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Sample records for acute cardiovascular effects

  1. Acute effects of tianeptine on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Hernández, Gerardo; Orozco, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Simon; Baez, Scarlet

    2006-03-01

    Tianeptine is a serotonin-uptake enhancer drug whose antidepressant effectiveness is based on its ability to reduce rather than increase serotonin availability at the synaptic cleft. This paradoxical neuropharmacological mechanism has raised doubt among neuropharmacologists and psychiatrists as to the role of tianeptine as a trusty-reliable antidepressant drug. This controversial issue led us to investigate the acute effects of a single, oral dose (12.5 mg) of this drug on circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters in 50 healthy subjects. The drug provoked a striking and significant reduction of plasma noradrenaline (NA) and plasma serotonin (f-5-HT) while it increased plasma dopamine (DA) and platelet serotonin (p-5-HT) concentrations within the 4-h study period. No adrenaline (Ad) changes were registered. The NA/Ad ratio and the f-5-HT/p-5-HT ratio showed significant reduction throughout the test. Finally, although diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed significant decrease, neither systolic blood pressure (SBP) nor heart rate (HR) showed significant change. These findings are consistent with the postulation that tianeptine reduces both neural sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activity without affecting adrenal sympathetic activity, enabling us to discuss the possible mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effects of tianeptine. The well-known fact that major depressed patients always show raised NA plus lower than normal p-5-HT levels, both disorders which are normalized by tianeptine, gives neurochemical support to the clinical improvement triggered by the drug in these patients. Summarizing, the results presented in this study demonstrate that tianeptine triggers significant reduction of circulating noradrenaline and plasma serotonin while increasing circulating dopamine and platelet serotonin. Other possible neuropharmacological effects are also discussed.

  2. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  3. Cardiovascular side effects of aminophylline in meconium-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Tonhajzerova, I; Mokry, J; Petraskova, M; Hutko, M; Calkovska, A

    2013-01-01

    As inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), anti-inflammatory agents including inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (PDE) are increasingly used in the treatment. To evaluate side effects of PDE inhibitors, this study analyzed changes in blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during and after intravenous aminophylline in the animal model of MAS. Oxygen-ventilated rabbits were given meconium intratracheally (25 mg/ml, 4 ml/kg) or saline. Thirty minutes later, the animals were treated by intravenous aminophylline (Syntophyllin, 2 mg/kg) or saline (sham-treated controls). A second dose of the treatment was given 2 h later. During (5 min) and immediately after (5 min) the treatment, and during 5 h after the treatment, mean blood pressure in the femoral artery (MAP), HR and HRV were evaluated. In meconium-instilled animals, increases in MABP, HR, and HRV were observed already 5 min after aminophylline administration, while in saline-instilled animals aminophylline increased HR and caused inconsistant changes in HRV parameters compared to sham-treated animals. Within 5 h after the treatment administration, MAP, HR, and HRV parameters gradually returned to the initial values. Concluding, intravenous aminophylline may lead to acute cardiovascular changes. Thus, if aminophylline is used for treatment of MAS, its possible cardiovascular effects should be considered, particularly in patients with cardiovascular instability.

  4. Effects of acute and chronic systemic methamphetamine on respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic function, and cardiorespiratory reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sarah F.; Wearne, Travis A.; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is escalating worldwide, with the most common cause of death resulting from cardiovascular failure and hyperthermia; however, the underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood.Systemic administration of METH in anaesthetised rats reduced the effectiveness of some protective cardiorespiratory reflexes, increased central respiratory activity independently of metabolic function, and increased heart rate, metabolism and respiration in a pattern indicating that non‐shivering thermogenesis contributes to the well‐described hyperthermia.In animals that showed METH‐induced behavioural sensitisation following chronic METH treatment, no changes were evident in baseline cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic measures and the METH‐evoked effects in these parameters were similar to those seen in saline‐treated or drug naïve animals.Physiological effects evoked by METH were retained but were neither facilitated nor depressed following chronic treatment with METH.These data highlight and identify potential mechanisms for targeted intervention in patients vulnerable to METH overdose. Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) is known to promote cardiovascular failure or life‐threatening hyperthermia; however, there is still limited understanding of the mechanisms responsible for evoking the physiological changes. In this study, we systematically determined the effects on both autonomic and respiratory outflows, as well as reflex function, following acute and repeated administration of METH, which enhances behavioural responses. Arterial pressure, heart rate, phrenic nerve discharge amplitude and frequency, lumbar and splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge, interscapular brown adipose tissue and core temperatures, and expired CO2 were measured in urethane‐anaesthetised male Sprague‐Dawley rats. Novel findings include potent increases in central inspiratory drive and frequency that are not dependent on METH

  5. The effect of lunar phases on the occurrence of acute cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertoprud, V. E.; Gurfinkel', Yu. I.; Goncharova, E. E.; Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Kanonidi, H. D.; Mitrofanova, T. A.; Trubina, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the possible impact of lunar phases on the dynamics of acute cardiovascular diseases: acute myocardial infarctions (MIs) and acute brain strokes (BSs) at different levels of heliogeomagnetic activity. The superposed epoch analysis (SEA) has been applied with dates of the new moon and full moon used as reference days. A statistical analysis of a 14-year-long (1992 to 2005) series of everyday medical data from the Central Clinical Hospital no. 1 of Russian Railways (Moscow) and the parameters of heliogeomagnetic activity was carried out. It was found that daily occurrences of MIs and BSs vary with the phase of the moon. These variations are significant; they continue at different levels of heliogeomagnetic activity and are not related to the variations in geomagnetic activity identified by the same method. The effect of lunar phases on MIs and BSs is quite different. New moons and full moons have qualitatively the same effect on MIs; however, there are significant differences in the incidence of BSs during new moons and full moons.

  6. Acute cardiovascular effects of the Wenchuan earthquake: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yucheng; Li, Jing; Xian, Hong; Li, JiangBo; Liu, Si; Liu, GuanJian; Lin, JianNan; Han, Jun; Zeng, Zhi

    2009-09-01

    An increased incidence of cardiovascular events and sudden death occurs after an earthquake. However, the mechanism underlying this is not clear. Previous studies attributed this phenomenon to earthquake-induced elevation of sympathetic activity. This study investigated the acute cardiovascular effects of the Wenchuan earthquake on hypertensive or suspected hypertensive patients. We studied the role of earthquake-induced changes in blood pressure and heart rate in the occurrence of post-earthquake cardiovascular events. This study included 11 patients who were undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring when the Wenchuan earthquake occurred. Trends in blood pressure and heart rate were analyzed, and blood pressure variability (BPV) data were obtained. The mean post-earthquake blood pressure rose rapidly from 125.8+/-17.3/72.1+/-11.9 to 150.5+/-20.3/98+/-10.6 mm Hg (average time of first measurement was 13.8+/-6.3 min after the first tremor), and blood pressure remained high until 6 h after the earthquake. Nighttime blood pressure declined to the mean pre-earthquake daytime levels. The mean daytime blood pressure after the earthquake was greater than the pre-earthquake daytime mean (systolic blood pressure: 138.9+/-14.6 vs. 129.5+/-13.6 mm Hg, P=0.009; diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 81.8+/-13.1 vs. 76.9+/-11.9 mm Hg, P=0.011). Pre- and post-earthquake BPV differed among individuals, but circadian variation was absent in all cases and nightly decreases were less than 10%. These data strongly suggest that significant post-earthquake elevation of blood pressure and abnormal circadian variation of blood pressure are related to the occurrence of post-earthquake cardiovascular events.

  7. Acute and chronic cardiovascular effects of hyperkalemia: new insights into prevention and clinical management.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A; Beaver, Thomas M; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Emmett, Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C; Goyal, Abhinav; Herzog, Charles A; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Palmer, Biff F

    2014-01-01

    The plasma pool of potassium is a partial reflection of the overall body, transient cellular shifts, and potassium elimination regulated by the kidneys. Potassium concentrations elevating above the upper limit of normal (> 5.0 mEq/L) have become more common in cardiovascular practice due to the growing population of patients with chronic kidney disease and the broad applications of drugs that modulate potassium excretion by either reducing production of angiotensin II (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, direct renin inhibitors, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists), blocking angiotensin II receptors (angiotensin receptor blockers), or antagonizing the action of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). In addition, acute kidney injury, critical illness, crush injuries, and massive red blood cell transfusions can result in hyperkalemia. Progressively more severe elevations in potassium are responsible for abnormalities in cardiac depolarization and repolarization and contractility. Untreated severe hyperkalemia results in sudden cardiac death. Traditional management steps have included reducing dietary potassium and discontinuing potassium supplements; withdrawal of exacerbating drugs; acute treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate, insulin, and glucose; nebulized albuterol; correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate for short-term shifts out of the plasma pool; and, finally, gastrointestinal ion exchange with oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol, which is mainly used in the hospital and is poorly tolerated due to gastrointestinal adverse effects. This review explores hyperkalemia as a complication in cardiovascular patients and highlights new acute, chronic, and preventative oral therapies (patiromer calcium, cross-linked polyelectrolyte, ZS-9) that could potentially create a greater margin of safety for vulnerable patients with combined heart and kidney disease.

  8. Acute pneumonia and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Medina, Vicente F; Musher, Daniel M; Shachkina, Svetlana; Chirinos, Julio A

    2013-02-09

    Although traditionally regarded as a disease confined to the lungs, acute pneumonia has important effects on the cardiovascular system at all severities of infection. Pneumonia tends to affect individuals who are also at high cardiovascular risk. Results of recent studies show that about a quarter of adults admitted to hospital with pneumonia develop a major acute cardiac complication during their hospital stay, which is associated with a 60% increase in short-term mortality. These findings suggest that outcomes of patients with pneumonia can be improved by prevention of the development and progression of associated cardiac complications. Before this hypothesis can be tested, however, an adequate mechanistic understanding of the cardiovascular changes that occur during pneumonia, and their role in the trigger of various cardiac complications, is needed. In this Review, we summarise knowledge about the burden of cardiac complications in adults with acute pneumonia, the cardiovascular response to this infection, the potential effects of commonly used cardiovascular and anti-infective drugs on these associations, and possible directions for future research.

  9. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    PubMed

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-02-24

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of N-acetylcysteine in meconium-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Tonhajzerova, I; Pistekova, H; Visnovcova, Z; Drgova, A; Mokry, J; Calkovska, A

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory drugs are increasingly used for treatment of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), but their adverse effects are poorly known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on cardiovascular parameters in an animal model of MAS. Oxygen-ventilated rabbits were intratracheally instilled 4 mL/kg of meconium suspension (25 mg/mL) or saline. Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals were given N-acetylcysteine (10 mg/kg, i.v.) or the same volume of saline. Changes in cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability) were recorded over a 5-min course of solution administration, over 5 min after its end, and then hourly for 5 h. Oxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status) and aldosterone, as a non-specific marker of cardiovascular injury, were determined in plasma. Meconium instillation did not evoke any significant cardiovascular changes, but induced oxidative stress and elevated plasma aldosterone. N-acetylcysteine significantly reduced the mentioned markers of injury. However, its administration was associated with short-term increases in blood pressure and in several parameters of heart rate variability. Considering these effects of N-acetylcysteine, its intravenous administration in newborns with MAS should be carefully monitored.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of hormone replacement therapy on the cardiovascular system in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Lori D; MacLusky, Neil J; Shapiro, Heather M; Abramson, Beth L; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that conjugated estrogens and continuous medroxyprogesterone increases heart disease risk in healthy women. Little is known about the effects of the natural ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone on cardiovascular function at rest and exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of a cyclic format of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (1 mg estradiol daily with cyclic micronized progesterone, 200 mg for 10 d/month) on cardiovascular function at rest and during exercise in healthy, postmenopausal women. A double-blind, cross-over study was conducted in 31 patients. Peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold in addition to submaximal cardiac output were determined. Peripheral measures of resting and peak ischemic blood flows were also determined. Measurements were made at baseline, after 4 h of estrogen/placebo exposure, and subsequently after 1, 2, and 3 months. The sequence of data collection was repeated after 6-wk washout. Oral estradiol with cyclic micronized progesterone increases peak ischemic peripheral blood flow chronically but fails to improve exercise tolerance and peak oxygen uptake. Similarly, submaximal central cardiovascular function is unaffected by HRT. This suggests that estradiol has a beneficial effect on peripheral blood flow, but this benefit offers little advantage in terms of peak exercise performance after 3 months of HRT.

  12. The serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram reduces acute cardiovascular and vegetative effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liechti, M E; Vollenweider, F X

    2000-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or 'Ecstasy' is a widely used recreational drug that produces a state of heightened mood but also cardiovascular and vegetative side-effects. In animals, MDMA releases serotonin and, to a lesser extent, dopamine and norepinephrine. The release of serotonin can be blocked by serotonin uptake inhibitors such as citalopram. It is unknown to what extent this mechanism is also responsible for the physiological side-effects of MDMA seen in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg i.v.) on vegetative and cardiovascular effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg p.o.) in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers. MDMA moderately increased blood pressure and heart rate, slightly elevated body temperature and produced a broad range of acute and short-term side-effects. Citalopram reduced all these MDMA-induced physiological changes except for body temperature. These findings suggest that physiological effects of MDMA in humans are partially due to an interaction of MDMA with the serotonin carrier and a subsequent release of serotonin.

  13. Acute effects of walking in forest environments on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Maiko; Wakayama, Yoko; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Katsumata, Masao; Hirata, Yukiyo; Li, YingJi; Hirata, Kimiko; Shimizu, Takako; Suzuki, Hiroko; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Kagawa, Takahide

    2011-11-01

    We previously found that forest environments reduced stress hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline and showed the relaxing effect both in male and female subjects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of walking under forest environments on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Sixteen healthy male subjects (mean age 57.4 ± 11.6 years) were selected after obtaining informed consent. The subjects took day trips to a forest park in the suburbs of Tokyo and to an urban area of Tokyo as a control in September 2010. On both trips, they walked for 2 h in the morning and afternoon on a Sunday. Blood and urine were sampled on the morning before each trip and after each trip. Blood pressure was measured on the morning (0800) before each trip, at noon (1300), in the afternoon (1600) during each trip, and on the morning (0800) after each trip. The day trip to the forest park significantly reduced blood pressure and urinary noradrenaline and dopamine levels and significantly increased serum adiponectin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels. Walking exercise also reduced the levels of serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and urinary dopamine. Taken together, habitual walking in forest environments may lower blood pressure by reducing sympathetic nerve activity and have beneficial effects on blood adiponectin and DHEA-S levels, and habitual walking exercise may have beneficial effects on blood NT-proBNP levels.

  14. Keep off the grass: marijuana use and acute cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Caldicott, David G E; Holmes, James; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Mahar, Leo

    2005-10-01

    Marijuana is one of the most widely used recreational substances in the world, considered by many consumers as a relatively safe drug with few significant side-effects. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who suffered an acute myocardial infarction following the use of marijuana, despite having no other identifiable risk factors for an acute cardiovascular event. We review the published medical literature regarding acute cardiovascular events following marijuana use and postulate a possible mechanism for this unusual pathological consequence of marijuana use.

  15. The effect of acute sleep deprivation and fatigue in cardiovascular perfusion students: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ashley B; Snyder, Alexandra C; Fernandez, Adam L; Boan, Andrea D; Malek, Angela M; Sistino, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Sleep deprivation as a result of long working hours has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events in healthcare professions but not in cardiovascular perfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on cardiovascular perfusion students. Testing with high-fidelity simulation after 24 hours of sleep deprivation allowed investigators to assess user competency and the effect of fatigue on performance. After informed consent, seven senior perfusion students were enrolled in the study (three declined to participate). The qualitative portion of the study included a focus group session, whereas the quantitative portion included administration of questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), as well as clinical skills assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Subjects were assessed at three different intervals of sleep deprivation over a 24-hour period: baseline (6:00 AM), 12 hours (6:00 PM), 16 hours (10:00 PM), and 24 hours (6:00 AM) of wakefulness. During each scenario, normally monitored bypass parameters, including mean arterial pressure, activated clotting times, partial pressures of oxygen, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and venous flow, were manipulated, and the subjects were required to return the parameters to normal levels. In addition, the scenario required calculation of the final protamine dose (using a dose-response curve) and detection of electrocardiography changes. Each task was varied at the different simulation sessions to decrease the effect of learning. Despite any lack of sleep, we hypothesized that, because of repetition, the times to complete the task would decrease at each session. We also hypothesized that the ESS and SSS scores would increase over time. We expected that the students would anticipate which tasks were being evaluated and would react more quickly. The average ESS scores progressively increased at each time period

  16. Acute effects of 50 Hz magnetic field exposure on human visual task and cardiovascular performance

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, C.J.; Podd, J.V.; Rapley, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    One hundred subjects, males and females with ages ranging between 18 and 48 years, were studied under both field-exposed and sham-exposed conditions. A 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field (MF) was used. To examine the effect of field exposure on performance, a two-alternative, forced-choice, duration-discrimination task with three levels of difficulty was used. The subject`s task was to decide which of two sequentially presented light flashes had the longer duration. The standard duration was 50 ms, and the alternative durations were 65, 100, or 125 ms. Both reaction time and percentage of correct responses were recorded for each subject. MF and sham exposure were for 9 min each. Blood pressure and heart rate were also measured before and following MF exposure and sham-exposure trials. The study was performed double blind, with the exposure order counterbalanced. Compared to sham exposure, MF exposure significantly decreased reaction time on the hardest level of the performance task. MF exposure did not reliably affect percentage correct or cardiovascular performance. It was demonstrated that a relatively high level of statistical power was the basis for the observed MF effect, and the need to pay closer attention to power levels in future research is discussed.

  17. The Effect of Acute Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue in Cardiovascular Perfusion Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Snyder, Alexandra C.; Fernandez, Adam L.; Boan, Andrea D.; Malek, Angela M.; Sistino, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Sleep deprivation as a result of long working hours has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events in healthcare professions but not in cardiovascular perfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on cardiovascular perfusion students. Testing with highfidelity simulation after 24 hours of sleep deprivation allowed investigators to assess user competency and the effect of fatigue on performance. After informed consent, seven senior perfusion students were enrolled in the study (three declined to participate). The qualitative portion of the study included a focus group session, whereas the quantitative portion included administration of questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), as well as clinical skills assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Subjects were assessed at three different intervals of sleep deprivation over a 24-hour period: baseline (6:00 am), 12 hours (6:00 pm), 16 hours (10:00 pm), and 24 hours (6:00 am) of wakefulness. During each scenario, normally monitored bypass parameters, including mean arterial pressure, activated clotting times, partial pressures of oxygen, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and venous flow, were manipulated, and the subjects were required to return the parameters to normal levels. In addition, the scenario required calculation of the final protamine dose (using a dose–response curve) and detection of electrocardiography changes. Each task was varied at the different simulation sessions to decrease the effect of learning. Despite any lack of sleep, we hypothesized that, because of repetition, the times to complete the task would decrease at each session. We also hypothesized that the ESS and SSS scores would increase over time. We expected that the students would anticipate which tasks were being evaluated and would react more quickly. The average ESS scores progressively increased at each time

  18. Acute and delayed effects of intermittant ozone on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of young and aged rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aged population is considered to be more sensitive to air pollutants but relatively few studies have demonstrated increased susceptibility in animal models of aging. To study the acute and delayed physiolo...

  19. Short-term cardiovascular effects of selective phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor olprinone versus non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor aminophylline in a meconium-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Tonhajzerova, I; Pistekova, H; Visnovcova, Z; Mokry, J; Drgova, A; Repcakova, M; Calkovska, A

    2013-12-01

    Various anti-inflammatory drugs have been used for treatment of neonatal meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). As their adverse effects are poorly described, this study compared effects of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitor olprinone and non-selective PDE inhibitor aminophylline on cardiovascular parameters in animal model of MAS. Oxygen-ventilated rabbits were intratracheally instilled 4 mL/kg of meconium (25 mg/mL) or saline. Thirty minutes later, meconium-instilled animals were intravenously given olprinone (0.2 mg/kg) at a single dose at 0.5 h after meconium instillation, or aminophylline (2.0 mg/kg) at two doses at 0.5 and 2.5 h after meconium instillation, or were left without treatment. Cardiovascular changes were evaluated within 5 min of administration and 5 min after finishing the administration. Furthermore, respiratory and cardiovascular parameters were measured within 5 hours following treatment delivery. Oxidation markers (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant status) and markers of cardiovascular injury (aldosterone, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) were determined in the plasma. Meconium instillation induced acute lung injury associated with oxidative stress, elevated aldosterone, and slightly increased GGT and AST levels. Both aminophylline and olprinone improved lung functions and reduced oxidation stress. However, the PDE inhibitors acutely increased blood pressure and heart rate, whereas heart rate variability remained higher till the end of experiment and correlated well with markers of cardiovascular injury. Considering that systemic administration of olprinone and aminophylline was accompanied by acute cardiovascular changes in the meconium-instilled animals, use of PDE inhibitors in the newborns with MAS should be carefully monitored.

  20. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Laura A.; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered. PMID:26042037

  1. Evaluation of acute cardiovascular effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Marco; Italiano, Domenico; Guerriero, Laura; D'Amico, Gessica; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ingrassia, Massimo; Germanò, Eva; Calabrò, Maria Pia; Spina, Edoardo; Gagliano, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a frequent condition in children and often extends into adulthood. Use of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH) has raised concerns about potential cardiovascular adverse effects within a few hours after administration. This study was carried out to investigate acute effects of MPH on electrocardiogram (ECG) in a pediatric population. A total of 54 consecutive patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (51 males and 3 females; mean age =12.14±2.6 years, range 6-19 years), receiving a new prescription of MPH, underwent a standard ECG 2 hours before and after the administration of MPH 10 mg per os. Basal and posttreatment ECG parameters, including mean QT (QT interval when corrected for heart rate [QTc]), QTc dispersion (QTd) interval duration, T-peak to T-end (TpTe) intervals, and TpTe/QT ratio were compared. Significant modifications of both QTc and QTd values were not found after drug administration. QTd fluctuated slightly from 25.7±9.3 milliseconds to 25.1±8.4 milliseconds; QTc varied from 407.6±12.4 milliseconds to 409.8±12.7 milliseconds. A significant variation in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 105.4±10.3 vs 109.6±11.5; P<0.05; diastolic blood pressure 59.2±7.1 vs 63.1±7.9; P<0.05) was observed, but all the data were within normal range. Heart rate moved from 80.5±15.5 bpm to 87.7±18.8 bpm. No change in TpTe values was found, but a statistically significant increase in TpTe/QTc intervals was found with respect to basal values (0.207±0.02 milliseconds vs 0.214±0.02 milliseconds; P<0.01). The findings of this study show no significant changes in ECG parameters. TpTe values can be an additional parameter to evaluate borderline cases.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic cigarette smoking on the expression of endothelin-1 mRNA of the cardiovascular tissues in rats.

    PubMed

    Adachi, C; Naruse, M; Ishihara, Y; Tanabe, A; Takagi, S; Yoshimoto, T; Naruse, K; Kagawa, J; Takano, K

    2000-11-01

    Although smoking has been suggested to be involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases, details of the mechanism still need to be revealed. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoking on the tissue mRNA expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Male Wistar rats of 4 weeks of age were exposed to smoke from six cigarettes for 30 min (acute exposure) and six cigarettes for 30 min/day, 5 days a week for 6 months (chronic exposure). Half of the rats exposed to 6 months smoking were kept in clean-air conditions for a further 3 months to clear the effects. Tissue expression of ET-1 mRNA in the kidney, aorta, heart and lung was determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by Southern blot analysis. There was no significant difference in body and organ weight of the heart and kidney between the control and smoking group in either the acute or chronic experiment. In the acute-exposure experiment, expression of ET-1 mRNA was increased in the heart and lung, while that in the kidney and aorta was unchanged. In the chronic-exposure experiment, however, there was no significant difference in the expression of ET-1 mRNA in all the tissues between the smoking and control groups. These results suggest that cigarette smoking could cause cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases by modulating ET-1 mRNA expression in the tissues.

  3. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. PMID:25908097

  4. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP.

  5. Central autonomic network mediates cardiovascular responses to acute inflammation: Relevance to increased cardiovascular risk in depression?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neil A.; Cooper, Ella; Voon, Valerie; Miles, Ken; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a risk factor for both depression and cardiovascular disease. Depressed mood is also a cardiovascular risk factor. To date, research into mechanisms through which inflammation impacts cardiovascular health rarely takes into account central effects on autonomic cardiovascular control, instead emphasizing direct effects of peripheral inflammatory responses on endothelial reactivity and myocardial function. However, brain responses to inflammation engage neural systems for motivational and homeostatic control and are expressed through depressed mood state and changes in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Here we combined an inflammatory challenge, known to evoke an acute reduction in mood, with neuroimaging to identify the functional brain substrates underlying potentially detrimental changes in autonomic cardiovascular control. We first demonstrated that alterations in the balance of low to high frequency (LF/HF) changes in heart rate variability (a measure of baroreflex sensitivity) could account for some of the inflammation-evoked changes in diastolic blood pressure, indicating a central (rather than solely local endothelial) origin. Accompanying alterations in regional brain metabolism (measured using 18FDG-PET) were analysed to localise central mechanisms of inflammation-induced changes in cardiovascular state: three discrete regions previously implicated in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity, the dorsal anterior and posterior cingulate and pons, strongly mediated the relationship between inflammation and blood pressure. Moreover, activity changes within each region predicted the inflammation-induced shift in LF/HF balance. These data are consistent with a centrally-driven component originating within brain areas supporting stressor evoked blood pressure reactivity. Together our findings highlight mechanisms binding psychological and physiological well-being and their perturbation by peripheral inflammation. PMID:23416033

  6. Cardiovascular Effects of Felypressin

    PubMed Central

    Cecanho, Rodrigo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Ranali, José

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of felypressin (FEL) were studied in Wistar rats. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure measurements were taken in awake rats treated with vasopressin (AVP), FEL, or epinephrine (EPI). Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls (P < .05) were applied. Felypressin and AVP induced a pressor effect, and bradycardia was inhibited by IV V1 antagonist. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. Epinephrine induced a higher pressor effect and a similar bradycardia that was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on area postrema and central V1 receptors. These effects are potentially less harmful to the cardiovascular system than the effects of EPI. PMID:17177590

  7. Impact of tornadoes on hospital admissions for acute cardiovascular events

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Palacios, Federico; Casanegra, Ana Isabel; Shapiro, Alan; Phan, Minh; Hawkins, Beau; Li, Ji; Stoner, Julie; Tafur, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data describing cardiovascular events after tornado outbreaks. We proposed to study the effects of tornadoes on the incidence of cardiovascular events at a tertiary care institution. Population and methods Hospital admission records from a single center situated in a tornado-prone area three months before and after a 2013 tornado outbreak were abstracted. To control for seasonal variation, we also abstracted data from the same period of the prior year (control). Hospital admissions for cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were summated by zip codes, and compared by time period. Results There were 22,607 admissions analyzed, of which 6,705 (30%), 7,980 (35%), and 7,922 (35%) were during the pre-tornado, post-tornado, and control time frames, respectively. There were 344 CVE in the controls, 317 CVE in pre-tornado and 364 CVEs in post tornado periods. There was no difference in the prevalence of CVE during the post-tornado season compared with the control (PPR = 1.05 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21, p = 0.50) or the pre-tornado season (PPR= 0.96, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.21, p = 0.63). Conclusion In conclusion, tornado outbreaks did not increase the prevalence of cardiovascular events. In contrast to the effect of hurricanes, implementation of a healthcare policy change directed toward the early treatment and prevention of cardiovascular events after tornadoes does not seem warranted. PMID:26388119

  8. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  9. Acute cardiovascular and hormonal effects of GH and hexarelin, a synthetic GH-releasing peptide, in humans.

    PubMed

    Bisi, G; Podio, V; Valetto, M R; Broglio, F; Bertuccio, G; Del Rio, G; Arvat, E; Boghen, M F; Deghenghi, R; Muccioli, G; Ong, H; Ghigo, E

    1999-04-01

    Reduced cardiac mass and performances are present in GH deficiency and are counteracted by rhGH replacement. GH and IGF-I possess specific myocardial receptors and have been reported able to exert an acute inotropic effect. Synthetic GH secretagogues (GHS) possess specific pituitary and hypothalamic but even myocardial receptors. In 7 male volunteers, we studied cardiac performance by radionuclide angiocardiography after iv administration of rhGH or hexarelin (HEX), a peptidyl GHS. The administration of rhGH or HEX increased circulating GH levels to the same extent (AUC: 1594.6+/-88.1 vs 1739.3+/-262.2 microg/l/min for 90 min) while aldosterone and catecholamine levels did not change; HEX, but not rhGH, significantly increased cortisol levels. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were unaffected by rhGH (62.4+/-2.1 vs 62.1+/-2.3%, 90.6+/-3.4 vs 92.0+/-2.5 mm Hg, 62.3+/-1.8 vs 66.7+/-2.7 bpm). HEX increased LVEF (70.7+/-3.0 vs 64.0+/-1.5%, p<0.03) without significant changes in MBP and HR (92.8+/-4.7 vs 92.4+/-3.2 mm Hg, 63.1+/-2.1 vs 67.0+/-2.9 bpm). LVEF significantly raised at 15 min, peaked at 30 min and lasted up to 60 min after HEX. These findings suggest that in man, the acute administration of Hexarelin exerts a short-lasting, positive inotropic effect. This effect seems GH-independent and might be mediated by specific GHS myocardial receptors.

  10. Acute effects of aircraft noise on cardiovascular admissions - an interrupted time-series analysis of a six-day closure of London Heathrow Airport caused by volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tim; Campbell, Michael J; Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Acute noise exposure may acutely increase blood pressure but the hypothesis that acute exposure to aircraft noise may trigger cardiovascular events has not been investigated. This study took advantage of a six-day closure of a major airport in April 2010 caused by volcanic ash to examine if there was a decrease in emergency cardiovascular hospital admissions during or immediately after the closure period, using an interrupted daily time-series study design. The population living within the 55dB(A) noise contour was substantial at 0.7 million. The average daily admission count was 13.9 (SD 4.4). After adjustment for covariates, there was no evidence of a decreased risk of hospital admission from cardiovascular disease during the closure period (relative risk 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26)). Using lags of 1-7 days gave similar results. Further studies are needed to investigate if transient aircraft noise exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events.

  11. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  12. Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed. PMID:24049653

  13. Is the tobacco control movement misrepresenting the acute cardiovascular health effects of secondhand smoke exposure? An analysis of the scientific evidence and commentary on the implications for tobacco control and public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    While chronic exposure to secondhand smoke has been well recognized as a cause of heart disease in nonsmokers, there has been recent speculation about the potential acute cardiovascular effects of transient exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmokers; in particular, the possibility that such exposure could increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction even in an otherwise healthy nonsmoker. This paper reviews the claims being made by a number of anti-smoking and public health groups regarding the acute cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke exposure among otherwise healthy adults, analyzes the validity of these claims based on a review of the scientific evidence, and discusses the implications of the findings for tobacco control and public health practice. Based on the analysis, it appears that a large number of anti-smoking organizations are making inaccurate claims that a single, acute, transient exposure to secondhand smoke can cause severe and even fatal cardiovascular events in healthy nonsmokers. The dissemination of inaccurate information by anti-smoking groups to the public in support of smoking bans is unfortunate because it may harm the tobacco control movement by undermining its credibility, reputation, and effectiveness. Disseminating inaccurate information also represents a violation of basic ethical principles that are a core value of public health practice that cannot and should not be sacrificed, even for a noble end such as protecting nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure. How the tobacco control movement responds to this crisis of credibility will go a long way towards determining the future effectiveness of the movement and its ability to continue to save lives and protect the public's health. PMID:17927828

  14. Effects of perinatal oxycodone exposure on the cardiovascular response to acute stress in male rats at weaning and in young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Sithisarn, Thitinart; Bada, Henrietta S.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Legan, Sandra J.; Randall, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Oxycodone (OXY) is one of the most commonly abused opiates during pregnancy. Perinatal opiate exposure (POE) is associated with neurobehavioral and hormone changes. Little is known about the effects of perinatal OXY on the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stress. Objectives: to determine the effects of POE on: (1) CV responses to acute stress and ability to discriminate using a classical conditioning paradigm; (2) changes in CV response to the paradigm and retention of the ability to discriminate from postnatal day (PD) 40 to young adulthood. Methods: Pregnant rats were given i.v. OXY or vehicle (CON) daily. OXY and CON males were fitted with BP telemetry units. Offspring were classically conditioned by following a pulsed tone (CS+) with tail shock. A steady tone (CS−) was not followed by shock. BP and HR were recorded during resting periods and conditioning. Changes in BP, HR from composite analysis were compared. The paradigm was repeated on PD 75. Results: At PD 40, OXY rats had a lower baseline mean BP (OXY: 114.8 ± 1.0 vs. CON: 118.3 ± 1.0 mm Hg; mean ± SEM) but larger amplitude of the conditional BP increase during the stress response (OXY: +3.9 ± 0.4 vs. CON: +1.7 ± 0.4 mm Hg). Both OXY and CON rats were able to discriminate between CS+ and CS−. At PD 75, the effects of OXY on the increased amplitude of the conditional BP had dissipated (CON: +3.4 ± 2.3 vs. OXY: +4.5 ± 1.4 mm Hg). BP responses to the stress and non-stress stimuli did not differ in the OXY group, suggesting that OXY may have decreased the ability of the offspring to discriminate (OXY: CS+: 147.1 ± 1.6, CS−: 145.9 ± 1.6 mm Hg vs. CON: CS+: 155.4 ± 2.7, CS−: 147.8 ± 2.7 mm Hg). Conclusion: POE is associated with subtle alterations in stress CV responses in weanling rats which dissipate when the conditioning is repeated at an early adult age. Although POE effect on the ability to discriminate at weanling age could not be detected, POE may impair retention of this ability in

  15. Acute Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing: An Exploration of Spatial Heterogeneity and the District-specific Predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Zongshuang; Ma, Xinming; Zhang, Ruiming; Fang, Xin; Wu, Zhenglai; Cao, Yang; Xu, Qun

    2016-12-01

    The exploration of spatial variation and predictors of the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on fatal health outcomes is still sparse. In a multilevel case-crossover study in Beijing, China, we used mixed Cox proportional hazard model to examine the citywide effects and conditional logistic regression to evaluate the district-specific effects of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality. District-specific predictors that could be related to the spatial pattern of NO2 effects were examined by robust regression models. We found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily mean NO2 concentration was associated with a 1.89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–2.45%], 2.07% (95% CI: 1.23–2.91%) and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.16–2.72%) increase in daily total cardiovascular (lag03), cerebrovascular (lag03) and ischemic heart disease (lag02) mortality, respectively. For spatial variation of NO2 effects across 16 districts, significant effects were only observed in 5, 4 and 2 districts for the above three outcomes, respectively. Generally, NO2 was likely having greater adverse effects on districts with larger population, higher consumption of coal and more civilian vehicles. Our results suggested independent and spatially varied effects of NO2 on total and subcategory cardiovascular mortalities. The identification of districts with higher risk can provide important insights for reducing NO2 related health hazards.

  16. Acute Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing: An Exploration of Spatial Heterogeneity and the District-specific Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Zongshuang; Ma, Xinming; Zhang, Ruiming; Fang, Xin; Wu, Zhenglai; Cao, Yang; Xu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of spatial variation and predictors of the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on fatal health outcomes is still sparse. In a multilevel case-crossover study in Beijing, China, we used mixed Cox proportional hazard model to examine the citywide effects and conditional logistic regression to evaluate the district-specific effects of NO2 on cardiovascular mortality. District-specific predictors that could be related to the spatial pattern of NO2 effects were examined by robust regression models. We found that a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily mean NO2 concentration was associated with a 1.89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–2.45%], 2.07% (95% CI: 1.23–2.91%) and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.16–2.72%) increase in daily total cardiovascular (lag03), cerebrovascular (lag03) and ischemic heart disease (lag02) mortality, respectively. For spatial variation of NO2 effects across 16 districts, significant effects were only observed in 5, 4 and 2 districts for the above three outcomes, respectively. Generally, NO2 was likely having greater adverse effects on districts with larger population, higher consumption of coal and more civilian vehicles. Our results suggested independent and spatially varied effects of NO2 on total and subcategory cardiovascular mortalities. The identification of districts with higher risk can provide important insights for reducing NO2 related health hazards. PMID:27910959

  17. Contribution of infralimbic cortex in the cardiovascular response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia Camargos de Figueirêdo; Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Santos, Robson A S; DiMicco, Joseph A; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2012-09-15

    The infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (IL) modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine function via projections to subcortical structures involved in the response to stress. We evaluated the contribution of the IL to the cardiovascular response evoked by acute stress. Under anesthesia (80 mg/kg ketamine-11.5 mg/kg xylazine), rats were implanted with telemetry probes or arterial lines for recording heart rate and blood pressure. Guide cannulas were implanted to target the IL for microinjection of muscimol (100 pmol/100 nl), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (6 pmol/100 nl), or vehicle (100 nl). Microinjection of muscimol, an agonist of GABA(A) receptors, into the IL had no effect on stress-evoked cardiovascular and thermogenic changes in any of the paradigms evaluated (cage switch, restraint plus air-jet noise, or air-jet stress). However, microinjection of the excitatory amino acid NMDA into the IL attenuated the pressor and tachycardic response to air-jet stress. Pretreatment with the selective NMDA antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5, 100 pmol/100 nl) blocked the effect of NMDA on the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress. We conclude that 1) the IL region is not tonically involved in cardiovascular or thermogenic control during stress or under baseline conditions, and 2) activation of NMDA receptors in the IL can suppress the cardiovascular response to acute stress exposure.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  19. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2013-07-05

    Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  20. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  1. The Prevalence of Natural Health Product Use in Patients with Acute Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alherbish, Aws; Charrois, Theresa L.; Ackman, Margaret L.; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural health products (NHP) use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. Objective To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. Results 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes). Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%), diabetes (26%) and renal impairment (19%). NHP use was common (78% of patients) and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73%) followed by herbal products (20%), traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%), homeopathic preparations (1%) and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%). In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]). When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%). NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. Conclusions NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance. Structured

  2. Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

  3. Mean platelet volume and cardiovascular outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. Methods We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. Results A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Conclusions Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. Trial registration number http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222. PMID:27326224

  4. Acute acalculous cholecystitis and cardiovascular disease: a land of confusion.

    PubMed

    Tana, Marco; Tana, Claudio; Cocco, Giulio; Iannetti, Giovanni; Romano, Marcello; Schiavone, Cosima

    2015-12-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) can be defined as acute inflammatory disease of the gallbladder without evidence of gallstones. The first case was reported in 1844 by Duncan et al.; however, some cases may have been missed previously in view of the complexity of the diagnosis. Several risk factors have been identified, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), in view of its multiple mechanisms of action, seems to play a key role. Atypical clinical onset, paucity of symptoms, overlap with comorbidities, and lack of robust, controlled trials result often in under or misdiagnosed cases. Moreover, laboratory results may be negative or not specific in the late stage of the disease, when a surgical treatment cannot be longer helpful if complications arise. A rapid diagnosis is therefore essential to achieve a prompt treatment and to avoid further clinical deterioration. In this short review, we would present the current evidence regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of the complex relation between AAC and CVD. Then, we fully emphasize the role of ultrasound to achieve an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment in suspected cases, reducing mortality and complications rates.

  5. Acute effects of glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-19-36 amide, and exenatide on mesenteric blood flow, cardiovascular parameters, and biomarkers in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bremholm, Lasse; Andersen, Ulrik B; Hornum, Mads; Hilsted, Linda; Veedfald, Simon; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2017-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, GLP-17-36amide) and its sister peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) influence numerous intestinal functions and GLP-2 greatly increases intestinal blood flow. We hypothesized that GLP-1 also stimulates intestinal blood flow and that this would impact on the overall digestive and cardiovascular effects of the hormone. To investigate the influence of GLP-1 receptor agonism on mesenteric and renal blood flow and cardiovascular parameters, we carried out a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. A total of eight healthy volunteers received high physiological subcutaneous injections of GLP-1, GLP-19-36 amide (bioactive metabolite), exenatide (stable GLP-1 agonist), or saline on four separate days. Blood flow in mesenteric, celiac, and renal arteries was measured by Doppler ultrasound. Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume were measured continuously using an integrated system. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, GLP-1 (intact and total), exenatide and Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and serum for insulin and C-peptide. Neither GLP-1, GLP-19-36 amide, exenatide nor saline elicited any changes in blood flow parameters in the mesenteric or renal arteries. GLP-1 significantly increased heart rate (two-way ANOVA, injection [P = 0.0162], time [P = 0.0038], and injection × time [P = 0.082]; Tukey post hoc GLP-1 vs. saline and GLP-19-36amide [P < 0.011]), and tended to increase cardiac output and decrease stroke volume compared to GLP-19-36 amide and saline. Blood pressures were not affected. As expected, glucose levels fell and insulin secretion increased after infusion of both GLP-1 and exenatide.

  6. Influence of exposure error and effect modification by socioeconomic status on the association of acute cardiovascular mortality with particulate matter in Phoenix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William E; Mar, Therese F; Koenig, Jane Q

    2007-12-01

    Using ZIP code-level mortality data, the association of cardiovascular mortality with PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5), measured at a central monitoring site, was determined for three populations at different distances from the monitoring site but with similar numbers of deaths and therefore similar statistical power. The % risk and statistical significance for the association of mortality with PM(2.5) fell off with distance from the monitor, as would be expected if exposure error increased with distance. However, the % risk for PM(10-2.5) increased in going from the population in Central Phoenix, where the monitoring site was located, to a population in a Middle Ring around Phoenix and fell off in an Outer Ring population. The % risks for the Outer Ring were low for each of the six lag days (0-5) and for the 6-day moving average. The lag structures for PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) also differed for the Central Phoenix and Middle Ring populations. These differences led us to examine the socioeconomic status (SES) of the populations. On the basis of education and income, the population in Central Phoenix had a lower SES than the Middle Ring. Thus, the differences between Central Phoenix and the Middle Ring may be due to effect modification by SES and differences in exposure error. However, the effect modification by SES may be different for thoracic coarse particulate matter (PM) than for fine PM. This study provides new information on the association of PM(10-2.5) with cardiovascular mortality. In the Middle Ring, the % risk per 10 microg/m3 increase in PM(10-2.5) concentration (lower and upper 95% confidence levels) for lag day 1 was 3.4 (1.0, 5.8) and for the 6-day distributed-lag was 3.8 (0.3, 7.5). The differences in lag structure for PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) provide evidence that the two particle size classes have health effects that are different and independent. This study also helps explain the high % risks for PM(2.5) found for Central Phoenix, 6.6 (1.1, 12.5) for lag day 1

  7. Effects of thyroid hormone on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Serafino; Palmieri, Emiliano A; Lombardi, Gaetano; Biondi, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that overt hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state (high cardiac output with low systemic vascular resistance), which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, and increased prevalence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias - namely, atrial fibrillation - whereas overt hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. However, whether changes in cardiac performance associated with overt thyroid dysfunction are due mainly to alterations of myocardial contractility or to loading conditions remains unclear. Extensive evidence indicates that the cardiovascular system responds to the minimal but persistent changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels, which are typical of individuals with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased heart rate, atrial arrhythmias, increased LV mass, impaired ventricular relaxation, reduced exercise performance, and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with impaired LV diastolic function and subtle systolic dysfunction and an enhanced risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Because all cardiovascular abnormalities are reversed by restoration of euthyroidism ("subclinical hypothyroidism") or blunted by beta-blockade and L-thyroxine (L-T4) dose tailoring ("subclinical hyperthyroidism"), timely treatment is advisable in an attempt to avoid adverse cardiovascular effects. Interestingly, some data indicate that patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disorders and those undergoing cardiac surgery may have altered peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism that, in turn, may contribute to altered cardiac function. Preliminary clinical investigations suggest that administration of

  8. Cardiovascular effects of microgravity: evolution of understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    The understanding of cardiovascular effects of spaceflight has evolved throughout the course of the American manned spaceflight program. Originally descriptive in nature, the present understanding is based on empiric measurements of vascular volume, cardiac output, vascular reflexes, and peripheral and central autonomic control. More detailed understanding of cardiovascular effects has allowed us to separate those symptoms from symptoms caused by musculoskeletal or neurovestibular abnormalities.

