generality of the toluene results in as many other solvents as possible by furthe...

  7. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation.

  8. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  9. 21 CFR 320.28 - Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence. 320.28 Section 320.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...

  10. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  11. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  12. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure: randomised, crossover trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Billington, E O; Bristow, S M; Gamble, G D; de Kwant, J A; Stewart, A; Mihov, B V; Horne, A M; Reid, I R

    2017-01-01

    Calcium supplements appear to increase cardiovascular risk, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated the acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller after calcium compared with the placebo in the hours following dosing.

  13. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  14. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  15. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  16. Clinical Effects of Hypertension on the Mortality of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Goo; Ahn, Yongkeun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of ischemic heart disease has been increased rapidly in Korea. However, the clinical effects of antecedent hypertension on acute myocardial infarction have not been identified. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and clinical outcomes in 7,784 patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry during one-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease were more prevalent in hypertensives (n=3,775) than nonhypertensives (n=4,009). During hospitalization, hypertensive patients suffered from acute renal failure, shock, and cerebrovascular event more frequently than in nonhypertensives. During follow-up of one-year, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was higher in hypertensives. In multi-variate adjustment, old age, Killip class ≥III, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg on admission, post procedural TIMI flow grade ≤2, female sex, and history of hypertension were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. However antecedent hypertension was not significantly associated with one-year mortality. Hypertension at the time of acute myocardial infarction is associated with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality. PMID:19794974

  17. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  18. Review article: lack of effect of opiates in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Marcin A

    2008-10-01

    Opiates have traditionally been used as one of the main treatments of acute heart failure and are still recognized as such. Most current textbooks and official guidelines advise the use of morphine as one of the first-line treatments for patients in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and a majority of physicians accept it to be the case. The author performed an extensive literature search in order to validate the evidence for the use of opiates in this condition. A total of seven papers, six in English and one in Polish, were found that directly investigated or reported the clinically important outcomes of treatment of acute pulmonary oedema. Only five of these dealt specifically with the effects of administration of opiates in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. None of the above publications suggested a clinically significant improvement in outcomes of patients treated with morphine, although early research did suggest reduced anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate as well as a reduction in arterial oxygen contents. The more recent studies suggest a strong association between increased mortality and morbidity (e.g. intensive care unit admissions or intubation rates), although causality is difficult to establish because of research methodologies. The current evidence does not support the routine use of opiates in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema.

  19. The effect of acute hypoxia at low altitude and acute normoxia at high altitude on performance during a 30-s Wingate test in children.

    PubMed

    Blonc, S; Falgairette, G; Bedu, M; Fellmann, N; Spielvogel, H; Coudert, J

    1994-10-01

    The effect of acute hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.137 +/- 0.001) at Low Altitude (LA: Clermont-Ferrand, 330 m) and acute normoxia (FIO2 = 0.306 +/- 0.006) at High Altitude (HA: La Paz, 3600 m) on performance during a 30-s Wingate test has been investigated in prepubertal children (Tanner stage 1). Twenty five boys (LA, n = 10; HA, n = 15) aged from 10.6 to 12.7 years performed two Wingate tests at random: at LA, one in normoxia (ambient air) and one in acute hypoxia and at HA, one in chronic hypoxia (ambient air) and one in acute normoxia. The subjects performed the two tests using the same calibrated cycle ergometer. Peak Power (PP), Mean Power (MP), O2 uptake during the 30 s (VO2) and blood lactate accumulation (delta [L]s) were measured. Compared to normoxia, acute hypoxia at LA did not alter PP (8.0 +/- 1.1 vs 7.9 +/- 1.3 W.kg-1 BW) and MP (6.1 +/- 0.7 vs 6.1 +/- 1.1 W.kg-1 BW). Similarly, compared to chronic hypoxia, acute normoxia at HA did not modify these parameters (PP: 7.4 +/- 1.5 vs 7.3 +/- 1.8; MP: 5.4 +/- 1.2 vs 5.5 +/- 1.1; W.kg-1 BW). VO2 and delta [L]s were neither significantly changed by acute hypoxia at LA (520 +/- 50 vs 550 +/- 60 ml O2; 5.3 +/- 1.7 vs 4.8 +/- 1.7 mmol.l-1) nor by acute normoxia at HA (530 +/- 110 vs 500 +/- 90 ml O2; 3.4 +/- 1.3 vs 3.3 +/- 1.0 mmol.l-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. The Effects of Ultrasound on Biological Systems: Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Karmi, Anan M.

    vs. 18 minutes). This demonstrates that the biological effects of ultrasound are influenced by Ca^ {2+}. The larger increases in G _{rm t} and the time constants confirm other studies addressing the role of Ca ^{2+} in potentiating lipid peroxidation by free radicals, and the role of calcium ions in the formation of tight junctions.

