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Sample records for acute cardiovascular effects

  1. The effects of acute oral antioxidants on diving-induced alterations in human cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Obad, Ante; Palada, Ivan; Valic, Zoran; Ivančev, Vladimir; Baković, Darija; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brubakk, Alf O; Dujić, Željko

    2007-01-01

    Diving-induced acute alterations in cardiovascular function such as arterial endothelial dysfunction, increased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and reduced heart function have been recently reported. We tested the effects of acute antioxidants on arterial endothelial function, PAP and heart function before and after a field dive. Vitamins C (2 g) and E (400 IU) were given to subjects 2 h before a second dive (protocol 1) and in a placebo-controlled crossover study design (protocol 2). Seven experienced divers performed open sea dives to 30 msw with standard decompression in a non-randomized protocol, and six of them participated in a randomized trial. Before and after the dives ventricular volumes and function and pulmonary and brachial artery function were assessed by ultrasound. The control dive resulted in a significant reduction in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and heart function with increased mean PAP. Twenty-four hours after the control dive FMD was still reduced 37% below baseline (8.1 versus 5.1%, P = 0.005), while right ventricle ejection fraction (RV-EF), left ventricle EF and endocardial fractional shortening were reduced much less (∼2–3%). At the same time RV end-systolic volume was increased by 9% and mean PAP by 5%. Acute antioxidants significantly attenuated only the reduction in FMD post-dive (P < 0.001), while changes in pulmonary artery and heart function were unaffected by antioxidant ingestion. These findings were confirmed by repeating the experiments in a randomized study design. FMD returned to baseline values 72 h after the dive with pre-dive placebo, whereas for most cardiovascular parameters this occurred earlier (24–48 h). Right ventricular dysfunction and increased PAP lasted longer. Acute antioxidants attenuated arterial endothelial dysfunction after diving, while reduction in heart and pulmonary artery function were unchanged. Cardiovascular changes after diving are not fully reversed up to 3 days after a dive, suggesting

  2. Effects of intracisternal administration of cannabidiol on the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to acute restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Granjeiro, Erica M; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M

    2011-10-01

    Systemic administration of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, attenuates the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to restraint stress. Although the brain structures related to CBD effects are not entirely known, they could involve brainstem structures responsible for cardiovascular control. Therefore, to investigate this possibility the present study verified the effects of CBD (15, 30 and 60 nmol) injected into the cisterna magna on the autonomic and behavioral changes induced by acute restraint stress. During exposure to restraint stress (1h) there was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Also, 24h later the animals showed a decreased percentage of entries onto the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. These effects were attenuated by CBD (30 nmol). The drug had no effect on MAP and HR baseline values. These results indicate that intracisternal administration of CBD can attenuate autonomic responses to stress. However, since CBD decreased the anxiogenic consequences of restraint stress, it is possible that the drug is also acting on forebrain structures. PMID:21771609

  3. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  4. Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Ali; Haq, Adnaan; Bacon, Jenny; Madden, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the acute cardiovascular effects of smoking shisha. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in six shisha cafes. Participants smoked shisha for a period between 45 min (minimum) and 90 min (maximum). The same brand of tobacco and coal was used. Setting London, UK. Participants Participants were those who had ordered a shisha to smoke and consented to have their blood pressure, heart rate and carbon monoxide levels measured. Excluded subjects were those who had smoked shisha in the previous 24 h, who smoke cigarettes or who suffered from cardiorespiratory problems. Main outcome measures Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer. Pulse was measured by palpation of the radial artery. Carbon monoxide levels were obtained via a carbon monoxide monitor. These indices were measured before the participants began to smoke shisha and after they finished or when the maximum 90 min time period was reached. Results Mean arterial blood pressure increased from 96 mmHg to 108 mmHg (p < 0.001). Heart rate increased from 77 to 91 bpm (p < 0.001). Carbon monoxide increased from an average of 3 to 35 ppm (p < 0.001). A correlation analysis showed no relationship between carbon monoxide and the other indices measured. Conclusion The acute heart rate, blood pressure and carbon monoxide levels were seen to rise significantly after smoking shisha. The weak correlation between carbon monoxide levels and the other variables suggests that carbon monoxide levels had not contributed to their significant increase. PMID:25057403

  5. Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control function.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Charles H; Snook, Erin M; Jerome, Gerald J

    2003-06-01

    Acute cardiovascular exercise effects on cognitive function were examined using an executive control task by comparing neuroelectric and behavioral performance at baseline with post-exercise in 20 undergraduates. A within-subjects design was used to assess the P3 component of an event-related brain potential (ERP) and behavioral performance using a task that varied the amount of executive control required. The baseline session involved participation on the Eriksen flankers task followed by a graded maximal exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness. The exercise session consisted of a 30-min acute bout of exercise on a treadmill followed by the Eriksen flankers task after heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Across midline recordings sites, results indicated larger P3 amplitude following acute exercise compared to baseline. Shorter P3 latency was observed during the baseline Eriksen flankers task for the neutral compared to the incompatible condition; an effect not found following the acute bout of exercise. These findings suggest that acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise affect neuroelectric processes underlying executive control through the increased allocation of neuroelectric resources and through changes in cognitive processing and stimulus classification speed. PMID:12798990

  6. The Effect of Acute Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue in Cardiovascular Perfusion Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Ashley B.; Snyder, Alexandra C.; Fernandez, Adam L.; Boan, Andrea D.; Malek, Angela M.; Sistino, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Sleep deprivation as a result of long working hours has been associated with an increased risk of adverse events in healthcare professions but not in cardiovascular perfusion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on cardiovascular perfusion students. Testing with highfidelity simulation after 24 hours of sleep deprivation allowed investigators to assess user competency and the effect of fatigue on performance. After informed consent, seven senior perfusion students were enrolled in the study (three declined to participate). The qualitative portion of the study included a focus group session, whereas the quantitative portion included administration of questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), as well as clinical skills assessment using high-fidelity simulation. Subjects were assessed at three different intervals of sleep deprivation over a 24-hour period: baseline (6:00 am), 12 hours (6:00 pm), 16 hours (10:00 pm), and 24 hours (6:00 am) of wakefulness. During each scenario, normally monitored bypass parameters, including mean arterial pressure, activated clotting times, partial pressures of oxygen, partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and venous flow, were manipulated, and the subjects were required to return the parameters to normal levels. In addition, the scenario required calculation of the final protamine dose (using a dose–response curve) and detection of electrocardiography changes. Each task was varied at the different simulation sessions to decrease the effect of learning. Despite any lack of sleep, we hypothesized that, because of repetition, the times to complete the task would decrease at each session. We also hypothesized that the ESS and SSS scores would increase over time. We expected that the students would anticipate which tasks were being evaluated and would react more quickly. The average ESS scores progressively increased at each time

  7. Acute and delayed effects of intermittant ozone on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of young and aged rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The aged population is considered to be more sensitive to air pollutants but relatively few studies have demonstrated increased susceptibility in animal models of aging. To study the acute and delayed physiolo...

  8. The effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular parameters in normotensive and chronic hypobaric hypoxia-induced hypertensive rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Muhittin O; Guner, Ibrahim; Uzun, Hafize; Sahin, Gulderen; Yelmen, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of both chronic hypoxia and acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) on cardiovascular system are unclear. We designed this study to develop a rabbit model of hypertension by exposure to chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) and to investigate the effects of AIH on hypertensive rabbits. Present study was performed in 13 albino rabbits that divided into CHH and control groups. To develop hypertension, the rabbits were placed in a hypobaric chamber (390 mmHg; 22 hours/day, 30 days). Afterwards, AIH protocol was applied (8% FIO2 (Fraction of Inspired Oxygen) 1 min + 5 min normoxia, 20 cycles, 2 hours) to rabbits anesthetized with urethane and alpha-chloralose. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and hematocrit values have been determined. Also asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), endothelin-1 and norepinephrine values have been analyzed in blood. We developed a model of hypertension in rabbits via exposure to severe CHH and we believe that ADMA is an important parameter in the development and permanence of CHH-induced hypertension. The main finding of this sudy was the depressor effect of AIH on blood pressure and heart rate in CHH- induced hypertension model. Finally, we believe that AIH protocol may be applicable for prevention and treatment of hypertension if properly developed. PMID:24448370

  9. Immediate and Complex Cardiovascular Adaptation to an Acute Alcohol Dose

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Jennifer F.; Eddie, David; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Garcia, Aaron; Bates, Marsha E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The detrimental effects of chronic heavy alcohol use on the cardiovascular system are well established and broadly appreciated. Integrated cardiovascular response to an acute dose of alcohol has been less studied. This study examined the early effects of an acute dose of alcohol on the cardiovascular system, with particular emphasis on system variability and sensitivity. The goal was to begin to understand how acute alcohol disrupts dynamic cardiovascular regulatory processes prior to the development of cardiovascular disease. Methods Healthy participants (N = 72, age 21 to 29) were randomly assigned to an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol control beverage condition. Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed during a low-demand cognitive task prior to and following beverage consumption. Between-group differences in neurocardiac response to an alcohol challenge (blood alcohol concentration ~ 0.06 mg/dl) were tested. Results The alcohol beverage group showed higher average HR, lower average stroke volume, lower HR variability and BP variability, and increased vascular tone baroreflex sensitivity after alcohol consumption. No changes were observed in the placebo group, but the control group showed slightly elevated average HR and BP after beverage consumption, possibly due to juice content. At the level of the individual, an active alcohol dose appeared to disrupt the typically tight coupling between cardiovascular processes. Conclusions A dose of alcohol quickly invoked multiple cardiovascular responses, possibly as an adaptive reaction to the acute pharmacological challenge. Future studies should assess how exposure to alcohol acutely disrupts or dissociates typically integrated neurocardiac functions. PMID:26614647

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, K.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological changes resulting from long term weightlessness are reviewed and activities conducted to study cardiovascular deconditioning at NASA Ames are discussed. Emphasis is on using monkeys in chair rest, water immersion, and tilt table studies to simulate space environment effects.

  11. The acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa flavanols on mood, cognitive and cardiovascular health in young healthy adults: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Laura A.; Ried, Karin; Pase, Matthew; Travica, Nikolaj; Yoganathan, Jaesshanth; Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Kennedy, Greg; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa supplementation has been associated with benefits to cardiovascular health. However, cocoa's effects on cognition are less clear. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial (n = 40, age M = 24.13 years, SD = 4.47 years) was conducted to investigate the effects of both acute (same-day) and sub-chronic (daily for four-weeks) 250 mg cocoa supplementation on mood and mental fatigue, cognitive performance and cardiovascular functioning in young, healthy adults. Assessment involved repeated 10-min cycles of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) encompassing two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing task, and a mental fatigue scale over the course of half an hour. The Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) was also completed to evaluate cognition. Cardiovascular function included measuring both peripheral and central blood pressure and cerebral blood flow. At the acute time point, consumption of cocoa significantly improved self-reported mental fatigue and performance on the Serial Sevens task in cycle one of the CDB. No other significant effects were found. This trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12613000626763). Accessible via http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12613000626763&ddlSearch=Registered. PMID:26042037

  12. Evaluation of acute cardiovascular effects of immediate-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Marco; Italiano, Domenico; Guerriero, Laura; D’Amico, Gessica; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ingrassia, Massimo; Germanò, Eva; Calabrò, Maria Pia; Spina, Edoardo; Gagliano, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a frequent condition in children and often extends into adulthood. Use of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH) has raised concerns about potential cardiovascular adverse effects within a few hours after administration. This study was carried out to investigate acute effects of MPH on electrocardiogram (ECG) in a pediatric population. A total of 54 consecutive patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (51 males and 3 females; mean age =12.14±2.6 years, range 6–19 years), receiving a new prescription of MPH, underwent a standard ECG 2 hours before and after the administration of MPH 10 mg per os. Basal and posttreatment ECG parameters, including mean QT (QT interval when corrected for heart rate [QTc]), QTc dispersion (QTd) interval duration, T-peak to T-end (TpTe) intervals, and TpTe/QT ratio were compared. Significant modifications of both QTc and QTd values were not found after drug administration. QTd fluctuated slightly from 25.7±9.3 milliseconds to 25.1±8.4 milliseconds; QTc varied from 407.6±12.4 milliseconds to 409.8±12.7 milliseconds. A significant variation in blood pressure (systolic blood pressure 105.4±10.3 vs 109.6±11.5; P<0.05; diastolic blood pressure 59.2±7.1 vs 63.1±7.9; P<0.05) was observed, but all the data were within normal range. Heart rate moved from 80.5±15.5 bpm to 87.7±18.8 bpm. No change in TpTe values was found, but a statistically significant increase in TpTe/QTc intervals was found with respect to basal values (0.207±0.02 milliseconds vs 0.214±0.02 milliseconds; P<0.01). The findings of this study show no significant changes in ECG parameters. TpTe values can be an additional parameter to evaluate borderline cases. PMID:26056451

  13. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  14. Social support lowers cardiovascular reactivity to an acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Lepore, S J; Allen, K A; Evans, G W

    1993-01-01

    This study examined whether social support can reduce cardiovascular reactivity to an acute stressor. College students gave a speech in one of three social conditions: alone, in the presence of a supportive confederate, or in the presence of a nonsupportive confederate. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at rest, before the speech, and during the speech. While anticipating and delivering their speech, supported and alone subjects exhibited significantly smaller increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures than did nonsupported subjects. Supported subjects also exhibited significantly smaller increases in systolic blood pressure than did alone subjects before and during the speech. Men had higher stress-related increases in blood pressures than did women; but gender did not moderate the effects of social support on cardiovascular reactivity. These results provide experimental evidence of potential health benefits of social support during acute stressors. PMID:8310112

  15. Cardiovascular Effects Of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1992-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum presents study of effects of weightlessness and simulations upon cardiovascular systems of humans and animals. Reviews research up to year 1987 in United States and Soviet space programs on such topics as physiological changes induced by weightlessness in outer space and by subsequent return to Earth gravity and also reviews deconditioning effects of prolonged bed rest on ground.

  16. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. PMID:25908097

  17. Melatonin modulates the fetal cardiovascular defense response to acute hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Botting, Kimberley J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Herrera, Emilio A; Giussani, Dino A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies in animal models supporting protective effects on the fetus of melatonin in adverse pregnancy have prompted clinical trials in human pregnancy complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, the effects of melatonin on the fetal defense to acute hypoxia, such as that which may occur during labor, remain unknown. This translational study tested the hypothesis, in vivo, that melatonin modulates the fetal cardiometabolic defense responses to acute hypoxia in chronically instrumented late gestation fetal sheep via alterations in fetal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Under anesthesia, 6 fetal sheep at 0.85 gestation were instrumented with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Five days later, fetuses were exposed to acute hypoxia with or without melatonin treatment. Fetal blood was taken to determine blood gas and metabolic status and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Hypoxia during melatonin treatment was repeated during in vivo NO blockade with the NO clamp. This technique permits blockade of de novo synthesis of NO while compensating for the tonic production of the gas, thereby maintaining basal cardiovascular function. Melatonin suppressed the redistribution of blood flow away from peripheral circulations and the glycemic and plasma catecholamine responses to acute hypoxia. These are important components of the fetal brain sparing response to acute hypoxia. The effects of melatonin involved NO-dependent mechanisms as the responses were reverted by fetal treatment with the NO clamp. Melatonin modulates the in vivo fetal cardiometabolic responses to acute hypoxia by increasing NO bioavailability. PMID:25908097

  18. The Modification Effect of Influenza Vaccine on Prognostic Indicators for Cardiovascular Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome: Observations from an Influenza Vaccination Trial.

    PubMed

    Sribhutorn, Apirak; Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Eakanunkul, Suntara; Sukonthasarn, Apichard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has been improved with several treatments such as antithrombotics, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) as well as coronary revascularization. Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce adverse outcomes in ACS, but no information exists regarding the interaction of other treatments. Methods. This study included 439 ACS patients from Phrommintikul et al. A single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine was given by intramuscular injection in the vaccination group. The cardiovascular outcomes were described as major cardiovascular events (MACEs) which included mortality, hospitalization due to ACS, and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). The stratified and multivariable Cox's regression analysis was performed. Results. The stratified Cox's analysis by influenza vaccination for each cardiovascular outcome and discrimination of hazard ratios showed that beta-blockers had an interaction with influenza vaccination. Moreover, the multivariable hazard ratios disclosed that influenza vaccine is associated with a significant reduction of hospitalization due to HF in patients who received beta-blockers (HR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.004-0.71, P = 0.027), after being adjusted for prognostic indicators (sex, dyslipidemia, serum creatinine, and left ventricular ejection fraction). Conclusions. The influenza vaccine was shown to significantly modify the effect of beta-blockers in ACS patients and to reduce the hospitalization due to HF. However, further study of a larger population and benefits to HF patients should be investigated. PMID:27200206

  19. The Modification Effect of Influenza Vaccine on Prognostic Indicators for Cardiovascular Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome: Observations from an Influenza Vaccination Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sribhutorn, Apirak; Phrommintikul, Arintaya; Wongcharoen, Wanwarang; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Eakanunkul, Suntara; Sukonthasarn, Apichard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has been improved with several treatments such as antithrombotics, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) as well as coronary revascularization. Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce adverse outcomes in ACS, but no information exists regarding the interaction of other treatments. Methods. This study included 439 ACS patients from Phrommintikul et al. A single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine was given by intramuscular injection in the vaccination group. The cardiovascular outcomes were described as major cardiovascular events (MACEs) which included mortality, hospitalization due to ACS, and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). The stratified and multivariable Cox's regression analysis was performed. Results. The stratified Cox's analysis by influenza vaccination for each cardiovascular outcome and discrimination of hazard ratios showed that beta-blockers had an interaction with influenza vaccination. Moreover, the multivariable hazard ratios disclosed that influenza vaccine is associated with a significant reduction of hospitalization due to HF in patients who received beta-blockers (HR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.004–0.71, P = 0.027), after being adjusted for prognostic indicators (sex, dyslipidemia, serum creatinine, and left ventricular ejection fraction). Conclusions. The influenza vaccine was shown to significantly modify the effect of beta-blockers in ACS patients and to reduce the hospitalization due to HF. However, further study of a larger population and benefits to HF patients should be investigated. PMID:27200206

  20. Ambient temperature enhanced acute cardiovascular-respiratory mortality effects of PM2.5 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Canjun; Shang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that temperature could modify the effect of ambient fine particles on mortality risk. In assessing air pollution effects, temperature is usually considered as a confounder. However, ambient temperature can alter people's physiological response to air pollution and might "modify" the impact of air pollution on health outcomes. This study investigated the interaction between daily PM2.5 and daily mean temperature in Beijing, China, using data for the period 2005-2009. Bivariate PM2.5-temperature response surfaces and temperature-stratified generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to study the effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular, respiratory mortality, and total non-accidental mortality across different temperature levels. We found that low temperature could significantly enhance the effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular mortality. For an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration in the lowest temperature range (-9.7˜2.6 °C), the relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular mortality increased 1.27 % (95 % CI 0.38˜2.17 %), which was higher than that of the whole temperature range (0.59 %, 95 % CI 0.22-1.16 %). The largest effect of PM2.5 on respiratory mortality appeared in the high temperature range. For an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 concentration, RR of respiratory mortality increased 1.70 % (95 % CI 0.92˜3.33 %) in the highest level (23.50˜31.80 °C). For the total non-accidental mortality, significant associations appeared only in low temperature levels (-9.7˜2.6 °C): for an increase of 10 μg/m3 in current day PM2.5 concentration, RR increased 1.27 % (95 % CI 0.46˜2.00 %) in the lowest temperature level. No lag effect was observed. The results suggest that in air pollution mortality time series studies, the possibility of an interaction between air pollution and temperature should be considered.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of Felypressin

    PubMed Central

    Cecanho, Rodrigo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Ranali, José

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of felypressin (FEL) were studied in Wistar rats. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure measurements were taken in awake rats treated with vasopressin (AVP), FEL, or epinephrine (EPI). Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls (P < .05) were applied. Felypressin and AVP induced a pressor effect, and bradycardia was inhibited by IV V1 antagonist. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. Epinephrine induced a higher pressor effect and a similar bradycardia that was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on area postrema and central V1 receptors. These effects are potentially less harmful to the cardiovascular system than the effects of EPI. PMID:17177590

  3. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  4. Acute effects of aircraft noise on cardiovascular admissions - an interrupted time-series analysis of a six-day closure of London Heathrow Airport caused by volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tim; Campbell, Michael J; Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Acute noise exposure may acutely increase blood pressure but the hypothesis that acute exposure to aircraft noise may trigger cardiovascular events has not been investigated. This study took advantage of a six-day closure of a major airport in April 2010 caused by volcanic ash to examine if there was a decrease in emergency cardiovascular hospital admissions during or immediately after the closure period, using an interrupted daily time-series study design. The population living within the 55dB(A) noise contour was substantial at 0.7 million. The average daily admission count was 13.9 (SD 4.4). After adjustment for covariates, there was no evidence of a decreased risk of hospital admission from cardiovascular disease during the closure period (relative risk 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.26)). Using lags of 1-7 days gave similar results. Further studies are needed to investigate if transient aircraft noise exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events. PMID:27494958

  5. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  6. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915

  7. EFFECTS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS. PART 2. ACUTE AND DELAYED EFFECTS FOLLOWING INTRAVENOUS ADMINISTRATION IN THE POSTWEANLING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The differential effects of intravenous (IV) intraperitoneal (IP) administration of chlordimeform (CDM) were investigated in 22-30 day old pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The first group of animals (N=25) were given sequential IV injections of 5, 10, 30, 60, and 1...

  8. Association of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide with acute cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Fu; Shen, Fu-Hui; Li, Ya-Ru; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Chen, Chu-Chih; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Hsu, Sandy Huey-Jen; Chao, Hsing; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chou, Charles C K; Wang, Ya-Nan; Ho, Chi-Chang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated whether exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is associated with cardiovascular effects by examining a panel of 89 healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. The subjects received two health examinations approximately 8months apart in 2013. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a physiological indicator of arterial stiffness, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a biomarker of vascular inflammations, were measured during each examination. Two exposure assessment methods were used for estimating the subjects' exposure to PM2.5 and NO2. The first method involved constructing daily land use regression (LUR) models according to measurements collected at ambient air quality monitoring stations. The second method required combining the LUR estimates with indoor monitoring data at the workplace of the subjects. Linear mixed models were used to examine the association between the exposure estimates and health outcomes. The results showed that a 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration at a 1-day lag was associated with 2.1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7%-3.6%) and 2.4% (0.8%-4.0%) increases in baPWV based on the two exposure assessment methods, whereas no significant association was observed for NO2. The significant effects of PM2.5 remained in the two-pollutant models. By contrast, NO2, but not PM2.5, was significantly associated with increased hsCRP levels (16.0%-37.3% in single-pollutant models and 26.4%-44.6% in two-pollutant models, per 10-ppb increase in NO2). In conclusion, arterial stiffness might be more sensitive to short-term PM2.5 exposure than is inflammation. PMID:27344119

  9. Acute Phase Reactants as Novel Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M. S.; Jadhav, A. B.; Hassan, A.; Meng, Qing H.

    2012-01-01

    Acute phase reaction is a systemic response which usually follows a physiological condition that takes place in the beginning of an inflammatory process. This physiological change usually lasts 1-2 days. However, the systemic acute phase response usually lasts longer. The aim of this systemic response is to restore homeostasis. These events are accompanied by upregulation of some proteins (positive acute phase reactants) and downregulation of others (negative acute phase reactants) during inflammatory reactions. Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by the elevation of several positive acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell count, secretory nonpancreatic phospholipase 2-II (sPLA2-II), ferritin, and ceruloplasmin. Cardiovascular disease is also accompanied by the reduction of negative acute phase reactants such as albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, and transcortin. In this paper, we will be discussing the biological activity and diagnostic and prognostic values of acute phase reactants with cardiovascular importance. The potential therapeutic targets of these reactants will be also discussed. PMID:24049653

  10. [Acute cardiovascular disease and job retention].

    PubMed

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Tellart, Anne-Sophie; Cambier-Langrand, Evodie; Fassier, Jean Baptiste; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Since it allows a better quality of life, return to work must be considered ever since the early stages of the health care pathway following a cardiovascular disease. Seeing the occupational physician beforehand, so as to anticipate the return to work, is crucial. Dialogue between cardiologists, general practitioners and occupational physician, still observing medical confidentiality, must allow a better quality of return to work. Being recognized as a handicapped worker is a key element in the prevention of socio-professional exclusion. Even when dealing with long sick leave, permanent functional injuries or job loss, guiding the patients towards the appropriate person can improve return to work and job retention in the long term. PMID:27021479

  11. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  12. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  13. Institutional adherence to cardiovascular risk factor screening guidelines for young survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Maria H; Wood, Jamie R; Mittelman, Steven D; Freyer, David R

    2015-05-01

    Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have increased risk for long-term cardiovascular complications. Early identification of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) may allow for effective interventions. In this retrospective cohort study of 194 patients at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, we investigated CVRF screening practices in an established childhood cancer survivorship program relative to both the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations. CVRF screening practices met COG but not the more stringent AAP recommendations, particularly in areas of dyslipidemia and diabetes screening. Implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25757021

  14. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  15. Toxic effects of marijuana on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Balaji; Korniyenko, Aleksandr

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of marijuana-induced ST segment elevation mimicking Brugada syndrome in a young man. Cannabis can have a multitude of effects on the different organ systems of the body; we take a closer look at its effects on the cardiovascular system, including acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure. PMID:22194141

  16. Relationship between haze and acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Cui, Meng-Meng; Fan, Da; Zhang, De-Shan; Lian, Hui-Xin; Yin, Zhao-Yin; Li, Jin

    2015-03-01

    Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon in which dry particulate pollutants obscure the sky. Haze has been associated with chronic diseases, but its relationship with acute diseases is less clear. We aimed to determine the association between haze and acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases, in order to determine the influence of haze on human health. We compared the number of cases of acute cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases in Beijing Emergency Center between 2006 and 2013, with haze data from Beijing Observatory. The relationship between the number of hazy days and the number of cases of the above types of diseases was analyzed using univariate analyses. Both the number of cases and the number of hazy days showed a rising trend. The average number of cases per day for all three diseases was higher on hazy days than on non-hazy days. There was a positive correlation between the number of hazy days and the number of cases, and this correlation showed a hysteretic quality. Haze has an influence on acute cardiovascular (CVDs), cerebrovascular (CBDs), and respiratory system (RSDs) diseases. Haze seems to have an additive effect, since the associations between haze and number of cases were stronger in the following month than in the preceding month. The increasing trend in the number of hazy days might worsen the problem of haze-related diseases. PMID:25292298

  17. Cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects of incretin-based therapies: an acute and 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic intervention trial in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Mark M; Tonneijck, Lennart; Muskiet, Marcel H A; Hoekstra, Trynke; Kramer, Mark H H; Pieters, Indra C; Cahen, Djuna L; Diamant, Michaela; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Incretin-based therapies, that is, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, are relatively novel antihyperglycaemic drugs that are frequently used in type 2 diabetes management. Apart from glucose-lowering, these agents exhibit pleiotropic actions that may have favourable and unfavourable clinical consequences. Incretin-based therapies have been associated with heart rate acceleration, heart failure, acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis. Conversely, these agents may reduce blood pressure, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria and hepatic steatosis. While large-sized cardiovascular safety trials can potentially identify the clinical significance of some of these pleiotropic actions, small-sized mechanistic studies are important to understand the (patho)physiological rationale of these findings. The current protocol describes a mechanistic study to assess cardiovascular, renal and gastrointestinal effects, and mechanisms of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes. Methods and analyses 60 patients with type 2 diabetes will undergo acute and prolonged randomised, double-blind, intervention studies. The acute intervention will consist of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide or placebo. For the prolonged intervention, patients will be randomised to 12-week treatment with the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin or matching placebos. For each examined organ system, a primary end point is defined. Primary cardiovascular end point is change in resting heart rate variability assessed by beat-to-beat heart rate monitor and spectral analyses software. Primary renal end point is change in glomerular filtration rate assessed by the classic inulin clearance methodology. Primary gastrointestinal end points are change in pancreatic exocrine function assessed by MRI-techniques (acute intervention) and faecal elastase-1 levels (12-week intervention

  18. The Prevalence of Natural Health Product Use in Patients with Acute Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alherbish, Aws; Charrois, Theresa L.; Ackman, Margaret L.; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural health products (NHP) use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. Objective To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. Results 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes). Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%), diabetes (26%) and renal impairment (19%). NHP use was common (78% of patients) and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73%) followed by herbal products (20%), traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%), homeopathic preparations (1%) and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%). In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]). When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%). NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. Conclusions NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance. Structured

  19. Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

  20. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to acute hypoxia following exposure to intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Glen E; Brugniaux, Julien V; Pialoux, Vincent; Duggan, Cailean T C; Hanly, Patrick J; Ahmed, Sofia B; Poulin, Marc J

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is thought to be responsible for many of the long-term cardiovascular consequences associated with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Experimental human models of IH can aid in investigating the pathophysiology of these cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of IH on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular response to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia in an experimental human model that simulates the hypoxaemia experienced by OSA patients. We exposed 10 healthy, male subjects to IH for 4 consecutive days. The IH profile involved 2 min of hypoxia (nadir = 45.0 mmHg) alternating with 2 min of normoxia (peak = 88.0 mmHg) for 6 h. The cerebral blood flow response and the pressor responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia were assessed after 2 days of sham exposure, after each day of IH, and 4 days following the discontinuation of IH. Nitric oxide derivatives were measured at baseline and following the last exposure to IH. After 4 days of IH, mean arterial pressure increased by 4 mmHg (P < 0.01), nitric oxide derivatives were reduced by 55% (P < 0.05), the pressor response to acute hypoxia increased (P < 0.01), and the cerebral vascular resistance response to hypoxia increased (P < 0.01). IH alters blood pressure and cerebrovascular regulation, which is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in patients with OSA. PMID:19417094

  1. Mean platelet volume and cardiovascular outcomes in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ranjith, Mangalachulli Pottammal; DivyaRaj, Rajendran; Mathew, Dolly; George, Biju; Krishnan, Mangalath Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Objective High levels of mean platelet volume (MPV) may be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the association between MPV and the risk of death and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with MI. Methods We studied consecutive patients with MI admitted to a tertiary-care hospital during a period of 1 year. MPV was measured at admission and at third month. Patients were followed up for 1-year primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, stroke, fatal or non-fatal MI and cardiac failure. Patients were classified according to tertile of baseline MPV. Results A total of 1206 patients with MI, including 934 men (77.4%) and 272 women (22.6%) were studied. The mean age of the study population was 56 years. At 1-year follow-up, 292 (28.57%) primary outcome occurred: cardiovascular mortality 78 (7.6%), fatal or non-fatal MI 153 (15.0%), stroke 30 (2.9%) and cardiac failure 128 (12.52%). Patients with the highest tertile MPV had higher primary outcome as compared with those with MPV in the lowest tertile (adjusted OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.60 to 3.35; p<0.001). Total mortality was also more in high-MPV group (adjusted OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.47 to 4.70; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in mean MPV values at admission from those at third month interval (9.15, (SD 0.99) vs 9.19 (SD 0.94); p=0.2). Conclusions Elevated MPV was associated with worse outcome in patients with acute MI. Elevated MPV in these patients may be due to inherently large platelets. Trial registration number http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/rmaindet.php?trialid=5485&EncHid=98036.61144&modid=1&compid=19; CTRI/2012/12/003222.

  2. Low rate of cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocarditis diagnosed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Luciano; Yeyati, Ezequiel Levy; Pietrani, Marcelo; Kohan, Andres; Falconi, Mariano; Benger, Juan; Dragonetti, Laura; Garcia-Monaco, Ricardo; Cagide, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocarditis is a relatively common inflammatory disease that affects the myocardium. Infectious disease accounts for most of the cases either because of a direct viral infection or post-viral immune-mediated reaction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become an established non-invasive diagnosis tool for acute myocarditis. A recent large single centre study with patients with biopsy-proven viral myocarditis undergoing CMR scans found a high rate of mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of clinical events in our population of patients with diagnosed myocarditis by CMR scan. Methods Patients who consulted to the emergency department with diagnosis of myocarditis by CMR were retrospectively included in the study from January 2008 to May 2012. A CMR protocol was used in all patients, and were followed up to assess the rate of the composite endpoint of all-cause death, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death, hospitalization for cardiac cause, recurrent myocarditis or need of radiofrequency ablation or implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results Thirty-two patients with myocarditis were included in the study. The mean age was 42.6±21.2 years and 81.2% were male. In a mean follow up of 30.4±17.8 months, the rate of the composite endpoint of all-cause death, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death, hospitalization for cardiac cause, recurrent myocarditis or need of radiofrequency ablation or ICD was 15.6% (n=5). Two patients had heart failure (one of them underwent heart transplant), one patient needed ICD because of ventricular tachycardia and two other patients were re-hospitalized, for recurrent chest pain and for recurrent myocarditis respectively. Conclusions In our series of acute myocarditis diagnosed by CMR we found a low rate of cardiovascular events without mortality. These findings might oppose data from recently published myocarditis trials. PMID

  3. Effect of Serum Fibrinogen, Total Stent Length, and Type of Acute Coronary Syndrome on 6-Month Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Ramsis, Mattheus; Behnamfar, Omid; Enright, Kelly; Huynh, Andrew; Kaushal, Khushboo; Palakodeti, Samhita; Li, Shiqian; Teh, Phildrich; Lin, Felice; Reeves, Ryan; Patel, Mitul; Ang, Lawrence

    2016-05-15

    This study evaluated the relation between baseline fibrinogen and 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Three hundred eighty-seven subjects (65.6 ± 16.1 years, 69.5% men, 26.9% acute coronary syndrome [ACS]) who underwent PCI with baseline fibrinogen and platelet reactivity (VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, Accumetrics, San Diego, California) measured were enrolled. Fibrinogen (368.8 ± 144.1 vs 316.8 ± 114.3 mg/dl; p = 0.001), total stent length (TSL; 44.5 ± 25.0 vs 32.2 ± 20.1 mm; p <0.001), and ACS presentation (40.6% vs 23.9%; p = 0.005) were independently associated with 6-month MACE rates (17.8%: myocardial infarction 9.8%, rehospitalization for ACS 3.6%, urgent revascularization 3.6%, stroke 0.5%, and death 0.3%). Measures of platelet reactivity were not associated with 6-month MACE. After multivariate analysis, fibrinogen ≥280 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, 95% CI 1.33 to 5.11, p = 0.005), TSL ≥32 mm (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.82 to 5.64, p <0.001), and ACS presentation (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 4.61, p = 0.001) were associated with higher 6-month MACE. In 271 subjects receiving chronic P2Y12 inhibitor therapy, 6-month Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction bleeding after PCI was 7.0%, but no difference in fibrinogen level (338.3 ± 109.7 vs 324.3 ± 113.8 mg/dl, p = 0.60) stratified by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction bleeding was observed. In conclusion, elevated serum fibrinogen, ACS presentation, and longer TSL are independently associated with higher 6-month MACE after PCI, whereas no association with on-thienopyridine platelet reactivity and 6-month MACE was observed. Post-PCI bleeding was not associated with lower fibrinogen level. PMID:27040574

  4. Evaluation of the cardiovascular effects of varenicline in rats

    PubMed Central

    Selçuk, Engin Burak; Sungu, Meltem; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermiş, Necip; Taslıdere, Elif; Vardı, Nigar; Yalçınsoy, Murat; Sagır, Mustafa; Polat, Alaaddin; Karatas, Mehmet; Kayhan-Tetik, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among tobacco users. Varenicline is widely used worldwide to help smoking cessation, but some published studies have reported associated cardiovascular events. Objective To determine the cardiovascular toxicity induced by varenicline in rats. Materials and methods We randomly separated 34 rats into two groups: 1) the control group (given only distilled water orally, n=10) and the varenicline group (given 9 μg/kg/day varenicline on days 1–3, 9 μg/kg twice daily on days 4–7, and 18 μg/kg twice daily on days 8–90 [total 83 days], n=24). Each group was then subdivided equally into acute and chronic subgroups, and all rats in these groups were euthanized with anesthesia overdose on days 45 and 90, respectively. Body and heart weights, hemodynamic (mean oxygen saturation, mean blood pressure, and heart rate, electrocardiographic (PR, QRS, and QT intervals) biochemical (oxidants and antioxidants), and histopathological analyses (including immunostaining) were performed. Results Acute varenicline exposure resulted in loss of body weight, while chronic varenicline exposure caused heart weight loss and decreased mean blood pressure, induced lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant activity. Both acute and chronic varenicline exposure caused impairment of mean oxygen saturation. QT interval was prolonged in the chronic varenicline group, while PR interval prolongation was statistically significant in both the control and acute varenicline groups. Caspase-9 activity was also significantly increased by chronic exposure. Moreover, histopathological observations revealed severe morphological heart damage in both groups. Conclusion Adverse effects of chronic varenicline exposure on cardiovascular tissue were confirmed by our electrocardiographic, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. This issue needs to be investigated with new experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the

  5. Acute Cardiovascular Response to Sign Chi Do Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Carol E.; Carlson, John; Garver, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    Safe and gentle exercise may be important for older adults overcoming a sedentary lifestyle. Sign Chi Do (SCD), a novel form of low impact exercise, has shown improved balance and endurance in healthy older adults, and there have been no SCD-related injuries reported. Sedentary older adults are known to have a greater cardiovascular (CV) response to physical activity than those who regularly exercise. However their CV response to SCD is unknown. This study explored the acute CV response of older adults to SCD. Cross-sectional study of 34 sedentary and moderately active adults over age 55 with no previous experience practicing SCD. Participants completed a 10 min session of SCD. CV outcomes of heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure product were recorded at 0, 5, 10 min of SCD performance, and after 10 min of rest. HR was recorded every minute. There was no difference in CV scores of sedentary and moderately active older adults after a session of SCD-related activity. All CV scores increased at 5 min, were maintained at 10 min, and returned to baseline within 10 min post SCD (p < 0.05). SCD may be a safe way to increase participation in regular exercise by sedentary older adults.

  6. Cardiovascular and endocrine responses to acute hypoxaemia during and following dexamethasone infusion in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Andrew J W; Gardner, David S; Edwards, C Mark B; Fowden, Abigail L; Giussani, Dino A

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of fetal treatment with dexamethasone on ovine fetal cardiovascular defence responses to acute hypoxaemia, occurring either during or 48 h following the period of glucocorticoid exposure. To address the mechanisms underlying these responses, chemoreflex function and plasma concentrations of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasopressin were measured. Under general halothane anaesthesia, 26 Welsh Mountain sheep fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording at between 117 and 120 days of gestation (dGA; term is ∼145 days) with vascular catheters and a Transonic flow probe around a femoral artery. Following at least 5 days of recovery, fetuses were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups. After 48 h of baseline recording, at 125 ± 1 dGA, half of the fetuses (n = 13) were continuously infused i.v. with dexamethasone for 48 h at a rate of 2.06 ± 0.13 μg kg−1 h−1. The remaining 13 fetuses were infused with heparinized saline at the same rate (controls). At 127 ± 1 dGA, 2 days from the onset of infusions, seven fetuses from each group were subjected to 1 h of acute hypoxaemia. At 129 ± 1 dGA, 2 days after the end of infusions, six fetuses from each group were subjected to 1 h of acute hypoxaemia. Similar reductions in fetal partial pressure of arterial oxygen occurred in control and dexamethasone-treated fetuses during the acute hypoxaemia protocols. In control fetuses, acute hypoxaemia led to transient bradycardia, femoral vasoconstriction and significant increases in plasma concentrations of catecholamines, vasopressin and NPY. In fetuses subjected to acute hypoxaemia during dexamethasone treatment, the increase in plasma NPY was enhanced, the bradycardic response was prolonged, and the plasma catecholamine and vasopressin responses were diminished. In fetuses subjected to acute hypoxaemia 48 h following dexamethasone treatment, femoral vasoconstriction and plasma catecholamine and vasopressin

  7. Non-cardiovascular effects associated with statins

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Statins form the pharmacologic cornerstone of the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to beneficial cardiovascular effects, statins seem to have multiple non-cardiovascular effects. Although early concerns about statin induced hepatotoxicity and cancer have subsided owing to reassuring evidence, two of the most common concerns that clinicians have are myopathy and diabetes. Randomized controlled trials suggest that statins are associated with a modest increase in the risk of myositis but not the risk of myalgia. Severe myopathy (rhabdomyolysis) is rare and often linked to a statin regimen that is no longer recommended (simvastatin 80 mg). Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggest an increase in the risk of diabetes with statins, particularly with higher intensity regimens in people with two or more components of the metabolic syndrome. Other non-cardiovascular effects covered in this review are contrast induced nephropathy, cognition, cataracts, erectile dysfunction, and venous thromboembolism. Currently, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines indicate that the cardiovascular benefits of statins generally outweigh non-cardiovascular harms in patients above a certain threshold of cardiovascular risk. Literature is also accumulating on the potential non-cardiovascular benefits of statins, which could lead to novel applications of this class of drug in the future. PMID:25035309

  8. Non-cardiovascular effects associated with statins.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chintan S; Martin, Seth S; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2014-01-01

    Statins form the pharmacologic cornerstone of the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition to beneficial cardiovascular effects, statins seem to have multiple non-cardiovascular effects. Although early concerns about statin induced hepatotoxicity and cancer have subsided owing to reassuring evidence, two of the most common concerns that clinicians have are myopathy and diabetes. Randomized controlled trials suggest that statins are associated with a modest increase in the risk of myositis but not the risk of myalgia. Severe myopathy (rhabdomyolysis) is rare and often linked to a statin regimen that is no longer recommended (simvastatin 80 mg). Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggest an increase in the risk of diabetes with statins, particularly with higher intensity regimens in people with two or more components of the metabolic syndrome. Other non-cardiovascular effects covered in this review are contrast induced nephropathy, cognition, cataracts, erectile dysfunction, and venous thromboembolism. Currently, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines indicate that the cardiovascular benefits of statins generally outweigh non-cardiovascular harms in patients above a certain threshold of cardiovascular risk. Literature is also accumulating on the potential non-cardiovascular benefits of statins, which could lead to novel applications of this class of drug in the future. PMID:25035309

  9. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Papagianni, M; Tziomalos, K

    2015-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are effective glucose-lowering agents that do not increase body weight and are associated with a low risk for hypoglycemia. Also, they appear to exert beneficial effects on other established cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia and hypertension. Moreover, DPP-4 inhibitors exert antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions, improve endothelial function and reduce urinary albumin excretion. In contrast to these favorable cardiovascular effects, three recent large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors showed that DPP-4 inhibitors do not affect the risk of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke and might increase the risk of heart failure. The findings of the former randomized studies highlight the limitations of surrogate markers and show that beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors do not necessarily translate into reductions in hard clinical endpoints. Ongoing trials will shed more light on the safety profile of DPP-4 inhibitors and will clarify whether they will improve the cardiovascular outcomes of patients with T2DM. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 195-199. PMID:27418775

  10. Short-term cardiovascular and autonomic effects of inhaled salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Edgell, Heather; Moore, Linn E; Chung, Carol; Byers, Bradley W; Stickland, Michael K

    2016-09-01

    Asthma independently increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. As inhaled β-agonists have systemic cardiovascular effects, and elevations in arterial stiffness and sympathetic nerve activity are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, this study examines the effect of salbutamol use on pulse wave velocity (PWV) and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA). Healthy men and women (26.2±1.5years) were recruited for: Day 1: 4 inhalations of placebo followed by 4 inhalations of salbutamol (4×100μg); Day 2: placebo only; Day 3: carotid-femoral PWV measurements before/after placebo/salbutamol. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and carotid-radial PWV were obtained on Day 1 and 2. MSNA was obtained on Day 1. Salbutamol increased HR and total MSNA (Baseline1: 2.8±2.8au; Placebo: 2.4±2.1au; Baseline2: 2.7±3.0au; Salbutamol: 3.3±2.9au; p=0.05), with no changes in MAP or PWV. There were no effects of placebo on HR, MSNA, or PWV. Acute salbutamol use increases sympathetic activity suggesting that salbutamol could contribute to cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in individuals using inhaled β-agonists. PMID:27236040

  11. Development of Cardiovascular Indices of Acute Pain Responding in Infants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Jordana A.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R.; Tablon, Paula; Schmidt, Louis A.; Pinhasov, Angelina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular indices of pain are pervasive in the hospital setting. However, no prospective research has examined the development of cardiac responses to acutely painful procedures in the first year of life. Objectives. Our main goal was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the development of cardiovascular responses to acutely painful medical procedures over the first year of life in preterm and term born infants. Methods. A systematic search retrieved 6994 articles to review against inclusion criteria. A total of 41 studies were included in the review. Results. In response to acutely painful procedures, most infants had an increase in mean heart rate (HR) that varied in magnitude both across and within gestational and postnatal ages. Research in the area of HR variability has been inconsistent, limiting conclusions. Conclusions. Longitudinal research is needed to further understand the inherent variability of cardiovascular pain responses across and within gestational and postnatal ages and the causes for the variability. PMID:27445630

  12. [Acute cardiovascular complications of cocaine. About two case reports].