  9. Antifibrillatory, cardiovascular and toxic effects of sparteine, butylsparteine and pentylsparteine.

    PubMed

    Zetler, G; Strubelt, O

    1980-01-01

    The negative bathmo- ino and chronotropic effects of sparteine, butylsparteine and pentylsparteine were quantitatively determined in isolated rat atria. The antifibrillatory potency was studied in rats (aconitine arrhythmia), guinea pigs (digoxin arrhythmia) and in cats (spontaneous arrhythmia). In order to appraise the cardiovascular compatibility of these drugs, additional circulatory effects were studied in rats and cats. Acute toxicity following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral administration was assessed in male and female mice. Pentylsparteine was more potent than sparteine and had a better therapeutic index.

  10. Adrenergic and vasopressinergic contributions to the cardiovascular response to acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Giussani, D A; Riquelme, R A; Sanhueza, E M; Hanson, M A; Blanco, C E; Llanos, A J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of fetal intravenous treatment with phentolamine or a vasopressinergic V1-receptor antagonist on the fetal cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxaemia in the llama were investigated. Six llama fetuses were surgically prepared between 60 and 70% of gestation under general halothane anaesthesia with vascular catheters and transit-time ultrasonic flow probes around a carotid artery and a femoral artery. At least 4 days after surgery all fetuses were subjected to a 3 h experiment: 1 h of normoxia, 1 h of hypoxaemia and 1 h of recovery while on slow i.v. infusion with saline. On separate days this experiment was repeated with fetal i.v. treatment with either phentolamine or a V1-receptor antagonist dissolved in saline. During saline infusion all llama fetuses responded to acute hypoxaemia with intense femoral vasoconstriction. Phentolamine during normoxia produced hypotension, tachycardia and vasodilatation in both the carotid and the femoral circulations. During hypoxaemia, fetuses treated with phentolamine did not elicit the pronounced femoral vasoconstriction and all died within 20 min of the onset of hypoxaemia. A V1-receptor antagonist produced a femoral vasodilatation during normoxia but did not affect the fetal cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxaemia. In conclusion, α-adrenergic and V1-vasopressinergic mechanisms contribute to a basal vasoconstrictor tone in the femoral circulation in the llama fetus. The enhanced femoral vasoconstriction during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus is not mediated by stimulation of V1-vasopressin receptors, but is dependent on α-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Such α-adrenergic efferent mechanisms are indispensable to fetal survival during hypoxaemia in the llama since their abolition leads to cardiovascular collapse and death. PMID:9925892

  11. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  12. Cardiovascular and endocrine responses to acute hypoxaemia during and following dexamethasone infusion in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Andrew J W; Gardner, David S; Edwards, C Mark B; Fowden, Abigail L; Giussani, Dino A

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fetal treatment with dexamethasone on ovine fetal cardiovascular defence responses to acute hypoxaemia, occurring either during or 48 h following the period of glucocorticoid exposure. To address the mechanisms underlying these responses, chemoreflex function and plasma concentrations of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasopressin were measured. Under general halothane anaesthesia, 26 Welsh Mountain sheep fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording at between 117 and 120 days of gestation (dGA; term is ∼145 days) with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Following at least 5 days of recovery, fetuses were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. After 48 h of baseline recording, at 125 ± 1 dGA, half of the fetuses (n = 13) were continuously infused i.v. with dexamethasone for 48 h at a rate of 2.06 ± 0.13 μg kg−1 h−1. The remaining 13 fetuses were infused with heparinized saline at the same rate (controls). At 127 ± 1 dGA, 2 days from the onset of infusions, seven fetuses from each group were subjected to 1 h of acute hypoxaemia. At 129 ± 1 dGA, 2 days after the end of infusions, six fetuses from each group were subjected to 1 h of acute hypoxaemia. Similar reductions in fetal partial pressure of arterial oxygen occurred in control and dexamethasone-treated fetuses during the acute hypoxaemia protocols. In control fetuses, acute hypoxaemia led to transient bradycardia, femoral vasoconstriction and significant increases in plasma concentrations of catecholamines, vasopressin and NPY. In fetuses subjected to acute hypoxaemia during dexamethasone treatment, the increase in plasma NPY was enhanced, the bradycardic response was prolonged, and the plasma catecholamine and vasopressin responses were diminished. In fetuses subjected to acute hypoxaemia 48 h following dexamethasone treatment, femoral vasoconstriction and plasma catecholamine and vasopressin

  13. Cardiovascular and other effects of salt consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2013-01-01

    Salt is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure and increased cardiovascular risk worldwide. However, a high salt intake has other adverse effects beyond those involving the cardiovascular system, so that there is renewed interest in the relationships between high salt intake and other diseases. PMID:25019010

  14. [Cardiovascular effects of insulin therapy: from pharmacology to clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo

    2016-03-01

    Insulin has direct effects on vascular walls which, depending on experimental models, can be either predominantly antiatherogenic or proatherogenic. In observational studies, insulin therapy is usually associated with an increase in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. However, this result is probably determined by the effect of confounders. In clinical trials performed in the acute phase of coronary syndromes, the benefits observed with insulin therapy are probably due to the improvement of glycemic control, rather than to direct effects of insulin on the cardiovascular system. In long-term trials for primary or secondary prevention such as UKPDS and ORIGIN insulin has no relevant effects on major cardiovascular events beyond those determined by the improvement of metabolic control. On the other hand, severe hypoglycemia, which is a possible side effect of insulin therapy, is associated with a worse prognosis of cardiovascular disease. The availability of new long-acting insulin analogs, which reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia for similar levels of glycemic control, makes insulin therapy easier and potentially safer for the cardiovascular system.

  15. Non-cardiovascular effects associated with statins

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Statins form the pharmacologic cornerstone of the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to beneficial cardiovascular effects, statins seem to have multiple non-cardiovascular effects. Although early concerns about statin induced hepatotoxicity and cancer have subsided owing to reassuring evidence, two of the most common concerns that clinicians have are myopathy and diabetes. Randomized controlled trials suggest that statins are associated with a modest increase in the risk of myositis but not the risk of myalgia. Severe myopathy (rhabdomyolysis) is rare and often linked to a statin regimen that is no longer recommended (simvastatin 80 mg). Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggest an increase in the risk of diabetes with statins, particularly with higher intensity regimens in people with two or more components of the metabolic syndrome. Other non-cardiovascular effects covered in this review are contrast induced nephropathy, cognition, cataracts, erectile dysfunction, and venous thromboembolism. Currently, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines indicate that the cardiovascular benefits of statins generally outweigh non-cardiovascular harms in patients above a certain threshold of cardiovascular risk. Literature is also accumulating on the potential non-cardiovascular benefits of statins, which could lead to novel applications of this class of drug in the future. PMID:25035309

  16. Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective

  17. After the triumph of cardiovascular medicine over acute myocardial infarction at the end of the 20th Century. -Can we predict the onset of acute coronary syndrome? (Con)-.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Yasuki

    2011-01-01

    Predicting acute cardiovascular ischemic events is a crucial and urgent issue in the current cardiovascular field. An enormous effort to develop methodologies to achieve this purpose is being undertaken in cardiovascular institutes worldwide. However, currently, there is no established method of determining acute cardiovascular ischemic events in advance. This article reviews the latest progress on understanding how these events occur and how they can be detected. This goal represents a great dream that has realistic expectations.

  18. Influence of acute progressive hypoxia on cardiovascular variability in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Hirose, Yohsuke; Hanamoto, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenji; Boku, Aiji; Morimoto, Yoshinari; Taki, Kunitaka; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of acute progressive hypoxia on cardiovascular variability and striatal dopamine (DA) levels in conscious, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After preparation for measurement, the inspired oxygen concentration of rats was decreased to 10% within 5 min (descent stage), maintained at 10% for 10 min (fixed stage), and then elevated back to 20% over 5 min (recovery stage). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) variability at each stage was calculated to evaluate the autonomic nervous system response using the wavelet method. Striatal DA during each stage was measured using in vivo microdialysis. We found that SHR showed a more profound hemodynamic response to progressive hypoxia as compared to WKY. Cardiac parasympathetic activity in SHR was significantly inhibited by acute progressive hypoxia during all stages, as shown by the decrease in the high frequency band of HR variability (HR-HF), along with transient increase in sympathetic activity during the early hypoxic phase. This decrease in the HR-HF continued even when SBP was elevated. Striatal DA levels showed the transient similar elevation in both groups. These findings suggest that acute progressive hypoxic stress in SHR inhibits cardiac parasympathetic activity through reduction of baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, with potentially severe deleterious effects on circulation, in particular on HR and circulatory control. Furthermore, it is thought that the influence of acute progressive hypoxia on striatal DA levels is similar in SHR and WKY. PMID:18599365

  19. [Blood-stasis and toxin causing catastrophe hypothesis and acute cardiovascular events: proposal of the hypothesis and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Shi, Da-Zhu; Yin, Hui-Jun

    2008-10-01

    A hypothesis of " blood-stasis and toxin causing catastrophe engender acute cardiovascular event (ACE)" was put forward according to TCM cognition on blood-stasis and toxin, in combining with the up to date concept of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and together with our clinical practical experiences. The etiology, pathogenesis, evolving law, initial characteristics, clinical manifestation, therapeutic methods, prescriptions and their compatibility, as well as the well-suited time for applying TCM intervention were discussed. The authors stressed that it is of great significance for further reducing the morbidity of ACE and improving the effect of integrative medicine for preventing and treating cardiovascular thrombotic disease.

  20. Secondhand smoke as an acute threat for the cardiovascular system: a change in paradigm.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Tobias; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros; Andreas, Stefan

    2006-02-01

    The evidence that active smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the leading cause of preventable death is overwhelming. However, numerous epidemiological findings indicate that even passive exposure to cigarette smoke may exert detrimental effects on vascular homoeostasis. Recent experimental data provide a deeper insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms linking secondhand smoke (SHS) to CVD. Importantly, most of these effects appear to be characterized by a rapid onset. For example, the relatively low doses of toxins inhaled by passive smoking are sufficient to elicit acute endothelial dysfunction, and these effects may be related, at least in part, to the inactivation of nitric oxide. Moreover, passive smoking may directly impair the viability of endothelial cells and reduce the number and functional activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. In addition, platelets of non-smokers appear to be susceptible to pro-aggregatory changes with every passive smoke exposure. Overall, SHS induces oxidative stress and promotes vascular inflammation. Apart from vasoconstriction and thrombus formation, however, the myocardial oxygen balance is further impaired by SHS-induced adrenergic stimulation and autonomic dysfunction. These data strongly suggest that passive smoking is capable of precipitating acute manifestations of CVD (atherothrombosis) and may also have a negative impact on the outcome of patients who suffer acute coronary syndromes.

  1. Low-level Pb and Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Stress in Children: The Role of Cardiac Autonomic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Bendinskas, Kestutis; Morgan, Robert; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A number of studies suggest that Pb exposure increases cardiovascular disease risk in humans. As a potential mechanism for this effect, we recently reported a significant association between early childhood Pb levels and cardiovascular response to acute stress. The current study considers the association between current Pb levels and the autonomic nervous system activation pattern underlying the cardiovascular response to stress in a new cohort of children. Methods We assessed blood Pb levels as well as cardiovascular responses to acute stress in 9–11 year old children (N = 140). Sympathetic activation (measured with pre-ejection period) and parasympathetic activation (measured with high frequency heart rate variability) were also assessed. Results In a sample with very low levels of blood Pb (M = 1.01 μg/dL), we found that increasing blood Pb was associated with coinhibition of sympathetic and parasympathetic activation in response to acute stress. In addition, increasing Pb levels were associated with the hemodynamic stress response pattern typical of coinhibition – significantly greater vascular resistance and reduced stroke volume and cardiac output. Conclusions Blood Pb levels were associated with significant autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation in response to acute psychological stress in children. Moreover, these effects were significant at Pb levels considered to be very low and notably well below the 10 μg/dL the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of an elevated blood Pb level. The potential for autonomic dysregulation at levels of Pb typical for many US children would suggest potentially broad public health ramifications. PMID:20934510

  2. Quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector

    2017-02-01

    Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

  3. Race and sex differences in cardiovascular recovery from acute stress.

    PubMed

    Gillin, J L; Mills, P J; Nelesen, R A; Dillon, E; Ziegler, M G; Dimsdale, J E

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of race and gender on recovery, i.e. the relative return to baseline after a stress challenge, cardiovascular and catecholamine measures were examined before, during and after two standardized laboratory stressors (a speaking and a mirror tracing task) in a group of 85 Black and White men and women (mean age 35.6 years, range 20 to 52). For the speech task, White men showed the least systolic (p < 0.025) and diastolic (p < 0.05) blood pressure recovery as compared to Black men and women. For the mirror star tracing task, total peripheral resistance (p < 0.03) recovery was least for Whites as compared to Blacks and heart rate (p < 0.04) recovery was least for White women as compared to Black women and men. There were no significant group effects in terms of catecholamine recovery from either task. The findings extend prior studies on race and gender by suggesting that these same characteristics affect recovery from stressors.

  4. Evaluation of antidotes against the acute cardiovascular toxicity of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O

    1984-06-01

    Rats anesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially were intoxicated with 1 mg/kg X min propranolol i.v. After 30 min heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and peripheral resistance had dropped by about 50% and cardiac output by about 25% and were stable for up to 120 min. Isoprenaline proved to be the best antidote for the treatment of propranolol intoxication antagonizing the bradycardia by 76% and the hypotension completely. The antagonistic activities of orciprenaline and prenalterol were lower than those of isoprenaline. Dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline antagonized propranolol-induced hypotension but did not considerably influence the bradycardia whereas dobutamine was nearly ineffective in both respects. Glucagon and aminophylline displayed some chronotropic activity without influencing propranolol-induced hypotension. Calcium chloride, on the other hand, produced a moderate elevation of blood pressure but only a small chronotropic activity, and atropine was inactive in both respects. Isoprenaline also restored the cardiac function of propranolol-poisoned rats if administered by infusion and, furthermore, increased the lethal dose of propranolol from 77 to 165 mg/kg. The strong antagonistic activity of isoprenaline against propranolol-induced cardiovascular depression was also confirmed by experiments in pigs. In conclusion, isoprenaline is the most active antidote for the treatment of propranolol intoxication in the rat though the administration of massive doses are required. The vasodilatory effect of isoprenaline can be overcome by the additional administration of a vasoconstricting agent like dopamine.

  5. Development of Cardiovascular Indices of Acute Pain Responding in Infants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Jordana A.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Tablon, Paula; Schmidt, Louis A.; Pinhasov, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of cardiovascular responses to acutely painful medical procedures over the first year of life in preterm and term born infants. Methods. A systematic search retrieved 6994 articles to review against inclusion criteria. A total of 41 studies were included in the review. Results. In response to acutely painful procedures, most infants had an increase in mean heart rate (HR) that varied in magnitude both across and within gestational and postnatal ages. Research in the area of HR variability has been inconsistent, limiting conclusions. Conclusions. Longitudinal research is needed to further understand the inherent variability of cardiovascular pain responses across and within gestational and postnatal ages and the causes for the variability. PMID:27445630

  6. Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in assessment of acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azarisman, Shah M; Teo, Karen S; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the western world and is becoming more important in the developing world. Recently, advances in monitoring, revascularisation and pharmacotherapy have resulted in a reduction in mortality. However, although mortality rates have declined, the burden of disease remains large resulting in high direct and indirect healthcare costs related to CVDs. In Australia, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) accounts for more than 300000 years of life lost due to premature death and a total cost exceeding eight billion dollars annually. It is also the main contributor towards the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. The high prevalence of CVD along with its associated cost urgently requires a reliable but non-invasive and cost-effective imaging modality. The imaging modality of choice should be able to accelerate the diagnosis of ACS, aid in the risk stratification of de novo coronary artery disease and avail incremental information of prognostic value such as viability which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows. Despite its manifold benefits, there are limitations to its wider use in routine clinical assessment and more studies are required into assessing its cost-effectiveness. It is hoped that with greater development in the technology and imaging protocols, CMR could be made less cumbersome, its imaging protocols less lengthy, the technology more inexpensive and easily applied in routine clinical practice. PMID:24976912

  7. Cardiovascular genomics: implications for acute and critical care nurses.

    PubMed

    Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Klein, Deborah; Winkelman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    As genomic health care becomes commonplace, nurses will be asked to provide genomic care in all health care settings including acute care and critical care. Three common cardiac conditions are reviewed, Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, to provide acute care and critical care nurses with an overview of these pathologies through the lens of genomics and relevant case studies. This information will help critical care nursing leaders become familiar with genetics related to common cardiac conditions and prepare acute care and critical care nurses for a new phase in patient diagnostics, with greater emphasis on early diagnosis and recognition of conditions before sudden cardiac death.

  8. Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Dockery, D W

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade researchers have developed a body of epidemiologic evidence showing increased daily cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with acute exposures to particulate air pollution. Associations have been found not only with cardiovascular deaths reported on death certificates but also with myocardial infarctions and ventricular fibrillation. Particulate air pollution exposure has been associated with indicators of autonomic function of the heart including increased heart rate, decreased heart rate variability, and increased cardiac arrhythmias. Several markers of increased risk for sudden cardiac death have also been associated with such exposures. These epidemiologic studies provide early guidance to possible pathways of particulate air pollution health effects, which can only be addressed fully in toxicologic and physiologic studies. PMID:11544151

  9. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  10. Acute Cardiovascular and Hemodynamic Responses to Low Intensity Eccentric Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bazgir, Behzad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid; Fathi, Rouhollah; Ojaghi, Seyed Mojtaba; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Neto, Gabriel R.; Rahimi, Mostafa; Asgari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently it has been suggested that low intensity (LI) resistance exercise (RE) alone or in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) can be applied for cardiovascular function improvement or rehabilitation. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of LI eccentric RE with and without BFR on heart rate (HR), rate pressure product (RPP), blood pressure (BP) parameters [systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], oxygen saturation (SpO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods In a semi-experimental study 16 young adults (26.18 ± 3.67 years) volunteered and performed LI (30% maximum voluntary contraction) eccentric RE alone or combined with BFR. Results The results indicated that HR, RPP, and RPE increased significantly within both groups (P < 0.05); SBP and DBP increased significantly only with BFR (P < 0.05); MAP increased significantly during exercise without BFR (P < 0.05); and no change was observed in SpO2 in either groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, studied parameters did not vary amongst different groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions It is concluded that LI eccentric RE with BFR positively regulated the hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses. Therefore, the eccentric RE combined with BFR seems to be a good option for future studies with the aim of time efficacy, since it alters these parameters within normal values. PMID:28144415

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, RH Jaskot, PS Gilmour, DC Christiani, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, JK McGee, A Nyska. NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC; CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hil...

  12. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory: a review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Nordbrandt, Sasja; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2013-09-01

    We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0.03, 0.49; p=0.03; N=22) whereas long-term had small (SMD=0.15; 95% CI=0.02, 0.27; p=0.02; N=37) effects on short-term memory. In contrast, acute exercise showed moderate to large (SMD=0.52; 95% CI=0.28, 0.75; p<0.0001; N=20) whereas long-term exercise had insignificant effects (SMD=0.07; 95% CI=-0.13, 0.26; p=0.51; N=22) on long-term memory. We argue that acute and long-term cardiovascular exercise represent two distinct but complementary strategies to improve memory. Acute exercise improves memory in a time-dependent fashion by priming the molecular processes involved in the encoding and consolidation of newly acquired information. Long-term exercise, in contrast, has negligible effects on memory but provides the necessary stimuli to optimize the responses of the molecular machinery responsible for memory processing. Strategically combined, acute and long-term interventions could maximize the benefits of cardiovascular exercise on memory.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  14. Physiological Changes to the Cardiovascular System at High Altitude and Its Effects on Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Riley, Callum James; Gavin, Matthew

    2017-03-15

    Riley, Callum James, and Matthew Gavin. Physiological changes to the cardiovascular system at high altitude and its effects on cardiovascular disease. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.-The physiological changes to the cardiovascular system in response to the high altitude environment are well understood. More recently, we have begun to understand how these changes may affect and cause detriment to cardiovascular disease. In addition to this, the increasing availability of altitude simulation has dramatically improved our understanding of the physiology of high altitude. This has allowed further study on the effect of altitude in those with cardiovascular disease in a safe and controlled environment as well as in healthy individuals. Using a thorough PubMed search, this review aims to integrate recent advances in cardiovascular physiology at altitude with previous understanding, as well as its potential implications on cardiovascular disease. Altogether, it was found that the changes at altitude to cardiovascular physiology are profound enough to have a noteworthy effect on many forms of cardiovascular disease. While often asymptomatic, there is some risk in high altitude exposure for individuals with certain cardiovascular diseases. Although controlled research in patients with cardiovascular disease was largely lacking, meaning firm conclusions cannot be drawn, these risks should be a consideration to both the individual and their physician.

  15. [Cardiovascular adaptability to acute hypercalcemia in the dog. The role of peroperative myocardial ischemia].

    PubMed

    Dumont, L; Stanley, P; Chartrand, C

    1985-01-01

    Since the hemodynamic consequences of acute hypercalcemia are altered by numerous interferences we have evaluated the role of peroperative myocardial ischemia on the adaptability to rapid calcium increment. Twenty-two dogs served as control and 16 were submitted to 1 hour of myocardial ischemia along with topical myocardial cooling. Each animal was equipped with blood flow transducer positioned around the ascending aorta and with central venous and aortic catheters. During each study 0.90 mEq of calcium was rapidly injected and hemodynamic data were recorded until base-line resetting. This experimental protocol was carried out 3 hours postoperatively and then daily during one month. Base-line hemodynamic data indicated the presence of myocardial failure in the experimental group in the immediate postoperative period only. Rapid calcium administration elicited transient positive inotropic response, widening of the arterial pulse pressure, reflex bradycardia and no evidence of peripheral vasoconstriction. In the early postoperative period (3 hours after surgery) the failing myocardium is more sensitive to the inotropic effect of hypercalcemia. Twenty-four hours after surgery both groups of animals have the same hemodynamic response to this stress; thereafter for both groups this response gradually decreased and finally stabilized by the 6th to 10th day after surgery. Acute hypercalcemia bears hemodynamic consequences that are amplified early after peroperative myocardial ischemia. However in long term this surgical component widely used clinically does not interfered with the cardiovascular adaptability to this pharmacological stress.

  16. Nicotine effect on cardiovascular system and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Salma Toma

    2006-03-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Nicotine is one of the components of cigarette smoke. Nicotine effects on the cardiovascular system reflect the activity of the nicotine receptors centrally and on peripheral autonomic ganglia. It has been found that cigarette smoke extract-induced contraction of porcine coronary arteries is related to superoxide anion-mediated degradation of nitric oxide. Treatment of rabbit aortas with an oxygen free radicals scavenger attenuated cigarette smoke impairment of arterial relaxation. Treatment of smokers with vitamin C, an antioxidant, improved impaired endothelium-dependent reactivity of large peripheral arteries. Thus it appears that chronic smoking and acute exposure to cigarette smoke extract may alter endothelium-dependent reactivity via the production of oxygen derived free radicals. This review discusses the effects of nicotine on resistance arterioles, compliance arteries, smooth muscle cells, and ion channels in the cardiovascular system. We discuss studies performed on humans, nicotine-exposed animals, and cell cultures yielding varying and inconsistent results that may be due to differences in experimental design, species, and the dose of exposure. Nicotine exposure appears to induce a combination of free radical production, vascular wall adhesion, and a reduction of fibrinolytic activity in the plasma.

  17. Individual Effect Modifiers of Dust Exposure Effect on Cardiovascular Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Vodonos, Alina; Friger, Michael; Katra, Itzhak; Krasnov, Helena; Zahger, Doron; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a) whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b) whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic. Methods This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be’er- Sheva, Israel, 2001–2010) with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter) were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors. Results There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0); OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001–1.027) for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1) was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002–1.012). The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65), female or Bedouin patients. Conclusions Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26381397

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological evidence suggests that ultrafine particles are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, specifically in elderly individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was (i) to assess cardiopulmonary responses in adult ...

  19. Antidotal treatment of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O

    1984-09-01

    Rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially were infused with 0.15 mg/kg/min. verapamil; without antidotal treatment, they died after 51.1+/-7.1 min. The survival time more than trebled upon an additional infusion with calcium chloride, epinephrine, isoprenaline, orciprenaline or prenalterol and nearly doubled upon administration of a plasma expander. It was not increased, however, by treatment with angiotensin or atropine. The infusion of verapamil declined the arterial blood pressure by 75%, and heart rate, cardiac output and peripheral resistance by about 50%; in the ECG, sinus bradycardia followed by AV-dissociation with nodal rhythm occurred. All antidotes that raised the lethal dose of verapamil increased the cardiac output. Calcium and the sympathomimetics with alpha-adrenergic activity also counteracted the verapamil-induced hypotension. Calcium did not influence the ECG alterations produced by verapamil, while the sympathomimetics restored the sinus rhythm or accelerated the nodal pacemaker. Calcium, epinephrine and isoprenaline also antagonized the strong decrease of left-ventricular dp/dt max. induced by verapamil. In conclusion, calcium as well as sympathomimetic amines are potent antidotes against the cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil, the latter being superior to calcium in their ability to improve pacemaker activity and AV-conduction.

  20. Cardiovascular pharmacological effects of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jia-Qing

    2002-12-01

    Tetrandrine, dauricine, daurisoline and neferine are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivatives isolated from Chinese traditional medicine and herbs. The cardiovascular pharmacological effects and the mechanism of actions of these compounds were reviewed. Tetrandrine isolated from Stephania tetrandra S Moore possesses antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic effects. The antihypertensive effects of tetrandrine have been demonstrated in experimental hypertensive animals and in hypertensive patients. Recent studies showed that in addition to its calcium antagonistic effect, tetrandrine interacted with M receptors. Modulation by M receptor is one of the pharmacological mechanisms of cardiovascular effects of tetrandrine. Dauricine and daurisoloine were isolated from Menispermum dauricum DC. The antiarrhythmic effects of dauricine have been verified in different experimental arrhythmic models and in cardiac arrhythmic patients. Dauricine blocked the cardiac transmembrane Na+,K+ and Ca2+ ion currents. Differing from quinidine and sotalol, which exhibited reverse use-dependent effect, dauricine prolonged APD in a normal use-dependent manner in experimental studies. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline and neferine which is an alkaloid isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, and their mechanisms of actions have also been studied. The antiarrhythmic effect of daurisoline is more potent than that of dauricine.

  1. Cardiovascular

    NASA Video Gallery

    Overview of Cardiovascular research which addresses risks of space flight, including adaptive changes to the cephalad fluid shift (such as reduced circulating blood volume), potential for heart rhy...

  2. Modelling the cardiovascular effects of ephedrine

    PubMed Central

    Persky, Adam M; Berry, N Seth; Pollack, Gary M; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2004-01-01

    Aims Recent reports have called into question the safety of ephedra supplements especially with regards to their cardiovascular effects. The purpose of this analysis was to characterize, via pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling, the cardiovascular effects of ephedrine, the main active ingredient of ephedra, in apparently healthy, overweight volunteers. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, eight subjects received either placebo, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mg kg−1 ephedrine sulphate by mouth with a 7-day washout between treatments. Plasma ephedrine concentrations, heart rate and blood pressure were determined for 8 h postdose. Results The pharmacokinetics of ephedrine were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The percentage change in heart rate was described by a linear model with a resulting slope of 0.14%·l µg−1 (CV = 59%). The percentage change in systolic blood pressure demonstrated clockwise hysteresis, and a sigmoidal tolerance model was used to describe the data. The mean maximum predicted effect (Emax) was 53.7% (CV = 41%) with an EC50 of 107 µg·l−1 (CV = 65%) and an inhibitory maximum (Imax) of 39.8% (CV = 60%). Tolerance developed with a mean half-life of 15 min (range 6–140 min). Conclusions This is the first study to apply a comprehensive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to the cardiovascular effects of orally administered ephedrine. Although systolic blood pressure increases quickly after administration, the increase is nearly abolished by compensatory mechanisms. PMID:15089807

  3. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses.

  4. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  5. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine and cardiovascular events in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dückelmann, Christina; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Haider, Dominik G; Altenberger, Johann; Wolzt, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This prospective study investigated whether plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations are related to cardiovascular events in patients with acute heart failure. It has been reported that increased plasma ADMA concentrations are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome in chronic heart failure. In 118 patients with acute decompensated heart failure and impaired left ventricular function, ADMA and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Venous blood was collected at admission and after 1 week, and clinical events were observed during follow-up. All patients (median age 73 years, 96 males) were followed up for a median of 10.7 months. A clinical endpoint (cardiac decompensation, major adverse cardiovascular event, or all-cause mortality) occurred in 66 patients. In 81 patients, changes (Delta) in ADMA or NT-proBNP between admission and a median of 7 days were available. ADMA, NT-proBNP at admission, and DeltaADMA or DeltaNT-proBNP were comparable in patients with and without a clinical endpoint. In contrast to ADMA, NT-proBNP concentrations above the median were associated with higher adjusted hazard ratio for occurrence of an endpoint (HR 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.9; P = 0.013). An inverse relationship was observed between DeltaNT-proBNP and endpoints before (P = 0.010) and after (P = 0.015) adjustment for confounders. In patients with acute heart failure, ADMA did not detect patients at future cardiovascular risk.

  6. Association of cardiovascular risk factors with the different presentations of acute coronary syndrome1

    PubMed Central

    Brunori, Evelise Helena Fadini Reis; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Cavalcante, Agueda Maria Ruiz Zimmer; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the relationship between different presentations of acute coronary syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors among hospitalized individuals. METHOD: cross-sectional study performed in a teaching hospital in São Paulo, in the State of São Paulo (SP). Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data of 150 individuals hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome were collected through interviews and review of clinical charts. Association between these data and the presentation of the syndrome were investigated. RESULTS: there was a predominance of ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. There was significant association of systemic hypertension with unstable angina and high values of low density lipoprotein with infarction, without influence from socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: arterial hypertension and high levels of low-density lipoprotein were associated with different presentations of coronary syndrome. The results can provide support for health professionals for secondary prevention programs aimed at behavioural changing. PMID:25296136

  7. The moderating effect of physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity following single fat feedings.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Bartholomew, John B

    2012-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of consuming a high-fat meal on cardiovascular reactivity and the ability of exercise to act as a moderator between dietary fat consumption and cardiovascular reactivity. Forty healthy, college-age students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: (1) low-fat meal, no exercise; (2) low-fat meal, postprandial exercise; (3) high-fat meal, no exercise; and (4) high-fat meal, postprandial exercise. To induce stress, all participants performed a public speaking task, while heart rate and blood pressure reactivity were measured. Multilevel analyses revealed that consuming a high-fat meal led to heightened mean arterial pressure reactivity. Acute high-intensity exercise resulted in attenuated heart rate and mean arterial pressure reactivity. The results of this study offer insight into how diet and exercise may influence cardiovascular reactivity, which is a key determinant of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Evidence on the pathogenic role of auto-antibodies in acute cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Carbone, F; Nencioni, A; Mach, F; Vuilleumier, N; Montecucco, F

    2013-05-01

    Atherothrombosis is the major determinant of acute ischaemic cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Inflammatory processes have been linked to all phases of atherogenesis In particular, the identification of autoimmunity mediators in the complex microenvironment of chronic inflammation has become the focus of attention in both early and advanced atherogenic processes. Auto-antibodies against self-molecules or new epitopes generated by oxidative processes infiltrate atherosclerotic plaques and were shown to modulate the activity of immune cells by binding various types of receptors. However, despite mounting evidence for a pathophysiological role of autoantibodies in atherothrombosis, the clinical relevance for circulating autoantibodies in cardiovascular outcomes is still debated. This review aims at illustrating the mechanisms by which different types of autoantibodies might either promote or repress atherothrombosis and to discuss the clinical studies assessing the role of auto-antibodies as prognostic biomarkers of plaque vulnerability.

  9. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress.

  10. BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES WITH PREVENTIVE EFFECT IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Mulero, Juana; Abellán, José; Zafrilla, Pilar; Amores, Diego; Hernández Sánchez, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of diet on cardiovascular disease prevention has been widely studied for many years. Numerous studies have confirmed that diets rich in fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet) are beneficial to the cardiovascular system and various bioactive food components have preventive effect on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this paper we review the effect of bioactive substances included in the group of flavonoids (catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavones), stilbenes such as resveratrol, bioactive peptides, plant sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega- 3 on the cardiovascular system.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24616334

  12. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging assessment of outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jamal N; McCann, Gerry P

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging uniquely characterizes myocardial and microvascular injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), providing powerful surrogate markers of outcomes. The last 10 years have seen an exponential increase in AMI studies utilizing CMR based endpoints. This article provides a contemporary, comprehensive review of the powerful role of CMR imaging in the assessment of outcomes in AMI. The theory, assessment techniques, chronology, importance in predicting left ventricular function and remodelling, and prognostic value of each CMR surrogate marker is described in detail. Major studies illustrating the importance of the markers are summarized, providing an up to date review of the literature base in CMR imaging in AMI. PMID:28289525

  13. Cardiovascular effects of fingolimod: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Etemadifar, Masoud; Abdar Esfahani, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-immune disease. Most therapeutic strategies for treatment of this disease direct immune modulation and control of inflammatory processes. First-line therapeutic agents showed moderate efficacy and frequent side-effects with moderate efficacy in trials. Their parental administration and limited long-term adherence restrict their efficacy compared with second-line therapies. Fingolimod as a second-line therapeutic agent has been shown to reduce annualized relapse rate, risk of disability progression and inflammatory activity of relapsing MS. Safety and efficacy FTY720: Safety and efficacy issues are the main metrics for judgment of drug efficacy. In this article, we focus on cardiovascular effects of FTY720 treatment. Effect of FTY720 on rate and rhythm, impact of FTY720 on endothelial cells, its atheroprotective effects, its effects on cardiac transplantation outcomes, vascular complications of FTY720, effects of FTY720 on endocrine functions and interaction of FTY720 with cardioactive agents are explained in this review article. PMID:25422729

  14. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Noack, Cornelia; Schroeder, Christoph; Heusser, Karsten; Lipp, Axel

    2014-08-01

    Levodopa is one of the most effective symptomatic treatment options for Parkinsonism with a favorable safety and tolerability profile. In some patients, particularly those suffering from orthostatic intolerance, the hypotensive effect of levodopa limits its therapeutic use. We used continuous noninvasive cardiovascular and ventilatory monitoring in 17 patients suffering from moderate Parkinson's disease to quantify the hypotensive effect of levodopa and to determine whether this effect is rather vasodepressor or cardioinhibitory. Oral administration of 200 mg levodopa/50 mg benserazide induced a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure (-15%, p < 0.001), cardiac stroke volume (-13%, p < 0.01) and measures of cardiac contractility (dP/dt: -18%, p < 0.001). Systemic vascular resistance, heart rate and ventilatory parameters remained preserved. Our data indicate that the hypotensive blood pressure response to levodopa is caused primarily by a negative inotropic mechanism rather than peripheral vasodilation. Whether this effect is triggered peripherally at the level of the heart or is mediated via central sympathoinhibition remains unsolved.

  16. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  17. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's Extended Duration Orbiter program is a gradual extension of the capabilities of the Space Shuttle Orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration, as warranted by deepening understanding of the long-term physiological effects of weightlessness. Attention is being given to the cardiovascular problem of orthostatic tolerance loss due to its adverse effects on crew performance and health during reentry and initial readaptation to earth gravity. An account is given of the results of the application of proven mathematical models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems under microgravity conditions.

  18. Association between chloride-rich versus chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration and acute kidney injury in cardiovascular patients in ICU wards.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Guangsu; Han, Dahe; Meng, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yi; Kan, Chen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of chloride-restrictive fluid to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiovascular patients in intensive care unit (ICU) wards. Between January 2013 and September 2014, 456 patients admitted to ICU wards following diagnosis of cardiovascular disease were recruited and randomized to receive chloride-rich (232 patients) or chloride-restrictive (224 patients) fluid. The baseline characteristics and incidence of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)-defined AKI was then compared. No significant difference was identified in the baseline characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of moderate-to-severe KDIGO-defined AKI was significantly decreased in patients who received chloride-restrictive fluid. In conclusion, chloride-restrictive may be a novel effective intervention in preventing KDIGO-defined AKI in cardiovascular patients in ICU wards.

  19. Urinary π-glutathione S-transferase Predicts Advanced Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Huang, Tao-Min; Wu, Pei-Chen; Lai, Chien-Heng; Tseng, Li-Jung; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Connolly, Rory; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2016-08-16

    Urinary biomarkers augment the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), with AKI after cardiovascular surgeries being a prototype of prognosis scenario. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) were evaluated as biomarkers of AKI. Urine samples were collected in 141 cardiovascular surgical patients and analyzed for urinary alpha-(α-) and pi-(π-) GSTs. The outcomes of advanced AKI (KDIGO stage 2, 3) and all-cause in-patient mortality, as composite outcome, were recorded. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to predict outcomes. Thirty-eight (26.9%) patients had AKI, while 12 (8.5%) were with advanced AKI. Urinary π-GST differentiated patients with/without advanced AKI or composite outcome after surgery (p < 0.05 by generalized estimating equation). Urinary π-GST predicted advanced AKI at 3 hrs post-surgery (p = 0.033) and composite outcome (p = 0.009), while the corresponding ROC curve had AUC of 0.784 and 0.783. Using GAM, the cutoff value of 14.7 μg/L for π-GST showed the best performance to predict composite outcome. The addition of π-GST to the SOFA score improved risk stratification (total net reclassification index = 0.47). Thus, urinary π-GST levels predict advanced AKI or hospital mortality after cardiovascular surgery and improve in SOFA outcome assessment specific to AKI.

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome following cardiovascular surgery: current concepts and novel therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hoegl, Sandra; Zwissler, Bernhard; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Vohwinkel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review gives an update on current treatment options and novel concepts on the prevention and treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cardiovascular surgery patients. Recent findings The only proven beneficial therapeutic options in ARDS are those that help to prevent further ventilator-induced lung injury, such as prone position, use of lung-protective ventilation strategies, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In the future also new approaches like mesenchymal cell therapy, activation of hypoxia-elicited transcription factors or targeting of purinergic signaling may be successful outside the experimental setting. Owing to the so far limited treatment options, it is of great importance to determine patients at risk for developing ARDS already perioperatively. In this context, serum biomarkers and lung injury prediction scores could be useful. Summary Preventing ARDS as a severe complication in the cardiovascular surgery setting may help to reduce morbidity and mortality. As cardiovascular surgery patients are of greater risk to develop ARDS, preventive interventions should be implemented early on. Especially, use of low tidal volumes, avoiding of fluid overload and restrictive blood transfusion regimes may help to prevent ARDS. PMID:26598954

  1. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2017-02-27

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems that are needed to regulate motivated behaviour in the face of challenge. In support of this, brain imaging data demonstrate fronto-limbic hypoactivation during acute stress exposure. Those demonstrating blunted reactions also show impairments of motivation, including lower cognitive ability, more rapid cognitive decline, and poorer performance on motivation-dependent tests of lung function. Persons exhibiting blunted stress reactivity display well established temperament characteristics, including neuroticism and impulsivity, characteristic of various behavioural disorders. Notably, the outcomes related to blunted stress reactivity are similar to those that define Reward Deficiency Syndrome. Accordingly, some individuals may be characterised by a broad failure in cardiovascular and cortisol responding to both stress and reward, reflecting fronto-limbic dysregulation. Finally, we proffer a model of blunted stress reactivity, its antecedents and sequelae, and identify future research priorities.

  2. Acute cardiovascular responses while playing virtual games simulated by Nintendo Wii(®).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gusthavo Augusto Alves; Felipe, Danilo De Souza; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; De Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Aparecido de Souza, Renato

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses that occur while playing virtual games (aerobic and balance) emulated by Nintendo Wii(®). [Subjects] Nineteen healthy male volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The ergospirometric variables of maximum oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents, and heart rate were obtained during the aerobic (Obstacle Course, Hula Hoop, and Free Run) and balance (Soccer Heading, Penguin Slide, and Table Tilt) games of Wii Fit Plus(®) software. To access and analyze the ergospirometric information, a VO2000 analyzer was used. Normalized data (using maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Scheffe's test. [Results] Significant differences were found among the balance and aerobic games in all variables analyzed. In addition, the Wii exercises performed were considered to be of light (balance games) and moderate (aerobic games) intensity in accordance with American College Sports Medicine exercise stratification. [Conclusion] Physical activity in a virtual environment emulated by Nintendo Wii(®) can change acute cardiovascular responses, primarily when Wii aerobic games are performed. These results support the use of the Nintendo Wii(®) in physical activity programs.

  3. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    PubMed

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of yellow oleander ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bose, T K; Basu, R K; Biswas, B; De, J N; Majumdar, B C; Datta, S

    1999-10-01

    Yellow oleander (Thevetia neriifolia) is a commonly grown tree found widely in Eastern India. The seeds of yellow oleander are highly poisonous and contain three glycosides--thevetin, thevetoxin and peruvoside. Yellow oleander seed ingestion is usually with suicidal intent in Eastern India. Manifestations range from mild to potentially fatal. It has significant cardiovascular effects with varying rhythm abnormalities. Effects of yellow oleander seed ingestion (YOI) were studied in 300 patients from 1986 to 1990 at BS Medical College, Bankura. Majority i.e., 246 (82%) were females and 226 (75.33%) were young in the age group 11-20 years. Most reported for treatment 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of seeds. The number of seeds swallowed varied from half to fifteen. Two hundred and ninety-two (97.33%) ingested seeds in the crushed form; 156 (52%) were asymptomatic, 92 (30.66%) had vomiting and 36 (12%) had palpitation. In electrocardiogram (ECG), 138 (46%) revealed varying types of arrhythmias including sinus bradycardia in 68 cases (49.27%). Ischaemic changes were present in 118 cases (39.33%). Number of seeds ingested did not bear any relationship with ECG changes in YOI. All 14 cases of death were autopsied. Subendocardial and perivascular haemorrhage with focal myocardial oedema was present in all. Median hospital stay was 5 days (range 2 to 24). During discharge, 256 (85.33%) had normal ECG, 14 (4.66%) had sinus bradycardia and 16 (5.33%) demonstrated ischaemic changes.

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Incretin-Based Therapies.

    PubMed

    White, William B; Baker, William L

    2016-01-01

    The incretin-based therapies, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, are important new classes of therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents prolong the action of the incretin hormones, GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), by inhibiting their breakdown. The incretin hormones improve glycemic control in T2DM by increasing insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon levels. The cardiovascular (CV) effects of the incretin-based therapies have been of substantial interest since 2008, when the US Food and Drug Administration began to require that all new therapies for diabetes undergo rigorous assessment of CV safety through large-scale CV outcome trials. This article reviews the most recent CV outcome trials of the DPP-4 inhibitors (SAVOR-TIMI 53, EXAMINE, and TECOS) as evidence that the incretin-based therapies have acceptable CV safety profiles for patients with T2DM. The studies differ with regard to patient population, trial duration, and heart failure outcomes but show similar findings for CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke, as well as hospitalization for unstable angina.

  6. Pharmacological effects of Chinese herb aconite (fuzi) on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Cui, Yanjing; Wu, Xinfang

    2012-09-01

    Fuzi (aconite, Radix Aconiti praeparata), a widely used Chinese herb, plays a significant role in the cardiovascular system. This is mainly reflected by Fuzi's cardiotonic effect, its protective effect on myocardial cells, and its effect on heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, and hemodynamics. In this article, the pharmacological effects and the corresponding mechanisms of Fuzi (aconite) and its active components on cardiovascular system are reviewed.

  7. Positive emotional style and subjective, cardiovascular and cortisol responses to acute laboratory stress.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Sophie; Hamer, Mark; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Mitchell, Ellen S; Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    The relationships between positive emotional style and acute salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to laboratory stress tasks were examined in 40 young women (mean age=28.8 years). Positive emotional style (PES) was measured by aggregating daily positive mood rating scales over one week. Negative affect was assessed with the short form Profile of Mood States. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to two behavioural tasks, a 5 min speech task and a 5 min mirror tracing task. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate responses were monitored using a Finometer during baseline, tasks and recovery. Higher PES was associated with more complete diastolic BP recovery (p=0.027) and lower acute cortisol response to stress (p=0.018), after adjusting for baseline measures, age, BMI and negative affect. Individuals with higher PES reported lower subjective tension during the tasks and perceived the tasks as more controllable. There were no differences in ratings of task involvement or in objective measures of task performance. A retrospective measure of positive affect (POMS vigour) was associated with diastolic BP recovery but not cortisol responses or subjective tension. The findings suggest that positive affective traits, assessed using repeated assessments of daily mood, are related to adaptive recovery from acute psychological stress. Our results reinforce evidence linking positive affect with adaptive diastolic BP recovery, while extending the results to cortisol. Investigations into the biological correlates of affective traits should consider utilising repeated measures of experienced affect.