  1. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    PubMed

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  2. Pro-inflammatory effects of hydrogen sulphide on substance P in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; Sidhapuriwala, Jenab N; Ng, Siaw Wei; Tamizhselvi, Ramasamy; Moochhala, Shabbir M

    2008-04-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S), a novel gasotransmitter, has been recognized to play an important role in inflammation. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) is a major H(2)S synthesizing enzyme in the cardiovascular system and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) is an irreversible inhibitor of CSE. Substance P (SP), a product of preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene, is a well-known pro-inflammatory mediator which acts principally through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). We have shown an association between H(2)S and SP in pulmonary inflammation as well as a pro-inflammatory role of H(2)S and SP in acute pancreatitis. The present study was aimed to investigate the interplay between pro-inflammatory effects of H(2)S and SP in a murine model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by 10 hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein (50 (g/kg). PAG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered either 1 hr before (prophylactic) or 1 hr after (therapeutic) the first caerulein injection. PAG, given prophylactically as well as therapeutically, significantly reduced plasma H(2)S levels and pancreatic H(2)S synthesizing activities as well as SP concentrations in plasma, pancreas and lung compared with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of PAG significantly reduced PPT-A mRNA expression and NK-1R mRNA expression in both pancreas and lung when compared with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. These results suggest that the pro-inflammatory effects of H(2)S may be mediated by SP-NK-1R pathway in acute pancreatitis.

  3. SIX2 Effects on Wilms Tumor Biology1

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Janene; Murphy, Andrew J.; Panzer, Alexis; de Caestecker, Christian; Ayers, Gregory D.; Neblett, David; Saito-Diaz, Kenyi; de Caestecker, Mark; Lovvorn, Harold N.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) blastema retains gene expression profiles characteristic of the multipotent nephron progenitor pool, or cap mesenchyme (CM), in the developing kidney. As a result, WT blastema and the CM are believed to represent contextual analogues of one another. Sine oculis homeobox 2 (SIX2) is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the CM, provides a critical mechanism for CM self-renewal, and remains persistently active in WT blastema, although its purpose in this childhood malignancy remains unclear. We hypothesized that SIX2, analogous to its function in development, confers a survival pathway to blastema, the putative WT stem cell. To test its functional significance in WT biology, wild-type SIX2 was overexpressed in the human WT cell line, WiT49. After validating this model, SIX2 effects on anchorage-independent growth, proliferation, invasiveness, canonical WNT pathway signaling, and gene expression of specific WNT pathway participants were evaluated. Relative to controls, WiT49 cells overexpressing SIX2 showed significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth and early-passage proliferation representing surrogates of cell survival. Interestingly, overexpression of SIX2 generally repressed TCF/LEF-dependent canonical WNT signaling, which activates and coordinates both differentiation and stem pathways, but significantly heightened canonical WNT signaling through the survivin promoter, a mechanism that exclusively maintains the stem state. In summary, when overexpressed in a human WT cell line, SIX2 enhances cell survival and appears to shift the balance in WNT/β-catenin signaling away from a differentiation path and toward a stem cell survival path. PMID:25500091

  4. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin in a rat model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Cristina; Marchena, Ana M; Holguín-Arévalo, María S; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Rodríguez, Ana B; Paredes, Sergio D; Pariente, José A

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin in a rat model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. For the induction of experimental acute pancreatitis, four subcutaneous injections of caerulein (20 mgkg–1 body weight) were given to Wistar rats at 2-h intervals. Melatonin was injected intraperitoneally (25 mg kg–1 body weight) 30 min before each caerulein injection. After 12 h, rats were sacrificed by decapitation. Blood and pancreas samples were collected and processed for serological and histopathological studies,respectively. Lipase, a-amylase, corticosterone, total antioxidant power and cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-4 and tumour necrosis factor(TNF)-a were determined using commercial kits. ANOVA and Tukey tests (P<0.05) were performed for the statistical analysis of the results.Results showed that the administration of melatonin reduced histological damage induced by caerulein treatment as well as the hyperamylasemia and hyperlipidemia. Corticosterone and antioxidant total power were also reverted to basal activities. Furthermore, melatonin pre-treatment reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b and TNF-a and increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4. In conclusion,the findings suggest that the protective effect of melatonin in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis is mediated by the anti-inflammatory ability of this indolamine. Thus, melatonin may have a protective effect against acute pancreatitis.

  7. The Effect of Acute Vibration Exercise on Short-Distance Sprinting and Reactive Agility

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Darryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has been a popular modality to enhancing physical performance, where various training methods and techniques have been employed to improve immediate and long-term sprint performance. However, the use of acute side-alternating VbX on sprint and agility performance remains unclear. Eight female athletes preformed side-alternating vibration exercise (VbX) and control (no VbX) in a cross over randomised design that was conducted one week apart. After performing a warm-up, the athletes undertook maximal 5m sprints and maximal reactive agility sprints (RAT), this was followed by side-alternating VbX (26 Hz, 6mm) or control (no VbX). Immediately following the intervention, post-sprint tests and RAT were performed. There was a significant treatment effect but there was no time effect (pre vs. post) or interaction effect for sprint and RAT; however, side-alternating VbX did not compromise sprint and agility performance. Key Points Acute VbX could be beneficial for the acceleration phase (1.5m) of a short-distance sprint. Acute VbX does not have positive influence on short-distance (3m & 5m) sprint performance. Acute VbX does not enhance reactive agility performance. PMID:24149157

  8. Regioselective synthesis and biological profiling of butyric and phenylalkylcarboxylic esters derivated from D-mannose and xylitol: influence of alkyl chain length on acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pouillart, P; Douillet, O; Scappini, B; Gozzini, A; Santini, V; Grossi, A; Pagliai, G; Strippoli, P; Rigacci, L; Ronco, G; Villa, P