    PubMed

    Debien, B; Clapson, P; Lambert, E; Lenoir, B; Perez, J-P; Pats, B

    2006-04-01

    Concerning any socioprofessional category, some addictive drugs like cocaine are responsible for many complications. The authors relate two case reports of young patients who suffered from cardiovascular accidents due to this drug. The first one was diagnosed with an ischemic stroke caused by carotid artery dissection and a leg distal vascular obliteration, the second one with a myocardial infarction with transient left ventricular dysfunction. Through these two case reports, the authors take stock of the pathophysiological and therapeutic knowledge of cardiovascular accidents after cocaine intake. PMID:16426803

  13. Role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in assessment of acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azarisman, Shah M; Teo, Karen S; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the western world and is becoming more important in the developing world. Recently, advances in monitoring, revascularisation and pharmacotherapy have resulted in a reduction in mortality. However, although mortality rates have declined, the burden of disease remains large resulting in high direct and indirect healthcare costs related to CVDs. In Australia, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) accounts for more than 300000 years of life lost due to premature death and a total cost exceeding eight billion dollars annually. It is also the main contributor towards the discrepancy in life expectancy between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. The high prevalence of CVD along with its associated cost urgently requires a reliable but non-invasive and cost-effective imaging modality. The imaging modality of choice should be able to accelerate the diagnosis of ACS, aid in the risk stratification of de novo coronary artery disease and avail incremental information of prognostic value such as viability which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows. Despite its manifold benefits, there are limitations to its wider use in routine clinical assessment and more studies are required into assessing its cost-effectiveness. It is hoped that with greater development in the technology and imaging protocols, CMR could be made less cumbersome, its imaging protocols less lengthy, the technology more inexpensive and easily applied in routine clinical practice. PMID:24976912

  14. Neuropsychiatric effects of cardiovascular drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Keller, Seth; Frishman, William H

    2003-01-01

    Various cardiovascular drugs have been shown to have neuropsychiatric effects that can be harmful or therapeutically beneficial to patients. As an example, both sedation and mental depression have been described in patients receiving centrally acting antihypertensive drugs and beta-adrenergic blockers, related to their antiadrenergic actions. In contrast, because of these antiadrenergic actions, agents like clonidine have been used to treat opiate, alcohol, and nicotine withdrawal, while beta blockers have been used to treat symptoms of performance anxiety, migraine, and psychocardiac disorders. Some antiarrhythmic drugs have been associated with delirium, and digitalis toxicity has been shown to cause hallucinations, mania, euphoria, and depression. The calcium-channel blocker verapamil has been used as an adjunctive treatment in patients with bipolar disorders. Since neuropsychiatric symptoms are seen in patients with cardiovascular disease, clinicians should be aware of the possible relationship between these symptoms and concurrent cardiovascular drug therapy. PMID:12620132

  15. CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARDIOVASCULAR INJURY FROM ACUTE AND REPEATED EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM): POTENTIAL ROLE OF ZINC. UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, RH Jaskot, PS Gilmour, DC Christiani, WP Watkinson, DL Costa, JK McGee, A Nyska. NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC; CEMALB, UNC, Chapel Hil...

  16. Subliminal Activation of Social Ties Moderates Cardiovascular Reactivity during Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, McKenzie; Uchino, Bert N.; Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Birmingham, Wendy; Light, Kathleen C.; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been reliably linked to important physical health outcomes, perhaps through the mechanism of physiological stress responses. Most studies of this mechanism have focused on whether more conscious interpersonal transactions influence cardiovascular reactivity. However, whether such relationships can be automatically activated in memory to influence physiological processes has not been determined. The primary aims of this study were to examine if subliminal activation of relationships could influence health-relevant physiological processes, and to examine this question in the context of a more general relationship model that incorporates both positive and negative dimensions. Method We randomly assigned participants to be subliminally primed with existing relationships that varied in their underlying positivity and negativity (i.e., indifferent, supportive, aversive, ambivalent). They then performed acute psychological stressors while cardiovascular and self-report measures were assessed. Results Priming negative relationships was associated with greater threat, lower feelings of control, and higher diastolic blood pressure reactivity during stress. Moreover, priming relationships high in positivity and negativity (ambivalent ties) was associated with the highest heart rate reactivity and greatest respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases during stress. Exploratory analyses during the priming task itself suggested that the effects of negative primes on biological measures were prevalent across tasks, whereas the links to ambivalent ties was specific to the subsequent stressor task. Conclusions These data highlight novel mechanisms by which social ties may impact cardiovascular health, and further suggest the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of relationships and physical health. PMID:21842996

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  18. Nicotine effect on cardiovascular system and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Salma Toma

    2006-03-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Nicotine is one of the components of cigarette smoke. Nicotine effects on the cardiovascular system reflect the activity of the nicotine receptors centrally and on peripheral autonomic ganglia. It has been found that cigarette smoke extract-induced contraction of porcine coronary arteries is related to superoxide anion-mediated degradation of nitric oxide. Treatment of rabbit aortas with an oxygen free radicals scavenger attenuated cigarette smoke impairment of arterial relaxation. Treatment of smokers with vitamin C, an antioxidant, improved impaired endothelium-dependent reactivity of large peripheral arteries. Thus it appears that chronic smoking and acute exposure to cigarette smoke extract may alter endothelium-dependent reactivity via the production of oxygen derived free radicals. This review discusses the effects of nicotine on resistance arterioles, compliance arteries, smooth muscle cells, and ion channels in the cardiovascular system. We discuss studies performed on humans, nicotine-exposed animals, and cell cultures yielding varying and inconsistent results that may be due to differences in experimental design, species, and the dose of exposure. Nicotine exposure appears to induce a combination of free radical production, vascular wall adhesion, and a reduction of fibrinolytic activity in the plasma. PMID:16633075

  19. Individual Effect Modifiers of Dust Exposure Effect on Cardiovascular Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Vodonos, Alina; Friger, Michael; Katra, Itzhak; Krasnov, Helena; Zahger, Doron; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a) whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b) whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic. Methods This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be’er- Sheva, Israel, 2001–2010) with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter) were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors. Results There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0); OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001–1.027) for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1) was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002–1.012). The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65), female or Bedouin patients. Conclusions Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26381397

  20. Rho-Associated Kinase Activity Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Masato; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Akimichi; Oda, Nozomu; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Aibara, Yoshiki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Sasaki, Shota; Kato, Masaya; Dote, Keigo; Goto, Chikara; Liao, James K.; Higashi, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    Rho-associated kinases play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Although Rho-associated kinase activity has been shown to be an independent predictor for future cardiovascular events in a general population, there is no information on Rho-associated kinase activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We evaluated leukocyte Rho-associated kinase activity by Western blot analysis in 73 patients with acute coronary syndrome and 73 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Rho-associated kinase activity within 2 hours of acute coronary syndrome onset was higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in the control subjects (0.95±0.55 versus 0.69±0.31; P<0.001). Rho-associated kinase activity promptly increased from 0.95±0.55 to 1.11±0.81 after 3 hours and reached a peak of 1.21±0.76 after 1 day (P=0.03 and P=0.03, respectively) and then gradually decreased to 0.83±0.52 after 7 days, 0.78±0.42 after 14 days, and 0.72±0.30 after 6 months (P=0.22, P=0.29, and P=0.12, respectively). During a median follow-up period of 50.8 months, 31 first major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and coronary revascularization) occurred. After adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and concomitant treatment with statins, increased Rho-associated kinase activity was associated with increasing risk of first major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.98–11.34; P<0.001). These findings suggest that Rho-associated kinase activity is dramatically changed after acute coronary syndrome and that Rho-associated kinase activity could be a useful biomarker to predict cardiovascular events in Japanese patients with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26283039

  1. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological evidence suggests that ultrafine particles are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, specifically in elderly individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was (i) to assess cardiopulmonary responses in adult ...

  2. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Ziad

    2006-01-01

    The nation's largest cigarette companies are selling more smokeless tobacco (ST) products as more cities and states pass smoke-free laws. ST use is already common and is expected to get more popular as a result of these recent changes. Unfortunately, the medical and public knowledge of its risks is inadequate. The literature on the cardiovascular side effects of ST is scant, and there are many controversies associated with its use, for various reasons. Study findings show that ST may modestly increase cardiovascular mortality and produces transient changes in heart rate and blood pressure; however, it does not increase the risk of atherosclerosis or myocardial infarction. The association between ST and diabetes, lipoproteins, and stroke is less clear. Quitting ST causes weight gain, but less so than smoking. Although ST appears to be associated with less cardiovascular risk than smoking, nicotine replacement therapy is a safer and more controlled substitute for smoking than ST; however, ST can be considered in high-risk smokers in whom medicinal nicotine replacement therapy has failed. PMID:17679792

  3. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  4. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  5. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  6. Association of cardiovascular risk factors with the different presentations of acute coronary syndrome1

    PubMed Central

    Brunori, Evelise Helena Fadini Reis; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Cavalcante, Agueda Maria Ruiz Zimmer; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the relationship between different presentations of acute coronary syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors among hospitalized individuals. METHOD: cross-sectional study performed in a teaching hospital in São Paulo, in the State of São Paulo (SP). Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric data of 150 individuals hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome were collected through interviews and review of clinical charts. Association between these data and the presentation of the syndrome were investigated. RESULTS: there was a predominance of ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. There was significant association of systemic hypertension with unstable angina and high values of low density lipoprotein with infarction, without influence from socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: arterial hypertension and high levels of low-density lipoprotein were associated with different presentations of coronary syndrome. The results can provide support for health professionals for secondary prevention programs aimed at behavioural changing. PMID:25296136

  7. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45–64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001–2004 (n=42 807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events

  8. Effects of cardiovascular exercise early after stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    sub-acute stages to improve peak oxygen uptake and walking distance. Thus, cardiovascular exercise should be considered in sub-acute stroke rehabilitation. However, concepts to influence and evaluate aerobic capacity in severely affected individuals with sub-acute stroke, as well as in the very early period after stroke, are lacking. Further research is needed to develop appropriate methods for cardiovascular rehabilitation early after stroke and to evaluate long-term effects of cardiovascular exercise on aerobic capacity, physical functioning, and quality-of-life. PMID:22727172

  9. Elevated Cardiac Troponin in Acute Stroke without Acute Coronary Syndrome Predicts Long-Term Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Reema; Bove, Alfred A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Elevated cardiac troponin in acute stroke in absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has unclear long-term outcomes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 566 patients admitted to Temple University Hospital from 2008 to 2010 for acute stroke was performed. Patients were included if cardiac troponin I was measured and had no evidence of ACS and an echocardiogram was performed. Of 200 patients who met the criteria, baseline characteristics, electrocardiograms, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were reviewed. Patients were characterized into two groups with normal and elevated troponins. Primary end point was nonfatal myocardial infarction during follow-up period after discharge. The secondary end points were MACE and death from any cause. Results. For 200 patients, 17 patients had positive troponins. Baseline characteristics were as follows: age 63.1 ± 13.8, 64% African Americans, 78% with hypertension, and 22% with previous CVA. During mean follow-up of 20.1 months, 7 patients (41.2%) in elevated troponin and 6 (3.3%) patients in normal troponin group had nonfatal myocardial infarction (P = 0.0001). MACE (41.2% versus 14.2%, P = 0.01) and death from any cause (41.2% versus 14.5%, P = 0.017) were significant in the positive troponin group. Conclusions. Elevated cardiac troponin in patients with acute stroke and no evidence of ACS is strong predictor of long-term cardiac outcomes. PMID:25530906

  10. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Anne T; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Kyjovska, Zdenka O; Halappanavar, Sabina; Yauk, Carole L; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction of the acute phase response is intimately linked to risk of cardiovascular disease as shown in both epidemiological and animal studies. Indeed, blood levels of acute phase proteins, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, are independent predictors of risk of cardiovascular disease in prospective epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. Increased levels of acute phase mRNA and proteins in lung tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma clearly indicate pulmonary acute phase response following pulmonary deposition of different kinds of particles including diesel exhaust particles, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes. The pulmonary acute phase response is dose-dependent and long lasting. Conversely, the hepatic acute phase response is reduced relative to lung or entirely absent. We also provide evidence that pulmonary inflammation, as measured by neutrophil influx, is a predictor of the acute phase response and that the total surface area of deposited particles correlates with the pulmonary acute phase response. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to occupational exposure to nanoparticles. How to cite this article: WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:517–531. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1279 PMID:24920450

  11. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  12. Effects of acute caffeine administration on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Dewey, Amber M; Briatico, Laura N

    2010-12-01

    Acute caffeine administration has physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects. Despite its widespread use, few studies have described the impact of caffeine consumption in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine administration in adolescents. We measured cardiovascular responses and snack food intake after acute administration of 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg of caffeine. We also compared usual food intake and subjective effects of caffeine between high- and low-caffeine consumers. Finally, we conducted a detailed analysis of caffeine sources and consumption levels. We found main effects of caffeine dose on heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with HR decreasing and DBP increasing with increasing caffeine dose. There were significant interactions among gender, caffeine use, and time on DBP. High caffeine consumers (>50 mg/day) reported using caffeine to stay awake and drinking coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks more than low consumers (<50 mg/day). Boys were more likely than girls to report using getting a rush, more energy, or improved athletic performance from caffeine. Finally, when we examined energy and macronutrient intake, we found that caffeine consumption was positively associated with laboratory energy intake, specifically from high-sugar, low-fat foods and also positively associated with protein and fat consumption outside of the laboratory. When taken together, these data suggest that acute caffeine administration has a broad range of effects in adolescents and that the magnitude of these effects is moderated by gender and chronic caffeine consumption. PMID:21186925

  13. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  14. Functional evidence of paraventricular nucleus involvement in cardiovascular and autonomic modulation in response to acute microgravity (head-down tilt) in unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Eric Diego Turossi; Peras, Vivian Rossi; de Andrade, Ozahyr; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to microgravity induces autonomic and vestibular disorders such as alterations in cardiovascular function. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is known to be an important center for integrating autonomic and cardiovascular responses as blood volume reflexes. The acute effects promoted by microgravity and PVN involvement in cardiovascular and autonomic parameters have not yet been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized to facilitate cannulae implantation in the PVN. After 3 days of surgical recovery, femoral artery and vein catheters were implanted for direct recording of blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in conscious animals to evaluate cardiovascular and autonomic changes in an acute protocol of head-down tilt (HDT) in nonanesthetized rats. During HDT, there was an increase in mean arterial pressure (11 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and a decrease in HR (-28 ± 5 bpm, P < 0.05). Spectral analysis of systolic arterial pressure showed an increase in the low-frequency (LF) component. In addition, HDT induced a reduction in the LF component and an increase in the high-frequency (HF) component of the pulse interval (PI). PVN inhibition with muscimol reversed bradycardia and blocked the reduction of the LF and HF increases in PI during HDT. These results suggest that the PVN participates in the cardiovascular compensation during HDT, especially modulating cardiac responses. PMID:25821104

  15. [Effect of natural factors on the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Nuzhdina, M A

    1998-01-01

    The effect of natural environmental factors (indexes of solar activity, geomagnetic disturbances, as well as meteorologic parameters: air temperature and humidity, and atmospheric pressure) on the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in Ukraine as a whole and in Kiev was analyzed. It is shown that, contrary to the stereotype, the yearly dynamics of cardiovascular diseases in 1980-1990 is in opposite phase with the solar activity cycle. Similar results were obtained for the monthly dynamics of cardiovascular diseases in the period from June 1991 to June 1993. The relative influence of five environmental factors (in complex) on the daily dynamics of cardiovascular diseases for the same period was calculated. The role of heliogeophysical factors becomes especially evident if the daily level of cardiovascular diseases within some month of the year is considered. This result may be interesting for medicinal practice and forecasting of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9783071

  16. Association between chloride-rich versus chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration and acute kidney injury in cardiovascular patients in ICU wards

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Guangsu; Han, Dahe; Meng, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yi; Kan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of chloride-restrictive fluid to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiovascular patients in intensive care unit (ICU) wards. Between January 2013 and September 2014, 456 patients admitted to ICU wards following diagnosis of cardiovascular disease were recruited and randomized to receive chloride-rich (232 patients) or chloride-restrictive (224 patients) fluid. The baseline characteristics and incidence of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)-defined AKI was then compared. No significant difference was identified in the baseline characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of moderate-to-severe KDIGO-defined AKI was significantly decreased in patients who received chloride-restrictive fluid. In conclusion, chloride-restrictive may be a novel effective intervention in preventing KDIGO-defined AKI in cardiovascular patients in ICU wards.

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome following cardiovascular surgery: current concepts and novel therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Hoegl, Sandra; Zwissler, Bernhard; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Vohwinkel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review gives an update on current treatment options and novel concepts on the prevention and treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cardiovascular surgery patients. Recent findings The only proven beneficial therapeutic options in ARDS are those that help to prevent further ventilator-induced lung injury, such as prone position, use of lung-protective ventilation strategies, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In the future also new approaches like mesenchymal cell therapy, activation of hypoxia-elicited transcription factors or targeting of purinergic signaling may be successful outside the experimental setting. Owing to the so far limited treatment options, it is of great importance to determine patients at risk for developing ARDS already perioperatively. In this context, serum biomarkers and lung injury prediction scores could be useful. Summary Preventing ARDS as a severe complication in the cardiovascular surgery setting may help to reduce morbidity and mortality. As cardiovascular surgery patients are of greater risk to develop ARDS, preventive interventions should be implemented early on. Especially, use of low tidal volumes, avoiding of fluid overload and restrictive blood transfusion regimes may help to prevent ARDS. PMID:26598954

  18. Acute cardiovascular responses while playing virtual games simulated by Nintendo Wii®

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Gusthavo Augusto Alves; Felipe, Danilo De Souza; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; De Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Aparecido de Souza, Renato

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses that occur while playing virtual games (aerobic and balance) emulated by Nintendo Wii®. [Subjects] Nineteen healthy male volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The ergospirometric variables of maximum oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents, and heart rate were obtained during the aerobic (Obstacle Course, Hula Hoop, and Free Run) and balance (Soccer Heading, Penguin Slide, and Table Tilt) games of Wii Fit Plus® software. To access and analyze the ergospirometric information, a VO2000 analyzer was used. Normalized data (using maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Scheffe’s test. [Results] Significant differences were found among the balance and aerobic games in all variables analyzed. In addition, the Wii exercises performed were considered to be of light (balance games) and moderate (aerobic games) intensity in accordance with American College Sports Medicine exercise stratification. [Conclusion] Physical activity in a virtual environment emulated by Nintendo Wii® can change acute cardiovascular responses, primarily when Wii aerobic games are performed. These results support the use of the Nintendo Wii® in physical activity programs. PMID:26504308

  19. Uncoupling of the autonomic and cardiovascular systems in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B; Toweill, D; Lai, S; Sonnenthal, K; Kimberly, B

    1998-10-01

    We hypothesized that acute brain injury results in decreased heart rate (HR) variability and baroreflex sensitivity indicative of uncoupling of the autonomic and cardiovascular systems and that the degree of uncoupling should be proportional to the degree of neurological injury. We used HR and blood pressure (BP) power spectral analysis to measure neuroautonomic regulation of HR and BP and the transfer function magnitude (TF) between BP and HR as a measure of baroreflex modulation of HR. In 24 brain-injured patients [anoxic/ischemic injury (n = 7), multiple trauma (n = 6), head trauma (n = 5), central nervous system infection (n = 4), and intracranial hemorrhage (n = 2)], neurological injury and survival was associated with low-frequency (0.01-0.15 Hz) HR and BP power and TF. Brain-dead patients showed decreased low-frequency HR power [0. 51 +/- 0.36 (SE) vs. 2.54 +/- 0.14 beats/min2, P = 0.03] and TF [0. 61 +/- 0.16 (SE) vs. 1.29 +/- 0.07 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1, P = 0.05] compared with non-brain-dead patients. We conclude that 1) severity of neurological injury and outcome are inversely associated with HR and BP variability and 2) there is direct evidence for cardiovascular and autonomic uncoupling in acute brain injury with complete uncoupling during brain death. PMID:9756562

  20. Emerging treatment options to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome: focus on losmapimod

    PubMed Central

    Kragholm, Kristian; Newby, Laura Kristin; Melloni, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Each year, despite optimal use of recommended acute and secondary prevention therapies, 4%–5% of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) experience relapse of ACS or other cardiovascular events including stroke, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death after the index ACS. The sudden atherosclerotic plaque rupture leading to an ACS event is often accompanied by inflammation, which is thought to be a key pathogenic pathway to these excess cardiovascular events. Losmapimod is a novel, oral p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor that targets MAPKs activated in macrophages, myocardium, and endothelial cells that occur as a part of global coronary vascular inflammation following plaque rupture. This review aims to 1) discuss the pathophysiological pathways through which p38 MAPKs may play key roles in initiation and progression of inflammatory disease and how losmapimod is thought to counteract these p38 MAPKs, and 2) to describe the efficacy and safety data for losmapimod obtained from preclinical studies and randomized controlled trials that support the hypothesis that it has promise as a treatment for patients with ACS. PMID:26273189

  1. Acute cardiovascular responses while playing virtual games simulated by Nintendo Wii(®).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gusthavo Augusto Alves; Felipe, Danilo De Souza; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; De Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Aparecido de Souza, Renato

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This investigation evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses that occur while playing virtual games (aerobic and balance) emulated by Nintendo Wii(®). [Subjects] Nineteen healthy male volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The ergospirometric variables of maximum oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents, and heart rate were obtained during the aerobic (Obstacle Course, Hula Hoop, and Free Run) and balance (Soccer Heading, Penguin Slide, and Table Tilt) games of Wii Fit Plus(®) software. To access and analyze the ergospirometric information, a VO2000 analyzer was used. Normalized data (using maximum oxygen consumption and heart rate) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Scheffe's test. [Results] Significant differences were found among the balance and aerobic games in all variables analyzed. In addition, the Wii exercises performed were considered to be of light (balance games) and moderate (aerobic games) intensity in accordance with American College Sports Medicine exercise stratification. [Conclusion] Physical activity in a virtual environment emulated by Nintendo Wii(®) can change acute cardiovascular responses, primarily when Wii aerobic games are performed. These results support the use of the Nintendo Wii(®) in physical activity programs. PMID:26504308

  2. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  3. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous administration of propylene glycol and of oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in calves.

    PubMed

    Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R

    1979-06-01

    Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130

  4. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  5. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. PMID:22269613

  6. Mathematical modeling of acute and chronic cardiovascular changes during Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Leonard, J I; Srinivasan, R S; Charles, J B

    1991-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions. PMID:11537147

  7. Association between Floods and Acute Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Cohort Study Using a Geographic Information System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Alain; Cohen, Alan; Courteau, Josiane; Bergeron, Patrick; Dault, Roxanne; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Bélanger, Diane; Rochette, Louis; Chebana, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Floods represent a serious threat to human health beyond the immediate risk of drowning. There is few data on the potential link between floods and direct consequences on health such as on cardiovascular health. This study aimed to explore the impact of one of the worst floods in the history of Quebec, Canada on acute cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: A cohort study with a time series design with multiple control groups was built with the adult population identified in the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System. A geographic information system approach was used to define the study areas. Logistic regressions were performed to compare the occurrence of CVD between groups. Results: The results showed a 25%–27% increase in the odds in the flooded population in spring 2011 when compared with the population in the same area in springs 2010 and 2012. Besides, an increase up to 69% was observed in individuals with a medical history of CVD. Conclusion: Despite interesting results, the association was not statistically significant. A possible explanation to this result can be that the population affected by the flood was probably too small to provide the statistical power to answer the question, and leaves open a substantial possibility for a real and large effect. PMID:26828511

  8. Noninvasive radiographic assessment of cardiovascular function in acute and chronic respiratory failure

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H.J.; Matthay, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    Noninvasive radiographic techniques have provided a means of studying the natural history and pathogenesis of cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium-201 imaging, and M mode and cross-sectional echocardiography have been employed. Each of these techniques has specific uses, attributes and limitations. For example, measurement of descending pulmonary arterial diameters on the plain chest radiograph allows determination of the presence or absence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right and left ventricular performance can be evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide angiocardiography. The biventricular response to exercise and to therapeutic interventions also can be assessed with this approach. Evaluation of the pulmonary valve echogram and echocardiographic right ventricular dimensions have been shown to reflect right ventricular hemodynamics and size. Each of these noninvasive techniques has been applied to the study of patients with respiratory failure and has provided important physiologic data.

  9. Afferent and efferent components of the cardiovascular reflex responses to acute hypoxia in term fetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Giussani, D A; Spencer, J A; Moore, P J; Bennet, L; Hanson, M A

    1993-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of acute isocapnic hypoxia on arterial and central venous pressures, carotid and femoral blood flows and heart rate in intact and carotid denervated fetal sheep between 118 and 125 days gestation, after pre-treatment with either saline, atropine or phentolamine. Electrocortical activity (ECoG) and the incidence of fetal breathing movements (FBM) were also compared between intact and carotid denervated fetuses. 2. There were no significant differences between intact and denervated fetuses in any variable measured during normoxia. Soon after the onset of hypoxia a marked bradycardia occurred in intact, but not in denervated fetuses. Femoral blood flow and femoral vascular resistance (perfusion pressure/femoral blood flow) increased in intact, but not in denervated fetuses. Carotid blood flow increased in both groups of fetuses during hypoxia, but carotid vascular resistance did not change. During hypoxia, the incidence of FBM and low-voltage ECoG was similarly reduced in both groups of fetuses. 3. Atropine produced a rise in fetal heart rate during the control period in intact but not in denervated fetuses. At the onset of hypoxia atropine prevented the initial bradycardia seen in intact fetuses. In denervated fetuses a further increase in heart rate occurred throughout the hypoxia. 4. All denervated fetuses treated with phentolamine died during the hypoxic challenge, but nine out of fourteen intact fetuses treated with phentolamine survived. 5. In intact fetuses which survived hypoxia after treatment with phentolamine, the increase in arterial blood pressure was smaller and the increase in femoral resistance did not occur. In these fetuses a rise in heart rate occurred in hypoxia. Carotid vascular resistance decreased during hypoxia after administration of phentolamine. 6. Our results indicate that the initial cardiovascular responses of the late gestation sheep fetus to hypoxia are reflex, and that the carotid chemoreceptors provide the

  10. Urinary π-glutathione S-transferase Predicts Advanced Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Huang, Tao-Min; Wu, Pei-Chen; Lai, Chien-Heng; Tseng, Li-Jung; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Connolly, Rory; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2016-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers augment the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), with AKI after cardiovascular surgeries being a prototype of prognosis scenario. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) were evaluated as biomarkers of AKI. Urine samples were collected in 141 cardiovascular surgical patients and analyzed for urinary alpha-(α-) and pi-(π-) GSTs. The outcomes of advanced AKI (KDIGO stage 2, 3) and all-cause in-patient mortality, as composite outcome, were recorded. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to predict outcomes. Thirty-eight (26.9%) patients had AKI, while 12 (8.5%) were with advanced AKI. Urinary π-GST differentiated patients with/without advanced AKI or composite outcome after surgery (p < 0.05 by generalized estimating equation). Urinary π-GST predicted advanced AKI at 3 hrs post-surgery (p = 0.033) and composite outcome (p = 0.009), while the corresponding ROC curve had AUC of 0.784 and 0.783. Using GAM, the cutoff value of 14.7 μg/L for π-GST showed the best performance to predict composite outcome. The addition of π-GST to the SOFA score improved risk stratification (total net reclassification index = 0.47). Thus, urinary π-GST levels predict advanced AKI or hospital mortality after cardiovascular surgery and improve in SOFA outcome assessment specific to AKI. PMID:27527370

  11. Urinary π-glutathione S-transferase Predicts Advanced Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiovascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Huang, Tao-Min; Wu, Pei-Chen; Lai, Chien-Heng; Tseng, Li-Jung; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Connolly, Rory; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2016-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers augment the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), with AKI after cardiovascular surgeries being a prototype of prognosis scenario. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) were evaluated as biomarkers of AKI. Urine samples were collected in 141 cardiovascular surgical patients and analyzed for urinary alpha-(α-) and pi-(π-) GSTs. The outcomes of advanced AKI (KDIGO stage 2, 3) and all-cause in-patient mortality, as composite outcome, were recorded. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to predict outcomes. Thirty-eight (26.9%) patients had AKI, while 12 (8.5%) were with advanced AKI. Urinary π-GST differentiated patients with/without advanced AKI or composite outcome after surgery (p < 0.05 by generalized estimating equation). Urinary π-GST predicted advanced AKI at 3 hrs post-surgery (p = 0.033) and composite outcome (p = 0.009), while the corresponding ROC curve had AUC of 0.784 and 0.783. Using GAM, the cutoff value of 14.7 μg/L for π-GST showed the best performance to predict composite outcome. The addition of π-GST to the SOFA score improved risk stratification (total net reclassification index = 0.47). Thus, urinary π-GST levels predict advanced AKI or hospital mortality after cardiovascular surgery and improve in SOFA outcome assessment specific to AKI. PMID:27527370

  12. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjay K; Maulik, Subir K

    2002-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficary of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic. PMID:12537594

  13. Growth hormone deficiency predicts cardiovascular risk in young adults treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Link, Katarina; Moëll, Christian; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Cavallin-Ståhl, Eva; Björk, Jonas; Thilén, Ulf; Ahrén, Bo; Erfurth, Eva Marie

    2004-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy, and until recently prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) was important for achieving long-term survival. Hypothalamic-pituitary hormone insufficiency is a well-recognized consequence of CRT for childhood cancer. Another problem is increased cardiovascular risk, which has been shown in long-term survivors of other childhood cancers. In the only previously reported study on cardiovascular risk after childhood ALL, obesity and dyslipidemia were recorded in a small subgroup treated with CRT, compared with patients treated with chemotherapy. The mechanisms behind the increase in cardiovascular risk in survivors of childhood cancer are not clarified. The aim of the present study was to elucidate mechanisms of increased cardiovascular risk in former childhood ALL patients. A group of 44 ALL survivors (23 males, median age 25 yr, range 19-32 yr at the time of study) treated with CRT (median 24 Gy, 18-30 Gy) at a median age of 5 yr (1-18 yr) and chemotherapy were investigated for prevalence of GH deficiency and cardiovascular risk factors. Comparison was made with controls randomly selected from the general population and individually matched for sex, age, smoking habits, and residence. All patients and controls underwent a GHRH-arginine test, and patients with a peak GH 3.9 microg/liter or greater were further investigated with an additional insulin tolerance test. Significantly higher plasma levels of insulin (P = 0.002), blood glucose (P = 0.01), and serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and leptin (all P

  14. The Effect of Intensified Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction on Recurrent Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Tzu-Wen; Chiou, Kuan-Rau; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Feng-Yu; Chiang, Cheng-Hung; Yang, Jin-Shiou; Lin, Ko-Long; Hsiao, Shin-Hung; Yeh, Tong-Chen; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Hsiao, Hsiang-Chiang; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Chiou, Chuen-Wang; Liu, Chun-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Background Lipid-lowering therapy plays an important role in preventing the recurrence of cardiovascular events in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to assess the effect of intensified low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction on recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality in patients after AMI. Method The 562 enrolled AMI patients (84.2% male) were divided into two groups according to 3-month LDL-C decrease percentage equal to or more than 40% (n = 165) and less than 40% (n = 397). To evaluate the long-term efficacy of LDL-C reduction, the 5-year outcomes were collected, including time to the first occurrence of myocardial infarction and time to cardiovascular death. Results The baseline characteristics and complication rates were not different between the two study groups. The patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease ≥ 40% had higher baseline LDL-C and lower 3-month, 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, 4-year and 5-year LDL-C than the patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease < 40%. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, those patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease ≥ 40% had a higher rate of freedom from myocardial infarction (p = 0.006) and survival rate (p = 0.02) at 5-year follow-up. The 3-month LDL-C < 40% parameter was significantly related to cardiovascular death (HR: 9.62, 95% CI 1.18-78.62, p < 0.04). Conclusions After acute myocardial infarction, 3-month LDL-C decrease < 40% was identified to be a significant risk factor for predicting 5-year cardiovascular death. The patients with 3-month LDL-C decrease ≥ 40% had a higher rate of freedom from myocardial infarction and lower cardiovascular mortality, even though these patients had higher baseline LDL-C value. PMID:27122737

  15. Acute coronary syndrome in the elderly: the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database-Acute Coronary Syndrome registry

    PubMed Central

    Zuhdi, Ahmad Syadi Mahmood; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad; Mariapun, Jeevitha; Ali, Rosli Mohd; Sari, Norashikin Md; Ismail, Muhammad Dzafir; Hian, Sim Kui

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The elderly are often underrepresented in clinical trials for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and cardiologists commonly face management dilemmas in the choice of treatment for this group of patients, particularly concerning the use of invasive revascularisation. This study analysed the characteristics of hospitalised elderly patients with ACS, and compared the outcomes of treatments. METHODS From 29 December 2005 to 26 April 2010, 13,545 patients were admitted for ACS in 16 hospitals across Malaysia. These patients were divided into two groups – elderly (≥ 65 years) and non-elderly (< 65 years). The clinical characteristics, treatment received (invasive or non-invasive) and outcomes (in-hospital and 30-day all-cause mortality) of the two groups were compared. The elderly patients were then grouped according to the type of treatment received, and the outcomes of the two subgroups were compared. RESULTS Elderly patients had a higher cardiovascular risk burden and a higher incidence of comorbidities. They were less likely to receive urgent revascularisation for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (elderly: 73.9% vs. non-elderly: 81.4%) and had longer door-to-needle time (elderly: 60 minutes vs. non-elderly: 50 minutes, p = 0.004). The rate of cardiac catheterisation was significantly lower in the elderly group across all ACS strata. Elderly patients had poorer outcomes than non-elderly patients, but those who received invasive treatment appeared to have better outcomes than those who received non-invasive treatment. CONCLUSION Elderly patients with ACS tend to be undertreated, both invasively and pharmacologically. Invasive treatment seems to yield better outcomes for this group of patients. PMID:26768171

  16. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  17. Particle-Induced Pulmonary Acute Phase Response Correlates with Neutrophil Influx Linking Inhaled Particles and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Nyendi, Allen Njimeri; Wahlberg, Pia; Madsen, Anne Mette; Jackson, Petra; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3) in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes), diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Results Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. Conclusions Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:23894396

  18. Cardiorenal syndrome: acute kidney injury secondary to cardiovascular disease and role of protein-bound uraemic toxins

    PubMed Central

    Lekawanvijit, Suree; Krum, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease are closely interrelated. Disease of one organ can induce dysfunction of the other, ultimately leading to failure of both. Clinical awareness of synergistic adverse clinical outcomes in patients with coexisting CVD and kidney disease or ‘cardiorenal syndrome (CRS)’ has existed. Renal dysfunction, even mild, is a strong independent predictor for poor prognosis in CVD patients. Developing therapeutic interventions targeting acute kidney injury (AKI) has been limited due mainly to lack of effective tools to accurately detect AKI in a timely manner. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 have been recently demonstrated to be potential candidate biomarkers in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, further validation of AKI biomarkers is needed in other CVD settings, especially acute decompensated heart failure and acute myocardial infarction where AKI commonly occurs. The other concern with regard to understanding the pathogenesis of renal complications in CVD is that mechanistically oriented studies have been relatively rare. Pre-clininal studies have shown that activation of renal inflammation–fibrosis processes, probably triggered by haemodynamic derangement, underlies CVD-associated renal dysfunction. On the other hand, it is postulated that there still are missing links in the heart–kidney connection in CRS patients who have significant renal dysfunction. At present, non-dialysable protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs) appear to be the main focus in this regard. Evidence of the causal role of PBUTs in CRS has been increasingly demonstrated, mainly focusing on indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS). Both IS and pCS are derived from colonic microbiotic metabolism of dietary amino acids, and hence the colon has become a target of treatment in addition to efforts to improve dialysis techniques for better removal of PBUTs. Novel therapy targeting the site of toxin

  19. Influenza and cardiovascular disease: does swine-origin, 2009 H1N1 flu virus represent a risk factor, an acute trigger, or both?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-02-01

    Influenza infection has become an important focus of both public and medical attention because of high-level perceived clinical and public health effects, enormously amplified by the current and ongoing 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, sustained by the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The current transmission of this virus among humans appears much higher than that traditionally observed with seasonal influenza, raising several outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection ranging in severity from self-limited to severe, even life-threatening disease. Reliable biological and clinical evidence support a significant association between influenza infection and cardiovascular disorders, so that S-IOV might also be regarded as a potential multifaceted bioweapon able to affect the function of the cardiovascular system through a kaleidoscope of humoral, biological, and biochemical mechanisms. In acute coronary ischemic episodes, on one hand, it seems reasonable to consider any acute influenza virus infection as a precipitating factor that is the final event propelling predisposed individuals (e.g., those with preexisting coronary artery disease) over a threshold that precipitates the development of infarction in synergy with other well-known triggers. On the other hand, influenza virus-induced endothelial dysfunction, modification of lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque outgrowth, and inflammation additionally support the role of influenza infection as a strong cardiovascular risk factor. Comprehensive information regarding the 2009 H1N1 infection remains limited, so that it seems unreasonable to draw definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, current recorded mortality data would lead us to conclude that this new virus might represent a sinister threat to humankind, with cardiovascular mortality risk highlighting an additional crucial role for increasing further the alert against this threat. It also seems reasonable to support calls for vaccination against these

  20. Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While the effects of daily fine particulate exposure (PM) have been well reviewed, the epidemiological and physiological evidence of cardiovascular effects associated to sub-daily exposures has not. We performed a theoretical model-driven systematic non-meta-analytical literature review to document the association between PM sub-daily exposures (≤6 hours) and arrhythmia, ischemia and myocardial infarction (MI) as well as the likely mechanisms by which sub-daily PM exposures might induce these acute cardiovascular effects. This review was motivated by the assessment of the risk of exposure to elevated sub-daily levels of PM during fireworks displays. Methods Medline and Elsevier's EMBase were consulted for the years 1996-2008. Search keywords covered potential cardiovascular effects, the pollutant of interest and the short duration of the exposure. Only epidemiological and experimental studies of adult humans (age > 18 yrs) published in English were reviewed. Information on design, population and PM exposure characteristics, and presence of an association with selected cardiovascular effects or physiological assessments was extracted from retrieved articles. Results Of 231 articles identified, 49 were reviewed. Of these, 17 addressed the relationship between sub-daily exposures to PM and cardiovascular effects: five assessed ST-segment depression indicating ischemia, eight assessed arrhythmia or fibrillation and five considered MI. Epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sub-daily levels of PM is associated with MI and ischemic events in the elderly. Epidemiological studies of sub-daily exposures suggest a plausible biological mechanism involving the autonomic nervous system while experimental studies suggest that vasomotor dysfunction may also relate to the occurrence of MI and ischemic events. Conclusions Future studies should clarify associations between cardiovascular effects of sub-daily PM exposure with PM size fraction and concurrent

  1. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  2. Cardiovascular effects of drugs used to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Howes, Laurence Guy

    2014-06-01

    Drugs that are used to treat Alzheimer's disease include the acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors (ACHIs) donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. Adverse cardiovascular events with these drugs are very uncommon. However, there is evidence that ACHI therapy is associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of syncope and bradycardia. There are also a few reports that these drugs may occasionally be associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. Adverse cardiovascular effects of ACHIs including syncope and bradycardia are less common than their adverse gastrointestinal effects, but they remain important considerations in susceptible individuals. In contrast, animal studies and some observational studies suggest that ACHIs may reduce myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality and have favourable effects on hemodynamics and survival in heart failure. Further research is required to confirm these potential beneficial effects. Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of memantine but there have been reports of bradycardia and reduced cardiovascular survival associated with its use. PMID:24777654

  3. Superparamagnetic iron oxide polyacrylic acid coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles do not affect kidney function but cause acute effect on the cardiovascular function in healthy mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Nina K.; Frische, Sebastian; Thomsen, Karen; Laustsen, Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael; Hansen, Pernille B.L.; Bie, Peter; Fresnais, Jérome; Berret, Jean-Francois; Baatrup, Erik; Wang, Tobias

    2013-01-15

    nanoparticle accumulation. ► No effects of accumulation in kidney on acid-base status or GFR. ► Acute hypotension associated with decreased contractility of small vessels. ► We demonstrate physiological effects of PAA γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP for medical purposes.

  4. Human thermal bioclimatic conditions associated with acute cardiovascular syndromes in Crete Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleta, Anastasia G.; Nastos, Panagiotis T.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the association between bioclimatic conditions and daily counts of admissions for non-fatal acute cardiovascular (acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, decompensation of heart failure) syndromes (ACS) registered by the two main hospitals in Heraklion, Crete Island, during a five-year period 2008-2012. The bioclimatic conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Mean daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness, were acquired from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service). These parameters were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, in order to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was performed by the use of the radiation and bioclimate model, "RayMan", which is well-suited to calculate radiation fluxes and human biometeorological indices. Generalized linear models (GLM) were applied to time series of daily numbers of outpatients with ACS against bioclimatic variations, after controlling for possible confounders and adjustment for season and trends. The interpretation of the results of this analysis suggests a significant association between cold weather and increased coronary heart disease incidence, especially in the elderly and males. Additionally, heat stress plays an important role in the configuration of daily ACS outpatients, even in temperate climate, as that in Crete Island. In this point it is worth mentioning that Crete Island is frequently affected by Saharan outbreaks, which are associated in many cases with miscellaneous phenomena, such as Föhn winds - hot and dry winds - causing extreme bioclimatic conditions (strong heat stress). Taking into consideration the projected increased ambient temperature in the future, ACS

  5. Opioid and non-opioid central cardiovascular effects of ketamine.

    PubMed

    Seth, S; Mukherjee, D; Choudhary, A K; Sinha, J N; Gurtu, S

    1990-11-01

    The cardiovascular responses to ketamine injected intracisternally were examined in chloralose anaesthetized cats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at different time intervals after intracisternal injection of drug or saline vehicle. The low doses of ketamine (0.5 or 1.0 mg) elicited dose dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. In contrast the high dose of ketamine (4 mg), produced a fall in blood pressure and heart rate. The cardiovascular response elicited by the low dose was naloxone insensitive and completely blocked by haloperidol, but not by dopamine antagonist pimozide. The vasodepressor and bradycardiac effect of the 4 mg dose was naloxone antagonizable. These data show that excitatory cardiovascular effects of the low dose result from a naloxone resistant site while in high doses an inhibitory effect is elicited by action at naloxone sensitive opiate receptors. PMID:1965327

  6. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  7. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte U; Rungby, Jorgen; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol remains unexplored. Pathways with anti-obesity potential include sirtuin activation, blockade of transient receptor potential (TRPV1) channels, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 inhibitors, uncoupling protein activators, bile acids, crotonins, CB1 antagonists, but the cardiovascular profile remains to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs. PMID:24846238

  8. Cardiovascular effects of fingolimod: Relevance, detection and approach.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Carlos; Batista, Sónia; Pacheco, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Fingolimod, a structural analogue of sphingosine, is the first oral treatment available for multiple sclerosis. The presence of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors in the sinus and atrioventricular nodes, myocardial cells, endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells is responsible for fingolimod's cardiovascular effects. We provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms of these effects and characterize their clinical relevance. PMID:25843307

  9. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry--leading the charge for National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database.

    PubMed

    Chin, S P; Jeyaindran, S; Azhari, R; Wan Azman, W A; Omar, I; Robaayah, Z; Sim, K H

    2008-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most rampant non-communicable diseases in the world. It begins indolently as a fatty streak in the lining of the artery that soon progresses to narrow the coronary arteries and impair myocardial perfusion. Often the atherosclerotic plaque ruptures and causes sudden thrombotic occlusion and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). This phenomenon is called acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is the leading cause of death not only in Malaysia but also globally. In order for us to tackle this threat to the health of our nation we must arm ourselves with reliable and accurate information to assess current burden of disease resources available and success of current strategies. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry is the flagship of the National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD) and is the result of the dedicated and untiring efforts of doctors and nurses in both public and private medical institutions and hospitals around the country, ably guided and supported by the National Heart Association, the National Heart Foundation, the Clinical Research Centre and the Ministry of Health of Malaysia. Analyses of data collected throughout 2006 from 3422 patients with ACS admitted to the 12 tertiary cardiac centres and general hospitals spanning nine states in Malaysia in this first report has already revealed surprising results. Mean age of patients was 59 years while the most consistent risk factor for STEMI was active smoking. Utilization of medications was high generally. Thirty-day mortality for STEMI was 11%, for NSTEMI 8% and UA 4%. Thrombolysis (for STEMI only) reduced in-hospital and 30-day mortality by nearly 50%. Percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI also reduced 30-day mortality for patients with non-ST elevation MI and unstable angina. The strongest determinants of mortality appears to be Killip Class and age of the patient. Fewer women received

  10. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; At'kov, O. Yu.; Vasin, A. L.; Breus, T. K.; Sasonko, M. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling "ARFA" has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions.