  8. Development of a positive psychology intervention for patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Jeff C; Mastromauro, Carol A; Boehm, Julia K; Seabrook, Rita; Fricchione, Gregory L; Denninger, John W; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2011-09-29

    The management of depression and other negative psychological states in cardiac patients has been a focus of multiple treatment trials, though such trials have not led to substantial improvements in cardiac outcomes. In contrast, there has been minimal focus on interventions to increase positive psychological states in cardiac patients, despite the fact that optimism and other positive states have been associated with superior cardiovascular outcomes. Our objective was to develop an 8-week, phone-based positive psychology intervention for patients hospitalized with acute cardiac disease (acute coronary syndrome or decompensated heart failure). Such an intervention would consist of positive psychology exercises adapted for this specific population, and it would need to be feasible for practitioners and patients in real-world settings. By adapting exercises that were previously validated in healthy individuals, we were able to generate a positive psychology telemedicine intervention for cardiac patients that focused on optimism, kindness, and gratitude. In addition, we successfully created a companion treatment manual for subjects to enhance the educational aspects of the intervention and facilitate completion of exercises. Finally, we successfully performed a small pilot trial of this intervention, and found that the positive psychology intervention appeared to be feasible and well-accepted in a cohort of patients with acute cardiac illness. Future studies should further develop this promising intervention and examine its impact on psychological and medical outcomes in this vulnerable population of cardiac patients.

  9. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  10. Transgenerational Epigenetics: The Role of Maternal Effects in Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dao H.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics, the study of non-genetic transfer of information from one generation to the next, has gained much attention in the past few decades due to the fact that, in many instances, epigenetic processes outweigh direct genetic processes in the manifestation of aberrant phenotypes across several generations. Maternal effects, or the influences of maternal environment, phenotype, and/or genotype on offsprings’ phenotypes, independently of the offsprings’ genotypes, are a subcategory of transgenerational epigenetics. Due to the intimate role of the mother during early development in animals, there is much interest in investigating the means by which maternal effects can shape the individual. Maternal effects are responsible for cellular organization, determination of the body axis, initiation and maturation of organ systems, and physiological performance of a wide variety of species and biological systems. The cardiovascular system is the first to become functional and can significantly influence the development of other organ systems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the role of maternal effects in cardiovascular development, and to understand its impact on adult cardiovascular health. Topics to be addressed include: (1) how and when do maternal effects change the developmental trajectory of the cardiovascular system to permanently alter the adult’s cardiovascular phenotype, (2) what molecular mechanisms have been associated with maternally induced cardiovascular phenotypes, and (3) what are the evolutionary implications of maternally mediated changes in cardiovascular phenotype? PMID:24813463

  11. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions.

  12. Impaired Fasting Glucose and Recurrent Cardiovascular Disease among Survivors of a First Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evidence of a Sex Difference ? The Western New York Experience

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Richard P; Dorn, Joan M; Stranges, Saverio; Swanson, Mya; Hovey, Kathleen; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims There is little epidemiological evidence regarding the association of impaired glucose metabolism with recurrent cardiovascular events. We therefore examined potential sex differences in the effect of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) on recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a community-based study of survivors of a first acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results This report focuses on 1,226 incident MI cases (28.4% women) discharged alive from area hospitals in the Western New York Acute MI Study (1996–2004). Deaths and underlying cause of death were determined via query of the National Death Index (Plus) Retrieval Program with follow-up through December 31, 2004. Outcomes reported included fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary revascularization surgery and total stroke. Traditional CHD risk factors and other explanatory variables were determined by clinical examination after the first acute event. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting blood glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dl. During a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, there were 91 recurrent events (26.1%) in women and 173 recurrent events (19.7%) in men. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratios for recurrent cardiovascular events were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.15–3.16) and 2.59 (1.56–4.30) in women with IFG and with diabetes, respectively, compared to normoglycemic women. Among men, neither IFG nor diabetes was independently related to risk of recurrence. Conclusions In this study, IFG was a strong risk factor for recurrent cardiovascular events only among women. These results suggest that increased cardiovascular risk in MI survivors begins at lower glucose levels in women than men. PMID:20227262

  13. Clinical Risk Factors for In-Hospital Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Acute Drug Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Alex F.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Stimmel, Barry; Vlahov, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It was recently demonstrated that adverse cardiovascular events (ACVE) complicate a high proportion of hospitalizations for patients with acute drug overdoses. The aim of this study was to derive independent clinical risk factors for ACVE in patients with acute drug overdoses. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted over 3 years at two urban university hospitals. Patients were adults with acute drug overdoses enrolled from the ED. In-hospital ACVE was defined as any of myocardial injury, shock, ventricular dysrhythmia, or cardiac arrest. Results There were 1,562 patients meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria (mean age, 41.8 years; female, 46%; suicidal, 38%). ACVE occurred in 82 (5.7%) patients (myocardial injury, 61; shock, 37; dysrhythmia, 23; cardiac arrests, 22) and there were 18 (1.2%) deaths. On univariate analysis, ACVE risk increased with age, lower serum bicarbonate, prolonged QTc interval, prior cardiac disease, and altered mental status. In a multivariable model adjusting for these factors as well as patient sex and hospital site, independent predictors were: QTc > 500 msec (3.8% prevalence, odds ratio [OR] 27.6), bicarbonate < 20 mEql/L (5.4% prevalence, OR 4.4), and prior cardiac disease (7.1% prevalence, OR 9.5). The derived prediction rule had 51.6% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity, and 97.1% negative predictive value; while presence of two or more risk factors had 90.9% positive predictive value. Conclusions The authors derived independent clinical risk factors for ACVE in patients with acute drug overdose, which should be validated in future studies as a prediction rule in distinct patient populations and clinical settings. PMID:25903997

  14. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Alain; Cohen, Alan; Courteau, Josiane; Bergeron, Patrick; Dault, Roxanne; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Bélanger, Diane; Rochette, Louis; Chebana, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. Results: The results showed a 25%–27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Conclusion: Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect. PMID:26828511

  15. [Effects of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Tetsuo; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-07-01

    Active vitamin D plays important roles not only in bone and mineral metabolism but also in the cardiovascular system. Cohort studies in hemodialysis patients demonstrated that use of active vitamin D analogs was associated with reduced risk of death, particularly death from cardiovascular disease. Treatment with vitamin D had beneficial effects on cardiac and immune functions in dialysis patients, and inflammatory markers in non-renal subjects. Also, anti-proteinuric effect was recently shown in chronic kidney disease. Experimentally, active vitamin D inhibits atherogenic cellular behaviors and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Thus, active vitamin D is a regulator of cardiovascular and kidney functions.

  16. Could NLRP3-Inflammasome Be a Cardiovascular Risk Biomarker in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients?

    PubMed

    Bullón, Pedro; Cano-García, Francisco J; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roman-Malo, Lourdes; Ruiz-Salmerón, Rafael J; Quiles, José L; Navarro-Pando, José M; Battino, Maurizio; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J; Cordero, Mario D

    2017-01-20

    Conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are accepted to identify asymptomatic individuals with high risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, AMI affects many patients previously classified at low risk. New biomarkers are needed to improve risk prediction. We propose to evaluate the NLRP3-inflammasome complex as a potential conventional cardiovascular risk (CVR) indicator in healthy males and post-AMI patients and compare both groups by known CVRFs. We included 109 men with no history of cardiovascular disease (controls) and 150 AMI patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program. AMI patients had higher mean of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference than the controls. However, high percentages of the controls had a high BMI and a waist circumference >95 cm. The controls also had higher systolic blood pressure (p > 0.001), total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dietary nutrient, and calorific intake. Fuster BEWAT score (FBS) correlated more closely than Framingham risk score (FRS) with most CVRF, groups. However, only the FBS showed a correlation with inflammasome cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Several CVRFs were significantly better in AMI patients; however, this group also had higher mRNA expression of the inflammasome gene NLRP3 and lower expression of the autophagy gene MAP-LC3. The controls had high levels of CVRF, probably reflecting unhealthy lifestyle. FBS reflects the efficiency of strategies to induce lifestyle changes such as cardiac rehabilitation programs, and could provide a sensitive evaluation CVR. These results lead to the hypothesis that NLRP3-inflammasome and associated IL-1β release have potential as CVR biomarkers, particularly in post-AMI patients with otherwise low risk scores. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  17. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjay K; Maulik, Subir K

    2002-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficary of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic. PMID:12537594

  18. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular performance in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Vigorito, Carlo; Giallauria, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Progressive aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cells and increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired left ventricular diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level. Physical activity (PA) appears in general to have a positive effect on several health outcomes in the elderly. This review aims to illustrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the physiologic decline of cardiovascular performance occurring with age. Furthermore, it will be stressed also the positive effect of physical activity in elderly patients affected by cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, and multiple comorbidities which may significantly worse prognosis in this high risk population. PMID:24600400

  19. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular performance in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, Carlo; Giallauria, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Progressive aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cells and increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired left ventricular diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level. Physical activity (PA) appears in general to have a positive effect on several health outcomes in the elderly. This review aims to illustrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the physiologic decline of cardiovascular performance occurring with age. Furthermore, it will be stressed also the positive effect of physical activity in elderly patients affected by cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, and multiple comorbidities which may significantly worse prognosis in this high risk population.

  20. Diabetes Mellitus and Mortality after Acute Coronary Syndrome as a First or Recurrent Cardiovascular Event

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M.; Abbas, Afroze; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Kilcullen, Niamh; Das, Raj; Morrell, Christine; Barth, Julian H.; Kearney, Mark T.; Hall, Alistair S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. However, the risk associated with DM may vary between individuals according to their overall cardiovascular risk burden. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether DM is associated with poor outcome in patients presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) according to the index episode being a first or recurrent cardiovascular event. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study involving 2499 consecutively admitted patients with confirmed ACS in 11 UK hospitals during 2003. Usual care was provided for all participants. Demographic factors, co-morbidity and treatment (during admission and at discharge) factors were recorded. The primary outcome was all cause mortality (median 2 year follow up), compared for cohorts with and without DM according to their prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) disease status. Adjusted analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Within the entire cohort, DM was associated with an unadjusted 45% increase in mortality. However, in patients free of a history of CVD, mortality of those with and without DM was similar (18.8% and 19.7% respectively; p = 0.74). In the group with CVD, mortality of patients with DM was significantly higher than those without DM (46.7% and 33.2% respectively; p<0.001). The age and sex adjusted interaction between DM and CVD in predicting mortality was highly significant (p = 0.002) and persisted after accounting for comorbidities and treatment factors (p = 0.006). Of patients free of CVD, DM was associated with smaller elevation of Troponin I (p<0.001). However in patients with pre-existing CVD Troponin I was similar (p = 0.992). Conclusions DM is only associated with worse outcome after ACS in patients with a pre-existing history of CVD. Differences in the severity of myocyte necrosis may account for this. Further investigation is required

  1. Cardiovascular effects of second-hand smoke help explain the benefits of smoke-free legislation on heart disease burden.

    PubMed

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) increases the risk of heart disease by approximately 30% in nonsmokers. Recent evidence from cities that have implemented 100% smoke-free laws has shown that myocardial infarction admissions rapidly declined after law implementation. This decline is, in part, explained by the acute and substantial cardiovascular effects of SHS, many of which are rapid and nearly as large as smoking. The cardiovascular effects of SHS include platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis development and progression, increased oxidative stress, decreased energy metabolism, and increased insulin resistance. These effects are, on average, 80% to 90% that of chronic active smoking. However, cardiovascular function is partially recovered after SHS exposure ends. Given the evidence, cardiovascular nurses should advise their patients and relatives to avoid SHS exposure and demand smoke-free workplaces and homes.

  2. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed.

  3. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  4. The pathophysiological profile of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of sodium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Iven, H; Younes, M

    1982-01-01

    The intravenous infusion of sodium fluoride (2 mg/kg X min) into anesthetized rats caused a progressive fall in arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate and peripheral resistance. Respiratory rate increased during the first 20 min of infusion resulting in increased oxygen and decreased carbon dioxide blood concentrations. Total body oxygen consumption decreased after 30 min of NaF infusion by 29%, whereas the respiratory quotient (RQ) increased from 0.8 to 1.06. Death occurred after a mean dose of 79.6 +/- 4.6 mg/kg NaF. The terminal cardiac event before death was atrioventricular block followed immediately by asystole. Artificial ventilation did not influence the cardiovascular and the lethal effects of fluoride infusion. The plasma concentrations of total and ionized calcium decreased upon NaF infusion. The infusion of extra calcium did not prevent NaF-induced cardiovascular failure but decreased plasma fluoride levels and increased the lethal dose of NaF by 17% (not significant). In isolated atria and perfused hearts in vitro, NaF decreased the force of contraction in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, cardiovascular failure resulting from the direct cardiodepressive and vasodilatating effects of fluoride (and not from respiratory depression or hypocalcemia) accounts for the lethal outcome of fluoride intoxication.

  5. Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplementation for Cardiovascular Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Veloudi, Panagiota; Jones, Graeme; Sharman, James E.

    2017-01-01

    There is a plausible physiological theory, supported by many observational studies, that vitamin D supplementation should be effective for improving cardiovascular end points, such as blood pressure (BP), large artery stiffness, atherosclerosis, endothelial function and clinical events. However, results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent. In this review, we evaluated the evidence regarding the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular surrogate and hard clinical end points. RCTs were assessed in terms of sample size, duration of supplementation, baseline vitamin D level inclusion criteria (i.e., absence of vitamin D deficiency), dosage of vitamin D and population under investigation. Forty-five RCTs were identified. Eight RCTs with BP and 6 RCTs with large artery stiffness as the end points were found to comply with guidelines for the optimal design of clinical trials evaluating nutrient effects. Only 2 of the RCTs with an optimal design were effective in decreasing BP with vitamin D supplementation, although these were of moderate sample size (<150) and very short duration (8 weeks for both), whilst no RCT was effective in reducing large artery stiffness. Similar results were observed for atherosclerotic and endothelial function markers as end points. Only 1 RCT reported cardiovascular events as an end point and found neither increased nor decreased incident cardiovascular events over 7 years of follow-up. In conclusion, results from published RCTs indicate that vitamin D supplementation is ineffective in improving cardiovascular health among various patient populations, including in the presence or absence of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:28229054

  6. Superparamagnetic iron oxide polyacrylic acid coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles do not affect kidney function but cause acute effect on the cardiovascular function in healthy mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Nina K.; Frische, Sebastian; Thomsen, Karen; Laustsen, Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael; Hansen, Pernille B.L.; Bie, Peter; Fresnais, Jérome; Berret, Jean-Francois; Baatrup, Erik; Wang, Tobias

    2013-01-15

    nanoparticle accumulation. ► No effects of accumulation in kidney on acid-base status or GFR. ► Acute hypotension associated with decreased contractility of small vessels. ► We demonstrate physiological effects of PAA γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP for medical purposes.

  7. Orchidectomy versus oestrogen for prostatic cancer: cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, P; Edhag, O

    1986-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients aged up to 75 with newly diagnosed cancer of the prostate suitable for hormonal treatment were included in a controlled study of the cardiovascular effects of oestrogen versus orchidectomy. In all cases pre-existing cardiovascular morbidity was excluded. Of the 100 patients, 91 were strictly randomised to receive either oestrogen (n = 47) or orchidectomy (n = 44) and 9 (6 given oestrogen, 3 orchidectomy) either chose their own treatment (five cases) or had it selected for them by the urologist (four). Oestrogen was given in the lowest recommended dosage in Sweden--namely, as 160 mg polyestradiol phosphate intramuscularly every month for the first three months, then 80 mg monthly, plus ethinyloestradiol 1 mg by mouth daily for the first two weeks, then 150 micrograms daily. At entry to the study the two treatment groups showed no difference in demographic characteristics or conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. During the first year, however, 13 (25%) of the patients given oestrogen suffered major cardiovascular events as compared with none of the patients after orchidectomy. Patients in the oestrogen treatment group who did not have minor signs of atherosclerosis at entry to the study suffered a similar incidence of cardiovascular complications to those who did have these signs at entry. The substantially increased risk of cardiovascular complications in patients given oestrogen for prostatic cancer warrants careful consideration when choosing treatment for this disorder. PMID:3091138

  8. Antidotal Effects of Curcumin Against Agents-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed

    Curcumin, the major phenolic compound in turmeric, shows preventive effects in various diseases. Curcumin is commonly found in rhizome of the Curcuma species and traditionally used in herbal medicine. Numeros studies has indicated that curcumin posses protective effects against toxic agents in various systems including cardiovascular. This study found that curcumin may be effective in cardiovascular diseases induced by toxic agents including Streptozotocin, Doxorubicin, Cyclosporin A, Methotrexate, Isoproterenol, Cadmium, Diesel exhaust particle, Nicotine, Hydrogen peroxide, and tert- Butyl hydroperoxide. However, due to the lake of information on human, further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of curcumin as an antidote agent. The present study aimed to critically review the recent literature data from that regarding the protective effects of curcumin against agents-induced cardiovascular toxicity.

  9. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  10. Comprehensive physiological cardiovascular model enables automatic correction of hemodynamics in patients with acute life-threatening heart failure.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shimizu, Shuji; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Saving life of patients with acute life-threatening heart failure is a major challenge. One has to correct several fatal hemodynamic abnormalities at the same time within a limited time frame. The formulation of such complicated treatments enables the development of a system that can be used to save automatically lives of patients with acute heart failure, an autopilot system. To accomplish this, we established a comprehensive physiological cardiovascular model, on which we based the design of the autopilot system. By translating hemodynamics into cardiovascular parameters (pumping ability, vascular resistance, blood volume), and by controlling each of these with individual drugs, we were able to correct blood pressure, cardiac output, and left atrial pressure to the target values rapidly (5.2 +/- 6.6, 6.8 +/- 4.6, and 11.7 +/- 9.8 minutes), stably, and simultaneously.

  11. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  12. Beatquency domain and machine learning improve prediction of cardiovascular death after acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Stultz, Collin M.; Guttag, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with adverse events after a myocardial infarction. However, patterns in the traditional frequency domain (measured in Hz, or cycles per second) may capture different cardiac phenomena at different heart rates. An alternative is to consider frequency with respect to heartbeats, or beatquency. We compared the use of frequency and beatquency domains to predict patient risk after an acute coronary syndrome. We then determined whether machine learning could further improve the predictive performance. We first evaluated the use of pre-defined frequency and beatquency bands in a clinical trial dataset (N = 2302) for the HRV risk measure LF/HF (the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power). Relative to frequency, beatquency improved the ability of LF/HF to predict cardiovascular death within one year (Area Under the Curve, or AUC, of 0.730 vs. 0.704, p < 0.001). Next, we used machine learning to learn frequency and beatquency bands with optimal predictive power, which further improved the AUC for beatquency to 0.753 (p < 0.001), but not for frequency. Results in additional validation datasets (N = 2255 and N = 765) were similar. Our results suggest that beatquency and machine learning provide valuable tools in physiological studies of HRV. PMID:27708350

  13. Acute myocardial infarction versus other cardiovascular events in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Stefano; Ramirez, Julio; Cosentini, Roberto; Valenti, Vincenzo; Voza, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo; Stolz, Daiana; Legnani, Delfino; Pesci, Alberto; Richeldi, Luca; Peyrani, Paula; Massari, Fernando Maria; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus other cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was an international, multicentre, observational, prospective study of CAP patients hospitalised in eight hospitals in Italy and Switzerland. Three groups were identified: those without CVEs, those with AMI and those with other CVEs. Among 905 patients, 21 (2.3%) patients experienced at least one AMI, while 107 (11.7%) patients experienced at least one other CVE. Patients with CAP and either AMI or other CVEs showed a higher severity of the disease than patients with CAP alone. Female sex, liver disease and the presence of severe sepsis were independent predictors for the occurrence of AMI, while female sex, age >65 years, neurological disease and the presence of pleural effusion predicted other CVEs. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who experienced AMI in comparison to those experiencing other CVEs (43% versus 21%, p=0.039). The presence of AMI showed an adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 3.57 (p=0.012) and for other CVEs of 2.63 (p=0.002). These findings on AMI versus other CVEs as complications of CAP may be important when planning interventional studies on cardioprotective medications.

  14. Acute myocardial infarction versus other cardiovascular events in community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Julio; Cosentini, Roberto; Valenti, Vincenzo; Voza, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo; Stolz, Daiana; Legnani, Delfino; Pesci, Alberto; Richeldi, Luca; Peyrani, Paula; Massari, Fernando Maria; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus other cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was an international, multicentre, observational, prospective study of CAP patients hospitalised in eight hospitals in Italy and Switzerland. Three groups were identified: those without CVEs, those with AMI and those with other CVEs. Among 905 patients, 21 (2.3%) patients experienced at least one AMI, while 107 (11.7%) patients experienced at least one other CVE. Patients with CAP and either AMI or other CVEs showed a higher severity of the disease than patients with CAP alone. Female sex, liver disease and the presence of severe sepsis were independent predictors for the occurrence of AMI, while female sex, age >65 years, neurological disease and the presence of pleural effusion predicted other CVEs. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who experienced AMI in comparison to those experiencing other CVEs (43% versus 21%, p=0.039). The presence of AMI showed an adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 3.57 (p=0.012) and for other CVEs of 2.63 (p=0.002). These findings on AMI versus other CVEs as complications of CAP may be important when planning interventional studies on cardioprotective medications. PMID:27730139

  15. Beatquency domain and machine learning improve prediction of cardiovascular death after acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Scirica, Benjamin M; Stultz, Collin M; Guttag, John V

    2016-10-06

    Frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are associated with adverse events after a myocardial infarction. However, patterns in the traditional frequency domain (measured in Hz, or cycles per second) may capture different cardiac phenomena at different heart rates. An alternative is to consider frequency with respect to heartbeats, or beatquency. We compared the use of frequency and beatquency domains to predict patient risk after an acute coronary syndrome. We then determined whether machine learning could further improve the predictive performance. We first evaluated the use of pre-defined frequency and beatquency bands in a clinical trial dataset (N = 2302) for the HRV risk measure LF/HF (the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power). Relative to frequency, beatquency improved the ability of LF/HF to predict cardiovascular death within one year (Area Under the Curve, or AUC, of 0.730 vs. 0.704, p < 0.001). Next, we used machine learning to learn frequency and beatquency bands with optimal predictive power, which further improved the AUC for beatquency to 0.753 (p < 0.001), but not for frequency. Results in additional validation datasets (N = 2255 and N = 765) were similar. Our results suggest that beatquency and machine learning provide valuable tools in physiological studies of HRV.

  16. Therapy for triggered acute risk prevention in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Tofler, Geoffrey H; Spinaze, Monica; Shaw, Elizabeth; Buckley, Thomas

    2013-06-15

    Heavy physical exertion, emotional stress, heavy meals, and respiratory infection transiently increase the risk of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, and stroke; however, it remains uncertain how to use this information for disease prevention. We determined whether it was feasible for those with either risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) or known CVD to take targeted medication for the hazard duration of the triggering activity to reduce their risk. After a run-in of 1 month, 20 subjects (12 women and 8 men) aged 68.6 years (range 58 to 83) recorded for 2 months all episodes of physical and emotional stress, heavy meal consumption, and respiratory infection. For each episode, the subjects were instructed to take either aspirin 100 mg and propranolol 10 mg (for physical exertion and emotional stress) or aspirin 100 mg alone (for respiratory infection and heavy meal consumption) and to record their adherence. Adherence with taking the appropriate medication was 86% according to the diary entries, with 15 of 20 subjects (75%) achieving ≥80% adherence. Propranolol taken before exertion reduced the peak heart rate compared with similar exercise during the run-in period (118 ± 21 vs 132 ± 16 beats/min, p = 0.016). Most subjects (85%) reported that it was feasible to continue taking the medication in this manner. In conclusion, it is feasible for those with increased CVD risk to identify potential triggers of acute CVD and to take targeted therapy at the time of these triggers.

  17. Acute and chronic psychological stress as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Insights gained from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Lagraauw, H Maxime; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death worldwide and identification and therapeutic modulation of all its risk factors is necessary to ensure a lower burden on the patient and on society. The physiological response to acute and chronic stress exposure has long been recognized as a potent modulator of immune, endocrine and metabolic pathways, however its direct implications for cardiovascular disease development, progression and as a therapeutic target are not completely understood. More and more attention is given to the bidirectional interaction between psychological and physical health in relation to cardiovascular disease. With atherosclerosis being a chronic disease starting already at an early age the contribution of adverse early life events in affecting adult health risk behavior, health status and disease development is receiving increased attention. In addition, experimental research into the biological pathways involved in stress-induced cardiovascular complications show important roles for metabolic and immunologic maladaptation, resulting in increased disease development and progression. Here we provide a concise overview of human and experimental animal data linking chronic and acute stress to CVD risk and increased progression of the underlying disease atherosclerosis.

  18. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; At'kov, O. Yu.; Vasin, A. L.; Breus, T. K.; Sasonko, M. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling ;ARFA; has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of extreme physical training.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, W; Rost, R; De Meirleir, K; Liesen, H; Heck, H; Mader, A

    1986-01-01

    After a short historical remark the development of athlete's heart in childhood is described. Within 2 years significant differences were observed between endurance-trained (swimming) and untrained girls and boys determined by X-ray and echocardiographical examinations. The limits of the physiological size in relation to body weight were not exceeded within 10 years of longitudinal studies. A second point deals with athlete's heart from physiological and clinical viewpoints. The largest healthy heart ever found in our examinations of athletes had a size of 1,700 ml. Sixteen years after stopping the active career it was reduced to 950 ml without a pathological finding. Questionable and pathological cases are described. A third chapter covers the blood supply of internal organs during exercise combined with air or oxygen breathing. In this connection liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, and brain have been investigated. The reduced blood supply of the liver and kidneys during intense exercise on the cycle ergometer was not influenced significantly by inspiration of oxygen. A significant blood volume increase of the lungs was noticed during incremental rates of work. Exercise augmented also blood flow of the brain in relation to the work rate (at 100 W a 27% increase in grey matter flow of the right hemisphere). A fourth chapter deals with new hormonal and neurohormonal aspects related to the cardiovascular system. Beta-endorphines remained unchanged at work rates below the anaerobic threshold but increased significantly during maximal rate of work. The opiate antagonist naloxone abolished the rise in body temperature seen during ergometer exercise. The serotonin antagonist ketanserin lowered the blood pressure and the arterial lactic acid level during an incremental exercise test, similar to the results with the dopamine agonist pergolide. The hormone cardiodilatin is produced in the atrial appendages, and it is a potent substance in the regulation of the cardiovascular

  20. Cardiovascular effects of green tea catechins: progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2012-08-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the cardiovascular beneficial effects of green tea. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that consumption of green tea is inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Catechins, the major flavonoid constituents of green tea, exert cardioprotective effects through diverse mechanisms that include reversal of endothelial dysfunctions, decreasing inflammatory biomarkers, and providing antioxidant, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects. Moreover, dietary consumption of green tea catechins has beneficial effects on blood pressure and lipid parameters. This review will focus on discussing the latest research on the cardioprotective effects of green tea catechins and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Several recent patents pertinent to green tea and cardiovascular health will also be discussed. It is noteworthy that clinical studies involving green tea are fraught with multiple complexity and confounding factors. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of the effects of green tea catechins in well-controlled human trials will be required for better understanding of the effects of green tea in cardiovascular health.

  1. The effect of geomagnetic activity on cardiovascular parameters.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, E

    2002-01-01

    Multidirectional changes in the natural history of many cardiovascular syndromes have been linked to different levels of daily and monthly geomagnetic activity (GMA). Previous studies have found that in periods of high GMA, there were more admissions for acute myocardial infarction and more cases of anterior wall myocardial infarction. Results also indicated: higher out-patient mortality and a trend towards higher hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction; higher diastolic arterial pressure in healthy subjects and in treated hypertensive patients; higher prolactin and 17-corticosteroid levels in the peripheral blood; more severe migraine attacks and more admissions for CVA and cerebrovascular insufficiency in male patients; changes in many blood coagulation cellular gradients (platelet count, basophils in the peripheral blood), a rise in platelet aggregation, fibrinogen level and a drop in leukocyte adhesiveness. Periods of low GMA showed a related increase (negative correlation) in in-hospital non-myocardial infarction-related cardiovascular deaths. Only in times of lowest GMA did inferior wall myocardial infarction exceed anterior wall myocardial infarction. Low GMA was also associated with higher levels of growth hormone and 11-ketosteroids in the peripheral blood, more sudden deaths, some increase in electrical heart instability number of ventricular and supraventricular extrasystoles and higher rate of ventricular tachycardia. The monthly occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was negatively correlated with GMA level. Gender differences were noted in some of the parameters. Other studied parameters did not show changes related to GMA. These included hemoglobin level, electrolyte level, heart beat and pulse rate. Moreover, some observed cardiovascular fluctuations that were related to the level of GMA, also showed differences in the rising and dropping parts of the 11-year cycle of solar activity. It has been suggested that some of the changes

  2. Experimental studies on the acute cardiovascular toxicity of formalin and its antidotal treatment.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Brasch, H; Pentz, R; Younes, M

    1990-01-01

    Rats anesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially were infused with 0.01 ml formalin (= 0.12 mmol formaldehyde)/kg.min. They exhibited a sharp decline of arterial blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral resistance and a slower one of cardiac output and died after 59.9 +/- 6.0 min of infusion. Sinus bradycardia and, in some cases, AV-arrhythmia occurred in the ECG. The additional infusion with cysteine attenuated the cardiovascular failure and more than doubled the survival time of formalin-infused rats. Infusion of N-acetylcysteine or correction of formalin-induced metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate, on the other hand, did not exert antidotal activity. On isolated rat atria in vitro, formalin decreased the rate and the contractility and cysteine antagonized these effects of formalin. In conclusion, the severe and often lethal incidents observed following the therapeutic administration of formalin are due to the cardiovascular-depressive activity of formaldehyde and may be antagonized by cysteine.

  3. Olanzapine-induced early cardiovascular effects are mediated by the biological clock and prevented by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Romo-Nava, Francisco; Buijs, Frederik N; Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Benítez-King, Gloria; Basualdo, MariCarmen; Perusquía, Mercedes; Heinze, Gerhard; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2017-05-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic side effects contributing to premature mortality in patients. While mechanisms mediating these cardiometabolic side effects remain poorly understood, three independent studies recently demonstrated that melatonin was protective against cardiometabolic risk in SGA-treated patients. As one of the main target areas of circulating melatonin in the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), we hypothesized that the SCN is involved in SGA-induced early cardiovascular effects in Wistar rats. We evaluated the acute effects of olanzapine and melatonin in the biological clock, paraventricular nucleus and autonomic nervous system using immunohistochemistry, invasive cardiovascular measurements, and Western blot. Olanzapine induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the SCN followed by the paraventricular nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus indicating a potent induction of parasympathetic tone. The involvement of a SCN-parasympathetic neuronal pathway after olanzapine administration was further documented using cholera toxin-B retrograde tracing and vasoactive intestinal peptide immunohistochemistry. Olanzapine-induced decrease in blood pressure and heart rate confirmed this. Melatonin abolished olanzapine-induced SCN c-Fos immunoreactivity, including the parasympathetic pathway and cardiovascular effects while brain areas associated with olanzapine beneficial effects including the striatum, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens remained activated. In the SCN, olanzapine phosphorylated the GSK-3β, a regulator of clock activity, which melatonin prevented. Bilateral lesions of the SCN prevented the effects of olanzapine on parasympathetic activity. Collectively, results demonstrate the SCN as a key region mediating the early effects of olanzapine on cardiovascular function and show melatonin has opposing and potentially protective effects warranting additional investigation.

  4. Acute neurobehavioural effects of toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L; Langolf, G; Schork, A; Sampaio, C

    1989-01-01

    An acute inhalation chamber study of 42 college students was performed to investigate the relation between exposure to 0, 75, and 150 ppm of toluene and changes in central nervous system function and symptoms. Paid subjects were exposed for seven hours over three days. Verbal and visual short term memory (Sternberg, digit span, Benton, pattern memory); perception (pattern recognition); psychomotor skill (simple reaction time, continuous performance, digit symbol, hand-eye coordination, finger tapping, and critical tracking); manual dexterity (one hole); mood (profile of mood scales (POMS]; fatigue (fatigue checklist); and verbal ability were evaluated at 0800, 1200, and 1600 hours. Voluntary symptoms and observations of sleep were collected daily. An analysis of variance and test for trend was performed on the difference and score for each concentration reflecting an eight hour workday where each subject was their own control. A 3 x 3 Latin square study design evaluated toluene effects simultaneously, controlling for learning across the three days and the solvent order. Intersubject variation in solvent uptake was monitored in breath and urine. A 5-10% decrement in performance was considered significant if it was consistent with a linear trend at p less than 0.05. Adverse performance at 150 ppm toluene was found at 6.0% for digit span, 12.1% for pattern recognition (latency), 5.0% for pattern memory (number correct), 6.5% for one hole, and 3.0% for critical tracking. The number of headaches and eye irritation also increased in a dose response manner. The greatest effect was found for an increasing number of observations of sleep. Overall, no clear pattern of neurobehavioural effects was found consistent with the type 1 central nervous system as classified by the World Health Organisation. Subtle acute effects, however, were found just below and above the ACGIH TLV of 100 ppm toluene, supporting the position that the guideline be lowered since the biological

  5. Non-genomic effect of glucocorticoids on cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Youm, Jae Boum; Dizon, Louise Anne; Song, In Sung; Jeong, Seung Hun; Seo, Dae Yun; Ko, Kyoung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin

    2012-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are essential steroid hormones for homeostasis, development, metabolism, and cognition and possess anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. Since glucocorticoid receptor II (GR) is nearly ubiquitous, chronic activation or depletion of GCs leads to dysfunction of diverse organs, including the heart and blood vessels, resulting predominantly from changes in gene expression. Most studies, therefore, have focused on the genomic effects of GC to understand its related pathophysiological manifestations. The nongenomic effects of GCs clearly differ from well-known genomic effects, with the former responding within several minutes without the need for protein synthesis. There is increasing evidence that the nongenomic actions of GCs influence various physiological functions. To develop a GC-mediated therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, understanding the genomic and nongenomic effects of GC on the cardiovascular system is needed. This article reviews our current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of GCs on cardiovascular diseases and stress, as well as how nongenomic GC signaling contributes to these conditions. We suggest that manipulation of GC action based on both GC and GR metabolism, mitochondrial impact, and the action of serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinase 1 may provide new information with which to treat cardiovascular diseases.

  6. A Computer Model of the Cardiovascular System for Effective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Carl F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a physiological model which solves a set of interacting, possibly nonlinear, differential equations through numerical integration on a digital computer. Sample printouts are supplied and explained for effects on the components of a cardiovascular system when exercise, hemorrhage, and cardiac failure occur. (CS)

  7. Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetic Compared With Nondiabetic First Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cano, J. Francisco; Baena-Diez, Jose M.; Franch, Josep; Vila, Joan; Tello, Susana; Sala, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Marrugat, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term cardiovascular risk differs in type 2 diabetic patients compared with first acute myocardial infarction patients in a Mediterranean region, considering therapy, diabetes duration, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective population-based cohort study with 10-year follow-up was performed in 4,410 patients aged 30–74 years: 2,260 with type 2 diabetes without coronary heart disease recruited in 53 primary health care centers and 2,150 with first acute myocardial infarction without diabetes recruited in 10 hospitals. We compared coronary heart disease incidence and cardiovascular mortality rates in myocardial infarction patients and diabetic patients, including subgroups by diabetes treatment, duration, and A1C. RESULTS The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 10-year coronary heart disease incidence and for cardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in men and women with diabetes than in myocardial infarction patients: HR 0.54 (95% CI 0.45–0.66) and 0.28 (0.21–0.37) and 0.26 (0.19–0.36) and 0.16 (0.10–0.26), respectively. All diabetic patient subgroups had significantly fewer events than myocardial infarction patients: the HR of cardiovascular mortality ranged from 0.15 (0.09–0.26) to 0.36 (0.24–0.54) and that of coronary heart disease incidence ranged from 0.34 (0.26–0.46) to 0.56 (0.43–0.72). CONCLUSIONS Lower long-term cardiovascular risk was found in type 2 diabetic and all subgroups analyzed compared with myocardial infarction patients. These results do not support equivalence in coronary disease risk for diabetic and myocardial infarction patients. PMID:20530746

  8. The Decline Effect in Cardiovascular Medicine: Is the Effect of Cardiovascular Medicine and Stent on Cardiovascular Events Decline Over the Years?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    The term decline effect is referred to a diminution of scientifically discovered effects over time. Reasons for the decline effect are multifaceted and include publication bias, selective reporting, outcomes reporting bias, regression to the mean, scientific paradigm shift, overshadowing and habituation, among others. Such effects can be found in cardiovascular medicines through medications (e.g., aspirin, antithrombotics, proton pump inhibitor, beta-blockers, statins, estrogen/progestin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor etc.), as well as with interventional devices (e.g., angioplasty, percutaneous coronary intervention, stents). The scientific community should understand the various dimensions of the decline effects, and effective steps should be undertaken to prevent or recognize such decline effects in cardiovascular medicines. PMID:23964290

  9. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Kissling, Grace E; Ledbetter, Allen D; Nyska, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. However, cross-model organ pathologies and clinical manifestations are often not compared. We hypothesized that genetic CVD rat models will exhibit baseline pathologies and will thus express varied lung response to acute ozone exposure. Male 12-14-week-old healthy Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Wistar (WIS), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and CVD-compromised spontaneously hypertensive (SH), fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH), stroke-prone SH (SHSP), obese SH heart-failure (SHHF), obese diabetic JCR (JCR) rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm ozone for 4 h and clinical biomarkers, and lung, heart and kidney pathologies were compared immediately following (0-h) or 20-h later. Strain differences were observed between air-exposed CVD-prone and WKY rats in clinical biomarkers and in kidney and heart pathology. Serum cholesterol was higher in air-exposed obese SHHF and JCR compared to other air-exposed strains. Ozone did not produce lesions in the heart or kidney. CVD-prone and SD rats demonstrated glomerulopathy and kidney inflammation (WKY = WIS = SH < SD = SHSP < SHHF < JCR = FHH) regardless of ozone. Cardiac myofiber degeneration was evident in SH, SHHF, and JCR, while only JCR tends to have inflammation in coronaries. Lung pathology in air-exposed rats was minimal in all strains except JCR. Ozone induced variable alveolar histiocytosis and bronchiolar inflammation; JCR and SHHF were less affected. This study provides a comparative account of the clinical manifestations of disease and early-life organ pathologies in several rat models of CVD and their differential susceptibility to lung injury from air pollutant exposure.

  10. Effect of Sustained Human Centrifugation on Autonomic Cardiovascular and Vestibular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated exposure to +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, both sustained exposure to +Gx and changes in otolith function resulting from the gravitational changes of space flight and parabolic flight may adversely affect autonomic cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance. HYPOTHESES: Baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single sustained (30 min) exposure to +3Gz but not +3Gx. Moreover, after 30 min of +3Gx, any changes that occur in autonomic cardiovascular function will relate commensurately to changes in otolith function. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy human subjects were first exposed to 5 min of +3 Gz centrifugation and then subsequently up to a total of30 min of either +3Gz (n = 15) or +3Gx (n = 7) centrifugation. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after both types of centrifugation included: (a) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; (b) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; ( c) Valsalva tests; and (d) 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: All four +3Gz subjects who were intolerant to HUT before centrifugation became tolerant to HUT after centrifugation. The operational point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex and the Valsalva-related baroreflex were also enhanced in the +3Gz group but not in the +3Gx group. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected, other than a significant vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: A single, sustained exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance whereas a similar exposure to +3 Gx centrifugation appears to have less effect.

  11. [Cardiovascular effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators. Current perspectives].

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Tommaso; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2003-02-01

    The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after the menopause for the prevention of the long-term complications of estrogen deprivation has recently been questioned after the publication of large clinical trials that failed to show benefits for postmenopausal women. Although these trials risk to dump the widespread opinion of the cardioprotective effects of long-term estrogen use, they have many pitfalls that prevent a direct clinical application of these negative results. Furthermore, the large amount of epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating estrogens as protective on the vascular system cannot be ignored, and efforts should be devoted to understand the reasons for the discrepancy of results of these recent large trials. In the meanwhile, different molecules should be studied in depth as for the actions on the cardiovascular system, and their specific mechanisms of actions should be elucidated. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) are a promising family of molecules and some of these compounds have positive effects on cardiovascular risk parameters as well as on vascular cells. Large trials are ongoing to study the impact of these substances on cardiovascular risk, and the near future should provide us with answers on the possible use of SERM as possible safer alternatives to HRT for the long-term prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

  12. Damaging effects of hyperglycemia on cardiovascular function: spotlight on glucose metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel

    2016-01-15

    The incidence of cardiovascular complications associated with hyperglycemia is a growing global health problem. This review discusses the link between hyperglycemia and cardiovascular diseases onset, focusing on the role of recently emerging downstream mediators, namely, oxidative stress and glucose metabolic pathway perturbations. The role of hyperglycemia-mediated activation of nonoxidative glucose pathways (NOGPs) [i.e., the polyol pathway, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein kinase C] in this process is extensively reviewed. The proposal is made that there is a unique interplay between NOGPs and a downstream convergence of detrimental effects that especially affect cardiac endothelial cells, thereby contributing to contractile dysfunction. In this process the AGE pathway emerges as a crucial mediator of hyperglycemia-mediated detrimental effects. In addition, a vicious metabolic cycle is established whereby hyperglycemia-induced NOGPs further fuel their own activation by generating even more oxidative stress, thereby exacerbating damaging effects on cardiac function. Thus NOGP inhibition, and particularly that of the AGE pathway, emerges as a novel therapeutic intervention for the treatment of cardiovascular complications such as acute myocardial infarction in the presence hyperglycemia.

  13. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure: randomised, crossover trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Billington, E O; Bristow, S M; Gamble, G D; de Kwant, J A; Stewart, A; Mihov, B V; Horne, A M; Reid, I R

    2017-01-01

    Calcium supplements appear to increase cardiovascular risk, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated the acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller after calcium compared with the placebo in the hours following dosing.

  14. Relationship between Inflammatory Markers and New Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Who Underwent Primary Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Franca, Eluisa La; Caruso, Marco; Sansone, Angela; Iacona, Rosanna; Ajello, Laura; Mancuso, Dario; Castellano, Fabiana; Novo, Salvatore; Assennato, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The determination of inflammation markers in circulation has enabled an important improvement in the study of cardiovascular diseases. It was tested the hypothesis that non-specific markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen may provide prognostic information in patients with acute myocardial infarction with persistent ST-segment elevation (STEMI) undergoing primary angioplasty (PCI). Methods: Patients: A cohort of 197 consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI was enrolled, evaluating during hospitalization, the peak values of the following markers of inflammation: ESR, CRP and fibrinogen. A telephone follow-up has been made in order to investigate any possible new cardiovascular events after hospital discharge and the procedure performed. Results: Higher values of CRP were statistically associated with adverse future events as composite endpoint and with the single endpoint of death. Furthermore, higher age, presence of hypertension, history of previous cardiovascular events, were statistically significantly associated with cardiac events at follow up. In this group were also overrepresented subjects with anterior myocardial infarction in the anterior localization and with an EF ≤ 35% at discharge. Conclusions: CRP appears to be a predictor of future cardiovascular events, confirming that a pro-inflammatory state promotes the progression of atherosclerotic disease and its complications. PMID:23777720

  15. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  16. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  17. Neurobehavioral and Cardiovascular Effects of Potassium Cyanide Administered Orally to Mice.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Michael A; Ritchie, Glenn D; Henderson, Kim A; Knostman, Katherine A B; Roche, Brian M; Ma, Zhenxu J; Matthews, Claire M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edward J; Sabourin, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule requires evaluation of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of new therapeutics. To characterize an adult and juvenile mouse model, neurobehavioral and cardiovascular effects and pathology of a single sublethal but toxic, 8 mg/kg, oral dose of potassium cyanide (KCN) for up to 41 days postdosing were investigated. This study describes the short- and long-term sensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes associated with oral dosing of a sublethal but toxic dose of KCN utilizing functional observation battery and Tier II CNS testing in adult and juvenile mice of both sexes. Selected tissues (histopathology) were evaluated for changes associated with KCN exposure with special attention to brain regions. Telemetry (adult mice only) was used to evaluate cardiovascular and temperature changes. Neurobehavioral capacity, sensorimotor responsivity or spontaneous locomotor activity, and rectal temperature were significantly reduced in adult and juvenile mice at 30 minutes post-8 mg/kg KCN dose. Immediate effects of cyanide included bradycardia, adverse electrocardiogram arrhythmic events, hypotension, and hypothermia with recovery by approximately 1 hour for blood pressure and heart rate effects and by 2 hours for body temperature. Lesions consistent with hypoxia, such as mild acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys corticomedullary junction, were the only histopathological findings and occurred at a very low incidence. The mouse KCN intoxication model indicates rapid and completely reversible effects in adult and juvenile mice following a single oral 8 mg/kg dose. Neurobehavioral and cardiovascular measurements can be used in this animal model as a trigger for treatment.