    1999-01-01

    Regiospecific synthesis of 12 novel n-butyric and phenylalkylcarboxylic monoesters of mannose and xylitol was achieved. The strategy adopted, avoided a tedious intramolecular transesterification step, previously described for the synthesis of analogous compounds and permitted the facile synthesis of a new generation of stable derivatives. The general tolerance of the drugs has been assayed after intravenous administration of a bolus dose into mice. Monobutyric esters showed a low toxicity commensurate with the requirements for future development. A relationship was observed between chain length and toxicity. In contrast, phenylacetic, 3-phenylpropionic and 4-phenylbutyric esters were found to be toxic. Phenylbutyric esters induced marked and specific neuromuscular damage. Preliminary biological investigations of the new series of monobutyric esters showed them to retain the benificial biological properties of butyric acid whilst remaining relatively non toxic. They induced an inhibition of in vitro proliferation of 10 human cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primary cultures and AML established cell lines. AML blasts growth appeared to be blocked and cell differentiation was established. Transcription and expression of maturation markers and finally apoptosis were observed. Moreover, human gamma-chain hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis in erythroleukemia cells was stimulated by monobutyric esters. Mannose and xylitol butyric derivatives would appear to have exciting potential in treatment of beta-Hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell anemia and cancer.

  9. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p < .01). Results of a subgroup analysis indicated that either long-term exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (1.39 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.89, p < .01) or short-term exercise of high intensity (0.83 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.40, p < .01) elevated homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative

  10. Thyroid receptor β involvement in the effects of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Leach, Prescott T; Kenney, Justin W; Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common despite adverse health effects. Nicotine's effects on learning may contribute to addiction by enhancing drug-context associations. Effects of nicotine on learning could be direct or could occur by altering systems that modulate cognition. Because thyroid signaling can alter cognition and nicotine/smoking may change thyroid function, nicotine could affect learning through changes in thyroid signaling. These studies investigate the functional contributions of thyroid receptor (TR) subtypes β and α1 to nicotine-enhanced learning and characterize the effects of acute nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels. We conducted a high throughput screen of transcription factor activity to identify novel targets that may contribute to the effects of nicotine on learning. Based on these results, which showed that combined nicotine and learning uniquely acted to increase TR activation, we identified TRs as potential targets of nicotine. Further analyses were conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of nicotine and learning on thyroid hormone levels, but no changes were seen. Next, to determine the role of TRβ and TRα1 in the effects of nicotine on learning, mice lacking the TRβ or TRα1 gene and wildtype littermates were administered acute nicotine prior to fear conditioning. Nicotine enhanced contextual fear conditioning in TRα1 knockout mice and wildtypes from both lines but TRβ knockout mice did not show nicotine-enhanced learning. This finding supports involvement of TRβ signaling in the effect of acute nicotine on hippocampus-dependent memory. Acute nicotine enhances learning and these effects may involve processes regulated by the transcription factor TRβ.

  11. The Role of Non-Targeted Effects as Mediators in the Biological Effects of Proton Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Dicello, John F.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the hypothesis that non-DNA targets are primary initiators and mediators of the biological effects of ionizing radiation, such as proton beams and heavy ions, has gained much interest. These phenomena have been denoted as non-targeted or bystander effects to distinguish them from the more traditionally studied model that focuses on direct damage to DNA causing chromosomal rearrangements and mutations as causative of most biological endpoints such as cell killing, tissue damage, and cancer. We review cellular and extra-cellular structures and signal transduction pathways that have been implemented in these recent studies. Non-targeted effects of interest include oxidative damage to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, disruption of the extra-cellular matrix, and modification of cytokine signaling including TGF-beta, and gap junction communication. We present an introduction to these targets and pathways, and contrast there role with DNA damage pathways.

  12. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  13. The Effect of Vigorous Intensity Acute Exercise on Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David Spencer

    2012-01-01

    The effect of physical activity (PA) and consequent influence on cognition within adult seniors has been widely published. However, there is a paucity of causal research relating PA and cognition to schoolchildren within an authentic setting. Also, little is known about the required intensity and dosage of PA to effect executive function (EF)…

  14. Effects of acute and chronic beta-receptor blockade on ventricular repolarisation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, N; Olsson, S B

    1981-01-01

    The right ventricular repolarisation phase was studied electrophysiologically after an injection of 15 mg metoprolol in 16 healthy volunteers. Eight of them were restudied after chronic treatment with 400 mg metoprolol daily for five weeks. The assessment of the repolarisation time included ventricular effective refractory periods, monophasic action potential duration, and the QT interval measured during atrial stimulation at different driving frequencies. The acute administration of 15 mg metoprolol intravenously had no detectable effect on the repolarisation phase, while chronic treatment caused a significant increase of the ventricular effective refractory periods, monophasic action potential duration, and the QT interval during atrial stimulation. Thus the study confirmed the contrasting effect of acute and chronic beta-receptor blockade on the ventricular repolarisation time in man. PMID:7259913

  15. Effects of acute and chronic exercise in patients with essential hypertension: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2015-04-01

    The importance of regular physical activity in essential hypertension has been extensively investigated over the last decades and has emerged as a major modifiable factor contributing to optimal blood pressure control. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by promoting traditional cardiovascular risk factor regulation, as well as by favorably regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, molecular effects, cardiac, and vascular function. Benefits of resistance exercise need further validation. On the other hand, acute exercise is now an established trigger of acute cardiac events. A number of possible pathophysiological links have been proposed, including SNS, vascular function, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. In order to fully interpret this knowledge into clinical practice, we need to better understand the role of exercise intensity and duration in this pathophysiological cascade and in special populations. Further studies in hypertensive patients are also warranted in order to clarify the possibly favorable effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced effects.