  11. Effect of zero magnetic field on cardiovascular system and microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Yu I; At'kov, O Yu; Vasin, A L; Breus, T K; Sasonko, M L; Pishchalnikov, R Yu

    2016-02-01

    The effects of zero magnetic field conditions on cardiovascular system of healthy adults have been studied. In order to generate zero magnetic field, the facility for magnetic fields modeling "ARFA" has been used. Parameters of the capillary blood flow, blood pressure, and the electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring were measured during the study. All subjects were tested twice: in zero magnetic field and, for comparison, in sham condition. The obtained results during 60 minutes of zero magnetic field exposure demonstrate a clear effect on cardiovascular system and microcirculation. The results of our experiments can be used in studies of long-term stay in hypo-magnetic conditions during interplanetary missions. PMID:26948007

  12. The effect of metformin on cardiovascular risk profile in patients without diabetes presenting with acute myocardial infarction: data from the Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) trial

    PubMed Central

    Lexis, Chris P H; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A; Lipsic, Erik; Valente, Mattia A E; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; de Boer, Rudolf A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Harst, Pim; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with diabetes mellitus, metformin treatment is associated with reduced mortality and attenuation of cardiovascular risk. As a subanalysis of the Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) study, we evaluated whether metformin treatment in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without diabetes improves the cardiovascular risk profile. Methods A total of 379 patients, without known diabetes, presenting with STEMI were randomly allocated to receive metformin 500 mg twice daily or placebo for 4 months. Results After 4 months, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients receiving metformin (n=172) was improved compared with placebo (n=174); glycated hemoglobin (5.83% (95% CI 5.79% to 5.87%) vs 5.89% (95% CI 5.85% to 5.92%); 40.2 mmol/mol (95% CI 39.8 to 40.6) vs 40.9 mmol/mol (40.4 to 41.2), p=0.049); total cholesterol (3.85 mmol/L (95% CI 3.73 to 3.97) vs 4.02 mmol/L (95% CI 3.90 to 4.14), p=0.045); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.10 mmol/L (95% CI 1.99 to 2.20) vs 2.3 mmol/L (95% CI 2.20 to 2.40), p=0.007); body weight (83.8 kg (95% CI 83.0 to 84.7) vs 85.2 kg (95% CI 84.4 to 86.1), p=0.024); body mass index (26.8 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.5 to 27.0) vs 27.2 kg/m2 (95% CI 27.0 to 27.5), p=0.014). Levels of fasting glucose, postchallenge glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure were similar in both groups. Conclusions Among patients with STEMI without diabetes, treatment with metformin for 4 months resulted in a modest improvement of the cardiovascular risk profile compared with placebo. Trial register number NCT01217307. PMID:26688733

  13. Cardiovascular Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu Mi; Jung, Chang Hee

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27118277

  14. Cardiovascular Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu Mi

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27118277

  15. The effect of mirthful laughter on the human cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael; Fry, William F

    2009-11-01

    It has become increasingly recognized and more widely acknowledged during the past several decades, that a complex relationship exists between behavior associated with emotion and the human cardiovascular (CV) system. Early studies focused on the interplay between negative emotions and elevated CV risk, an effect that has in large part been attributed to increased adrenergic activity. Thus, a variety of adverse CV effects ranging from sudden cardiac death triggered by natural disasters such as earthquakes to transient myocardial stunning resulting from heightened sympathetic overload have been identified in response to acute emotional distress. In fact, the biologic interplay between emotion and CV health has been greatly enhanced through studies of the vascular endothelium. As the largest organ in humans, the inner blood vessel lining serves as a conduit for the transfer of blood cells, lipids and various nutrients across the lumen to neighboring tissues. Healthy endothelial cells secrete vasoactive chemicals, most notably endothelial-derived relaxing factor or nitric oxide (NO), that effects smooth muscle relaxation and vessel dilation via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) dependent protein kinase signaling pathway. In addition, endothelial derived NO may reduce vascular inflammation by attenuating or inhibiting leukocyte adhesion and subendothelial transmigration as well as decreasing platelet activation via cGMP mediated pathways. Taken together, studying the endothelium provides an exceptional opportunity to advance our understanding of the potentially important interrelationship between emotions and the vasculature. Premised on the identification of physiological and biochemical correlates, the former was demonstrated after intracoronary administration of acetylcholine yielded paradoxical endothelial vasoconstriction in response to mental stress exercises. More recently, the brachial artery reactivity test (BART) has permitted endothelial function to be

  16. Impaired cardiovascular structure and function in adult survivors of severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Ingrid A; Barnett, Alan T; Thompson, Debbie S; Kips, Jan; Boyne, Michael S; Chung, Edward E; Chung, Andrene P; Osmond, Clive; Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Segers, Patrick; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Forrester, Terrence E

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition below 5 years remains a global health issue. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) presents in childhood as oedematous (kwashiorkor) or nonoedematous (marasmic) forms, with unknown long-term cardiovascular consequences. We hypothesized that cardiovascular structure and function would be poorer in SAM survivors than unexposed controls. We studied 116 adult SAM survivors, 54 after marasmus, 62 kwashiorkor, and 45 age/sex/body mass index-matched community controls who had standardized anthropometry, blood pressure, echocardiography, and arterial tonometry performed. Left ventricular indices and outflow tract diameter, carotid parameters, and pulse wave velocity were measured, with systemic vascular resistance calculated. All were expressed as SD scores. Mean (SD) age was 28.8±7.8 years (55% men). Adjusting for age, sex, height, and weight, SAM survivors had mean (SE) reductions for left ventricular outflow tract diameter of 0.67 (0.16; P<0.001), stroke volume 0.44 (0.17; P=0.009), cardiac output 0.5 (0.16; P=0.001), and pulse wave velocity 0.32 (0.15; P=0.03) compared with controls but higher diastolic blood pressures (by 4.3; 1.2-7.3 mm Hg; P=0.007). Systemic vascular resistance was higher in marasmus and kwashiorkor survivors (30.2 [1.2] and 30.8 [1.1], respectively) than controls 25.3 (0.8), overall difference 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-8.4 mm Hg min/L; P<0.0001). No evidence of large vessel or cardiac remodeling was found, except closer relationships between these indices in former marasmic survivors. Other parameters did not differ between SAM survivor groups. We conclude that adult SAM survivors had smaller outflow tracts and cardiac output when compared with controls, yet markedly elevated peripheral resistance. Malnutrition survivors are thus likely to develop excess hypertension in later life, especially when exposed to obesity. PMID:24980666

  17. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  18. A Computer Model of the Cardiovascular System for Effective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Carl F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a physiological model which solves a set of interacting, possibly nonlinear, differential equations through numerical integration on a digital computer. Sample printouts are supplied and explained for effects on the components of a cardiovascular system when exercise, hemorrhage, and cardiac failure occur. (CS)

  19. Orange juice–derived flavanone and phenolic metabolites do not acutely affect cardiovascular risk biomarkers: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in men at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease12345

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Manuel Y; Curtis, Peter J; Hazim, Sara; Ostertag, Luisa M; Kay, Colin D; Potter, John F; Cassidy, Aedín

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic data suggest inverse associations between citrus flavanone intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, insufficient randomized controlled trial data limit our understanding of the mechanisms by which flavanones and their metabolites potentially reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: We examined the effects of orange juice or a dose-matched hesperidin supplement on plasma concentrations of established and novel flavanone metabolites and their effects on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in men at moderate CVD risk. Design: In an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 16 fasted participants (aged 51–69 y) received orange juice or a hesperidin supplement (both providing 320 mg hesperidin) or control (all matched for sugar and vitamin C content). At baseline and 5 h postintake, endothelial function (primary outcome), blood pressure, arterial stiffness, cardiac autonomic function, platelet activation, and NADPH oxidase gene expression and plasma flavanone metabolites were assessed. Before each intervention, a diet low in flavonoids, nitrate/nitrite, alcohol, and caffeine was followed, and a standardized low-flavonoid evening meal was consumed. Results: Orange juice intake significantly elevated mean ± SEM plasma concentrations of 8 flavanone (1.75 ± 0.35 μmol/L, P < 0.0001) and 15 phenolic (13.27 ± 2.22 μmol/L, P < 0.0001) metabolites compared with control at 5 h postconsumption. Despite increased plasma flavanone and phenolic metabolite concentrations, cardiovascular risk biomarkers were unaltered. After hesperidin supplement intake, flavanone metabolites were not different from the control, suggesting altered absorption/metabolism compared with the orange juice matrix. Conclusions: After single-dose flavanone intake within orange juice, circulating flavanone and phenolic metabolites collectively reached a concentration of 15.20 ± 2.15 μmol/L, but no effects were observed on cardiovascular risk

  20. The Decline Effect in Cardiovascular Medicine: Is the Effect of Cardiovascular Medicine and Stent on Cardiovascular Events Decline Over the Years?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    The term decline effect is referred to a diminution of scientifically discovered effects over time. Reasons for the decline effect are multifaceted and include publication bias, selective reporting, outcomes reporting bias, regression to the mean, scientific paradigm shift, overshadowing and habituation, among others. Such effects can be found in cardiovascular medicines through medications (e.g., aspirin, antithrombotics, proton pump inhibitor, beta-blockers, statins, estrogen/progestin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor etc.), as well as with interventional devices (e.g., angioplasty, percutaneous coronary intervention, stents). The scientific community should understand the various dimensions of the decline effects, and effective steps should be undertaken to prevent or recognize such decline effects in cardiovascular medicines. PMID:23964290

  1. Cumulative Cardiovascular Polypharmacy Is Associated With the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shin; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Polypharmacy is common in the elderly due to multimorbidity and interventions. However, the temporal association between polypharmacy and renal outcomes is rarely addressed and recognized. We investigated the association between cardiovascular (CV) polypharmacy and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly patients.We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance PharmaCloud system to investigate the relationship between cumulative CV medications in the 3 months before admission and risk of AKI in the elderly at their admission to general medical wards in a single center. Community-dwelling elderly patients (>60 years) were prospectively enrolled and classified according to the number of preadmission CV medications. CV polypharmacy was defined as use of 2 or more CV medications.We enrolled 152 patients, 48% with AKI (based upon Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] classification) and 64% with CV polypharmacy. The incidence of AKI was higher in patients taking more CV medications (0 drugs: 33%; 1 drug: 50%; 2 drugs: 57%; 3 or more drugs: 60%; P = 0.05) before admission. Patients with higher KDIGO grades also took more preadmission CV medications (P = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis showed that patients who used 1 or more CV medications before admission had increased risk of AKI at admission (1 drug: odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, P = 0.2; 2 drugs: OR = 4.74, P = 0.03; 3 or more drugs: OR = 5.92, P = 0.02), and that CV polypharmacy is associated with higher risk of AKI (OR 2.58; P = 0.02). Each additional CV medication increased the risk for AKI by 30%.We found that elderly patients taking more CV medications are associated with risk of adverse renal events. Further study to evaluate whether interventions that reduce polypharmacy could reduce the incidence of geriatric AKI is urgently needed. PMID:26252287

  2. Aldosterone predicts major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yuyun, Matthew Fomonyuy; Jutla, Sandeep K; Quinn, Paulene A; Ng, Leong L

    2012-01-01

    Objective Aldosterone is associated with increased mortality in chronic heart failure patients and correlates with adverse outcomes after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in smaller cohorts. We evaluated the prognostic significance of plasma aldosterone in a large cohort of post-AMI patients in relation to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Design A prospective cohort study. Setting University Hospitals of Leicester, UK. Patients Consecutive 955 patients admitted with AMI. Plasma aldosterone levels were measured in these patients. Main outcome measures During the 2 years follow-up, MACE which was a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial reinfarction, and hospitalisation for heart failure as well as secondary endpoints (all-cause mortality and a combination of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation for heart failure), were ascertained. Results MACE occured in N=261, 27.3%, all-cause mortality (N=114, 11.9%) and a combination of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation for heart failure (N=176, 18.4%). Patients with MACE had significantly higher median levels of aldosterone than those without (1150.1 vs 950.4 pmol/l, p=0.0118). The multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) for log aldosterone on MACE was 1.26 (1.01 to 1.56), p=0.041; all-cause mortality 1.60 (1.13 to 2.27), p=0.008; and combination of all-cause mortality and heart failure 1.50 (1.14 to 1.97), p=0.003. Conclusions The prognostic significance of aldosterone for a variety of endpoints in this large cohort of post-AMI patients is not new and adds to the findings by others. The magnitude of the increase in aldosterone secretion post infarction is higher than previously believed.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, cardiovascular risk factor profile and risk for acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Anne-Lise, Paisible; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; So-Armah, Kaku A.; Butt, Adeel A.; Leaf, David A.; Budoff, Matthew; Rimland, David; Bedimo, Roger; Goetz, Matthew B.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Crane, Heidi M.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Warner, Alberta L.; Alcorn, Charles; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Freiberg, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDRFs) increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among HIV infected (HIV+) patients. We assessed the association between HIV and incident AMI within CVDRF strata. Methods Cohort 81322 participants (33% HIV+) without prevalent CVD from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort (prospective study of HIV+ and matched HIV− veterans). Veterans were followed from first clinical encounter on/after 4/1/2003 until AMI/death/last follow-up date (12/31/2009). Predictors HIV, CVDRFs (total cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering agents, blood-pressure (BP), BP medication, smoking, diabetes) used to create 6 mutually exclusive profiles: all CVDRFs optimal, 1+ non-optimal CVDRFs, 1+ elevated CVDRFs, and 1, 2, 3+ major CVDRFs. Outcome Incident AMI (defined using enzyme, EKG clinical data, 410 inpatient ICD-9 (Medicare), and/or death certificates). Statistics: Cox models adjusted for demographics, comorbidity, and substance use. Results 858 AMIs (42% HIV+) occurred over 5.9 years (median). Prevalence of optimal cardiac health was <2%. Optimal CVDRF profile was associated with the lowest adjusted AMI rates. Compared to HIV− veterans, AMI rates among HIV+ veterans with similar CVDRF profiles were higher. Compared to HIV− veterans without major CVDRFs, HIV+ veterans without major CVDRFs had a 2-fold increased risk of AMI (HR: 2.0 95%CI: 1.0–3.9, p=0.044). Conclusion The prevalence of optimal cardiac health is low in this cohort. Among those without major CVDRFs, HIV+ veterans have twice the AMI risk. Compared to HIV− veterans with high CVDRF burden, AMI rates were still higher in HIV+ veterans. Preventing/reducing CVDRF burden may reduce excess AMI risk among HIV+ people. PMID:25588033

  4. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Gösta; Eriksson, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A) noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19) per 5 dB(A) noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning. PMID:21537104

  5. Effect of Sustained Human Centrifugation on Autonomic Cardiovascular and Vestibular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated exposure to +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, both sustained exposure to +Gx and changes in otolith function resulting from the gravitational changes of space flight and parabolic flight may adversely affect autonomic cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance. HYPOTHESES: Baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single sustained (30 min) exposure to +3Gz but not +3Gx. Moreover, after 30 min of +3Gx, any changes that occur in autonomic cardiovascular function will relate commensurately to changes in otolith function. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy human subjects were first exposed to 5 min of +3 Gz centrifugation and then subsequently up to a total of30 min of either +3Gz (n = 15) or +3Gx (n = 7) centrifugation. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after both types of centrifugation included: (a) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; (b) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; ( c) Valsalva tests; and (d) 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: All four +3Gz subjects who were intolerant to HUT before centrifugation became tolerant to HUT after centrifugation. The operational point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex and the Valsalva-related baroreflex were also enhanced in the +3Gz group but not in the +3Gx group. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected, other than a significant vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: A single, sustained exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance whereas a similar exposure to +3 Gx centrifugation appears to have less effect.

  6. Cardiovascular Effects of Salvianolic Acid B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SAB, Sal B) is the representative component of phenolic acids derived from the dried root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (Labiatae) which has been used widely and successfully in Asian countries for clinical therapy of various vascular disturbance-related diseases for hundreds of years. However, its exact cardioprotective components and the underlying mechanism for therapeutic basis are still poorly understood. This paper discussed and elucidated the underlying biological mechanisms and pharmacology of Sal B and their potential cardioprotective effects. PMID:23840250

  7. Effect of postural changes on cardiovascular parameters across gender

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kieran; Rössler, Andreas; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Trozic, Irhad; Laing, Charles; Lorr, David; Green, David A; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Goswami, Nandu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We investigated the effect of postural changes on various cardiovascular parameters across gender. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (16 male, 12 female) were observed at rest (supine) and subjected to 3 interventions; head-down tilt (HDT), HDT with lower body negative pressure (HDT+ LBNP at −30 mm Hg), and head-up tilt (HUT), each for 10 minutes separated by a 10 minutes recovery period. Methods: Measurements were recorded for heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive differences between the normal-to-normal intervals, heart rate variability-low frequency (LFRRI), heart rate variability-high frequency (HFRRI), low frequency/high frequency ratio (LFRRI/HFRRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), index of contractility (IC), left ventricular work index, and left ventricular ejection time. Results: Across all cardiovascular parameters, there was a significant main effect of the intervention applied but there was no significant main effect of gender across all parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that there are no specific gender differences in regards to the measured variables under the conditions of this study. Furthermore, these results suggest that in healthy subjects, there appears to be evidence that LBNP partially elicits similar cardiovascular responses to HUT, which supports the use of LBNP as an intervention to counteract the effects of central hypovolemia. PMID:27428203

  8. Leptin and its cardiovascular effects: Focus on angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tahergorabi, Zoya; Khazaei, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis. PMID:26015905

  9. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y H; Ng, T K

    1991-03-01

    A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in

  10. Cardiovascular effects of cocaine: cellular, ionic and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, E; Bello, S; Neri, M; Pomara, C; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused drug responsible for the majority of deaths ascribed to drug overdose. Many mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain the various cocaine associated cardiovascular complications. Conventionally, cocaine cardiotoxicity has been thought to be mediated indirectly through its sympathomimetic effect, i.e., by inhibiting the reuptake and thus increasing the levels of neuronal catecholamines at work on adrenoceptors. Increased oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and cocaine-induced apoptosis in the heart muscle have suggested a new way to understand the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine. More recent studies have led the attention to the interaction of cocaine and some metabolites with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The current paper is aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cocaine cardiotoxicity which have a specific clinical and forensic interest. From a clinical point of view the full knowledge of the exact mechanisms by which cocaine exerts cardio - vascular damage is essential to identify potential therapeutic targets and improve novel strategies for cocaine related cardiovascular diseases. From a forensic point of view, it is to be underlined that cocaine use is often associated to sudden death in young, otherwise healthy individuals. While such events are widely reported, the relationship between cardiac morphological alterations and molecular/cellular mechanisms is still controversial. In conclusion, the study of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity needs a strict collaboration between clinicians and pathologists which may be very effective in further dissecting the mechanisms underlying cocaine cardiotoxicity and understanding the cardiac cocaine connection. PMID:22856657

  11. Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients using clopidogrel with proton pump inhibitors after percutaneous coronary intervention or acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rassen, Jeremy A.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Avorn, Jerry; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised concerns about reduced efficacy of clopidogrel when used concurrently with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but those studies may have overestimated the risk. Methods and Results We studied the potential for increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events among users of clopidogrel with concurrent use of PPIs versus without, in three large cohorts of patients ≥ 65 years treated between 2001-2005. All patients had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention or been hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, or British Columbia, and had subsequently initiated treatment with clopidogrel. We recorded myocardial infarction (MI) hospitalization, death, and revascularization among PPI users and non-users. We assessed our primary endpoint of MI or death using cohort-specific and pooled regression analyses. 18,565 clopidogrel users entered our analysis. On a pooled basis, 2.6% of those who also initiated a PPI versus 2.1% of PPI non-users had an MI hospitalization; 1.5% versus 0.9% died, and 3.4% versus 3.1% underwent revascularization. The propensity score-adjusted rate ratio for the primary endpoint of MI or death was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.51); for death 1.20 (0.84, 1.70); and for revascularization, 0.97 (0.79 to 1.21). Matched analyses generally yielded similar results. Conclusions Though point estimates indicated a slightly increased risk of MI or death in older patients initiating both clopidogrel and a PPI, we did not observe conclusive evidence of a clopidogrel/PPI interaction of major clinical relevance. Our data suggest that should this effect exist, is unlikely to exceed a 20% risk increase. PMID:19933932

  12. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  13. The effects of competition and competitiveness on cardiovascular activity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Denning, S; Easton, H L; Hall, J C; Burns, V E; Ring, C; Carroll, D

    2001-07-01

    Cardiovascular activity was measured at resting baseline and in response to a car racing game, undertaken in competition or in cooperation with an experimenter, or individually. Competitiveness and win and goal orientations were assessed by questionnaire. Competition provoked increases in blood pressure and heart rate, and a significant shortening of the preejection period, an index of enhanced beta-adrenergic influences on the heart. The cooperation task was largely without effect, and although the solo task affected cardiovascular activity, it did so to a lesser extent and much less consistently than did the competition task. The three task conditions, then, were largely distinguishable by their capacity to activate beta-adrenergic processes. Participants high in competitiveness and desire to win showed higher blood pressure reactions and greater shortening of the preejection period to competition than those low in these characteristics. PMID:11446573

  14. Mortality and Treatment Patterns Among Patients Hospitalized With Acute Cardiovascular Conditions During Dates of National Cardiology Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Anupam B.; Prasad, Vinay; Goldman, Dana P.; Romley, John

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Thousands of physicians attend scientific meetings annually. Although hospital physician staffing and composition may be affected by meetings, patient outcomes and treatment patterns during meeting dates are unknown. OBJECTIVE To analyze mortality and treatment differences among patients admitted with acute cardiovascular conditions during dates of national cardiology meetings compared with nonmeeting dates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective analysis of 30-day mortality among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, or cardiac arrest from 2002 through 2011 during dates of 2 national cardiology meetings compared with identical nonmeeting days in the 3 weeks before and after conferences (AMI, 8570 hospitalizations during 82 meeting days and 57 471 during 492 nonmeeting days; heart failure, 19 282 during meeting days and 11 4591 during nonmeeting days; cardiac arrest, 1564 during meeting days and 9580 during nonmeeting days). Multivariable analyses were conducted separately for major teaching hospitals and nonteaching hospitals and for low-and high-risk patients. Differences in treatment utilization were assessed. EXPOSURES Hospitalization during cardiology meeting dates. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Thirty-day mortality, procedure rates, charges, length of stay. RESULTS Patient characteristics were similar between meeting and nonmeeting dates. In teaching hospitals, adjusted 30-day mortality was lower among high-risk patients with heart failure or cardiac arrest admitted during meeting vs nonmeeting dates (heart failure, 17.5% [95% CI, 13.7%–21.2%] vs 24.8% [95% CI, 22.9%–26.6%]; P < .001; cardiac arrest, 59.1% [95% CI, 51.4%–66.8%] vs 69.4% [95% CI, 66.2%–72.6%]; P = .01). Adjusted mortality for high-risk AMI in teaching hospitals was similar between meeting and nonmeeting dates (39.2% [95% CI, 31.8%–46.6%] vs 38.5% [95% CI, 35.0%–42.0%]; P = .86), although adjusted percutaneous

  15. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  16. Blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychological stress: a summary of results from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study is a large population based study of late middle aged, overall healthy men and women whose health has been followed from 50 to 65years of age. In a sample of 725 cohort members, an extensive psychological stress protocol was performed during which cardiovascular and cortisol responses were measured. In line with many previous studies, results showed that increased blood pressure responsiveness to the stress protocol was associated with an increased risk for hypertension 5years later. However, decreased cardiovascular and/or cortisol stress reactivity were associated with obesity and the risk of becoming obese, symptoms of depression and anxiety, a poor self-reported health, poor lung function, and poor cognitive function (all p for statistical tests<0.05). These associations generally survived adjustment for a range of potential confounders, including resting cardiovascular and cortisol activity, commitment to the stress tasks, sex, age, smoking and use of medication. Results from these studies agree with recent evidence that low biological reactivity to acute psychological stress may not always be beneficial for health but instead seems to be a marker for a range of negative health outcomes. Future studies have to point out whether low stress reactivity precedes or follows these negative health outcomes. PMID:23046585

  17. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Józef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Yauk, Carole L.; Wallin, Håkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance by non contrast T1-mapping allows assessment of severity of injury in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods, such as late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and oedema imaging (T2W) used to depict myocardial ischemia, have limitations. Novel quantitative T1-mapping techniques have the potential to further characterize the components of ischemic injury. In patients with myocardial infarction (MI) we sought to investigate whether state-of the art pre-contrast T1-mapping (1) detects acute myocardial injury, (2) allows for quantification of the severity of damage when compared to standard techniques such as LGE and T2W, and (3) has the ability to predict long term functional recovery. Methods 3T CMR including T2W, T1-mapping and LGE was performed in 41 patients [of these, 78% were ST elevation MI (STEMI)] with acute MI at 12-48 hour after chest pain onset and at 6 months (6M). Patients with STEMI underwent primary PCI prior to CMR. Assessment of acute regional wall motion abnormalities, acute segmental damaged fraction by T2W and LGE and mean segmental T1 values was performed on matching short axis slices. LGE and improvement in regional wall motion at 6M were also obtained. Results We found that the variability of T1 measurements was significantly lower compared to T2W and that, while the diagnostic performance of acute T1-mapping for detecting myocardial injury was at least as good as that of T2W-CMR in STEMI patients, it was superior to T2W imaging in NSTEMI. There was a significant relationship between the segmental damaged fraction assessed by either by LGE or T2W, and mean segmental T1 values (P < 0.01). The index of salvaged myocardium derived by acute T1-mapping and 6M LGE was not different to the one derived from T2W (P = 0.88). Furthermore, the likelihood of improvement of segmental function at 6M decreased progressively as acute T1 values increased (P < 0.0004). Conclusions In acute MI, pre-contrast T1-mapping allows assessment of the extent of myocardial damage. T1-mapping might become an important

  19. Acute stress evokes selective mobilization of T cells that differ in chemokine receptor expression: a potential pathway linking immunologic reactivity to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jos A; Berntson, Gary G; Cacioppo, John T; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Marucha, Phillip T

    2003-08-01

    T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages are the most abundant cells found in the atherosclerotic plaque. These cells can migrate towards the activated endothelium through the local release of chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines. Given the important role of leukocyte migration in atherosclerosis and the role of stress in mediating leukocyte trafficking, the present study examined the effects of an acute stressor on the redistribution of T cells (CD3+) and monocytes that express the chemokine receptors CCR5, CCR6, CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, and CXCR4. Forty-four undergraduate students underwent a public speaking task. The acute stressor induced sympathetic cardiac activation, parasympathetic cardiac withdrawal, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis (all p<.001). Although the total number of T lymphocytes did not change, there was a selective increase in the number of circulating T cells expressing CXCR2, CXCR3, and CCR5. The ligands of these receptors are chemokines known to be secreted by activated endothelial cells. Analyses of individual differences in stress-induced responses demonstrated a positive relationship between sympathetic cardiac reactivity and mobilization of the various T cell subsets (.35acute stress induces a mobilization of T cells that are primed to respond to inflamed endothelium. Acute stressors may thus promote the recruitment of circulating immune cells into the sub-endothelia, and therefore accelerate atherosclerotic plaque formation and potentially contribute to the complications that follow acute stressful events. This mechanism may help explain the link between stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:12831827

  20. Acute changes in cardiovascular function during the onset period of daytime sleep: comparison to lying awake and standing.

    PubMed

    Zaregarizi, Mohammad; Edwards, Ben; George, Keith; Harrison, Yvonne; Jones, Helen; Atkinson, Greg

    2007-10-01

    The siesta habit is associated with a 37% reduction in coronary mortality, possibly because of reduced cardiovascular stress associated with daytime sleep. Whether the most important behavior is the daytime nap itself, a supine posture, or the expectancy of a nap is unknown. We present the first detailed description on healthy individuals of the acute changes in cardiovascular function during defined phases of the daytime sleep-onset period. These responses were compared with lying awake and standing. Following a night of restricted (4 h) sleep, nine healthy participants (aged 34 +/- 5 yr) were allowed to sleep at 1400 for up to 1 h. Polysomnography was used to calculate three phases of daytime sleep onset: phase 1, a baseline period of relaxed wakefulness before lights out; phase 2, the period between lights out and onset of stage 1 sleep; and phase 3, the period between onsets of stages 1 and 2 sleep. Differences (means +/- SD) in blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) between phases were analyzed. During the 9.7 +/- 13.8 min of phase 2, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 4.7 +/- 4.5 and 3.6 +/- 2.8 mmHg lower than baseline, whereas CVC was 9.5 +/- 4.3% higher than baseline (P < 0.05). Subsequent changes in cardiovascular function during the sleep itself were trivial (P > 0.05). The above changes were not observed when subjects stood or laid supine in relaxed wakefulness for 1 h (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the period between lights out and sleep onset is associated with the largest acute reduction in blood pressure during one afternoon siesta. PMID:17641220

  1. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, Rinske; van Oerle, René; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Kragten, Johannes A.; Crijns, Harry; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310–885) vs. 380(235–540) μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2–20.9] and 4.5 [1.1–18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:27419389

  2. The cardiovascular effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed Central

    Smits, P; Thien, T; Van 't Laar, A

    1985-01-01

    In a single-blind study the effects of drinking two cups of regular or decaffeinated coffee on blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma concentrations of caffeine, renin and catecholamines were studied in 12 normotensive subjects. Drinking regular coffee led to a rise of blood pressure, a fall of heart rate and an increase of plasma catecholamines. Decaffeinated coffee induced a smaller increase of diastolic blood pressure without changing other parameters. This study shows that the cardiovascular effects of drinking coffee are mainly the result of its caffeine content. PMID:4027129

  3. National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) initiative report on cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Vedal, Sverre; Campen, Matthew J; McDonald, Jacob D; Larson, Timothy V; Sampson, Paul D; Sheppard, Lianne; Simpson, Christopher D; Szpiro, Adam A

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiologic and toxicologic studies were carried out in concert to provide complementary insights into the compositional features of ambient particulate matter (PM*) that produce cardiovascular effects. In the epidemiologic studies, we made use of cohort data from two ongoing studies--the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Women's Health Initiative--Observational Study (WHI-OS)--to investigate subclinical markers of atherosclerosis and clinical cardiovascular events. In the toxicologic study, we used the apolipoprotein E null (ApoE(-/-)) hypercholesterolemic mouse model to assess cardiovascular effects of inhalation exposure to various atmospheres containing laboratory-generated pollutants. In the epidemiologic studies, individual-level residential concentrations of fine PM, that is, PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or smaller (PM2.5), PM2.5 components (primarily elemental carbon [EC] and organic carbon [OC], silicon, and sulfur but also sulfate, nitrate, nickel, vanadium, and copper), and the gaseous pollutants sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were estimated using spatiotemporal modeling and other exposure estimation approaches. In the MESA cohort data, evidence for associations with increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was found to be strongest for PM2.5, OC, and sulfur, as well as for copper in more limited analyses; the evidence for this was found to be weaker for silicon, EC, and the other components and gases. Similarly, in the WHI-OS cohort data, evidence for associations with incidence of cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events was found to be good for OC and sulfur, respectively, and for PM2.5; the evidence for this was found to be weaker for EC and silicon. Source apportionment based on extensive monitoring data in the six cities in the MESA analyses indicated that OC represented secondary formation processes as well as primary gasoline and biomass emissions, that sulfur represented largely

  4. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  5. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    PubMed

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  6. CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulate the cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leandro A; Almeida, Jeferson; Benini, Ricardo; Crestani, Carlos C

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in behavioral and physiological responses to emotional stress through its action in several limbic structures, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Nevertheless, the role of CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the BNST in cardiovascular adjustments during aversive threat is unknown. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the involvement of CRF receptors within the BNST in cardiovascular responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. For this, we evaluated the effects of bilateral treatment of the BNST with selective agonists and antagonists of either CRF1 or CRF2 receptors in the arterial pressure and heart rate increase and the decrease in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Microinjection of the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist CP376395 into the BNST reduced the pressor and tachycardiac responses caused by restraint. Conversely, BNST treatment with the selective CRF1 receptor agonist CRF increased restraint-evoked arterial pressure and HR responses and reduced the fall in tail skin temperature response. All effects of CRF were inhibited by local BNST pretreatment with CP376395. The selective CRF2 receptor antagonist antisalvagine-30 reduced the arterial pressure increase and the fall in tail skin temperature. The selective CRF2 receptor agonist urocortin-3 increased restraint-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses and reduced the drop in cutaneous temperature. All effects of urocortin-3 were abolished by local BNST pretreatment with antisalvagine-30. These findings indicate an involvement of both CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the BNST in cardiovascular adjustments during emotional stress. PMID:25829333

  7. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Sarah S; Saber, Anne T; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Józef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Yauk, Carole L; Wallin, Håkan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNTSmall, 0.8±0.1μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4±0.4μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25620056

  8. Assessing the effects of the Spanish partial smoking ban on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases: methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Lorena; Flores, Víctor; Ortiz, Cristina; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Boldo, Elena; José Medrano, María; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent research has assessed the impact of tobacco laws on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity. In this study, we also examined whether the association between the implementation of the 2005 Spanish smoking ban and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases varies according to the adjustment for potential confounders. Design Ecological time series analysis. Setting Residents of Madrid and Barcelona cities (Spain). Outcome Data on daily emergency room admissions for acute myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma derived from the 2003–2006 Spanish hospital admissions registry. Methods Changes in admission rates between 2006 and the 2003–2005 period were estimated using additive Poisson models allowing for overdispersion adjusted for secular trend in admission, seasonality, day of the week, temperature, number of flu and acute respiratory infection cases, pollution levels, tobacco consumption prevalence and, for asthma cases, pollen count. Results In Madrid, fully adjusted models failed to detect significant changes in hospital admission rates for any disease during the study period. In Barcelona, however, hospital admissions decreased by 10.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 16.1%) for cerebrovascular diseases and by 16.0% (95% CI 7.0% to 24.1%) for COPD. Substantial changes in effect estimates were observed on adjustment for linear or quadratic trend. Effect estimates for asthma-related admissions varied substantially when adjusting for pollen count in Madrid, and for seasonality and tobacco consumption in Barcelona. Conclusions Our results confirm that the potential impact of a smoking ban must be adjusted for the underlying secular trend. In asthma-related admissions, pollen count, seasonality and tobacco consumption must be specified in the model. The substantial variability in effects detected between the two cities of Madrid and Barcelona lends strong support for a

  9. Effect of breakfast on selected serum and cardiovascular variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A. B.; Merz, Marion P.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the objections of many subjects to overnight fasting prior to their blood being drawn for analyses, the effect of eating breakfast on the results of subsequent blood analyses of selected blood constituents and on cardiovascular variables was investigated in 47 men and 34 women who were subjected to blood analyses on two occasions, one week apart: once fasting and once after breakfast. Results suggest that subjects need not fast overnight before blood is being drawn for determinations of the HDL-C levels, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, or phosphorus. However, based on other studies, it is suggested breakfast should not have a high content of fat.

  10. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI. PMID:26060384

  11. Morphine and clonidine combination therapy improves therapeutic window in mice: synergy in antinociceptive but not in sedative or cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Stone, Laura S; German, Jonathan P; Kitto, Kelly F; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Wilcox, George L

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance, physical dependence and addiction have led to an underutilization of these compounds for adequate pain relief. One strategy to improve the therapeutic utility of opioids is to co-administer them with other analgesic agents such as agonists acting at α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs). Analgesics acting at α2ARs and opioid receptors (ORs) frequently synergize when co-administered in vivo. Multimodal analgesic techniques offer advantages over single drug treatments as synergistic combination therapies produce analgesia at lower doses, thus reducing undesired side effects. This inference presumes, however, that the synergistic interaction is limited to the analgesic effects. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of α2AR/OR combination therapy in acute antinociception and in the often-undesired side effects of sedation and cardiovascular depression in awake unrestrained mice. Morphine, clonidine or their combination was administered by spinal or systemic injection in awake mice. Antinociception was determined using the warm water tail flick assay (52.5°C). Sedation/motor impairment was evaluated using the accelerating rotarod assay and cardiovascular function was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were converted to percent maximum possible effect and isobolographic analysis was performed to determine if an interaction was subadditive, additive or synergistic. Synergistic interactions between morphine and clonidine were observed in the antinociceptive but not in the sedative/motor or cardiovascular effects. As a result, the therapeutic window was improved ∼200-fold and antinociception was achieved at non-sedating doses with little to no cardiovascular depression. In addition, combination therapy resulted in greater maximum analgesic efficacy over

  12. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  13. The Effect of a Smoking Ban on Hospitalization Rates for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gaudreau, Katherine; Sanford, Carolyn J.; Cheverie, Connie; McClure, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI) enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban. Methods Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed. Results The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04) immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by −0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01) in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant. Conclusions A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions. PMID:23520450

  14. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Cardiovascular and Kidney Effects, Potential Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Perkins, Bruce A; Fitchett, David H; Husain, Mansoor; Cherney, David Z I

    2016-09-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, are now widely approved antihyperglycemic therapies. Because of their unique glycosuric mechanism, SGLT2 inhibitors also reduce weight. Perhaps more important are the osmotic diuretic and natriuretic effects contributing to plasma volume contraction, and decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures by 4 to 6 and 1 to 2 mm Hg, respectively, which may underlie cardiovascular and kidney benefits. SGLT2 inhibition also is associated with an acute, dose-dependent reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate by ≈5 mL·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2) and ≈30% to 40% reduction in albuminuria. These effects mirror preclinical observations suggesting that proximal tubular natriuresis activates renal tubuloglomerular feedback through increased macula densa sodium and chloride delivery, leading to afferent vasoconstriction. On the basis of reduced glomerular filtration, glycosuric and weight loss effects are attenuated in patients with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2)). In contrast, blood pressure lowering, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albuminuric effects are preserved, and perhaps exaggerated in chronic kidney disease. With regard to long-term clinical outcomes, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease randomly assigned to empagliflozin versus placebo reported a 14% reduction in the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and >30% reductions in cardiovascular mortality, overall mortality, and heart failure hospitalizations associated with empagliflozin, even though, by design, the hemoglobin A1c difference between the randomized groups was marginal. Aside from an increased risk of mycotic genital

  15. Acute Cardiovascular Response during Resistance Exercise with Whole-body Vibration in Sedentary Subjects: A Randomized Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thaisa; Polito, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the acute cardiovascular responses during and after resistance exercise with and without whole-body vibration. Nineteen sedentary adults randomly performed one session of isometric squats without vibration and the same exercise with vibration. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured. SBP, DBP and HR were also measured for 20 min after the sessions. The exercise with vibration demonstrated significant values ​​(P < 0.05) for SBP (second to sixth sets), DBP (third to sixth sets) and SVR (second to sixth sets) compared with the exercise without vibration. After the sessions, the values ​​of SBP for both exercises were significantly lower than the respective resting values; with no difference between the sessions. In conclusion, exercise with vibration caused increases in SBP, DBP and SVR compared with exercise with no vibration in sedentary adults. PMID:26031551

  16. USE OF RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES OF RAINBOW TROUT ('SALMO GAIRDNERI') IN IDENTIFYING ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN FISH: PART 2. MALATHION, CARBARYL, ACROLEIN AND BENZALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo fish model was used to monitor the respiratory-cardiovascular responses of individually spinally transected rainbow trout exposed to acutely toxic aqueous concentrations of two acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, malathion and carbaryl, and two mucous membrane irri...

  17. Effects of Tai Chi on adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Rei-Yeuh; Koo, Malcolm; Ho, Meng-Ying; Lin, Zi-Zi; Yu, Zer-Ran; Lin, Yen-Fen; Wang, Be-Jen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a single bout of Tai Chi (TC) exercise on adiponectin and glucose homeostasis in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-six individuals (mean age 60.2 years) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor who had been practicing Yang's style TC exercise for at least 3 months were recruited from a regional hospital in Taiwan. A one-group repeated measured quasi-experimental design was used. Participants completed a 60-min Yang's style TC exercise routine including warm up, stretching exercises, and TC followed by a 30-min resting period. After a 1-week washout period, the same group of participants underwent a control condition in which they were instructed to remain seated for 90 min at the study location. Blood samples were collected both before and after the TC intervention or the sitting condition. The difference between pre-post measurements for adiponectin was 0.58 ± 1.42 μg/ml in the TC trial and -0.46 ± 0.99 μg/ml in the sitting trial. The differences between the two trials were statistically significant (P = 0.004). The changes from pretrial to posttrial were significantly greater for glycerol (P < 0.001), cholesterol (P = 0.046), and LDL-C (P = 0.038) in the TC trial compared with those in the sitting trial. Conversely, the changes were significantly lesser for HOMA-IR (P = 0.004), log (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.001), and glucose (P = 0.003) in TC trial compared with those in the sitting trial. In conclusion, a single bout of TC exercise had a significant positive effect on blood adiponectin concentrations in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20809228

  18. Antidiabetic treatment with gliptins: focus on cardiovascular effects and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    events. Anyway, it should be emphasized that the encouraging results from basic science were not yet translated into clinical evidence, probably due the multiple and pleiotropic enzymatic effects of DPP4 inhibition. Moreover, when employing saxagliptin, while the drug was not associated with an augmented risk for ischemic events, it should be pinpointed that the rate of hospitalization for heart failure was significantly increased. Gliptins as a group constitute a widely accepted therapy for the management of T2DM, usually as a second-line medication. Nonetheless, for the time being, a definite relationship between gliptins treatment and improved cardiovascular outcomes remains uncertain and needs yet to be proven. PMID:26415691

  19. Glycoxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Experimentally-Induced Diabetes: Effects of Antioxidant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Karasu, Çimen

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common metabolic disease, representing a serious risk factor for the development of cardiovascular complications, such as coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and hypertension. Oxidative stress (OS), a feature of DM, is defined as an increase in the steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may occur as a result of increased free radical generation and/or decreased anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. Increasing evidence indicates that hyperglycemia is the initiating cause of the tissue damage in DM, either through repeated acute changes in cellular glucose metabolism, or through long-term accumulation of glycated biomolecules and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are formed by the Maillard process, a non-enzymatic reaction between ketone group of the glucose molecule or aldehydes and the amino groups of proteins that contributes to the aging of proteins and to the pathological complications of DM. In the presence of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, the increased formation of AGEs and lipid peroxidation products exacerbate intracellular OS and results in a loss of molecular integrity, disruption in cellular signaling and homeostasis, followed by inflammation and tissue injury such as endothelium dysfunction, arterial stiffening and microvascular complications. In addition to increased AGE production, there is also evidence of multiple pathways elevating ROS generation in DM, including; enhanced glucose auto-oxidation, increased mitochondrial superoxide production, protein kinase C-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, increased substrate flux through the polyol pathway and stimulation of eicosanoid metabolism. It is, therefore, not surprising that the correction of these variables can result in amelioration of diabetic cardiovascular abnormalities. A linking element between these phenomena is cellular redox imbalance due to glycoxidative stress

  20. Effect of sleep restriction on orthostatic cardiovascular control in humans.

    PubMed

    Muenter, N K; Watenpaugh, D E; Wasmund, W L; Wasmund, S L; Maxwell, S A; Smith, M L

    2000-03-01

    We hypothesized that sleep restriction (4 consecutive nights, 4 h sleep/night) attenuates orthostatic tolerance. The effect of sleep restriction on cardiovascular responses to simulated orthostasis, arterial baroreflex gain, and heart rate variability was evaluated in 10 healthy volunteers. Arterial baroreflex gain was determined from heart rate responses to nitroprusside-phenylephrine injections, and orthostatic tolerance was tested via lower body negative pressure (LBNP). A Finapres device measured finger arterial pressure. No difference in baroreflex function, heart rate variability, or LBNP tolerance was observed with sleep restriction (P > 0.3). Systolic pressure was greater at -60 mmHg LBNP after sleep restriction than before sleep restriction (110 +/- 6 and 124 +/- 3 mmHg before and after sleep restriction, respectively, P = 0.038), whereas heart rate decreased (108 +/- 8 and 99 +/- 8 beats/min before and after sleep restriction, respectively, P = 0.028). These data demonstrate that sleep restriction produces subtle changes in cardiovascular responses to simulated orthostasis, but these changes do not compromise orthostatic tolerance. PMID:10710392

  1. Gravitational effects on human cardiovascular responses to isometric muscle contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonde-Petersen, Flemmig; Suzuki, Yoji; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    Isometric exercise induces profound cardiovascular adaptations increasing mean arterial pressure and heart rate. We investigated effects of simulated +Gz and -Gz respectively on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system. Sustained handgrip exercise was performed at 40% of maximum for 2 minutes in five subjects. This maneuver increased mean arterial pressure by 40-45 mm Hg both during head out water immersion which simulates weightlessness, as well as bedrest during -25, 0, and +25 degrees tilt from the horizontal. Lower body negative pressure (-60 mm Hg for 10 min) attenuated the response to handgrip exercise to 30 mm Hg. It also increased the heart rate minimally by about 20 beats per minute while the water immersion, as well as head up, head down and horizontal bedrest showed increments of about 50 beats per min. It was concluded that the response to isometric contraction is mediated through the high pressure baroreceptors, because similar responses were seen during stresses producing a wide variation in central venous pressure. During lower body negative pressure the increased sympathetic nervous activity itself increased resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure. The responses to static exercise were, therefore, weaker.