  18. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  19. Cardiovascular and Thermoregulatory Effects of Niacin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    the vasodilatory effect of atropine. But unlike atropine, the effector function of the eccrine sweat gland is not inhibited. So, it is conceivable that... sweating rate were measured twice per min during a 10-20 min period. Heart rate was measured frequently. After control data were obtained, 5 mg

  20. Cardiovascular effects of coumarins besides their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Najmanová, Iveta; Doseděl, Martin; Hrdina, Radomír; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Filipský, Tomáš; Říha, Michal; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2015-01-01

    Coumarins are a large group of substances, primarily of plant origin. Like their more intensively examined congeners flavonoids, many of them are antioxidants. Although such properties may be advantageous in cardiovascular diseases, it has been shown that coumarins exhibit direct effects on the cardiovascular system which are not based on antioxidant activity. The most common example is the well-known drug warfarin, a synthetic compound derived from natural dicoumarol. Moreover, other coumarins have been shown to possess antiplatelet and vasodilatory potential. Interestingly, the former effect may be mediated by the inhibition of various pathways leading to platelet aggregation, their differing effects on those pathways being due to structural differences between the various coumarins. Conversely, their vasodilatory potential is linked in the majority of cases to the inhibition of increases in intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells, and in several coumarins also to NO-mediated vasodilatation. Available data on both activities are summarized in this review. At the end of this review, relevant data are provided from a few studies testing the in vivo effects of coumarins on major cardiovascular diseases; the clinical use of warfarin and other coumarin anticoagulants, as well as the limited data on the clinical use of coumarins in chronic venous insufficiency and the possible toxicological effects of coumarins.

  1. The polypill in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: cost-effectiveness in the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Paul F; Over, Eelco A B; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; de Wit, G Ardine; van den Berg, Matthijs; Schuit, Albertine J; Engelfriet, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the polypill in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Design A health economic modelling study. Setting Primary healthcare in the Netherlands. Participants Simulated individuals from the general Dutch population, aged 45-75 years. Interventions Opportunistic screening followed by prescription of the polypill to eligible individuals. Eligibility was defined as having a minimum 10-year risk of cardiovascular death as assessed with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation function of alternatively 5%, 7.5% or 10%. Different versions of the polypill were considered, depending on composition: (1) the Indian polycap, with three different types of blood pressure-lowering drugs, a statin and aspirin; (2) as (1) but without aspirin and (3) as (2) but with a double statin dose. In addition, a scenario of (targeted) separate antihypertensive and/or statin medication was simulated. Primary outcome measures Cases of acute myocardial infarction or stroke prevented, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and the costs per QALY gained. All interventions were compared with usual care. Results All scenarios were cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between €7900 and 12 300 per QALY compared with usual care. Most health gains were achieved with the polypill without aspirin and containing a double dose of statins. With a 10-year risk of 7.5% as the threshold, this pill would prevent approximately 3.5% of all cardiovascular events. Conclusions Opportunistic screening based on global cardiovascular risk assessment followed by polypill prescription to those with increased risk offers a cost-effective strategy. Most health gain is achieved by the polypill without aspirin and a double statin dose.

  2. The polypill in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: cost-effectiveness in the Dutch population

    PubMed Central

    Over, Eelco A B; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; de Wit, G Ardine; van den Berg, Matthijs; Schuit, Albertine J; Engelfriet, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the polypill in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Design A health economic modelling study. Setting Primary healthcare in the Netherlands. Participants Simulated individuals from the general Dutch population, aged 45–75 years. Interventions Opportunistic screening followed by prescription of the polypill to eligible individuals. Eligibility was defined as having a minimum 10-year risk of cardiovascular death as assessed with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation function of alternatively 5%, 7.5% or 10%. Different versions of the polypill were considered, depending on composition: (1) the Indian polycap, with three different types of blood pressure-lowering drugs, a statin and aspirin; (2) as (1) but without aspirin and (3) as (2) but with a double statin dose. In addition, a scenario of (targeted) separate antihypertensive and/or statin medication was simulated. Primary outcome measures Cases of acute myocardial infarction or stroke prevented, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and the costs per QALY gained. All interventions were compared with usual care. Results All scenarios were cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between €7900 and 12 300 per QALY compared with usual care. Most health gains were achieved with the polypill without aspirin and containing a double dose of statins. With a 10-year risk of 7.5% as the threshold, this pill would prevent approximately 3.5% of all cardiovascular events. Conclusions Opportunistic screening based on global cardiovascular risk assessment followed by polypill prescription to those with increased risk offers a cost-effective strategy. Most health gain is achieved by the polypill without aspirin and a double statin dose. PMID:22189351

  3. Effects of anesthesia on cardiovascular control mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, S F

    1978-01-01

    The manner in which general anesthesia affects circulatory control was studied by examining the effects of commonly employed anesthetics on left ventricular function and distribution of cardiac output, and the extent to which responses to physiological and pharmacological stimuli are modified by general anesthesia. While commonly employed anesthetics affect almost every aspect of the circulatory system, the importance of general anesthesia on the circulation tends to be underestimated by considering only its direct effects. More important is the modification of the organism's integrative response to any perturbation. Major differences often directionally opposite, in responses of conscious and anesthetized animals were found for reflex control of the circulation, effects of hemorrhage and alterations in preload and after load. In addition, commonly employed pharmacologic agents, e.g., cardiac glycosdies, catecholamines, and morphine sulfate exerted differing actions in the conscious and anesthetized states. Thus, while it is generally held that the overall responses to complex physiological functions such as exercise or eating can be best described in the intact, conscious organism, the importance of conducting any experiment involving integrative control of the circulation in the conscious organism should also be recognized. PMID:363416

  4. Cardiovascular Effects of Salvianolic Acid B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SAB, Sal B) is the representative component of phenolic acids derived from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (Labiatae) which has been used widely and successfully in Asian countries for clinical therapy of various vascular disturbance-related diseases for hundreds of years. However, its exact cardioprotective components and the underlying mechanism for therapeutic basis are still poorly understood. This paper discussed and elucidated the underlying biological mechanisms and pharmacology of Sal B and their potential cardioprotective effects. PMID:23840250

  5. Impact of microvascular obstruction on semiautomated techniques for quantifying acute and chronic myocardial infarction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Bhuva, Anish N; Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Weinmann, Shane; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S; Manisty, Charlotte; Moon, James C; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Aims The four most promising semiautomated techniques (5-SD, 6-SD, Otsu and the full width half maximum (FWHM)) were compared in paired acute and follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), taking into account the impact of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and using automated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) maps for reference. Furthermore, their performances on the acute scan were compared against manual myocardial infarct (MI) size to predict adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling (≥20% increase in end-diastolic volume). Methods 40 patients with reperfused ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a paired acute (4±2 days) and follow-up CMR scan (5±2 months) were recruited prospectively. All CMR analysis was performed on CVI42. Results Using manual MI size as the reference standard, 6-SD accurately quantified acute (24.9±14.0%LV, p=0.81, no bias) and chronic MI size (17.2±9.7%LV, p=0.88, no bias). The performance of FWHM for acute MI size was affected by the acquisition sequence used. Furthermore, FWHM underestimated chronic MI size in those with previous MVO due to the significantly higher ECV in the MI core on the follow-up scans previously occupied by MVO (82 (75–88)% vs 62 (51–68)%, p<0.001). 5-SD and Otsu were precise but overestimated acute and chronic MI size. All techniques were performed with high diagnostic accuracy and equally well to predict adverse LV remodelling. Conclusions 6-SD was the most accurate for acute and chronic MI size and should be the preferred semiautomatic technique in randomised controlled trials. However, 5-SD, FWHM and Otsu could also be used when precise MI size quantification may be adequate (eg, observational studies). PMID:28008358

  6. Effect of postural changes on cardiovascular parameters across gender

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kieran; Rössler, Andreas; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Trozic, Irhad; Laing, Charles; Lorr, David; Green, David A; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Goswami, Nandu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We investigated the effect of postural changes on various cardiovascular parameters across gender. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (16 male, 12 female) were observed at rest (supine) and subjected to 3 interventions; head-down tilt (HDT), HDT with lower body negative pressure (HDT+ LBNP at −30 mm Hg), and head-up tilt (HUT), each for 10 minutes separated by a 10 minutes recovery period. Methods: Measurements were recorded for heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive differences between the normal-to-normal intervals, heart rate variability-low frequency (LFRRI), heart rate variability-high frequency (HFRRI), low frequency/high frequency ratio (LFRRI/HFRRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), index of contractility (IC), left ventricular work index, and left ventricular ejection time. Results: Across all cardiovascular parameters, there was a significant main effect of the intervention applied but there was no significant main effect of gender across all parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that there are no specific gender differences in regards to the measured variables under the conditions of this study. Furthermore, these results suggest that in healthy subjects, there appears to be evidence that LBNP partially elicits similar cardiovascular responses to HUT, which supports the use of LBNP as an intervention to counteract the effects of central hypovolemia. PMID:27428203

  7. Effects of Some Common Food Constituents on Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Chan, Sze Wa; Hu, Miao; Walden, Richard; Tomlinson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and there is considerable interest in the role of dietary constituents and supplements in the prevention and treatment of these disorders. We reviewed the major publications related to potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes of some common dietary constituents: carotenoids, flavonoid-rich cocoa, tea, red wine and grapes, coffee, omega-3 fatty acids, and garlic. Increased intake of some of these has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality or reduced incidence of myocardial infraction, stroke, and hypertension. However, although the evidence from observational studies is supportive of beneficial effects for most of these foodstuffs taken as part of the diet, potential benefits from the use of supplements derived from these natural products remain largely inconclusive. PMID:22347642

  8. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  9. [Effects of extract of Cortex Ilicis Rotundae on cardiovascular pharmacology].

    PubMed

    He, B; Chen, X; Li, J; Jiang, T; Luo, J

    1997-06-01

    In thes paper, the effects of Cortex Ilicis Rotundae (CIR) on Cardiovascular Pharmacology are studied. The results show that ethyl alcohol extract of CIR can reduce coronary blood flow, weaken myocardial contractility, slow down heart rates, prolong survival time of mice and prevent arrhythmias, the roles of CIR decoction are similar to ethyl alcohol extract, but it is not markable on heart rates and myocardial contractility.

  10. Effects of muscular strength on cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of muscular strength in the development of cardiovascular disease, with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. Muscular strength has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of hypertension, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk, and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also, interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival.

  11. Acute buspirone dosing enhances abuse-related subjective effects of oral methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

  12. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  13. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    PubMed

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  14. Cardiovascular Effects of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) was a randomized controlled trial that examined the impact of long-term participation in an intensive weight loss intervention on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The results from this trial suggest that intensive lifestyle interventions are effective in helping patients to achieve management of cardiovascular risk factors and reducing the need to initiate medication usage to manage these conditions, though the benefits in terms of the prevention of CVD morbidity and mortality beyond those achieved through aggressive medical management of hypertension and dyslipidemia is not clear. Additional benefits of participation in an intensive lifestyle intervention such as lowered chronic kidney disease risk, blood pressure, medication usage, improved sleep apnea, and partial remission of diabetes are discussed. PMID:25288176

  15. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  16. Divergent effects of various diabetes drugs on cardiovascular prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bell, David S H; Patil, Harshal R; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the current data on various antidiabetic medications and their effects on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Diabetes mellitus is a potent independent risk factor for MACE, and this risk increases in proportion to the elevation of hemoglobin A1c. Available data suggest that tight glycemic control in patients with diabetes reduces microvascular complications, but has limited effect or may even increase the risk of MACE and other macrovascular complications. For individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drugs that reduce postprandial glucose (α-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin mimetics, quick-acting bromocriptine, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and colesevelam) are associated with a decrease in MACE. Drugs that directly reduce insulin resistance (pioglitazone and metformin) are also associated with lesser but still significant decreases in MACE. Insulin, rosiglitazone (but not pioglitazone), and sulfonylureas (especially with glyburide and particularly the glyburide + metformin combination) are associated with increases in MACE. In summary, drugs that reduce postprandial glucose and improve insulin resistance without predisposing patients to hypoglycemia appear to both control hyperglycemia and improve cardiovascular prognosis. However, many of the traditional agents used for treating T2DM, such as insulin and sulfonylureas, do not improve cardiovascular prognosis despite improving hyperglycemia.

  17. [The pneumoperitoneum course forecasting and surgery tactic in the group of patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis and concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Korotkyĭ, V M; Soliaryk, S O; Tsyganok, A M; Sysak, O M

    2012-01-01

    The share of elderly and senile patients with acute cholecystitis concomitant cardiovascular pathology whom the laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been provided is increased. The heightened intraabdominal pressure has negative influence at the cardiovascular system, so the alternative ways for treatment of this group of patients are used in clinic. We propose the pneumoperitoneum model using the pneumatic belt which is fixed at the abdomen in preoperative period in patients with an acute and chronic cholecystitis. This model is useful to forecast cardiovascular disorders during future laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The arterial pressure level, pulse score and ECG are monitored during the test (90 min). Myocardial ischemia appearance seems that the risk of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with pneumoperitoneum is high. The alternative method of surgery in such group of patients (no pneumoperitoneum is applied) is laparoscopic assisted cholecystectomya from miniaccess. This method allows to reducing frequency of intra- and postoperative complications connected with pneumoperitoneum negative influence at the patients with concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system.

  18. Acute effects of coffee on QT interval in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The coronary endothelial function is recognized to have an important role in the physiology of the diastolic ventricular relaxation, a phase of the heart cycle that influences the electrocardiographic QT interval. Endothelial function is investigated in vivo by flow mediated dilation (FMD) in the brachial artery and has proven to be a strong predictor of both coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular events. It has been reported that coffee acutely induces FMD changes. In particular, the brachial artery FMD seems to decrease after caffeinated coffee (CC) and to increase after decaffeinated coffee (DC) ingestion. Since the cardiovascular effects of coffee are still a debated matter, this study aimed at investigating with a randomized, double-blind crossover design, if the QT interval of adult healthy subjects (19 males and 21 females) changes in the hour following CC or DC ingestion. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the hour following the ingestion of CC; the heart rate significantly increased 30 minutes after CC ingestion. A significant increase of the QT duration was observed one hour after DC ingestion (398.9 ± 3.8 vs 405.3 ± 3.7 msec; P < 0.05), not after CC. The QT interval corrected for heart rate did not significantly change following CC or DC ingestion. In conclusion, despite CC and DC previously demonstrated to influence the FMD they do not seem to induce a significant unfavourable acute change of the left ventricular repolarization. Further investigations are required to elucidate the effects of coffee in subjects with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21288364

  19. Involvement of catecholaminergic medullary pathways in cardiovascular responses to acute changes in circulating volume.

    PubMed

    Cravo, S L; Lopes, O U; Pedrino, G R

    2011-09-01

    Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic responses to circulating volume changes, and some of the findings obtained in the last 12 years by our laboratory. We review data on neural pathways that start with afferents in the carotid body that project to medullary relays in the nucleus tractus solitarii and caudal ventrolateral medulla, which in turn project to the median preoptic nucleus in the forebrain. We also review data suggesting that noradrenergic A1 cells in the caudal ventrolateral medulla represent an essential link in neural pathways controlling extracellular fluid volume and renal sodium excretion. Finally, recent data from our laboratory suggest that these structures may also be involved in the beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline on recovery from hemorrhagic shock.

  20. Blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress: a summary of results from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study is a large population based study of late middle aged, overall healthy men and women whose health has been followed from 50 to 65years of age. In a sample of 725 cohort members, an extensive psychological stress protocol was performed during which cardiovascular and cortisol responses were measured. In line with many previous studies, results showed that increased blood pressure responsiveness to the stress protocol was associated with an increased risk for hypertension 5years later. However, decreased cardiovascular and/or cortisol stress reactivity were associated with obesity and the risk of becoming obese, symptoms of depression and anxiety, a poor self-reported health, poor lung function, and poor cognitive function (all p for statistical tests<0.05). These associations generally survived adjustment for a range of potential confounders, including resting cardiovascular and cortisol activity, commitment to the stress tasks, sex, age, smoking and use of medication. Results from these studies agree with recent evidence that low biological reactivity to acute psychological stress may not always be beneficial for health but instead seems to be a marker for a range of negative health outcomes. Future studies have to point out whether low stress reactivity precedes or follows these negative health outcomes.

  1. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Józef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Yauk, Carole L.; Wallin, Håkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  2. Cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine in dogs treated chronically with the amine.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H

    1982-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of a group of sympathomimetic amines that lower blood pressure upon chronic administration to hypertensive dogs. To determine whether tolerance to the cardiovascular effects of these drugs could play a role in their antihypertensive action, acute blood pressure responses to oral d-methamphetamine were determined in trained conscious renal hypertensive dogs at weekly intervals during treatment with the drug for 2 months. Responses were also obtained in similarly treated normotensive dogs and in normotensive and hypertensive animals receiving l-methamphetamine. Pressor responses to d-methamphetamine in hypertensive dogs remained unchanged throughout treatment, while in all other cases they diminished gradually. Only the dextro isomer reduced blood pressure chronically in the hypertensive group. It was concluded that tolerance is not involved in the antihypertensive effect of methamphetamine and that, considering the stereo specificity of this effect, residual lowering of blood pressure might involve formation of a false mediator metabolite of the amine.

  3. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, Rinske; van Oerle, René; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Kragten, Johannes A.; Crijns, Harry; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310–885) vs. 380(235–540) μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2–20.9] and 4.5 [1.1–18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:27419389

  4. Cardiovascular and blood coagulative effects of pulmonary zinc exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S.; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C.; McGee, John K.; Wallenborn, J. Grace; Richards, Judy H.; Kodavanti, Urmila P. . E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov

    2006-02-15

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were instilled intratracheally with saline or zinc sulfate, 131 {mu}g/kg (2 {mu}mol/kg); the alterations were determined at 1, 4, 24, and 48 h postexposure. High-dose zinc enabled us to show changes in circulating levels of zinc above normal and induce significant pulmonary inflammation/injury such that cardiac impairments were likely. At 1-24 h postexposure, plasma levels of zinc increased to nearly 20% above the base line. Significant pulmonary inflammation and injury were determined by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology in zinc-exposed rats at all time points. Starting at 4 h postexposure, pulmonary damage was accompanied by persistently increased gene expressions of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), but not thrombomodulin (TM). Cardiac tissues demonstrated similar temporal increases in expressions of TF, PAI-1, and TM mRNA following pulmonary instillation of zinc. In contrast to extensive pulmonary edema and inflammation, only mild, and focal acute, myocardial lesions developed in a few zinc-exposed rats; no histological evidence showed increased deposition of fibrin or disappearance of troponin. At 24 and 48 h postexposure to zinc, increases occurred in levels of systemic fibrinogen and the activated partial thromboplastin time. These data suggest that cardiovascular blood coagulation impairments are likely following pulmonary zinc exposure and associated pulmonary injury and inflammation.

  5. European Society of Cardiology-Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position paper on acute heart failure: A call for interdisciplinary care.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Christ, Michael; Cowie, Martin; Cullen, Louise; Maisel, Alan S; Masip, Josep; Miro, Oscar; McMurray, John; Peacock, Frank W; Price, Susanna; DiSomma, Salvatore; Bueno, Hector; Zeymer, Uwe; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) continues to have unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity. This position paper highlights the need for more intense interdisciplinary cooperation as one key element to overcome the challenges associated with fragmentation in the care of AHF patients. Additional aspects discussed include the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, options for initial treatment, referral bias as a potential cause for treatment preferences among experts, considerable uncertainty regarding patient disposition, the diagnosis of accompanying acute myocardial infarction, the need for antibiotic therapy, as well as assessment of intravascular volume status.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of statins, beyond lipid-lowering properties.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Pineda, Andres M; Santana, Orlando

    2014-10-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, better known as 'statins', are amongst the most widely used medications in the world. They have become a pivotal component in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery and vascular disease. However, a growing amount of evidence has suggested that statins also possess strong pleiotropic effects irrespective of their lipid-lowering properties, which include enhancement of endothelial function, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherothrombotic properties, and immunomodulation. The following provides a comprehensive and updated review of the clinical evidence regarding the pleiotropic effects of statins in cardiovascular disorders and their potential therapeutic benefits.

  7. Evaluation of the effect of genetic variation on the relationship between statins, cardiovascular disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Pinkal; Jay, Allison; Bock, Cathryn; Dyson, Gregory; Okwuosa, Tochukwu; Simon, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Statins are a class of medications that are competitive inhibitors of Hydroxy Methyl Glutaryl Co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol bio-synthesis pathway. As a result, statins lower total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol thus impacting cardiovascular mortality. The downstream effects of statins are not limited to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis alone. Statins have anti-inflammatory effects thought to be important in the setting of acute myocardial infarction which also may be a mechanism involved in anti-carcinogenic properties of statins. Furthermore, statin inhibition of the mevalonate pathway may impact Ras and RhoGTPases that are important in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. These alterations may also play a role in the anti-cancer effect of statins. In this article we will review the literature on how genetic variation modifies the effect of statins on the risk of cardiovascular disease and how genetic variation may impact the relationship between statins and the risk of a number of different cancers. PMID:24319534

  8. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  9. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses.

  10. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Sarah S; Saber, Anne T; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Józef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Yauk, Carole L; Wallin, Håkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNTSmall, 0.8±0.1μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4±0.4μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Assessing the effects of the Spanish partial smoking ban on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases: methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Lorena; Flores, Víctor; Ortiz, Cristina; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Boldo, Elena; José Medrano, María; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has assessed the impact of tobacco laws on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity. In this study, we also examined whether the association between the implementation of the 2005 Spanish smoking ban and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases varies according to the adjustment for potential confounders. Design Ecological time series analysis. Setting Residents of Madrid and Barcelona cities (Spain). Outcome Data on daily emergency room admissions for acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma derived from the 2003–2006 Spanish hospital admissions registry. Methods Changes in admission rates between 2006 and the 2003–2005 period were estimated using additive Poisson models allowing for overdispersion adjusted for secular trend in admission, seasonality, day of the week, temperature, number of flu and acute respiratory infection cases, pollution levels, tobacco consumption prevalence and, for asthma cases, pollen count. Results In Madrid, fully adjusted models failed to detect significant changes in hospital admission rates for any disease during the study period. In Barcelona, however, hospital admissions decreased by 10.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 16.1%) for cerebrovascular diseases and by 16.0% (95% CI 7.0% to 24.1%) for COPD. Substantial changes in effect estimates were observed on adjustment for linear or quadratic trend. Effect estimates for asthma-related admissions varied substantially when adjusting for pollen count in Madrid, and for seasonality and tobacco consumption in Barcelona. Conclusions Our results confirm that the potential impact of a smoking ban must be adjusted for the underlying secular trend. In asthma-related admissions, pollen count, seasonality and tobacco consumption must be specified in the model. The substantial variability in effects detected between the two cities of Madrid and Barcelona lends strong support for a

  12. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI.

  13. Effect of breakfast on selected serum and cardiovascular variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A. B.; Merz, Marion P.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the objections of many subjects to overnight fasting prior to their blood being drawn for analyses, the effect of eating breakfast on the results of subsequent blood analyses of selected blood constituents and on cardiovascular variables was investigated in 47 men and 34 women who were subjected to blood analyses on two occasions, one week apart: once fasting and once after breakfast. Results suggest that subjects need not fast overnight before blood is being drawn for determinations of the HDL-C levels, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, or phosphorus. However, based on other studies, it is suggested breakfast should not have a high content of fat.

  14. Morphine and clonidine combination therapy improves therapeutic window in mice: synergy in antinociceptive but not in sedative or cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Stone, Laura S; German, Jonathan P; Kitto, Kelly F; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Wilcox, George L

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance, physical dependence and addiction have led to an underutilization of these compounds for adequate pain relief. One strategy to improve the therapeutic utility of opioids is to co-administer them with other analgesic agents such as agonists acting at α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs). Analgesics acting at α2ARs and opioid receptors (ORs) frequently synergize when co-administered in vivo. Multimodal analgesic techniques offer advantages over single drug treatments as synergistic combination therapies produce analgesia at lower doses, thus reducing undesired side effects. This inference presumes, however, that the synergistic interaction is limited to the analgesic effects. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of α2AR/OR combination therapy in acute antinociception and in the often-undesired side effects of sedation and cardiovascular depression in awake unrestrained mice. Morphine, clonidine or their combination was administered by spinal or systemic injection in awake mice. Antinociception was determined using the warm water tail flick assay (52.5°C). Sedation/motor impairment was evaluated using the accelerating rotarod assay and cardiovascular function was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were converted to percent maximum possible effect and isobolographic analysis was performed to determine if an interaction was subadditive, additive or synergistic. Synergistic interactions between morphine and clonidine were observed in the antinociceptive but not in the sedative/motor or cardiovascular effects. As a result, the therapeutic window was improved ∼200-fold and antinociception was achieved at non-sedating doses with little to no cardiovascular depression. In addition, combination therapy resulted in greater maximum analgesic efficacy over

  15. Effects of acute and chronic exercise in patients with essential hypertension: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2015-04-01

    The importance of regular physical activity in essential hypertension has been extensively investigated over the last decades and has emerged as a major modifiable factor contributing to optimal blood pressure control. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by promoting traditional cardiovascular risk factor regulation, as well as by favorably regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, molecular effects, cardiac, and vascular function. Benefits of resistance exercise need further validation. On the other hand, acute exercise is now an established trigger of acute cardiac events. A number of possible pathophysiological links have been proposed, including SNS, vascular function, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. In order to fully interpret this knowledge into clinical practice, we need to better understand the role of exercise intensity and duration in this pathophysiological cascade and in special populations. Further studies in hypertensive patients are also warranted in order to clarify the possibly favorable effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced effects.

  16. Effects of Energy Drinks on Economy and Cardiovascular Measures.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Willard W; Sanders, Gabe J; Marczinski, Cecile A; Holmer, Brady

    2017-04-01

    Peveler, WW, Sanders, GJ, Marczinski, CA, and Holmer, B. Effects of energy drinks on economy and cardiovascular measures. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 882-887, 2017-The use of energy drinks among athletes has risen greatly. Caffeine and taurine are the 2 primary performance enhancing ingredients found in energy drinks. The number of emergency department visits involving energy drinks doubled over the past 5 years. Reviews of the health complications have highlighted adverse cardiovascular events. The literature reveals that caffeine is known to moderately increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 3 different energy drinks on cardiovascular and performance measures. Fifteen recreational runners completed 5 trials. The first trial consisted of a graded exercise protocol. The 4 remaining trials consisted of 15-minute economy trials at a treadmill speed consistent with 70% of subject's V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. An hour before subjects ingested 1 of the 3 energy drinks or a placebo. HR, BP, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the 15-minute trial. Mean values for dependent measures were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Fifteen-minute systolic BP readings were significantly lower in the placebo trials (156.93 ± 15.50) in relation to the 3 energy drink trials (163.87 ± 13.30, 166.47 ± 13.71, and 165.00 ± 15.23). There were no significant differences in diastolic BP and HR. There were no significant differences found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE measures. Ingestion of energy drinks demonstrated no change in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE during the economy trials. The findings show no performance benefits under the conditions of this study. However, there does appear to be a significant increase in systolic BP.

  17. Aldosterone: effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Briet, Marie; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2010-05-01

    Aldosterone, a steroid hormone with mineralocorticoid activity, is mainly recognized for its action on sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron of the kidney, which is mediated by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Beyond this well-known action, however, aldosterone exerts other effects on the kidney, blood vessels and the heart, which can have pathophysiological consequences, particularly in the presence of a high salt intake. Aldosterone is implicated in renal inflammatory and fibrotic processes, as well as in podocyte injury and mesangial cell proliferation. In the cardiovascular system, aldosterone has specific hypertrophic and fibrotic effects and can alter endothelial function. Several lines of evidence support the existence of crosstalk between aldosterone and angiotensin II in vascular smooth muscle cells. The deleterious effects of aldosterone on the cardiovascular system require concomitant pathophysiological conditions such as a high salt diet, increased oxidative stress, or inflammation. Large interventional trials have confirmed the benefits of adding mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists to standard therapy, in particular to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy, in patients with heart failure. Small interventional studies in patients with chronic kidney disease have shown promising results, with a significant reduction of proteinuria associated with aldosterone antagonism, but large interventional trials that test the efficacy and safety of mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists in chronic kidney disease are needed.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  19. Effects of sex, gender role identification, and gender relevance of two types of stressors on cardiovascular and subjective responses: sex and gender match and mismatch effects.

    PubMed

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M; Klugkist, Irene G

    2008-07-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one's sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the n-back task. Stressor relevance was manipulated to be masculine or feminine relevant or gender neutral. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian model selection procedure. The results showed stronger cardiovascular responses for the CPT in the case of a gender match effect. In contrast, results for the n-back task revealed stronger cardiovascular responses for sex and gender mismatch effects. These discrepant match and mismatch effects are discussed in terms of differential task appraisal (i.e., threat vs. challenge). Additional results (a) support the success of measuring gender role identification indirectly by means of the Gender Implicit Association Test, (b) do not show that the effect of stressor relevance is more pronounced on those hemodynamic parameters typically increased by the stressor, and (c) reveal differential effects of stressor relevance for subjective and cardiovascular stress responses. Taken together, it can be concluded that the process of the cognitive appraisal of stressor relevance outlines individual variability in cardiovascular responding to acute stress.

  20. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Cardiovascular and Kidney Effects, Potential Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Perkins, Bruce A; Fitchett, David H; Husain, Mansoor; Cherney, David Z I

    2016-09-06

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, are now widely approved antihyperglycemic therapies. Because of their unique glycosuric mechanism, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce weight. Perhaps more important are the osmotic diuretic and natriuretic effects contributing to plasma volume contraction, and decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures by 4 to 6 and 1 to 2 mm Hg, respectively, which may underlie cardiovascular and kidney benefits. SGLT2 inhibition also is associated with an acute, dose-dependent reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate by ≈5 mL·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2) and ≈30% to 40% reduction in albuminuria. These effects mirror preclinical observations suggesting that proximal tubular natriuresis activates renal tubuloglomerular feedback through increased macula densa sodium and chloride delivery, leading to afferent vasoconstriction. On the basis of reduced glomerular filtration, glycosuric and weight loss effects are attenuated in patients with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)). In contrast, blood pressure lowering, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuric effects are preserved, and perhaps exaggerated in chronic kidney disease. With regard to long-term clinical outcomes, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease randomly assigned to empagliflozin versus placebo reported a 14% reduction in the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and >30% reductions in cardiovascular mortality, overall mortality, and heart failure hospitalizations associated with empagliflozin, even though, by design, the hemoglobin A1c difference between the randomized groups was marginal. Aside from an increased risk of mycotic genital

  1. Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to review physio-pathological effects of alcohol on cardiovascular and related systems and to describe its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol and hypertension is well known, and a reduction in the alcohol intake is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. Moreover, alcohol has both pressor and depressor actions. The latter actions are clear in Oriental subjects, especially in those who show alcohol flush because of the genetic variation in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Repeated alcohol intake in the evening causes an elevation in daytime and a reduction in nighttime blood pressure (BP), with little change in the average 24-h BP in Japanese men. Thus, the hypertensive effect of alcohol seems to be overestimated by the measurement of casual BP during the day. Heavy alcohol intake seems to increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia and heart failure. On the other hand, alcohol may act to prevent atherosclerosis and to decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease, mainly by increasing HDL cholesterol and inhibiting thrombus formation. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been observed between the level of alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality and total mortality. It is reasonable to reduce the alcohol intake to less than 30 ml per day for men and 15 ml per day for women in the management of hypertension. As a small amount of alcohol seems to be beneficial, abstinence from alcohol is not recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  2. Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Griendling, Kathy K

    2007-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system is a central component of the physiological and pathological responses of cardiovascular system. Its primary effector hormone, angiotensin II (ANG II), not only mediates immediate physiological effects of vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation, but is also implicated in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. The myriad effects of ANG II depend on time (acute vs. chronic) and on the cells/tissues upon which it acts. In addition to inducing G protein- and non-G protein-related signaling pathways, ANG II, via AT(1) receptors, carries out its functions via MAP kinases (ERK 1/2, JNK, p38MAPK), receptor tyrosine kinases [PDGF, EGFR, insulin receptor], and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases [Src, JAK/STAT, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)]. AT(1)R-mediated NAD(P)H oxidase activation leads to generation of reactive oxygen species, widely implicated in vascular inflammation and fibrosis. ANG II also promotes the association of scaffolding proteins, such as paxillin, talin, and p130Cas, leading to focal adhesion and extracellular matrix formation. These signaling cascades lead to contraction, smooth muscle cell growth, hypertrophy, and cell migration, events that contribute to normal vascular function, and to disease progression. This review focuses on the structure and function of AT(1) receptors and the major signaling mechanisms by which angiotensin influences cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

  3. Hypothesis: atorvastatin has pleiotropic effects that translate into early clinical benefits on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Novela, Cristina; Hennekens, Charles H

    2004-03-01

    The results of numerous long-term, randomized trials show that statins significantly decrease the risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death as well as total mortality. The benefits of statins on cardiovascular disease in patients who are not experiencing acute coronary syndromes generally become apparent only after about 2 years. In contrast, atorvastatin conferred an early clinical benefit in the lipid-lowering arm of the long-term Anglo Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial as well as early benefit on progression of atherosclerosis in the Reversal of Atherosclerosis with Aggressive Lipid Lowering trial. An unexpected finding at baseline in the prospective Interaction of Atorvastatin and Clopidogrel Study was that patients on atorvastatin had significantly decreased platelet activity compared with either patients on other statins or those taking no statins. Atorvastatin has protective effects against membrane lipid peroxidation at pharmacologic concentrations. These and other considerations contribute to the hypothesis that atorvastatin has pleiotropic effects that translate into early clinical benefits on cardiovascular disease.

  4. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Mather, Kieren J; Conteh, Abass M; Sassoon, Daniel J; Noblet, Jillian N; Tune, Johnathan D

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that has been shown to have hemodynamic and cardioprotective capacity in addition to its better characterized glucoregulatory actions. Because of this, emerging research has focused on the ability of GLP-1 based therapies to drive myocardial substrate selection, enhance cardiac performance and regulate heart rate, blood pressure and vascular tone. These studies have produced consistent and reproducible results amongst numerous laboratories. However, there are obvious disparities in findings obtained in small animal models versus those of higher mammals. This species dependent discrepancy calls to question, the translational value of individual findings. Moreover, few studies of GLP-1 mediated cardiovascular action have been performed in the presence of a pre-existing comorbidities (e.g. obesity/diabetes) which limits interpretation of the effectiveness of incretin-based therapies in the setting of disease. This review addresses cardiovascular and hemodynamic potential of GLP-1 based therapies with attention to species specific effects as well as the interaction between therapies and disease.

  5. Acute Cardiovascular Response during Resistance Exercise with Whole-body Vibration in Sedentary Subjects: A Randomized Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thaisa; Polito, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the acute cardiovascular responses during and after resistance exercise with and without whole-body vibration. Nineteen sedentary adults randomly performed one session of isometric squats without vibration and the same exercise with vibration. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured. SBP, DBP and HR were also measured for 20 min after the sessions. The exercise with vibration demonstrated significant values ​​(P < 0.05) for SBP (second to sixth sets), DBP (third to sixth sets) and SVR (second to sixth sets) compared with the exercise without vibration. After the sessions, the values ​​of SBP for both exercises were significantly lower than the respective resting values; with no difference between the sessions. In conclusion, exercise with vibration caused increases in SBP, DBP and SVR compared with exercise with no vibration in sedentary adults.

  6. Recombinant human activated protein C attenuates cardiovascular and microcirculatory dysfunction in acute lung injury and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animal study looks at the effects of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) on global hemodynamics and microcirculation in ovine acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock, resulting from smoke inhalation injury. Methods Twenty-one sheep (37 ± 2 kg) were operatively prepared for chronic study and randomly allocated to either the sham, control, or rhAPC group (n = 7 each). The control and rhAPC groups were subjected to insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke followed by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lung lobes, according to an established protocol. Healthy sham animals were not subjected to the injury and received only four sets of 12 breaths of room air and instillation of the vehicle (normal saline). rhAPC (24 μg/kg/hour) was intravenously administered from 1 hour post injury until the end of the 24-hour experiment. Regional microvascular blood flow was analyzed using colored microspheres. All sheep were mechanically ventilated with 100% oxygen, and fluid resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution to maintain hematocrit at baseline levels. Results The rhAPC-associated reduction in heart malondialdehyde (MDA) and heart 3-nitrotyrosine (a reliable indicator of tissue injury) levels occurred parallel to a significant increase in mean arterial pressure and to a significant reduction in heart rate and cardiac output compared with untreated controls that showed a typical hypotensive, hyperdynamic response to the injury (P < 0.05). In addition, rhAPC significantly attenuated the changes in microvascular blood flow to the trachea, kidney, and spleen compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05 each). Blood flow to the ileum and pancreas, however, remained similar between groups. The cerebral blood flow as measured in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, pons, and hypothalamus, was significantly increased in untreated controls, due to a loss of cerebral

  7. Changes in cardiovascular performance, biochemistry, gastric motility and muscle temperature induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, R W; Silva, V L; Rocha, D R; Costa, D S; Turco, S H N; Silva, M T B; Santos, A A; Oliveira, M B L; Pereira, A S R; Palheta-Junior, R C

    2016-12-29

    Changes in physiological parameters that are induced by acute exercise on a treadmill in healthy military dogs have not been thoroughly investigated, especially with regard to age. This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on a treadmill on cardiovascular function, biochemical parameters and gastric antral motility in military dogs. Thermography was used to assess variations in superficial hindlimb muscle temperature. Nine healthy dogs were distributed into three groups according to their age (Group I: 25 ± 7 months; Group II: 51 ± 12 months; Group III: 95 ± 10 months) and sequentially subjected to running exercise on a treadmill for 12 min (3.2 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min, 6.4 km/h at 0° incline for 4 min and 6.4 km/h at 10° incline for 4 min). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), gastric motility, haematocrit and biochemical analyses were performed at rest and after each session of treadmill exercise. Infrared thermographic images of muscles in the pelvic member were taken. Exercise decreased DAP in Group I, increased systolic arterial pressure in Groups II and III and increased mean arterial pressure in Group III (all p < 0.05). After the exercise protocol, plasma creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels increased only in Group I (p < 0.05). Exercise increased heart rate and decreased the gastric motility of a solid meal at 180 min in all groups (all p < 0.05). Exercise also elevated temperature in the femoral biceps muscles in Group I compared with the older dogs. The results indicate that acute exercise decreased gastric motility in dogs, regardless of age, and caused more pronounced cardiovascular changes in older dogs than in younger dogs. Acute exercise also altered biochemical parameters and superficial hindlimb muscle temperature in younger military dogs.

  8. Utility of a Genetic Risk Score to Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events 1 Year After an Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Pooled Analysis of the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Labos, Christopher; Martinez, Sara C.; Leo Wang, Rui Hao; Lenzini, Petra A.; Pilote, Louise; Bogaty, Peter; Brophy, James M.; Engert, James C.; Cresci, Sharon; Thanassoulis, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists regarding the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS) in predicting recurrent cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We sought to determine whether a GRS would predict early recurrent cardiovascular events within 1 year of ACS. Methods & Results Participants admitted with acute coronary syndromes from the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH cohorts, were genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) in prior genome wide association studies. A 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS was constructed. The primary endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality, recurrent ACS or cardiac re-hospitalization within 1 year of ACS admission. Results across all cohorts for the 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS were pooled using a random-effects model. There were 1040 patients from the RISCA cohort, 691 patients from the PRAXY cohort, and 1772 patients from the TRIUMPH cohort included in the analysis and 389 occurrences of the primary endpoint of recurrent events at 1-year post-ACS. In unadjusted and fully adjusted analyses, a 30 SNP GRS was not significantly associated with recurrent events (HR per allele 0.97 (95%CI 0.91–1.03) for RISCA, HR 0.99 (95%CI 0.93–1.05) for PRAXY, 0.98 (95%CI 0.94–1.02) for TRIUMPH, and 0.98 (95%CI 0.95–1.01) for the pooled analysis). Addition of this GRS to the GRACE risk model did not significantly improve risk prediction. Conclusion The 30 MI SNP GRS was not associated with recurrent events 1-year post ACS in pooled analyses across cohorts and did not improve risk discrimination or reclassification indices. Our results suggest that the genetic etiology of early events post-ACS may differ from later events. PMID:26232166

  9. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (p<0.02) or Bach's Cantata No. 169 'Gott soll allein mein Herze haben' (70.9±2.9 cm/s) (p<0.02). There was no significant difference in cerebral flow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (p<0.001). In addition the score was better after surgery in the music group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (p<0.001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make relaxing, preoperative music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (p<0.02). Vocal and orchestral music produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (p<0.05). The greatest benefit on health is visible with classical music and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health

  10. Gravitational effects on human cardiovascular responses to isometric muscle contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde-Petersen, Flemmig; Suzuki, Yoji; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    Isometric exercise induces profound cardiovascular adaptations increasing mean arterial pressure and heart rate. We investigated effects of simulated +Gz and -Gz respectively on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system. Sustained handgrip exercise was performed at 40% of maximum for 2 minutes in five subjects. This maneuver increased mean arterial pressure by 40-45 mm Hg both during head out water immersion which simulates weightlessness, as well as bedrest during -25, 0, and +25 degrees tilt from the horizontal. Lower body negative pressure (-60 mm Hg for 10 min) attenuated the response to handgrip exercise to 30 mm Hg. It also increased the heart rate minimally by about 20 beats per minute while the water immersion, as well as head up, head down and horizontal bedrest showed increments of about 50 beats per min. It was concluded that the response to isometric contraction is mediated through the high pressure baroreceptors, because similar responses were seen during stresses producing a wide variation in central venous pressure. During lower body negative pressure the increased sympathetic nervous activity itself increased resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure. The responses to static exercise were, therefore, weaker.

  11. The current literature regarding the cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Nelluri, Bhargava; Murphy, Katie; Mookadam, Farouk; Mookadam, Martina

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality globally. Electronic cigarettes are marketed both as nicotine substitutes and recreational devices. The popularity of electronic cigarettes has superseded other forms of nicotine replacement therapy. They are also popular in 'never smokers'. This review summarizes the available data regarding the cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes. The existing literature is limited and short term with a lack of high-quality studies and adequate follow-up. The available literature suggests that electronic cigarettes have sympathomimetic effects related to nicotine exposure, however, electronic cigarettes also contain other chemicals that require further investigation. Sparse data suggest vascular injury may be another concern. Further research is needed before broad recommendations can be made.

  12. Subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular dose-effect profile of nabilone and dronabinol in marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Marijuana dependence is a substantial public health problem, with existing treatments showing limited efficacy. In laboratory and clinical studies, the cannabinoid receptor 1 agonist oral Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol) has been shown to decrease marijuana withdrawal but not relapse. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, potentially contributing to its failure to decrease relapse. The synthetic THC analogue, nabilone, has better bioavailability than dronabinol. We therefore aimed to characterize nabilone's behavioral and physiological effects across a range of acute doses in current marijuana smokers and compare these with dronabinol's effects. Participants (4 female; 10 male) smoking marijuana 6.6 (standard deviation = 0.7) days/week completed this outpatient, within-subjects, double-blind, randomized protocol. Over seven sessions, the time-dependent subjective, cognitive and cardiovascular effects of nabilone (2, 4, 6, 8 mg), dronabinol (10, 20 mg) and placebo were assessed. Nabilone (4, 6, 8 mg) and dronabinol (10, 20 mg) increased ratings of feeling a good effect, a strong effect and/or 'high' relative to placebo; nabilone had a slower onset of peak subjective effects than dronabinol. Nabilone (6, 8 mg) modestly lowered psychomotor speed relative to placebo and dronabinol. There were dose-dependent increases in heart rate after nabilone, and nabilone (2 mg) and dronabinol (10 mg) decreased systolic blood pressure. Thus, nabilone produced sustained, dose-related increases in positive mood, few cognitive decrements and lawful cardiovascular alterations. It had a longer time to peak effects than dronabinol, and effects were more dose-related, suggesting improved bioavailability. Nabilone was well tolerated by marijuana smokers, supporting further testing as a potential medication for marijuana dependence.