  16. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kristy; Gray, Marcus A; Oliver, Chris; Liley, David T; Harrison, Ben J; Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Phan, K Luan; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2004-10-01

    L-Theanine (delta-glutamylethylamide) is one of the predominant amino acids ordinarily found in green tea, and historically has been used as a relaxing agent. The current study examined the acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with a standard benzodiazepine anxiolytic, alprazolam and placebo on behavioural measures of anxiety in healthy human subjects using the model of anticipatory anxiety (AA). Sixteen healthy volunteers received alprazolam (1 mg), L-theanine (200 mg) or placebo in a double-blind placebo-controlled repeated measures design. The acute effects of alprazolam and L-theanine were assessed under a relaxed and experimentally induced anxiety condition. Subjective self-reports of anxiety including BAI, VAMS, STAI state anxiety, were obtained during both task conditions at pre- and post-drug administrations. The results showed some evidence for relaxing effects of L-theanine during the baseline condition on the tranquil-troubled subscale of the VAMS. Alprazolam did not exert any anxiolytic effects in comparison with the placebo on any of the measures during the relaxed state. Neither L-theanine nor alprazalam had any significant anxiolytic effects during the experimentally induced anxiety state. The findings suggest that while L-theanine may have some relaxing effects under resting conditions, neither L-theanine not alprazolam demonstrate any acute anxiolytic effects under conditions of increased anxiety in the AA model.

  18. The Effects of Optimism and Gratitude on Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Readmissions Following an Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Jeff C.; Beale, Eleanor E.; Celano, Christopher M.; Beach, Scott R.; Belcher, Arianna M.; Moore, Shannon V.; Suarez, Laura; Motiwala, Shweta R.; Gandhi, Parul U.; Gaggin, Hanna; Januzzi, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, no study has separately examined the effects of multiple positive psychological constructs on behavioral, biological, and clinical outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Accordingly, we aimed to investigate associations of baseline optimism and gratitude with subsequent physical activity, prognostic biomarkers, and cardiac rehospitalizations in post-ACS patients. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled during admission for ACS and underwent assessments at baseline (2 weeks post-ACS) and follow-up (6 months later). Associations between baseline positive psychological constructs and subsequent physical activity/biomarkers were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Associations between baseline positive constructs and 6-month rehospitalizations were assessed via multivariable Cox regression. Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessments. Baseline optimism was significantly associated with greater physical activity at 6 months (n=153; β=102.5; 95% confidence interval [13.6-191.5]; p=.024), controlling for baseline activity and sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological covariates. Baseline optimism was also associated with lower rates of cardiac readmissions at 6 months (N=164), controlling for age, gender, and medical comorbidity (hazard ratio=.92; 95% confidence interval [.86-.98]; p=.006). There were no significant relationships between optimism and biomarkers. Gratitude was minimally associated with post-ACS outcomes. Conclusions Post-ACS optimism, but not gratitude, was prospectively and independently associated with superior physical activity and fewer cardiac readmissions. Whether interventions that target optimism can successfully increase optimism or improve cardiovascular outcomes in post-ACS patients is not yet known, but can be tested in future studies. Clinical

  19. Afferent Mechanisms of Microwave-Induced Biological Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-12

    following general conclusions: (1) Acute exposure to microwaves (45 minutes, at power density 1 mW/cm 2 with whole body SAR of 0.6 W/kg, pulsed or...45 minutes. The power density averaged over the vaveguide cross section used in the experiments was I mW/cm2 (average whole body SAR 0.6 W/kg). Drug...Lai et al, 1984a). In the exposure system, the average whole body SARs are similar in the two orientations of exposure, whereas localized absorption

  20. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  1. The contradictory effects of nitric oxide in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Feral; Gul, Mehmet; Esrefoglu, Mukaddes; Ates, Burhan

    2008-04-01

    This study was planned to observe the effects of nitric oxide synthesis on the antioxidative defense enzymes and pancreatic tissue histology in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injections of 50 microg/kg caerulein, L-arginine used for NO induction and N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) used for NO inhibition. In the caerulein group acinar cell degeneration, interstitial inflammation, oedema and haemorrhage were detected. Pancreatic damage scores were decreased with both NO induction and inhibition (p<0.05). MDA, GSH-Px, CAT, GSH and SOD activities were significantly changed in the caerulein group and indicated increased oxidative stress. Both NO induction and inhibition decreased this oxidative stress. It is concluded that both nitric oxide induction and inhibition ameliorated caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. The findings indicate that a certain amount of NO production has beneficial effects in experimental acute pancreatitis, but uncontrolled over-production of NO may be detrimental.