  2. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (p<0.02) or Bach's Cantata No. 169 'Gott soll allein mein Herze haben' (70.9±2.9 cm/s) (p<0.02). There was no significant difference in cerebral flow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (p<0.001). In addition the score was better after surgery in the music group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (p<0.001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make relaxing, preoperative music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (p<0.02). Vocal and orchestral music produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (p<0.05). The greatest benefit on health is visible with classical music and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health

  3. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena on cardiovascular responses in normotensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Baniasad, Amir; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Aminzadah, Saeed; Ghavi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena) is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group). After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) via peritoneal (i.p). After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group. Results: Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p<0.01 to p<0.001). Different doses of the extract also dose-dependently decreased maximal changes of MAP responses compared to control group. The effect of higher doses of the extract on SBP and MAP was significant compared to lower doses (p<0.05 to p<0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated. PMID:26442758

  4. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise) and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A) for the day and 55 dB(A) for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night) should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run. PMID:21537103

  5. Acute and training effects of resistance exercise on heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a non-invasive method to evaluate heart rate (HR) regulation by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we discuss the effect of resistance exercise both acutely and after training on HRV in healthy individuals and in those with diseases characterized by autonomic dysfunction, such as hypertension and fibromyalgia. HR recovery after exercise is influenced by parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic recovery to resting levels. Therefore, examination of HRV in response to acute exercise yields valuable insight into autonomic cardiovascular modulation and possible underlying risk for disease. Acute resistance exercise has shown to decrease cardiac parasympathetic modulation more than aerobic exercise in young healthy adults suggesting an increased risk for cardiovascular dysfunction after resistance exercise. Resistance exercise training appears to have no effect on resting HRV in healthy young adults, while it may improve parasympathetic modulation in middle-aged adults with autonomic dysfunction. Acute resistance exercise appears to decrease parasympathetic activity regardless of age. This review examines the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on HRV in young and older adults. PMID:25524332

  6. Cardiovascular effects of oral toluene exposure in the rat monitored by radiotelemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a hazardous air pollutant that can be toxic to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The cardiotoxicity data for toluene come from acute studies in anesthetized animals and from clinical observations made on toluene abusers and there is little known on the response o...

  7. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander; McMillan, Merlin R; Jones, Russell W; Kowalik, Grzegorz T; Steeden, Jennifer A; Deanfield, John E; Pruessner, Jens C; Taylor, Andrew M; Muthurangu, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43) and women (N = 45) with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR) and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2) (*)-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1), P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1), P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1) x unit(-1), P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1), P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1), P = 0.02), cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02) and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04) to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  8. Chemically Diverse Group I p21-Activated Kinase (PAK) Inhibitors Impart Acute Cardiovascular Toxicity with a Narrow Therapeutic Window.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Joachim; Murray, Lesley J; Ndubaku, Chudi O; O'Brien, Thomas; Blackwood, Elizabeth; Wang, Weiru; Aliagas, Ignacio; Gazzard, Lewis; Crawford, James J; Drobnick, Joy; Lee, Wendy; Zhao, Xianrui; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Favor, David A; Dong, Ping; Zhang, Haiming; Heise, Christopher E; Oh, Angela; Ong, Christy C; La, Hank; Chakravarty, Paroma; Chan, Connie; Jakubiak, Diana; Epler, Jennifer; Ramaswamy, Sreemathy; Vega, Roxanne; Cain, Gary; Diaz, Dolores; Zhong, Yu

    2016-06-01

    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) has an important role in transducing signals in several oncogenic pathways. The concept of inhibiting this kinase has garnered significant interest over the past decade, particularly for targeting cancers associated with PAK1 amplification. Animal studies with the selective group I PAK (pan-PAK1, 2, 3) inhibitor G-5555 from the pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one class uncovered acute toxicity with a narrow therapeutic window. To attempt mitigating the toxicity, we introduced significant structural changes, culminating in the discovery of the potent pyridone side chain analogue G-9791. Mouse tolerability studies with this compound, other members of this series, and compounds from two structurally distinct classes revealed persistent toxicity and a correlation of minimum toxic concentrations and PAK1/2 mediated cellular potencies. Broad screening of selected PAK inhibitors revealed PAK1, 2, and 3 as the only overlapping targets. Our data suggest acute cardiovascular toxicity resulting from the inhibition of PAK2, which may be enhanced by PAK1 inhibition, and cautions against continued pursuit of pan-group I PAK inhibitors in drug discovery. PMID:27167326

  9. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Botteldooren, Dick; Widmann, Ulrich; Uhrner, Ulrich; Kammeringer, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure. PMID:21537108

  10. Cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres S Moore [Asteraceae] ethanolic leaf extract in some experimental animal paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Musabayane, Cephas T; Kamadyaapa, Dave R; Gondwe, Mavuto; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John AO

    2008-01-01

    Summary Summary The aim of this study was to examine some in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of Helichrysum ceres leaf ethanolic extract (HCE) in experimental animal paradigms. The acute effects of HCE on blood pressure were studied in anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats challenged with intravenous hypotonic saline infusion after a 3.5-hour equilibration for four hours of one-hour control, 1.5-hour treatment and 1.5-hour recovery periods. HCE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Sub-chronic hypotensive effects of HCE were examined in weanling Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) genetically hypertensive rats, which progressively develop hypertension with age, treated with HCE (80 mg/kg) every third consecutive day for seven weeks. Isolated atrial muscle strips, portal veins and descending thoracic aortic rings of healthy normotensive Wistar rats were used to investigate the vascular effects of HCE. Acute HCE administration caused a significant (p < 0.05) fall in blood pressure in the normotensive anaesthetised Wistar rats. DSS hypertensive rats treated with HCE displayed low arterial blood pressure and heart rate values from weeks five to seven. HCE produced concentration-dependent negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat isolated electrically driven left, and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. HCE also evoked concentration-dependent relaxation responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings and portal veins isolated from healthy normotensive Wistar rats. The vasorelaxant effects of HCE in intact aortic rings were significantly reduced, but not completely abolished by adding endothelial-derived factor (EDRF) inhibitor, L-NAME, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of the extract is mediated via EDRF-dependent and independent mechanisms. The results of the study suggest that the hypotensive action of HCE is elicited, in part, directly by decreasing myocardial contractile performance and total

  11. Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J. )

    1989-07-01

    At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

  12. Venous Congestion, Endothelial and Neurohormonal Activation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Cause or Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Paolo C.; Doran, Amanda C.; Onat, Duygu; Wong, Ka Yuk; Ahmad, Myra; Sabbah, Hani N.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    Venous congestion and endothelial and neurohormonal activation are known to occur in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), yet the temporal role of these processes in the pathophysiology of decompensation is not fully understood. Conventional wisdom presumes congestion to be a consequence of worsening cardiovascular function; however, the biomechanically driven effects of venous congestion are biologically plausible contributors to ADHF that remain largely unexplored in vivo. Recent experimental evidence from human models suggests that fluid accumulation and venous congestion are not simply consequences of poor cardiovascular function, but rather are fundamental pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, and hemodynamic stimuli that contribute to acute decompensation. The latest advances in the monitoring of volume status using implantable devices allow for the detection of venous congestion before symptoms arise. This may ultimately lead to improved treatment strategies including not only diuretics, but also specific, adjuvant interventions to counteract endothelial and neurohormonal activation during early preclinical decompensation. PMID:25740404

  13. Real-time prediction of acute cardiovascular events using hardware-implemented Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Tylman, Wojciech; Waszyrowski, Tomasz; Napieralski, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marek; Trafidło, Tamara; Kulesza, Zbigniew; Kotas, Rafał; Marciniak, Paweł; Tomala, Radosław; Wenerski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a decision support system that aims to estimate a patient׳s general condition and detect situations which pose an immediate danger to the patient׳s health or life. The use of this system might be especially important in places such as accident and emergency departments or admission wards, where a small medical team has to take care of many patients in various general conditions. Particular stress is laid on cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions, including those leading to sudden cardiac arrest. The proposed system is a stand-alone microprocessor-based device that works in conjunction with a standard vital signs monitor, which provides input signals such as temperature, blood pressure, pulseoxymetry, ECG, and ICG. The signals are preprocessed and analysed by a set of artificial intelligence algorithms, the core of which is based on Bayesian networks. The paper focuses on the construction and evaluation of the Bayesian network, both its structure and numerical specification. PMID:26456181

  14. Time Trends in Incidence and Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction, and All-Cause Mortality following a Cardiovascular Prevention Program in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Journath, Gunilla; Hammar, Niklas; Elofsson, Stig; Linnersjö, Anette; Vikström, Max; Walldius, Göran; Krakau, Ingvar; Lindgren, Peter; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1988, a cardiovascular prevention program which combined an individual and a population-based strategy was launched within primary health-care in Sollentuna, a municipality in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to investigate time trends in the incidence of and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County during a period of two decades following the implementation of a cardiovascular prevention program. Materials and Methods The average population in Sollentuna was 56,589 (49% men) and in Stockholm County (Sollentuna included) 1,795,504 (49% men) during the study period of 1987–2010. Cases of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and death were obtained for the population of Sollentuna and the rest of Stockholm County using national registries of hospital discharges and deaths. Acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality were estimated using the average population of Sollentuna and Stockholm in 1987–2010. Results During the observation period, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreased more in Sollentuna compared with the rest of Stockholm County in women (-22% vs. -7%; for difference in slope <0.05). There was a trend towards a greater decline in Sollentuna compared to the rest of Stockholm County in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (in men), acute myocardial mortality, and all-cause mortality but the differences were not significant. Conclusion During a period of steep decline in acute myocardial infarction incidence and mortality in Stockholm County the municipality of Sollentuna showed a stronger trend in women possibly compatible with favorable influence of a cardiovascular prevention program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02212145 PMID:26580968

  15. Effects of hydraulic circuit training on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Haennel, R; Teo, K K; Quinney, A; Kappagoda, T

    1989-10-01

    The effect of hydraulic circuit training (HCT) on cardiovascular (CV) function was assessed in 32 healthy middle-aged males (X age = 42.2 +/- 2.1 yr). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max), with simultaneous measurement of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO), by impedance cardiography, was assessed pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to a nonexercising control group, a cycle training group (cycle), or one of the two HCT groups. Training groups participated in a 9 wk program, 3 d.wk-1. Subjects assigned to HCT exercised on a 9 station circuit, completing 3 circuits.d-1. Each circuit consisted of three 20 s work intervals at each station with a 1:1 work:rest ratio. One HCT group (HCTmax) completed the maximal repetitions possible (RM) during each work interval. The other HCT group (HCTsub) exercised at 70-85% of RM. Following training VO2max (ml.kg-1 min-1) was significantly increased in all training groups (18.0, 12.5, and 11.3% for cycle, HCTsub, and HCTmax groups, respectively; P less than 0.05). The increase in VO2max observed in the cycle group was significantly greater than that recorded by the two HCT groups (P less than 0.05). For all three training groups, the increase in VO2max was associated with increases in SVmax and COmax (P less than 0.05 for both). These findings suggest that both maximal and submaximal HCT programs can elicit improvements in cardiovascular fitness. PMID:2607948

  16. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  18. Effects of valsartan versus amlodipine in diabetic hypertensive patients with or without previous cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kentaro; Kondo, Takahisa; Muramatsu, Takashi; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Nagahiro, Takanori; Maeda, Kengo; Shintani, Satoshi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we reported that angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), valsartan, and calcium channel blocker (CCB), amlodipine, had similar effects on the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in diabetic hypertensive patients. We assessed the difference of cardiovascular protective effects between ARB and CCB in patients with and without previous CVD, respectively. A total of 1,150 Japanese diabetic hypertensive patients were randomized to either valsartan or amlodipine treatment arms, which were additionally divided into 2 groups according to the presence of previous CVD at baseline (without CVD, n = 818; with CVD, n = 332). The primary composite outcomes were sudden cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for heart failure. The incidence of primary end point events in patients with previous CVD was 3.5-times greater than that in patients without previous CVD (64.1 vs 17.9/1,000 person-years). The ARB- and the CCB-based treatment arms showed similar incidence of composite CVD events in both patients without previous CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 2.40) and those with previous CVD (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.31). The ARB-treatment arm showed less incidence of stroke compared with the CCB-based treatment arm in patients with previous CVD (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.11, p = 0.068), whereas the 2 treatment arms showed similar incidence of stroke in patients without previous CVD (HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.91). In conclusion, the ARB- and the CCB-based treatments exerted similar protective effects of CVD events regardless of the presence of previous CVD. For stroke events, the ARB may have more protective effects than the CCB in diabetic hypertensive patients with previous CVD. PMID:24035165

  19. Cardiovascular disease prevention and lifestyle interventions: effectiveness and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L

    2003-01-01

    Over the past half century scientific data support the strong relationship between the way a person or population lives and their risk for developing or dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD). While heredity can be a major factor for some people, their personal health habits and environmental/cultural exposure are more important factors. CVD is a multifactor process that is contributed to by a variety of biological and behavioral characteristics of the person including a number of well-established and emerging risk factors. Not smoking, being physically active, eating a heart healthy diet, staying reasonably lean, and avoiding major stress and depression are the major components of an effective CVD prevention program. For people at high risk of CVD, medications frequently need to be added to a healthy lifestyle to minimize their risk of a heart attack or stroke, particularly in persons with conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperglycemia. Maintaining an effective CVD prevention program in technologically advanced societies cannot be achieved by many high-risk persons without effective and sustained support from a well-organized health care system. Nurse-provided or nurse-coordinated care management programs using an integrated or multifactor approach have been highly effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality of high-risk persons. PMID:14518600

  20. Cardiovascular effects of Juniperus excelsa are mediated through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Zafar, Muhammad Abdullah; Hazrat, Ali; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa Bieb. is used in folk medicine for lowering blood pressure (BP). Its BP-lowering effect, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilator effects, and cardio-modulatory effect are reported here. The crude extract of J. excelsa (Je.Cr) which tested positive for the presence of anthraquinone, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, terpenes, and tannins induced a dose-dependent (10-300 mg/kg) fall in the arterial BP of anesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Je.Cr (0.01-5.0 mg/mL) inhibited high K(+) (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (1 μM)-induced contractions, like that caused by verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was noted from Je.Cr, which also relaxed the endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea pig atria, Je.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, like that exhibited by papaverine. Je.Cr prolonged the R-R interval in electrocardiogram of rats under anesthesia. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of J. excelsa are mediated possibly through a combination of Ca(++) antagonism, nitric oxide-modulating mechanism, and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanism, which explain its medicinal use in hypertension. PMID:22468685

  1. Biphasic cardiovascular and respiratory effects induced by β-citronellol.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas

    2016-03-15

    β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling. PMID:26872991

  2. Cocoa Flavanol Cardiovascular Effects Beyond Blood Pressure Reduction.

    PubMed

    Jumar, Agnes; Schmieder, Roland E

    2016-04-01

    The protective cardiovascular (CV) effect of cocoa flavanol has been a target of many recent clinical prospective and retrospective investigations. Epidemiological data in different patient cohorts revealed an association between higher intake of flavanol-rich foods and decreased incidence of CV events, especially stroke and myocardial infarction. Cocoa flavanol has been shown to reduce systolic (2.8 mm Hg) and diastolic (2.2 mm Hg) office blood pressure (BP). Greater BP reduction has been found in hypertensive patients and people younger than 50 years. Cocoa flavanol intake exerts beneficial effects on pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension-related organ damage, such as improved endothelial function, anti-inflammatory potency, inhibition of platelet activation, and increased vasodilatory capacity. Recent clinical trials have focused on establishing a potential link between epidemiology and pathophysiology of flavanol and identified possible mechanisms for prevention of end-organ damage in patients at CV risk. This review summarizes the available data on the antihypertensive effects of cocoa flavanol beyond BP-BP lowering lowering effects, accentuates subgroup-specific protective actions of cocoa according to patients' different CV risk profile, and outlines potential cocoa flavanol-associated clinical implications. PMID:26514936

  3. Effects of noise exposure and task demand on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Wu, T N; Huang, J T; Chou, P F; Chang, P Y

    1988-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects under various noise-exposure and task-demand conditions were studied among 40 senior highschool students. The subjects consisted of 20 males and 20 females with a mean age of 16.7 +/- 0.7 years. All subjects had equivalent abacus performance ratings. Each subject was tested with a random sequence of six sessions. The time limit set for each session was 33 min. Six experimental sessions were constructed by a random combination of noise exposure (60, 85 or 90 dB (A] white noise) and task demand (task presence or task absence) variables. Blood pressure measures were taken at the beginning and ending phases of each session. A task-demand variable was defined as a conjoint of mental arithmetic (3 min) and abacus arithmetic (30 min). The results from the present study show that the effect of noise exposure on task performance is remarkable. Only noise exposure tended to influence the performance of male students in abacus arithmetic. The effect of task demand on blood pressure was higher than that of noise exposure. No interaction effect (noise exposure x task demand) on blood pressure, was found via analyses of within-subjects two-way ANOVA. PMID:3346087

  4. Predictive value of CHADS2 score for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome and documented coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Sook; Pyun, Wook Bum; Shin, Gil Ja

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The CHADS2 score, used to predict the risk of ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, has been reported recently to predict ischemic stroke in patients with coronary heart disease, regardless of the presence of AF. However, little data are available regarding the relationship between the CHADS2 score and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 104 patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent coronary angiography, carotid ultrasound, and transthoracic echocardiography. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.1 ± 12.6 years. The CHADS2 score was as follows: 0 in 46 patients (44.2%), 1 in 31 (29.8%), 2 in 18 (17.3%), and ≥ 3 in 9 patients (8.7%). The left atrial volume index (LAVi) showed a positive correlation with the CHADS2 score (20.8 ± 5.9 for 0; 23.2 ± 6.7 for 1; 26.6 ± 10.8 for 2; and 30.3 ± 8.3 mL/m2 for ≥3; p = 0.001). The average carotid total plaque area was significantly increased with CHADS2 scores ≥ 2 (4.97 ± 7.17 mm2 vs. 15.52 ± 14.61 mm2; p = 0.002). Eight patients experienced cardiovascular or cerebrovascular (CCV) events during a mean evaluation period of 662 days. A CHADS2 score ≥ 3 was related to an increase in the risk of CCV events (hazard ratio, 14.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.53 to 58.06). Furthermore, LAVi and the severity of coronary artery obstructive disease were also associated with an increased risk of CCV events. Conclusions: The CHADS2 score may be a useful prognostic tool for predicting CCV events in ACS patients with documented coronary artery disease. PMID:26767860

  5. Rs6922269 marker at the MTHFD1L gene predict cardiovascular mortality in males after acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, J A; Staněk, V; Gebauerová, M; Poledne, R; Aschermann, M; Skalická, H; Matoušková, J; Kruger, A; Pěnička, M; Hrabáková, H; Veselka, J; Hájek, P; Lánská, V; Adámková, V; Pitˇha, J

    2015-08-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. All the traditional risk factors for MI are responsible for approximately 50% of cases of MI cases. Attention therefore has recently focused on genetic variants that are not associated with conventional risk factors. One of them is the marker rs6922269, which has been suggested as a risk factor for development of MI in Western populations. We analyzed the relationship between rs6922269 variant on MTHFD1L gene and (i) risk of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Czech population and (ii) mortality in 7 years follow up. Rs6922269 (G>A) variant was analyzed (CR 99.3% for patients and 98.0% for controls) by PCR-RFLP in consecutively examined 1614 men and 503 women with ACS (age below 65 years) and in population-based controls--1191 men and 1368 women (aged up to 65 years). ANOVA and Chi square were used for statistical analysis. The genotype frequencies were almost identical (P=0.87) in the ACS patients and in controls and no differences were observed, if males (P=0.73) and females (P=0.93) were analysed separately. In addition, rs6922269 polymorphism was not associated with the classical risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, smoking, diabetes) in control population. Cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in males, carriers of the AA genotype (P<0.001, OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.40-4.55, for AA vs. +G). We conclude, that rs6922269 variant at MTHFD1L gene could be an important prognostic factor for cardiovascular mortality in patients after ACS. PMID:25809277

  6. The effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study has been performed in 51 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients to estimate the effects of time-released garlic powder tablets Allicor on the values of 10-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal) and sudden death, with the respect of secondary CHD prevention. It has been demonstrated that 12-month treatment with Allicor results in the significant decrease of cardiovascular risk by 1.5-fold in men (p < 0.05), and by 1.3-fold in women. The above results were equitable also in terms of relative risks. The main effect that played a role in cardiovascular risk reduction was the decrease in LDL cholesterol by 32.9 mg/dl in men (p < 0.05), and by 27.3 mg/dl in women. Thus, the most significant effects were observed in men, while in women the decrease of cardiovascular risk appeared as a trend that might be due presumably to the insufficient sample size. Since Allicor is the remedy of natural origin, it is safe with the respect to adverse effects and allows even perpetual administration that may be crucial for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic diseases in CHD patients. PMID:20958974

  7. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Crombie, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK), noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31), which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA) study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night ) was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29). Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children's cognition and health (RANCH) study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the effects of

  8. The impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function to stress and the moderating effects of vigorous physical activity: a randomized controlled treatment study in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Camilla S.; Outhred, Tim; Brunoni, Andre R.; Malhi, Gin S.; Kemp, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20 mg) in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate (HR) and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers) showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d = 0.48). Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (HR decreased: Cohen's d = 0.80; HR variability increased: Cohen's d = 0.33). HR during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease (CVD), longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment. PMID:24069000

  9. Association Between the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiovascular Surgery: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Park, Ji Young; Ok, Seong-Ho; Shin, Il-Woo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-10-01

    A high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio) was associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe sepsis. We sought to investigate the association between the perioperative N/L ratios and postoperative AKI in patients undergoing high-risk cardiovascular surgery.A retrospective medical chart review was performed of 590 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries, including coronary artery bypass, valve replacement, patch closure for atrial or ventricular septal defect and surgery on the thoracic aorta with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Baseline perioperative clinical parameters, including N/L ratios measured before surgery, immediately after surgery, and on postoperative day (POD) one were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors.A total of 166 patients (28.1%) developed AKI defined by the KDIGO (kidney disease improving global outcomes) criteria in the first 7 PODs. Independent risk factors for AKI included old age, decreased left ventricular systolic function, preoperative high serum creatinine, low serum albumin and high uric acid levels, intraoperative large transfusion amount, oliguria, hyperglycemia, and elevated N/L ratio measured immediately after surgery and on POD one. The quartiles of immediately postoperative N/L ratio were associated with graded increase in risk of AKI development (fourth quartile [N/L ratio≥10] multivariate odds ratio 5.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.74-12.73; P < 0.001), a longer hospital stay, and a higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rate (fourth quartile [N/L ratio≥10] adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year mortality [8.40, 95% CI 2.50-28.17]; P < 0.001).In patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with CPB, elevated N/L ratios in the immediately postoperative period and on POD one were associated with an increased risk of postoperative AKI and 1-year mortality. The N/L ratio, which is easily calculable from routine work-up, can

  10. Resource Effective Strategies to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwalm, Jon-David; McKee, Martin; Huffman, Mark D.; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global deaths, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The primary and secondary prevention of CVD is suboptimal throughout the world, but the evidence-practice gaps are much more pronounced in LMIC. Barriers at the patient, health-care provider, and health system level prevent the implementation of optimal primary and secondary prevention. Identification of the particular barriers that exist in resource-constrained settings is necessary to inform effective strategies to reduce the identified evidence-practice gaps. Furthermore, targeting modifiable factors that contribute most significantly to the global burden of CVD, including tobacco use, hypertension, and secondary prevention for CVD will lead to the biggest gains in mortality reduction. We review a select number of novel, resource-efficient strategies to reduce premature mortality from CVD, including: (1) effective measures for tobacco control; (2) implementation of simplified screening and management algorithms for those with or at risk of CVD, (3) increasing the availability and affordability of simplified and cost-effective treatment regimens including combination CVD preventive drug therapy, and (4) simplified delivery of health care through task-sharing (non-physician health workers) and optimizing self-management (treatment supporters). Developing and deploying systems of care that address barriers related to the above, will lead to substantial reductions in CVD and related mortality. PMID:26903017

  11. Amelioration of the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys by a long-acting mutant form of cocaine esterase.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gregory T; Carey, Kathy A; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Nichols, Joseph; Berlin, Aaron A; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2011-04-01

    A long-acting mutant form of a naturally occurring bacterial cocaine esterase (T172R/G173Q CocE; double mutant CocE (DM CocE)) has previously been shown to antagonize the reinforcing, convulsant, and lethal effects of cocaine in rodents. However, the effectiveness and therapeutic characteristics of DM CocE in nonhuman primates, in a more clinically relevant context, are unknown. The current studies were aimed at (1) characterizing the cardiovascular effects of cocaine in freely moving rhesus monkeys, (2) evaluating the capacity of DM CocE to ameliorate these cocaine-induced cardiovascular effects when administered 10 min after cocaine, and (3) assessing the immunological responses of monkeys to DM CocE following repeated administration. Intravenous administration of cocaine produced dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) that persisted throughout the 2-h observation period following a dose of 3.2 mg/kg cocaine. Cocaine failed to produce reliable changes in electrocardiograph (ECG) parameters, body temperature, and locomotor activity. DM CocE produced a rapid and dose-dependent amelioration of the cardiovascular effects, with saline-like MAP measures restored within 5-10 min, and saline-like HR measures restored within 20-40 min of DM CocE administration. Although administration of DM CocE produced increases in anti-CocE antibodies, they did not appear to have a neutralizing effect on the capacity of DM CocE to reverse the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. In conclusion, these findings in monkeys provide strong evidence to suggest that highly efficient cocaine esterases, such as DM CocE, can provide a potential therapeutic option for treatment of acute cocaine intoxication in humans. PMID:21289605

  12. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  13. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  14. Cardiovascular effects in viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide.

    PubMed

    Kotseva, K; Braeckman, L; De Bacquer, D; Bulat, P; Vanhoorne, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardiovascular effects in workers currently exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) below the threshold limit value (TLV) of 31 mg/m3 and to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) after long-term exposure. 172 men (91 workers exposed to CS2 in a viscose rayon factory and 81 referent workers) were examined using a medical and job history questionnaire, Rose's questionnaire, and electrocardiography at rest, and by measuring blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoproteins. Personal exposures were monitored simultaneously with active sampling and findings were analyzed according to the NIOSH 1600 method. As a result of technical and organizational improvements, personal CS2 exposures were well below the TLV (5.4-13.02 mg/m3). No significant effect of CS2 on blood pressure or lipids (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins AI and B) was found, even after allowance for confounding factors. The prevalence of CHD (ECG abnormalities and chest pain) was higher in the viscose rayon workers than in the workers with no exposure but reached statistical significance for men with exposure histories often years and more only (cumulative CS9 index > or = 150 mg/m3, the most highly exposed group). The findings suggest that the coronary risk is increased in workers previously exposed to high CS2 concentrations but not in those exposed to CS2 levels below the current TLV. PMID:11210016

  15. Cardiovascular effects of hyperoxia during and after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra-de Man, A M E; Smit, B; Oudemans-van Straaten, H M; Smulders, Y M

    2015-11-01

    During and after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, high concentrations of oxygen are routinely administered, with the intention of preventing cellular hypoxia. We systematically reviewed the literature addressing the effects of arterial hyperoxia. Extensive evidence from pre-clinical experiments and clinical studies in other patient groups suggests predominant harm, caused by oxidative stress, vasoconstriction, perfusion heterogeneity and myocardial injury. Whether these alterations are temporary and benign, or actually affect clinical outcome, remains to be demonstrated. In nine clinical cardiac surgical studies in low-risk patients, higher oxygen targets tended to compromise cardiovascular function, but did not affect clinical outcome. No data about potential beneficial effects of hyperoxia, such as reduction of gas micro-emboli or post-cardiac surgery infections, were reported. Current evidence is insufficient to specify optimal oxygen targets. Nevertheless, the safety of supraphysiological oxygen suppletion is unproven. Randomised studies with a variety of oxygen targets and inclusion of high-risk patients are needed to identify optimal oxygen targets during and after cardiac surgery. PMID:26348878

  16. CARDIOVASCULAR AND BLOOD COAGULATION EFFECTS OF PULMONARY ZINC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiovascular damage induced by pulmonary exposure to environmental chemicals can result from direct action or, secondarily, from pulmonary injury. We have developed a rat model of pulmonary exposure to zinc to demonstrate cardiac, coagulative, and fibrinolytic alterations. Mal...

  17. Cardiovascular effects of hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Jason F; Mason, Malcolm D

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for decades, and has been shown to control disease and improve symptoms. In addition, for men with high-risk localized or locally advanced prostate cancer, short-course ADT in combination with radiotherapy improves survival. There is evidence that ADT increases cardiovascular risk, particularly in men with preexisting cardiovascular disease. This increased risk may apply even with short-course ADT. In an individual patient, the benefits of ADT should be balanced against the risk, and patients who require ADT should have risk factors for cardiovascular disease optimized. There is some evidence to suggest that more contemporary methods of delivering ADT may reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:26229507

  18. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Elise van

    2011-01-01

    The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found. PMID:21537106

  19. The effect of weather on respiratory and cardiovascular deaths in 12 U.S. cities.

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Alfésio L F; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2002-01-01

    We carried out time-series analyses in 12 U.S. cities to estimate both the acute effects and the lagged influence of weather on respiratory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. We fit generalized additive Poisson regressions for each city using nonparametric smooth functions to control for long time trend, season, and barometric pressure. We also controlled for day of the week. We estimated the effect and the lag structure of both temperature and humidity based on a distributed lag model. In cold cities, both high and low temperatures were associated with increased CVD deaths. In general, the effect of cold temperatures persisted for days, whereas the effect of high temperatures was restricted to the day of the death or the day before. For myocardial infarctions (MI), the effect of hot days was twice as large as the cold-day effect, whereas for all CVD deaths the hot-day effect was five times smaller than the cold-day effect. The effect of hot days included some harvesting, because we observed a deficit of deaths a few days later, which we did not observe for the cold-day effect. In hot cities, neither hot nor cold temperatures had much effect on CVD or pneumonia deaths. However, for MI and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths, we observed lagged effects of hot temperatures (lags 4-6 and lags 3 and 4, respectively). We saw no clear pattern for the effect of humidity. In hierarchical models, greater variance of summer and winter temperature was associated with larger effects for hot and cold days, respectively, on respiratory deaths. PMID:12204818

  20. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory dysregulation over 24 h following acute heat stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Carrie M; Audet, Gerald N; Charkoudian, Nisha; Leon, Lisa R

    2015-08-15

    The influences of severe heat stroke (HS) on cardiovascular function during recovery are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that HS would elicit a heart rate (HR) increase persisting through 24 h of recovery due to hemodynamic, thermoregulatory, and inflammatory events, necessitating tachycardia to support mean arterial pressure (MAP). Core temperature (Tc), HR, and MAP were measured via radiotelemetry in conscious male Fischer 344 rats (n = 22; 282.4 ± 3.5 g) during exposure to 37°C ambient temperature until a maximum Tc of 42.0°C, and during recovery at 20°C ambient temperature through 24 h. Rats were divided into Mild, Moderate, and Severe groups based on pathophysiology. HS rats exhibited hysteresis relative to Tc with HR higher for a given Tc during recovery compared with heating (P < 0.0001). "Reverse" hysteresis occurred in MAP with pressure during cooling lower than heating per degree Tc (P < 0.0001). Mild HS rats showed tachycardia [P < 0.01 vs. control (Con)] through 8 h of recovery, elevated MAP (P < 0.05 vs. Con) for the initial 5 h of recovery, with sustained hyperthermia (P < 0.05 vs. Con) through 24 h. Moderate HS rats showed significant tachycardia (P < 0.01 vs. Con), normal MAP (P > 0.05 vs. Con), and rebound hyperthermia from 4 to 24 h post-HS (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed tachycardia (P < 0.05 vs. Con), hypotension (P < 0.01 vs. Con), and hypothermia for 24 h (P < 0.05 vs. Con). Severe HS rats showed 14- and 12-fold increase in heart and liver inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, respectively. Hypotension and hypothermia in Severe HS rats was consistent with inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated systemic vasodilation. These findings provide mechanistic insight into hemodynamic and thermoregulatory impairments during 24 h of HS recovery. PMID:26071550

  1. Effect of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies on outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease in a non-cardiac surgery setting: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Rob; Brunskill, Susan; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Holst, Lars; Parker, Martyn; Gregersen, Merete; Pinheiro de Almeida, Juliano; Walsh, Timothy S; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare patient outcomes of restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion strategies in patients with cardiovascular disease not undergoing cardiac surgery. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Randomised controlled trials involving a threshold for red blood cell transfusion in hospital. We searched (to 2 November 2015) CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, LILACS, NHSBT Transfusion Evidence Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ISRCTN Register, and EU Clinical Trials Register. Authors were contacted for data whenever possible. Trial selection Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing a restrictive with liberal transfusion threshold and that included patients with cardiovascular disease. Data extraction and synthesis Data extraction was completed in duplicate. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane methods. Relative risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were presented in all meta-analyses. Mantel-Haenszel random effects models were used to pool risk ratios. Main outcome measures 30 day mortality, and cardiovascular events. Results 41 trials were identified; of these, seven included data on patients with cardiovascular disease. Data from a further four trials enrolling patients with cardiovascular disease were obtained from the authors. In total, 11 trials enrolling patients with cardiovascular disease (n=3033) were included for meta-analysis (restrictive transfusion, n=1514 patients; liberal transfusion, n=1519). The pooled risk ratio for the association between transfusion thresholds and 30 day mortality was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.88 to 1.50, P=0.50), with little heterogeneity (I2=14%). The risk of acute coronary syndrome in patients managed with restrictive compared with liberal transfusion was increased (nine trials; risk ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.70, P=0.01, I2=0%). Conclusions The results show that it may not be safe

  2. Established and emerging cardiovascular magnetic resonance techniques for the assessment of stable coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ripley, David P.; Motwani, Manish; Plein, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. International guidelines recommend cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as an investigative option in those presenting with chest pain to inform diagnosis, risk stratify and determine the need for revascularization. CMR offers a unique method to assess global and regional cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, myocardial viability, tissue characterisation and proximal coronary anatomy all within a single study. This results in high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of significant coronary stenoses and an established role in the management of both stable CHD and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The growing evidence base for the prognostic value of CMR, emerging advances in acquisition techniques, improvements in hardware and the completion of current major multi-centre clinical CMR trials will further raise its prominence in international guidelines and routine cardiological practice. This article will focus on the rapidly evolving role of the multi-parametric CMR examination in the assessment of patients with stable and unstable CHD. PMID:25392820

  3. Association of β-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in an Arab Population.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Rizk, Nasser M; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Thani, Hassan; Elgendy, Akram; Al-Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the association between beta-adrenergic receptor genes (ADRB1 and ADRB2) polymorphism, cardiovascular risk, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in individuals from an Arab ethnicity. A total of 388 Qatari participants were assessed and genotyped for ADRB1 (rs1801252 & rs1801253) and ADRB2 (rs1042718 & rs1042713) polymorphisms using allele-specific PCR. Minor allele frequencies (MAF) in each single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) did not show statistically significant difference between cases and controls. A higher proportion of patients with ACS had homozygous minor alleles (GG) for rs1801253 (28.8% vs 17.1%; P = .019) compared with controls. Among cases with ACS, there was an association of minor allele frequency (G) for rs1801253 with severe coronary artery stenosis (0.485 vs 0.428; P = .04) than that of insignificant stenosis (<50% stenosis). There was a 3-fold increased risk of significant coronary stenosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and carrier of rs1801253 genotypes with dominant model (P = .01) and recessive model (P = .05). There is a possible synergic association between DM, carrier of ADRB1 (Arg389Gly) variants, and significant coronary artery stenosis among Arabs. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to support our findings. PMID:26602751

  4. Cardiovascular side effects of inhaled salbutamol in hypoxic asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Burggraaf, J; Westendorp, R; Veen, J; Schoemaker, R; Sterk, P; Cohen, A; Blauw, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Beta-2 adrenoceptor agonists have been associated with sudden death in asthma patients but the cause and underlying mechanism are unclear. Animal experiments indicate that the combination of hypoxia and β2 agonists may result in detrimental cardiovascular effects. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the systemic vascular effects of salbutamol in patients with asthma who are hypoxic by assessing forearm blood flow (FBF) as a measure of peripheral vasodilatation.
METHODS—Eight men with mild asthma underwent the following treatments: normoxia + placebo (NP), normoxia + salbutamol (NS), hypoxia+ placebo (HP), and hypoxia + salbutamol (HS). The period of mask breathing started at t=0 minutes, lasted for 60 minutes, and at 30 minutes 800 µg salbutamol was inhaled. The experiment was completed 30 minutes after the inhalation (t=60 minutes). For the hypoxia treatment the SpO2 level was 82%. Differences between treatments were sought using factorial ANOVA on percentage change from the pretreatment value.
RESULTS—There were no significant differences in blood pressure and potassium levels between the treatments. After 60 minutes the increase in FBF was 13% (95% CI -12 to 39) more for HP treatment than for NP, 21% (95% CI -5 to 46) more for NS than for NP, and 32% (95% CI 7 to 58) more for HS than for HP (p=0.016). The inhalation of salbutamol during hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in FBF of 45% (95% CI 20 to 71) compared with NP (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION—Patients with asthma who are hypoxic and inhale β2 agonists have serious systemic vascular side effects which may be an additional explanation for the association between asthma treatment and sudden death.

 PMID:11413357

  5. New medications for treatment of obesity: metabolic and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Andrea; Finer, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The management of obesity remains a major challenge. Dietary therapy often fails, whereas bariatric surgery, although successful, is demanding and applicable to a limited number of patients. Drug therapy has had many setbacks over the past 20 years because of serious adverse effects; however, several new drugs for the treatment of obesity are either licensed in some parts of the world, submitted for registration, or completing phase III trials. These include combinations (at low dose) of existing drugs, e.g., bupropion + naltrexone (Contrave), phentermine + topiramate (Qsymia), higher doses of existing drugs licensed for other indications (liraglutide, 3 mg), and new entities (lorcaserin). We discuss the challenges and opportunities for obesity pharmacotherapy and review in detail the efficacy of the new drugs regarding weight loss and both desirable and potential undesirable cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic risk factors. Substantial barriers remain, even if the drugs are approved, in successfully integrating these agents into weight management practice, largely related to cost, patient acceptability, and clinician willingness to be engaged in obesity treatment. Although hard clinical outcome benefit (at least for CV outcomes) has yet to be established, obesity pharmacotherapy may soon address many of the challenges in the clinical management of obesity, although newer and better drug combinations and more evidence of benefit from appropriately designed outcome trials is needed. PMID:25661549

  6. Effects of Tetrodotoxin on the Mammalian Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM). The other isoforms, which are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and nervous system, are highly sensitive to TTX (IC50 ~ 10 nM). During the last two decades, it has become evident that in addition to the major cardiac isoform Nav1.5, several of those TTX sensitive isoforms are expressed in the mammalian heart. Whereas immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods demonstrated functional expression in various heart regions, the physiological importance of those isoforms for cardiac excitation in higher mammals is still debated. This review summarizes our knowledge on the systemic cardiovascular effects of TTX in animals and humans, with a special focus on cardiac excitation and performance at lower concentrations of this marine drug. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that TTX sensitive Na+ channels, detected more recently in various heart tissues, are not involved in excitation phenomena in the healthy adult heart of higher mammals. PMID:20411124

  7. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  8. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  9. Effects of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases: progress in the past year

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hang; Gusdon, Aaron M.; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland. Numerous studies have suggested that melatonin plays an important role in various cardiovascular diseases. In this article, recent progress regarding melatonin's effects on cardiovascular diseases is reviewed. Recent findings In the past year, studies have focused on the mechanism of protection of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial hypoxia-reoxygenation injury, pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, atherosclerosis, valvular heart diseases, and other cardiovascular diseases. Summary Studies have demonstrated that melatonin has significant effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial chronic intermittent hypoxia injury, pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, valvular heart diseases, vascular diseases, and lipid metabolism. As an inexpensive and well tolerated drug, melatonin may be a new therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27075419

  10. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects in relation to plasma levels of midazolam and diazepam.

    PubMed Central

    Sunzel, M; Paalzow, L; Berggren, L; Eriksson, I

    1988-01-01

    1. In the present study possible relationships between cardiovascular and respiratory effects and plasma concentrations were investigated after administration of midazolam and diazepam. Eight healthy volunteers were given three injections at 20 min intervals of equipotent sedative doses of midazolam (0.05 mg kg-1) and diazepam (0.15 mg kg-1) in a randomized double-blind cross-over design. Blood pressure, blood-gases and respiration measured nonivasively, were monitored throughout the experimental session of 160 min, and frequent blood samples were collected during the session. 2. Correlations between the blood pressure reduction, the increase of PaCO2 in blood, and plasma concentrations were found for both drugs. A maximal reduction of blood pressure and PaCO2 was produced after sedative doses of midazolam and diazepam. 3. A possible acute tolerance development towards the blood pressure reduction was found after the repeated administration of diazepam but not after the midazolam administration. 4. The plasma concentrations producing half the maximal effects after administration of midazolam was 50-60 ng ml-1, indicating that the influence on blood pressure and PaCO2 after drug administration is evoked at lower plasma concentrations than sedation. 5. No correlation between the respiratory effects and plasma concentrations was found for either drug. PMID:3136789

  11. [Are there cardiovascular adverse effects of inhaled anticholinergics?].

    PubMed

    Nagy, László Béla

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the cardiovascular risk associated with inhaled anticholinergics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several meta-analyses of data for tiotropium raised the possibility of an increased risk for arrhythmia, angina, myocardial infarction, etc. This review includes the data of retrospective studies of databases using databases, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses of clinical trials. The conclusions of studies were inconsistent. In most clinical trials the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events was similar in active treatment and placebo groups, especially in patients with previous cardiovascular diseases. Considering meta-analyses, there is little, if any, evidence for the association between anticholinergics and the development of cardiovascular symptoms. The author discusses the presence and function of cholinergic receptor subtypes in human heart, and cardiac functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system via these receptors, their possible role, and pharmacokinetic properties of inhaled anticholinergics. The author concludes that it is not possible to find evidence of increased cardiovascular harm of inhaled anticholinergics. PMID:26211748

  12. Relation of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase to Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Braun, Siegmund; Cassese, Salvatore; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    The prognostic value of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has been incompletely investigated. We investigated this clinically relevant question in 2,534 consecutive patients with ACS who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). GGT activity was measured before PCI procedure in all patients. Statin therapy at hospital discharge was prescribed in 94% of the patients. The primary outcome was 3-year mortality. Patients were divided into 3 groups: the group with GGT in the first tertile (GGT <28 U/L; n = 848 patients), the group with GGT in the second tertile (GGT 28 to <50 U/L; n = 843 patients), and the group with GGT in the third tertile (GGT ≥50 U/L; n = 843 patients). The primary outcome (all-cause deaths) occurred in 250 patients: 70 deaths (9.7%) among patients of the first, 69 deaths (9.0%) among patients of the second, and 111 deaths (14.8%) among patients of the third GGT tertile (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42, p = 0.002) and cardiac and noncardiac deaths occurred in 157 (63%) and 93 patients (37%), respectively. GGT was associated with the increased risk of noncardiac mortality (adjusted HR 1.35 [1.09 to 1.66], p = 0.005) but not cardiac mortality (adjusted HR 1.16 [0.97 to 1.38], p = 0.098; all 3 risk estimates were calculated per SD increase in the logarithmic scale of GGT activity). In conclusion, in contemporary patients with ACS treated with PCI and on statin therapy, elevated GGT activity was associated with the increased risk of all-cause and noncardiac mortality but not with the risk of cardiac mortality. PMID:26956636

  13. Association of cardiovascular response to an acute resistance training session with the ACE gene polymorphism in sedentary women: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of an acute resistance training (RT) session and insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rate (HR). Methods The sample consisted of 27 sedentary women (33.3 ± 8.2 yrs; 69.1 ± 13.8 kg; 1.57 ± 0.05 m; 27.6 ± 5.1 kg/m2) divided into two groups according to their polymorphism I/D (DD = 9; II + ID = 18). Volunteers underwent two experimental sessions: RT – an acute session performed with three sets at 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) interspersed with 1 minute rest interval between exercises and sets, and a control session (CON) in which they remained seated for 30 minutes in the laboratory. SBP, DBP, MBP and HR were measured before exercise and during one hour every 10 minutes after sessions, in the seated position. A two-way ANOVA for repeated measures with Tukey’s post hoc test was used for the intra and inter-group comparisons. Results There were no statistically significant differences on SBP, DBP and MBP after the experimental protocols, and no effect of ACE polymorphism (P > 0.05). However, comparing CON versus exercise effect size values (ES), homozygotic carriers of the allele D presented a drop in SBP which was considered moderate, while in allele I carriers it was small, 30 minutes after exercise. In MBP, homozygotic D carriers exhibited a large ES 20 minutes post-exercise. HR was higher at 10, 20 and 30 minutes after exercise as compared to pre-exercise only for carriers of the I allele (P < 0.05). Conclusions Therefore, an acute RT session reduces clinical BP. In addition to this; it seems that ACE polymorphism had some influence on cardiovascular response to exercise. Trial Registration RBR-6GDYVZ PMID:23305118

  14. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye & Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30–300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  15. ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maehre, Hanne K.; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Elvevoll, Edel O.; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    ω-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have, since the 1970s, been associated with beneficial health effects. They are, however, prone to lipid peroxidation due to their many double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a process that may lead to increased oxidative stress, a condition associated with adverse health effects. Recently, conflicting evidence regarding the health benefits of intake of n-3 from seafood or n-3 supplements has emerged. The aim of this review was thus to examine recent literature regarding health aspects of n-3 FA intake from fish or n-3 supplements, and to discuss possible reasons for the conflicting findings. There is a broad consensus that fish and seafood are the optimal sources of n-3 FA and consumption of approximately 2–3 servings per week is recommended. The scientific evidence of benefits from n-3 supplementation has diminished over time, probably due to a general increase in seafood consumption and better pharmacological intervention and acute treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). PMID:26393581

  16. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye &Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30-300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  17. Patients treated in a coronary care unit without acute myocardial infarction: identification of high risk subgroup for subsequent myocardial infarction and/or cardiovascular death.