  13. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena on cardiovascular responses in normotensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Baniasad, Amir; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Aminzadah, Saeed; Ghavi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena) is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group). After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) via peritoneal (i.p). After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group. Results: Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p<0.01 to p<0.001). Different doses of the extract also dose-dependently decreased maximal changes of MAP responses compared to control group. The effect of higher doses of the extract on SBP and MAP was significant compared to lower doses (p<0.05 to p<0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated. PMID:26442758

  14. Cardiovascular and systemic effects of gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is a common emergency condition in large and giant breed dogs that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dogs with GDV classically fulfill the criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and can go on to develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Previously reported organ dysfunctions in dogs with GDV include cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, coagulation and renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular manifestations of GDV include shock, cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction is also multifactorial, with contributory factors including decreased respiratory excursion due to gastric dilatation, decreased pulmonary perfusion and aspiration pneumonia. Gastrointestinal dysfunction includes gastric necrosis and post-operative gastrointestinal upset such as regurgitation, vomiting, and ileus. Coagulation dysfunction is another common feature of MODS in dogs with GDV. Disseminated intravascular coagulation can occur, putting them at risk of complications associated with thrombosis in the early hypercoagulable state and hemorrhage in the subsequent hypocoagulable state. Acute kidney injury, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances are also reported in dogs with GDV. Understanding the potential for systemic effects of GDV allows the clinician to monitor patients astutely and detect such complications early, facilitating early intervention to maximize the chance of successful management.

  15. Effects of exercise and inactivity on intravascular volume and cardiovascular control mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    Exercise, inactivity and confinement have been used as effective tools to assess the contributions of vascular volume and baroreflexes to orthostatic hypotension associated with exposure to microgravity. Prolonged exposure to bedrest, physical inactivity, or wheelchair confinement removes baroreceptor unloading caused by regular upright standing and induces attenuation of cardiovascular baroreflex responses. The magnitude of reduced baroreflex sensitivity following bedrest or wheelchair confinement is related to the degree of orthostatic hypotension. Reduction in vascular volume caused by bedrest or progressive hypovolemia does not affect carotid-cardiac baroreflex function. In contrast, intense exercise that increases arterial baroreceptor loading causes an acute increase in carotid baroreceptor sensitivity and has been associated with enhanced orthostatic stability following exposure to simulated microgravity. Endurance exercise training designed to enhance orthostatic stability was associated with increased blood volume and vasoconstrictive reserve, but no change in the carotid baroreflex response. Therefore, using models of exercise, inactivity and confinement, integrated and redundant roles for vascular volume and cardiovascular baroreflexes have been demonstrated as probable underlying mechanisms that contribute independently to the development of orthostatic hypotension following spaceflight. These data suggest that loading of arterial baroreceptors may be necessary to maintain baroreflex function.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of oral toluene exposure in the rat monitored by radiotelemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a hazardous air pollutant that can be toxic to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The cardiotoxicity data for toluene come from acute studies in anesthetized animals and from clinical observations made on toluene abusers and there is little known on the response o...

  17. Reflex cardiovascular effects of intracoronary acetylstrophanthidin in the conscious dog.

    PubMed

    Barron, K W; Bishop, V S

    1985-06-01

    The present experiments were designed to examine the reflex cardiovascular effects of intracoronary administration of acetylstrophanthidin in the conscious dog. Administration of 4 micrograms/kg of this agent into the left circumflex coronary artery increased left ventricular dP/dtmax but had no effect on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal resistance, or iliac resistance. The positive inotropic effects of acetylstrophanthidin were less under control conditions (+599 mmHg/s) than during bilateral cervical vagal cold block (+850 mmHg/s, P less than 0.05); however, interruption of vagal efferent influences (atropine) alone did not alter the contractile effects of acetylstrophanthidin. Interruption of sympathetic efferent influences on the heart with either the nicotinic ganglionic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, or the beta 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, metoprolol, also augmented the inotropic effects of acetylstrophanthidin to a degree similar to that observed with vagal cold block. In contrast to the effects observed with acetylstrophanthidin, the inotropic effects of intracoronary administration of calcium gluconate were not altered by vagal cold block or any other conditions examined in this study. We conclude that interruption of vagal afferents results in an augmentation of the positive inotropic actions of acetylstrophanthidin and that this augmented inotropic effect can be accounted for by interruption of cardiac vagal afferent-mediated restraint on sympathetic outflow to the heart.

  18. [Cardiovascular side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Wilfried

    2006-09-01

    The intake of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) leads to an increase in skeletal muscle mass and is prohibited as a doping measure in sport. AAS abuse is not limited to competitive athletes. It is also prevalent in subjects who do body building or resistance training for cosmetic reasons only. Out of the numerous and partly serious side effects, the cardiovascular ones are presented here. An increase in left ventricular muscle mass is well documented, and some researchers have even reported concentric hypertrophy. By contrast, resistance training without AAS intake does not lead to increased ventricular wall thickness. AAS do not affect the systolic function of the left ventricle, whereas diastolic function might be impaired. Different ultrastructural myocardial alterations have been documented in animal studies. In addition, AAS can induce arterial hypertension. Blood clotting and fibrinolysis are negatively affected, and several case studies of thrombi exist in young strength athletes. Changes in the concentration of blood lipoproteins, particularly a reduction in vessel-protective HDL cholesterol, can lead to early atherosclerosis. Many case reports exist about cardiac deaths in seemingly healthy subjects-most often body builders and other strength athletes. In fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions patent coronary arteries were proven frequently. Besides the prothrombotic effects of AAS, an impaired endothelial function and vasospasms are discussed hypothetically as pathomechanisms. Also, cardiomyopathies can occur due to AAS abuse. On the basis of the described possible cardiovascular side effects, it can be concluded that in cases of sudden cardiac deaths in young athletes, a misuse of AS should be excluded.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Botteldooren, Dick; Widmann, Ulrich; Uhrner, Ulrich; Kammeringer, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  20. Baseline values of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters predict response to acute hypoxia in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, V N; Krivoschekov, S G; Divert, V E; Komlyagina, T G; Consedine, N S

    2017-02-28

    The majority of the available works have studied distinct hypoxic responses of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This study examines how these systems interact while responding to hypoxia and whether baseline metrics moderate reactions to a hypoxic challenge. Central hemodynamic, aortic wave reflection, and gas exchange parameters were measured in 27 trained young men before and after 10-min normobaric isocapnic hypoxia (10 % O2). Associations were assessed by correlation and multiple regression analyses. Hypoxic changes in the parameters of pulse wave analysis such as augmentation index (-114 %, p=0.007), pulse pressure amplification (+6 %, p=0.020), time to aortic reflection wave (+21 %, p<0.001) report on the increase in arterial distensibility. Specifically, initially compliant arteries blunt the positive cardiac chronotropic response to hypoxia and facilitate the myocardial workload. The degree of blood oxygen desaturation is directly correlated with both baseline values and hypoxic responses of aortic and peripheral blood pressures. The hypoxia-induced gain in ventilation (VE), while controlling for basal VE and heart rate (HR), is inversely associated with deltaHR and deltasystolic blood pressure. The study suggests that cardiovascular and respiratory systems mutually supplement each other when responding to hypoxic challenge.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of ghrelin antagonist in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Maria A; Järvinen, Kristiina; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2009-08-07

    Ghrelin, a 28 aa growth-hormone-releasing peptide, has been shown to increase food intake and decrease arterial pressure in animals and in humans. Recently, a ghrelin antagonist (GhA), [d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6, was demonstrated to decrease food intake in mice, but its cardiovascular actions have not been described. In the present study, the effects of the GhA on cardiovascular parameters in conscious rats were investigated and the involvement of the sympathetic nervous system evaluated. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) measurements were assessed by radiotelemetry. GhA was administered in doses of 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.). MAP as well as HR was dose-dependently elevated after sc application of GhA. Sympathetic blockade of alpha-adrenoreceptors with phentolamine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) and simultaneous antagonism of beta(1)-adrenoreceptors with atenolol (10 mg/kg, s.c.) abolished the increase in MAP and HR induced by GhA (4 mg/kg, s.c.). Administration of phentolamine alone inhibited the increase of MAP, but not HR; atenolol alone abolished the elevation of both MAP and HR evoked by GhA. These results suggest that the peripheral injection of ghrelin antagonist increases arterial pressure and heart rate, at least in part, through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, the use of the ghrelin antagonist system as a therapeutic target for reduction in food intake might lead to serious side effects like elevated blood pressure in humans mostly already having an elevated blood pressure as part of their metabolic syndrome.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of newly discovered peptide intermedin/adrenomedullin 2.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chun-Shui; Yang, Jing-Hui; Cai, Da-Yong; Zhao, Jing; Gerns, Helen; Yang, Jun; Chang, Jaw-Kang; Tang, Chao-Shu; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2005-09-01

    Intermedin (IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The present study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of IMDs (IMD1-47 and IMD8-47) in rats. Intravenous administration of 150 nmol IMDs continuously decreased mean arterial pressure and inhibited cardiac function. Administration with IMDs decreased left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) and maximal rate of left-ventricle pressure development (+/-LVdp/dt(max)), and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Changes with IMD1-47 treatment were close to that with IMD8-47 (P>0.05). Perfusion of isolated rat hearts in vitro with IMD8-47 (10(-8) and 10(-7)mol/L) resulted in lower LVSP, by 40 and 56% (P<0.01); lower +LVdp/dt (max), by 33 and 47% (P<0.01); lower -LVdp/dt(max), by 25 and 39% (P<0.01); but higher coronary perfusion flow (CPF), by 25% (P<0.05) and 33% (P<0.01), respectively, than controls. However, both IMD8-47 and IMD1-47 (from 10(-13) to 10(-7)mol/L) relaxed preconstricted aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner. Intravenous administration of IMD1-47 and IMD8-47 (10(-7)mol/L) in vivo increased the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content by 68 and 150% (both P<0.01), respectively, in myocardia and 320 and 281% (both P<0.01), respectively, in aortas, compared with controls. Perfusion of isolated hearts with IMD1-47 and IMD8-47 (10(-7)mol/L) enhanced cAMP content by 24% (P<0.05) and 73% (P<0.01), respectively, compared with controls. IMDs inhibited 3H-Leucine incorporation in cardiomyocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. IMD1-47 and IMD8-47 (10(-7) and 10(-8)mol/L) decreased 3H-Leucine incorporation by 12-25% (P<0.01) and 14-18% (P<0.01), respectively. IMD mRNA was detected in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes and isoproterenol-induced hypertrophic myocardia but not normal myocardia of adult rats. These results suggest that IMD might be a regulatory factor for cardiovascular function and myocardial hypertrophy as a

  3. Are There Deleterious Cardiac Effects of Acute and Chronic Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Fernandez, Antonio B; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including "myocardial" creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination.

  4. Are There Deleterious Cardiac Effects of Acute and Chronic Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Fernandez, Antonio B.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including “myocardial” creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination. PMID:26607287

  5. Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J. )

    1989-07-01

    At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

  6. Infarct tissue characteristics of patients with versus without early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction: a contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Olimulder, M A G M; Kraaier, K; Galjee, M A; Scholten, M F; van Es, J; Wagenaar, L J; van der Palen, J; von Birgelen, C

    2012-05-01

    Histopathological studies have suggested that early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) limits the size, transmural extent, and homogeneity of myocardial necrosis. However, the long-term effect of early revascularization on infarct tissue characteristics is largely unknown. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with contrast enhancement (CE) allows non-invasive examination of infarct tissue characteristics and left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function in one examination. A total of 69 patients, referred for cardiac evaluation for various clinical reasons, were examined with CE-CMR >1 month (median 6, range 1-213) post-acute MI. We compared patients with (n = 33) versus without (n = 36) successful early revascularization for acute MI. Cine-CMR measurements included the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF, %), and wall motion score index (WMSI). CE images were analyzed for core, peri, and total infarct size (%), and for the number of transmural segments. In our population, patients with successful early revascularization had better LVEFs (46 ± 16 vs. 34 ± 14%; P < 0.01), superior WMSIs (0.53, range 0.00-2.29 vs. 1.42, range 0.00-2.59; P < 0.01), and smaller ESVs (121 ± 70 vs. 166 ± 82; P = 0.02). However, there was no difference in core (9 ± 6 vs. 11 ± 6%), peri (9 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 4%), and total infarct size (18 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 9%; P > 0.05 for all comparisons); only transmural extent (P = 0.07) and infarct age (P = 0.06) tended to be larger in patients without early revascularization. CMR wall motion abnormalities are significantly better after revascularization; these differences are particularly marked later after infarction. The difference in scar size is more subtle and does not reach significance in this study.

  7. [Cardiovascular effects and safety of glucose-lowering drugs: current situation].

    PubMed

    Masmiquel, L

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, in addition to normalising blood glucose, the aim of the treatment for diabetes mellitus should be to prevent cardiovascular complications. However, the evidence available on the cardio-protective role of the different glucose-lowering drugs is scarce and poor, particularly as regards with the risk of major cardiovascular events. In this context, the regulatory agencies have modified the regulations for the approval of glucose-lowering drugs, now requiring to demonstrate the glucose-lowering effect together with a robust assessment of the cardiovascular safety. The aim of this work is to review the cardiovascular effects of the different glucose-lowering drugs, focusing on their impact on the risk of major cardiovascular events.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of tramadol in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane.

    PubMed

    Itami, Takaharu; Tamaru, Naomichi; Kawase, Kodai; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Umar, Mohammed A; Inoue, Hiroki; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2011-12-01

    Cardiovascular effects of tramadol were evaluated in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane. Six beagle dogs were anesthetized twice at 7 days interval. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane was earlier determined in each dog. The dogs were then anesthetized with sevoflurane at 1.3 times of predetermined individual MAC and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated before (baseline) and after an intravenous injection of tramadol (4 mg/kg). The administration of tramadol produced a transient and mild increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) (P=0.004) with prolonged increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (P<0.0001). Compared with baseline value, mean ABP increased significantly at 5 min (119% of baseline value, P=0.003), 10 min (113%, P=0.027), and 15 min (111%, P=0.022). SVR also increased significantly at 5 min (128%, P<0.0001), 10 min (121%, P=0.026), 30 min (114%, P=0.025), 45 min (113%, P=0.025) and 60 min (112%, P=0.048). Plasma concentrations of tramadol were weakly correlated with the percentage changes in mean ABP (r=0.642, P<0.0001) and SVR (r=0.646, P<0.0001). There was no significant change in heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. In conclusion, the administration of tramadol produces a prolonged peripheral vascular constriction in dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane, which is accompanied with a transient and mild increase in arterial blood pressure. It also indicated that the degree of vasoconstriction might depend on the plasma concentration of tramadol.

  9. Contrasting actions of diesel exhaust particles on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and the effects of thymoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Zia, Shaheen; Marzouqi, Fatima; Al-Dhaheri, Amna; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Dhanasekaran, Subramanian; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H; Kazzam, Elsadig E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to acute cardiopulmonary events, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the acute (at 4 and 18 h) effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on cardiopulmonary parameters in mice and the protective effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa. Mice were given, intratracheally, either saline (control) or DEP (30 µg·per mouse). KEY RESULTS At 18 h (but not 4 h) after giving DEP, there was lung inflammation and loss of lung function. At both 4 and 18 h, DEP caused systemic inflammation characterized by leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentrations and reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased only at 18 h. DEP reduced platelet numbers and aggravated in vivo thrombosis in pial arterioles. In vitro, addition of DEP (0.1–1 µg·mL−1) to untreated blood-induced platelet aggregation. Pretreatment of mice with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced decrease of SBP and leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentration and decreased plasma SOD activity. Thymoquinone also prevented the decrease in platelet numbers and the prothrombotic events but not platelet aggregation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At 4 h after DEP exposure, the cardiovascular changes did not appear to result from pulmonary inflammation but possibly from the entry of DEP and/or their associated components into blood. However, at 18 h, DEP induced significant changes in pulmonary and cardiovascular functions along with lung inflammation. Pretreatment with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced cardiovascular changes. PMID:21501145

  10. Is the link between alcohol and cardiovascular death among young Russian men attributable to misclassification of acute alcohol intoxication? Evidence from the city of Izhevsk

    PubMed Central

    Shkolnikov, V; McKee, M; Chervyakov, V; Kyrianov, N

    2002-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of sudden cardiac death among young men in Russia strongly suggests an association with binge drinking. However, the possibility remains that such deaths are misclassified as being attributable to cardiovascular disease when they are really caused by acute alcohol poisoning. Objective: To describe postmortem levels of blood alcohol in Russian men dying from various causes and so determine whether deaths from alcohol poisoning are being misclassified as cardiovascular deaths. Setting: Ishevsk, capital of the Udmurt Republic, situated in the Ural region of the Russian Federation. Methods: The study was part of a larger one on adult mortality. The study sample was 309 deaths among men aged 20–55 dying between August 1998 and March 1999 from other than neoplasms, infectious diseases or unspecified causes and on whom necropsy records could be obtained. Information on cause of death was extracted from death certificates and data on postmortem blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from forensic records. Blood alcohol concentrations were adjusted where necessary to allow for delay in necropsy. Results: Medium or greater levels of intoxication occurred in a quarter of those recorded as dying from cardiovascular disease but in over half of those dying from external causes. BAC levels consistent with at least strong intoxication were seen in 13.5% of deaths from cardiovascular disease and 27.1% from external causes. No cardiovascular deaths had BAC at levels usually thought to be fatal while this level was seen in 26% of deaths from accidental poisoning. Conclusion: Evidence of recent consumption of alcohol is common among Russian men dying under the age of 55, with severe intoxication common where death is from external causes. However, the high death rates from cardiovascular disease in Russia cannot be explained by misclassification of deaths attributable to acute alcohol poisoning. This study thus resolves one of the outstanding

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  12. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  13. [Cardiovascular effect of solcoseryl with low molecular dextran in normal late pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, R; Retzke, U; Wilken, H P

    1977-01-01

    By means of quantitative sphygmometry and the unbloody recording of arterial blood pressure the hemodynamic effect of an infusion of Solcoseryl in combination with low molecular dextrane on the maternal cardiovascular system in 9 normotensive healthy late pregnant women is examined. Solcoseryl causes no improvement of the cardiovascular effects known for low molecular dextrane.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of Juniperus excelsa are mediated through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Zafar, Muhammad Abdullah; Hazrat, Ali; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa Bieb. is used in folk medicine for lowering blood pressure (BP). Its BP-lowering effect, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, and cardio-modulatory effect are reported here. The crude extract of J. excelsa (Je.Cr) which tested positive for the presence of anthraquinone, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, terpenes, and tannins induced a dose-dependent (10-300 mg/kg) fall in the arterial BP of anesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Je.Cr (0.01-5.0 mg/mL) inhibited high K(+) (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (1 μM)-induced contractions, like that caused by verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was noted from Je.Cr, which also relaxed the endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea pig atria, Je.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, like that exhibited by papaverine. Je.Cr prolonged the R-R interval in electrocardiogram of rats under anesthesia. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of J. excelsa are mediated possibly through a combination of Ca(++) antagonism, nitric oxide-modulating mechanism, and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanism, which explain its medicinal use in hypertension.

  15. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2016-03-15

    β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling.

  16. Autoantibodies to phosphorylcholine and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46 trial.

    PubMed

    Geller, Bram J; Mega, Jessica L; Morrow, David A; Guo, Jianping; Hoffman, Elaine B; Gibson, C Michael; Ruff, Christian T

    2014-04-01

    Atherogenesis is a complex inflammatory process stemming from the accumulation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). IgM autoantibodies against phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) bind to the PC epitope on oxidized LDL (OxLDL), inhibiting the uptake of oxLDL by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. Anti-PC autoantibodies have been reported to be protective against atherothrombosis. We investigated the relationship of anti-PC concentrations with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We measured anti-PC levels within 7 days of an ACS in 3,356 patients enrolled in the ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46 trial, a randomized dose ranging study of rivaroxaban versus placebo. The primary endpoint was death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or severe recurrent ischemia (SRI) requiring revascularization during 6 months. The median baseline anti-PC concentration was 40.9 U/mL (25th, 75th percentiles: 25.4, 67.4). There was no significant association between anti-PC levels and the primary endpoint (Q1: 6.8 %, Q2: 4.2 %, Q3: 7.8 %, Q4: 5.4 %, p-trend = 0.87), all-cause mortality (Q1: 1.4 %, Q2: 0.7 %, Q3: 2.4 %, Q4: 0.9 %, p-trend = 0. 96), or any of the other individual endpoint components (MI: p-trend = 0.87, Stroke: p-trend = 0.43, SRI: p-trend = 0.66). Using the previously reported anti-PC cutpoint of 17 U/mL did not reveal a significant relationship between anti-PC concentrations and cardiovascular outcomes (<17 U/mL: 8.1 % vs. ≥17 U/mL: 5.8 %; p = 0.11). Similarly, evaluation of anti-PC as a continuous variable did not reveal a significant association (p = 0.30). In this study of patients early after ACS undergoing intensive secondary preventive therapy, IgM anti-PC titers did not exhibit a significant relationship with cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Resource Effective Strategies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwalm, Jon-David; McKee, Martin; Huffman, Mark D.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global deaths, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The primary and secondary prevention of CVD is suboptimal throughout the world, but the evidence-practice gaps are much more pronounced in LMIC. Barriers at the patient, health-care provider, and health system level prevent the implementation of optimal primary and secondary prevention. Identification of the particular barriers that exist in resource-constrained settings is necessary to inform effective strategies to reduce the identified evidence-practice gaps. Furthermore, targeting modifiable factors that contribute most significantly to the global burden of CVD, including tobacco use, hypertension, and secondary prevention for CVD will lead to the biggest gains in mortality reduction. We review a select number of novel, resource-efficient strategies to reduce premature mortality from CVD, including: (1) effective measures for tobacco control; (2) implementation of simplified screening and management algorithms for those with or at risk of CVD, (3) increasing the availability and affordability of simplified and cost-effective treatment regimens including combination CVD preventive drug therapy, and (4) simplified delivery of health care through task-sharing (non-physician health workers) and optimizing self-management (treatment supporters). Developing and deploying systems of care that address barriers related to the above, will lead to substantial reductions in CVD and related mortality. PMID:26903017

  18. Effects of exercise training on the cardiovascular system: pharmacological approaches.

    PubMed

    Zanesco, Angelina; Antunes, Edson

    2007-06-01

    Physical exercise promotes beneficial health effects by preventing or reducing the deleterious effects of pathological conditions, such as arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer disease. Human movement studies are becoming an emerging science in the epidemiological area and public health. A great number of studies have shown that exercise training, in general, reduces sympathetic activity and/or increases parasympathetic tonus either in human or laboratory animals. Alterations in autonomic nervous system have been correlated with reduction in heart rate (resting bradycardia) and blood pressure, either in normotensive or hypertensive subjects. However, the underlying mechanisms by which physical exercise produce bradycardia and reduces blood pressure has not been fully understood. Pharmacological studies have particularly contributed to the comprehension of the role of receptor and transduction signaling pathways on the heart and blood vessels in response to exercise training. This review summarizes and examines the data from studies using animal models and human to determine the effect of exercise training on the cardiovascular system.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Faria-Costa, Gabriel; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor, AT2R, has been described as having opposite effects to the angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1R. Although the quantities of the AT2R found in the adult are low, its expression rises in pathological situations. The AT2R has three major signaling pathways: activation of serine/threonine phosphatases (promoting apoptosis and antioxidant effects), activation of the bradykinin/NO/cGMP pathway (promoting vasodilation), and activation of phospholipase A2 (associated with regulation of potassium currents). The AT2R appears to have effects in vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis prevention and blood pressure lowering (when associated with an AT1R inhibitor). After myocardial infarction, the AT2R appears to decrease infarct size, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and to improve cardiac function. However, its role in the heart is controversial. In the kidney, the AT2R promotes natriuresis. Until now, treatment directed at the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been based on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers. The study of the AT2R has been revolutionized by the discovery of a direct agonist, C21, which promises to become part of the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Acute and nongenomic effects of testosterone on isolated and perfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, G; Figueroa, L; Rubio, I; Gallo, G; Garcia, A; Martinez, A; Yañez, R; Perez, J; Morato, T; Chamorro, G

    1999-05-01

    Gonadal steroid hormones influence vascular tone and the development of hypertension. There are sex differences in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and great attention has been placed on the study of estrogen cardiovascular effects. However, there are only a few reports on the effects of testosterone on the vasculature. It is commonly accepted that the mechanism of the action of steroid hormones on target tissues is mediated through the binding of hormones to cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors. However, some studies indicate that steroid action can be extremely rapid and therefore unlikely to be through a genomic mechanism. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intravascularly confined testosterone on an isolated rat heart to demonstrate acute and possibly nongenomic effects of the steroid. Our results show that testosterone blocked the adenosine vasodilator effect and increased vascular resistance, even when its presence was restricted to the coronary vascular lumen. These effects were exerted rapidly and possibly through nongenomic mechanisms.

  1. Amelioration of the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys by a long-acting mutant form of cocaine esterase.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Carey, Kathy A; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Nichols, Joseph; Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2011-04-01

    A long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial cocaine esterase (T172R/G173Q CocE; double mutant CocE (DM CocE)) has previously been shown to antagonize the reinforcing, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents. However, the effectiveness and therapeutic characteristics of DM CocE in nonhuman primates, in a more clinically relevant context, are unknown. The current studies were aimed at (1) characterizing the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in freely moving rhesus monkeys, (2) evaluating the capacity of DM CocE to ameliorate these cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects when administered 10 min after cocaine, and (3) assessing the immunological responses of monkeys to DM CocE following repeated administration. Intravenous administration of cocaine produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) that persisted throughout the 2-h observation period following a dose of 3.2 mg/kg cocaine. Cocaine failed to produce reliable changes in electrocardiograph (ECG) parameters, body temperature, and locomotor activity. DM CocE produced a rapid and dose-dependent amelioration of the cardiovascular effects, with saline-like MAP measures restored within 5-10 min, and saline-like HR measures restored within 20-40 min of DM CocE administration. Although administration of DM CocE produced increases in anti-CocE antibodies, they did not appear to have a neutralizing effect on the capacity of DM CocE to reverse the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. In conclusion, these findings in monkeys provide strong evidence to suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, can provide a potential therapeutic option for treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans.

  2. Alcohol Acute Effects in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    we derive the name "whiskey." In the Elizabethan era the physiological effects were known to Shakespeare , who in Hamlet noted that alcohol provoked...the Elizabethan era the physiological effects were alluded to by Porter in Hamlet , who noted alcohol provoked only "nose-painting, sleep and urine" (8...atlas of wine. London: Mitchell Beazley Pub, 1985. 7. Lord T. The World Guide to Spirits. pp. 6-27, 1979. 8. Shakespeare W. Macbeth. Act II, Scene 3

  3. Oxygen uptake and cardiovascular responses in control adults and acute myocardial infarction patients during bathing.

    PubMed

    Winslow, E H; Lane, L D; Gaffney, F A

    1985-01-01

    Physiological responses before, during, and after three types of baths were determined in 18 patients who were 5 to 17 days postinfarction and 22 control adults. In the patients, oxygen consumption (VO2) averaged 6, 7, and 7 ml/kg/min, peak heart rate 105, 108, and 112 beats per minute, and rate pressure product 115, 120, and 111 for basin, tub, and shower bathing, respectively. Oxygen consumption during bathing was less than 3 times resting levels. The patients had a significantly lower VO2 during bathing than the control subjects. The patients' peak heart rates were higher than anticipated for the level of exertion, and sometimes exceeded the target heart rates used in predischarge testing. Peak heart rate and occurrence of dysrhythmia did not differ significantly between the three types of baths. In the women patients, rate pressure product was significantly higher after tub bath than after basin bath or shower. The subjects had no cardiovascular symptoms during bathing, rated all three baths as light exertion, and disliked the basin bath. The data show that the physiologic costs of the three types of baths are similar, differences in responses to bathing seem more a function of subject variability than bath type, and many cardiac patients can take a tub bath or shower earlier in their hospitalization. However, more research is needed to predict patients likely to have an exaggerated response to bathing and to develop clear guidelines for bath method selection and progression.

  4. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  5. Effects of air pollution caused by sugarcane burning in Western São Paulo on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Pestana, Paula Roberta da Silva; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Oliveira, Ariadna Ferraz; Osadnik, Christian Robert; Ferreira, Aline Duarte; Ramos, Dionei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of acute exposure to air pollutants (NO2 and PM10) on hospitalization of adults and older people with cardiovascular diseases in Western São Paulo. METHODS Daily cardiovascular-related hospitalization data (CID10 – I00 to I99) were acquired by the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (DATASUS) from January 2009 to December 2012. Daily levels of NO2 and PM10 and weather data were obtained from Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB – São Paulo State Environmental Agency). To estimate the effects of air pollutants exposure on hospital admissions, generalized linear Poisson regression models were used. RESULTS During the study period, 6,363 hospitalizations were analysed. On the day of NO2 exposure, an increase of 1.12% (95%CI 0.05–2.20) was observed in the interquartile range along with an increase in hospital admissions. For PM10, a pattern of similar effect was observed; however, results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Even though with values within established limits, NO2 is an important short-term risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:28273230

  6. Cardiovascular effects in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; De Bacquer, D; Bulat, P; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardiovascular effects in workers currently exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m3 and to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after long-term exposure. 172 men (91 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and 81 referent workers) were examined using a medical and job history questionnaire, Rose's questionnaire, and electrocardiography at rest, and by measuring blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins. Personal exposures were monitored simultaneously with active sampling and findings were analyzed according to the NIOSH 1600 method. As a result of technical and organizational improvements, personal CS2 exposures were well below the TLV (5.4-13.02 mg/m3). No significant effect of CS2 on blood pressure or lipids (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins AI and B) was found, even after allowance for confounding factors. The prevalence of CHD (ECG abnormalities and chest pain) was higher in the viscose rayon workers than in the workers with no exposure but reached statistical significance for men with exposure histories often years and more only (cumulative CS9 index > or = 150 mg/m3, the most highly exposed group). The findings suggest that the coronary risk is increased in workers previously exposed to high CS2 concentrations but not in those exposed to CS2 levels below the current TLV.

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  8. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  9. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  10. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  11. Effects of dehydration on cardiovascular development in the embryonic American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis).

    PubMed

    Tate, Kevin B; Eme, John; Swart, Justin; Conlon, J Michael; Crossley, Dane A

    2012-07-01

    Effects of dehydration on reptilian embryonic cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we present the first morphological and physiological data quantifying the cumulative effects of four acute dehydration events on the embryonic American alligator, Alligator mississipiensis. We hypothesized that dehydration would alter embryonic morphology, reduce blood volume and augment the response to angiotensin II (Ang II), a key osmotic and blood volume regulatory response element in adult vertebrates. Drying events at 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of embryonic incubation reduced total egg water content by 14.43 ± 0.37 g, a 3.4 fold increase relative to controls. However, embyronic blood volume was greater in the dehydration group at 70% of embryonic incubation compared to controls (0.39 ± 0.044 mLg(-1) and 0.22 ± 0.03 mLg(-1), respectively), however, both groups were similar at 90% of incubation (0.18 ± 0.02 mLg(-1) in the controls and 0.23 ± 0.03 mLg(-1) in the dehydrated group). Dehydration altered the morphological phenotype and resulted in an overall reduction in embryonic mass at both incubation time points measured. Dehydration also altered the physiological phenotype, resulting in embryonic alligators that were relatively bradycardic at 90% of incubation. Arterial Ang II injections resulted in a dose dependent hypertension, which increased in intensity over the span of incubation studied. While progressive incubation altered the Ang II response, dehydration had no impact on the cardiovascular responses to the peptide. Quantification of Ang II type-1 receptor protein using western blot analysis illustrated that dehydration condition and incubation time point did not alter protein quantity. Collectively, our results show that dehydration during embryonic development of the American alligator alters embryonic morphology and baseline heart rate without altering arterial pressure and response to Ang II.

  12. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased (P < 0.0001) comparably between groups in the popliteal artery (controls: +183 ± 26%; PAD: +258 ± 54%) and brachial artery (controls: +117 ± 24%; PAD: +107 ± 32%). Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P < 0.0001, interaction P = 0.60) during immersion, and remained 7 ± 7 mmHg lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Neuregulin in Cardiovascular System: Can we Ignore the Effects of Neuregulin on Electrophysiology?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Hui Nan; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin-1(NRG-1) has now been accepted to have therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease. The preclinical and clinical researches of NRG-1 have demonstrated its advantage effects in cardiac function with multi-target cardiovascular biology and pathophysiology, but its influence on cardiac electrophysiology is rarely involved, which is a very important aspect and should not be ignored.

  14. The Effects of Behavior Therapy, Self-Relaxation, and Transcendental Meditation on Cardiovascular Stress Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio E.; Beiman, Irving

    1980-01-01

    Compared Behavior Therapy (BT), self-relaxation (SR), transcendental meditation (TM), and a waiting-list control group (WL) on measures of cardiovascular and subjective stress response. Results indicate that BT and SR were more effective than either TM or WL in reducing cardiovascular stress response. (Author)

  15. New medications for treatment of obesity: metabolic and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Andrea; Finer, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The management of obesity remains a major challenge. Dietary therapy often fails, whereas bariatric surgery, although successful, is demanding and applicable to a limited number of patients. Drug therapy has had many setbacks over the past 20 years because of serious adverse effects; however, several new drugs for the treatment of obesity are either licensed in some parts of the world, submitted for registration, or completing phase III trials. These include combinations (at low dose) of existing drugs, e.g., bupropion + naltrexone (Contrave), phentermine + topiramate (Qsymia), higher doses of existing drugs licensed for other indications (liraglutide, 3 mg), and new entities (lorcaserin). We discuss the challenges and opportunities for obesity pharmacotherapy and review in detail the efficacy of the new drugs regarding weight loss and both desirable and potential undesirable cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic risk factors. Substantial barriers remain, even if the drugs are approved, in successfully integrating these agents into weight management practice, largely related to cost, patient acceptability, and clinician willingness to be engaged in obesity treatment. Although hard clinical outcome benefit (at least for CV outcomes) has yet to be established, obesity pharmacotherapy may soon address many of the challenges in the clinical management of obesity, although newer and better drug combinations and more evidence of benefit from appropriately designed outcome trials is needed.

  16. Effects of Tetrodotoxin on the Mammalian Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other isoforms, which are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and nervous system, are highly sensitive to TTX (IC50 ~ 10 nM). During the last two decades, it has become evident that in addition to the major cardiac isoform Nav1.5, several of those TTX sensitive isoforms are expressed in the mammalian heart. Whereas immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods demonstrated functional expression in various heart regions, the physiological importance of those isoforms for cardiac excitation in higher mammals is still debated. This review summarizes our knowledge on the systemic cardiovascular effects of TTX in animals and humans, with a special focus on cardiac excitation and performance at lower concentrations of this marine drug. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that TTX sensitive Na+ channels, detected more recently in various heart tissues, are not involved in excitation phenomena in the healthy adult heart of higher mammals. PMID:20411124

  17. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  18. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  19. The Effects of Tai Chi on Cardiovascular Risk in Women

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Jo Lynne; Elswick, R. K.; Sturgill, Jamie; McCain, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of tai chi (TC) on biobehavioral factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. Design A randomized trial used a wait-list control group, pretest-posttest design. Data were collected immediately before, immediately after, and 2 months following the intervention. Setting The study was community based in central Virginia. Subjects Women aged 35 to 50 years at increased risk for CVD. Intervention The 8-week intervention built on prior work and was designed to impact biobehavioral factors associated with CVD risk in women. Measures Biological measures included fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids as well as C-reactive protein and cytokines. Behavioral measures included fatigue, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, mindfulness, self-compassion, and spiritual thoughts and behaviors. Analysis A mixed effects linear model was used to test for differences between groups across time. Results In 63 women, TC was shown to decrease fatigue (∂ [difference in group means] =9.38, p = .001) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (∂ = 12.61, p = .052). Consistent with the study model and intervention design, significant changes observed 2 months post intervention indicated that TC may help down-regulate proinflammatory cytokines associated with underlying CVD risk, including interferon gamma (∂=149.90, p =.002), tumor necrosis factor (∂=16.78, p =.002), interleukin (IL) 8 (∂=6.47, p =.026), and IL-4 (∂=2.13, p =.001), and may increase mindfulness (∂ = .54, p = .021), spiritual thoughts and behaviors (∂ = 8.30, p = .009), and self-compassion (∂ = .44, p = .045). Conclusion This study contributes important insights into the potential benefits and mechanisms of TC and, with further research, may ultimately lead to effective strategies for reducing CVD risk in women earlier in the CVD trajectory. PMID:26305613

  20. Latest evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Badimon, L; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-10-01

    The first step in the prevention of cardiovascular disease is healthy lifestyle and diet. Recent systematic reviews of observational studies ranked Mediterranean diet as the most likely dietary model to provide cardiovascular protection. This review updates the knowledge on the effects of Mediterranean diet from observational and randomized trials published in the last year. The results of the PREDIMED study, a randomized trial providing a higher level of scientific evidence than cohort studies, confirmed that the Mediterranean diet reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. This effect may be exerted by reducing blood pressure; improving glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and lipoprotein particle characteristics; and decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress. It may also stem from a favorable interaction between diet and gene polymorphisms related to cardiovascular risk factors and events. These recent results allow us to recommend Mediterranean diet to subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease with the highest level of scientific evidence.

  1. Influence of hypoxia and hyperoxia on the cardiovascular and lethal effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Younes, M

    1999-03-01

    The mutual potentiation of the hepatotoxic effects of ethanol and hypoxia raised the question of whether such an interaction also occurs in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, anaesthetized rats were infused intravenously with ethanol (25 mg/kg x min.) over 90 min. to reach blood ethanol concentrations between 2.2 and 2.6 g/l and were ventilated artificially either with room air, 10% O2/90% N2 or 100% O2. Under normoxic conditions, ethanol produced a slow decrease of mean arterial blood pressure from 130 to 100 mmHg due to the decline in cardiac output and stroke volume (-20%) while heart rate and peripheral resistance remained unchanged. Hypoxia (arterial oxygen tension 35-38 mmHg) without ethanol produced immediate hypotension (-60 mmHg) without decreasing the cardiac output, i.e. by reducing peripheral resistance. In combination with ethanol, hypoxia produced an even stronger hypotension (-90 mmHg) due to reduction in both cardiac output and peripheral resistance. On the other hand, respiration with 100% O2 (arterial oxygen tension about 500 mmHg) elevated peripheral resistance, attenuated ethanol-induced cardiodepression and prevented ethanol-induced hypotension. The lethal doses of ethanol evaluated by infusing 75 mg/kg x min. ethanol until death amounted to 4.1 g/kg with 10% O2, to 5.5 g/kg with 20% O2 (room air) and to 6.9 g/kg with 100% O2. Thus decrease in vascular contractility induced by hypoxia combined with ethanol-induced cardiodepression may result in lethal cardiovascular failure. Hyperoxia, on the other hand, counteracts ethanol-induced cardiodepression and its acute toxicity by raising the vascular contractility.

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of Incretin Therapy in Diabetes Care

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongoh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes patients are at high risk for development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular safety of antidiabetic medications is a concern. Incretin therapies, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, have recently been introduced to clinical practice and are widely used. Data from phase 2 and 3 trials and retrospective analyses of clinical databases have shown favorable changes in cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes. However, only a few prospective trials have been designed with cardiovascular outcomes as a primary end point. From current data, alogliptin and saxagliptin do not change cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Vildagliptin does not alter myocardial function in T2DM patients with systolic dysfunction. However, the possibility of an increase in clinical heart failure and worsened outcomes in patients with existing heart failure is suggested by current data. Clinicians need to follow patients on DPP-4 inhibitors carefully for this possibility until more prospective randomized controlled data are available. PMID:24842063

  3. Cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yu, Ye; Fan, Ying-zhe; Chang, Hui; Liu, Hong-mei; Cui, Yun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2005-04-01

    Endomorphins, the endogenous, potent and selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, have been shown to decrease systemic arterial pressure (SAP) in rats. In the present study, responses to endomorphins were investigated in systemic vascular bed of alloxan-induced diabetic rats and in non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (220 mg/kg, i.p.) in male Wistar rats. At 4-5 weeks after the onset of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins (1-30 nmol/kg) led to an increase of SAP and heart rate (HR) consistently and dosed-dependently. SAP increased 7.68+/-3.73, 11.19+/-4.55, 21.19+/-2.94 and 27.48+/-6.21% from the baseline at the 1, 3, 10 and 30 nmol/kg dose, respectively, of endomorphin 1 (n=4; p<0.05), and similar changes were observed in response to endomorphin 2. The hypertension could be antagonized markedly by i.p. 2 mg/kg of naloxone. On the other hand, bilateral vagotomy would attenuate the effects of hypertension and diminished the changes of HR in response to endomorphins. With diabetic rats, 6-10 weeks after the induction of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins produced non-dose-related various changes in SAP, such as a single decrease, or a single increase, or biphasic changes characterized by an initial decrease followed by a secondary increase, or no change at all. These results suggest that diabetes may lead to the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system in response to endomorphins. Furthermore, the diabetic rats of 4-5 weeks after alloxan-treatment, the increase in SAP and HR caused by i.v. endomorphins might be explained by a changed effect of vagus and by a naloxone-sensitive mechanism.

  4. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-03

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs.

  5. Effects of Cinacalcet on Atherosclerotic and Nonatherosclerotic Cardiovascular Events in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The EValuation Of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; London, Gerard M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Block, Geoffrey A.; Correa‐Rotter, Ricardo; Dehmel, Bastian; Drüeke, Tilman B.; Floege, Jürgen; Kubo, Yumi; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Goodman, William G.; Moe, Sharon M.; Trotman, Marie‐Louise; Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M.; Herzog, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Premature cardiovascular disease limits the duration and quality of life on long‐term hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events attributable to atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms, risk factors for these events, and the effects of cinacalcet, using adjudicated data collected during the EValuation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial. Methods and Results EVOLVE was a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet or matched placebo for up to 64 months. For this post hoc analysis, the outcome measure was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events reflecting atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. During the trial, 1518 patients experienced an adjudicated cardiovascular event, including 958 attributable to nonatherosclerotic disease. Of 1421 deaths during the trial, 768 (54%) were due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden death was the most frequent fatal cardiovascular event, accounting for 24.5% of overall mortality. Combining fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, randomization to cinacalcet reduced the rates of sudden death and heart failure. Patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced fewer nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events (adjusted relative hazard 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96), while the effect of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic events did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Accepting the limitations of post hoc analysis, any benefits of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in the context of hemodialysis may result from attenuation of nonatherosclerotic processes. Clinical Trials Registration Unique identifier: NCT00345839. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:25404192

  6. Assessment of acute respiratory and cardiovascular toxicity of casiopeinas in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Leal-García, Marco; García-Ortuño, Luis; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Luna-Delvillar, Jorge; Sumano, Héctor

    2007-09-01

    The 99 lethal dose in an acute toxicity study of two anticancer novel molecules named casiopeinas((R)) in dogs was calculated to be 200 mg/m(2) for casiopeina III-ia and 160 mg/m(2) for casiopeina IIgly. Considering therapeutic dose ranges from 3.6 to 18 mg/m(2) for the former and 1.2 to 3 mg/m(2) for the latter, true therapeutic margin of safety varies from 4.7 to 23.6 mg/m(2) and from 20 to 50 mg/m(2), respectively. For both casiopeinas intravenous administration of the corresponding lethal dose in 100 ml of 5% dextrose solution in a time period of 30 min. induced death after an almost uneventful latency time period of 30-50 min. Then, after an apparently sudden onset, changes in blood gases indicated respiratory distress (PO(2) from 82.5% to 26.5% for casiopeina III-ia and from 88.6% to 37.5% for casiopeina IIgly; end-tidal CO(2) from 38 to 8.1 mmHg for the first and from 35.1 to 11.2 mmHg for the second, this was almost simultaneously confirmed by the onset of tachypnoea (from 16 to almost 60 breaths/min. for both casiopeinas) and by a drop in arterial blood pressure (from 117 to 51 mmHg for casiopeina III-ia and from 108 to 49 mmHg for casiopeina IIgly). Reflex tachycardia occurs at the beginning of intravenous administration followed by bradycardia a few minutes later (from 158 to 63 beats/min. for casiopeina III-ia and from 148 to 56 beats/min. for casiopeina IIgly). Finally, cardiac arrest occurred no later than 25 min. towards the end of these events lung oedema appeared as fluid dripping from the endotracheal tube. Death occurred in a mean of 15 +/- 5 min. S.D. from the beginning of the end of the latency period. For both casiopeina's data allow the speculation that lung oedema is caused by a joined toxicity to the lung capillary bed, and particularly to the heart. Carvedilol premedication for 8 days delayed the outcome of lung oedema by approximately 8 hr but could not prevent it.