  2. Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jordan M; Smith, Keyona; Moyen, Nicole E; Binns, Ashley; Gray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal beta-alanine (BA) supplementation can improve exercise performance in males through increases in carnosine; however, females experience greater relative increases in carnosine compared to males. This potentially allows females to benefit from acute BA doses; however, effects of an acute BA dose on performance in females remain unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how an acute dose of 1.6 g BA affects anaerobic performance in female cyclists. Twelve females (age=26.6±1.3 y) volunteered to participate in this randomized, double-blind study. All participants completed two supplement trials: 1) Placebo=34 g dextrose and 2) BA=1.6 g BA + 34 g dextrose. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each. Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period. RPE significantly decreased (p<0.001) immediately following Wingates 1 and 2 and after each 2-min rest period for the BA trials; however, no differences were observed immediately after Wingate 3 (p>0.05). No significant supplementation effect was observed for any performance or physiological variable (p>0.05 for all variables). Findings suggest that an acute dose of BA (1.6 g) decreases RPE during anaerobic power activities in trained female cyclists.

  3. Acute health effects after exposure to chlorine gas released after a train derailment.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, David; Wenck, Mary Anne; Belflower, Amy; Drociuk, Dan; Ferdinands, Jill; Holguin, Fernando; Svendsen, Erik; Bretous, Lena; Jankelevich, Shirley; Gibson, James J; Garbe, Paul; Moolenaar, Ronald L

    2009-01-01

    In January 2005, a train derailment on the premises of a textile mill in South Carolina released 42 to 60 tons of chlorine gas in the middle of a small town. Medical records and autopsy reports were reviewed to describe the clinical presentation, hospital course, and pathology observed in persons hospitalized or deceased as a result of chlorine gas exposure. Eight persons died before reaching medical care; of the 71 persons hospitalized for acute health effects as a result of chlorine exposure, 1 died in the hospital. The mean age of the hospitalized persons was 40 years (range, 4 months-76 years); 87% were male. The median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1-29 days). Twenty-five (35%) persons were admitted to the intensive care unit; the median length of stay was 3 days. Many surviving victims developed significant pulmonary signs and severe airway inflammation; 41 (58%) hospitalized persons met PO2/FiO2 criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury. During their hospitalization, 40 (57%) developed abnormal x-ray findings, 74% of those within the first day. Hypoxia on room air and PO2/FiO2 ratio predicted severity of outcome as assessed by the duration of hospitalization and the need for intensive care support. This community release of chlorine gas caused widespread exposure and resulted in significant acute health effects and substantial health care requirements. Pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas analysis provided early indications of outcome severity.

  4. Efficacy and Biological Correlates of Response in a Phase II Study of Venetoclax Monotherapy in Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Konopleva, Marina; Pollyea, Daniel A; Potluri, Jalaja; Chyla, Brenda; Hogdal, Leah; Busman, Todd; McKeegan, Evelyn; Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Zhu, Ming; Ricker, Justin L; Blum, William; DiNardo, Courtney D; Kadia, Tapan; Dunbar, Martin; Kirby, Rachel; Falotico, Nancy; Leverson, Joel; Humerickhouse, Rod; Mabry, Mack; Stone, Richard; Kantarjian, Hagop; Letai, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    We present a phase II, single-arm study evaluating 800 mg daily venetoclax, a highly selective, oral small-molecule B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) inhibitor in patients with high-risk relapsed/refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Responses were evaluated following revised International Working Group (IWG) criteria. The overall response rate was 19%; an additional 19% of patients demonstrated antileukemic activity not meeting IWG criteria (partial bone marrow response and incomplete hematologic recovery). Twelve (38%) patients had isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations, of whom 4 (33%) achieved complete response or complete response with incomplete blood count recovery. Six (19%) patients had BCL2-sensitive protein index at screening, which correlated with time on study. BH3 profiling was consistent with on-target BCL2 inhibition and identified potential resistance mechanisms. Common adverse events included nausea, diarrhea and vomiting (all grades), and febrile neutropenia and hypokalemia (grade 3/4). Venetoclax demonstrated activity and acceptable tolerability in patients with AML and adverse features.

  5. [Ibopamine--acute hemodynamic, renal and neurohumoral effects].

    PubMed

    Wehling, M; Theisen, K

    1991-01-01

    Ibopamine (IP) is a novel dopamine analogue for which beneficial effects have been shown in chronic heart failure. Hemodynamic effects of the substance include an increase in cardiac output and a decrease in the peripheral resistance. Aside from these hemodynamic effects, changes in renal (increased diuresis) and neurohumoral parameters (decreased plasma renin activity, aldosterone, norepinephrine, increased ANF and cGMP) have been found. The renal effects may originate from three independent mechanisms: 1) direct impact of improved hemodynamic parameters on the renal perfusion; 2) the improved cardiac performance results in a reduction of compensatory hormonal adaptations, such as the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-axis or the sympathetic system; 3) direct effects on the intrarenal hemodynamic and glomerular/tubular functions induced by stimulation of renal dopaminergic receptors. The continued decrease of the plasma renin activity by 35% results in a reduction of the plasma levels of angiotensin II and aldosterone. Additionally, an increase in plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and its second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) was observed after ibopamine, which could contribute to the diuretic action of the drug. These findings underline the importance of extrarenal effects of a drug in the treatment of heart failure, this may essentially contribute to the improvement of cardiac performance, independent of positive inotropy.

  6. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies.