    PubMed Central

    Nordlander, R; Nyquist, O

    1979-01-01

    Consecutive patients admitted to a coronary care unit (CCU) during one year were studied. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was not substantiated by our criteria in 206 of the patients discharged from the CCU. Of these, 193 were retrospectively followed up during one year. Seventeen of the patients (9%) died from cardiovascular causes during the 1-year period. Another 14 patients (7%) had a subsequent non-fatal acute myocardial infarction during the same period. The majority of the patients had coronary artery disease. Only 32 (17%) could be classified as non-coronary cases, and these had an excellent prognosis without any subsequent acute myocardial infarctions or deaths. The occurrence of transient ST-T shifts in serial electrocardiograms obtained during the first 3 days in hospital selected a subgroup of patients who had a high risk for subsequent non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and/or cardiovascular death. This high risk subgroup provides a basis for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Images PMID:465239

  18. [Acute tonsillopharyngitis: the effectiveness of topical therapy].

    PubMed

    Nosulya, E V; Kim, I A; Chernykh, N M; Karnoukhova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a furasol sore throat gargle solution for the treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis. Forty patients presenting with acute tonsillopharyngitis were allocated to two groups, 20 subjects in each, by means of independent sequential randomization. Prior to the onset of the treatment, all the patients were examined for determining the species composition of pharyngeal microflora with the use of an «AutoScan4 System» analyzer («Siemens», USA) and estimating the resistance to antibacterial preparations (by the disk diffusion method). All the participants of the study were prescribed antibacterial therapy. In the patients of group 1 (study group), the antibacterial treatment of acute tonsillopharyngitis was supplemented by a furasol sore throat gargle solution whereas those of group 2 (controls) were treated without topical therapy. The quantitative evaluation of the severity of manifestations of the disease before and after the treatment was based on a 5-point visual-analog scale. It was shown that systemic antibacterial therapy resulted in the consistent decrease of the frequency of occurrence of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microflora in the patients comprising both groups. Treatment with a furasol sore throat gargle solution did not lead to the appearance of bacterial species alien to the oropharynx, nor was it accompanied by the impairment of resistance of its mucous membrane to the colonization by microorganisms. The results of the study give evidence of the well apparent regression of the subjective signs of tonsillopharyngitis and the inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the pharynx in the patients given the topical treatment in the form of a furasol sore throat gargle solution in addition to antibacterial therapy. It is concluded that a furasol sore throat gargle solution can be recommended for the introduction into the combined treatment of the patients

  19. Effects of B vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases: a randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Czernichow, Sébastien; Briancon, Serge; Blacher, Jacques; Hercberg, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether dietary supplementation with B vitamins or omega 3 fatty acids, or both, could prevent major cardiovascular events in patients with a history of ischaemic heart disease or stroke. Design Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; factorial design. Setting Recruitment throughout France via a network of 417 cardiologists, neurologists, and other physicians. Participants 2501 patients with a history of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or ischaemic stroke. Intervention Daily dietary supplement containing 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (560 μg), vitamin B-6 (3 mg), and vitamin B-12 (20 μg) or placebo; and containing omega 3 fatty acids (600 mg of eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at a ratio of 2:1) or placebo. Median duration of supplementation was 4.7 years. Main outcome measures Major cardiovascular events, defined as a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular disease. Results Allocation to B vitamins lowered plasma homocysteine concentrations by 19% compared with placebo, but had no significant effects on major vascular events (75 v 82 patients, hazard ratio, 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.23, P=0.50)). Allocation to omega 3 fatty acids increased plasma concentrations of omega 3 fatty acids by 37% compared with placebo, but also had no significant effect on major vascular events (81 v 76 patients, hazard ratio 1.08 (0.79 to 1.47, P=0.64)). Conclusion This study does not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing B vitamins or omega 3 fatty acids for prevention of cardiovascular disease in people with a history of ischaemic heart disease or ischaemic stroke, at least when supplementation is introduced after the acute phase of the initial event. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41926726. PMID:21115589

  20. Is Low-Impact Aerobic Dance an Effective Cardiovascular Workout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Henry N.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents results of an investigation comparing energy cost and cardiovascular responses of aerobic dance routines performed at different intensity levels in varying amounts of energy expenditure. For low-impact dance to meet minimum guidelines suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity. (SM)

  1. A Computer Model of the Cardiovascular System for Effective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a model of the cardiovascular system which solves a set of interacting, possibly nonlinear, differential equations. Figures present a schematic diagram of the model and printouts that simulate normal conditions, exercise, hemorrhage, reduced contractility. The nine interacting equations used to describe the system are described in the…

  2. Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Bilgic, Esra; Pinto, Antonio; Engels, Melanie; Wollschläger, Lena; Döhrn, Laura; Kellermann, Kristine; Boeken, Udo; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 ppm Se (as sodium selenite) for 5 weeks. Two other groups of Se-adequate rats received intraperitoneal injection of ebselen (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (solvent control) before surgery. The animals were connected to a heart-lung-machine and underwent 45 min of global ischemia during circulatory arrest at 16 °C, followed by re-warming and reperfusion. Selenite and ebselen suppressed IRI-induced leukocytosis and the increase in plasma levels of tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, LDH, troponin) during surgery but did not prevent the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). Both Se compounds affected phosphorylation and expression of proteins related to stress response and inflammation: Ebselen increased phosphorylation of STAT3 transcription factor in the heart and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in the lungs. Selenite decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSP-70 expression in the heart. Pretreatment with selenite or ebselen protected against acute IRI-induced tissue damage during CPB and DHCA. Potential implications of their different actions with regard to molecular stress markers on the recovery after surgery represent promising targets for further investigation. PMID:27192987

  3. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  4. Set Configuration in Resistance Exercise: Muscle Fatigue and Cardiovascular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Río-Rodríguez, Dan; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiovascular responses of traditional resistance (TS) training have been extensively explored. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with an intra-set rest configuration (ISR) have not been investigated. This study compares two modalities of set configurations for resistance exercise that equates work to rest ratios and measures the central and peripheral fatigue in combination with cortical, hemodynamic and cardiovascular measures. Methods 11 subjects performed two isometric knee extension training sessions using TS and ISR configurations. Voluntary activation (VA), single twitch amplitude, low frequency fatigue (LFF), Mwave, motor evoked potential (MEP), short intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and heart rate variability were evaluated before and after each training session. During each session beat to beat heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure product (RPP) were also evaluated. Results After exercise VA decreased significantly for TS but not for ISR (P < 0.001), single twitch amplitude and LFF values were lower for TS than ISR (P < 0.004), and SICI was reduced only for the TS configuration (P = 0.049). During exercise RPP values were significantly higher for the TS than for ISR (P = 0.001). RPP correlated with VA for TS (r = -.85 P < 0.001) suggesting a relationship between central fatigue and cardiovascular stress. Conclusions We conclude that ISR induced lower central and peripheral fatigue as well as lower cardiovascular stress in comparison with TS configuration. Our study suggests that set configuration is a key factor in the regulation of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular responses of resistance training. PMID:26982500

  5. Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on cardiovascular remodeling in DOCA-salt hypertension rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-ling; Pan, Chen; Wang, Li; Ding, Ling; Guo, Kun; Wang, Hong-zhi; Xu, A-Man; Gao, Shan

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular remodeling, as a hallmark of hypertension-induced pathophysiology, causes substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence that has demonstrated a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) against oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, 180- to 200-g SD rats treated with DOCA (120 mg/week sc with 1% NaCl and 0.2% KCl in drinking water) and GSP (150, 240, 384 mg/kg) or amlodipine (ALM) (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks were recruited. The protective effects of GSP on blood pressure and cardiovascular remodeling in rats with DOCA-salt-induced hypertension were investigated. Our results indicated that DOCA-salt could induce hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction, oxidative stress and the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and could increase JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. GSP or ALM treatments significantly improved hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling and dysfunction and oxidative stress, restrained the release of ET-1 and down-regulated the JNK1/2 and p38MAPK phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that GSP has protective effects against increase of blood pressure induced by DOCA-salt hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling by inhibiting the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via restraining the release of ET-1. PMID:25937175

  6. Study to Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in high-risk older patieNts (ICON1) with acute coronary syndrome: study design and protocol of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kunadian, Vijay; Neely, R Dermot G; Sinclair, Hannah; Batty, Jonathan A; Veerasamy, Murugapathy; Ford, Gary A; Qiu, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ICON1 study (a study to Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in high-risk older patieNts with acute coronary syndrome) is a prospective observational study of older patients (≥75 years old) with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome managed by contemporary treatment (pharmacological and invasive). The aim of the study was to determine the predictors of poor cardiovascular outcomes in this age group and to generate a risk prediction tool. Methods and analysis Participants are recruited from 2 tertiary hospitals in the UK. Baseline evaluation includes frailty, comorbidity, cognition and quality-of-life measures, inflammatory status assessed by a biomarker panel, including microRNAs, senescence assessed by telomere length and telomerase activity, cardiovascular status assessed by arterial stiffness, endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and coronary plaque assessed by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. The patients are followed-up at 30 days and at 1 year for primary outcome measures of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unplanned revascularisation, bleeding and rehospitalisation. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the regional ethics committee (REC 12/NE/016). Findings of the study will be presented in scientific sessions and will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01933581: Pre-results. PMID:27554105

  7. Effects of thyroid hormone and thyroid dysfunction on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kienle, R D; Bruyette, D; Pion, P D

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid disease is common in veterinary practice. The heart, especially the myocardium, is sensitive to thyroid hormone, and deficiencies or excesses can alter cardiovascular function. Observed changes result from direct effects upon the myocardium and indirect effects that result from effects upon the vasculature and peripheral tissues. Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities related to hypothyroidism are rare. If present, they are primarily manifest as reduced left ventricular pump function, as apparent echocardiographically, or arrhythmias. Hyperthyroidism is common in the cat and infrequently encountered in dogs. Clinically significant cardiovascular manifestations are common and often dramatic. Hyperdynamic systolic function and mild myocardial hypertrophy are common manifestations which may lead to overt congestive and high output heart failure. If signs of congestive heart failure or significant arrhythmias are not evident, specific therapy need only be directed toward restoration of the euthyroid state. In most cases the cardiovascular changes associated with thyroid dysfunction are completely reversible. PMID:8053109

  8. Gender, Age and Season as Modifiers of the Effects of Diurnal Temperature Range on Emergency Room Admissions for Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Disease among the Elderly in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Bei; Wang, Shigong; He, Shilin; Yin, Ling; Shang, Kezheng; Li, Tanshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important index of climate change and variability. It is also a risk factor affecting human health. However, limited evidence is available to illustrate the effect of DTR modification on cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly. Methods: A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between DTR and daily emergency room (ER) admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases among the elderly from 2009 to 2011 in Beijing. We examined the effects of DTR for stratified groups by gender and age, and examined the effects of DTR in the warm season and cold season for cause-specific cardiovascular diseases. Results: Significant associations were found between DTR and ER admissions for all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease among elderly males, while DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for all cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease among elderly females. People aged 75 years and older were more vulnerable to DTR. DTR caused greater adverse effects on both genders in the warm season, whereas the effect estimates on females were higher in cold season than in warm season. Conclusions: A short-term increase of DTR was significantly associated with ER admissions for cause-specific cardiovascular disease among the elderly in Beijing. Gender, age and season may modify the acute health effect of DTR. Some prevention programs that target the high risk subgroups in the elderly for impending large temperature changes may reduce the impact of DTR on people’s health. PMID:27128931

  9. Acute Cardiovascular Events after Herpes Zoster: A Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Older Residents of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Caroline; Thomas, Sara L.; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian; Brauer, Ruth; Langan, Sinéad M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster is common and can have serious consequences. Additionally, emerging data suggest an increased risk of acute cardiovascular events following herpes zoster. However, to our knowledge, existing association studies compare outcomes between individuals and are therefore vulnerable to between-person confounding. In this study, we used a within-person study design to quantify any short-term increased risk of acute cardiovascular events (stroke and myocardial infarction [MI]) after zoster and to assess whether zoster vaccination modifies this association. Methods and Findings The self-controlled case series method was used to estimate rates of stroke and acute MI in defined periods after herpes zoster compared to other time periods, within individuals. Participants were fully eligible Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 y with a herpes zoster diagnosis and either an ischemic stroke (n = 42,954) or MI (n = 24,237) between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Age-adjusted incidence ratios (IRs) for stroke and MI during predefined periods up to 12 mo after zoster relative to unexposed time periods were calculated using conditional Poisson regression. We observed a marked increase in the rate of acute cardiovascular events in the first week after zoster diagnosis: a 2.4-fold increased ischemic stroke rate (IR 2.37, 95% CI 2.17–2.59) and a 1.7-fold increased MI rate (IR 1.68, 95% CI 1.47–1.92), followed by a gradual resolution over 6 mo. Zoster vaccination did not appear to modify the association with MI (interaction p-value = 0.44). We also found no evidence for a difference in the IR for ischemic stroke between vaccinated (IR 1.14, 95% CI 0.75–1.74) and unvaccinated (IR 1.78, 95% CI 1.68–1.88) individuals during the first 4 wk after zoster diagnosis (interaction p-value = 0.28). The relatively few vaccinated individuals limited the study’s power to assess the role of vaccination. Conclusions Stroke and MI rates are transiently increased after

  10. An update on cardiovascular effects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Meral; Davutoglu, Vedat

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is an important health problem which may cause or worsen systemic diseases. Chronic intermittent hypoxia during repetitive airflow cessations may cause endothelial dysfunction. Sleep apnoea is also shown to be associated with hypercoagulability which may be due to decreased nitric oxide levels and impaired vasodilatation. Endothelial dysfunction, increased systemic inflammation, sympathetic nervous system activation, increased oxidative stress and dysglycaemia may all contribute to cardiovascular processes such as hypertension, arrhythmia, stroke, heart failure and coronary artery disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Treatment approaches in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea mainly focus on maintaining upper airway patency either with positive airway pressure devices or upper airway appliances. Strategies involving positive airway pressure therapy are associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. Obstructive sleep apnoea should be suspected as an underlying mechanism in patients with cardiovascular disease and warrants appropriate treatment. PMID:27317753

  11. Cardiovascular response during severe acute asthma and its treatment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, A T; Godfrey, S

    1981-01-01

    Heart rate, blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, and cardiac output measured by means of transthoracic electrical impedance cardiography have been recorded in 29 children mean age 10 years +/- 2 SD during status asthmaticus. Changes were recorded over the first two hours of treatment during which all patients received oxygen, intravenous fluid, and hydrocortisone, and were randomly assigned to receive aminophylline, salbutamol, or both. Admission values showed significant correlation of pulsus paradoxus with PaCO2 (r = 0.66). Pulsus paradoxus was greater than 20 mmHg for all patients with PaCO2 above 5.5 kPa. Mean stroke volume and cardiac output were 89% and 131% of the resting convalescent values in the same children. Stroke volume cardiac output and heart rate did not correlate with peak expiratory flow rate or blood gas measurements. Aminophylline and salbutamol together were associated with significantly greater increase in PEF than aminophylline alone (P less than 0.05). Nebulised salbutamol was just as effective as intravenous salbutamol. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure declined significantly after nebulised salbutamol and aminophylline, but not after intravenous salbutamol and aminophylline. Stroke volume and cardiac output did not change significantly in any treatment group. PMID:7314025

  12. Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Steven, Sebastian; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26251902

  13. Exploiting the Pleiotropic Antioxidant Effects of Established Drugs in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Sebastian; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death and reduced quality of life worldwide. Arterial vessels are a primary target for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which is accompanied or even driven by increased oxidative stress. Recent research in this field identified different sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. According to lessons from the past, improvement of endothelial function and prevention of cardiovascular disease by systemic, unspecific, oral antioxidant therapy are obviously too simplistic an approach. Source- and cell organelle-specific antioxidants as well as activators of intrinsic antioxidant defense systems might be more promising. Since basic research demonstrated the contribution of different inflammatory cells to vascular oxidative stress and clinical trials identified chronic inflammatory disorders as risk factors for cardiovascular events, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are closely associated with inflammation. Therefore, modulation of the inflammatory response is a new and promising approach in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Classical anti-inflammatory therapeutic compounds, but also established drugs with pleiotropic immunomodulatory abilities, demonstrated protective effects in various models of cardiovascular disease. However, results from ongoing clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of immunomodulation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26251902

  14. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of metals in ambient particulate matter: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Deborah L; Wallace, Lance A; Brinkman, Marielle C; Buehler, Stephanie S; La Londe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we critically evaluated the epidemiological and toxicological evidence for the role of specific transition metals (As. Cr. Cu. Fe. Mn. Ni. Sc. Ti. V and Zn) in causing or contributing to the respiratory and cardiovascular health effects associated with ambient PM. Although the epidemiologic studies arc suggestive. and both the in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies document the toxicity of specific metals (Fe. Ni. V and Zn). the overall weight of evidence does not convincingly implicate metals as major contributors to health effects. None of the epidemiology studies that we reviewed conclusively implicated specific transition metals as having caused the respiratory and cardiovascular effects associated with ambient levels of PM. However, the studies reviewed tended to be internal ly consistent in identifying some metals (Fe, Ni, V and Zn) more frequently than others (As, Cu, Mn and Sc) as having positive associations wi th health effects. The major problem wi th which the epidemiological studies were faced was classifying and quantifying exposure. Community and population exposures to metals or other components of ambient PM were inferred from centrally- located samplers that may not accurately represent individual level exposures. Only a few authors reported findings that did not support the stated premise of the study; indeed, statistic ally significant associations are not necessarily biologically significant. It is likely that ·'negative studies" are under-represented in the published literature, making it a challenge to achieve a balanced evaluation of the role of metals in causing health effects associated with ambient PM. Both the in vivo and in vitro study results demonstrated that individual metals (Cu. Fe. Ni. V and Zn) and extracts of metals from ambient PM sources can produce acute inflammatory responses. However. the doses administered to laboratory animals were many orders of magnitude greater than what humans experience from

  15. Lower cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress in informal caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder than in non-caregivers: Implications for health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Bellosta-Batalla, M; Moya-Albiol, L

    2015-10-01

    Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with chronic stress. Such a situation could alter body homeostasis, and in turn, physiological systems associated with the stress response and health, such as the autonomic nervous system. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the cardiovascular response with a set of mental tasks in parents of people with (n=34) and without (n=36) ASD. The secondary aim was to explore a potential relationship between cardiovascular response and self-reported health. Caregivers had lower sympathetic activity than non-caregivers, especially during the acute stress period. Higher sympathetic activity was related to more self-reported somatic symptoms in caregivers. Further, caregivers were found to have lower sympathetic reactivity to the stressor, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. Such adaptation could be extremely important for protecting the health of caregivers. PMID:26226113

  16. Cardiovascular Risk in Growth Hormone Deficiency: Beneficial Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lanes, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adulthood is associated with an increased risk of developing adverse cardiovascular events and with reduced life expectancy. Cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities have so far been evaluated only in a small number of children with GHD and adolescents. In this article we review these abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms and discuss the beneficial effect of growth hormone treatment in subjects with GHD. PMID:27241971

  17. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  19. Acute Coronary Syndrome Manifesting as an Adverse Effect of All-trans-Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Report with Review of the Literature and a Spotlight on Management

    PubMed Central

    Govind Babu, K.; Lokesh, K. N.; Suresh Babu, M. C.; Bhat, Gita R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by t(15;17). This leads to the formation of PML/RARα which blocks the differentiation of blasts at the stage of promyelocytes. This is reversed by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative. Acute myocardial ischemia is a rare side effect of ATRA. Case Report. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome manifesting as an adverse effect of ATRA in a lady with APL who had no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. We emphasize the need for high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this entity. In the light of this case, the rare instances of ATRA associated acute myocardial ischemia recorded in the literature and the options available for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia sans ATRA have been reviewed. PMID:26981297

  20. Plasma ceramides predict cardiovascular death in patients with stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes beyond LDL-cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Reijo; Ekroos, Kim; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Hilvo, Mika; Vihervaara, Terhi; Kauhanen, Dimple; Suoniemi, Matti; Hurme, Reini; März, Winfried; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Nieminen, Markku S.; Klingenberg, Roland; Matter, Christian M.; Hornemann, Thorsten; Jüni, Peter; Rodondi, Nicolas; Räber, Lorenz; Windecker, Stephan; Gencer, Baris; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Tell, Grethe S.; Nygård, Ottar; Mach, Francois; Sinisalo, Juha; Lüscher, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim was to study the prognostic value of plasma ceramides (Cer) as cardiovascular death (CV death) markers in three independent coronary artery disease (CAD) cohorts. Methods and results Corogene study is a prospective Finnish cohort including stable CAD patients (n = 160). Multiple lipid biomarkers and C-reactive protein were measured in addition to plasma Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0), and Cer(d18:1/24:1). Subsequently, the association between high-risk ceramides and CV mortality was investigated in the prospective Special Program University Medicine—Inflammation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (SPUM-ACS) cohort (n = 1637), conducted in four Swiss university hospitals. Finally, the results were validated in Bergen Coronary Angiography Cohort (BECAC), a prospective Norwegian cohort study of stable CAD patients. Ceramides, especially when used in ratios, were significantly associated with CV death in all studies, independent of other lipid markers and C-reactive protein. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation for the Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio were 4.49 (95% CI, 2.24–8.98), 1.64 (1.29–2.08), and 1.77 (1.41–2.23) in the Corogene, SPUM-ACS, and BECAC studies, respectively. The Cer(d18:1/16:0)/Cer(d18:1/24:0) ratio improved the predictive value of the GRACE score (net reclassification improvement, NRI = 0.17 and ΔAUC = 0.09) in ACS and the predictive value of the Marschner score in stable CAD (NRI = 0.15 and ΔAUC = 0.02). Conclusions Distinct plasma ceramide ratios are significant predictors of CV death both in patients with stable CAD and ACS, over and above currently used lipid markers. This may improve the identification of high-risk patients in need of more aggressive therapeutic interventions. PMID:27125947

  1. Cardiovascular Toxicities Upon Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yueming; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn)-induced Parkinsonism has been well documented; however, little attention has been devoted to Mn-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. This review summarizes literature data from both animal and human studies on Mn’s effect on cardiovascular function. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that the incidence of abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) is significantly higher in Mn-exposed workers than that in the control subjects. The main types of abnormal ECG include sinus tachycardia, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sinister megacardia, and ST-T changes. The accelerated heartbeat and shortened P-R interval appear to be more prominent in female exposed workers than in their male counterparts. Mn-exposed workers display a mean diastolic blood pressure that is significantly lower than that of the control subjects, especially in the young and female exposed workers. Animal studies indicate that Mn is capable of quickly accumulating in heart tissue, resulting in acute or sub-acute cardiovascular disorders, such as acute cardiodepression and hypotension. These toxic outcomes appear to be associated with Mn-induced mitochondrial damage and interaction with the calcium channel in the cardiovascular system. PMID:16382172

  2. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Barry A; Brook, Robert; Arden Pope, C

    2015-05-01

    An escalating body of epidemiologic and clinical research provides compelling evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease and the triggering of acute cardiac events. There are 3 potential mediating pathways that have been implicated, including "systemic spillover," autonomic imbalance, and circulating particulate matter constituents. Further support that the increased morbidity and mortality attributed to air pollution comes from studies demonstrating the adverse cardiovascular effects of even brief periods of exposure to secondhand smoke. Accordingly, persons with known or suspected cardiovascular disease, the elderly, diabetic patients, pregnant women, and those with pulmonary disease should be counseled to limit leisure-time outdoor activities when air pollution is high. Recognizing the insidious and pervasive nature of air pollution, and the associated odds ratios and population attributable fractions for this widely underappreciated chemical trigger of acute cardiovascular events, may serve to maximize the potential for cardiovascular risk reduction by addressing at least a portion of the 10%-25% incidence of coronary disease that is unexplained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25882781

  3. Oxidative stress-mediated effects of angiotensin II in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Hairuo; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), an endogenous peptide hormone, plays critical roles in the pathophysiological modulation of cardiovascular functions. Ang II is the principle effector of the renin-angiotensin system for maintaining homeostasis in the cardiovascular system, as well as a potent stimulator of NAD(P)H oxidase, which is the major source and primary trigger for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in various tissues. Recent accumulating evidence has demonstrated the importance of oxidative stress in Ang II-induced heart diseases. Here, we review the recent progress in the study on oxidative stress-mediated effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system. In particular, the involvement of Ang II-induced ROS generation in arrhythmias, cell death/heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension are discussed. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is an important molecule linking Ang II, ROS and cardiovascular pathological conditions. PMID:24587981

  4. Radish seed extract mediates its cardiovascular inhibitory effects via muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we describe the hypotensive, cardio-modulatory and endothelium-dependent vasodilator actions of Raphanus sativus (radish) seed crude extract in an attempt to provide scientific basis for its traditional use in hypertension. The plant extract (Rs.Cr) was prepared in distilled water and was subjected to phytochemical screening using standard analytical procedures. In vivo blood pressure was monitored in anaesthetized normotensive rats. Isolated tissue preparations were suspended in tissue baths containing Kreb's solution while acute toxicity study was performed in mice for 24 h. Rs.Cr tested positive for the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and alkaloids and caused a dose-dependent (0.1-3 mg/kg) fall in blood pressure and heart rate of rats that was mediated via an atropine-sensitive pathway. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Rs.Cr showed dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) inhibition of force and rate of contractions. In the atropine-treated tissues, the inhibitory effect was abolished and a cardiac stimulant effect was unmasked which was resistant to adrenergic and serotonergic receptor blockade. In the endothelium-intact rat aorta, Rs.Cr inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions, which was blocked by atropine and Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride while was also absent in the endothelium-denuded preparations. The extract was safe in mice up to the dose of 10 g/kg. The study shows that the cardiovascular inhibitory effects of the plant are mediated through activation of muscarinic receptors thus possibly justifying its use in hypertension. PMID:16448395

  5. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852 PMID:26938637

  6. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  7. Effects of Extreme Temperatures on Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Mortality in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuying; Li, Guoxing; Liu, Liqun; Westerdahl, Dane; Jin, Xiaobin; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Limited evidence is available for the effects of extreme temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods: We collected data from Beijing and Shanghai, China, during 2007–2009, including the daily mortality of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, as well as air pollution concentrations and weather conditions. We used Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the effects of extremely high and low ambient temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality. Results: For all cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, Beijing had stronger cold and hot effects than those in Shanghai. The cold effects on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality reached the strongest at lag 0–27, while the hot effects reached the strongest at lag 0–14. The effects of extremely low and high temperatures differed by mortality types in the two cities. Hypertensive disease in Beijing was particularly susceptible to both extremely high and low temperatures; while for Shanghai, people with ischemic heart disease showed the greatest relative risk (RRs = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34) to extremely low temperature. Conclusion: People with hypertensive disease were particularly susceptible to extremely low and high temperatures in Beijing. People with ischemic heart disease in Shanghai showed greater susceptibility to extremely cold days. PMID:26703637

  8. Cardiovascular effects of berberine in patients with severe congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Marin-Neto, J A; Maciel, B C; Secches, A L; Gallo Júnior, L

    1988-04-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid of the protoberberine family, has been shown to have strong positive inotropic and peripheral resistance-lowering effects in dogs with and without heart failure. To determine the acute cardiovascular effects of berberine in humans, 12 patients with refractory congestive heart failure were studied before and during berberine intravenous infusion at rates of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/kg per min for 30 minutes. The lower infusion dose produced no significant circulatory changes, apart from a reduction in heart rate (14%). The 0.2 mg/kg per min dose elicited several significant changes: (a) Decreases in systemic (48%, p less than 0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (41%, p less than 0.01), and in right atrium (28%, p less than 0.05) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures (32%, p less than 0.01). (b) Increases in cardiac index (45%, p less than 0.01), stroke index (45%, p less than 0.01), and LV ejection fraction measured by contrast angiography (56%, p less than 0.01). (c) Increases in hemodynamic and echocardiographic indices of LV performance: peak measured velocity of shortening (45%, p less than 0.01), peak shortening velocity at zero load (41%, p less than 0.01), rate of development of pressure at developed isovolumic pressure of 40 mmHg (20%, p less than 0.01), percent fractional shortening (50%, p less than 0.01), and the mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (54%, p less than 0.01). (d) Decrease of arteriovenous oxygen difference (28%, p less than 0.05) with no changes in total body oxygen uptake, arterial oxygen tension, or hemoglobin dissociation properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3365876

  9. Effects of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Ho

    2012-02-15

    The effects of heat and cold waves have been studied as risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, few studies have examined the effect of diurnal temperature changes on health. We hypothesized that the diurnal temperature range (DTR) may affect the rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular- and respiratory-related diseases, and therefore investigated the risk of hospital admissions of cardiovascular (stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, cardiac disease, and arrhythmia) and respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia) diseases attributable to DTR in four metropolitan areas in Korea during 2003-2006. The area-combined effects of DTR on some cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were significantly increased by an increment of DTR. In particular, the effects on cardiac failure and asthma were significant with the percentage change of hospital admissions per 1 °C increment of DTR at 3.0% (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.1-2.0), respectively, among 9 diseases. For those 75 years and older, the DTR effect on asthma admissions was greater than in those aged under 75 years. These results support the hypothesis of a positive association between DTR and cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admission. PMID:22281041

  10. Norepinephrine and impulsivity: Effects of acute yohimbine

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Cox, Blake; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rapid-response impulsivity, characterized by inability to withhold response to a stimulus until it is adequately appraised, is associated with risky behavior and may be increased in a state-dependent manner by norepinephrine. Objective We assessed effects of yohimbine, which increases norepinephrine release by blocking alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors, on plasma catecholamine metabolites, blood pressure, subjective symptoms, and laboratory-measured rapid-response impulsivity. Methods Subjects were twenty-three healthy controls recruited from the community, with normal physical examination and ECG, and negative history for hypertension, cardiovascular illness, and Axis I or II disorder. Blood pressure, pulse, and behavioral measures were obtained before and periodically after 0.4 mg/kg oral yohimbine or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolites of norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MHPG; vanillylmandelic acid, VMA) and dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Rapid-response impulsivity was measured by commission errors and reaction times on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT), a continuous performance test designed to measure impulsivity and attention. Results Yohimbine increased plasma MHPG and VMA but not HVA. Yohimbine increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. On the IMT, yohimbine increased impulsive errors and impulsive response bias and accelerated reaction times. Yohimbine-associated increase in plasma MHPG correlated with increased impulsive response rates. Time courses varied; effects on blood pressure generally preceded those on metabolites and test performance. Conclusions These effects are consistent with increased rapid-response impulsivity after pharmacological noradrenergic stimulation in healthy controls. Labile noradrenergic responses, or increased sensitivity to norepinephrine, may increase risk for impulsive

  11. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes. PMID:23793998

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy in Living Kidney Donors

    PubMed Central

    Moody, William E.; Ferro, Charles J.; Edwards, Nicola C.; Chue, Colin D.; Lin, Erica Lai Sze; Taylor, Robin J.; Cockwell, Paul; Steeds, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract— There is a robust inverse graded association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk, but proof of causality is lacking. Emerging data suggest living kidney donation may be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality although the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that the reduction in GFR in living kidney donors is associated with increased left ventricular mass, impaired left ventricular function, and increased aortic stiffness. This was a multicenter, parallel group, blinded end point study of living kidney donors and healthy controls (n=124), conducted from March 2011 to August 2014. The primary outcome was a change in left ventricular mass assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (baseline to 12 months). At 12 months, the decrease in isotopic GFR in donors was −30±12 mL/min/1.73m2. In donors compared with controls, there were significant increases in left ventricular mass (+7±10 versus −3±8 g; P<0.001) and mass:volume ratio (+0.06±0.12 versus −0.01±0.09 g/mL; P<0.01), whereas aortic distensibility (−0.29±1.38 versus +0.28±0.79×10−3 mm Hg−1; P=0.03) and global circumferential strain decreased (−1.1±3.8 versus +0.4±2.4%; P=0.04). Donors had greater risks of developing detectable highly sensitive troponin T (odds ratio, 16.2 [95% confidence interval, 2.6–100.1]; P<0.01) and microalbuminuria (odds ratio, 3.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.1–12.8]; P=0.04). Serum uric acid, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein all increased significantly. There were no changes in ambulatory blood pressure. Change in GFR was independently associated with change in left ventricular mass (R2=0.28; P=0.01). These findings suggest that reduced GFR should be regarded as an independent causative cardiovascular risk factor. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01028703. PMID:26754643

  13. Translational barriers and their effect upon cardiovascular revenues and reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Call, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    During the past 2 decades in health care environments, particularly hospitals, attempts to centralize operational processes have inadvertently bred barriers to interdepartmental communication, resulting in the creation of informational silos and, ultimately, decreases in revenues reported and reimbursement obtained. Overall, operational centralization has reaped process improvement. However, these efficiencies have come at the cost of measurable accuracies that directly affect the bottom line. Cardiovascular managers and administrators should not assume that all the benefits from reviewing claims and information processes within symbiotic departments have already been obtained. Key long-standing services provided to the managers and administrators by departments such as Hospital or Health Information Management/Systems (HIM/HIS), the Business Office (Patient Financial/Account Services), and Information Systems should be periodically reviewed, fine tuned, and overhauled if necessary. The consequence of such reviews and maintenance will be tangible gains in operational efficiency as well as increased financial productivity. PMID:15185625

  14. Cardiovascular Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Anthracyclines

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Vivian I.; Henkel, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Tracie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines are commonly used to treat childhood leukemias and lymphomas, as well as other malignancies, leading to a growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, their use is limited by cardiotoxicity, increasing survivors' vulnerability to treatment-related complications that can markedly affect their quality of life. Survivors are more likely to suffer from heart failure, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular accidents compared to the general population. The specific mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity are complex and remain unclear. Hence, determining the factors that may increase susceptibility to cardiotoxicity is of great importance, as is monitoring patients during and after treatment. Additionally, treatment and prevention options, such as limiting cumulative dosage, liposomal anthracyclines, and dexrazoxane, continue to be explored. Here, we review the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of anthracyclines in treating malignancies in children and discuss methods for preventing, screening, and treating such complications in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:21331374

  15. United States stock market performance and acute myocardial infarction rates in 2008-2009 (from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease).

    PubMed

    Fiuzat, Mona; Shaw, Linda K; Thomas, Laine; Felker, G Michael; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2010-12-01

    We sought to examine the relation between the United States economic decrease in 2008 and cardiovascular events as measured by local acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rates. Mental stress and traumatic events have been shown to be associated with increased risk of MI in patients with ischemic heart disease. This was an observational study of data from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease and includes patients undergoing angiography for evaluation of ischemic heart disease from January 2006 to July 2009. Patients with AMI occurring within 3 days before catheterization were used to calculate AMI rates. Stock market values were examined to determine the period of severe economic decrease, and time trends in AMI rates were examined over the same period. Time series models were used to assess the relation between United States stock market National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (NASDAQ) and rates of AMI. Of 11,590 patients included in the study cohort, 2,465 patients had an AMI during this period. Time series analysis showed a significant increase in AMI rates during a period of stock market decrease from October 2008 to April 2009 (p = 0.003), which remained statistically significant when adjusted for seasons (p = 0.02). In conclusion, unadjusted and adjusted analyses of patients in the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease indicated a significant correlation between a period of stock market decrease and increased AMI rates in our local cohort. PMID:21094353

  16. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Burbank, Andrea D

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular safety of nicotine is an important question in the current debate on the benefits vs. risks of electronic cigarettes and related public health policy. Nicotine exerts pharmacologic effects that could contribute to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis experienced by cigarette smokers. Studies of nicotine medications and smokeless tobacco indicate that the risks of nicotine without tobacco combustion products (cigarette smoke) are low compared to cigarette smoking, but are still of concern in people with cardiovascular disease. Electronic cigarettes deliver nicotine without combustion of tobacco and appear to pose low-cardiovascular risk, at least with short-term use, in healthy users. PMID:27079891

  17. Detrimental effect of hypothermia during acute normovolaemic haemodilution in anaesthetized cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, A.; Fahim, Mohammad

    Haemodynamic responses to hypothermia were studied at normal haematocrit and following the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution. Experiments were performed on 20 cats anaesthetized with a mixture of chloralose and urethane in two groups. In one group (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied at normal haematocrit (41.0+/-1.7%) and in the second group of cats (n=10) the effects of hypothermia on various haemodynamic variables were studied after the induction of acute normovolaemic haemodilution (14.0+/-1.0%). The haemodynamic variables left ventricular pressure, left ventricular contractility, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and right atrial pressure were recorded on a polygraph. Cardiac output was measured using a cardiac output computer. In both groups hypothermia was induced by surface cooling with the help of ice. Cardiovascular variables were recorded at each 1° C fall in body temperature. Hypothermia produced a significant (P<0.05) drop in heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure and left ventricular contractility in both groups. However, the percentage decrease in these variables in response to hypothermia was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cats with low haematocrit than in those with normal haematocrit. The severity of hypothermia - induced cardiovascular effects is evident from the drastic decrease in heart rate, cardiac output, arterial blood pressure and myocardial contractility in cats with low haematocrit, indicating a higher risk of circulatory failure under anaemic conditions at low temperatures.

  18. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  19. The Kinetics of Circulating Monocyte Subsets and Monocyte-Platelet Aggregates in the Acute Phase of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Associations with 2-Year Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xin-Lin; Ji, Wen-Jie; Liu, Jun-Xiang; Guo, Zhao-Zeng; Ren, Dong; Ma, Yong-Qiang; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Zhong-Wei; Li, Hong-Xia; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Zhang, Zhuoli; Li, Yu-Ming; Benefield, Brandon C; Zawada, Adam M; Thorp, Edward B; Lee, Daniel C; Heine, Gunnar H

    2016-05-01

    In experimental myocardial infarction (MI), a rise in cell counts of circulating monocyte subsets contributes to impaired myocardial healing and to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. In humans, the prognostic role of monocyte subsets in patients suffering ST-elevation MI (STEMI) is still unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine the kinetics of the 3 monocyte subsets (classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes), as well as the subset-specific monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA), in acute STEMI followed by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and their relationships with cardiovascular outcomes during a 2-year follow-up.Monocyte subsets and MPA were measured in 100 STEMI patients receiving primary PCI on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 of symptom onset, which were compared with 60 stable coronary heart disease patients and 35 healthy volunteers. From day 1 to day 7, significant increases in the counts of CD14++CD16+ monocytes and CD14++CD16+ MPA were observed, with peak levels on day 2. During a median follow-up of 2.0 years, 28 first cardiovascular events (defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal ischemic stroke, recurrent MI, need for emergency or repeat revascularization, and rehospitalization for heart failure) were recorded. After adjustment for confounders, CD14++CD16+ monocytosis (day 1 [HR: 3.428; 95% CI: 1.597-7.358; P = 0.002], day 2 [HR: 4.835; 95% CI: 1.106-21.13; P = 0.04], day 3 [HR: 2.734; 95% CI: 1.138-6.564; P = 0.02], and day 7 [HR: 2.647; 95% CI: 1.196-5.861; P = 0.02]), as well as increased levels of CD14++CD16+ MPA measured on all time points (days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7), had predictive values for adverse cardiovascular events.In conclusion, our data show the expansion of the CD14++CD16+ monocyte subset during acute phase of STEMI has predictive values for 2-year adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with primary PCI. Future studies will be warranted to

  20. Alkaloids with Cardiovascular Effects from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium expansum Y32

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Qin; Li, Pei-Hai; Chao, Ya-Xi; Chen, Hao; Du, Ning; He, Qiu-Xia; Liu, Ke-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8), together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5–7, and 9–12), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium expansum Y32. Their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and Mosher’s and Marfey’s methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. All of the compounds showed a significant mitigative effect on bradycardia caused by astemizole (ASM) in the heart rate experiments. Compounds 4–6 and 8–12 exhibited potent vasculogenetic activity in vasculogenesis experiments. This is the first study to report that these types of compounds show cardiovascular effects in zebrafish. The results suggest that these compounds could be promising candidates for cardiovascular disease lead compounds. PMID:26506361

  1. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity. PMID:19854228

  2. Cardiovascular effects of noradrenaline microinjection into the medial part of the superior colliculus of unanesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Garcia Pelosi, Gislaine; Fiacadori Tavares, Rodrigo; Barros Parron Fernandes, Karen; Morgan Aguiar Corrêa, Fernando

    2009-09-22

    The superior colliculus (SC) is a mesencephalic area involved in the mediation of defensive movements associated with cardiovascular changes. Noradrenaline (NA) is a neurotransmitter with an important role in central cardiovascular regulation exerted by several structures of the central nervous system. Although noradrenergic nerve terminals have been observed in the SC, there are no reports on the effects of local NA injection into this area. Taking this into consideration, we studied the cardiovascular effects of NA microinjection into the SC of unanesthetized rats. Microinjection of NA into the SC evoked a dose-dependent blood pressure increase and a heart rate decrease in unanesthetized rats. The pressor response to NA was not modified by intravenous pretreatment with the vasopressin v(1)-receptor antagonist dTyr(CH(2))(5)(Me)AVP, indicating a lack of vasopressin involvement in the response mediation. The effect of NA microinjection into the SC was blocked by intravenous pretreatment with the ganglionic blocker pentolinium, indicating its mediation by the sympathetic nervous system. Although the pressor response to NA was not affected by adrenal demedullation, the accompanying bradycardia was potentiated, suggesting some involvement of the sympathoadrenal system in the cardiovascular response to NA microinjection into the SC. In summary, results indicate that stimulation of noradrenergic receptors in the SC causes cardiovascular responses which are mediated by activation of both neural and adrenal sympathetic nervous system components. PMID:19615348

  3. Vitamin D and its effects on glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function and immune function.

    PubMed

    El-Fakhri, N; McDevitt, H; Shaikh, M G; Halsey, C; Ahmed, S F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the non-skeletal effects of vitamin D. It has been suggested that vitamin D deficiency may influence the development of diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the effects of vitamin D and its deficiency on cardiovascular function, glucose homeostasis and immune function, with a particular focus on children. Although, there is good evidence to show that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and an abnormality of the above systems, there is little evidence to show that vitamin D supplementation leads to an improvement in function, especially in childhood. PMID:24776698

  4. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Fleg, Jerome L.