  7. ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maehre, Hanne K.; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    ω-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have, since the 1970s, been associated with beneficial health effects. They are, however, prone to lipid peroxidation due to their many double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a process that may lead to increased oxidative stress, a condition associated with adverse health effects. Recently, conflicting evidence regarding the health benefits of intake of n-3 from seafood or n-3 supplements has emerged. The aim of this review was thus to examine recent literature regarding health aspects of n-3 FA intake from fish or n-3 supplements, and to discuss possible reasons for the conflicting findings. There is a broad consensus that fish and seafood are the optimal sources of n-3 FA and consumption of approximately 2–3 servings per week is recommended. The scientific evidence of benefits from n-3 supplementation has diminished over time, probably due to a general increase in seafood consumption and better pharmacological intervention and acute treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PMID:26393581

  8. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER.

  9. Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J J

    1989-07-01

    At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination. I conclude that six weeks of exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide does not produce measurable effects in the healthy laboratory rat, nor does it

  10. Cardiovascular effects of treadmill exercise in physiological and pathological preclinical settings.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Cinzia; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Pironti, Gianluigi; Franzone, Anna; Scudiero, Laura; De Laurentis, Mario; Magliulo, Fabio; Ilardi, Federica; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Schiattarella, Gabriele Giacomo; Esposito, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Exercise adaptations result from a coordinated response of multiple organ systems, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine-metabolic, immunologic, and skeletal muscle. Among these, the cardiovascular system is the most directly affected by exercise, and it is responsible for many of the important acute changes occurring during physical training. In recent years, the development of animal models of pathological or physiological cardiac overload has allowed researchers to precisely analyze the complex cardiovascular responses to stress in genetically altered murine models of human cardiovascular disease. The intensity-controlled treadmill exercise represents a well-characterized model of physiological cardiac hypertrophy because of its ability to mimic the typical responses to exercise in humans. In this review, we describe cardiovascular adaptations to treadmill exercise in mice and the most important parameters that can be used to quantify such modifications. Moreover, we discuss how treadmill exercise can be used to perform physiological testing in mouse models of disease and to enlighten the role of specific signaling pathways on cardiac function.

  11. Cardiovascular Side Effects of New Antidepressants and Antipsychotics: New Drugs, old Concerns?

    PubMed Central

    Pacher, Pal; Kecskemeti, Valeria

    2008-01-01

    The cardiovascular toxicity of older generation of tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine) and neuroleptics (e.g. haloperidol, droperidol, thioridazine, pimozide) is well established. These drugs inhibit cardiovascular Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channels often leading to life-threatening arrhythmia. To overcome the toxicity of old generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, venlafaxin) and several new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) were introduced during the past decade. Although these new compounds are not more effective in treating psychiatric disorders than older medications, they gained incredible popularity since they have been reported to have fewer and more benign side effect profile (including cardiovascular) than predecessors. Surprisingly, an increasing number of case reports have demonstrated that the use of SSRIs and new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) is associated with cases of arrhythmias, prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram (ECG) and orthostatic hypotension in patients lacking cardiovascular disorders, raising new concerns about the putative cardiovascular safety of these compounds. In agreement with these clinical reports these new compounds indeed show marked cardiovascular depressant effects in different mammalian and human cardiovascular preparations by inhibiting cardiac and vascular Na+, Ca2+ and K+ channels. Taken together, these results suggest that the new generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics also have clinically important cardiac as well as vascular effects. Clinicians should be more vigilant about these potential adverse reactions and ECG control may be suggested during therapy, especially in patients with

  12. Insulin Resistance and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Victor, Ronald G.; Church, Timothy S.; Snell, Peter G.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Eshelman-Kent, Debra A.; Ross, Robert; Janiszewski, Peter M.; Turoff, Alicia J.; Brooks, Sandra; Vega, Gloria Lena

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of insulin resistance and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional evaluation of 118 survivors of childhood ALL (median age, 23.0 years; range, 18 to 37 years), insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Sex-specific comparisons were made with a cohort of 30- to 37-year-old individuals from the same region participating in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS, N = 782). ALL survivors were stratified by treatment with and without cranial radiotherapy (CRT). Results Female ALL survivors had a significantly higher HOMA-IR (CRT, mean 4.6, 95% CI, 3.6 to 5.7; no CRT, mean 3.3, 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.8) in comparison with DHS women (mean 2.4, 95% CI, 2.2 to 2.7). Eighty percent of women treated with CRT had at least three of six CVD risk factors, and they were significantly more likely to have three or more risk factors compared with DHS women (odds ratio [OR], 5.96; 95% CI, 2.15 to 16.47). Male ALL survivors had a significantly higher HOMA-IR (CRT, mean 4.0, 95% CI, 2.8 to 5.6; no CRT, mean 3.4, 95% CI, 2.9 to 3.9) in comparison with DHS men (mean 2.3, 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.6), but were not more likely to have multiple CVD risk factors. Conclusion ALL survivors had an increased prevalence of insulin resistance in comparison with a cohort of older individuals from the same community. Importantly, women treated with CRT seem to have an increased prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors, warranting close monitoring and risk-reducing strategies. PMID:19564534

  13. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  14. MYOCARDIAL AND CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS FOLLOWING PULMONARY EXPOSURE TO ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FOLLOWING PULMONARY EXPOSURE TO ZINC
    PS Gilmour, A Nyska, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, CF Moyer, JM Samet, and UP Kodavanti, CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; NIEHS, RTP, NC; US EPA/ORD/NHEERL/HSD, Chapel Hill, NC; Pathology Associates, Inc., Raleigh, NC; ...

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  16. Set Configuration in Resistance Exercise: Muscle Fatigue and Cardiovascular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Río-Rodríguez, Dan; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiovascular responses of traditional resistance (TS) training have been extensively explored. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with an intra-set rest configuration (ISR) have not been investigated. This study compares two modalities of set configurations for resistance exercise that equates work to rest ratios and measures the central and peripheral fatigue in combination with cortical, hemodynamic and cardiovascular measures. Methods 11 subjects performed two isometric knee extension training sessions using TS and ISR configurations. Voluntary activation (VA), single twitch amplitude, low frequency fatigue (LFF), Mwave, motor evoked potential (MEP), short intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and heart rate variability were evaluated before and after each training session. During each session beat to beat heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure product (RPP) were also evaluated. Results After exercise VA decreased significantly for TS but not for ISR (P < 0.001), single twitch amplitude and LFF values were lower for TS than ISR (P < 0.004), and SICI was reduced only for the TS configuration (P = 0.049). During exercise RPP values were significantly higher for the TS than for ISR (P = 0.001). RPP correlated with VA for TS (r = -.85 P < 0.001) suggesting a relationship between central fatigue and cardiovascular stress. Conclusions We conclude that ISR induced lower central and peripheral fatigue as well as lower cardiovascular stress in comparison with TS configuration. Our study suggests that set configuration is a key factor in the regulation of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses of resistance training. PMID:26982500

  17. Instillation rate effects of Exosurf on cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics in preterm neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, E; Nashashibi, M; Vaillant, M C; Nasr, C; Laugier, J

    1994-01-01

    The acute effects of surfactant instillation rate on the cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics were studied in a randomised trial of 27 preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), blood gases and electroencephalogram (EEG) were continuously recorded before, during, and for at least 10 minutes after the administration of surfactant. The measurements were repeated one, three, and six hours later. Left ventricular output (LVO) and ductal patency were assessed 10 minutes before and then one, three, and six hours after surfactant administration. Surfactant (Exosurf) was instilled rapidly over five minutes in 13 infants and slowly over 15 minutes in 14 infants. The rapid group showed a significant but transient increase (mean 38%) in CBFV, a rise strongly related to an increase in carbon dioxide tension. No significant change in CBFV was observed in the slow group. There were no significant changes in EEG, MABP, LVO, or ductal shunting in either group. The findings suggest that rapid instillation of Exosurf leads to an increase in CBFV and partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) and requires a close monitoring of blood gases to maintain adequate ventilation. Furthermore, the findings should alert clinicians to the need for slow infusion of Exosurf. PMID:7820712

  18. Effects of sleep on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory systems: a possible role for hypocretins.

    PubMed

    Schwimmer, H; Stauss, H M; Abboud, F; Nishino, S; Mignot, E; Zeitzer, J M

    2010-10-01

    Sleep influences the cardiovascular, endocrine, and thermoregulatory systems. Each of these systems may be affected by the activity of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons, which are involved in the etiology of narcolepsy. We examined sleep in male rats, either hypocretin neuron-ablated orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic (narcoleptic) rats or their wild-type littermates. We simultaneously monitored electroencephalographic and electromyographic activity, core body temperature, tail temperature, blood pressure, electrocardiographic activity, and locomotion. We analyzed the daily patterns of these variables, parsing sleep and circadian components and changes between states of sleep. We also analyzed the baroreceptor reflex. Our results show that while core temperature and heart rate are affected by both sleep and time of day, blood pressure is mostly affected by sleep. As expected, we found that both blood pressure and heart rate were acutely affected by sleep state transitions in both genotypes. Interestingly, hypocretin neuron-ablated rats have significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure during all sleep stages (non-rapid eye movement, rapid eye movement) and while awake (quiet, active). Thus, while hypocretins are critical for the normal temporal structure of sleep and wakefulness, they also appear to be important in regulating baseline blood pressure and possibly in modulating the effects of sleep on blood pressure.

  19. Study to Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in high-risk older patieNts (ICON1) with acute coronary syndrome: study design and protocol of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kunadian, Vijay; Neely, R Dermot G; Sinclair, Hannah; Batty, Jonathan A; Veerasamy, Murugapathy; Ford, Gary A; Qiu, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ICON1 study (a study to Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in high-risk older patieNts with acute coronary syndrome) is a prospective observational study of older patients (≥75 years old) with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome managed by contemporary treatment (pharmacological and invasive). The aim of the study was to determine the predictors of poor cardiovascular outcomes in this age group and to generate a risk prediction tool. Methods and analysis Participants are recruited from 2 tertiary hospitals in the UK. Baseline evaluation includes frailty, comorbidity, cognition and quality-of-life measures, inflammatory status assessed by a biomarker panel, including microRNAs, senescence assessed by telomere length and telomerase activity, cardiovascular status assessed by arterial stiffness, endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and coronary plaque assessed by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. The patients are followed-up at 30 days and at 1 year for primary outcome measures of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unplanned revascularisation, bleeding and rehospitalisation. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the regional ethics committee (REC 12/NE/016). Findings of the study will be presented in scientific sessions and will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01933581: Pre-results. PMID:27554105

  20. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on cardiovascular remodeling in DOCA-salt hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-ling; Pan, Chen; Wang, Li; Ding, Ling; Guo, Kun; Wang, Hong-zhi; Xu, A-Man; Gao, Shan

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular remodeling, as a hallmark of hypertension-induced pathophysiology, causes substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence that has demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, 180- to 200-g SD rats treated with DOCA (120 mg/week sc with 1% NaCl and 0.2% KCl in drinking water) and GSP (150, 240, 384 mg/kg) or amlodipine (ALM) (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks were recruited. The protective effects of GSP on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in rats with DOCA-salt-induced hypertension were investigated. Our results indicated that DOCA-salt could induce hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction, oxidative stress and the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and could increase JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. GSP or ALM treatments significantly improved hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction and oxidative stress, restrained the release of ET-1 and down-regulated the JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that GSP has protective effects against increase of blood pressure induced by DOCA-salt hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via restraining the release of ET-1.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of captopril and enalapril in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Duarte, J; Martinez, A; Bermejo, A; Vera, B; Gámez, M J; Cabo, P; Zarzuelo, A

    1999-01-22

    The effects of two weeks of oral administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors captopril (a sulphydryl-containing drug) and enalapril (which lacks the sulphydryl group) on skeletal muscle glucose uptake, arterial blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, proteinuria and aortic vascular reactivity in obese Zucker rats were evaluated. Captopril (50 mg kg(-1) once daily) and enalapril (10 mg kg(-1) did not modify body weight gain or food or water intake. Both drugs decreased systolic blood pressure (157+/-6, 133+/-4 and 136+/-3 mm Hg, in vehicle-, captopril- and enalapril-treated rats, respectively), blood glucose (172+/-8 vs. 151+/-7 and 158+/-5 mg dl(-1), respectively), proteinuria (46+/-10 vs. 17+/-2 and 18+/-2.5 mg dl(-1), respectively) and heart weight (2.17+/-0.03, 1.98+/-0.02 and 1.99+/-0.04 mg g(-1)of body weight, respectively). Plasma insulin concentration was significantly increased by enalapril (17+/-2 ng ml(-1) vs. 9+/-2) but not by captopril (12+/-1). In the absence of insulin, the diaphragms from captopril- or enalapril-treated rats showed a significantly higher glucose uptake than that of controls (31% and 30% vs. control group, respectively). The presence of insulin in the incubation medium did not stimulate peripheral glucose uptake in the control group but significantly increased glucose uptake in diaphragms from captopril- or enalapril-treated rats (enhancement of glucose uptake vs. control: 52% and 43%, respectively). Endothelium-intact aortic rings from control Zucker rats showed a poor relaxant response to acetylcholine (maximal relaxation of 38.4+/-4.7%). Captopril significantly improved the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation responses to acetylcholine and the endothelium-independent relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside whereas enalapril did not modify these relaxant responses. Neither captopril nor enalapril significantly affected the vascular contractile responses to the vasoconstrictors noradrenaline or

  2. The antiplatelet effects of nitrates: is it of clinical significance in patients with cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Hai; Frishman, William H

    2010-01-01

    Organic nitrates have been used for over a century in cardiovascular therapy and are still widely used in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, chronic angina pectoris, and congestive heart failure. Nitrates, together with sodium nitroprusside, generally referred to as nitrovasodilators, exert their biologic effects via the release of nitric oxide. They are also known as nitric oxide donors. The mechanism of action of these drugs is traditionally believed to lie in their arterial vasodilation and venodilation effects, resulting in an improvement of coronary artery blood supply and/or reduction of cardiac workload in the treatment of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Recently it has been recognized that these drugs also have intrinsic antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects, demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, which would add further rationale for the use of these drugs in atherothrombotic diseases. Research has shown that nitrovasodilators can nonselectively inhibit platelet aggregation induced by multiple stimuli. However, clinical trials have yielded conflicting results regarding clinical outcome, especially with long-term nitrate use. The potentially beneficial effects of nitrates could be negated by the development of tolerance and the generation of deleterious oxidative stress causing endothelial dysfunction during continuous nitrate administration. Much progress has been made in the development of new nitric oxide donors devoid of oxidant-generating properties. Novel combination therapies with nitrovasodilators plus antioxidants or agents with antioxidant properties have shown promise in reducing or reversing tolerance, potentiating antiplatelet effects, and improving clinical outcome. It is expected that clinical introduction of novel nitrovasodilator regimens will provide a new approach to the prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic diseases. Large-scale clinical trials will ultimately provide the evidence-based answers.

  3. Age Effect on Autonomic Cardiovascular Control in Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Nantcheva**, M. Vukov*** *National Center of Hygiene, Medical Ecology and Nutrition 15 Dimitar Nestorov Blvd. 1431 Sofia, Bulgaria "**Military Medical...cardiovascular derived indices. Most sensitive to aging process from regulation, involve in part autonomic influences. time-domain HRV measures...completing of the mission tasks (15). A components, and baroreflex sensitivity with age (29). number of studies have investigated the impact of the

  4. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of metals in ambient particulate matter: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Deborah L; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Buehler, Stephanie S; La Londe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we critically evaluated the epidemiological and toxicological evidence for the role of specific transition metals (As. Cr. Cu. Fe. Mn. Ni. Sc. Ti. V and Zn) in causing or contributing to the respiratory and cardiovascular health effects associated with ambient PM. Although the epidemiologic studies arc suggestive. and both the in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies document the toxicity of specific metals (Fe. Ni. V and Zn). the overall weight of evidence does not convincingly implicate metals as major contributors to health effects. None of the epidemiology studies that we reviewed conclusively implicated specific transition metals as having caused the respiratory and cardiovascular effects associated with ambient levels of PM. However, the studies reviewed tended to be internal ly consistent in identifying some metals (Fe, Ni, V and Zn) more frequently than others (As, Cu, Mn and Sc) as having positive associations wi th health effects. The major problem wi th which the epidemiological studies were faced was classifying and quantifying exposure. Community and population exposures to metals or other components of ambient PM were inferred from centrally- located samplers that may not accurately represent individual level exposures. Only a few authors reported findings that did not support the stated premise of the study; indeed, statistic ally significant associations are not necessarily biologically significant. It is likely that ·'negative studies" are under-represented in the published literature, making it a challenge to achieve a balanced evaluation of the role of metals in causing health effects associated with ambient PM. Both the in vivo and in vitro study results demonstrated that individual metals (Cu. Fe. Ni. V and Zn) and extracts of metals from ambient PM sources can produce acute inflammatory responses. However. the doses administered to laboratory animals were many orders of magnitude greater than what humans experience from

  5. Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Steven, Sebastian; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-08-05

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Sebastian; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26251902

  7. Neuroticism and cardiovascular response in women: evidence of effects on blood pressure recovery.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, James G; Ruiz, John M

    2011-04-01

    Neuroticism is a unifying personality trait that underlies a number of psychosocial risk factors for cardiovascular disease. One means by which Neuroticism may influence health risk is through effects on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery. Eighty-six women scoring high or low in Neuroticism took part in a paired interpersonal stressor task with a laboratory confederate. Conditions differed on the basis of the confederate's interpersonal behavior: hostile, neutral, or friendly. Neuroticism interacted with condition to affect blood pressure recovery such that women high in Neuroticism showed less recovery following hostile interactions and greater recovery following friendly interactions. Main effects of Neuroticism on anger and anxiety reactivity were found. Results indicate that Neuroticism is relevant to cardiovascular health in the context of valenced social interactions. Implications for future study of Neuroticism and interpersonal stressors as risk factors for cardiovascular disease are discussed.

  8. Cardiovascular Effects of Ozone in Healthy Subjects with and without Deletion of Glutathione-S-Transferase M1

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Mark W.; Pietropaoli, Anthony; Dentler, Michael; Chalupa, David; Little, Erika L.; Stewart, Judith; Frasier, Lauren; Oakes, David; Wiltshire, Jelani; Vora, Rathin; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Exposure to ozone has acute respiratory effects, but few human clinical studies have evaluated cardiovascular effects. Objective We hypothesized that ozone exposure alters pulmonary and systemic vascular function, and cardiac function, with more pronounced effects in subjects with impaired antioxidant defense from deletion of the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene (GSTM1 null). Methods 24 young, healthy never-smoker subjects (12 GSTM1 null) inhaled filtered air, 100 ppb ozone, and 200 ppb ozone for 3 hours, with intermittent exercise, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. Exposures were separated by at least 2 weeks. Vital signs, spirometry, arterial and venous blood nitrite levels, impedance cardiography, peripheral arterial tonometry, estimation of pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and blood microparticles and platelet activation were measured at baseline and during 4 hours after each exposure. Results Ozone inhalation decreased lung function immediately after exposure (mean±SE change in FEV1, air: −0.03±0.04 L; 200 ppb ozone: −0.30±0.07 L; p<0.001). The immediate post-exposure increase in blood pressure, caused by the final 15-minute exercise period, was blunted by 200 ppb ozone exposure (mean±SE change for air: 16.7±2.6 mm Hg; 100 ppb ozone: 14.5±2.4 mm Hg; 200 ppb ozone: 8.5±2.5 mm Hg; p=0.02). We found no consistent effects of ozone on any other measure of cardiac or vascular function. All results were independent of the GSTM1 genotype. Conclusions We did not find convincing evidence for early acute adverse cardiovascular consequences of ozone exposure in young healthy adults. The ozone-associated blunting of the blood-pressure response to exercise is of unclear clinical significance. PMID:25600221

  9. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-03-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44+/-4 mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000 U/kg, i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced hypertensive response nor the subsequent cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular response of animals receiving venom after the infusion of MgSO4 (50-70 mM @ 0.25 ml/min, i.v.; n=5) alone, or in combination with AV (n=5), was not significantly different from rats receiving venom alone. Prior administration of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.; n=4) or ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.; n=4) did not significantly attenuate the hypertensive response nor prevent the cardiovascular collapse induced by venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.). In contrast to previous work examining C. fleckeri venom, administration of AV alone, or in combination with MgSO4, was not effective in preventing cardiovascular collapse following the administration of Chiropsalmus sp. venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming.

  10. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Major Cardiovascular Outcomes for Radial Versus Femoral Access in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Asfour, Ahmed; Lolay, Georges; Ziada, Khaled M.; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Radial artery access (RA) for left heart catheterization and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has been demonstrated to be safe and effective. Despite consistent data showing less bleeding complications compared with femoral artery access (FA), it continues to be underused in the United States, particularly in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in whom aggressive anticoagulation and platelet inhibition regimens are needed. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to compare major cardiovascular outcomes and safety endpoints in patients with ACS managed with PCI using radial versus femoral access. Methods Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies comparing RA versus FA in patients with ACS were analyzed. Our primary outcomes were mortality, major adverse cardiac event, major bleeding, and access-related complications. A fixed-effects model was used for the primary analyses. Results Fifteen randomized controlled trials and 17 cohort studies involving 44,854 patients with ACS were identified. Compared with FA, RA was associated with a reduction in major bleeding (odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33–0.61; P < 0.001), access-related complications (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.18–0.39; P < 0.001), mortality (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.54–0.75; P < 0.001), and major adverse cardiac event (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85; P < 0.001). These significant reductions were consistent across different study designs and clinical presentations. Conclusions Based on this large meta-analysis, RA for primary PCI in the setting of ACS is associated with reduction in cardiac and safety endpoints when compared with FA in both urgent and elective procedures. This should encourage a wider adoption of this technique among centers and interventional cardiologists. PMID:26741877

  11. Plasma ceramides predict cardiovascular death in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes beyond LDL-cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Reijo; Ekroos, Kim; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Hilvo, Mika; Vihervaara, Terhi; Kauhanen, Dimple; Suoniemi, Matti; Hurme, Reini; März, Winfried; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Nieminen, Markku S.; Klingenberg, Roland; Matter, Christian M.; Hornemann, Thorsten; Jüni, Peter; Rodondi, Nicolas; Räber, Lorenz; Windecker, Stephan; Gencer, Baris; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Tell, Grethe S.; Nygård, Ottar; Mach, Francois; Sinisalo, Juha; Lüscher, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim was to study the prognostic value of plasma ceramides (Cer) as cardiovascular death (CV death) markers in three independent coronary artery disease (CAD) cohorts. Methods and results Corogene study is a prospective Finnish cohort including stable CAD patients (n = 160). Multiple lipid biomarkers and C-reactive protein were measured in addition to plasma Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1). Subsequently, the association between high-risk ceramides and CV mortality was investigated in the prospective Special Program University Medicine—Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (SPUM-ACS) cohort (n = 1637), conducted in four Swiss university hospitals. Finally, the results were validated in Bergen Coronary Angiography Cohort (BECAC), a prospective Norwegian cohort study of stable CAD patients. Ceramides, especially when used in ratios, were significantly associated with CV death in all studies, independent of other lipid markers and C-reactive protein. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation for the Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio were 4.49 (95% CI, 2.24–8.98), 1.64 (1.29–2.08), and 1.77 (1.41–2.23) in the Corogene, SPUM-ACS, and BECAC studies, respectively. The Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio improved the predictive value of the GRACE score (net reclassification improvement, NRI = 0.17 and ΔAUC = 0.09) in ACS and the predictive value of the Marschner score in stable CAD (NRI = 0.15 and ΔAUC = 0.02). Conclusions Distinct plasma ceramide ratios are significant predictors of CV death both in patients with stable CAD and ACS, over and above currently used lipid markers. This may improve the identification of high-risk patients in need of more aggressive therapeutic interventions. PMID:27125947

  12. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kappus, Rebecca M.; Curry, Chelsea D.; McAnulty, Steve; Welsh, Janice; Morris, David; Nieman, David C.; Soukup, Jeffrey; Collier, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (n = 10) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 10) for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH) and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.). Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024) after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index. PMID:22191012

  13. Effective dosing of L-carnitine in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background L-carnitine supplementation has been associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, ventricular arrhythmia, and angina in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, on account of strict homeostatic regulation of plasma L-carnitine concentrations, higher doses of L-carnitine supplementation may not provide additional therapeutic benefits. This study aims to evaluate the effects of various oral maintenance dosages of L-carnitine on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidities in the setting of acute MI. Methods After a systematic review of several major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library) up to November 2013, a meta-analysis of five controlled trials (n = 3108) was conducted to determine the effects of L-carnitine on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidities in the setting of acute MI. Results The interaction test yielded no significant differences between the effects of the four daily oral maintenance dosages of L-carnitine (i.e., 2 g, 3 g, 4 g, and 6 g) on all-cause mortality (risk ratio [RR] = 0.77, 95% CI [0.57-1.03], P = 0.08) with a statistically insignificant trend favoring the 3 g dose (RR = 0.48) over the lower 2 g dose (RR = 0.62), which was favored over the higher 4 g and 6 g doses (RR = 0.78, 0.78). There was no significant differences between the effects of the daily oral maintenance dosages of 2 g and 6 g on heart failure (RR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.25-1.13], P = 0.10), unstable angina (RR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.51-1.58], P = 0.71), or myocardial reinfarction (RR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.30-1.80], P = 0.50). Conclusions There appears to be no significant marginal benefit in terms of all-cause mortality, heart failure, unstable angina, or myocardial reinfarction in the setting of acute MI for oral L-carnitine maintenance doses of greater or less than 3 g per day. PMID:25044037

  14. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-05-05

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity.

  15. Dietary Intake of Carotenoids and Their Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Cardiovascular Care

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Carbonara, Santa; Ricci, Gabriella; De Pascalis, Francesca; Riccioni, Graziano

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease related to atherosclerosis represents nowadays the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Due to inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis, several studies had been conducted in order to search for substances with anti-inflammatory activity on arterial walls, able to exert beneficial roles on health. Researches investigated the role of dietary carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular disease, due to their free radicals scavenger properties and their skills in improving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol resistance to oxidation. Nevertheless, literature data are conflicting: although some studies found a positive relationship between carotenoids supplementation and cardiovascular risk reduction, others did not find any positive effects or even prooxidant actions. This paper aimed at defining the role of carotenoids supplementation on cardiovascular risk profile by reviewing literature data, paying attention to those carotenoids more present in our diet (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin). PMID:24489447

  16. Effect of cocoa/chocolate ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and its relevance to cardiovascular health and disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-11-15

    Prospective studies indicate that high intake of dietary flavanols, such as those contained in cocoa/chocolate, are associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in humans. Numerous mechanisms may underlie these associations such as favorable effects of flavanols on blood pressure, platelet aggregation, thrombosis, inflammation, and the vascular endothelium. The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) technique has emerged as a robust method to quantify endothelial function in humans. Collectively, the preponderance of evidence indicates that FMD is a powerful surrogate measure for firm cardiovascular endpoints, such as cardiovascular-related mortality, in humans. Thus, literally thousands of studies have utilized this technique to document group differences in FMD, as well as to assess the effects of various interventions on FMD. In regards to the latter, numerous studies indicate that both acute and chronic ingestion of cocoa/chocolate increases FMD in humans. Increases in FMD after cocoa/chocolate ingestion appear to be dose-dependent such that greater increases in FMD are observed after ingestion of larger quantities. The mechanisms underlying these responses are likely diverse, however most data suggest an effect of increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, positive vascular effects of cocoa/chocolate on the endothelium may underlie (i.e., be linked mechanistically to) reductions in cardiovascular risk in humans.

  17. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the cardiovascular effects after the coadministration of cocaine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Laizure, S Casey; Parker, Robert B

    2009-02-01

    One of the most common drug dependencies occurring with alcoholism is cocaine dependence. This combination is particularly worrisome because of the increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with their coabuse. Although it is well known that ethanol increases the cardiovascular effects of cocaine by inhibiting cocaine clearance and the formation of cocaethylene, it has also been postulated that ethanol enhances the cardiovascular effects of cocaine independent of the two latter mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular pharmacodynamics of the cocaine-ethanol interaction to determine whether ethanol directly enhanced the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Dogs (n = 6) were administered cocaine alone (3 mg/kg i.v.) and in combination with ethanol (1 g/kg i.v.) on separate study days. Blood pressure, heart rate, and the electrocardiogram were monitored continuously, and blood samples were collected periodically after drug administration. Concentration-time data were fitted to a two-compartment model, and concentration-effect data were fitted to a simple E(max) model using WinNonlin software. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were compared between the two treatment phases by a paired t test. The administration of ethanol before cocaine resulted in a decrease in cocaine clearance, but there were no differences in any of the other pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameter values between the cocaine alone and cocaine plus ethanol phases. As has been demonstrated in previous animal and human studies, the clearance of cocaine was decreased by prior administration of ethanol. However, ethanol did not change the concentration-effect relationship of the cardiovascular response to cocaine administration. It is concluded from this study that ethanol does not directly enhance the cardiovascular effects of cocaine.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely preventable and prevention expenditures are relatively low. The randomised controlled SPRING-trial (SPRING-RCT) shows that cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in general practice with and without self-monitoring both decreases cardiovascular risk, with no additional effect of self-monitoring. For considering future approaches of cardiovascular risk reduction, cost effectiveness analyses of regular care and additional self-monitoring are performed from a societal perspective on data from the SPRING-RCT. Methods Direct medical and productivity costs are analysed alongside the SPRING-RCT, studying 179 participants (men aged 50–75 years, women aged 55–75 years), with an elevated cardiovascular risk, in 20 general practices in the Netherlands. Standard cardiovascular treatment according to Dutch guidelines is compared with additional counselling based on self-monitoring at home (pedometer, weighing scale and/ or blood pressure device) both by trained practice nurses. Cost-effectiveness is evaluated for both treatment groups and patient categories (age, sex, education). Results Costs are €98 and €187 per percentage decrease in 10-year cardiovascular mortality estimation, for the control and intervention group respectively. In both groups lost productivity causes the majority of the costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is approximately €1100 (95% CI: -5157 to 6150). Self-monitoring may be cost effective for females and higher educated participants, however confidence intervals are wide. Conclusions In this study population, regular treatment is more cost effective than counselling based on self-monitoring, with the majority of costs caused by lost productivity. Trial registration Trialregister.nl identifier: http://NTR2188 PMID:23418958

  19. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852 PMID:26938637

  20. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  1. Cardiovascular and renal effects of carvedilol in dogs with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Masami; Sasaki, Takahiro; Ueno, Kouichiro; Yamamoto, Taiji; Ishikawa, Yumi

    2002-06-01

    To determine the acute effects of carvedilol (beta-blocker) on cardiovascular and renal function and its pharmacokinetics in dogs. Fifteen mature mongrel dogs (7-15 kg) of both sexes were used in these experiments. Eight dogs served as controls, and seven dogs served as iatrogenic mitral regurgitation (MR) experimental animals. Carvedilol (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered, and the blood carvedilol concentration was analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The response to isoproterenol or phenylephrine was also evaluated. Isoproterenol (0.025 microg/kg/min) was infused via the saphenous vein for 5 min, and phenylephrine (5 microg/kg) was injected with carvedilol (0.2, 0.4 mg/kg) or placebo for 4 days. The heart rate and arterial blood pressure were measured, and LV fractional shortening was measured by echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured by intravenous infusion of sodium thiosulfate and sodium para-aminohippurate. Carvedilol (0.2 mg/kg) decreased the heart rate, whereas renal function, arterial blood pressure, and left ventricular contractile function were not affected. Carvedilol (0.4 mg/kg) decreased heart rate, blood pressure, and renal function. The tachycardic response to isoproterenol was significantly diminished for 36 hr by 0.4 mg/kg carvedilol. Carvedilol 0.2 mg/kg inhibited this effect for 24 hr. Thus, it is necessary to titrate the dosage of carvedilol, it should be initiated at less than 0.2 mg/kg and titrated up to 0.4 mg/kg for heart failure dogs.

  2. D-amphetamine boosts language learning independent of its cardiovascular and motor arousing effects.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Caterina; Wailke, Stefanie; Bushuven, Stefan; Kamping, Sandra; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Knecht, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    D-Amphetamine (AMPH) was effective in a number of studies on motor and language recovery after stroke, but given safety concerns, its general use after stroke is still debated. Most stroke patients are excluded from treatment because of a significant risk of cardiovascular dysregulation. AMPH acts on multiple transmitter systems, and mainly the noradrenergic actions are related to the cardiovascular effects. If AMPH's cardiovascular and arousal effects were correlated with its plasticity-enhancing effects in humans, this would imply that desired and undesired effects are inevitably tied. If not, improved cerebral reorganization may not be mediated by AMPH's arousing effects and could be achieved with substances lacking the undesired cardiovascular effects. As a model for language recovery after stroke, we used a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and taught 40 healthy male subjects an artificial vocabulary of 50 concrete nouns over the course of five consecutive training days (high-frequency training). The associative learning principle involved higher co-occurrences of 'correct' picture-pseudoword pairings as compared to 'incorrect' pairings. Subjects received either AMPH (0.25 mg/kg) or placebo 90 min prior to training on each day. Novel word learning was significantly faster and better in the AMPH as compared to the placebo group. Increased learning success was maintained 1 month post-training. No correlation was found between training success and drug-induced increases in blood pressure, heart rate, or a facilitation of simple motor reaction time. Our data show that AMPH's plasticity-enhancing effect in humans is not related to its cardiovascular arousal. This suggests that the beneficial effects in stroke patients could also be obtained by less cardiovascular active drugs.

  3. Acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Elfering, Achim; Zahno, Jasmine; Taeymans, Jan; Blasimann, Angela; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV) training to identify possible explanations for preventive effects against musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this quasi-experimental pilot study. Acute physiological and psychological effects of SR-WBV training were examined using electromyography of descending trapezius (TD) muscle, heart rate variability (HRV), different skin parameters (temperature, redness and blood flow) and self-report questionnaires. All subjects conducted a sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (2 Hz with noise level 0) and a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (6 Hz with noise level 4). They were tested before, during and after the training. Conclusions were drawn on the basis of analysis of variance. RESULTS: Twenty-three healthy, female students participated in this study (age = 22.4 ± 2.1 years; body mass index = 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2). Muscular activity of the TD and energy expenditure rose during verum SR-WBV compared to baseline and sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). Muscular relaxation after verum SR-WBV was higher than at baseline and after sham SR-WBV (all P < 0.05). During verum SR-WBV the levels of HRV were similar to those observed during sham SR-WBV. The same applies for most of the skin characteristics, while microcirculation of the skin of the middle back was higher during verum compared to sham SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Skin redness showed significant changes over the three measurement points only in the middle back area (P = 0.022). There was a significant rise from baseline to verum SR-WBV (0.86 ± 0.25 perfusion units; P = 0.008). The self-reported chronic pain grade indicators of pain, stiffness, well-being, and muscle relaxation showed a mixed pattern across conditions. Muscle and joint stiffness (P = 0.018) and muscular relaxation did significantly change from baseline to different conditions of SR-WBV (P < 0.001). Moreover

  4. Moderation of dietary sodium potentiates the renal and cardiovascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Navis, Gerjan J; Lewis, Julia B; Ritz, Eberhard; de Graeff, Pieter A; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2012-08-01

    Dietary sodium restriction has been shown to enhance the short-term response of blood pressure and albuminuria to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Whether this also enhances the long-term renal and cardiovascular protective effects of ARBs is unknown. Here we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the RENAAL and IDNT trials to test this in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy randomized to ARB or non-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (non-RAASi)-based antihypertensive therapy. Treatment effects on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were compared in subgroups based on dietary sodium intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake. Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus, treatment effects of ARB compared with non-RAASi-based therapy on renal and cardiovascular outcomes were greater in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy with lower than higher dietary sodium intake. This underscores the avoidance of excessive sodium intake, particularly in type 2 diabetic patients receiving ARB therapy.

  5. Cardiovascular Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Anthracyclines

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Vivian I.; Henkel, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines are commonly used to treat childhood leukemias and lymphomas, as well as other malignancies, leading to a growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, their use is limited by cardiotoxicity, increasing survivors' vulnerability to treatment-related complications that can markedly affect their quality of life. Survivors are more likely to suffer from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular accidents compared to the general population. The specific mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity are complex and remain unclear. Hence, determining the factors that may increase susceptibility to cardiotoxicity is of great importance, as is monitoring patients during and after treatment. Additionally, treatment and prevention options, such as limiting cumulative dosage, liposomal anthracyclines, and dexrazoxane, continue to be explored. Here, we review the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of anthracyclines in treating malignancies in children and discuss methods for preventing, screening, and treating such complications in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:21331374

  6. Central and peripheral cardiovascular effects of angiotensin III in trout.

    PubMed

    Mimassi, N; Lancien, F; Le Mével, J C

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the central and peripheral actions of trout angiotensin III (ANG III) on heart rate (HR) and mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(DA)) in the unanaesthetized rainbow trout. Intracerebroventricular injection of ANG III (5-100 pmol) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in HR without significant change in P(DA). In contrast, when injected peripherally ANG III (5-50 pmol) evoked a significant and dose-dependent increase in P(DA). The hypertensive responses were accompanied by a bradycardia that reached significance only for the highest dose of ANG III tested. In conclusion, our results have shown that ANG III has potent and contrasting cardiovascular actions depending on whether its site of action is the brain or the peripheral circulation. Endogenous ANG III may have important physiological functions in teleost fishes.

  7. United States stock market performance and acute myocardial infarction rates in 2008-2009 (from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease).

    PubMed

    Fiuzat, Mona; Shaw, Linda K; Thomas, Laine; Felker, G Michael; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2010-12-01

    We sought to examine the relation between the United States economic decrease in 2008 and cardiovascular events as measured by local acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rates. Mental stress and traumatic events have been shown to be associated with increased risk of MI in patients with ischemic heart disease. This was an observational study of data from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease and includes patients undergoing angiography for evaluation of ischemic heart disease from January 2006 to July 2009. Patients with AMI occurring within 3 days before catheterization were used to calculate AMI rates. Stock market values were examined to determine the period of severe economic decrease, and time trends in AMI rates were examined over the same period. Time series models were used to assess the relation between United States stock market National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ) and rates of AMI. Of 11,590 patients included in the study cohort, 2,465 patients had an AMI during this period. Time series analysis showed a significant increase in AMI rates during a period of stock market decrease from October 2008 to April 2009 (p = 0.003), which remained statistically significant when adjusted for seasons (p = 0.02). In conclusion, unadjusted and adjusted analyses of patients in the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease indicated a significant correlation between a period of stock market decrease and increased AMI rates in our local cohort.

  8. The Kinetics of Circulating Monocyte Subsets and Monocyte-Platelet Aggregates in the Acute Phase of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Associations with 2-Year Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xin-Lin; Ji, Wen-Jie; Liu, Jun-Xiang; Guo, Zhao-Zeng; Ren, Dong; Ma, Yong-Qiang; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Zhong-Wei; Li, Hong-Xia; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Zhang, Zhuoli; Li, Yu-Ming; Benefield, Brandon C; Zawada, Adam M; Thorp, Edward B; Lee, Daniel C; Heine, Gunnar H

    2016-05-01

    In experimental myocardial infarction (MI), a rise in cell counts of circulating monocyte subsets contributes to impaired myocardial healing and to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. In humans, the prognostic role of monocyte subsets in patients suffering ST-elevation MI (STEMI) is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine the kinetics of the 3 monocyte subsets (classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes), as well as the subset-specific monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA), in acute STEMI followed by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and their relationships with cardiovascular outcomes during a 2-year follow-up.Monocyte subsets and MPA were measured in 100 STEMI patients receiving primary PCI on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 of symptom onset, which were compared with 60 stable coronary heart disease patients and 35 healthy volunteers. From day 1 to day 7, significant increases in the counts of CD14++CD16+ monocytes and CD14++CD16+ MPA were observed, with peak levels on day 2. During a median follow-up of 2.0 years, 28 first cardiovascular events (defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal ischemic stroke, recurrent MI, need for emergency or repeat revascularization, and rehospitalization for heart failure) were recorded. After adjustment for confounders, CD14++CD16+ monocytosis (day 1 [HR: 3.428; 95% CI: 1.597-7.358; P = 0.002], day 2 [HR: 4.835; 95% CI: 1.106-21.13; P = 0.04], day 3 [HR: 2.734; 95% CI: 1.138-6.564; P = 0.02], and day 7 [HR: 2.647; 95% CI: 1.196-5.861; P = 0.02]), as well as increased levels of CD14++CD16+ MPA measured on all time points (days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7), had predictive values for adverse cardiovascular events.In conclusion, our data show the expansion of the CD14++CD16+ monocyte subset during acute phase of STEMI has predictive values for 2-year adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with primary PCI. Future studies will be warranted to

  9. Detrimental effect of hypothermia during acute normovolaemic haemodilution in anaesthetized cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, A.; Fahim, Mohammad

    Haemodynamic responses to hypothermia were studied at normal haematocrit and following the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution. Experiments were performed on 20 cats anaesthetized with a mixture of chloralose and urethane in two groups. In one group (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied at normal haematocrit (41.0+/-1.7%) and in the second group of cats (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied after the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution (14.0+/-1.0%). The haemodynamic variables left ventricular pressure, left ventricular contractility, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and right atrial pressure were recorded on a polygraph. Cardiac output was measured using a cardiac output computer. In both groups hypothermia was induced by surface cooling with the help of ice. Cardiovascular variables were recorded at each 1° C fall in body temperature. Hypothermia produced a significant (P<0.05) drop in heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure and left ventricular contractility in both groups. However, the percentage decrease in these variables in response to hypothermia was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cats with low haematocrit than in those with normal haematocrit. The severity of hypothermia - induced cardiovascular effects is evident from the drastic decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure and myocardial contractility in cats with low haematocrit, indicating a higher risk of circulatory failure under anaemic conditions at low temperatures.

  10. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  11. Consensus document on the radial approach in percutaneous cardiovascular interventions: position paper by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions and Working Groups on Acute Cardiac Care** and Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Martial; Pristipino, Christian; Di Mario, Carlo; Nolan, James; Ludwig, Josef; Tubaro, Marco; Sabate, Manel; Mauri-Ferré, Josepa; Huber, Kurt; Niemelä, Kari; Haude, Michael; Wijns, William; Dudek, Dariusz; Fajadet, Jean; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2013-03-01

    Radial access use has been growing steadily but, despite encouraging results, still varies greatly among operators, hospitals, countries and continents. Twenty years from its introduction, it was felt that the time had come to develop a common evidence-based view on the technical, clinical and organisational implications of using the radial approach for coronary angiography and interventions. The European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) has, therefore, appointed a core group of European and non-European experts, including pioneers of radial angioplasty and operators with different practices in vascular access supported by experts nominated by the Working Groups on Acute Cardiac Care and Thrombosis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Their goal was to define the role of the radial approach in modern interventional practice and give advice on technique, training needs, and optimal clinical indications.

  12. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Qin; Li, Pei-Hai; Chao, Ya-Xi; Chen, Hao; Du, Ning; He, Qiu-Xia; Liu, Ke-Chun

    2015-10-22

    Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8), together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5-7, and 9-12), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher's and Marfey's methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM) in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4-6 and 8-12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds.

  13. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity.