  7. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: control; irradiation+saline (1 mL); and irradiation +OzOO (1 mL). A single fraction of 17.5 Gy was delivered to each rat. The OzOO was administered rectally each day after irradiation. Each rat was observed daily for signs of proctitis. Irradiated rats were euthanised on days 5 and 10. The mucosal changes were evaluated macroscopically and pathologically. Results: According to the clinical findings, five rats in the irradiation+saline group showed Grade 4 symptoms on the 10th day. Macroscopic finding scores on the 10th day in the irradiation+saline and irradiation+OzOO groups were statistically significantly different. On pathological examination, radiation-induced mucosal damage was the most prominent 10 days after irradiation in saline-treated rats. On the 10th day, the irradiation+OzOO group showed mild inflammation and slight crypt change, which corresponded to Grade 1 pathological findings. Conclusion: OzOO attenuates macroscopic and pathological findings of acute radiation proctitis in rats. PMID:25207143

  8. Biologically-Effective Rainfall Pulses in Mediterranean and Monsoonal Regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semiarid regions rainfall pulses provide intermittent opportunities for biological activity. These pulses have been shown to affect the activity of microbes and plant differently, altering the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) from these ecosystems. We examine NEE and its components ...

  9. Biological challenges to effective vaccines in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Kang, Gagandeep; Kampmann, Beate

    2015-06-19

    The reason for holding a meeting to discuss biological challenges to vaccines is simple: not all vaccines work equally well in all settings. This special issue reviews the performance of vaccines in challenging environments, summarizes current thinking on the reasons why vaccines underperform and considers what approaches are necessary to understand the heterogeneity in responses and to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy.

  10. Increased sagittal vertical axis is associated with less effective control of acute pain following vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y-C.; Bok, D. H.; Chang, H-G.; Kim, S. W.; Park, M. S.; Oh, J. K.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although vertebroplasty is very effective for relieving acute pain from an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, not all patients who undergo vertebroplasty receive the same degree of benefit from the procedure. In order to identify the ideal candidate for vertebroplasty, pre-operative prognostic demographic or clinico-radiological factors need to be identified. The objective of this study was to identify the pre-operative prognostic factors related to the effect of vertebroplasty on acute pain control using a cohort of surgically and non-surgically managed patients. Patients and Methods Patients with single-level acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture at thoracolumbar junction (T10 to L2) were followed. If the patients were not satisfied with acute pain reduction after a three-week conservative treatment, vertebroplasty was recommended. Pain assessment was carried out at the time of diagnosis, as well as three, four, six, and 12 weeks after the diagnosis. The effect of vertebroplasty, compared with conservative treatment, on back pain (visual analogue score, VAS) was analysed with the use of analysis-of-covariance models that adjusted for pre-operative VAS scores. Results A total of 342 patients finished the 12-week follow-up, and 120 patients underwent vertebroplasty (35.1%). The effect of vertebroplasty over conservative treatment was significant regardless of age, body mass index, medical comorbidity, previous fracture, pain duration, bone mineral density, degree of vertebral body compression, and canal encroachment. However, the effect of vertebroplasty was not significant at all time points in patients with increased sagittal vertical axis. Conclusions For single-level acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, the effect of vertebroplasty was less favourable in patients with increased sagittal vertical axis (> 5 cm) possible due to aggravation of kyphotic stress from walking imbalance. Cite this article: Y-C. Kim, D. H

  11. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments.

  12. Effectiveness of acute geriatric units on functional decline, living at home, and case fatality among older patients admitted to hospital for acute medical disorders: meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-García, Francisco M; López-Arrieta, Jesús; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of acute geriatric units compared with conventional care units in adults aged 65 or more admitted to hospital for acute medical disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to 31 August 2008, and references from published literature. Review methods Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, and case-control studies were included. Exclusions were studies based on administrative databases, those that assessed care for a single disorder, those that evaluated acute and subacute care units, and those in which patients were admitted to the acute geriatric unit after three or more days of being admitted to hospital. Two investigators independently selected the studies and extracted the data. Results 11 studies were included of which five were randomised trials, four non-randomised trials, and two case-control studies. The randomised trials showed that compared with older people admitted to conventional care units those admitted to acute geriatric units had a lower risk of functional decline at discharge (combined odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.99) and were more likely to live at home after discharge (1.30, 1.11 to 1.52), with no differences in case fatality (0.83, 0.60 to 1.14). The global analysis of all studies, including non-randomised trials, showed similar results. Conclusions Care of people aged 65 or more with acute medical disorders in acute geriatric units produces a functional benefit compared with conventional hospital care, and increases the likelihood of living at home after discharge. PMID:19164393

  13. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on response inhibition in humans: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Desirée B; De Bruijn, Ellen R A; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Verkes, Robbert J

    2016-11-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with alterations in response inhibition in humans. Not much research has examined how the acute effects of drugs modify the neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition, or how these effects interact with individual variation in trait levels of impulsivity and novelty seeking. This study investigated the effects of cocaine and cannabis on behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of response inhibition in 38 healthy drug using volunteers. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized three-way crossover design was used. All subjects completed a standard Go/NoGo task after administration of the drugs. Compared with a placebo, cocaine yielded improved accuracy, quicker reaction times and an increased prefrontal NoGo-P3 ERP. Cannabis produced opposing results; slower reaction times, impaired accuracy and a reduction in the amplitude of the prefrontal NoGo-P3. Cannabis in addition decreased the amplitude of the parietally recorded P3, while cocaine did not affect this. Neither drugs specifically affected the N2 component, suggesting that pre-motor response inhibitory processes remain unaffected. Neither trait impulsivity nor novelty seeking interacted with drug-induced effects on measures of response inhibition. We conclude that acute drug effects on response inhibition seem to be specific to the later, evaluative stages of response inhibition. The acute effects of cannabis appeared less specific to response inhibition than those of cocaine. Together, the results show that the behavioural effects on response inhibition are reflected in electrophysiological correlates. This study did not support a substantial role of vulnerability personality traits in the acute intoxication stage.