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  5. Effects of a Circuit Training Program on Muscular and Cardiovascular Endurance and their Maintenance in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús; Cocca, Armando

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a circuit training program along with a maintenance program on muscular and cardiovascular endurance in children in a physical education setting. Seventy two children 10–12 years old from four different classes were randomly grouped into either an experimental group (n = 35) or a control group (n = 37) (two classes for each group). After an eight-week development program carried out twice a week and a four-week detraining period, the experimental group performed a four-week maintenance program once a week. The program included one circuit of eight stations of 15/45 to 35/25 seconds of work/rest performed twice. Abdominal muscular endurance (sit-ups in 30 seconds test), upper-limbs muscular endurance (bent arm hang test), and cardiovascular endurance (20-m endurance shuttle run test) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the development program, and at the end of the maintenance program. After the development program, muscular and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The gains obtained remained after the maintenance program. The respective values did not change in the control group (p > 0.05). The results showed that the circuit training program was effective to increase and maintain both muscular and cardiovascular endurance among schoolchildren. This could help physical education teachers design programs that permit students to maintain fit muscular and cardiovascular endurance levels. PMID:24146716

  6. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leão, Sílvia; Conde, Bebiana; Fontes, Paulo; Calvo, Teresa; Afonso, Abel; Moreira, Ilídio

    2016-04-01

    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is incompletely defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with ACS and evaluate prognostic impact of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in these patients. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 73 patients admitted on cardiac intensive care unit for ACS. Cardiorespiratory sleep study and/or polysomnography were performed in all patients. CPAP was recommended if Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5. The main study outcome was a composite of death for any cause, myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization. OSA was diagnosed in 46 patients (63%). Age and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. OSA was classified as mild (m-OSA) in 14 patients (30%) and as moderate-to-severe (s-OSA) in 32 patients (70%). After a median follow-up of 75 months (interquartile range 71 to 79), patients with s-OSA had lower event-free survival rate. After adjustment for gender, patients with s-OSA showed a significantly higher incidence of the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.73, p = 0.035). Adherence to CPAP occurred in 19 patients (41%), but compliance to CPAP therapy did not reduce the risk of composite end point (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.46, p = 0.798). In conclusion, OSA is an underdiagnosed disease with high prevalence in patients with ACS. It is urgent to establish screening protocols because those have high diagnostic yield and allow identifying a group of patients with manifestly unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26857162

  7. [Triglycerides--a long known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analysis shows the importance after acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Olsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins. PMID:26371484

  8. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R; Kashon, Michael L; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dt(max) at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dt(min) in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:25600139

  9. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M.; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R.; Kashon, Michael L.; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dtmax at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dtmin in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:25600139

  10. Effective use of outcomes data in cardiovascular surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasnoff, William A.; Page, U. S.

    1994-12-01

    We have established the Merged Cardiac Registry (MCR) containing over 100,000 cardiovascular surgery cases from 47 sites in the U.S. and Europe. MCR outcomes data are used by the contributors for clinical quality improvement. A tool for prospective prediction of mortality and stroke for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (83% of the cases), known as RiskMaster, has been developed using a Bayesian model based on 40,819 patients who had their surgery from 1988-92, and tested on 4,244 patients from 1993. In patients with mortality risks of 10% or less (92% of cases), the average risk prediction is identical to the actual 30- day mortality (p > 0.37), while risk is overestimated in higher risk patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve area for mortality prediction is 0.76 +/- 0.02. The RiskMaster prediction tool is now available online or as a standalone software package. MCR data also shows that average mortality risk is identical for a given body surface area regardless of gender. Outcomes data measure the benefits of health care, and are therefore an essential element in cost/benefit analysis. We believe their cost is justified by their use for the rational assessment of treatment alternatives.

  11. Nine months in space: effects on human autonomic cardiovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Cooke, W H; Ames JE, I V; Crossman, A A; Cox, J F; Kuusela, T A; Tahvanainen, K U; Moon, L B; Drescher, J; Baisch, F J; Mano, T; Levine, B D; Blomqvist, C G; Eckberg, D L

    2000-09-01

    We studied three Russian cosmonauts to better understand how long-term exposure to microgravity affects autonomic cardiovascular control. We recorded the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic pressure, and respiratory flow before, during, and after two 9-mo missions to the Russian space station Mir. Measurements were made during four modes of breathing: 1) uncontrolled spontaneous breathing; 2) stepwise breathing at six different frequencies; 3) fixed-frequency breathing; and 4) random-frequency breathing. R wave-to-R wave (R-R) interval standard deviations decreased in all and respiratory frequency R-R interval spectral power decreased in two cosmonauts in space. Two weeks after the cosmonauts returned to Earth, R-R interval spectral power was decreased, and systolic pressure spectral power was increased in all. The transfer function between systolic pressures and R-R intervals was reduced in-flight, was reduced further the day after landing, and had not returned to preflight levels by 14 days after landing. Our results suggest that long-duration spaceflight reduces vagal-cardiac nerve traffic and decreases vagal baroreflex gain and that these changes may persist as long as 2 wk after return to Earth. PMID:10956348

  12. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  13. Role of Cardiovascular Disease-associated iron overload in Libby amphibole-induced acute pulmonary injury and inflammation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by asbestos is thought to be mediated through redox-cycling of fiber-bound and bioavailable iron (Fe). We hypothesized that Libby amphibole (LA)-induced cute lung injury will be exacerbated in rat models of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated Fe-ove...

  14. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate: a new drug combination for the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Day, Wesley W.; Finer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss can reduce the increased cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Pharmacotherapy is a recognized weight loss treatment option; however, cardiovascular safety issues with some previous weight loss drugs raise concerns for newly approved pharmacotherapies. Phentermine is approved for short-term obesity treatment in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, but is commonly used chronically. Topiramate, approved for treating epilepsy and preventing migraines, also induces weight loss. A single-dose combination of low-dose phentermine and topiramate extended-release was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination. Cardiovascular data associated with long-term use of phentermine and topiramate extended-release indicate that this combination may be a safe and effective option for reducing weight in overweight/obese patients at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk. PMID:24621808

  15. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems.

    PubMed

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-13

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope. PMID:27044988

  16. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302

  17. High-Velocity Resistance Exercise Protocols in Older Women: Effects on Cardiovascular Response

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rodrigo P.; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J.; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim

    2007-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05) with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals. PMID:24149492

  18. Cost effectiveness of screening for cardiovascular disease with measures of coronary calcium.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Leslee J; Raggi, Paolo; Berman, Daniel S; Callister, Tracy Q

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality with annual costs of care exceeding 300 billion US dollars. Although screening tools are advocated for many cancers, the use of subclinical disease tests for cardiovascular disease are considered controversial. Health care payers and many governmental agencies apply cost-effectiveness analysis for the evaluation of new technology being considered for routine application in the US and Europe. Cost-effectiveness analysis by definition provides a comparative analysis of clinical and economic outcome data when evaluating new technology in relation to existing modalities. The current report provides a description of the framework upon methods applied in cost-effectiveness analysis as well as available data on the subject of cardiovascular screening, most notably using the evaluation of coronary calcium screening with electron beam tomography. The current report will also present several decision analytic models on the cost of atherosclerotic imaging including the evaluation of serial monitoring for disease progression and the development of cost-effectiveness models employing intermediate outcomes. Based on this review, there is an unfolding body of evidence that explores both the clinical and economic consequences of screening for atherosclerotic diseases. Although further evidence is required from prospectively designed randomized controlled trials, it appears that the current evidence from small series and decision analytic models supports cardiovascular screening of asymptomatic individuals and that the current results reveal enhanced cost effectiveness when compared with the routine evaluation using a Framingham risk assessment. PMID:14505290

  19. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  20. A review of the effect of diet on cardiovascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474

  1. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaochen; Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Heran; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25152758

  2. Social determinants of cardiovascular reactivity: effects of incentive to exert influence and evaluative threat.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W; Nealey, J B; Kircher, J C; Limon, J P

    1997-01-01

    The effects on cardiovascular reactivity of incentive to influence the judgements of the experimenter and the threat of social evaluation were examined in a sample of 60 male and 60 female undergraduates. Participants either were guaranteed $5.00 to prepare and deliver a brief speech or were told that the money was contingent on an evaluation by the experimenter. Participants believed that their speech would be rated for either simple clarity or verbal intelligence. The contingent incentive increased systolic blood pressure reactivity by 6.5 mmHg (32%). Evaluative threat increased systolic reactivity by 7.1 mmHg (36%). These interpersonal processes could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and are likely to affect the degree of cardiovascular reactivity in laboratory studies. PMID:9009810

  3. Cardiovascular responses during orthostasis - Effect of an increase in maximal O2 uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Montgomery, L. D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A study is described which tests the hypothesis that changes in aerobic activity (increases in maximum oxygen uptake) will reduce the effectiveness of cardiovascular reflexes to regulate blood pressure during orthostasis. The hypothesis was tested by measuring heart rate, blood pressure and blood volume responses in eight healthy male subjects before and after an eight-day endurance regimen. The results of the study suggest that the physiologic responses to orthostasis are dependent upon the rate of plasma volume loss and pooling, and are associated with training-induced hypervolemia. It is indicated that endurance type exercise training enhances cardiovascular adjustments during tilt. The implications of these results for the use of exercise training as a countermeasure and/or therapeutic method for the prevention of cardiovascular instability during orthostatic stress are discussed.

  4. Inhalation of diethylamine--acute nasal effects and subjective response

    SciTech Connect

    Lundqvist, G.R.; Yamagiwa, M.; Pedersen, O.F.; Nielsen, G.D. )

    1992-03-01

    Adult volunteers were exposed to 25 ppm (75 mg/m3) diethylamine in a climate chamber for 15 min in order to study the acute nasal reactions to an exposure equivalent to the present threshold limit value-short-term exposure limit. Changes in nasal volume and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and by rhinomanometry. Acute change in nasal volume, usually seen as acute nasal mucosa response to thermal stimuli, was not observed, nor was an acute change in nasal airway resistance. In a subsequent experiment, the aim was to measure acute sensory effects. Exposure to a concentration increasing from 0 to 12 ppm took place for 60 min, equal to an average concentration of 10 ppm (30 mg/m3). A moderate to strong olfactory response and distinct nasal and eye irritation were observed. In spite of considerable individual variation, the results were in agreement with sensory effect estimates obtained from animal studies.

  5. EFFECTS OF CHLORDIMEFORM ON CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS. PART 1. LETHALITY AND ARRHYTHMOGENICITY IN THE GERIATRIC RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlordimeform (CDM), a formamidine pesticide, had a profound effect on the cardiovascular function of geriatric rats. Two-year-old pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8) received sequential intravenous CDM injections of 5, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg. A control group of ra...

  6. TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN HEALTHY AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal association between pulmonary and systemic effects of particulate matter in healthy and cardiovascular compromised rats

    Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mette C. Schladweiler, Allen D. Ledbetter, Russ Hauser*, David C. Christiani*, John McGee, Judy R. Richards, Daniel L. Co...

  7. Cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust and ozone in a multi-pollutant context

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cardiovascular effects of two common pollutants, diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3), were examined alone and in combination. Healthy subjects (n=15) were exposed for 2 hrs with intermittent, moderate exercise on Day 1 to 0.3 ppm O3, 300 µg/m3 DE, both O3 and DE, or fil...

  8. Controlled Exposure of Humans with Metabolic Syndrome to Concentrated Ultrafine Ambient Particulate Matter Causes Cardiovascular Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Many studies have reported associations between PM2.5 and adverse cardiovascular effects. However there is increased concern that ultrafine PM (aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 micron) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1 to 2.5 micron fraction of PM2...

  9. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  10. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  11. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater fish oil consumption has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although the mechanisms are unclear. Plant-source oil omega-3 fatty acids (ALA) have also been studied regarding their cardiovascular effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the ef...

  12. Effects and underlying mechanisms of human opiorphin on cardiovascular activity in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-zhu; Chen, Yong; Bai, Lu; Luo, Pan; Du, Xue-jing; Chen, Qiang; Tian, Xin-min

    2015-02-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the peripheral cardiovascular effects of opiorphin in anesthetized rats. Intravenous (i.v.) injection of opiorphin (50-500nmol/kg) caused marked dose-dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. The pressor and tachycardic responses induced by opiorphin (300nmol/kg, i.v.) were significantly decreased by pretreatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril or angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Pretreatment with α-adrenoreceptor antagonist phentolamine and β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol respectively attenuated the pressor response induced by opiorphin. Propranolol, but not phentolamine, inhibited the tachycardic response. Moreover, reserpine blocked both responses to opiorphin. These findings indicated that the effects of opiorphin to increase blood pressure and heart rate might be due to the stimulation of sympathetic ganglia. Additionally, studies with bilaterally adrenalectomized rats showed that adrenal medulla may be involved in the cardiovascular regulation of opiorphin. In addition, pretreatment with nonselective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone did not modify the cardiovascular responses to opiorphin, suggesting that the effects of opiorphin were not related to the opioid system. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed that opiorphin significantly increased endogenous levels of angiotensin II and angiotensin III. In summary, all the results indicate that the cardiovascular effects induced by opiorphin are mediated through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, but not the opioid system. PMID:25460028

  13. Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

  14. Cardiovascular Depression in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Effects of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katryn; Yang, Hui-yu; Nan, Bin; Morishita, Masako; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Fink, Gregory D.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Robert D.; Harkema, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High ambient levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. Enhanced susceptibility to the toxicity of air pollutants may include individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to O3 and PM2.5 will be enhanced in rats with diet-induced MetS. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) to induce MetS and then exposed to O3, concentrated ambient PM2.5, or the combination of O3 plus PM2.5 for 9 days. Data related to heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) were collected. Results: Consistent with MetS, HFrD rats were hypertensive and insulin resistant, and had elevated fasting levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. Decreases in HR and BP, which were found in all exposure groups, were greater and more persistent in HFrD rats compared with those fed a normal diet (ND). Coexposure to O3 plus PM2.5 induced acute drops in HR and BP in all rats, but only ND rats adapted after 2 days. HFrD rats had little exposure-related changes in HRV, whereas ND rats had increased HRV during O3 exposure, modest decreases with PM2.5, and dramatic decreases during O3 plus PM2.5 coexposures. Conclusions: Cardiovascular depression in O3- and PM2.5-exposed rats was enhanced and prolonged in rats with HFrD-induced MetS. These results in rodents suggest that people with MetS may be prone to similar exaggerated BP and HR responses to inhaled air pollutants. Citation: Wagner JG, Allen K, Yang HY, Nan B, Morishita M, Mukherjee B, Dvonch JT, Spino C, Fink GD, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q, Brook RD, Harkema JR. 2014. Cardiovascular depression in rats exposed to inhaled particulate matter and ozone: effects of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Environ Health Perspect 122:27–33; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307085 PMID:24169565

  15. Ameliorative effect of black tea on nicotine induced cardiovascular pathogenesis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Najafipour, Hamid; Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids profile of blood and also malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of heart tissue were measured. Nicotine administration caused a significant increase in total cholesterol, TG and HDL-C and also atherogenic index of plasma (log TG/HDL-C). Moreover, nicotine increased MDA level of heart. Black tea alone increased the antioxidant capacity of heart tissue without significant effect on lipid profile and MDA levels. Concomitant use of black tea and nicotine significantly attenuated the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of nicotine but was unable to attenuate the MDA. Our findings suggest that black tea consumption reduces hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis as two cardiovascular risk factors and complications of nicotine, in rat. If these results can be extrapolated to human, smokers who daily drink black tea may be less at risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Effect of HDL-Raising Drugs on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Shafiq, Nusrat; Reddy, Srinivas; Kaur, Harpreet; Chadha, Neelima; Malhotra, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Background Substantial residual cardiovascular risk remains after optimal LDL lowering in patients of established coronary artery disease. A number of therapeutic agents that raise HDL-C have been tested in clinical trials to cover this risk. However, the results of clinical trials are conflicting. Objectives To determine whether raising HDL-C with pharmacologic therapies translates into beneficial cardiovascular outcomes and to find out if this change was proportional to the percentage change in HDL levels. Methods Electronic and printed sources were searched up to August, 2013 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using at least one of the HDL raising therapies for secondary prevention of adverse cardiovascular events over optimal LDL levels. Data from eligible studies were pooled for the following outcomes: all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, hospitalization for unstable angina, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and ischemic stroke. Mantel Haensnzel fixed effect model was used preferentially. Meta-regression was done to see the correlation of change in HDL levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results A total of 12 RCTs including 26,858 patients with follow up period ranging from 1 year to 6.2 years were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis showed no significant difference in all-cause mortality between the treatment and control group (Pooled OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.98–1.16, p = 0.15). No significant difference was found between the groups for any of the secondary outcomes. Similarly no correlation was seen between percentage change in HDL and adverse cardiovascular outcomes on meta-regression analysis. Conclusion Increasing HDL levels via pharmacological manipulation beyond optimal lipid lowering therapy for secondary prevention is not beneficial. PMID:24728455

  17. Effect of Allopurinol in Chronic Kidney Disease Progression and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    de Vinuesa, Soledad García; Verdalles, Ursula; Ruiz-Caro, Caridad; Ampuero, Jara; Rincón, Abraham; Arroyo, David; Luño, José

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension, inflammation, renal disease progression, and cardiovascular disease. However, no data are available regarding the effect of allopurinol in patients with chronic kidney disease. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted a prospective, randomized trial of 113 patients with estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 ml/min. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with allopurinol 100 mg/d (n = 57) or to continue the usual therapy (n = 56). Clinical, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months of treatment. The objectives of study were: (1) renal disease progression; (2) cardiovascular events; and (3) hospitalizations of any causes. Results: Serum uric acid and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased in subjects treated with allopurinol. In the control group, eGFR decreased 3.3 ± 1.2 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and in the allopurinol group, eGFR increased 1.3 ± 1.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 after 24 months. Allopurinol treatment slowed down renal disease progression independently of age, gender, diabetes, C-reactive protein, albuminuria, and renin-angiotensin system blockers use. After a mean follow-up time of 23.4 ± 7.8 months, 22 patients suffered a cardiovascular event. Diabetes mellitus, previous coronary heart disease, and C-reactive protein levels increased cardiovascular risk. Allopurinol treatment reduces risk of cardiovascular events in 71% compared with standard therapy. Conclusions: Allopurinol decreases C-reactive protein and slows down the progression of renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. In addition, allopurinol reduces cardiovascular and hospitalization risk in these subjects. PMID:20538833

  18. Moderate inappropriately high aldosterone/NaCl constellation in mice: cardiovascular effects and the role of cardiovascular epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Winter, Sabrina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Schneider, Bettina; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempe, Sabine; Mäder, Karsten; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Non-physiological activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), e.g. by aldosterone under conditions of high salt intake, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although beneficial effects of aldosterone also have been described. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contributes to cardiovascular alterations and mediates part of the MR effects. Recently, we showed that EGFR is required for physiological homeostasis and function of heart and arteries in adult animals. We hypothesize that moderate high aldosterone/NaCl, at normal blood pressure, affects the cardiovascular system depending on cardiovascular EGFR. Therefore we performed an experimental series in male and female animals each, using a recently established mouse model with EGFR knockout in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and determined the effects of a mild-high aldosterone-to-NaCl constellation on a.o. marker gene expression, heart size, systolic blood pressure, impulse conduction and heart rate. Our data show that (i) cardiac tissue of male but not of female mice is sensitive to mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment, (ii) EGFR knockout induces stronger cardiac disturbances in male as compared to female animals and (iii) mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment requires the EGFR in order to disturb cardiac tissue homeostasis whereas beneficial effects of aldosterone seem to be independent of EGFR. PMID:25503263

  19. Moderate inappropriately high aldosterone/NaCl constellation in mice: cardiovascular effects and the role of cardiovascular epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Winter, Sabrina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Schneider, Bettina; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempe, Sabine; Mäder, Karsten; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Non-physiological activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), e.g. by aldosterone under conditions of high salt intake, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although beneficial effects of aldosterone also have been described. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contributes to cardiovascular alterations and mediates part of the MR effects. Recently, we showed that EGFR is required for physiological homeostasis and function of heart and arteries in adult animals. We hypothesize that moderate high aldosterone/NaCl, at normal blood pressure, affects the cardiovascular system depending on cardiovascular EGFR. Therefore we performed an experimental series in male and female animals each, using a recently established mouse model with EGFR knockout in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and determined the effects of a mild-high aldosterone-to-NaCl constellation on a.o. marker gene expression, heart size, systolic blood pressure, impulse conduction and heart rate. Our data show that (i) cardiac tissue of male but not of female mice is sensitive to mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment, (ii) EGFR knockout induces stronger cardiac disturbances in male as compared to female animals and (iii) mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment requires the EGFR in order to disturb cardiac tissue homeostasis whereas beneficial effects of aldosterone seem to be independent of EGFR. PMID:25503263

  20. Troponin T in Prediction of Culprit Lesion Coronary Artery Disease and 1-Year Major Adverse Cerebral and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Ketterer, Ulrike; Leuf, Daniela; Dannenberg, Lisa; Wagstaff, Rabea; Bönner, Florian; Gliem, Michael; Jander, Sebastian; Kelm, Malte; Polzin, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Troponin T (TnT) elevation above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) is considered diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Non-specific increases of TnT are frequent in acute stroke patients. However, in these patients, correct diagnosis of MI is crucial because the antithrombotic medications used to treat acute MI might be harmful and produce intracranial bleeding. In this study, we aimed to associate enhanced TnT levels defined by different cutoff values with occurrence of culprit lesion coronary artery disease (CAD) as well as 1-year major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCEs). In this cohort study, we investigated 84 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and concomitant MI. TnT levels were measured using a fourth-generation TnT assay. The incidence of culprit lesion CAD was determined by coronary angiography. MACCEs were recorded during 1-year follow-up. Culprit lesion CAD occurred in 55 % of patients, and 1-year MACCE in 37 %. TnT levels above the manufacturers' provided 99th URL (TnT > 0.01) were not associated with culprit lesion CAD (relative risk [RR], 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.8; P = 0.09). Slightly increased cutoff level (TnT > 0.03) increased specificity and was associated with culprit lesion CAD without decreasing sensitivity (RR, 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.2; P = 0.021) and 1-year MACCE (RR, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.3-2.3; P < 0.001). Slightly increasement of the TnT cutoff level predicted MACCEs and is superior in prediction of culprit lesion CAD in stroke patients without being less sensitive. This finding has to be confirmed in large-scale clinical trials. PMID:26899027

  1. The risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular disease: the importance of electrocardiogram in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of emergency medical treatment and hospitalization in Poland. High-speed electrocardiogram (ECG) has shown good accuracy of the initial diagnosis and of the final diagnosis in treated cardiac patients. Initial diagnosis and definitive diagnosis were analyzed statistically (P<0.0001). Although much is said about the prevention of sudden death in heart failure, the elimination of risk factors health care in Poland does not pay due attention to the need for early diagnosis and ECG analysis (at the stage of prevention). This article presents the inclusion of ECG in the prevention process and shows that it allows for early detection of cardiovascular diseases. In Poland, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients are identified in the ambulance that reduces time to door-to-balloon. PMID:27540297

  2. The risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular disease: the importance of electrocardiogram in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of emergency medical treatment and hospitalization in Poland. High-speed electrocardiogram (ECG) has shown good accuracy of the initial diagnosis and of the final diagnosis in treated cardiac patients. Initial diagnosis and definitive diagnosis were analyzed statistically (P<0.0001). Although much is said about the prevention of sudden death in heart failure, the elimination of risk factors health care in Poland does not pay due attention to the need for early diagnosis and ECG analysis (at the stage of prevention). This article presents the inclusion of ECG in the prevention process and shows that it allows for early detection of cardiovascular diseases. In Poland, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients are identified in the ambulance that reduces time to door-to-balloon. PMID:27540297

  3. Effect of spinal cord injury on the heart and cardiovascular fitness.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W T; Kiratli, B J; Sarkarati, M; Weraarchakul, G; Myers, J; Franklin, B A; Parkash, I; Froelicher, V

    1998-11-01

    The use of various FES protocols to encourage increases in physical activity and to augment physical fitness and reduce heart disease risk is a relatively new, but growing field of investigation. The evidence so far supports its use in improving potential health benefits for patients with SCI. Such benefits may include more efficient and safer cardiac function; greater stimulus for metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary training adaptations; and greater stimulus for skeletal muscle training adaptations. In addition, the availability of relatively inexpensive commercial FES units to elicit muscular contractions, the ease of use of gel-less, reusable electrodes, and the increasing popularity of home and commercial upper body exercise equipment mean that such benefits are likely to be more accessible to the SCI population through increased convenience and decreased cost. The US Department of Health and Human Services has identified those with SCI as a "special population" whose health problems are accentuated, and so need to be specifically addressed. FES presents "a clear opportunity.... For health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health prospects and functional independence of people with disabilities." As a corollary to this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended the development of techniques to prevent or ameliorate secondary disabilities in persons with a SCI. Patients with SCI have an increased susceptibility to cardiac morbidity and mortality in the acute and early stages of their injury. Most of these patients make an excellent adaptation except when confronted with infection or hypoxia. SCI by itself does not promote atherosclerosis; however, in association with multiple secondary conditions related to SCI, along with advancing age, patients with SCI are predisposed to relatively greater risk of heart disease. The epidemiologic significance of this is reflected in demographic studies that indicate an

  4. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers. PMID:26387441

  5. Increased Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress and Salt-Loading in Adult Male Offspring of Fat Fed Non-Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J.; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  6. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  7. Problematic Internet Use, Excessive Alcohol Consumption, Their Comorbidity and Cardiovascular and Cortisol Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress in a Student Population

    PubMed Central

    Bibbey, Adam; Phillips, Anna C.; Ginty, Annie T.; Carroll, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Problematic Internet use and excessive alcohol consumption have been associated with a host of maladaptive outcomes. Further, low (blunted) cardiovascular and stress hormone (e.g. cortisol) reactions to acute psychological stress are a feature of individuals with a range of adverse health and behavioural characteristics, including dependencies such as tobacco and alcohol addiction. The present study extended this research by examining whether behavioural dependencies, namely problematic Internet use, excessive alcohol consumption, and their comorbidity would also be associated with blunted stress reactivity. Methods A large sample of university students (N = 2313) were screened using Internet and alcohol dependency questionnaires to select four groups for laboratory testing: comorbid Internet and alcohol dependence (N = 17), Internet dependence (N = 17), alcohol dependence (N = 28), and non-dependent controls (N = 26). Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising of mental arithmetic and public speaking tasks. Results Neither problematic Internet behaviour nor excessive alcohol consumption, either individually or in combination, were associated with blunted cardiovascular or cortisol stress reactions. Discussion It is possible that problematic Internet behaviour and excessive alcohol consumption in a student population were not related to physiological reactivity as they may not reflect ingrained addictions but rather an impulse control disorder and binging tendency. Conclusions The present results serve to indicate some of the limits of the developing hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity is a peripheral marker of the central motivational dysregulation in the brain underpinning a wide range of health and behavioural problems. PMID:26014670

  8. Cardiovascular effects of centrally injected melittin in hemorrhaged hypotensive rats: the investigation of peripheral mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Murat; Savci, Vahide

    2007-12-01

    We have previously shown that centrally injected melittin, a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activator, increases blood pressure and decreases heart rate in the normotensive conscious rats. In the current study we aimed to determine the cardiovascular effects of melittin in hemorrhaged hypotensive rats and to investigate the mediation of peripheral adrenergic, vasopressinergic and renin angiotensin system in the pressor effect of centrally administrated melittin in both normotensive and hypotensive conditions. Acute hypotensive hemorrhage was performed by withdrawing a total volume of 2.2ml of blood/100g body weight over a period of 10min. Melittin was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at the doses of 1.5microg, 3.0microg or 6.0microg after the stabilization period of hemorrhage procedure. We also repeated previous experiments by injecting melittin (1.5microg, 3.0microg or 6.0microg; i.c.v.) to the normotensive animals. Melittin caused dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normal and hypotensive conditions and decreases in heart rate (HR) in normotensive conscious animals. In hypotensive rats, melittin injected at the dose of 6.0microg completely restored the decrease in blood pressure. Plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin activity increased after melittin (3.0microg; i.c.v) administration in normal conditions. Hemorrhage, itself, produced an increase in these plasma hormone levels and melittin (3.0microg; i.c.v.) caused additional increases in plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin levels and renin activity in hypotensive conditions. Intravenous pretreatments of rats with prazosin (0.5mg/kg), an alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonist, [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl(1), O-Me-Tyr(2)-Arg(8)]-vasopressin (10microg/kg), a vasopressin V(1) receptor antagonist, or saralasin (250microg/kg), an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, partially blocked the pressor response to melittin (3

  9. Acute toxic effects of sustained-release verapamil in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Pritza, D R; Bierman, M H; Hammeke, M D

    1991-10-01

    Four hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease who were treated with sustained-release verapamil hydrochloride subsequently developed acute toxic effects. All four patients developed varying degrees of atrioventricular heart block, hypotension, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and hepatic dysfunction. Supportive treatment consisted of intravenous catecholamines, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, and dialysis, and all patients recovered completely without any residual hepatic or cardiac disease. Patients with renal impairment who are treated with sustained-release verapamil may accumulate verapamil or its metabolites and develop toxic side effects. We conclude that sustained-release verapamil should be used with caution in this patient population and that patients should be closely monitored for adverse cardiovascular, metabolic, and hepatic side effects. PMID:1843183

  10. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  11. Knowledge and Behavioral Effects in Cardiovascular Health: Community Health Worker Health Disparities Initiative, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Margarita; Yang, Manshu; Evensen, Christian; Windham, Amy; Ortiz, Gloria; Tracy, Rachel; Ivy, Edward Donnell

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and disparities in cardiovascular health exist among African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics, and Filipinos. The Community Health Worker Health Disparities Initiative of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) includes culturally tailored curricula taught by community health workers (CHWs) to improve knowledge and heart-healthy behaviors in these racial/ethnic groups. Methods We used data from 1,004 community participants in a 10-session curriculum taught by CHWs at 15 sites to evaluate the NHLBI’s health disparities initiative by using a 1-group pretest–posttest design. The curriculum addressed identification and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. We used linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed effects models to examine results. Results Average participant age was 48; 75% were female, 50% were Hispanic, 35% were African American, 8% were Filipino, and 7% were American Indian. Twenty-three percent reported a history of diabetes, and 37% reported a family history of heart disease. Correct pretest to posttest knowledge scores increased from 48% to 74% for heart healthy knowledge. The percentage of participants at the action or maintenance stage of behavior change increased from 41% to 85%. Conclusion Using the CHW model to implement community education with culturally tailored curricula may improve heart health knowledge and behaviors among minorities. Further studies should examine the influence of such programs on clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24524426

  12. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71) or control group (n = 75) using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference). In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive lifestyle intervention had a

  13. Effect of Pregabalin on Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise and Postexercise Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrea T.; Light, Kathleen C.; Bateman, Lucinda; Hughen, Ronald W.; Vanhaitsma, Timothy A.; Light, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin, an approved treatment for fibromyalgia (FM), has been shown to decrease sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and inhibit sympathetically maintained pain, but its effects on exercise responses have not been reported. Methods. Using a randomized double-blind crossover design, we assessed the effect of 5 weeks of pregabalin (versus placebo) on acute cardiovascular and subjective responses to moderate exercise in 19 FM patients. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise and ratings of pain, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue before, during, and for 48 hours after exercise were compared in patients on pregabalin versus placebo and also versus 18 healthy controls. Results. On placebo, exercise RPE and BP were significantly higher in FM patients than controls (p < 0.04). Pregabalin responders (n = 12, defined by patient satisfaction and symptom changes) had significantly lower exercise BP, HR, and RPE on pregabalin versus placebo (p < 0.03) and no longer differed from controls (p > 0.26). Cardiovascular responses of nonresponders (n = 7) were not altered by pregabalin. In responders, pregabalin improved ratings of fatigue and pain (p < 0.04), but negative effects on pain and fatigue were seen in nonresponders. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest that pregabalin may normalize cardiovascular and subjective responses to exercise in many FM patients. PMID:27026828

  14. Extreme weather and air pollution effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N

    2016-01-15

    In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased extreme temperatures, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (air mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate air pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two air mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate air pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26519584

  15. Cardiovascular Health Issues in Inner City Populations.

    PubMed

    Nayyar, Dhruv; Hwang, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Inner city populations in high-income countries carry a disproportionately high burden of cardiovascular disease. Although low individual socioeconomic status has long been associated with higher morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, there is a growing body of evidence that area-level socioeconomic status may also have a major effect on cardiovascular outcomes. A lack of supermarkets, limited green space, and high rates of violent crime in inner city neighbourhoods result in poor dietary intake and low rates of physical activity among residents. The physical and social environments of inner city neighbourhoods may also contribute to high rates of comorbid mental illness in disadvantaged urban populations. Mental illness may lead to the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors through its impact on health behaviours, effects of psychiatric medications, and sequelae of substance abuse. Individuals residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods experience reduced access to both primary preventive and acute in-hospital cardiovascular care. This may be driven by financial disincentives for caring for patients with low socioeconomic status, as well as system capacity issues in the inner city, and patient-level differences in health-seeking behaviours. Small-scale studies of interventions to improve individual-level health behaviours and access to care in the inner city have demonstrated some success in improving cardiovascular outcomes through the use of mobile clinics, health coaching, and case management approaches. There is a need for further research into community-wide interventions to improve the cardiovascular health of inner city populations. PMID:26321435

  16. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ≤ .05 cut-off level for

  17. Effects of Aerobic Dance on Physical Work Capacity, Cardiovascular Function and Body Composition of Middle-Age Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Deborah B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study proposed to determine the effects of aerobics on physical work capacity, cardiovascular function and body composition of 28 women aged 25 to 44 years. Measurements taken after a conditioning program showed significant changes in work capacity and cardiovascular function for the conditioned group but no change in body composition.…

  18. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Amyloid A and Protein Carbonyl Group Levels in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Hami; Abolfathi, Ali Akbar; Badalzadeh, Reza; Majidinia, Maryam; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Asadi, Maryam; Yousefi, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serum amyloid-A (SAA) and protein carbonyl group are rigorously related with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) as a sensitive marker of an acute inflammatory state and as an important index of oxidative stress, respectively. Moreover, diet is one of the main factors that can modify cardiovascular risks. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on SAA and protein carbonyl group levels in patients with CVDs. Methods: Twenty-one patients (21 male; mean age 52±9 years old) with CVDs (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular, or peripheral arterial diseases) were participated in this study. Biochemical parameters were measured in patients 2 days before and 2 days after Ramadan fasting. SAA levels were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Cayman’s protein carbonyl colorimetric assay was provided for measuring protein carbonyl groups. Results: According to the findings of the study, post-Ramadan levels of inflammatory biomarker, SAA was decreased significantly in patients with CVDs in comparison with the baseline before-fasting values (16.84±8.20 vs. 24.40±6.72 μg/ml, P = 0.021). In addition, Ramadan fasting significantly reduced the levels of protein carbonyl group in patients as compared with those of baseline values (33.08±15.31 vs. 43.65±16.88 nmol/ml, P = 0.039). Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has impressive effects on modulating CVDs by decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress markers. However, to get a clear conclusion with more results, further investigation is warranted. PMID:26191392

  19. Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions

    PubMed Central

    González, Débora; Torrens, Marta; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background. 2C-B (Nexus) is one of the most widespread novel psychoactive substances. There is limited information about its pharmacological properties, and few studies in humans concern its acute and chronic effects. 2C-B has been classified as a stimulant, hallucinogen, entactogen, and/or empathogen. Objectives. To evaluate the emotional, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of 2C-B. Methods. Twenty healthy recreational 2C-B users (12 women) self-administered a 20 mg dose of 2C-B. Evaluations included emotional (IAPS, FERT, and speech), subjective (visual analog scales, ARCI, VESSPA, HRS, and POMS questionnaires), and cardiovascular effects (blood pressure and heart rate). Results. Positive subjective effects predominated with a reduction of anger under the influence of 2C-B. It did, however, increase reactivity to negative emotional stimuli and decrease the ability to recognize expressions of happiness. Augmented emotionality in speech could be appreciated by others. 2C-B induced euphoria and well-being, changes in perceptions, and slight hallucinogenic states. Mild sympathetic actions were observed. Conclusions. The specific profile that 2C-B exerts on emotions suggests its classification as an entactogen with psychedelic properties. PMID:26543863

  20. Therapeutic effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Omar, S A; Webb, A J; Lundberg, J O; Weitzberg, E

    2016-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated endogenously by NO synthases to regulate a number of physiological processes including cardiovascular and metabolic functions. A decrease in the production and bioavailability of NO is a hallmark of many major chronic diseases including hypertension, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This NO deficiency is mainly caused by dysfunctional NO synthases and increased scavenging of NO by the formation of reactive oxygen species. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite are emerging as substrates for in vivo NO synthase-independent formation of NO bioactivity. These anions are oxidation products of endogenous NO generation and are also present in the diet, with green leafy vegetables having a high nitrate content. The effects of nitrate and nitrite are diverse and include vasodilatation, improved endothelial function, enhanced mitochondrial efficiency and reduced generation of reactive oxygen species. Administration of nitrate or nitrite in animal models of cardiovascular disease shows promising results, and clinical trials are currently ongoing to investigate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction. In addition, the nutritional aspects of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway are interesting as diets suggested to protect against cardiovascular disease, such as the Mediterranean diet, are especially high in nitrate. Here, we discuss the potential therapeutic opportunities for nitrate and nitrite in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:26522443

  1. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  2. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  3. Effect of acute airway inflammation on the pulmonary antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Deaton, Christopher M; Marlin, David J; Smith, Nicola C; Harris, Patricia A; Dagleish, Mark P; Schroter, Robert C; Kelly, Frank J

    2005-09-01

    Effects of acute airway inflammation induced by organic dust inhalation on pulmonary antioxidant status were investigated in healthy horses and horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction. Exposure to organic dust induced acute airway neutrophilia, which was associated with increases in elastase and decreases in ascorbic acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, markers of oxidative stress were unaffected, as was hydrogen peroxide in breath condensate. Decreases in ascorbic acid correlated with increased respiratory resistance (P = .001) when both groups were combined. In conclusion, acute neutrophilic airway inflammation does not result in significant evidence of oxidative stress in horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:16203621

  4. Cardiovascular effects of Zumba® performed in a virtual environment using XBOX Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Luceli Eunice Da Silva; Cerávolo, Mariza Paver Da Silva; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; De Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses during a session of Zumba® Fitness in a virtual reality environment. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The following cardiovascular variables: heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and double product were assessed before and after the practice of virtual Zumba®, which was performed as a continuous sequence of five choreographed movements lasting for 22 min. The game Zumba Fitness Core®, with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360, was used to create the virtual environment. Comparisons were made among mean delta values (delta=post-Zumba® minus pre-Zumba® values) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and double product using Student’s t-test for paired samples. [Results] After a single session, a significant increase was noted in all the analyzed parameters (Systolic blood pressure=18%; Diastolic blood pressure=13%; Heart rate=67%; and Double product=97%). [Conclusion] The results support the feasibility of the use of Zumba Fitness Core® with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360 in physical activity programs and further favor its indication for this purpose. PMID:26504312

  5. Cardiovascular effects of Zumba(®) performed in a virtual environment using XBOX Kinect.

    PubMed

    Neves, Luceli Eunice Da Silva; Cerávolo, Mariza Paver Da Silva; Silva, Elisangela; De Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; Da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; Higino, Wonder Passoni; Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; De Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the acute cardiovascular responses during a session of Zumba(®) Fitness in a virtual reality environment. [Subjects] Eighteen healthy volunteers were recruited. [Methods] The following cardiovascular variables: heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and double product were assessed before and after the practice of virtual Zumba(®), which was performed as a continuous sequence of five choreographed movements lasting for 22 min. The game Zumba Fitness Core(®), with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360, was used to create the virtual environment. Comparisons were made among mean delta values (delta=post-Zumba(®) minus pre-Zumba(®) values) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and double product using Student's t-test for paired samples. [Results] After a single session, a significant increase was noted in all the analyzed parameters (Systolic blood pressure=18%; Diastolic blood pressure=13%; Heart rate=67%; and Double product=97%). [Conclusion] The results support the feasibility of the use of Zumba Fitness Core(®) with the Kinect-based virtual reality system for the XBOX 360 in physical activity programs and further favor its indication for this purpose. PMID:26504312

  6. Protective effects of red wine polyphenolic compounds on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Zenebe, Woineshet; Pechánová, Olga; Bernátová, Iveta

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic phytochemicals are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. In terms of protective effects on organisms, the group of polyphenols is the most important. In various experiments, it has been shown that selected polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, confer protective effects on the cardiovascular system and have anti-cancer, antiviral and antiallergic properties. In coronary artery disease, the protective effects are due mainly to antithrombic, antioxidant, anti-ischemic and vasorelaxant properties of flavonoids. Flavonoids are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions, which appear to be responsible for the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. It has been hypothesized that the low incidence of coronary artery disease in the French population may be partially related to the pharmacological properties of polyphenolic compounds present in red wine. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20428452

  7. Ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of BHT 933 in volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Pleuvry, B J; Redpath, J B

    1982-01-01

    In 12 healthy volunteers BHT 933 in doses of 5 and 10 mg had minimal effects on ventilation, a small fall in total volume occurred with the highest dose. BHT 933 (5 mg) reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but had little effect on autonomic reactivity tests, whereas the 10 mg dose reduced the response to these tests. Both doses of BHT 933 caused marked sedation. It is concluded that 5 mg BHT 933 orally presents the most suitable profile of activity for further studies into its usefulness as an anti-tussive and antihypertensive. PMID:6814471

  8. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessments of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S Ken; Villano, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacterial pathogens. A series of nonclinical studies, including mammalian pharmacologic receptor binding studies, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel binding studies, studies of the effects on ex vivo sinoatrial (SA) node activity, and studies of in vivo effects on cardiovascular function in the cynomolgus monkey, was undertaken to assess the cardiovascular risk potential. Omadacycline was found to bind almost exclusively to the muscarinic subtype 2 acetylcholine receptor (M2), and in the SA node model it antagonized the effect of a pan-muscarinic agonist (carbamylcholine) in a concentration-dependent manner. Omadacycline exhibited no effect on hERG channel activity at 100 μg/ml (179.5 μM), with a 25% inhibitory concentration of 166 μg/ml (298.0 μM). Omadacycline had no effect on QTc in conscious monkeys at doses up to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Overall, omadacycline appears to attenuate the parasympathetic influence on the heart rate but has a low potential to induce cardiac arrhythmia or to have clinically significant cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:27324778

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessments of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacterial pathogens. A series of nonclinical studies, including mammalian pharmacologic receptor binding studies, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel binding studies, studies of the effects on ex vivo sinoatrial (SA) node activity, and studies of in vivo effects on cardiovascular function in the cynomolgus monkey, was undertaken to assess the cardiovascular risk potential. Omadacycline was found to bind almost exclusively to the muscarinic subtype 2 acetylcholine receptor (M2), and in the SA node model it antagonized the effect of a pan-muscarinic agonist (carbamylcholine) in a concentration-dependent manner. Omadacycline exhibited no effect on hERG channel activity at 100 μg/ml (179.5 μM), with a 25% inhibitory concentration of 166 μg/ml (298.0 μM). Omadacycline had no effect on QTc in conscious monkeys at doses up to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Overall, omadacycline appears to attenuate the parasympathetic influence on the heart rate but has a low potential to induce cardiac arrhythmia or to have clinically significant cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:27324778

  11. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  12. The combined cardiovascular effect of alcohol and noise in rats.

    PubMed

    Morvai, V; Szakmáry, E; Székely, A; Ungváry, G

    1994-01-01

    Groups of 20 CFY male rats were made to drink water containing 10% alcohol and 5% sugar or 5% sugar. Half of both groups (10-10 animals) were exposed to 95 dBAeq mixed industrial noise for 3 weeks, 6 hours daily. Haemodynamic measurements were carried out using isotope (57Co) labelled microspheres, which were repeated after the i.v. administration of 30 micrograms/kg/3 min noradrenaline, using a second isotope (113Sn). It was found, that alcohol decreased the cardiac fraction of the cardiac output, the nutritive blood flow of the myocardium and increased the vascular resistance of the adrenals. Noise decreased the lung fraction of the cardiac output and the hepatic blood flow. Interaction between noise and alcohol, inhibiting the effect of alcohol, was demonstrated on the intestinal blood flow, adrenal fraction of cardiac output and testicular vascular resistance. The haemodynamic effects of noradrenaline observed in the control were in several organs more or less modified in the animals treated with alcohol or noise or both. It was concluded that the exposures (alcohol, noise or both) modify the alpha-adrenergic effect of noradrenaline. PMID:7785440

  13. The Acute Exposure Effects of Inhaled Nickel Nanoparticles on Murine Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures such as increases in vascular inflammation, generate reactive oxygen species, alter vasomotor tone, and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Methods Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500μg/m3 of nickel nanoparticles for 5 hrs, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation, and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs), and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Results and Conclusions Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. This data provides new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs. PMID:25144474

  14. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages. PMID:24615238

  15. Combined Value of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events Risk Score for Predicting Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Na; Mi, Lan; Liu, Xiaojun; Pan, Shuo; Xu, Jiaojiao; Xia, Dongyu; Liu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yong; Xiang, Yu; Yuan, Zuyi; Guan, Gongchang; Wang, Junkui

    2015-01-01

    Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) content can both independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the combined predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score for cardiovascular events in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time. We enrolled 480 ACS patients. During a median follow-up time of 37.2 months, 70 (14.58%) patients experienced MACEs. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the baseline RDW content (11.30–12.90, 13.00–13.50, 13.60–16.40). GRACE score was positively correlated with RDW content. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that both GRACE score and RDW content were independent predictors of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.024–1.055; p < 0.001; 1.699; 1.294–2.232; p < 0.001; respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the risk of MACEs increased with increasing RDW content (p < 0.001). For GRACE score alone, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for MACEs was 0.749 (95% CI: 0.707–0.787). The area under the ROC curve for MACEs increased to 0.805 (0.766–0.839, p = 0.034) after adding RDW content. The incremental predictive value of combining RDW content and GRACE risk score was significantly improved, also shown by the net reclassification improvement (NRI = 0.352, p < 0.001) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI = 0.023, p = 0.002). Combining the predictive value of RDW and GRACE risk score yielded a more accurate predictive value for long-term cardiovascular events in ACS patients who underwent PCI as compared to each measure alone. PMID:26468876

  16. Effects of a gravity gradient on human cardiovascular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastreiter, D.; Young, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    Eight subjects participated in one control and three rotation trials on a short-arm centrifuge such that the Gz levels at the feet were 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 G. Trials consisted of 30 minutes of supine rest, 1 hour of rotation (or in the control, 30 additional minutes of rest and 30 minutes of standing), and a final 30-minute rest period. Measurements of heart rate, calf impedance, calf volume, and blood pressure support the findings that the highest G level is similar to standing and that the lower G levels fail to produce significant effects.