  14. The Effect of Exertion on Heart Rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Acutely Concussed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Andrea; Leddy, John; Freitas, Michael; Czuczman, Natalie; Willer, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that one physiological effect of concussion is a disruption in regulation of autonomic nervous system control that affects the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic output. While changes in heart rate after concussion have been observed, the nature of the heart rate change during progressive exercise has not been well evaluated in acutely symptomatic patients. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between HR and RPE in this population. Methods We compared changes in heart rate and perceived effort during graded treadmill exertion in recently concussed patients to elucidate the effect of brain injury on cardiovascular response to exercise. Resting HR, HR on exercise initiation, and changes in HR and RPE during the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) were compared on two test visits: When patients were symptomatic (acute) and after recovery. Results were compared with the test-retest results obtained from a control group consisting of healthy, non-concussed individuals. Results Patients had a significantly lower HR at onset of exercise when acutely concussed as compared to when recovered and reported greater perceived exertion at every exercise intensity level when symptomatic, despite exercising at lower workloads, than when recovered. Sympathetic response to increased exertion was not affected by concussion - HR increased in response to exercise at a comparable rate in both tests. These differences observed in response to exercise between the first BCTT and follow-up evaluation in initially concussed patients were not present in non-concussed individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest that during the acute phase after concussion, acutely concussed patients demonstrated an impaired ability to shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic control over heart rate at the onset of exercise. Changes in the autonomic nervous system after concussion may be more complex than previously reported. Continued evaluation of

  15. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Tiradentes, R.V.; Pires, J.G.P.; Silva, N.F.; Ramage, A.G.; Santuzzi, C.H.; Futuro, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central. PMID:25003632

  16. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Tiradentes, R V; Pires, J G P; Silva, N F; Ramage, A G; Santuzzi, C H; Futuro Neto, H A

    2014-07-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33 ± 4.7 and -31 ± 5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35 ± 5.4 and -31 ± 5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3 ± 2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4 ± 8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  17. [Cardiovascular system and aging].

    PubMed

    Saner, H

    2005-12-01

    Aging is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Age-related morphologic changes in large resistance vessels include an intima-media-thickening and increased deposition of matrix substance, ultimately leading to a reduced compliance and an increased stiffness of the vessels. Aging of the heart is mainly characterized by an increase of the left ventricular mass in relation to the chamber volume and a decrease of diastolic function. There is some controversy in regard to the question if these changes in the vessel wall are the consequence of aging or if a decrease in physical activity is a major contributor of this process. With age the cardiovascular profile is changing. Whereas smoking is less prominent, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more often encountered. Primary and secondary prevention through cardiovascular risk factor management is also very important in the aging population due to the increased risk of acute vascular complications with age. Preventive measures have to include life style factor interventions as well as optimized drug therapy. There is no scientific evidence that vascular aging can be prevented by administration of supplements such as antioxidant vitamins. Aspirin is effective for cardiovascular prevention up to a higher age. Betablockers and ACE-inhibitors are generally underused in older patients after myocardial infarctions. Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular complications up to an age of 80 years. Myocardial infarction in elderly patients is often characterized by atypical symptoms and may be even silent. Interventional therapy in elderly patients is as successful as in younger patients but has an increased complication rate. Ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients leads to significant improvements of physical capacity, well-being and quality of life and may help to prevent social isolation.

  18. Use of pioglitazone in the treatment of diabetes: effect on cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Zou, Cong; Hu, Honglin

    2013-01-01

    Pioglitazone and other thiazolidinediones (TZDs) initially showed great promise as unique receptor-mediated oral therapy for type 2 diabetes, but a host of serious side effects, primarily cardiovascular, have limited their utility. It is crucial at this point to perform a risk- benefit analysis to determine what role pioglitazone should play in our current treatment of type 2 diabetes and where the future of this class of drugs is headed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the present literature. Clinical data currently available indicate that pioglitazone is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment option for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone can still reduce adverse cardiovascular risk.

  19. Prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiovascular procedures-a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navarese, Eliano P.; Gurbel, Paul A.; Andreotti, Felicita; Kołodziejczak, Michalina Marta; Palmer, Suetonia C.; Dias, Sofia; Buffon, Antonino; Kubica, Jacek; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Jadczyk, Tomasz; Laskiewicz, Michał; Jędrzejek, Marek; Brockmeyer, Maximillian; Airoldi, Flavio; Ruospo, Marinella; De Servi, Stefano; Wojakowski, Wojciech; O’ Connor, Christopher; Strippoli, Giovanni F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Interventional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures requiring intravascular iodinated contrast steadily increase patient exposure to the risks of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI), which is associated with death, nonfatal cardiovascular events, and prolonged hospitalization. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for CIAKI prevention in patients undergoing cardiovascular invasive procedures with iodinated contrast. Methods and findings MEDLINE, Google Scholar, EMBASE and Cochrane databases as well as abstracts and presentations from major cardiovascular and nephrology meetings were searched, up to 22 April 2016. Eligible studies were randomized trials comparing strategies to prevent CIAKI (alone or in combination) when added to saline versus each other, saline, placebo, or no treatment in patients undergoing cardiovascular invasive procedures with administration of iodinated contrast. Two reviewers independently extracted trial-level data including number of patients, duration of follow-up, and outcomes. Eighteen strategies aimed at CIAKI prevention were identified. The primary outcome was the occurrence of CIAKI. Secondary outcomes were mortality, myocardial infarction, dialysis and heart failure. The data were pooled using network meta-analysis. Treatment estimates were calculated as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% credible intervals (CrI). 147 RCTs involving 33,463 patients were eligible. Saline plus N-acetylcysteine (OR 0.72, 95%CrI 0.57–0.88), ascorbic acid (0.59, 0.34–0.95), sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine (0.59, 0.36–0.89), probucol (0.42, 0.15–0.91), methylxanthines (0.39, 0.20–0.66), statin (0.36, 0.21–0.59), device-guided matched hydration (0.35, 0.12–0.79), prostaglandins (0.26, 0.08–0.62) and trimetazidine (0.26, 0.09–0.59) were associated with lower odds of CIAKI compared to saline. Methylxanthines (0.12, 0.01–0.94) or left ventricular

  20. Report of the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table regulatory workshop update of the evaluation of new agents for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome: Executive summary.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Héctor; de Graeff, Pieter; Richard-Lordereau, Isabelle; Emmerich, Joseph; Fox, Keith Aa; Friedman, Carola P; Gaudin, Christophe; El-Gazayerly, Amany; Goldman, Samantha; Hemmrich, Melanie; Henderson, Robert A; Himmelmann, Anders; Irs, Alar; Jackson, Neville; James, Stefan K; Katus, Hugo A; Laslop, Andrea; Laws, Ian; Mehran, Roxana; Ong, Seleen; Prasad, Krishna; Roffi, Marco; Rosano, Giuseppe Mc; Rose, Martin; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thygesen, Kristian; Van de Werf, Frans; Varin, Claire; Verheugt, Freek Wa; de Los Angeles Alonso García, Maria

    2016-06-29

    Regulatory authorities interpret the results of randomized controlled trials according to published principles. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is planning a revision of the 2000 and 2003 guidance documents on clinical investigation of new medicinal products for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to achieve consistency with current knowledge in the field. This manuscript summarizes the key output from a collaborative workshop, organized by the Cardiovascular Round Table and the European Affairs Committee of the European Society of Cardiology, involving clinicians, academic researchers, trialists, European and US regulators, and pharmaceutical industry researchers. Specific questions in four key areas were selected as priorities for changes in regulatory guidance: patient selection, endpoints, methodologic issues and issues related to the research for novel agents. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) should be studied separately for therapies aimed at the specific pathophysiology of either condition, particularly for treatment of the acute phase, but can be studied together for other treatments, especially long-term therapy. Unstable angina patients should be excluded from acute phase ACS trials. In general, cardiovascular death and reinfarction are recommended for primary efficacy endpoints; other endpoints may be considered if specifically relevant for the therapy under study. New agents or interventions should be tested against a background of evidence-based therapy with expanded follow-up for safety assessment. In conclusion, new guidance documents for randomized controlled trials in ACS should consider changes regarding patient and endpoint selection and definitions, and trial designs. Specific requirements for the evaluation of novel pharmacological therapies need further clarification.

  1. The polypill: An effective approach to increasing adherence and reducing cardiovascular event risk.

    PubMed

    Bramlage, Peter; Sims, Helen; Minguet, Joan; Ferrero, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Background Despite a wide range of medications being available for the prevention of cardiovascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality in both a primary and secondary setting, patient adherence to complex therapy regimens involving different drug classes remains low worldwide. Combining antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and potentially further drugs into one 'polypill' has the potential to increase adherence, thereby reducing risk factors to a greater extent and for a longer duration. The World Health Organization has recently highlighted increased adherence as a key development need for reducing cardiovascular disease. Methods Recent clinical trial data regarding adherence, reductions in cardiovascular risk and outcomes, safety and tolerability and the cost-effectiveness of the polypill approach are summarised and reviewed. In addition, ongoing trials and the questions they intend to answer are considered. References were retrieved from a PubMed literature search (date range 1990-2016) using the terms 'polypill', 'cardiovascular events' and 'adherence', and selected based on relevance. The website www.clinicaltrials.gov was also consulted for the identification of ongoing trials. Conclusions To date, the polypill approach has been conclusively shown to increase adherence relative to usual care in all patients, with those in a primary care setting or with poor baseline adherence potentially standing to benefit most. Concomitant risk factor reductions have also been suggested. However, whether this translates into a reduction in cardiovascular events and generates good cost-effectiveness in a given healthcare environment is currently under further investigation.

  2. The Impact of Educational Status on 10-Year (2004-2014) Cardiovascular Disease Prognosis and All-cause Mortality Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Greek Acute Coronary Syndrome (GREECS) Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Notara, Venetia; Kogias, Yannis; Stravopodis, Petros; Antonoulas, Antonis; Zombolos, Spyros; Mantas, Yannis; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The association between educational status and 10-year risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and all-cause mortality was evaluated. Methods: From October 2003 to September 2004, 2172 consecutive ACS patients from six Greek hospitals were enrolled. In 2013 to 2014, a 10-year follow-up (2004-2014) assessment was performed for 1918 participants (participation rate, 88%). Each patient’s educational status was classified as low (<9 years of school), intermediate (9 to 14 years), or high (>14 years). Results: Overall all-cause mortality was almost twofold higher in the low-education group than in the intermediate-education and high-education groups (40% vs. 22% and 19%, respectively, p<0.001). Additionally, 10-year recurrent ACS events (fatal and non-fatal) were more common in the low-education group than in the intermediate-education and high-education groups (42% vs. 30% and 35%, p<0.001), and no interactions between sex and education on the investigated outcomes were observed. Moreover, patients in the high-education group were more physically active, had a better financial status, and were less likely to have hypertension, diabetes, or ACS than the participants with the least education (p<0.001); however, when those characteristics and lifestyle habits were accounted for, no moderating effects regarding the relationship of educational status with all-cause mortality and ACS events were observed. Conclusions: A U-shaped association may be proposed for the relationship between ACS prognosis and educational status, with participants in the low-education and high-education groups being negatively affected by other factors (e.g., job stress, depression, or loneliness). Public health policies should be aimed at specific social groups to reduce the overall burden of cardiovascular disease morbidity. PMID:27499164

  3. [Triglycerides--a long known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analysis shows the importance after acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Olsson, Anders

    2015-09-09

    An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins.

  4. [Cardiovascular-protective effect of tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), widely distributed in the heart, smooth muscle, and blood vessels, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, and is also a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Tadalafil is the first PDE 5 inhibitor approved by FDA for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE-5 inhibitors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension) and diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that tadalafil can not only improve sexual function, but also elevate the endothelial cell-derived NO level, activate protein kinase A, upregulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and improve hemodynamic indexes. Thus, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil, with its cardiovascular-protective effect, can be a therapeutic option for the treatment of ED patients with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Nine months in space: effects on human autonomic cardiovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Cooke, W H; Ames JE, I V; Crossman, A A; Cox, J F; Kuusela, T A; Tahvanainen, K U; Moon, L B; Drescher, J; Baisch, F J; Mano, T; Levine, B D; Blomqvist, C G; Eckberg, D L

    2000-09-01

    We studied three Russian cosmonauts to better understand how long-term exposure to microgravity affects autonomic cardiovascular control. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic pressure, and respiratory flow before, during, and after two 9-mo missions to the Russian space station Mir. Measurements were made during four modes of breathing: 1) uncontrolled spontaneous breathing; 2) stepwise breathing at six different frequencies; 3) fixed-frequency breathing; and 4) random-frequency breathing. R wave-to-R wave (R-R) interval standard deviations decreased in all and respiratory frequency R-R interval spectral power decreased in two cosmonauts in space. Two weeks after the cosmonauts returned to Earth, R-R interval spectral power was decreased, and systolic pressure spectral power was increased in all. The transfer function between systolic pressures and R-R intervals was reduced in-flight, was reduced further the day after landing, and had not returned to preflight levels by 14 days after landing. Our results suggest that long-duration spaceflight reduces vagal-cardiac nerve traffic and decreases vagal baroreflex gain and that these changes may persist as long as 2 wk after return to Earth.

  6. Effective use of outcomes data in cardiovascular surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasnoff, William A.; Page, U. S.

    1994-12-01

    We have established the Merged Cardiac Registry (MCR) containing over 100,000 cardiovascular surgery cases from 47 sites in the U.S. and Europe. MCR outcomes data are used by the contributors for clinical quality improvement. A tool for prospective prediction of mortality and stroke for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (83% of the cases), known as RiskMaster, has been developed using a Bayesian model based on 40,819 patients who had their surgery from 1988-92, and tested on 4,244 patients from 1993. In patients with mortality risks of 10% or less (92% of cases), the average risk prediction is identical to the actual 30- day mortality (p > 0.37), while risk is overestimated in higher risk patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve area for mortality prediction is 0.76 +/- 0.02. The RiskMaster prediction tool is now available online or as a standalone software package. MCR data also shows that average mortality risk is identical for a given body surface area regardless of gender. Outcomes data measure the benefits of health care, and are therefore an essential element in cost/benefit analysis. We believe their cost is justified by their use for the rational assessment of treatment alternatives.

  7. Pro-inflammatory effects of hydrogen sulphide on substance P in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Madhav; Sidhapuriwala, Jenab N; Ng, Siaw Wei; Tamizhselvi, Ramasamy; Moochhala, Shabbir M

    2008-04-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S), a novel gasotransmitter, has been recognized to play an important role in inflammation. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) is a major H(2)S synthesizing enzyme in the cardiovascular system and DL-propargylglycine (PAG) is an irreversible inhibitor of CSE. Substance P (SP), a product of preprotachykinin-A (PPT-A) gene, is a well-known pro-inflammatory mediator which acts principally through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). We have shown an association between H(2)S and SP in pulmonary inflammation as well as a pro-inflammatory role of H(2)S and SP in acute pancreatitis. The present study was aimed to investigate the interplay between pro-inflammatory effects of H(2)S and SP in a murine model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by 10 hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein (50 (g/kg). PAG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered either 1 hr before (prophylactic) or 1 hr after (therapeutic) the first caerulein injection. PAG, given prophylactically as well as therapeutically, significantly reduced plasma H(2)S levels and pancreatic H(2)S synthesizing activities as well as SP concentrations in plasma, pancreas and lung compared with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of PAG significantly reduced PPT-A mRNA expression and NK-1R mRNA expression in both pancreas and lung when compared with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. These results suggest that the pro-inflammatory effects of H(2)S may be mediated by SP-NK-1R pathway in acute pancreatitis.

  8. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M.; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R.; Kashon, Michael L.; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dtmax at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dtmin in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:25600139

  9. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R; Kashon, Michael L; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dt(max) at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dt(min) in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction.

  10. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  11. Acute effects of solar particle event radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wan, X. Steven; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, L.; Cengel, K.

    2014-01-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animals exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations: gamma rays or electrons). All animal studies described have been approved by the University of PA IACUC. Some conclusions from recent CARR investigations are as follows: (i) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for SPE-like protons compared with standard reference radiations (gammas or electrons) for white blood cells (WBCs) vary greatly between mice, ferrets and pigs, with the RBE values being greater in ferrets than those in mice, and considerably greater in pigs compared with those in ferrets or mice [1, 2]. This trend for the data suggests that the RBE values for WBCs in humans could be considerably greater than those observed in small mammals, and SPE proton radiation may be far more hazardous to humans than previously estimated from small animal studies. (ii) Very low doses of SPE proton radiation (25 cGy) increase blood clotting times in ferrets, and the low SPE-like dose rate has more severe effects than high dose rate radiation [3]. (iii) Results from pig and ferret studies suggest that disseminated intravascular coagulation is a major cause of death at doses near the LD50 level for SPE-like proton and gamma radiation. (iv) Exposure to SPE-like proton or gamma radiation, in combination with

  12. Cardiovascular and renal effects of chronic exposure to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Abdias; Escudero, Elizabeth; Pando, Jackeline; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Over 140 million people live at high altitude, defined as living at an altitude of 2400 m or more above sea level. Subjects living under these conditions are continuously living under hypoxic conditions and, depending on the population, various adaptations have developed. Interestingly, subjects living chronically at high altitude appear to have a decreased frequency of obesity, diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, these benefits on health are balanced by the frequent development of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Recently, it has been recognized that subjects living at high altitude are at risk for developing high-altitude renal syndrome (HARS), which is a syndrome consisting of polycythemia, hyperuricemia, systemic hypertension and microalbuminuria, but with preserved glomerular filtration rate. More studies should be performed to characterize the mechanisms and etiology of HARS; as such studies may be of benefit not only to the high-altitude population, but also to better understanding of the renal consequences of acute and chronic hypoxia.

  13. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 Apr 05, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week! Mar 23, 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week is ONE ... 2017 National Porphyria Awareness Week (NPAW) 2017 date: Mar 1, 2017 FDA Meeting for Acute Porphyrias is ...

  14. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  15. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302

  16. A systematic review of cardiovascular effects after atypical antipsychotic medication overdose.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hock Heng; Hoppe, Jason; Heard, Kennon

    2009-06-01

    As the use of atypical antipsychotic medications (AAPMs) increases, the number of overdoses continues to grow. Cardiovascular toxicity was common with older psychiatric medications but seems uncommon with AAPM. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe the cardiovascular effects reported after overdose of 5 common AAPM: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. We included case reports and case series describing overdose of these 5 medications identified in a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and abstracts from major toxicology meetings. We found 13 pediatric cases (age, <7 years), 22 adolescent cases (age, 7-16 years), and 185 adult cases. No pediatric case described a ventricular dysrhythmia or a cardiovascular death. In the adolescent and adult cases, we found numerous reports of prolonged corrected QT interval and hypotension, but there were only 3 cases of ventricular dysrhythmia and 3 deaths that may have been due to direct cardiovascular toxicity. The results from case series reports were similar to the single case report data. Our review suggests that overdose of AAPM is unlikely to cause significant cardiovascular toxicity.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate: a new drug combination for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Day, Wesley W; Finer, Nick

    2014-06-01

    Weight loss can reduce the increased cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Pharmacotherapy is a recognized weight loss treatment option; however, cardiovascular safety issues with some previous weight loss drugs raise concerns for newly approved pharmacotherapies. Phentermine is approved for short-term obesity treatment in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, but is commonly used chronically. Topiramate, approved for treating epilepsy and preventing migraines, also induces weight loss. A single-dose combination of low-dose phentermine and topiramate extended-release was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination. Cardiovascular data associated with long-term use of phentermine and topiramate extended-release indicate that this combination may be a safe and effective option for reducing weight in overweight/obese patients at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk.

  18. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  19. A review of the effect of diet on cardiovascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y

    2015-04-21

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  20. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  1. Prognostic Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Non-Cardiovascular Critically or Acutely Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rubin; Hu, Jian; Jiang, Libing; Zhang, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Background RDW (red cell distribution width) has been reported to been associated with the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, RDW is often overlooked by clinicians in treating patients with non-cardiovascular diseases, especially in an emergency. The objective of this systematic review is to explore the prognostic value of RDW in non-cardiovascular emergencies. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systematically searched from their inception to December 31, 2015. We included studies examining the relationship between RDW and mortality rate by adjusting important covariables in non-cardiovascular emergencies. All included studies were divided into three groups. Group A: general critically ill patients; Group B: patients with infectious disease; Group C: other conditions. We extracted each study’ characteristics, outcomes, covariables, and other items independently. Results A total of 32 studies were eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Six studies belonged to Group A, 9 studies belonged to Group B and 17 studies belonged to Group C. Among these included studies, RDW was assessed as a continuous variable (per 1% increase) in 16 studies, as a binary variable in 8 studies, and as a categorical variable in 8 studies. In addition, AUCs (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) of RDW for predicting mortality were reported in 25 studies. All studies were published between 2011–2015. The qualities of included 32 studies were moderate or high. Conclusion The present systematic review indicates that the increased RDW is significantly associated with a higher mortality rate in an non-cardiovascular emergency. The low cost and readily accessible of this laboratory variable may strengthen its usefulness in daily practice in the future. PMID:27936006

  2. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding requirements compared to past approval of existing therapies. This review will discuss the public health impact of type 2 diabetes, specifically with comorbid hypertension; mechanisms of action of the newest antidiabetic drug classes; and preliminary findings and potential clinical significance of the favorable blood pressure and body weight effects of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists; and additionally discuss two recent large cardiovascular outcome trials with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. PMID:24908134

  3. Cardiovascular responses during orthostasis - Effect of an increase in maximal O2 uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Montgomery, L. D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A study is described which tests the hypothesis that changes in aerobic activity (increases in maximum oxygen uptake) will reduce the effectiveness of cardiovascular reflexes to regulate blood pressure during orthostasis. The hypothesis was tested by measuring heart rate, blood pressure and blood volume responses in eight healthy male subjects before and after an eight-day endurance regimen. The results of the study suggest that the physiologic responses to orthostasis are dependent upon the rate of plasma volume loss and pooling, and are associated with training-induced hypervolemia. It is indicated that endurance type exercise training enhances cardiovascular adjustments during tilt. The implications of these results for the use of exercise training as a countermeasure and/or therapeutic method for the prevention of cardiovascular instability during orthostatic stress are discussed.

  4. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  5. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater fish oil consumption has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although the mechanisms are unclear. Plant-source oil omega-3 fatty acids (ALA) have also been studied regarding their cardiovascular effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the ef...

  6. Effects and underlying mechanisms of human opiorphin on cardiovascular activity in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Yong; Bai, Lu; Luo, Pan; Du, Xue-jing; Chen, Qiang; Tian, Xin-min

    2015-02-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the peripheral cardiovascular effects of opiorphin in anesthetized rats. Intravenous (i.v.) injection of opiorphin (50-500nmol/kg) caused marked dose-dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. The pressor and tachycardic responses induced by opiorphin (300nmol/kg, i.v.) were significantly decreased by pretreatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril or angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Pretreatment with α-adrenoreceptor antagonist phentolamine and β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol respectively attenuated the pressor response induced by opiorphin. Propranolol, but not phentolamine, inhibited the tachycardic response. Moreover, reserpine blocked both responses to opiorphin. These findings indicated that the effects of opiorphin to increase blood pressure and heart rate might be due to the stimulation of sympathetic ganglia. Additionally, studies with bilaterally adrenalectomized rats showed that adrenal medulla may be involved in the cardiovascular regulation of opiorphin. In addition, pretreatment with nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone did not modify the cardiovascular responses to opiorphin, suggesting that the effects of opiorphin were not related to the opioid system. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed that opiorphin significantly increased endogenous levels of angiotensin II and angiotensin III. In summary, all the results indicate that the cardiovascular effects induced by opiorphin are mediated through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, but not the opioid system.

  7. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  8. TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rats

    Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

  9. Controlled Exposure of Humans with Metabolic Syndrome to Concentrated Ultrafine Ambient Particulate Matter Causes Cardiovascular Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Many studies have reported associations between PM2.5 and adverse cardiovascular effects. However there is increased concern that ultrafine PM (aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 micron) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1 to 2.5 micron fraction of PM2...

  10. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust and ozone in a multi-pollutant context

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cardiovascular effects of two common pollutants, diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), were examined alone and in combination. Healthy subjects (n=15) were exposed for 2 hrs with intermittent, moderate exercise on Day 1 to 0.3 ppm O3, 300 µg/m3 DE, both O3 and DE, or fil...

  12. 76 FR 48058 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Cardiovascular Permanent Pacemaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for... requirement for premarket approval applications or product development protocols for cardiovascular permanent... progress reports and records of the trials conducted under the protocol on the safety and effectiveness...

  13. Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

  14. The effects of direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease: optimal pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kusano, Eiji

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of progression of arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies suggested that a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, may be effective for blood pressure lowering, renoprotection and cardiovascular protection. This review focuses on the effects of aliskiren for arterial hypertension, CKD and CVD.

  15. Effect of Pollypill on cardiovascular parameters: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Jaykaran; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Saxena, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background Wald and law in their landmark paper published in BMJ in 2003 hypothesized that the use of fixed dose combination of statins, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE) inhibitor, and aspirin (Pollypill) may decrease cardiovascular disease by >80% if Pollypills are used as primary prevention. Many clinical trials were started to test this hypothesis. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the available clinical trials to see the effect of Pollypill on cardiovascular mortality and on other risk factors that linked with increase in cardiovascular events. Materials and methods Available databases were searched with different specific terms and combination of key words. All randomized clinical trials exploring the effect of Pollypill on various cardiovascular parameters were included in the analysis. Primary endpoints as decided were cardiovascular mortality, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Effect of Pollypill on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, the number of participants who discontinued treatment, and the number of participants who experienced side effects were measured and analyzed as secondary outcomes. Both fixed and random models were used for analysis. Analysis was performed by comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results Six trials were included in systematic review. It was observed that Pollypill decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.000). Pollypill was also found to decrease LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride as compared to the control (all P = 0.000); however, there was no significant improvement in HDL (P = 0.39). The number of participants in whom side effects were observed were found to be more in the Pollypill group (odds ratio = 1.73, P = 0.000). It was also observed that dropouts were more in the Pollypill group than in the control group (odds

  16. Cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of intratracheally instilled ambient dust from Augsburg, Germany, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    exposure triggers low grade PM mediated inflammatory effects in the lungs but disturbs vascular homeostasis in pulmonary tissues and on a systemic level by affecting the renin angiotensin system, the endothelin system and the coagulation cascade. These findings are indicative for promotion of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerotic lesions, and thrombogeneis and, thus, provide plausible evidence that susceptible-predisposed individuals may develop acute cardiac events like myocardial infarction when repeatedly exposed to high pollution episodes as observed in epidemiological studies in Augsburg, Germany. PMID:20920269

  17. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Roux, Perrine; Rolland, Benjamin; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly used and trafficked illicit drug in the world. Its use is largely concentrated among young people (15- to 34-year-olds). There is a variety of cannabis use patterns, ranging from experimental use to dependent use. Men are more likely than women to report both early initiation and frequent use of cannabis. Due to the high prevalence of cannabis use, the impact of cannabis on public health may be significant. A range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been identified. Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases.

  18. Effects and Mechanisms of Fruit and Vegetable Juices on Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-03-04

    Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.

  19. Effects and Mechanisms of Fruit and Vegetable Juices on Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action. PMID:28273863

  20. Troponin T in Prediction of Culprit Lesion Coronary Artery Disease and 1-Year Major Adverse Cerebral and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Ketterer, Ulrike; Leuf, Daniela; Dannenberg, Lisa; Wagstaff, Rabea; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Kelm, Malte; Polzin, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Troponin T (TnT) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) is considered diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Non-specific increases of TnT are frequent in acute stroke patients. However, in these patients, correct diagnosis of MI is crucial because the antithrombotic medications used to treat acute MI might be harmful and produce intracranial bleeding. In this study, we aimed to associate enhanced TnT levels defined by different cutoff values with occurrence of culprit lesion coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as 1-year major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs). In this cohort study, we investigated 84 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and concomitant MI. TnT levels were measured using a fourth-generation TnT assay. The incidence of culprit lesion CAD was determined by coronary angiography. MACCEs were recorded during 1-year follow-up. Culprit lesion CAD occurred in 55 % of patients, and 1-year MACCE in 37 %. TnT levels above the manufacturers' provided 99th URL (TnT > 0.01) were not associated with culprit lesion CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.8; P = 0.09). Slightly increased cutoff level (TnT > 0.03) increased specificity and was associated with culprit lesion CAD without decreasing sensitivity (RR, 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.021) and 1-year MACCE (RR, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3-2.3; P < 0.001). Slightly increasement of the TnT cutoff level predicted MACCEs and is superior in prediction of culprit lesion CAD in stroke patients without being less sensitive. This finding has to be confirmed in large-scale clinical trials.

  1. Moderate inappropriately high aldosterone/NaCl constellation in mice: cardiovascular effects and the role of cardiovascular epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Winter, Sabrina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Schneider, Bettina; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempe, Sabine; Mäder, Karsten; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2014-12-11

    Non-physiological activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), e.g. by aldosterone under conditions of high salt intake, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although beneficial effects of aldosterone also have been described. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contributes to cardiovascular alterations and mediates part of the MR effects. Recently, we showed that EGFR is required for physiological homeostasis and function of heart and arteries in adult animals. We hypothesize that moderate high aldosterone/NaCl, at normal blood pressure, affects the cardiovascular system depending on cardiovascular EGFR. Therefore we performed an experimental series in male and female animals each, using a recently established mouse model with EGFR knockout in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and determined the effects of a mild-high aldosterone-to-NaCl constellation on a.o. marker gene expression, heart size, systolic blood pressure, impulse conduction and heart rate. Our data show that (i) cardiac tissue of male but not of female mice is sensitive to mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment, (ii) EGFR knockout induces stronger cardiac disturbances in male as compared to female animals and (iii) mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment requires the EGFR in order to disturb cardiac tissue homeostasis whereas beneficial effects of aldosterone seem to be independent of EGFR.

  2. Effect of short-term weight loss on mental stress-induced cardiovascular and pro-inflammatory responses in women.

    PubMed

    Endrighi, Romano; Hamer, Mark; Hackett, Ruth A; Carvalho, Livia A; Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence links psychosocial stress with obesity but experimental studies examining the mechanisms that mediates the effect of stress on adiposity are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in adiposity following minimal weight loss affect heightened stress responses in women, and examine the role of the adipokine leptin in driving inflammatory responses. Twenty-three overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy, women (M age = 30.41 ± 8.0 years; BMI = 31.9 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)) completed standardized acute mental stress before and after a 9-week calorie restriction program designed to modify adiposity levels. Cardiovascular (blood pressure and heart rate) and inflammatory cytokines (leptin and interleukin-6; IL-6) responses to mental stress were assessed several times between baseline and a 45-min post-stress recovery period. There were modest changes in adiposity measures while the adipokine leptin was markedly reduced (-27%) after the intervention. Blood pressure reactivity was attenuated (-3.38 ± 1.39 mmHg) and heart rate recovery was improved (2.07 ± 0.96 Bpm) after weight loss. Blood pressure responses were inversely associated with changes in waist to hip ratio post intervention. Decreased levels of circulating leptin following weight loss were inversely associated with the IL-6 inflammatory response to stress (r = -0.47). We offered preliminary evidence suggesting that modest changes in adiposity following a brief caloric restriction program may yield beneficial effect on cardiovascular stress responses. In addition, reductions in basal leptin activity might be important in blunting pro-inflammatory responses. Large randomized trials of the effect of adiposity on autonomic responses are thus warranted.

  3. Effect of a synbiotic on infantile acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Z

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is still a common disease worldwide. Synbiotics are being used to alleviate the effects of acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhoea. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a synbiotic in reducing the duration of diarrhoea in children with acute gastroenteritis. The study has been carried out on data gathered from children with acute gastroenteritis between the age of three months and 14 years seen in paediatric polyclinics between August 2009 and April 2010. While synbiotic group patients got a sachet containing Bifidobacterium lactis 2211 with a minimum of 5×10⁶ cfu active bacteria and 900 mg chicory inulin twice daily for five days together with an oral rehydration solution, the control group only received an oral rehydration solution. Therapy with synbiotic plus an oral rehydration solution shortened the duration of acute diarrhoea in children by approximately one day compared to oral rehydration solution only.

  4. Increased Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress and Salt-Loading in Adult Male Offspring of Fat Fed Non-Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J.; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  5. Coenzyme q10 confers cardiovascular protection against acute mevinphos intoxication by ameliorating bioenergetic failure and hypoxia in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat.

    PubMed

    Yen, David H T; Chan, Julie Y H; Huang, C I; Lee, C H; Chan, Samuel H H; Chang, Alice Y W

    2005-04-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, ubiquinone) is a highly mobile electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that also acts as an antioxidant. We evaluated the cardiovascular protective efficacy of CoQ10 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a medullary site where sympathetic vasomotor tone originates and where the organophosphate poison mevinphos (Mev) acts to elicit cardiovascular intoxication. Experiments were carried out in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were maintained under propofol anesthesia. Microinjection bilaterally of Mev (10 nmol) into the RVLM induced progressive hypotension and minor bradycardia, alongside significant depression of the activity of NADH cytochrome c reductase (enzyme marker for Complexes I and III) or cytochrome c oxidase (enzyme marker for Complex IV) in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, reduction in ATP concentration, or tissue hypoxia in the RVLM. On the other hand, the activity of succinate cytochrome c reductase (enzyme marker for Complexes II and III) remained unaltered. The Mev-induced hypotension, bioenergetic failure, or hypoxia was significantly reversed when CoQ10 (4 microg) was coadministered bilaterally into the RVLM with the organophosphate poison. We conclude that CoQ10 confers cardiovascular protection against acute Mev intoxication by acting on the RVLM, whose neuronal activity is intimately related to the "life-and-death" process. We also showed that amelioration of the selective dysfunction of respiratory enzyme Complexes I and IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, the reduced ATP level, and the induced tissue hypoxia in the RVLM are among some of the underlying mechanisms for the elicited protection.

  6. Influence of an extended education program on the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects undergoing rehabilitation following acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krzych, Łukasz J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health education is a component of complex cardiac rehabilitation (CCR). Aim To evaluate the influence of an authorial extended educational program on the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects undergoing early in-hospital rehabilitation following acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous intervention. Material and methods This prospective study covered 205 consecutive subjects (153 men and 52 women, aged 62 ±9 years) undergoing CCR. They were randomly allocated to the control group (105 patients receiving standard education during CCR) or the study group (100 patients participating in the extended education program). The extended education program was conducted in the 2nd and 3rd week of CCR and included a package of educational materials and additional lectures. Results Knowledge of basic rules for secondary cardiac prevention was better in the study group, both on admission and after CCR. Notwithstanding, a positive influence of the extended educational program was found with regard to awareness of recommended blood pressure levels and blood lipid profile (improvement of 15–20% in the study group). At baseline, the knowledge of risk factors was comparable between the groups (the percentage of correct questionnaire answers was 50 ±17% among the controls vs. 49 ±16% in the study group; p = 0.77), but improved significantly after education (52 ±17% among controls vs. 58 ±19% in the study group; p = 0.009) and remained better in the study group after a 3-month follow-up (56 ±19% among controls vs. 64 ±19% in the study group). Conclusions Extended education during CCR significantly improves the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors in patients after acute coronary syndrome. PMID:28096844

  7. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-03

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide in the RVLM and PVN has No Effect on Cardiovascular Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Eloise; Al-Magableh, Mohammad; Hart, Joanne Louise; Badoer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as an important signaling molecule and has been shown to have vasodilator and cardio-protectant effects. More recently it has been suggested that H2S may also act within the brain to reduce blood pressure (BP). In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H2S-producing enzyme, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the BP, heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) responses elicited by a H2S donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. In anesthetized Wistar Kyoto rats bilateral microinjections of NaHS (0.2–2000 pmol/side) into the RVLM did not significantly affect BP, HR, or LSNA, compared to vehicle. Similarly, when the CBS inhibitors, amino-oxyacetate (AOA; 0.1–1.0 nmol/side) or hydroxylamine (HA; 0.2–2.0 nmol/side), were administered into the RVLM, there were no significant effects on the cardiovascular variables compared to vehicle. Microinjections into the PVN of NaHS, HA, and AOA had no consistent significant effects on BP, HR, or LSNA compared to vehicle. We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Again, there were no significant effects on BP, HR, and LSNA. Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:21941511

  9. Changes in the leukocyte methylome and its effect on cardiovascular-related genes after exercise.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-02-15

    Physical exercise has proven cardiovascular benefits, yet there is no clear understanding of the related molecular mechanisms leading to this. Here we determined the beneficial epigenetic effects of exercise after sprint interval training, a form of exercise known to improve cardiometabolic health. We quantified genome-wide leukocyte DNA methylation of 12 healthy young (18-24 yr) men before and after 4 wk (thrice weekly) of sprint interval training using the 450K BeadChip (Illumina) and validated gene expression changes in an extra seven subjects. Exercise increased subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal running performance, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in conjunction with genome-wide DNA methylation changes. Notably, many CpG island and gene promoter regions were demethylated after exercise, indicating increased genome-wide transcriptional changes. Among genes with DNA methylation changes, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor known to be involved in cardiovascular disease, was demethylated and showed decreased mRNA expression. Additionally, we found that in microRNAs miR-21 and miR-210, gene DNA methylation was altered by exercise causing a cascade effect on the expression of the mature microRNA involved in cardiovascular function. Our findings demonstrate that exercise alters DNA methylation in circulating blood cells in microRNA and protein-coding genes associated with cardiovascular physiology.

  10. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71) or control group (n = 75) using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference). In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive lifestyle intervention had a

  11. Effect of Pregabalin on Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise and Postexercise Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrea T.; Light, Kathleen C.; Bateman, Lucinda; Hughen, Ronald W.; Vanhaitsma, Timothy A.; Light, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin, an approved treatment for fibromyalgia (FM), has been shown to decrease sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and inhibit sympathetically maintained pain, but its effects on exercise responses have not been reported. Methods. Using a randomized double-blind crossover design, we assessed the effect of 5 weeks of pregabalin (versus placebo) on acute cardiovascular and subjective responses to moderate exercise in 19 FM patients. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise and ratings of pain, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue before, during, and for 48 hours after exercise were compared in patients on pregabalin versus placebo and also versus 18 healthy controls. Results. On placebo, exercise RPE and BP were significantly higher in FM patients than controls (p < 0.04). Pregabalin responders (n = 12, defined by patient satisfaction and symptom changes) had significantly lower exercise BP, HR, and RPE on pregabalin versus placebo (p < 0.03) and no longer differed from controls (p > 0.26). Cardiovascular responses of nonresponders (n = 7) were not altered by pregabalin. In responders, pregabalin improved ratings of fatigue and pain (p < 0.04), but negative effects on pain and fatigue were seen in nonresponders. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest that pregabalin may normalize cardiovascular and subjective responses to exercise in many FM patients. PMID:27026828

  12. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  13. Extreme weather and air pollution effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N

    2016-01-15

    In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased extreme temperatures, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (air mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate air pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two air mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate air pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  15. Dose Response Effects of Hypertonic Saline and Dextran on Cardiovascular Responses in Sheep

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    137-144, 1995 DOSE RESPONSE EFFECTS OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND DEXTRAN ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES AND PLASMA VOLUME EXPANSION IN SHEEP Michael A...addressed the dose - response effects of HS or D-70 solutions or their possible synergistic combinations to evaluate optimal concentrations of the HS and D...205-217, 1989. 13. Halvorsen L, Günther RA, Dubick MA, Holcroft JW: Dose response characteristics of hypertonic saline dextran solution. J Trauma

  16. [Particle pollution effects on the risk of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Massamba, V K; Coppieters, Y; Mercier, G; Collart, P; Levêque, A

    2014-02-01

    The effects of air pollution on health are quite well-documented and the influence of particulate pollution on morbidity and mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke is increasingly evident. The objective of this literature review is to identify and synthesize articles on the impact of air pollution by PM10 and PM2.5 of myocardial infarction and stroke. A total of 14 studies were reported on the effects of PM10 and five on the effects of PM2.5. Nine out of 14 studies for PM10 and two studies of five for PM2.5 have found a significant association with myocardial infarction and/or stroke. Particle composition according to location, study period and population must be considered in interpreting the results on the health effects of air pollution. The integration of these elements is important for decision making in tune with social and economic conditions specific to each environment.

  17. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA.NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  18. Acute and long term health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1986-11-19

    This paper covers selected aspects of the acute and long term health effects excluding acute radiation syndrome and carcinogenesis, resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The changes addressed in this paper are those witnessed within an organ or whole body rather than at the molecular or even cellular level. They include acute and late health effects. Some of these effects are threshold effects, meaning that the dose must exceed a certain threshold before one sees these effects. Less than the threshold dose results in no observable organ or whole body effect. The severity of the effects correlate directly with the amount of cell damage or cell death that has occurred. 15 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Some peculiar effects of NO-synthase inhibition on the structure and function of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kristek, Frantisek

    2011-09-01

    Long-term increase of blood pressure represents one of the most important risk factors triggering many cardiovascular diseases, and via counter-regulatory mechanisms it is itself modulated by them. Adequate perfusion of the respective areas with nutrients requires appropriate production of vasodilatory and vasoconstrictory agents. Disharmony among them has an important impact on mechanical properties of the arteries, resulting in pathological alterations in the cardiovascular system. Defective production of the vasodilatory agent nitric oxide (NO) has a pronounced effect on this delicate balance and can evoke functional and structural changes in the cardiovascular system leading to hypertension. This review is focused mainly on changes in the cardiovascular system of newborn and adult Wistar rats after long-term administration of two different types of NO-synthase inhibitors: nonspecific inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester and specific inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase 7-nitroindazole. A possible supplementation of decreased endogenous NO production by NO donors is discussed. Particular attention is given to the complex interplay among blood pressure, arterial geometry, including arterial wall thickness, cross-sectional area, inner diameter, and individual components of the arterial wall, as extracellular matrix, endothelial and smooth muscle cell trophicity. Some methodological remarks for determination of the arterial geometry are also presented. Better understanding of the interrelationship among the factors involved can help in explaining more accurately differences in functional manifestations of vessels in various types of hypertension. The review indicates that the current concept of NO production, effect of NO deficiency, substitution of the missing NO in failing NO production in the cardiovascular system appears to be oversimplified.

  20. Effect of Online Hemodiafiltration on All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; Bots, Michiel L.; Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Mazairac, Albert H.A.; den Hoedt, Claire H.; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Lévesque, Renée; Nubé, Menso J.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2012-01-01

    In patients with ESRD, the effects of online hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events are unclear. In this prospective study, we randomly assigned 714 chronic hemodialysis patients to online postdilution hemodiafiltration (n=358) or to continue low-flux hemodialysis (n=356). The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. The main secondary endpoint was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, therapeutic coronary intervention, therapeutic carotid intervention, vascular intervention, or amputation. After a mean 3.0 years of follow-up (range, 0.4–6.6 years), we did not detect a significant difference between treatment groups with regard to all-cause mortality (121 versus 127 deaths per 1000 person-years in the online hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis groups, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75–1.20). The incidences of cardiovascular events were 127 and 116 per 1000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.83–1.39). Receiving high-volume hemodiafiltration during the trial associated with lower all-cause mortality, a finding that persisted after adjusting for potential confounders and dialysis facility. In conclusion, this trial did not detect a beneficial effect of hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events compared with low-flux hemodialysis. On-treatment analysis suggests the possibility of a survival benefit among patients who receive high-volume hemodiafiltration, although this subgroup finding requires confirmation. PMID:22539829

  1. Effect of online hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Grooteman, Muriel P C; van den Dorpel, Marinus A; Bots, Michiel L; Penne, E Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C; Mazairac, Albert H A; den Hoedt, Claire H; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Lévesque, Renée; Nubé, Menso J; ter Wee, Piet M; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    In patients with ESRD, the effects of online hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events are unclear. In this prospective study, we randomly assigned 714 chronic hemodialysis patients to online postdilution hemodiafiltration (n=358) or to continue low-flux hemodialysis (n=356). The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. The main secondary endpoint was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, therapeutic coronary intervention, therapeutic carotid intervention, vascular intervention, or amputation. After a mean 3.0 years of follow-up (range, 0.4-6.6 years), we did not detect a significant difference between treatment groups with regard to all-cause mortality (121 versus 127 deaths per 1000 person-years in the online hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis groups, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.20). The incidences of cardiovascular events were 127 and 116 per 1000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.39). Receiving high-volume hemodiafiltration during the trial associated with lower all-cause mortality, a finding that persisted after adjusting for potential confounders and dialysis facility. In conclusion, this trial did not detect a beneficial effect of hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events compared with low-flux hemodialysis. On-treatment analysis suggests the possibility of a survival benefit among patients who receive high-volume hemodiafiltration, although this subgroup finding requires confirmation.