  14. Synergistic effects of anethole and ibuprofen in acute inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski-Rebecca, Edirlene S; Rocha, Bruno A; Wiirzler, Luiz A M; Cuman, Roberto K N; Velazquez-Martinez, Carlos A; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A

    2015-12-05

    This study assessed the effect of the combination of anethole and ibuprofen in comparison with monotherapy by either drug alone, using two in vivo inflammatory models, namely the pleurisy and paw edema in rats. We also measured the levels of the TNF protein in plasma, and the ability of anethole to inhibit, in vitro, the activity of the cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 enzymes. The test drugs (anethole; ibuprofen; anethole + ibuprofen), at different doses, were administered once (p.o.) 60 min before the induction of the inflammatory response. The association of anethole + ibuprofen inhibited the development of the inflammatory response in both models used. This effect can be partially explained by the inhibitory action on the production of TNF and of COX isoforms. The isobologram analysis evidenced a synergistic effect between ibuprofen and anethole, because the combination of drugs showed a higher inhibitory potential than either drug alone.

  15. Effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a species of choice in neurobiological and behavioral studies of alcohol-related disorders. In these efforts, the activity of adult zebrafish is typically quantified using indirect activity measures that are either scored manually or identified automatically from the fish trajectory. The analysis of such activity measures has produced important insight into the effect of acute ethanol exposure on individual and social behavior of this vertebrate species. Here, we leverage a recently developed tracking algorithm that reconstructs fish body shape to investigate the effect of acute ethanol administration on zebrafish tail-beat motion in terms of amplitude and frequency. Our results demonstrate a significant effect of ethanol on the tail-beat amplitude as well as the tail-beat frequency, both of which were found to robustly decrease for high ethanol concentrations. Such a direct measurement of zebrafish motor functions is in agreement with evidence based on indirect activity measures, offering a complementary perspective in behavioral screening.

  16. Effect of acute stress on sexual behavior in female rats: participation of the central angiotensinergic system.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Raineki, Charlis; Sebben, Vanise; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2010-03-05

    Stress might influence the reproductive behavior in females, and central angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide that plays a role in stress response and in the modulation of sexual behavior. The medial amygdala (MeA), an important structure that regulates this behavior, is strongly involved in stress response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus on sexual receptivity in female rats and the participation of Ang II and MeA in this effect. Adult female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycles were utilized. The acute stress protocol utilized was the restraint stress for 15 min on the night of proestrus. The participation of Ang II was evaluated by injecting Ang II and Ang II receptor antagonists (losartan and PD12319) into the MeA. The lordosis quotient was recorded. The stress or the microinjection of Ang II into the MeA significantly reduced sexual behavior. The blockade of AT(1) or AT(2) receptors in the MeA prevented the effect of stress and the effect of Ang II microinjection into this nucleus on sexual receptivity. We concluded that acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus reduces sexual behavior in rats, and this effect is mediated by both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the MeA.

  17. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jarema, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deborah L.; Shaffer, Rachel M.; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n ≈ 24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4–120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. PMID:26348672

  18. Prognostic and biologic significance of DNMT3B expression in older patients with cytogenetically normal primary acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, C; Kohlschmidt, J; Volinia, S; Whitman, S P; Metzeler, K H; Eisfeld, A-K; Maharry, K; Yan, P; Frankhouser, D; Becker, H; Schwind, S; Carroll, A J; Nicolet, D; Mendler, J H; Curfman, J P; Wu, Y-Z; Baer, M R; Powell, B L; Kolitz, J E; Moore, J O; Carter, T H; Bundschuh, R; Larson, R A; Stone, R M; Mrózek, K; Marcucci, G; Bloomfield, C D

    2015-03-01

    DNMT3B encodes a DNA methyltransferase implicated in aberrant epigenetic changes contributing to leukemogenesis. We tested whether DNMT3B expression, measured by NanoString nCounter assay, associates with outcome, gene and microRNA expression and DNA methylation profiles in 210 older (⩾60 years) adults with primary, cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients were dichotomized into high versus low expressers using median cut. Outcomes were assessed in the context of known CN-AML prognosticators. Gene and microRNA expression, and DNA methylation profiles were analyzed using microarrays and MethylCap-sequencing, respectively. High DNMT3B expressers had fewer complete remissions (CR; P=0.002) and shorter disease-free (DFS; P=0.02) and overall (OS; P<0.001) survival. In multivariable analyses, high DNMT3B expression remained an independent predictor of lower CR rates (P=0.04) and shorter DFS (P=0.04) and OS (P=0.001). High DNMT3B expression associated with a gene expression profile comprising 363 genes involved in differentiation, proliferation and survival pathways, but with only four differentially expressed microRNAs (miR-133b, miR-148a, miR-122, miR-409-3p) and no differential DNA methylation regions. We conclude that high DNMT3B expression independently associates with adverse outcome in older CN-AML patients. Gene expression analyses suggest that DNMT3B is involved in the modulation of several genes, although the regulatory mechanisms remain to be investigated to devise therapeutic approaches specific for these patients.