  17. Stonefish antivenom neutralises the inflammatory and cardiovascular effects induced by scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena L; Menezes, Thiago N; Carnielli, Juliana B T; Andrich, Filipe; Evangelista, Karla S; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Vassallo, Dalton V; Figueiredo, Suely G

    2011-06-01

    Venomous fish are often involved in human accidents and symptoms of envenomation include local (intense pain and swelling) and systemic effects (cardiovascular and neurological disorders). However the only commercially available antivenom is against the Indo-Pacific stonefish Synanceja trachynisStonefish Antivenom (SFAV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of SFAV in neutralising the in vivo effects of some toxic activities of scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom (SpV), and the in vitro immuno cross-reactivity. The SpV (7.5-100 μg/animal) caused nociceptive and dose-dependent edematogenic responses in the mice footpad. In rats SpV (300 μg/kg, i.v.) produced immediate and transient increase in arterial blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. Prior incubation of SpV with SFAV (1 μg SpV/1 U SFAV) abolished the inflammatory response, and significantly attenuated the cardiovascular effects induced by SPV. Western blotting analysis on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of S plumieri venom proteins using SFAV proved that the epitopes recognized by SFAV are shared with the ∼98 kDa proteins. This is the first report of venom similarities between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic venomous fish, suggesting that the SpV compound responsible for inflammatory and cardiovascular effects possesses similar biochemical and antigenic properties to those found in stonefish venom. PMID:21510970

  18. Acute Effect of High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p < 0.01) with eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. PMID:24832967

  19. Lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk associated with glucose-lowering medications.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Barbara E; Gebhard, Catherine; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic, associated with a high burden of complications and 4.6 million deaths annually worldwide. As a result of decreasing levels of physical activity and increasing rates of obesity, diabetes is shifting from a disease affecting the elderly to one that affects younger patients or even children. Thus, aggressive treatment and optimal control of risk factors is the key to improve outcomes in those patients. Accumulating evidence of the cardiovascular and lipid effects of glucose-lowering medications suggest that treatment efficacy in diabetes can be further improved. This review provides an overview of the lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk of current anti-diabetic medications and highlights opportunities and challenges in clinical practice. PMID:26031672

  20. Neuropsychologic and cardiovascular effects of clemastine fumarate under pressure.

    PubMed

    Sipinen, S A; Kulvik, M; Leiniö, M; Viljanen, A; Lindholm, H

    1995-12-01

    Allergic rhinitis and mild respiratory infections have been widely accepted as temporary contraindications for fitness to dive. Nonetheless, several sport and professional divers use antihistamines to ease ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems, especially for opening tubal ostium. Some divers know they are unfit to dive, but for a variety of reasons (e.g., money or short holiday) they try to clear their ears. Thus, the use of antihistaminic drugs (like clemastine fumarate) is common during diving. This double-blind, crossover study indicates that this special antihistamine does not increase the sedative effects of nitrogen narcosis, nor does it increase the level of cardiac arrhythmias. Liberal use of antihistamines while diving cannot be recommended because of possible complications connected with different preparations and the temporary limitations they impose on the diver. PMID:8574128

  1. Acute effects of submaximal endurance training on arterial stiffness in healthy middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jan; Wilms, Michael; Oberhoffer, Renate

    2015-05-01

    Measures of arterial stiffness are indicators for cardiovascular health and predictors of cardiovascular events. Arterial stiffness is responsive to acute physiologic stressors such as exercise. However, the acute effects of intensive exercise and recovery on arterial stiffness are controversial. Thirty-seven healthy middle- and long-distance runners (33 men, mean age 26.5±6.6 years) underwent evaluation of their cardiovascular stiffness at rest, after a 15-minute warm-up, immediately after vigorous running 3 km at the pace of their 10-km personal best, and finally 30 minutes after terminating their workout. Peripheral and central systolic blood pressure, as well as augmentation index and pulse wave velocity (PWV), increased during exercise in comparison to baseline (P<.001, general linear model). Thirty minutes after terminating the workout, a drop in peripheral blood pressure (P<.001), central blood pressure (P<.001), and PWV (P=.001) below baseline was observed. Therefore, the authors found that exercise of either moderate or vigorous intensity causes a temporary increase in arterial stiffness in middle- and long-distance runners. PMID:25782686

  2. Effects of cold and hot temperature on dehydration: a mechanism of cardiovascular burden.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The association between temperature (cold or heat) and cardiovascular mortality has been well documented. However, few studies have investigated the underlying mechanism of the cold or heat effect. The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of temperature on dehydration markers and to explain the pathophysiological disturbances caused by changes of temperature. We investigated the relationship between outdoor temperature and dehydration markers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio, urine specific gravity, plasma tonicity and haematocrit) in 43,549 adults from Seoul, South Korea, during 1995-2008. We used piece-wise linear regression to find the flexion point of apparent temperature and estimate the effects below or above the apparent temperature. Levels of dehydration markers decreased linearly with an increase in the apparent temperature until a point between 22 and 27 °C, which was regarded as the flexion point of apparent temperature, and then increased with apparent temperature. Because the associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality are known to be U-shaped, our findings suggest that temperature-related changes in hydration status underlie the increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity during high- or low-temperature conditions. PMID:25344017

  3. Selectivity for specific cardiovascular effects of vagal nerve stimulation with a multi-contact electrode cuff.

    PubMed

    Ordelman, Simone C M A; Kornet, Lilian; Cornelussen, Richard; Buschman, Hendrik P J; Veltink, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system can be influenced by electrically stimulating the vagal nerve. Selectivity for specific cardiac fibers may be limited when stimulating at the cervical level. Our objective was to increase effectiveness and selectivity for cardiovascular effects of vagal nerve stimulation by using local bipolar stimulation in one nerve cross section using a multi-contact cuff instead of less localized stimulation using a tripolar ring electrode. Both types of cuff electrodes were compared with respect to their relative effects on R-R interval (RRI), P-Q interval (PQI), left ventricular contractility (LVC), and left ventricular pressure (P(LV)) in seven pigs. Stimulation using the optimal bipolar configuration on the multi-contact cuff significantly affected RRI, PQI, LVC, and P(LV), whereas stimulation with the ring electrode only significantly affected RRI and PQI. The cardiovascular parameters that could be significantly influenced varied between the bipolar configurations. These novel findings may be relevant for optimizing electrode configurations for clinical cardiac applications of vagal nerve stimulation. PMID:22987542

  4. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    PubMed

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health. PMID:20849681

  5. Activation of the central histaminergic system mediates arachidonic-acid-induced cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747

  6. Effects of cold and hot temperature on dehydration: a mechanism of cardiovascular burden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Park, Min-Seon; Kim, Yoonhee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-08-01

    The association between temperature (cold or heat) and cardiovascular mortality has been well documented. However, few studies have investigated the underlying mechanism of the cold or heat effect. The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of temperature on dehydration markers and to explain the pathophysiological disturbances caused by changes of temperature. We investigated the relationship between outdoor temperature and dehydration markers (blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio, urine specific gravity, plasma tonicity and haematocrit) in 43,549 adults from Seoul, South Korea, during 1995-2008. We used piece-wise linear regression to find the flexion point of apparent temperature and estimate the effects below or above the apparent temperature. Levels of dehydration markers decreased linearly with an increase in the apparent temperature until a point between 22 and 27 °C, which was regarded as the flexion point of apparent temperature, and then increased with apparent temperature. Because the associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality are known to be U-shaped, our findings suggest that temperature-related changes in hydration status underlie the increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity during high- or low-temperature conditions.

  7. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of levosimendan in the early stages of endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Goncalves, Doris; Perez-de-Sa, Valeria; Dahm, Peter; Grins, Edgars; Thörne, Johan; Blomquist, Sten

    2007-07-01

    Sepsis-associated myocardial depression is associated with calcium desensitization and adrenergic uncoupling. We conducted a prospective randomized investigation on the effects of the calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, on hemodynamics, myocardial blood flow, and myocardial lactate metabolism during porcine endotoxemia. Twelve pigs were studied. Oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry, and myocardial blood flow was measured by retrograde thermodilution. Pulmonary, arterial, and venous indwelling catheters allowed measurements of cardiac output, vascular pressures, and blood sampling. Fluids were given at an average of 15 mL . kg . h. After baseline measurements (0 min), an infusion of Escherichia coli LPS (2 microg . kg . min) was started in all animals. Beginning at 100 min, six animals received levosimendan (50 microg . kg . h), whereas six control animals received placebo. The study lasted for 300 min. All animals responded to endotoxin with pulmonary hypertension, a transient decrease in cardiac output, tachycardia, and systemic hypotension. Levosimendan infusion decreased systemic vascular resistance (P = 0.001), coronary vascular resistance (P = 0.004), and mean arterial (P < 0.001) and coronary perfusion pressures (P < 0.001), whereas pulmonary hypertension was unaffected. Heart rate progressively increased in both groups and was significantly higher in the levosimendan group (P = 0.048). Myocardial blood flow remained unchanged in both groups; however, 80 min after the start of levosimendan infusion, left ventricular myocardial hypoxia ensued, as evidenced by a negative myocardial lactate gradient (P = 0.01). Two control and five levosimendan animals died before the end of the study. Early administration of levosimendan during porcine endotoxemia increased heart rate, caused arterial vasodilation, and decreased coronary perfusion pressure, resulting in myocardial hypoxia. PMID:17510599

  9. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saeide; Babaii, Atye; Abbasinia, Mohammad; Shamali, Mahdi; Abbasi, Mohammad; Rezaei, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P < 0.037) while it did not significantly change in the control group. However, there were no significant differences regarding the cardiovascular indices in the three consecutive measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG. PMID:26835471

  10. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  11. An expanding knowledge of the mechanisms and effects of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Miedema, Michael D; Ofman, Peter; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard D

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 2 decades, observational evidence largely supports an association between light to moderate alcohol consumption (up to 1 drink per day in women and up to 2 drinks per day in men) and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), largely driven by a reduction in coronary heart disease. Most studies suggest a nadir in risk in the light to moderate range of alcohol intake, which is then countered by an increase in cardiomyopathy, sudden death, and hemorrhagic stroke at higher drinking levels that offsets potential benefits. The mechanisms of cardioprotective effects of alcohol are complex and there are multiple pathways by which moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of CVD. Recent evidence continues to emerge on the physiologic and genetic mechanisms through which alcohol may reduce the risk of developing CVD. Ongoing debate also lingers whether there are important differences in cardiovascular effects according to alcoholic beverage type (beer vs red wine vs liquor). Another emerging area of interest is the role of alcohol consumption on the development of intermediate cardiovascular endpoints such as hypertension and diabetes that lead to the development of CVD as well as other important cardiovascular sequelae. Alcohol consumption has also been shown to impact the risk of other CVD endpoints including congestive heart failure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and peripheral artery disease. Overall, alcohol still carries significant public health implications given its plausible benefits on CVD along with its well-documented adverse effects, warranting continued caution and a discussion with one's primary care provider regarding intake. PMID:24667667

  12. Effect of Crataegus Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I–III), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts. PMID:24459528

  13. Caffeine and central noradrenaline: effects on mood, cognitive performance, eye movements and cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew; Brice, Carolyn; Nash, Jon; Rich, Neil; Nutt, David J

    2003-09-01

    There have been numerous studies on the effects of caffeine on behaviour and cardiovascular function. It is now important to clarify the mechanisms that underlie such effects, and the main objective of the present study was to investigate whether changes in central noradrenaline underlie some of the behavioural and cardiovascular effects of caffeine. This was examined using a clonidine challenge paradigm. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were assigned to one of four conditions: (i) clonidine/caffeine; (ii) clonidine/placebo; (iii) placebo/caffeine: (iv) placebo/placebo. Baseline measurements of mood, cognitive performance, saccadic eye movements and cardiovascular function were recorded. Subsequently, volunteers were given either clonidine (200 microg) or placebo and consumed coffee containing caffeine (1.5 mg/kg) or placebo. The test battery was then repeated 30 min, 150 min and 270 min later. A second cup of coffee (with the same amount of caffeine as the first) was consumed 120 min after the first cup. The results showed that clonidine reduced alertness, impaired many aspects of performance and slowed saccadic eye movements; caffeine removed many of these impairments. Both clonidine and caffeine influenced blood pressure (clonidine reduced it, caffeine raised it) but the effects appeared to be independent, suggesting that separate mechanisms were involved. In addition, there were some behavioural effects of caffeine that were independent of the clonidine effect (e.g. effects on speed of encoding of new information) and these may reflect other neurotransmitter systems (e.g cholinergic effects). Overall, the results suggest that caffeine counteracts reductions in the turnover of central noradrenaline. This mechanism may underlie the beneficial effects of caffeine seen in low alertness states. PMID:14513920

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: effects of prior task exposure.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Wiens, S

    1999-11-01

    The effects of prior task exposure on cardiovascular reactivity to stress were examined in two experiments by randomly assigning participants to repeated exposure groups that performed mental arithmetic pretest and test tasks versus delayed exposure groups that performed only the test task after prolonged rest. Impedance cardiographic and blood pressure measures were recorded continuously from 60 undergraduate men in Experiment 1 and 112 undergraduate men and women in Experiment 2. Task repetition attenuated cardiovascular reactivity and improved task performance in repeated exposure groups (p < .001), suggesting an integrated process of behavioral adaptation. During the test task, delayed exposure groups showed greater cardiac reactivity (p < .01), but not vascular reactivity, than repeated exposure groups. Thus, cardiac reactivity varied as a specific function of prior task exposure, whereas vascular reactivity varied as a general function of time. PMID:10554594

  15. Characterization of fluid physics effects on cardiovascular response to microgravity (G-572)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantalos, George M.; Bennett, Thomas E.; Sharp, M. Keith; Woodruff, Stewart; Oleary, Sean; Gillars, Kevin; Lemon, Mark; Sojka, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The investigation of cardiovascular adaptation to space flight has seen substantial advancement in the last several years. In-flight echocardiographic measurements of astronaut cardiac function on the Space Shuttle have documented an initial increase, followed by a progressive reduction in both left ventricular volume index and stroke volume with a compensatory increase in heart rate to maintain cardiac output. To date, the reduced cardiac size and stroke volume have been presumed to be the consequence of the reduction in circulating fluid volume within a few days after orbital insertion. However, no specific mechanism for the reduced stroke volume has been identified. The following investigation proposes the use of a hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system to examine the possibility that the observed reduction in stroke volume may, in part, be related to fluid physics effects on heart function. The automated model is being prepared to fly as a Get Away Special (GAS) payload within the next year.

  16. Lingering prenatal effects of the 1918 influenza pandemic on cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, B.; Almond, D.; Park, K.; Crimmins, E. M.; Finch, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic (Influenza A, H1N1 subtype) is associated with ≥20% excess cardiovascular disease at 60 to 82 years of age, relative to cohorts born without exposure to the influenza epidemic, either prenatally or postnatally (defined by the quarter of birth), in the 1982–1996 National Health Interview Surveys of the USA. Males showed stronger effects of influenza on increased later ischemic heart disease than females. Adult height at World War II enlistment was lower for the 1919 birth cohort than for those born in adjacent years, suggesting growth retardation. Calculations on the prevalence of maternal infections indicate that prenatal exposure to even uncomplicated maternal influenza may have lasting consequences later in life. These findings suggest novel roles for maternal infections in the fetal programming of cardiovascular risk factors that are independent of maternal malnutrition. PMID:20198106

  17. Combined diet and exercise intervention in the workplace: effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    White, Karen; Jacques, Paul H

    2007-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a 12-week pilot employee wellness program in reducing risk factors for coronary heart disease. Fifty university employees with at least one cardiovascular disease risk factor participated in the program. Interventions focused on diet, exercise, and monthly workshops. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included weight, body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and blood sugar. Twenty-five employees had post-intervention measurements. A survey was administered to assess adherence. The correlation between adherence and improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors was also tested. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-intervention measurements of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and weight. A significant correlation existed between self-reported level of participation in the diet aspect of the program and improvement in LDL levels. This multi-component, 12-week pilot employee wellness program was effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:17405587

  18. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) on the mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure

  19. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) on the mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure

  20. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, R. S.; Kleppinger, A.; Brindisi, J.; Feinn, R.; Burleson, J. A.; Kenny, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: this analysis was to investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics. Design, setting and participants: the study was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 99 women (mean 76.6 ± 6.0 year) with the low DHEA-S level and frailty. Intervention: participants received 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium (1,000–1,200 mg/day diet) and supplement (combined) and cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Women participated in 90-min twice weekly exercise regimens, either chair aerobics or yoga. Main outcome measures: assessment of outcome variables included hormone levels (DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides), body composition measured by dual energy absorptiometry, glucose levels and blood pressure (BP). Results: eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months of study; 88% were pre-frail demonstrating 1–2 frailty characteristics and 12% were frail with ≥3 characteristics. There were significant changes in all hormone levels including DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone and a decline in SHBG levels in those taking DHEA supplements. In spite of changes in hormone levels, there were no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profiles, body or abdominal fat, fasting glucose or BP. Conclusion: research to date has not shown consistent effects of DHEA on cardiovascular risk, and this study adds to the literature that short-term therapy with DHEA is safe for older women in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study is novel in that we recruited women with evidence of physical frailty. PMID:20484057

  1. Effects of Pomegranate Extract Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Function in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Tzu; Fitschen, Peter J; Kistler, Brandon M; Jeong, Jin Hee; Chung, Hae Ryong; Aviram, Michael; Phillips, Shane A; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation with pomegranate extract on cardiovascular risk, physical function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-three HD subjects were randomized to the pomegranate (POM) or placebo (CON) group. Patients in POM ingested a 1000 mg capsule of a purified pomegranate polyphenol extract 7 days/week for 6 months. Individuals in CON ingested a noncaloric placebo capsule using the same protocol. Measurements were conducted at baseline and repeated 6 months following the start of the intervention. Brachial blood pressure (BP) was obtained using an automatic digital BP monitor. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using ultrasound and arterial tonometry. Blood samples were collected for the measurements of circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Muscle strength and physical function were assessed by isokinetic dynamometry, a validated shuttle walk test, and a battery of tests to assess functional fitness. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were reduced by 24 ± 13.7 and 10 ± 5.3 mmHg, respectively, in POM (P < .05). However, the BP differences in POM were no longer significant after controlling for baseline BP. The paraoxonase-1 activity increased by 26.6% (P < .05) in POM, compared to no significant change in CON. However, pomegranate supplementation had no effect on other markers of cardiovascular disease risk, inflammation and oxidative stress, or measures of physical function and muscle strength. While pomegranate extract supplementation may reduce BP and increase the antioxidant activity in HD patients, it does not improve other markers of cardiovascular risk, physical function, or muscle strength. PMID:25826143

  2. Cardiovascular consequences of high-performance aircraft maneuvers: implications for effective countermeasures and laboratory-based simulations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica M; Esch, Ben T A; Goodman, Len S; Bredin, Shannon S D; Haykowsky, Mark J; Warburton, Darren E R

    2007-04-01

    The gravitational stress encountered by pilots of high-performance aircraft can cause dramatic shifts in blood volume and circulatory pressure, thus placing the cardiovascular system under significant stress, sometimes resulting in loss of consciousness due to cerebral under-perfusion. Since pilots experience both increased and decreased gravitational stress in high-risk environments, it is important not only to examine the cardiovascular effects of altered gravitational exposure, but also to create effective countermeasures that will increase pilot safety. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular consequences of rapid changes in gravitational forces. We also examine the effectiveness of the countermeasures that have been developed to combat gravity-induced loss of consciousness. Finally, we examine those current laboratory-based techniques that simulate hyper-gravity and the "push-pull effect"; making it possible to investigate the cardiovascular mechanisms responsible for maintaining cerebral perfusion and consciousness. PMID:17486177

  3. Cardiovascular diseases in dental practice. Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Margaix Muñoz, María; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda; Poveda Roda, Rafael; Sarrión, Gracia

    2008-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in the industrialized world. Its most serious expression, acute myocardial infarction, causes 7.2 million deaths each year worldwide, and it is estimated that 20% of all people will suffer heart failure in the course of their lifetime. The control of risk cardiovascular factors, including arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus is the best way to prevent such diseases. The most frequent and serious cardiovascular emergencies that can manifest during dental treatment are chest pain (as a symptom of underlying disease) and acute lung edema. Due to the high prevalence and seriousness of these problems, the dental surgeon must be aware of them and should be able to act quickly and effectively in the case of an acute cardiovascular event. In patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, attention must center on the control of pain, the reduction of stress, and the use or avoidance of a vasoconstrictor in dental anesthesia. In turn, caution is required in relation to the antiplatelet, anticoagulant and antihypertensive medication typically used by such patients. PMID:18449113

  4. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of intra-aortic balloon and control systems for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for intra-aortic balloon and control systems for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. Final order.

    PubMed

    2013-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify intra-aortic balloon and control system (IABP) devices when indicated for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for IABPs when indicated for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. PMID:24383147

  5. Low testosterone and sexual symptoms in men with acute coronary syndrome can be used to predict major adverse cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, A; Mizia-Stec, K; Wierzbicka-Chmiel, J; Rychlik, S; Muras, A; Mizia, M; Bienkowski, J

    2015-11-01

    Low total testosterone (TT) and sexual symptoms are common among men with coronary artery disease, however its impact on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) is still debatable. We investigated whether low TT and coexisting sexual symptoms in men with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be used to predict the incidence of MACE. In the prospective study 120 consecutive men (mean age 58 ± 9 years; diabetes 27%; current smokers 58%; left ventricular ejection fraction 50 ± 10%) with ACS were included. The group of men with the presence of three sexual symptoms (decreased frequency of morning erections, a lack of sexual thoughts and erectile dysfunction) and with TT serum concentration <3.2 ng/mL was distinguished. All of the patients had their prognosis assessed according to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE Score 2.0). Primary composite endpoint - MACE (recurrent ischaemia, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke and death) and secondary endpoint - in stent restenosis (ISR) were registered during the 18.3 month follow-up period. The mean TT level in the entire group was 3.7 ± 0.5 ng/mL. Low TT was diagnosed in 63 (52.5%) men. Both low TT and sexual symptoms were diagnosed in 57 (47%) participants. During the follow-up, 29 (24.2%) participants experienced MACE, 20 (16.6%) men ISR. In the Cox proportional hazards regression, high risk of death on the GRACE score (HR 3.16; 95% CI: 1.5-6.6; p = 0.002), the presence of low TT and sexual symptoms (HR 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26-6.04; p = 0.02) independently predicted an incidence of a MACE (p = 0.006). For the secondary endpoint only low TT and sexual symptoms (HR 2.68; 95% CI: 1.03-6.94; p = 0.034) were independent covariates which predicted IRS. Low TT which coexists with sexual symptoms in males with ACS can be used to predict MACE, especially IRS independently of classic cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26460501

  6. Acute Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter on Blood Pressure: Differential Effects across Urban Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dvonch, J. Timothy; Kannan, Srimathi; Schulz, Amy J.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Mentz, Graciela; House, James; Benjamin, Alison; Max, Paul; Bard, Robert L.; Brook, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a link between exposure to ambient particulate matter <2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of differing community-level exposure to PM2.5 on daily measures of blood pressure (BP) among an adult population. During the period May 2002 through April 2003, BP was examined at two time points for 347 adults residing in three distinct communities of Detroit, MI. Exposure to PM2.5 was assessed in each community during this period, along with multivariate associations between PM2.5 and BP. In models combining all three communities, PM2.5 was significantly associated with systolic pressure (SP); a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily PM2.5 was associated with a 3.2 mm Hg increase in SP (p=0.05). However, in models that added a location interaction, larger effects were observed for SP within the community with highest PM2.5 levels; a 10 μg/m3 increase in daily PM2.5 was associated with a 8.6 mm Hg increase in SP (p=0.01). We also found young age (<55 years) and not taking BP medications to be significant predictors of increased BP effects. Among those taking BP medications, the PM2.5 effect on BP appeared to be mitigated, partially explaining the age effect, as those participants less than 55 years were less likely to take BP medications. Short-term increases in exposure to ambient PM2.5 are associated with acute increases in BP in adults, especially within communities with elevated levels of exposure. PMID:19273743

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Statins for Primary Cardiovascular Prevention in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Japa, Sohan; Owens, Douglas K.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Garber, Alan M.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of statins for primary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Background Patients with CKD have an elevated risk of MI and stroke. Although HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (“statins”) may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with non-dialysis-requiring CKD, adverse drug effects and competing risks could materially influence net effects and clinical decision-making. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) to determine the cost-effectiveness of low-cost generic statins for primary CVD prevention in men and women with hypertension and mild-to-moderate CKD. Outcomes included MI and stroke rates, discounted quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and lifetime costs (2010 USD), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results For 65 year-old men with moderate hypertension and mild-to-moderate CKD, statins reduced the combined rate of MI and stroke, yielded 0.10 QALYs, and increased costs by $1,800 ($18,000 per QALY gained). For patients with lower baseline cardiovascular risks, health and economic benefits were smaller; for 65 year-old women, statins yielded 0.06 QALYs and increased costs by $1,900 ($33,400 per QALY gained). Results were sensitive to rates of rhabdomyolysis and drug costs. Statins are less cost-effective when obtained at average retail prices, particularly in patients at lower CVD risk. Conclusions While statins reduce absolute CVD risk in patients with CKD, increased risk of rhabdomyolysis, and competing risks associated with progressive CKD, partly offset these gains. Low-cost generic statins appear cost-effective for primary prevention of CVD in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD and hypertension. PMID:23500327

  8. The reinforcing, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine: Influence of sensation-seeking status

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Lile, Joshua A.; Robbins, C. Glenn; Martin, Catherine A.; Rush, Craig R.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences that may contribute to vulnerability to abuse drugs have been identified. Sensation-seeking status has been shown to influence both vulnerability to drug use and response to acute drug administration. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine in high and low sensation-seeking subjects using a modified progressive-ratio procedure. A battery of subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular measures was also included to better characterize the effects of d-amphetamine in these groups. Ten high sensation seekers and ten low sensation seekers that were matched for education, age, drug use, height, and weight, first sampled doses of d-amphetamine (0, 8, and 16 mg). In subsequent sessions, subjects were offered the opportunity to work for the sampled dose on a modified progressive-ratio procedure. d-Amphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like effects (e.g., increased subject-ratings of Like Drug, enhanced performance, and increased heart rate). High sensation seekers were more sensitive than low sensation seekers to the reinforcing and some of the subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine. The results of the present experiment extend those of previous findings by demonstrating that the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine vary as a function of the biologically based sensation-seeking personality trait. These results suggest that increased stimulant drug use and abuse among high sensation seekers may be related, in part, to increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of stimulants among these individuals. PMID:17011712

  9. Cost effective interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While there is good evidence to show that behavioural and lifestyle interventions can reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in affluent settings, less evidence exists in lower income settings. This study systematically assesses the evidence on cost-effectiveness for preventive cardiovascular interventions in low and middle-income settings. Methods Design: Systematic review of economic evaluations on interventions for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Data sources: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus and Embase, Opensigle, the Cochrane database, Business Source Complete, the NHS Economic Evaluations Database, reference lists and email contact with experts. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: we included economic evaluations conducted in adults, reporting the effect of interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in low and middle income countries as defined by the World Bank. The primary outcome was a change in cardiovascular disease occurrence including coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke. Data extraction: After selection of the studies, data were extracted by two independent investigators using a previously constructed tool and quality was evaluated using Drummond’s quality assessment score. Results From 9731 search results we found 16 studies, which presented economic outcomes for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in low and middle income settings, with most of these reporting positive cost effectiveness results. When the same interventions were evaluated across settings, within and between papers, the likelihood of an intervention being judged cost effective was generally lower in regions with lowest gross national income. While population based interventions were in most cases more cost effective, cost effectiveness estimates for individual pharmacological interventions were overall based upon a stronger evidence base. Conclusions While more studies of cardiovascular preventive interventions are needed in

  10. Effects on cardiovascular risk factors of weight losses limited to 5-10.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua D; Buscemi, Joanna; Milsom, Vanessa; Malcolm, Robert; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of modest weight loss. To determine whether weight losses limited to 5-10 % are sufficient to produce cardiovascular health benefits, data from 401 overweight and obese adults who enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program from 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Primary outcomes were changes in fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Patients who lost 5-10 % showed significant reductions in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Patients who lost >10 % experienced significantly greater improvements in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol than patients losing less. For higher-risk patients, those who lost 5-10 % significantly reduced fasting glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol; those who lost >10 % improved on all risk factors (except HDL cholesterol) and to a significantly greater degree than those losing less. Five to 10 % weight losses produced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, but greater weight losses were associated with even greater improvement. PMID:27528523

  11. Effect of Green Tea Extract on Doxorubicin Induced Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Antioxidant Action

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Leena; Balaraman, R

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) induces oxidative stress leading to cardiovascular abnormalities. Green tea extract (GTE) is reported to possess antioxidant activity mainly by means of its polyphenolic constituent, catechins. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of GTE (100 mg/kg / day p.o. for 28 days) on DOX induced (3 mg/kg, IP on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28) cardiovascular abnormalities in rat heart. DOX treatment led to significant increase in blood pressure, ST interval, serum levels of LDH, CK, SGOT, lipid peroxidation .The antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced-glutathione were decreased considerably in the heart of DOX treated rats as compared to the normal control. A combined treatment with GTE and DOX showed a considerable decrease in serum markers of cardiotoxicity such as LDH, CK, SGOT and lipid peroxides. There was significant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and also showed improvement in hemodynamic parameters and ECG changes as compared to DOX treated animals. DOX treatment caused disorganization of myocardial tissue which was restored in animals treated with GTE along with DOX. Thus it can be concluded that GTE possesses an antioxidant activity and by virtue of this action it can protect the heart from DOX induced cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:24363686

  12. Erythropoietin promotes deleterious cardiovascular effects and mortality risk in a rat model of chronic sports doping.

    PubMed

    Piloto, Nuno; Teixeira, Helena M; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Parada, Belmiro; Garrido, Patrícia; Sereno, José; Pinto, Rui; Carvalho, Lina; Costa, Elísio; Belo, Luís; Santos-Silva, Alice; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2009-12-01

    Athletes who abuse recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) consider only the benefit to performance and usually ignore the potential short and long-term liabilities. Elevated haematocrit and dehydratation associated with intense exercise may reveal undetected cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying it remain to be fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of rhEPO in rats under chronic aerobic exercise. A ten week protocol was performed in four male Wistar rat groups: control--sedentary; rhEPO--50 IU kg(-1), 3 times/wk; exercised (EX)--swimming for 1 h, 3 times/wk; EX + rhEPO. One rat of the EX + rhEPO group suffered a sudden death episode during the week 8. rhEPO in trained rats promoted erythrocyte count increase, hypertension, heart hypertrophy, sympathetic and serotonergic overactivation. The suddenly died rat's tissues presented brain with vascular congestion; left ventricular hypertrophy, together with a "cardiac-liver", suggesting the hypothesis of heart failure as cause of sudden death. In conclusion, rhEPO doping in rats under chronic exercise promotes not only the expected RBC count increment, suggesting hyperviscosity, but also other serious deleterious cardiovascular and thromboembolic modifications, including mortality risk, which might be known and assumed by all sports authorities, including athletes and their physicians. PMID:19859831

  13. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference recommendations on heart failure update 2007: Prevention, management during intercurrent illness or acute decompensation, and use of biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, J Malcolm O; Howlett, Jonathan G; Dorian, Paul; Ducharme, Anique; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Heckman, George A; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Isaac, Debra; Jong, Philip; Liu, Peter; Mann, Elizabeth; McKelvie, Robert S; Moe, Gordon W; Parker, John D; Svendsen, Anna M; Tsuyuki, Ross T; O’Halloran, Kelly; Ross, Heather J; Rao, Vivek; Sequeira, Errol J; White, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure is common, yet it is difficult to treat. It presents in many different guises and circumstances in which therapy needs to be individualized. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society published a comprehensive set of recommendations in January 2006 on the diagnosis and management of heart failure, and the present update builds on those core recommendations. Based on feedback obtained through a national program of heart failure workshops during 2006, several topics were identified as priorities because of the challenges they pose to health care professionals. New evidence-based recommendations were developed using the structured approach for the review and assessment of evidence adopted and previously described by the Society. Specific recommendations and practical tips were written for the prevention of heart failure, the management of heart failure during intercurrent illness, the treatment of acute heart failure, and the current and future roles of biomarkers in heart failure care. Specific clinical questions that are addressed include: which patients should be identified as being at high risk of developing heart failure and which interventions should be used? What complications can occur in heart failure patients during an intercurrent illness, how should these patients be monitored and which medications may require a dose adjustment or discontinuation? What are the best therapeutic, both drug and nondrug, strategies for patients with acute heart failure? How can new biomarkers help in the treatment of heart failure, and when and how should BNP be measured in heart failure patients? The goals of the present update are to translate best evidence into practice, to apply clinical wisdom where evidence for specific strategies is weaker, and to aid physicians and other health care providers to optimally treat heart failure patients to result in a measurable impact on patient health and clinical outcomes in Canada. PMID:17245481

  14. Effects of strontium ranelate on markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, Marco; Catalano, Antonino; Santoro, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Recent pooled analyses have shown that strontium ranelate increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism and non-fatal myocardial infarction, but no explanations were given. The aim of our study was to assess the effects a 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate on hemostasis factors and markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Forty osteoporotic postmenopausal women received orally strontium ranelate 2 g daily, plus calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Forty postmenopausal osteopenic women matched for age, menopausal age, and body mass index served as controls and received orally calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic indices were assayed prior to treatment, and after 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy. These indices included fibrinogen, fasting glucose, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma levels of D-dimer, homocysteine, partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time. In addition, we evaluated possible changes in blood pressure and occurrence of venous thromboembolic events. At baseline, no statistically significance was observed between the two groups except for bone mineral density at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur, which was lower in strontium ranelate group. After 12 months of treatment, there was no statistically significant change in cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic parameters. None of the 40 women developed any clinical venous thromboembolic event. A 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate did not alter hemostasis factors or markers of cardiovascular risk, suggesting that reported increased risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction with strontium is mediated by other factors. PMID:26304851

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Copper Deficiency on Activity of Superoxide Dismutase in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bayati, Mohammed A.; Jamil, Dina A.; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Copper (Cu) is essential both for its role in antioxidant enzymes, like Cu/zinc (Zn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ceruloplasmin, as well as its role in lysyl oxidase, essential for the strength and integrity of the heart and blood vessels. With such a central role in cardiovascular health, Cu has been generally overlooked in the debate over improving our cardiovascular health. Cu deficiency has produced many of the same abnormalities present in cardiovascular disease. It seems almost certain that Cu plays a large role in the development of this killer disease, not because of its excess in the diet, but rather its deficiency. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the cardiovascular effects of Cu deficiency on the activity of SOD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with T2DM were recruited in this study which were divided into two subgroups based on the presence of microalbuminuria, the first group (microal buminuric group, n = 31) had a microalbuminuria between 30 and 299 μg/mg. The second group (normoal buminuric group, n = 29) had an albumin level less than 30 μg/mg. The two diabetic groups were compared to the control group (n = 37). Results: The results of our study showed a significant reduction in the levels of SOD enzyme associated with an increased urinary Cu excretion in microalbuminuric group compared to the control group at P < 0.05. Conclusions: The current study illustrates that the regulation of the blood concentrations of Cu may be a potential therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25789247

  16. Cardiovascular and Hepatic Toxicity of Cocaine: Potential Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Antonilli, Letizia; Togna, Anna Rita; Grassi, Maria Caterina; Badiani, Aldo; Saso, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is thought to play an important role in the pharmacological and toxic effects of various drugs of abuse. Herein we review the literature on the mechanisms responsible for the cardiovascular and hepatic toxicity of cocaine with special focus on OS-related mechanisms. We also review the preclinical and clinical literature concerning the putative therapeutic effects of OS modulators (such as N-acetylcysteine, superoxide dismutase mimetics, nitroxides and nitrones, NADPH oxidase inhibitors, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, and mitochondriotropic antioxidants) for the treatment of cocaine toxicity. We conclude that available OS modulators do not appear to have clinical efficacy. PMID:26823954

  17. Effect of copper status on acute toxicity of cocaine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Reddy, P.P.; Seung, S.K.; Combs, G.F.; Dulin, A.M.; Danford, D.E. )

    1989-02-09

    Both copper (Cu) nutriture and cocaine (Coc) ingestion have been shown to affect cardiovascular integrity. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine if Cu status affects the acute toxicity of Coc. 20 weanling male rats (45 {plus minus} 5 g) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 1 fed a copper deficient (CuD) (<1ppmCu) and the other a copper supplemented (CuS) diet (ca.6ppm, Cu). After 7 wks, the rats, paired for Cu status, were injected (ip) with Coc-HCl at reported LD{sub 50} doses ranging from 80-90 mg/kg bw. The CuD was established by cardiac hypertrophy, depressed hematocrit, lowered serum, liver and heart Cu compared to the CuS controls. The acute toxicity resulted in tachycardia and hyperactivity followed by ataxia with isolated muscle twitchings and violent grand-mal type seizures. For those animals that died, death was apparently due to respiratory arrest followed by ventricular fibrillation; animals that survived were killed by exsanguination. The severity of toxicity was greater for the CuD rats as evidenced by 100% exhibiting seizures compared to 80% for the CuS group. In addition, the incidence of death was 60% for the CuD group compared to 20% for the CuS rats. Although these results suggest that CuD exacerbates the toxic effects of Coc, it is not established that the effects are specific for this essential nutrient.

  18. Chronic and Acute Effects of Coal Tar Pitch Exposure and Cardiopulmonary Mortality Among Aluminum Smelter Workers

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.; Demers, Paul A.; Spinelli, John J.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Lorenzi, Maria F.; Le, Nhu D.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution causes several adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In occupational studies, where levels of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are higher, the evidence is inconsistent. The effects of acute and chronic PAH exposure on cardiopulmonary mortality were examined within a Kitimat, Canada, aluminum smelter cohort (n = 7,026) linked to a national mortality database (1957–1999). No standardized mortality ratio was significantly elevated compared with the province's population. Smoking-adjusted internal comparisons were conducted using Cox regression for male subjects (n = 6,423). Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality (n = 281) was associated with cumulative benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) exposure (hazard ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.46) in the highest category. A monotonic but nonsignificant trend was observed with chronic B(a)P exposure and acute myocardial infarction (n = 184). When follow-up was restricted to active employment, the hazard ratio for IHD was 2.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 6.05) in the highest cumulative B(a)P category. The stronger associations observed during employment suggest that risk may not persist after exposure cessation. No associations with recent or current exposure were observed. IHD was associated with chronic (but not current) PAH exposure in a high-exposure occupational setting. Given the widespread workplace exposure to PAHs and heart disease's high prevalence, even modest associations produce a high burden. PMID:20702507

  19. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, however there are controversies. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors has been investigated. Method This is a prospective observational study that was carried out in a group of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (including history of documented previous history of either coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease in past 10 y). Eighty two volunteers including 38 male and 44 female, aged 29–70 y, mean 54.0 ± 10 y, with a previous history of either coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease were recruited. Subjects attended the metabolic unit after at least 10 h fasting, before and after Ramadan who were been fasting for at least 10 days. A fasting blood sample was obtained, blood pressure was measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Lipids profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and insulin, homocysteine (hcy), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and complete blood count (CBC) were analyzed on all blood samples. Results A significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk (based on Framingham risk score) was found (13.0 ± 8 before Ramadan and 10.8 ±7 after Ramadan, P <0.001, t test).There was a significant higher HDL-c, WBC, RBC and platelet count (PLT), and lower plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference after Ramadan (P <0.05, t test). The changes in FBS, insulin,Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hcy, hs-CRP and diastolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan were not significant (P >0.05, t test). Conclusions This study shows a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile, systolic blood

  20. Laser blood irradiation effect on electrophysiological characteristics of acute coronary syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Doger-Guerrero, E.; Glebova, L.; Svirid, V.; Sirenko, Yuri

    1996-11-01

    This paper treats electro-physiological effects of the low- level laser irradiation of blood (LBI). The data presented here are based on the observation of almost 200 patients suffering from the acute disruption of coronary blood circulation, unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Statistically significant changes of the electro-physiological characteristics were observed in the group of 65 patients, treated by the LBI. In particular, the significant 6 percent extension of the effective refractory period was observed. The electrical situation threshold has increased by 20.6 percent. The significant changes of some other important electro-physiological characteristics were within the range of 5-15 percent. In this paper, the data obtained on the LBI effectiveness are compared also with the results obtained on 94 patients who in addition to the standard anti-angina therapy were treated by the autohaemo- transfusion performed simultaneously with the UV-light irradiation of the transfused blood. The results obtained demonstrate the significant positive effect of the low energy LBI. The electrophysiological data obtained have good correlation with observed anti-arrhythmic effect of the LBI. This is proved by the data obtained on the electro- physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system and by other clinical data on the experimental and control group of patients. In the course of this research the exact effect of the low level LBI was established. LBI led to the pronounced positive changes in electro-physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the patients, it also led to the pronounced anti-arrhythmic effect.