  2. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Effect of phytosterols/stanols on LDL concentration and other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Bard, J-M; Paillard, F; Lecerf, J-M

    2015-02-01

    Plant sterols and stanols are well-known to reduce LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. It is generally accepted that supplementation with 2g/day of sterols/stanols leads to a 10% reduction in LDL. However, most of the clinical trials supporting this conclusion were of short-term duration, and the results of longer interventions are scanty. In four studies, interventions lasting>6 months were carried out and the LDL-C-lowering effects were maintained over this longer duration, although some results suggest that a reduced effect may be observed with sterols, while stanols maintain their effect. In any case, the data are too limited to be definitive. In a free-living population as well as in multiparametric interventional studies, however, the LDL-C-lowering effect has been confirmed, although to a lesser extent than in clinical studies. In the absence of data on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, data for surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk could be considered adequate alternatives. Several studies have been conducted on this basis, but their results failed to demonstrate any favourable effects. The present report summarizes the different results obtained in long-term studies, and in those comparing the effects of sterols and stanols on lipids and other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk.

  4. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  5. Therapeutic effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Omar, S A; Webb, A J; Lundberg, J O; Weitzberg, E

    2016-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated endogenously by NO synthases to regulate a number of physiological processes including cardiovascular and metabolic functions. A decrease in the production and bioavailability of NO is a hallmark of many major chronic diseases including hypertension, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This NO deficiency is mainly caused by dysfunctional NO synthases and increased scavenging of NO by the formation of reactive oxygen species. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite are emerging as substrates for in vivo NO synthase-independent formation of NO bioactivity. These anions are oxidation products of endogenous NO generation and are also present in the diet, with green leafy vegetables having a high nitrate content. The effects of nitrate and nitrite are diverse and include vasodilatation, improved endothelial function, enhanced mitochondrial efficiency and reduced generation of reactive oxygen species. Administration of nitrate or nitrite in animal models of cardiovascular disease shows promising results, and clinical trials are currently ongoing to investigate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction. In addition, the nutritional aspects of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway are interesting as diets suggested to protect against cardiovascular disease, such as the Mediterranean diet, are especially high in nitrate. Here, we discuss the potential therapeutic opportunities for nitrate and nitrite in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  6. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin; Geiker, Nina R W; Schaadt, Bente K; Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Hansen, Peter R; Skov, Lone

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8 weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor. Microvascular endothelial function assessed by PAT remained unchanged. We conclude that certain components of the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis can be significantly improved by weight reduction.

  7. Ameliorating hypertension and insulin resistance in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk: effects of acetyl-L-carnitine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ruggenenti, Piero; Cattaneo, Dario; Loriga, Giacomina; Ledda, Franca; Motterlini, Nicola; Gherardi, Giulia; Orisio, Silvia; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Insulin resistance, a key component of the metabolic syndrome, is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Acetyl-L-carnitine infusion acutely ameliorated insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics with insulin resistance. In this sequential off-on-off pilot study, we prospectively evaluated the effects of 24-week oral acetyl-L-carnitine (1 g twice daily) therapy on the glucose disposal rate (GDR), assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps, and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects at increased cardiovascular risk a priori segregated into 2 groups with GDR < or =7.9 (n=16) or >7.9 (n=16) mg/kg per minute, respectively. Baseline GDR and systolic blood pressure were negatively correlated (n=32; P=0.001; r=-0.545), and patients with GDR < or =7.9 mg/kg per minute had higher systolic/diastolic blood pressure than those with higher GDR. Acetyl-L-carnitine increased GDR from 4.89+/-1.47 to 6.72+/-3.12 mg/kg per minute (P=0.003, Bonferroni-adjusted) and improved glucose tolerance in patients with GDR < or =7.9 mg/kg per minute, whereas it had no effects in those with higher GDRs. Changes in GDR were significantly different between groups (P=0.017, ANCOVA). Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4 mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. Whether these effects may translate into long-term cardioprotection is worth investigating.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of Zumba(®) performed in a virtual environment using XBOX Kinect.

    PubMed

    Neves, Luceli Eunice Da Silva; Cerávolo, Mariza Paver Da Silva; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; De Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses during a session of Zumba(®) Fitness in a virtual reality environment. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The following cardiovascular variables: heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and double product were assessed before and after the practice of virtual Zumba(®), which was performed as a continuous sequence of five choreographed movements lasting for 22 min. The game Zumba Fitness Core(®), with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360, was used to create the virtual environment. Comparisons were made among mean delta values (delta=post-Zumba(®) minus pre-Zumba(®) values) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and double product using Student's t-test for paired samples. [Results] After a single session, a significant increase was noted in all the analyzed parameters (Systolic blood pressure=18%; Diastolic blood pressure=13%; Heart rate=67%; and Double product=97%). [Conclusion] The results support the feasibility of the use of Zumba Fitness Core(®) with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360 in physical activity programs and further favor its indication for this purpose.

  9. Do different brands of oral contraceptives differ in their effects on cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Crook, D

    1997-05-01

    In response to unpublished data revealing a doubling of venous thromboembolism risk with oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel or gestodene compared with levonorgestrel, the UK Committee on Safety of Medicines advised physicians that women taking these third-generation OCs should be switched to another formulation. There are indications, however, that the studies on which this recommendation was based were flawed by prescriber bias and confounding. In addition, laboratory measures of thrombosis and fibrinolysis do not indicate a shift toward a thrombotic state associated with the newer progestogens. Moreover, desogestrel and gestodene OCs have been associated with a reduced risk of arterial disease when compared to levonorgestrel-containing OCs. Since the mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction is almost 50%, compared with 1-2% for venous thromboembolism, this information should be considered when counseling OC users about their risk of cardiovascular disease. Although the European Union Committee on Proprietary Medicinal Products has taken the position that all OCs are contraindicated in women with current or past cardiovascular disease, unlike the UK Committee, it has not made any specific recommendations about the suitability or non-suitability of the third-generation OCs.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of Zumba® performed in a virtual environment using XBOX Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Luceli Eunice Da Silva; Cerávolo, Mariza Paver Da Silva; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; De Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses during a session of Zumba® Fitness in a virtual reality environment. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The following cardiovascular variables: heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and double product were assessed before and after the practice of virtual Zumba®, which was performed as a continuous sequence of five choreographed movements lasting for 22 min. The game Zumba Fitness Core®, with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360, was used to create the virtual environment. Comparisons were made among mean delta values (delta=post-Zumba® minus pre-Zumba® values) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and double product using Student’s t-test for paired samples. [Results] After a single session, a significant increase was noted in all the analyzed parameters (Systolic blood pressure=18%; Diastolic blood pressure=13%; Heart rate=67%; and Double product=97%). [Conclusion] The results support the feasibility of the use of Zumba Fitness Core® with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360 in physical activity programs and further favor its indication for this purpose. PMID:26504312

  11. Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions

    PubMed Central

    González, Débora; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background. 2C-B (Nexus) is one of the most widespread novel psychoactive substances. There is limited information about its pharmacological properties, and few studies in humans concern its acute and chronic effects. 2C-B has been classified as a stimulant, hallucinogen, entactogen, and/or empathogen. Objectives. To evaluate the emotional, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of 2C-B. Methods. Twenty healthy recreational 2C-B users (12 women) self-administered a 20 mg dose of 2C-B. Evaluations included emotional (IAPS, FERT, and speech), subjective (visual analog scales, ARCI, VESSPA, HRS, and POMS questionnaires), and cardiovascular effects (blood pressure and heart rate). Results. Positive subjective effects predominated with a reduction of anger under the influence of 2C-B. It did, however, increase reactivity to negative emotional stimuli and decrease the ability to recognize expressions of happiness. Augmented emotionality in speech could be appreciated by others. 2C-B induced euphoria and well-being, changes in perceptions, and slight hallucinogenic states. Mild sympathetic actions were observed. Conclusions. The specific profile that 2C-B exerts on emotions suggests its classification as an entactogen with psychedelic properties. PMID:26543863

  12. Agentic extraversion modulates the cardiovascular effects of the dopamine D2 agonist bromocriptine.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2006-07-01

    A recent psychobiological theory postulates a dopaminergic basis for the agency facet of extraversion, leading to the prediction that this personality trait modulates the psychophysiological effects of dopaminergic drugs. A single dose of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers. However, it is currently unknown whether this hypotensive effect of bromocriptine is modulated by agentic extraversion. Therefore, we measured resting cardiovascular activation in groups of healthy male volunteers either high or low in agentic extraversion, either under bromocriptine (1.25 mg) or placebo. Focusing the analyses on activation components derived from 18 cardiovascular variables, we found that bromocriptine reduces alpha-adrenergic activation in the sample as a whole, whereas the effects on beta-adrenergic and cholinergic activation are modulated by agentic extraversion.

  13. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  14. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessments of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacterial pathogens. A series of nonclinical studies, including mammalian pharmacologic receptor binding studies, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel binding studies, studies of the effects on ex vivo sinoatrial (SA) node activity, and studies of in vivo effects on cardiovascular function in the cynomolgus monkey, was undertaken to assess the cardiovascular risk potential. Omadacycline was found to bind almost exclusively to the muscarinic subtype 2 acetylcholine receptor (M2), and in the SA node model it antagonized the effect of a pan-muscarinic agonist (carbamylcholine) in a concentration-dependent manner. Omadacycline exhibited no effect on hERG channel activity at 100 μg/ml (179.5 μM), with a 25% inhibitory concentration of 166 μg/ml (298.0 μM). Omadacycline had no effect on QTc in conscious monkeys at doses up to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Overall, omadacycline appears to attenuate the parasympathetic influence on the heart rate but has a low potential to induce cardiac arrhythmia or to have clinically significant cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:27324778

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessments of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S Ken; Villano, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacterial pathogens. A series of nonclinical studies, including mammalian pharmacologic receptor binding studies, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel binding studies, studies of the effects on ex vivo sinoatrial (SA) node activity, and studies of in vivo effects on cardiovascular function in the cynomolgus monkey, was undertaken to assess the cardiovascular risk potential. Omadacycline was found to bind almost exclusively to the muscarinic subtype 2 acetylcholine receptor (M2), and in the SA node model it antagonized the effect of a pan-muscarinic agonist (carbamylcholine) in a concentration-dependent manner. Omadacycline exhibited no effect on hERG channel activity at 100 μg/ml (179.5 μM), with a 25% inhibitory concentration of 166 μg/ml (298.0 μM). Omadacycline had no effect on QTc in conscious monkeys at doses up to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Overall, omadacycline appears to attenuate the parasympathetic influence on the heart rate but has a low potential to induce cardiac arrhythmia or to have clinically significant cardiovascular toxicity.

  17. Effects of improved fat meat products consumption on emergent cardiovascular disease markers of male volunteers at cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Bastida, Sara; Rodilla, Manuel Espárrago; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-12-01

    High meat-product consumption has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous results suggest the benefits of consuming improved fat meat products on lipoprotein-cholesterol and anthropometric measurements. Present study aims to assess the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers at increased CVD risk. Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a sequentially controlled study where different pork-products were tested: reduced-fat (RF), omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF), and normal-fat (NF). Pork-products were consumed during 4-week periods separated by 4-week washout. The cardiometabolic index (CI), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), apolipoproteins (Apo) A1 and B, homocysteine (tHcys), arylesterase (AE), C-reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNFα), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were tested and some other related ratios calculated. AE, oxLDL and Lp(a), AE/HDLc, LDLc/Apo B, and AE/oxLDL rate of change were differently affected (P<0.01) by pork-products consumption. RF increased (P < 0.05) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased TNFα, tHcys; n-3RF increased (P < 0.001) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased (P < 0.05) Lp(a); while NF increased (P<0.05) oxLDL and Lp(a) levels. In conclusion, RF and n-3RF products affected positively the level of some emergent CVD markers. The high regular consumption of NF-products should be limited as significantly increased Lp(a) and oxLDL values. The high variability in response observed for some markers suggests the need to perform more studies to identify targets for RF- and n-3RF-products. Graphical Abstract Emergent CVD markers.

  18. Effects of a gravity gradient on human cardiovascular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastreiter, D.; Young, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in one control and three rotation trials on a short-arm centrifuge such that the Gz levels at the feet were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 G. Trials consisted of 30 minutes of supine rest, 1 hour of rotation (or in the control, 30 additional minutes of rest and 30 minutes of standing), and a final 30-minute rest period. Measurements of heart rate, calf impedance, calf volume, and blood pressure support the findings that the highest G level is similar to standing and that the lower G levels fail to produce significant effects.

  19. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages.

  20. Hydration during exercise. Effects on thermal and cardiovascular adjustments.

    PubMed

    Candas, V; Libert, J P; Brandenberger, G; Sagot, J C; Amoros, C; Kahn, J M

    1986-01-01

    Five young unacclimatised subjects were exposed for 4 h at 34 degrees C (10 degrees C dew-point temperature and 0.6 m X s-1 air velocity), while exercising on a bicycle ergometer: 25 min work--5 min rest cycles for 2 hours followed by 20 min work--10 min rest cycles for two further hours. 5 experimental sessions were carried out: one without rehydration (NO FLUID) resulting in 3.1% mean loss of body weight (delta Mb), and four sessions with 20 degrees C fluid ingestion of spring water (WATER), hypotonic (HYPO), isotonic (ISO) and hypertonic (HYPER) solutions to study the effects of fluid osmolarity on rehydration. Mean final rehydration (+/- SE) after fluid intake was 82.2% (+/- 1.2). Heart rate was higher in NO FLUID while no difference among conditions was found in either delta Mb or hourly sweat rates. Sweating sensitivity was lowest in the dehydration condition, and highest in the WATER one. Modifications in plasma volume and osmolarity demonstrated that NO FLUID induced hyperosmotic hypovolemia, ISO rehydration rapidly led to plasma isoosmotic hypervolemia, while WATER led to slightly hypoosmotic normovolemia. It is concluded that adequate rehydration through ingestion of isotonic electrolyte-sucrose solution, although in quantities much smaller than evaporative heat loss, rapidly restored and expanded plasma volume. While osmolarity influenced sweating sensitivity, the plasma volume changes (delta PV) within the range -6% less than or equal to delta PV + 4% had little effect on temperature adjustments in our conditions.

  1. PPARs and their effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Oyekan, Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily that undergo transactivation or transrepression by distinct mechanisms leading to induction or repression of expression of target genes. The PPAR family consists of three isoforms, α, γ, and ß/δ, which share similar structural organization, possess distinct functions, and vary in their ligand affinity, expression, and activity in different metabolic pathways in different tissues. PPARs are involved in many functions especially those involved in the regulation of vascular tone, inflammation and energy homeostasis and therefore represent important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. PPARs may influence the inflammatory response either by direct transcriptional downregulation of proinflammatory genes via mechanisms involving transrepression, or indirectly via their transcriptional effects on lipid metabolism. On account of their pleiotropic effects, they are now known to be active participants in many disease conditions and they represent potent targets for the development of therapy of a wide array of diseases.

  2. Injected nanoparticles: the combination of experimental systems to assess cardiovascular adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S; Riikonen, Joakim; Raula, Janne; Lobach, Anatoly S; Borzykh, Anna A; Smirin, Boris V; Kauppinen, Esko I; Eletskii, Alexander V; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Salonen, Jarno; Tavi, Pasi; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2014-05-01

    When nanocarriers are used for drug delivery they can often achieve superior therapeutic outcomes over standard drug formulations. However, concerns about their adverse effects are growing due to the association between exposure to certain nanosized particles and cardiovascular events. Here we examine the impact of intravenously injected drug-free nanocarriers on the cardiovasculature at both the systemic and organ levels. We combine in vivo and in vitro methods to enable monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in conscious rats, assessments of the function of the vessels after sub-chronic systemic exposure to nanocarriers and evaluation of the direct effect of nanocarriers on vascular tone. We demonstrate that nanocarriers can decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate in vivo via various mechanisms. Depending on the type, nanocarriers induce the dilation of the resistance arteries and/or change the responses induced by vasoconstrictor or vasodilator drugs. No direct correlation between physicochemical properties and cardiovascular effects of nanoparticles was observed. The proposed combination of methods empowers the studies of cardiovascular adverse effects of the nanocarriers.

  3. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Findings Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of high SBP were significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.050). In addition, lower serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and frequency of lower HDL was significantly higher in opium user group (P < 0.001). Conclusion According to this study, opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent. PMID:25140211

  4. Acute Effect of High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p < 0.01) with eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.

  5. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation. PMID:27635241

  6. Cardiovascular effects of NA+/H+ exchanger inhibition with BIIB513 following hypovolemic circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongmei; Bassuk, Jorge; Arias, Jaqueline; Doods, Henri; Adams, Jose A

    2005-03-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) is involved in the myocardial injury that occurs during ischemia and reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of NHE in hypovolemic circulatory shock by using a potent NHE-1 selective inhibitor BIIB513. Acute rapid hemorrhage was induced in 14 pigs by bleeding (30 mL/kg over 30 min). Seven pigs were used as saline control. Seven other pigs received 3 mg/kg BIIB513 at 30 min after hemorrhage. Each experiment consisted of 2 h of hypovolemia followed by 2 h of fluid resuscitation. One control animal died before the experiment was completed. Six other control animals survived the entire experiment. In contrast, all the BIIB513 treated animals survived the entire protocol. Acute rapid blood loss resulted in impaired myocardial performance as well as severe hemodynamic and metabolic alterations. NHE blockade attenuated the hypovolemic hypotension and improved myocardial performance. NHE blockade also attenuated the metabolic acidosis, improved tissue oxygen delivery, and improved cardiac function from resuscitation. The circulating levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and cardiac troponin-I were significantly lower in the BIIB513 treatment group. These results suggest that NHE activation plays an important pathophysiological role in hypovolemic circulatory shock, and NHE-1 blockade is a powerful intervention to improve cardiovascular outcomes of resuscitation from prolonged hypovolemic circulatory shock.

  7. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary?

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-03-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  8. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of intra-aortic balloon and control systems for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for intra-aortic balloon and control systems for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. Final order.

    PubMed

    2013-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify intra-aortic balloon and control system (IABP) devices when indicated for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for IABPs when indicated for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation.

  9. Acute effects of submaximal endurance training on arterial stiffness in healthy middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Wilms, Michael; Oberhoffer, Renate

    2015-05-01

    Measures of arterial stiffness are indicators for cardiovascular health and predictors of cardiovascular events. Arterial stiffness is responsive to acute physiologic stressors such as exercise. However, the acute effects of intensive exercise and recovery on arterial stiffness are controversial. Thirty-seven healthy middle- and long-distance runners (33 men, mean age 26.5±6.6 years) underwent evaluation of their cardiovascular stiffness at rest, after a 15-minute warm-up, immediately after vigorous running 3 km at the pace of their 10-km personal best, and finally 30 minutes after terminating their workout. Peripheral and central systolic blood pressure, as well as augmentation index and pulse wave velocity (PWV), increased during exercise in comparison to baseline (P<.001, general linear model). Thirty minutes after terminating the workout, a drop in peripheral blood pressure (P<.001), central blood pressure (P<.001), and PWV (P=.001) below baseline was observed. Therefore, the authors found that exercise of either moderate or vigorous intensity causes a temporary increase in arterial stiffness in middle- and long-distance runners.

  10. Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation

    PubMed Central

    Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Szabo, Bela

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 μg kg−1) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 μg kg−1) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 μg kg−1) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 μg kg−1) elicited hypotension and

  11. Cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rupert A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making. PMID:22348281

  12. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  13. Effects of cold and hot temperature on dehydration: a mechanism of cardiovascular burden.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The association between temperature (cold or heat) and cardiovascular mortality has been well documented. However, few studies have investigated the underlying mechanism of the cold or heat effect. The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of temperature on dehydration markers and to explain the pathophysiological disturbances caused by changes of temperature. We investigated the relationship between outdoor temperature and dehydration markers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio, urine specific gravity, plasma tonicity and haematocrit) in 43,549 adults from Seoul, South Korea, during 1995-2008. We used piece-wise linear regression to find the flexion point of apparent temperature and estimate the effects below or above the apparent temperature. Levels of dehydration markers decreased linearly with an increase in the apparent temperature until a point between 22 and 27 °C, which was regarded as the flexion point of apparent temperature, and then increased with apparent temperature. Because the associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality are known to be U-shaped, our findings suggest that temperature-related changes in hydration status underlie the increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity during high- or low-temperature conditions.

  14. Minimizing Cardiovascular Adverse Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Khasawneh, Fadi T.; Shankar, Gollapudi S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of atypical antipsychotic agents has rapidly increased in the United States and worldwide in the last decade. Nonetheless, many health care practitioners do not appreciate the significance of the cardiovascular side effects that may be associated with their use and the means to minimize them. Thus, atypical antipsychotic medications can cause cardiovascular side effects such as arrhythmias and deviations in blood pressure. In rare cases, they may also cause congestive heart failure, myocarditis, and sudden death. Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality than healthy individuals, possibly because of excessive smoking, the underlying disorder itself, or a combination of both factors. Increased awareness of these potential complications can allow pharmacists and physicians to better manage and monitor high risk patients. Accurate assessments are very important to avoid medications from being given to patients inappropriately. Additionally, monitoring patients regularly via blood draws and checking blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram can help catch any clinical problems and prevent further complications. Finally, patient and family-member education, which pharmacists in particular can play key roles in, is central for the management and prevention of side effects, which is known to reflect positively on morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:24649390

  15. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    PubMed

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health.

  16. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  17. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saeide; Babaii, Atye; Abbasinia, Mohammad; Shamali, Mahdi; Abbasi, Mohammad; Rezaei, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P < 0.037) while it did not significantly change in the control group. However, there were no significant differences regarding the cardiovascular indices in the three consecutive measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG. PMID:26835471

  18. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  19. Chronobiology of Acute Aortic Dissection in the Marfan Syndrome (from the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions and the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection).

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Hasan K; Luminais, Steven N; Montgomery, Dan; Bossone, Eduardo; Dietz, Harry; Evangelista, Arturo; Isselbacher, Eric; LeMaire, Scott; Manfredini, Roberto; Milewicz, Dianna; Nienaber, Christoph A; Roman, Mary; Sechtem, Udo; Silberbach, Michael; Eagle, Kim A; Pyeritz, Reed E

    2017-03-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease associated with acute aortic dissection (AAD). We used 2 large registries that include patients with MFS to investigate possible trends in the chronobiology of AAD in MFS. We queried the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) and the Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC) registry to extract data on all patients with MFS who had suffered an AAD. The group included 257 patients with MFS who suffered an AAD from 1980 to 2012. The chi-square tests were used for statistical testing. Mean subject age at time of AAD was 38 years, and 61% of subjects were men. AAD was more likely in the winter/spring season (November to April) than the other half of the year (57% vs 43%, p = 0.05). Dissections were significantly more likely to occur during the daytime hours, with 65% of dissections occurring from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. (p = 0.001). Men were more likely to dissect during the daytime hours (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) than women (74% vs 51%, p = 0.01). These insights offer a glimpse of the times of greatest vulnerability for patients with MFS who suffer from this catastrophic event. In conclusion, the chronobiology of AAD in MFS reflects that of AAD in the general population.

  20. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I–III), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts. PMID:24459528

  1. Caffeine and central noradrenaline: effects on mood, cognitive performance, eye movements and cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Brice, Carolyn; Nash, Jon; Rich, Neil; Nutt, David J

    2003-09-01

    There have been numerous studies on the effects of caffeine on behaviour and cardiovascular function. It is now important to clarify the mechanisms that underlie such effects, and the main objective of the present study was to investigate whether changes in central noradrenaline underlie some of the behavioural and cardiovascular effects of caffeine. This was examined using a clonidine challenge paradigm. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were assigned to one of four conditions: (i) clonidine/caffeine; (ii) clonidine/placebo; (iii) placebo/caffeine: (iv) placebo/placebo. Baseline measurements of mood, cognitive performance, saccadic eye movements and cardiovascular function were recorded. Subsequently, volunteers were given either clonidine (200 microg) or placebo and consumed coffee containing caffeine (1.5 mg/kg) or placebo. The test battery was then repeated 30 min, 150 min and 270 min later. A second cup of coffee (with the same amount of caffeine as the first) was consumed 120 min after the first cup. The results showed that clonidine reduced alertness, impaired many aspects of performance and slowed saccadic eye movements; caffeine removed many of these impairments. Both clonidine and caffeine influenced blood pressure (clonidine reduced it, caffeine raised it) but the effects appeared to be independent, suggesting that separate mechanisms were involved. In addition, there were some behavioural effects of caffeine that were independent of the clonidine effect (e.g. effects on speed of encoding of new information) and these may reflect other neurotransmitter systems (e.g cholinergic effects). Overall, the results suggest that caffeine counteracts reductions in the turnover of central noradrenaline. This mechanism may underlie the beneficial effects of caffeine seen in low alertness states.

  2. Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts: Implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Ferrario, Marco M; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Chambless, Lloyd E; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bobak, Martin; Ferrieres, Jean; Giampaoli, Simona; Jørgensen, Torben; Peters, Annette; Salomaa, Veikko; Soderberg, Stefan; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2017-03-01

    Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk of incident acute coronary heart disease and stroke. Results Compared with more educated smokers, the less educated had an added increase in absolute risk of cardiovascular disease of 3.1% (95% confidence interval + 0.1%, +6.2%) in men and of 1.5% (-1.9%, +5.0%) in women, consistent across smoking categories. Conversely, the interaction was negative for overweight: -2.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, +0.3%) and obese: -3.6% (-7.6%, +0.4%) men, suggesting that the more educated would benefit more from the same reduction in body weight. A weaker interaction was observed for body weight in women, and for blood pressure in both genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts. Conclusions Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from lifestyle and blood pressure modification, hopefully reducing both their risk and also social inequality in disease.

  3. Lingering prenatal effects of the 1918 influenza pandemic on cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, B.; Almond, D.; Park, K.; Crimmins, E. M.; Finch, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic (Influenza A, H1N1 subtype) is associated with ≥20% excess cardiovascular disease at 60 to 82 years of age, relative to cohorts born without exposure to the influenza epidemic, either prenatally or postnatally (defined by the quarter of birth), in the 1982–1996 National Health Interview Surveys of the USA. Males showed stronger effects of influenza on increased later ischemic heart disease than females. Adult height at World War II enlistment was lower for the 1919 birth cohort than for those born in adjacent years, suggesting growth retardation. Calculations on the prevalence of maternal infections indicate that prenatal exposure to even uncomplicated maternal influenza may have lasting consequences later in life. These findings suggest novel roles for maternal infections in the fetal programming of cardiovascular risk factors that are independent of maternal malnutrition. PMID:20198106

  4. Characterization of fluid physics effects on cardiovascular response to microgravity (G-572)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantalos, George M.; Bennett, Thomas E.; Sharp, M. Keith; Woodruff, Stewart; Oleary, Sean; Gillars, Kevin; Lemon, Mark; Sojka, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of cardiovascular adaptation to space flight has seen substantial advancement in the last several years. In-flight echocardiographic measurements of astronaut cardiac function on the Space Shuttle have documented an initial increase, followed by a progressive reduction in both left ventricular volume index and stroke volume with a compensatory increase in heart rate to maintain cardiac output. To date, the reduced cardiac size and stroke volume have been presumed to be the consequence of the reduction in circulating fluid volume within a few days after orbital insertion. However, no specific mechanism for the reduced stroke volume has been identified. The following investigation proposes the use of a hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system to examine the possibility that the observed reduction in stroke volume may, in part, be related to fluid physics effects on heart function. The automated model is being prepared to fly as a Get Away Special (GAS) payload within the next year.

  5. Effects of an Acute Seizure on Associative Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Andrew J.; Lugo, Joaquin N.

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that inducing several seizures or continuous seizures in neonatal or adult rats results in impairments in learning and memory. The impact of a single acute seizure on learning and memory has not been investigated in mice. In this study, we exposed an adult 129SvEvTac mouse to the inhalant flurothyl until a behavioral seizure was induced. Our study consisted of 4 experiments where we examined the effect of one seizure before or after delay fear conditioning. We also included a separate cohort of animals that was tested in the open field after a seizure to rule out changes in locomotor activity influencing the results of memory tests. Mice that had experienced a single seizure 1 hour, but not 6 hours, prior to training showed a significant impairment in associative conditioning to the conditioned stimulus when compared to controls 24 hours later. There were no differences in freezing one day later for animals that experienced a single seizure 1 hour after associative learning. We also found that an acute seizure reduced activity levels in an open field test 2 hours but not 24 hours later. These findings suggest that an acute seizure occurring immediately before learning can have an effect on the recall of events occurring shortly after that seizure. In contrast, an acute seizure occurring shortly after learning appears to have little or no effect on long-term memory. These findings have implications for understanding the acute effects of seizures on the acquisition of new knowledge. PMID:26655449

  6. Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females.

    PubMed

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Batchelor, Wayne B; Fincham, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    High trait anger is linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A potential antidote to the cardiotoxic influence of anger is trait forgiveness (TF), as it has shown associations with improved blood pressure (BP) and cardiovagal tone regulation in cardiac patients. However, it has yet to be determined if anger and forgiveness independently predict cardiovascular parameters. Trait anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2) and TF (Tendency to Forgive Scale) were evaluated in 308 (M = 21.11years ± SD = 2.52) healthy female volunteers allocated to 3 related, yet distinct, studies. Hierarchical multiple regressions tested the incremental contribution of TF after accounting for anger. Study 1 assessed autonomic modulation through beat-to-beat BP and spectral analysis to examine sympathovagal balance and baroreflex functioning. Study 2 used tonometry and pulse wave analysis for aortic hemodynamics. Study 3 assessed 24-hour ambulatory BP and ambulatory arterial stiffness index. Hierarchical models demonstrated that anger was significantly associated with increased sympathovagal tone, increased hemodynamic indices, high ambulatory BPs, and attenuated BP variability and baroreflex. In contrast, TF was associated with more favorable hemodynamic effects (i.e., decreased ventricular work and myocardial oxygen consumption). In conclusion, these results demonstrate divergent cardiovascular effects of anger and forgiveness, such that anger is associated with a more cardiotoxic autonomic and hemodynamic profile, whereas TF is associated with a more cardioprotective profile. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at decreasing anger while increasing forgiveness may be clinically relevant.

  7. Cardiovascular diseases in dental practice. Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Margaix Muñoz, María; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda; Poveda Roda, Rafael; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in the industrialized world. Its most serious expression, acute myocardial infarction, causes 7.2 million deaths each year worldwide, and it is estimated that 20% of all people will suffer heart failure in the course of their lifetime. The control of risk cardiovascular factors, including arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus is the best way to prevent such diseases. The most frequent and serious cardiovascular emergencies that can manifest during dental treatment are chest pain (as a symptom of underlying disease) and acute lung edema. Due to the high prevalence and seriousness of these problems, the dental surgeon must be aware of them and should be able to act quickly and effectively in the case of an acute cardiovascular event. In patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, attention must center on the control of pain, the reduction of stress, and the use or avoidance of a vasoconstrictor in dental anesthesia. In turn, caution is required in relation to the antiplatelet, anticoagulant and antihypertensive medication typically used by such patients.

  8. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) on the mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure

  9. Acupuncture and somatic nerve stimulation: mechanism underlying effects on cardiovascular and renal activities.

    PubMed

    Yao, T

    1993-01-01

    Acupuncture and acupuncture-like somatic nerve stimulation exert modulatory effects upon cardiovascular and renal activity under different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It seems that acupuncture facilitates the physiological reflexes in response to changes in internal or external environment. Thus, acupuncture can lower high blood pressure in hypertensives, elevate low blood pressure in hypotensives, and promote urinary sodium excretion during hyperosmotic challenge, etc. Acupuncture effects are thought to be mediated by activation of the small myelinated fibres coming from muscle receptors. Preliminary studies show that different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are involved in the effects of acupuncture.

  10. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, R. S.; Kleppinger, A.; Brindisi, J.; Feinn, R.; Burleson, J. A.; Kenny, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: this analysis was to investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics. Design, setting and participants: the study was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 99 women (mean 76.6 ± 6.0 year) with the low DHEA-S level and frailty. Intervention: participants received 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium (1,000–1,200 mg/day diet) and supplement (combined) and cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Women participated in 90-min twice weekly exercise regimens, either chair aerobics or yoga. Main outcome measures: assessment of outcome variables included hormone levels (DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides), body composition measured by dual energy absorptiometry, glucose levels and blood pressure (BP). Results: eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months of study; 88% were pre-frail demonstrating 1–2 frailty characteristics and 12% were frail with ≥3 characteristics. There were significant changes in all hormone levels including DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone and a decline in SHBG levels in those taking DHEA supplements. In spite of changes in hormone levels, there were no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profiles, body or abdominal fat, fasting glucose or BP. Conclusion: research to date has not shown consistent effects of DHEA on cardiovascular risk, and this study adds to the literature that short-term therapy with DHEA is safe for older women in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study is novel in that we recruited women with evidence of physical frailty. PMID:20484057

  11. The effects of botanical dietary supplements on cardiovascular, cognitive and metabolic function in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Scott; Peng, Ning; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Wyss, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The onset of menopause marks a pivotal time in which the incidence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease begins to increase dramatically in women. Prior to menopause, the incidence of these diseases is significantly lower than in similarly aged men, but following menopause the rates rise rapidly until paralleling that in men. The loss of endogenous estrogen at menopause has traditionally been thought to be the primary factor involved in these changes and resulted in the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to reduce cardiovascular risk factors and decrease the affective symptoms of menopause. However, the adverse effects of HRT reported in recent large-scale trials (e.g., the Women’s Health Initiative) have greatly decreased the use of HRT by postmenopausal women. Many women are seeking alternatives to HRT, including the use of dietary supplements that have a long history of use in traditional medicine, particularly in Asia. Examples of frequently used botanicals are soy, black cohosh, red clover, grape derivatives, St. John’s wort, Ginko biloba and Echinacea. While many of these botanicals appear to ameliorate some postmenopausal symptoms (i.e., bone loss, hot flushes/flashes and night sweats), none of the tested botanicals has proven as effective as HRT in decreasing the affective disorders of menopause. Further, despite the increasing usage of botanical supplements, their efficacy and safety have not been well documented by critical research studies. This review summarizes recent findings related to the utility of botanicals for menopause-related cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, specifically hypertension, diabetes, progressive cognitive decline and hyperlipidemia. While great caution should be exercised in the translation of animal findings to the human, these studies, along with those of others, suggest that some commonly used botanical supplements may be useful adjuvants for providing protection to women (and men) against

  12. Cardiovascular consequences of high-performance aircraft maneuvers: implications for effective countermeasures and laboratory-based simulations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica M; Esch, Ben T A; Goodman, Len S; Bredin, Shannon S D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Warburton, Darren E R

    2007-04-01

    The gravitational stress encountered by pilots of high-performance aircraft can cause dramatic shifts in blood volume and circulatory pressure, thus placing the cardiovascular system under significant stress, sometimes resulting in loss of consciousness due to cerebral under-perfusion. Since pilots experience both increased and decreased gravitational stress in high-risk environments, it is important not only to examine the cardiovascular effects of altered gravitational exposure, but also to create effective countermeasures that will increase pilot safety. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular consequences of rapid changes in gravitational forces. We also examine the effectiveness of the countermeasures that have been developed to combat gravity-induced loss of consciousness. Finally, we examine those current laboratory-based techniques that simulate hyper-gravity and the "push-pull effect"; making it possible to investigate the cardiovascular mechanisms responsible for maintaining cerebral perfusion and consciousness.

  13. Do the Effects of Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in PAD Patients Differ from Other Atherosclerotic Disease?

    PubMed

    Poredos, Pavel; Jezovnik, Mateja Kaja

    2015-06-25

    Atherosclerosis is considered a generalized disease. Similar or identical etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors are involved in various atherosclerotic diseases, and the positive effects of preventive measures on atherogenesis in different parts of the arterial system were shown. However, until know, great emphasis has been placed on the aggressive pharmacological management of coronary artery disease (CHD), while less attention has been devoted to the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), despite its significant morbidity and mortality. Data on the efficacy of preventive measures in PAD patients have mostly been gained from subgroup analyses from studies devoted primarily to the management of coronary patients. These data have shown that treatment of risk factors for atherosclerosis with drugs can reduce cardiovascular events also in patients with PAD. The effects of some preventive procedures in PAD patients differ from coronary patients. Aspirin as a basic antiplatelet drug has been shown to be less effective in PAD patients than in coronary patients. The latest Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (ATC) meta-analysis demonstrates no benefit of aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in PAD. Statins reduce cardiovascular events in all three of the most frequently presented cardiovascular diseases, including PAD to a comparable extent. Recent studies indicate that in PAD patients, in addition to a reduction in cardiovascular events, statins may have some hemodynamic effects. They prolong walking distance and improve quality of life. Similarly, angiotensin enzyme inhibitors are also effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in coronary, cerebrovascular, as well as PAD patients and show positive effects on the walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication. In PAD patients, the treatment of hypertension and diabetes also effectively prevents cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As PAD patients are at a highest risk

  14. Effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors on acute and subacute models of inflammation in male Wistar rats: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kagal, Urmila Anil; Angadi, Netravathi Basavaraj; Matule, Somnath Mallikarjun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached alarming proportions due to the rapidly increasing rates of this disease worldwide. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed elevated levels of inflammatory markers in a vast number of illnesses such as T2DM, obesity, and atherothrombosis collectively called metabolic syndrome leading to adverse cardiovascular events. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors which are the enhancers of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP -1), could have anti-inflammatory potential which could help in reducing cardiovascular complications of diabetes and benefit patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of DPP-4 inhibitors, namely vildagliptin and saxagliptin on acute and subacute models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, standard, and two treatment groups (6 animals in each group, total 24 animals). The animals received the drugs orally. The effects of vildagliptin and saxagliptin on inflammation were tested in acute (carrageenan-induced paw edema method) and subacute (grass pith and cotton pellet implantation method) models of inflammation. Results: Vildagliptin and saxagliptin used in the present study showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute and subacute models of inflammation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that vildagliptin and saxagliptin have significant anti-inflammatory potential. Based on the findings of the present study and the available literature, it can be concluded that the anti-inflammatory potential of DPP-4 inhibitors could help to reduce the cardiovascular complications of Type 2 diabetes and the related cluster of metabolic disorders collectively called the metabolic syndrome. PMID:28251104

  15. Cardiovascular function in male and female JCR:LA-cp rats: Effect of high fat/high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ian; Soler, Amanda; Joseph, Gregory; Hutcheson, Brenda; Bradford, Chastity; Zhang, Frank; Potter, Barry J; Proctor, Spencer D; Rocic, Petra

    2017-01-13

    30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet. Cardiovascular function in JCR male rats was impaired vs. normal rats (SD). HF/HS diet compromised cardiovascular (dys)function in JCR but not in SD male rats. In contrast, cardiovascular function was minimally impaired in JCR females on normal chow. However, cardiovascular function in JCR females on the HF/HS diet deteriorated to levels comparable to JCR males on the HF/HS diet. Similarly, oxidative stress was markedly increased in male but not female JCR rats on normal chow, but was equally exacerbated by the HF/HS diet in male and female JCR rats. These results indicate that the Western diet enhances oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and eliminates the protective effect of female sex on cardiovascular function, implying that both males and females with metabolic syndrome are at equal risk for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  17. Effects of chronic exposure to arsenate on the cardiovascular function of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Carmignani, M; Boscolo, P; Iannaccone, A

    1983-01-01

    Cardiovascular function was studied in anaesthetised male rats which received 50 micrograms/ml of arsenic (as sodium arsenate) in deionised drinking water for 320 days. High urinary excretion of arsenic was found at the end of treatment and the metal accumulated considerably in the kidneys and liver, which both presented slight alterations. No histopathological modifications were evident in other organs. Base line blood pressure, cardiac inotropism, and chronotropism and cardiovascular reactivity to noradrenaline, acetylcholine, angiotensin II, bradykinin, histamine, and serotonin did not differ in exposed or in control animals. In the exposed group, however, there was potentiation of the effects of vascular beta-adrenoceptor stimulation and a reduction in the vascular responsiveness to angiotensin I. Chronic arsenic exposure did not affect the baroreflex sensitivity but was able to induce sympathetic hyperactivity or hypersensitivity, or both, possibly associated with an antivagal action. Our results might help to explain the cardiovascular alterations seen in people chronically exposed to high concentrations of arsenic. PMID:6871116

  18. Mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells in acute cardiovascular events in the PROCELL study: time-course after acute myocardial infarction and stroke.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Ander; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Oliveras, Anna; Novella, Susana; Gené, Gemma González; Jung, Carole; Subirana, Isaac; Ortiz-Pérez, Jose Tomás; Roqué, Mercè; Freixa, Xavier; Núñez, Julio; Escolar, Gines; Marrugat, Jaume; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Valverde, Miguel Angel; Roquer, Jaume; Sanchis, Juan; Heras, Magda

    2015-03-01

    The mobilization pattern and functionality of endothelial progenitor cells after an acute ischemic event remain largely unknown. The aim of our study was to characterize and compare the short- and long-term mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells and circulating endothelial cells after acute myocardial infarction or atherothrombotic stroke, and to determine the relationship between these cell counts and plasma concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and Von Willebrand factor (VWF) as surrogate markers of endothelial damage and inflammation. In addition, we assessed whether endothelial progenitor cells behave like functional endothelial cells. We included 150 patients with acute myocardial infarction or atherothrombotic stroke and 145 controls. Endothelial progenitor cells [CD45-, CD34+, KDR+, CD133+], circulating endothelial cells [CD45-, CD146+, CD31+], VWF, and VCAM-1 levels were measured in controls (baseline only) and in patients within 24h (baseline) and at 7, 30, and 180 days after the event. Myocardial infarction patients had higher counts of endothelial progenitor cells and circulating endothelial cells than the controls (201.0/mL vs. 57.0/mL; p<0.01 and 181.0/mL vs. 62.0/mL; p<0.01). Endothelial progenitor cells peaked at 30 days post-infarction (201.0/mL vs. 369.5/mL; p<0.01), as did VCAM-1 (573.7 ng/mL vs. 701.8 ng/mL; p<0.01). At 180 days post-infarction, circulating endothelial cells and VWF decreased, compared to baseline. In stroke patients, the number of endothelial progenitor cells - but not circulating endothelial cells - was higher than in controls (90.0/mL vs. 37.0/mL; p=0.01; 105.0/mL vs. 71.0/mL; p=0.11). At 30 days after stroke, however, VCAM-1 peaked (628.1/mL vs. 869.1/mL; p<0.01) but there was no significant change in endothelial progenitor cells (90/mL vs. 78/mL; p<0.34). At 180 days after stroke, circulating endothelial cells and VWF decreased, compared to baseline. Cultured endothelial progenitor cells from

  19. Cardiovascular effects of selective agonists and antagonists of histamine H3 receptors in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Coruzzi, G; Gambarelli, E; Bertaccini, G; Timmerman, H

    1995-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to a series of selective histamine H3 receptor agonists, (R) alpha-methylhistamine, imetit and immepip and selective antagonists, thioperamide, clobenpropit and clophenpropit, were studied in anaesthetized rats. At 0.003-1 mumol/kg i.v. doses, H3 agonists failed to produce any significant change in the basal blood pressure and heart rate. Larger doses of (R) alpha-methylhistamine increased the blood pressure and heart rate and higher doses of imetit caused vasodepressor responses and reduced heart rate, whereas immepip proved virtually inactive. While (R) alpha-methylhistamine-induced effects were not blocked by histamine H1-, H2- and H3-receptor antagonists, they were however reduced by idazoxan and propranolol, which indicates that the mechanisms involved are adrenergic. The effects induced by imetit are not related to histamine H3 receptors but are mediated by indirect (via 5HT3 receptors) cholinergic mechanisms, since these effects were prevented by 1 mg/kg i.v. atropine and by 0.1 mg/kg i.v. ondansetron. Similarly, the H3 antagonists per se failed to change basal cardiovascular function up to 10 mumol/kg i.v. and only at 30 mumol/kg i.v. were marked decreases observed in the blood pressure and heart rate with a significant reduction in the effects of noradrenaline. These data indicate that in anaesthetized rats, histamine H3 receptor activation or blockade has no effect on basal cardiovascular