  19. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    PubMed Central

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  20. The acute physiological and mood effects of tea and coffee: the role of caffeine level.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.

  1. Sediment contaminants and biological effects in southern California: Use of a multivariate statistical approach to assess biological impact

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, C.L.; Barnett, A.M.; Diener, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    This study attempts to predict biological toxicity and benthic community impact in sediments collected from two southern California sites. Contaminant concentrations and grain size were evaluated as predictors using a two-step multivariate approach. The first step used principal component analysis (PCA) to describe contamination type and magnitude present at each site. Four dominant PC vectors, explaining 88% of the total variance, each corresponded to a unique physical and/or chemical signature. The four PC vectors, in decreasing order of importance, were: (1) high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), most likely from combusted or weathered petroleum; (2) low molecular weight alkylated PAH, primarily from weathered fuel product; (3) low molecular weight nonalkylated PAH, indicating a fresh petroleum-related origin; and (4) fine-grained sediments and metals. The second step used stepwise regression analysis to predict individual biological effects (dependent) variables using the four PC vectors as independent variables. Results showed that sediment grain size alone was the best predictor of amphipod mortality. Contaminant vectors showed discrete depositional areas independent of grain size. Neither contaminant concentrations nor PCA vectors were good predictors of biological effects, most likely due to the low concentrations in sediments.

  2. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Juliana Oliveira; de Arruda, Laura Lícia Milani; Baroni, Silmara; Truiti, Maria da Conceição Torrado; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees) Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction) induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%). Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg). These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action. PMID:22028731

  4. The Acute Effects of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone on Reaction Times.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    to thyroid patients. It has no long term side effects. It has been known to improve concentration, comprehension, self-confidence and energy level...and Sgt. Laura Howell for their work during the early mornings and occasional tedium that this long -running experiment produced. In addition, I wish to...error term . At one time in the experimentation, there was a shortage of the TRH supply and, as a result, seven of the ten subjects received saline for

  5. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  6. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-01-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  7. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism.

  8. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions.

    PubMed

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  9. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  10. Acute effects of intravenous administration of pamidronate in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mie Jin; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Park, Shin-Goo; Park, Won

    2010-09-01

    We investigated acute effects of intermittent large dose bisphosphonate therapy in osteoporotic patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with alendronate (100 microM) for 18 hr, in vitro and cytokine expressions were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Pamidronate 30 mg was administered on 26 osteoporotic patients; and acute phase reactants, inflammatory cytokines and bone biomarkers were measured. The in vitro study showed significant increase in mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. A notable rise in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed over 3 days after pamidronate infusion (P=0.026). Serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-gamma were also significantly increased (P=0.009, 0.014, 0.035, respectively) and the increase in IL-6 levels were strongly correlated with CRP levels (P=0.04). Serum calcium and c-telopeptide levels rapidly decreased after the treatment (P=0.02, <0.001, respectively). This study showed that mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines at peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) level were observed within 18 hr and marked elevation of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants were demonstrated after pamidronate infusion at the dose for osteoporosis. Our studies confirmed that intermittent large dose aminobisphosphonate causes acute inflammation.

  11. Effect of total phenolics from Laggera alata on acute and chronic inflammation models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yihang; Zhou, Changxin; Song, Liyan; Li, Xiangping; Shi, Shuyun; Mo, Jianxia; Chen, Haiyong; Bai, Hua; Wu, Xiumei; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Rongping; Hao, Xiaojiang; Sun, Handong; Zhao, Yu

    2006-11-24

    The anti-inflammatory effect of total phenolics from Laggera alata (TPLA) was evaluated with various in vivo models of both acute and chronic inflammations. In the acute inflammation tests, TPLA inhibited significantly xylene-induced mouse ear oedema, carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema and acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability. In the carrageenan-induced rat pleurisy model, TPLA significantly suppressed inflammatory exudate and leukocyte migration, reduced the serum levels of lysozyme (LZM) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and also decreased the contents of total protein, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the pleural exudates. In the chronic inflammation experiment, TPLA inhibited significantly cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma. These results indicated that TPLA possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic inflammation models. Its anti-inflammatory mechanisms are probably associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin formation, the influence on the antioxidant systems, and the suppression of LZM release. Furthermore, the total phenolic content of Laggera alata and its main component type was quantified, and its principle components were isolated and authenticated. Acute toxicity studies revealed that TPLA up to an oral dose of 8.5 g/kg body weight was almost nontoxic in mice.

  12. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably.

  13. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine.

  14. The Protective Effects of Cobra Venom from Naja naja atra on Acute and Chronic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Zhi; He, He; Han, Rong; Zhu, Jia-Li; Kou, Jian-Qun; Ding, Xiao-Lan; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) on acute and chronic nephropathy in rats. Rats received 6 mg/kg adriamycin (ADR) once to evoke the chronic nephropathy or 8 ml/kg 50% v/v glycerol to produce acute renal failure (ARF). The NNAV was given orally once a day starting five days prior to ADR or glycerol injection and continued to the end of experiments. The animals were placed in metabolic cages for 24 h for urine collection for urinary protein determination. The kidney function-related bi