  1. Effects of breakfast and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Kendrick, A; Maben, A; Salmon, J

    1994-02-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of breakfast (1.89 MJ) and caffeine (4 mg/kg) on cognitive performance, mood and cardiovascular functioning. In the first experiment, breakfast had no effect on performance of sustained attention tasks, but it increased pulse rate and influenced mood. The mood effects after breakfast differed between a cooked breakfast and a cereal/toast breakfast. In contrast to the effects of breakfast, this relatively high dose of caffeine improved performance of the sustained attention tasks, increased blood pressure and increased mental alertness. In the second experiment, effects of a breakfast and caffeine on mood and cardiovascular functions confirmed the results of the first study. The breakfast improved performance on free recall and recognition memory tasks, had no effect on a semantic memory task and impaired the accuracy of performing a logical reasoning task. In contrast to this, caffeine improved performance on the semantic memory, logical reasoning, free recall and recognition memory tasks. Overall, these results show that breakfast can improve performance in some but not all cognitive tasks and that these changes are very different from those observed after lunch, and those produced by caffeine. PMID:8172489

  2. Prediction of persistence of combined evidence-based cardiovascular medications in patients with acute coronary syndrome after hospital discharge using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Bourdès, Valérie; Ferrières, Jean; Amar, Jacques; Amelineau, Elisabeth; Bonnevay, Stéphane; Berlion, Maryse; Danchin, Nicolas

    2011-08-01

    In the PREVENIR-5 study, artificial neural networks (NN) were applied to a large sample of patients with recent first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to identify determinants of persistence of evidence-based cardiovascular medications (EBCM: antithrombotic + beta-blocker + statin + angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-ACEI and/or angiotensin-II receptor blocker-ARB). From October 2006 to April 2007, 1,811 general practitioners recruited 4,850 patients with a mean time of ACS occurrence of 24 months. Patient profile for EBCM persistence was determined using automatic rule generation from NN. The prediction accuracy of NN was compared with that of logistic regression (LR) using Area Under Receiver-Operating Characteristics-AUROC. At hospital discharge, EBCM was prescribed to 2,132 patients (44%). EBCM persistence rate, 24 months after ACS, was 86.7%. EBCM persistence profile combined overweight, hypercholesterolemia, no coronary artery bypass grafting and low educational level (Positive Predictive Value = 0.958). AUROC curves showed better predictive accuracy for NN compared to LR models. PMID:21598000

  3. Impact of Transcendental Meditation® on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Davis, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on cardiovascular (CV) reactivity in adolescents with high normal blood pressure (BP). Method Thirty-five adolescents [34 African Americans (AAs), 1 Caucasian American (CA); ages 15–18 years] with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) between the 85th and 95th percentile for their age and gender on three consecutive occasions, were randomly assigned to either TM (n = 17) or health education control (CTL, n = 18) groups. The TM group engaged in 15-min meditation twice each day for 2 months including sessions during school lunch break. Primary CV outcome measures were changes in BP, heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (CO) at rest and in response to two laboratory stressors, a simulated car driving stressor and an interpersonal social stressor interview. Results The TM group exhibited greater decreases in resting SBP (P < .03) from pre- to post-intervention, compared to the CTL group. The TM group exhibited greater decreases from pre- to postintervention in SBP, HR, and CO reactivity (P’s < .03) to the simulated car driving stressor, and in SBP reactivity (P < .03) to the social stressor interview. Conclusion The TM program appears to have a beneficial impact upon CV functioning at rest and during acute laboratory stress in adolescents at-risk for hypertension. PMID:11595248

  4. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  5. Cardiovascular effects of Sp-CTx, a cytolysin from the scorpionfish (Scorpaena plumieri) venom.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena L; Menezes, Thiago N; Malacarne, Pedro F; Roman-Campos, Danilo; Gondim, Antonio N; Cruz, Jader S; Vassallo, Dalton V; Figueiredo, Suely G

    2016-08-01

    Fish venom cytolysins are multifunctional proteins that in addition to their cytolytic/hemolytic effects display neurotoxic, cardiotoxic and inflammatory activities, being described as "protein lethal factors". A pore-forming cytolysin called Sp-CTx (Scorpaena plumieriCytolytic Toxin) has been recently purified from the venom of the scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri. It is a glycoprotein with dimeric constitution, comprising subunits of approximately 65 kDa. Previous studies have revealed that this toxin has a vasorelaxant activity that appears to involve the L-arginine-nitric oxide synthase pathway; however its cardiovascular effects have not been fully comprehended. The present study examined the cardiovascular effects of Sp-CTx in vivo and in vitro. In anesthetized rats Sp-CTx (70 μg/kg i.v) produced a biphasic response which consisted of an initial systolic and diastolic pressure increase followed by a sustained decrease of these parameters and the heart rate. In isolated rats hearts Sp-CTx (10(-9) to 5 × 10(-6) M) produced concentration-dependent and transient ventricular positive inotropic effect and vasoconstriction response on coronary bed. In papillary muscle, Sp-CTx (10(-7) M) also produced an increase in contractile isometric force, which was attenuated by the catecholamine releasing agent tyramine (100 μM) and the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (10 μM). On isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes Sp-CTx (1 nM) increased the L-type Ca(2+) current density. The results show that Sp-CTx induces disorders in the cardiovascular system through increase of sarcolemmal calcium influx, which in turn is partially caused by the release of endogenous noradrenaline. PMID:27155562

  6. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  7. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  8. Mapping Acute Systemic Effects of Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Multiorgan Gene Expression and Glucocorticoid Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Errol M.; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m3 EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced. PMID:23805001

  9. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Aytekin; Tolun, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels. Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Maras powder users, 50 cigarette smokers and 45 nontobacco user subjects. Blood samples were collected and hematological parameters and lipid parameters were measured. Plasma Nitric oxide level was also detected by using the Griess method. Results: Plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride levels were significantly higher in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001). Plasma HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001). Plasma Nitric oxide levels were found significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group compared to the nontobacco user group (4.9±0.9 µmol/l, 4.8±1 µmol/l, 9.4±3.4 µmol/l, respectively, p<0.001) whereas there was no significant difference between the Maras powder and cigarette smokers group. In multivariate logistic regression model, cigarette smoking (Odds ratio=17.832, p<0.001), Maras powder usage (Odds ratio=12.311, p=0.002) and mean platelet volume (Odds ratio=1.425, p=0.030) remained independently associated with lower Nitric oxide levels. Conclusion: We conclude that Maras powder has similar adverse effects on nitric oxide level and cardiovascular risk parameters and thereby it appears to be harmful as cigarette smoking. PMID:23136542

  10. Pressure and coverage effects of sporting compression garments on cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Braid A; Laing, Raechel M; Niven, Brian E; Cotter, James D

    2012-05-01

    Sporting compression garments (CG) are used widely during exercise despite little evidence of benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate coverage and pressure effects of full-body CG on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function at rest and during prolonged exercise, and on exercise performance. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists [mean (SD) age, 26 (7) years; VO(2 max), 53 (8) mL kg(-1) min(-1)] completed three sessions (counterbalanced order), wearing either correctly-sized CG (CSG; 11-15 mmHg), over-sized CG (OSG; 8-13 mmHg), or gym shorts (CONT). Test sessions were conducted in temperate conditions [24 (1)°C, 60 (4)% relative humidity; ~2 m s(-1) air velocity during exercise], consisting of resting on a chair then on a cycle ergometer, before 60-min fixed-load cycling at ~65% VO(2 max) and a 6-km time trial. Wearing CG (CSG or OSG) did not mitigate cardiovascular strain during mild orthostatic stress at rest (p = 0.20-0.93 for garment effects). During exercise, cardiac output was ~5% higher in the CG conditions (p < 0.05), which appears to be accounted for via non-significant higher end-exercise heart rate (~4-7%, p = 0.30; p = 0.06 for greater heart rate drift in CSG); other cardiovascular variables, including stroke volume, were similar among conditions (p = 0.23-0.91). Covered-skin temperature was higher in CG conditions (p < 0.001) but core (oesophageal) temperature was not (p = 0.79). Time-trial performance (mean power, time taken) was similar with or without CG (p = 0.24-0.44). In conclusion, any demonstrable physiological or psychophysical effects of full-body CG were mild and seemingly reflective more of surface coverage than pressure. No benefit was evident for exercise performance. PMID:21901265

  11. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

  12. Evaluation of the CNS and cardiovascular effects of prolonged exposure to bromotrifluromethane (CBrF3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, I.; Garcia, C.; Gleiser, C.; Haines, R., Jr.; Hamilton, M.; Hartmann, R., Jr.; Mendez, V.; Samuels, A.; Miguel, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed use of bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF3) as a fire extinguishant in aircraft, spacecraft and submarines has stimulated increasing interest and research in the toxicological properties of this compound. In a spacecraft, because of its unique recirculating life support system, the introduction of CBrF3 by leakage or intentional discharge, will result in continuous exposure of crewman to low concentrations of this compound for periods of up to 7 days, or possibly even longer. The effects of low concentrations of CBrF3, under continuous exposure conditions, on the CNS and cardiovascular systems of animals to enable an assessment of these risks were investigated.

  13. Acarbose: safe and effective for lowering postprandial hyperglycaemia and improving cardiovascular outcomes

    PubMed Central

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Bhutani, Jaikrit; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-01-01

    α-Glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a class of oral glucose-lowering drugs used exclusively for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. AGIs act by altering the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates through inhibition of their conversion into simple sugars (monosaccharides) and thus decrease the bioavailability of carbohydrates in the body, significantly lowering blood glucose levels. The three AGIs used in clinical practice are acarbose, voglibose and miglitol. This review will focus on the cardiovascular properties of acarbose. The current available data suggest that AGIs (particularly acarbose) may be safe and effective for the treatment of prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:26512331

  14. [Effects of the 520-day isolation on the functional state of the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, G P; Buĭlov, S P; Eshchenko, A I; Skedina, M A; Voronkov, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to study the cardiovascular effects of simulated factors in a 520-day crewed mission to Mars, and to validate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic investigation of microcirculation and endothelium-dependent dilation of the right brachial artery in 6 male volunteers at the age of 28 to 39 years. It appears that 520-d isolation affected intracardiac hemodynamics and endothelium function more dramatically compared with 105-d isolation, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. These findings add insight into the "cost of human adaptation" to very long isolation. PMID:25365873

  15. Evaluating the costs and effectiveness of cardiovascular therapies: who cares about economic analyses?

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M

    2002-10-15

    The field of cardiovascular medicine is providing important insights about how the costs and effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies are managed. As health-care budgets have taken up more of the economy and as employers and patients have become concerned about the escalating costs of health care, we have entered an era in which individual practitioners must become concerned with the costs of a service relative to its benefits. Further, increasing numbers of effective therapies in a time when finances are notably constrained, we clearly cannot use all effective therapies in all patients. Increasingly, therefore, we must assess the value derived from spending incremental money on health care products and services. This exercise has been termed cost-effectiveness analysis. The case of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, abciximab, is used to illustrate many of the issues surrounding the collection, interpretation, and (mis) application of cost-effectiveness data. PMID:12325105

  16. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of 48-h glucagon-like peptide-1 infusion in compensated chronic patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Halbirk, Mads; Nørrelund, Helene; Møller, Niels; Holst, Jens Juul; Schmitz, Ole; Nielsen, Roni; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Nielsen, Torsten Toftegaard; Eiskjaer, Hans; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Wiggers, Henrik

    2010-03-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are currently emerging as antidiabetic medications. GLP-1 improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in dogs with heart failure (HF) and in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We studied metabolic and cardiovascular effects of 48-h GLP-1 infusions in patients with congestive HF. In a randomized, double-blind crossover design, 20 patients without diabetes and with HF with ischemic heart disease, EF of 30 +/- 2%, New York Heart Association II and III (n = 14 and 6) received 48-h GLP-1 (0.7 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1)) and placebo infusion. At 0 and 48 h, LVEF, diastolic function, tissue Doppler regional myocardial function, exercise testing, noninvasive cardiac output, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolic parameters were recorded. Fifteen patients completed the protocol. GLP-1 increased insulin (90 +/- 17 pmol/l vs. 69 +/- 12 pmol/l; P = 0.025) and lowered glucose levels (5.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l vs. 5.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; P < 0.01). Heart rate (67 +/- 2 beats/min vs. 65 +/- 2 beats/min; P = 0.016) and diastolic blood pressure (71 +/- 2 mmHg vs. 68 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.008) increased during GLP-1 treatment. Cardiac index (1.5 +/- 0.1 l.min(-1).m(-2) vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 l.min(-1).m(-2); P = 0.54) and LVEF (30 +/- 2% vs. 30 +/- 2%; P = 0.93), tissue Doppler indexes, body weight, and BNP remained unchanged. Hypoglycemic events related to GLP-1 treatment were observed in eight patients. GLP-1 infusion increased circulating insulin levels and reduced plasma glucose concentration but had no major cardiovascular effects in patients without diabetes but with compensated HF. The impact of minor increases in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure during GLP-1 infusion requires further studies. Hypoglycemia was frequent and calls for caution in patients without diabetes but with HF. PMID:20081109

  17. Usefulness of Coronary Atheroma Burden to Predict Cardiovascular Events in Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the PROSPECT Study).

    PubMed

    Shan, Peiren; Mintz, Gary S; McPherson, John A; De Bruyne, Bernard; Farhat, Naim Z; Marso, Steven P; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the relation between overall atheroma burden and clinical events in the Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree (PROSPECT) study. In PROSPECT, 660 patients (3,229 nonculprit lesions with a plaque burden ≥ 40% and complete intravascular ultrasound data) were divided into tertiles according to baseline percent atheroma volume (PAV: total plaque/vessel volume). Patients were followed for 3.4 years (median); major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death from cardiac causes, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or rehospitalization because of unstable or progressive angina) were adjudicated to either culprit or nonculprit lesions. Compared with patients in low or intermediate PAV tertiles, patients in the high PAV tertile had the greatest prevalence of plaque rupture and radiofrequency thin-cap fibroatheroma (VH-TCFA) and the highest percentage of necrotic core volume; they were also more likely to have high-risk lesion characteristics: ≥ 1 lesion with minimal luminal area ≤ 4 mm(2), plaque burden >70%, and/or VH-TCFA. Three-year cumulative nonculprit lesion-related MACE was greater in the intermediate and high tertiles than in the low tertile (6.3% vs 14.7% vs 15.1%, low vs intermediate vs high tertiles, p = 0.009). On Cox multivariable analysis, insulin-dependent diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 3.98, p = 0.002), PAV (HR 1.06, p = 0.03), and the presence of ≥1 VH-TCFA (HR 1.80, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of nonculprit MACE. In conclusion, increasing baseline overall atheroma burden was associated with more advanced, complex, and vulnerable intravascular ultrasound lesion morphology and independently predicted nonculprit lesion-related MACE in patients with acute coronary syndromes after successful culprit lesion intervention. PMID:26433274

  18. Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Part 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program in Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Kenneth G.; Schneider, Robert H.; Nidich, Sanford I.; Salerno, John W.; Nordstrom, Cheryl K.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a nontraditional risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that may respond to behavioral or psychosocial interventions. To date, studies applying such interventions have reported a wide range of success rates in treatment or prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The authors focus on a natural medicine approach that research indicates reduces both psychosocial and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease—the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. Randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and other controlled studies indicate this meditation technique reduces risk factors and can slow or reverse the progression of pathophysiological changes underlying cardiovascular disease. Studies with this technique have revealed reductions in blood pressure, carotid artery intima-media thickness, myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, mortality, and other relevant outcomes. The magnitudes of these effects compare favorably with those of conventional interventions for secondary prevention. PMID:16463759

  19. The Protective Effect of Lipoic Acid on Selected Cardiovascular Diseases Caused by Age-Related Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goraca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system. PMID:25949771

  20. [Use of the thermal laser effect of laser irradiation for cardiovascular applications exemplified by the Nd:YAG laser].

    PubMed

    Ischinger, T; Coppenrath, K; Weber, H; Enders, S; Unsöld, E; Hessel, S

    1989-11-01

    Techniques of percutaneous transluminal application of laser energy for vessel recanalization have been used clinically since 1983. The commonly used Nd:YAG and argon lasers achieve ablation of atherosclerotic plaques by thermal action (vaporization). In order to reduce undesirable thermal damage in the neighborhood of the target tissue and to avoid vessel perforation, optimal irradiation parameters, modified (atraumatic) fiber tips (hot tips, sapphires), and steerable catheter systems needed to be implemented. Favorable results from peripheral application have encouraged use in the coronary circulation. More recently, coagulative tissue effects of circumferential irradiation of the vessel wall during balloon dilatation have been used for stabilization of acute and late results after mechanical balloon angioplasty. Enhancement of the differential light absorption of atherosclerotic plaque by use of biological dyes may further improve selective intravascular laser application. Intraoperative ECG-guided laser coagulation of arrhythmogenic areas of myocardium is a method for treatment of malignant arrhythmias. Transluminal non-operative application of myocardial laser photocoagulation has now been tested experimentally and shown to be safe and effective. There was no arrhythmogenicity or thermal damage of coronary arteries associated with this method. Innovative techniques such as nanosecond pulsed excimer lasers (athermal action) and development of "intelligent" lasers--which are equipped with spectroscopy-guided feedback systems for plaque recognition--have opened new perspectives and will further improve safety and efficacy of clinical laser application. However, according to current experience, the thermally acting Nd:YAG laser is an effective and versatile mode of laser therapy for selected cardiovascular indications. PMID:2532812

  1. Sex-Specific Effects of Adiponectin on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Jonas; Strawbridge, Rona J; McLeod, Olga; Gertow, Karl; Silveira, Angela; Baldassarre, Damiano; Van Zuydam, Natalie; Shah, Sonia; Fava, Cristiano; Gustafsson, Stefan; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sennblad, Bengt; Larsson, Malin; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Tabak, Adam; Kivimaki, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Humphries, Steve E; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Lind, Lars; Ingelsson, Erik; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle; Kumari, Meena; Hingorani, Aroon; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Lundman, Pia; Öhrvik, John; Söderberg, Stefan; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma adiponectin levels have previously been inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we used a sex-stratified Mendelian randomization approach to investigate whether adiponectin has a causal protective influence on IMT. Methods and Results Baseline plasma adiponectin concentration was tested for association with baseline IMT, IMT progression over 30 months, and occurrence of cardiovascular events within 3 years in 3430 participants (women, n =1777; men, n =1653) with high cardiovascular risk but no prevalent disease. Plasma adiponectin levels were inversely associated with baseline mean bifurcation IMT after adjustment for established risk factors (β =−0.018, P<0.001) in men but not in women (β =−0.006, P =0.185; P for interaction =0.061). Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with progression of mean common carotid IMT in men (β =−0.0022, P =0.047), whereas no association was seen in women (0.0007, P =0.475; P for interaction =0.018). Moreover, we observed that adiponectin levels were inversely associated with coronary events in women (hazard ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.87) but not in men (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.25). A gene score of adiponectin-raising alleles in 6 loci, reported recently in a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis, was inversely associated with baseline mean bifurcation IMT in men (β =−0.0008, P =0.004) but not in women (β =−0.0003, P =0.522; P for interaction =0.007). Conclusions This report provides some evidence for adiponectin protecting against atherosclerosis, with effects being confined to men; however, compared with established cardiovascular risk factors, the effect of plasma adiponectin was modest. Further investigation involving mechanistic studies is warranted. PMID:26276317

  2. Effects of bilateral vestibular nucleus lesions on cardiovascular regulation in conscious cats.

    PubMed

    Mori, R L; Cotter, L A; Arendt, H E; Olsheski, C J; Yates, B J

    2005-02-01

    The vestibular system participates in cardiovascular regulation during postural changes. In prior studies (Holmes MJ, Cotter LA, Arendt HE, Cas SP, and Yates BJ. Brain Res 938: 62-72, 2002, and Jian BJ, Cotter LA, Emanuel BA, Cass SP, and Yates BJ. J Appl Physiol 86: 1552-1560, 1999), transection of the vestibular nerves resulted in instability in blood pressure during nose-up body tilts, particularly when no visual information reflecting body position in space was available. However, recovery of orthostatic tolerance occurred within 1 wk, presumably because the vestibular nuclei integrate a variety of sensory inputs reflecting body location. The present study tested the hypothesis that lesions of the vestibular nuclei result in persistent cardiovascular deficits during orthostatic challenges. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in five conscious cats during nose-up tilts of varying amplitude, both before and after chemical lesions of the vestibular nuclei. Before lesions, blood pressure remained relatively stable during tilts. In all animals, the blood pressure responses to nose-up tilts were altered by damage to the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei; these effects were noted both when animals were tested in the presence and absence of visual feedback. In four of the five animals, the lesions also resulted in augmented heart rate increases from baseline values during 60 degrees nose-up tilts. These effects persisted for longer than 1 wk, but they gradually resolved over time, except in the animal with the worst deficits. These observations suggest that recovery of compensatory cardiovascular responses after loss of vestibular inputs is accomplished at least in part through plastic changes in the vestibular nuclei and the enhancement of the ability of vestibular nucleus neurons to discriminate body position in space by employing nonlabyrinthine signals. PMID:15475594

  3. An experimental ovine Theileriosis: The effect of Theileria lestoquardi infection on cardiovascular system in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Cardiovascular Effects of Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiqi; Hedmer, Maria; Kåredal, Monica; Björk, Jonas; Stockfelt, Leo; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Albin, Maria; Broberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes. Methods In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males) from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry) were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines. Results Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P≤0.001). IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010). Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 – 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 – 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI) but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers. Conclusions A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26147298

  5. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in conscious cats: effects of intracerebroventricular injection of clonidine.

    PubMed

    Ally, A; Hand, G A; Mitchell, J H

    1996-03-01

    1. Static exercise elicits increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in humans and conscious animals. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, on these cardiovascular responses were investigated using conscious cats. Four cats were operantly trained to extend a forelimb and press a bar (200-650 g) for 15-60 s. A stainless-steel cannula was inserted into the right lateral ventricle for I.C.V. injection of drugs, and a common carotid artery was catheterized to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR. The number of exercise trials and changes in MAP, HR and force were pooled for 30 min periods. After the cats exercised for 30 min, either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or clonidine (2 or 5 micrograms) were administered intracerebroventricularly. 2. Before clonidine injection, fifty-two exercise trials increased MAP and HR by 15 +/- 3 mmHg and 41 +/- 5 beats min-1, respectively. Administration of clonidine (2 micrograms) did not alter the resting MAP and HR, but attenuated the increases in MAP and HR in response to exercise (0-30 min post-clonidine: n = 81; delta MAP, 6 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 20 +/- 6 beats min-1; 30-60 min post-clonidine: n = 71; delta MAP, 4 +/- 4 mmHg; delta HR, 17 +/- 8 beats min-1). Administration of artificial CSF I.C.V. had no effect on the cardiovascular responses to static exercise. 3. An increased dose of clonidine (5 micrograms) decreased resting MAP and HR by 31 +/- 7 mmHg and 37 +/- 7 beats min-1, respectively, and markedly blunted the cardiovascular responses to exercise (pre-clonidine: n = 52; delta MAP, 17 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 38 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 0-30 min: n = 66; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 15 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 30-60 min: n = 60; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 14 +/- 6 beats min-1). Pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine (8 micrograms, I.C.V.), blocked the

  6. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    PubMed Central

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Chan, Julian KK; Leseman, Daan LAC; Aitken, Robert J; Fokkens, Paul HB; Cassee, Flemming R; Li, Jing; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3), temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C) and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19%) were similar (P > 0.05 for all) on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P < 0.01) when subjects wore a facemask, although heart rate was similar (91 ± 11 vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05). Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P < 0.05; LF-power 919 ± 352 vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P < 0.05) when subjects wore the facemask. Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution. PMID:19284642

  7. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations. PMID:24172303

  8. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11,000 patients with various neurologic disorders, including acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The conclusion is that citicoline is safe to use and may have a beneficial effect in AIS patients and most beneficial in less severe stroke in older patients not treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. No other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit. PMID:24739589

  9. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Health During Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the research on the long-term effects of childhood risk factors on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) during adulthood and to outline recommendations for prevention of CVDs based on evidence-based interventions (EBIs). CVDs are the leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in the United States and globally. Risk factors for CVDs are already identifiable in children and youth, and include both modifiable factors (e.g., unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco smoking), and factors that cannot be changed (e.g., age, heredity, sex). A fundamental issue has been the severity of the long-term effects of childhood risk factors (i.e., behavioral and intermediate risk factors) on subsequent cardiovascular health. It is clear from the empirical evidence that risk factors for CVDs can develop during childhood and adolescence. These risk factors in childhood have been linked to adverse health outcomes, including CVDs, during adulthood. The findings thus far suggest that, in order to be effective and reduce the risk of adulthood CVDs, intervention strategies should begin during childhood. The findings also underscore the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle as early in life as possible. PMID:26312015

  10. Effects of simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow specifically during cardiovascular stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Significant changes in the cardiovasular system of humans and animals have been observed following exposure to prolonged periods of weightlessness during space flight. Although adaption to weightlessness is relatively uncomplicated, marked changes in cardiovascular deconditioning become evident upon return to normal gravity, including orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Some evidence that myocardial degeneration occurs has been demonstrated in animals who have been immobilized for two months. Also, evidence of possible loss of myocardial mass following manned space flight has been obtained by means of echocardiographic studies. These findings have serious implications in light of the increasing frequency and duration of Space Shuttle missions and the prospect of extended space station missions in the future. A number of both military and civilian investigators, including middle-aged scientists, will probably encounter prolonged periods of weightlessness. It has been imperative, therefore, to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on cardiovascular deconditioning and whether such effects are cumulative or reversible. The research project conducted under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-126 was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow. Research results are reported in the three appended publications.

  11. The effects of high temperature on cardiovascular admissions in the most populous tropical city in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Guo, Yuming; Thai, Phong; Rutherford, Shannon; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Do, Cuong Manh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Alam, Noore; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of temperature on cardiovascular hospital admissions (CHA) in the largest tropical city in Southern Vietnam. We applied Poisson time-series regression models with Distributed Lag Non-Linear Model (DLNM) to examine the temperature-CHA association while adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, holidays, and humidity. The threshold temperature and added effects of heat waves were also evaluated. The exposure-response curve of temperature-CHA reveals a J-shape relationship with a threshold temperature of 29.6 °C. The delayed effects temperature-CHA lasted for a week (0-5 days). The overall risk of CHA increased 12.9% (RR, 1.129; 95%CI, 0.972-1.311) during heatwave events, which were defined as temperature ≥ the 99th percentile for ≥2 consecutive days. The modification roles of gender and age were inconsistent and non-significant in this study. An additional prevention program that reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in relation to high temperatures should be developed. PMID:26092390

  12. The effects of pomegranate juice consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Caroline Bell

    2011-05-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is the most common disease found in patients in primary care [JNC-7 Guidelines. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hyper 2003;42:1206.]. It eventually requires medication if lifestyle modifications are not initiated or do not control the blood pressure well enough. The majority of patients would prefer not to have to be medicated to manage their disease, and HTN can be found to be a comorbidity along with diabetes, CAD, and many other cardiovascular diseases. Adverse effects, forgetfulness and patient ignorance are multiple reasons for the hesitancy to begin drug management. Pomegranate juice is rich in tannins, possesses anti-atherosclerotic properties, has anti-aging effects, and potent anti-oxidative characteristics. As some antioxidants have been shown to reduce blood pressure, the purpose of this review was to discover the effect of pomegranate juice consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health. Pomegranate juice consumption may reduce systolic blood pressure, inhibits serum ACE activity, and is convincingly a heart-healthy fruit [Aviram M, Dornfeld L. Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure. Athero 2001;158:195-8.]. More clinical research is needed as a number of the studies discussed include small sample sizes and few studies seem to have been undertaken in the recent 5-10 years. PMID:21457902

  13. The Effect of Group Counseling and Physical Fitness Programs on Self-Esteem and Cardiovascular Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Robert B.

    A study was made to determine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and self-esteem. Ninth grade boys were divided into four groups: (1) the cardiovascular fitness group; (2) the counseling group; (3) the cardiovascular fitness and counseling group; and (4) the control group. All were administered a pretest and posttest measuring…

  14. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  15. Oral Cannabidiol does not Alter the Subjective, Reinforcing or Cardiovascular Effects of Smoked Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Gray, Kevin M; McRae-Clark, Aimee; Lofwall, Michelle R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-07-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a constituent of cannabis with few psychoactive effects, has been reported in some studies to attenuate certain aspects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxication. However, most studies have tested only one dose of CBD in combination with one dose of oral THC, making it difficult to assess the nature of this interaction. Further, the effect of oral CBD on smoked cannabis administration is unknown. The objective of this multi-site, randomized, double-blind, within-subject laboratory study was to assess the influence of CBD (0, 200, 400, 800 mg, p.o.) pretreatment on the reinforcing, subjective, cognitive, and physiological effects of smoked cannabis (0.01 (inactive), 5.30-5.80% THC). Non-treatment-seeking, healthy cannabis smokers (n=31; 17M, 14 F) completed eight outpatient sessions. CBD was administered 90 min prior to cannabis administration. The behavioral and cardiovascular effects of cannabis were measured at baseline and repeatedly throughout the session. A subset of participants (n=8) completed an additional session to measure plasma CBD concentrations after administration of the highest CBD dose (800 mg). Under placebo CBD conditions, active cannabis (1) was self-administered by significantly more participants than placebo cannabis and (2) produced significant, time-dependent increases in ratings of 'High', 'Good Effect', ratings of the cannabis cigarette (eg, strength, liking), and heart rate relative to inactive cannabis. CBD, which alone produced no significant psychoactive or cardiovascular effects, did not significantly alter any of these outcomes. Cannabis self-administration, subjective effects, and cannabis ratings did not vary as a function of CBD dose relative to placebo capsules. These findings suggest that oral CBD does not reduce the reinforcing, physiological, or positive subjective effects of smoked cannabis. PMID:26708108

  16. Effect of weight reduction on cardiovascular risk factors and CD34-positive cells in circulation.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina A; Casciari, Joseph J; Hunninghake, Ronald E; Beezley, Margaret M

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs) on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation. During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting. The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers. As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation. PMID:21850193

  17. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Francesca; Sancini, Giulio; Longhin, Eleonora; Mantecca, Paride; Camatini, Marina; Palestini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2); heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50); inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS); endothelial-selectin (E-selectin)), cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70); caspase-8-p18), and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1)). Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO); plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin); fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1)). PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:23509745

  18. Effect of diurnal temperature range on cardiovascular markers in the elderly in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Sanghyuk; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-07-01

    While diurnal temperature range (DTR) has been found to be a risk factor for mortality, evaluation of the underlying mechanisms involved in this association are lacking. To explain the association between DTR and health effects, we investigated how cardiovascular markers responded to DTR. Data was obtained from 560 participants who regularly attended a community elderly welfare center located in Seoul, Korea. Data collection was conducted a total of five times over a 3-year period beginning in August, 2008. We examined systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Mixed-effects models and generalized additive mixed models were used to assess the relationship of DTR with BP, HR, and HRV. BP was not associated significantly with rapid temperature changes during the day. While HR was associated linearly with increments of DTR, the relationship between DTR and HRV showed nonlinear associations, or the presence of a cutoff around median DTR. At the cutoff level of DTR determined by an inflection point in the graph, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and root mean square successive difference (RMSSD) were peaked, whereas the low frequency:high frequency (LF:HF) ratio was elevated with decreasing DTR below the cutoff level. The study demonstrated that HR increases with increasing temperature range during the day, and that HRV is reduced at small or large DTR, which suggests minimal cardiovascular stress around the median level of temperature range during the day.

  19. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet's Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  20. Cardiovascular side effects related with use of synthetic cannabinoids "bonzai" : two case reports.

    PubMed

    Atik, Sezen Ugan; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Varol, Fatih; Çam, Halit; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Saltık, Levent

    2015-03-01

    Information about the effects of synthetic cannabinoids "bonzai" on the cardiovascular system is limited. In this article, two patients in whom different cardiological side effects were observed following use of synthetic cannabinoids 'bonzai' were presented. Our first patient who was a 16-year old boy presented to pediatric emergency department with severe chest pain which had started one hour before. On electrocardiographic examination, ST segment elevations greater than 3 mm were observed in DII, DIII, AVF and V5-V6 derivations which caused to suspicious myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization was performed and coronary angiographic findings were found to be normal. When the patient was questioned again, it was learned that he used synthetic cannabinoid 'bonzai'. The second patient who was aged 18 years and addicted to synthetic cannabinoid 'bonzai' was brought to our emergency department by his friends because of clouding of consciousness. Dopamine treatment was started in the patient whose cardiac apical beat reduced to 40/min and who was found to develop hypertension, because bradycardia worsened. However, the blood pressure increased rapidly and dopamine treatment was stopped. Heart rate and blood pressure monitoring was continued. Use of synthetic cannabinoids 'bonzai' should be kept in mind in patients who present to emergency departments with chest pain and complaints related with the cardiovascular system. PMID:26078698

  1. Cardiovascular side effects related with use of synthetic cannabinoids “bonzai” : two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Sezen Ugan; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Varol, Fatih; Çam, Halit; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Saltık, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Information about the effects of synthetic cannabinoids “bonzai” on the cardiovascular system is limited. In this article, two patients in whom different cardiological side effects were observed following use of synthetic cannabinoids ‘bonzai’ were presented. Our first patient who was a 16-year old boy presented to pediatric emergency department with severe chest pain which had started one hour before. On electrocardiographic examination, ST segment elevations greater than 3 mm were observed in DII, DIII, AVF and V5–V6 derivations which caused to suspicious myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization was performed and coronary angiographic findings were found to be normal. When the patient was questioned again, it was learned that he used synthetic cannabinoid ‘bonzai’. The second patient who was aged 18 years and addicted to synthetic cannabinoid ‘bonzai’ was brought to our emergency department by his friends because of clouding of consciousness. Dopamine treatment was started in the patient whose cardiac apical beat reduced to 40/min and who was found to develop hypertension, because bradycardia worsened. However, the blood pressure increased rapidly and dopamine treatment was stopped. Heart rate and blood pressure monitoring was continued. Use of synthetic cannabinoids ‘bonzai’ should be kept in mind in patients who present to emergency departments with chest pain and complaints related with the cardiovascular system. PMID:26078698

  2. Contribution of CCK1 receptors to cardiovascular and respiratory effects of cholecystokinin in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the share of vagal input at infra- and supra-nodosal level and the contribution of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors to the cardiorespiratory responses produced by an intravenous injection of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) in anesthetized rats. This compound administered intravenously at a dose of 50μg/kg induced short-lived decline in tidal volume and respiratory rate resulting in depression of minute ventilation. Midcervical vagotomy had no effect on CCK-8-evoked ventilatory changes, whereas supranodosal denervation abolished slowing down of breathing. Cardiovascular response to CCK challenge was characterized by a transient decrease followed by an augmentation in the mean blood pressure (MAP) in the intact animals. Vagotomy performed at both levels abrogated the declining phase of MAP. Blood pressure changes were associated with decreased heart rate present in all neural states. All cardiovascular and respiratory effects were antagonized by pre-treatment with devazepide-CCK1 receptors' antagonist, whereas CI988-antagonist of CCK2 receptors was ineffective. In conclusion, our results indicate that CCK-8 modulates slowing down of respiratory rhythm via CCK1 receptors located in the nodose ganglia (NG) and depresses tidal volume via central CCK1 dependent mechanism. CCK-8-evoked decline in blood pressure may be due to activation of vagal afferents, whereas pressor responses seem to be mediated by an activation of CCK1 receptors in the central nervous system. Bradycardia was probably induced by the direct action of CCK-8 on the heart pacemaker cells. PMID:26342277

  3. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. PMID:27493670

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mersereau, Eric J.; Boyle, Cody A.; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C.; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  5. Longitudinal Effects of Embryonic Exposure to Cocaine on Morphology, Cardiovascular Physiology, and Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254

  6. Long term effects of cocaine on the heart assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3T

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cocaine is an addictive, sympathomimetic drug with potentially lethal effects. The prevalence and features of cocaine cardiotoxicity are not well known. We aimed to assess these effects using a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol in a large group of asymptomatic cocaine users. Methods Consecutive (n = 94, 81 males, 36.6 ±7 years), non-selected, cocaine abusers were recruited and had a medical history, examination, ECG, blood test and CMR. The CMR study included measurement of left and right ventricular (LV, RV) dimensions and ejection fraction (EF), sequences for detection of myocardial oedema and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Images were compared to a cohort of healthy controls. Results Years of regular cocaine use were 13.9 ± 9. When compared to the age-matched healthy cohort, the cocaine abusers had increased LV end-systolic volume, LV mass index and RV end-systolic volume, with decreased LVEF and RVEF. No subject had myocardial oedema, but 30% had myocardial LGE indicating myocardial damage. Conclusions CMR detected cardiovascular disease in 71% of this cohort of consecutive asymptomatic cocaine abusers and mean duration of abuse was related to probability of LV systolic dysfunction. PMID:24758161

  7. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. PMID:27493670

  8. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  9. Oxidative Stress: An Effective Prognostic Tool for an Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease in Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Mridula; Mohan, Gurinder

    2016-01-01

    Background. Menopause, a form of reproductive aging, is marked by many hormonal variations which cause imbalance in the oxidative processes resulting in onset of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to analyze the effect of oxidative stress in an early detection of CVD in all menopausal women both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic. Methods and Results. Study included 523 menopausal women (265 CVD and 258 non-CVD). They were screened for lipid profile, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum LDL carbonyl protein, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pearson's correlation was observed between MDA and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in both normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.207; p < 0.01) CVD group as compared to non-CVD menopausal women. Significant correlation was also observed between LDL carbonyl content and AIP in normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.248; p < 0.01) CVD menopausal women as compared to non-CVD ones. Conclusion. Strong correlation between atherogenic index of plasma and oxidative stress in CVD menopausal women reveals oxidative stress as an effective prognostic tool for an early detection of cardiovascular risk. PMID:27069688

  10. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  11. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  12. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiovascular Surgery: Evidence from 2,157 Cases and 49,777 Controls - A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Qian; Li, Ke; Jian, Zhao; Xiao, Ying-Bin; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Yao; Ma, Rui-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cardiovascular surgery-associated acute kidney injury (AKI-CS) contributes to mortality and morbidity. However, risk factors accelerating its development are unclear. We identified risk factors for AKI-CS in patients with cardiopulmonary bypass in the hospital surgical intensive care unit to predict and minimize renal complication in future cardiac surgery. Methods We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies published prior to June 2014 and indexed in Science Citation Index, PubMed, and other databases to determine the major risk factors for AKI-CS. Results Analyzed risk factors were divided into three groups: preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Preoperative factors included: age (OR, 4.87; 95% CI, 3.50-6.24), NYHA class III/IV (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.32-4.86), hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.44-1.97), preoperative creatinine (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.18-1.14), peripheral vascular disease (OR, 1.31 95% CI, 1.09-1.57), respiratory system disease (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.50), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.07-2.16), and cerebrovascular disease (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.11-4.09). Intraoperative factors were: cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR, 33.78; 95% CI, 23.15-44.41), aortic clamping time (OR, 13.24; 95% CI, 7.78-18.69), use of intra-aortic balloon pump (OR, 4.44; 95% CI, 2.37-8.30), and type of surgery (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.43-2.39). Postoperative factors were: infection (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.43-8.97), redo operation (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.75-3.78), emergency surgery (OR, 4.76; 95% CI, 3.05-7.43), and low cardiac output (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.05-5.04). Conclusions Our results support that preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors are associated with AKI-CS. Ejection fraction, BMI, acute myocardial infarction, type of surgery, and congestive heart failure were not absolutely associated with AKI.

  13. Sympathomimetic activity of a Hoodia gordonii product: a possible mechanism of cardiovascular side effects.

    PubMed

    Roza, Orsolya; Lovász, Norbert; Zupkó, István; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2013-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate) have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β -adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant. PMID:24307991

  14. The PI3K signaling-mediated nitric oxide contributes to cardiovascular effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao-Tang; Ren, Chang-Zhen; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Sun, Jia-Cen; Wang, Yang-Kai; Su, Ding-Feng; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-30

    Angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)], acting via the Mas receptor in the central nervous system, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated as an important modulator in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a key region involved in control of cardiovascular activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mediating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NO generation in the NTS. In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute injection of Ang-(1-7) into the NTS significantly increased NO generation and neuronal/endothelial NO synthase (n/eNOS) activity, which were abolished by the selective Mas receptor antagonist d-Alanine-[Ang-(1-7)] (A-779), the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor triciribine (TCN). Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) significantly increased levels of Akt/NOS phosphorylation in the NTS, and Ang-(1-7)-induced e/nNOS phosphorylation was antagonized by LY294002 or TCN. Furthermore, gene knockdown of PI3K by lentivirus containing small hairpin RNA in the NTS prevented the Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in NOS/Akt phosphorylation and NO production. The physiological (in vivo) experiments showed that pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, LY294002, or TCN abolished the decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by Ang-(1-7) injected into the NTS. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide release meditated by the Mas-PI3K-NOS signaling pathway is involved in the cardiovascular effects of Ang-(1-7) in the NTS. PMID:26686278

  15. Comparative effectiveness of sulfonylurea and metformin monotherapy on risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Roumie, Christianne L.; Hung, Adriana M.; Greevy, Robert A.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Liu, Xulei; Murff, Harvey J.; Elasy, Tom A.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparative effectiveness of sulfonylureas and metformin on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in type 2 diabetes are not well characterized. Objective To compare the effectiveness of sulfonylureas and metformin on the outcome of CVD (acute myocardial infarction, stroke) or death Design Retrospective cohort study Setting National Veterans Health Administration (VHA) databases linked to Medicare files Patients Veterans who initiated metformin or sulfonylureas for diabetes. Patients with chronic kidney disease or serious medical illness were excluded. Measurements Composite outcome of hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death. Cox regression analyses compared the incidence of the composite outcome between groups, adjusting for baseline demographics, medications, cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, blood pressure, body mass index, healthcare utilization and co-morbidities. Results Among 253,690 patients (98,665 sulfonylurea and 155,025 metformin initiators) the crude outcome rates were 18.2 and 10.4 per 1000 person-years in sulfonylurea and metformin users, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.21, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.13, 1.30). Results were consistent for both glyburide (aHR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16, 1.37) and glipizide (aHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06, 1.26) as well as for those with prior history of CVD (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13, 1.55) and without history of CVD (aHR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29). Results were also consistent in a propensity score-matched analysis. For patients initiating sulfonylureas rather than metformin, we estimated an excess of 1 and 4 CVD events per 1000 person-years for those without and with a CVD history, respectively. Limitations Data on women and minorities is limited but reflective of the VHA population. Conclusions Use of sulfonylureas compared to metformin for initial treatment of diabetes was associated with an increased hazard of CVD events or death. PMID:23128859

  16. Effects of High Dietary HEME Iron and Radiation on Cardiovascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Brown, A. K.; Platts, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    The radiation related health risks to astronauts is of particular concern to NASA. Data support that exposure to radiation is associated with a number of disorders including a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases. Independent of radiation, altered nutrient status (e.g. high dietary iron) also increases ones risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether exposure to radiation in combination with high dietary iron further increases ones cardiovascular risk. The intent of our proposal is to generate compulsory data examining the combined effect of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury to address HRP risks: 1) Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition; 2) Risk of Cardiac Rhythm Problems; and 3) Risk of Degenerative Tissue or other Health Effects from Space Radiation. Towards our goal we propose two distinct pilot studies using the following specific aims: Vascular Aim 1: To determine the short-term consequences of the independent and combined effects of exposure to gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on measures of endothelial function and cell viability and integrity. We hypothesize that animals that have high body iron stores and are exposed to gamma radiation will show a greater reduction in endothelial dependent nitric oxid production and larger pathological changes in endothelial integrity than animals that have only 1 of those treatments (either high iron stores or exposure to gamma radiation). Vascular Aim 2: Identify and compare the effects of gamma radiation and elevated body iron stores on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of proteins associated with endothelial cell function. We hypothesize that modifications of epigenetic control and posttranslational expression of proteins associated with endothelial cell function will be differentially altered in rats with high body iron stores and exposed to gamma radiation compared to rats with only 1 type of treatment. Cardiac Aim 1: To determine the

  17. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  18. Pleiotropic effects of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya R.; Sowers, James R.; Jia, Guanghong

    2014-01-01

    Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that removes NH2-terminal dipeptides from various substrate hormones, chemokines, neuropeptides, and growth factors. Two known substrates of DPP-4 include the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide, which are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in response to postprandial hyperglycemia and account for 60–70% of postprandial insulin secretion. DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) block degradation of GLP-1 and gastric inhibitory peptide, extend their insulinotropic effect, and improve glycemia. Since 2006, several DPP-4i have become available for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials confirm that DPP-4i raises GLP-1 levels in plasma and improves glycemia with very low risk for hypoglycemia and other side effects. Recent studies also suggest that DPP-4i confers cardiovascular and kidney protection, beyond glycemic control, which may reduce the risk for further development of the multiple comorbidities associated with obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus, including hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease. The notion that DPP-4i may improve CVD outcomes by mechanisms beyond glycemic control is due to both GLP-1-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. The CVD protective effects by DPP-4i result from multiple factors including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, adipose tissue dysfunction, dysfunctional immunity, and antiapoptotic properties of these agents in the heart and vasculature. This review focuses on cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the CVD protective effects of DPP-4i beyond favorable effects on glycemic control. PMID:24929856

  19. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  20. A review and rationale for studying the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic in women of reproductive age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Richard K.

    2007-08-01

    Drinking water arsenic has been shown to be associated with a host of adverse health outcomes at exposure levels > 300 {mu}g of As/L. However, the results are not consistent at exposures below this level. We have reviewed selected articles that examine the effects of drinking water arsenic on cardiovascular outcomes and present a rationale for studying these effects on women of reproductive age, and also over the course of pregnancy when they would potentially be more susceptible to adverse cardiovascular and reproductive outcomes. It is only recently that reproductive effects have been linked to drinking water arsenic. However, there is a paucity of information about the cardiovascular effects of drinking water arsenic on women of reproductive age. Under the cardiovascular challenge of pregnancy, we hypothesize that women with a slightly elevated exposure to drinking water arsenic may exhibit adverse cardiovascular outcomes at higher rates than in the general population. Studying sensitive clinical and sub-clinical indicators of disease in susceptible sub-populations may yield important information about the potentially enormous burden of disease related to low-level drinking water arsenic exposure.

  1. Uric acid lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sposato, Barbara; Romeo, Franco

    2016-06-15

    Recent evidence would indicate that high serum uric acid (SUA) levels can be a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In the last few years an independent risk relationship between hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and mortality has also been reported. Hyperuricemia has been shown as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and an independent and conjoint association of either gout and SUA with total and cardiovascular mortality has been reported, with mortality impact in gout patients increasing with rising SUA concentrations, even for SUA levels in the normal to high range. These findings prompted a growing research interest on the possible benefits of uric acid lowering drugs in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, clinical studies have reported on the beneficial effects of uric acid lowering drugs, in particular of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, in hypertension, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Two main mechanisms have been claimed to explain the dangerous effects of hyperuricemia and, as a consequence, the benefits of uric acid lowering therapy: endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation. This brief review aims to summarize current evidence from human studies on the role of acid uric lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases for practical and clinical purposes. The possible mechanisms underlying the benefits of acid uric lowering therapy are also addressed. PMID:26386814

  2. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    PubMed Central

    Gliemann, Lasse; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Peronard, Sebastian Louis; Grandjean, Simon Udsen; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, and improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1 signalling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg m−2; mean arterial pressure (MAP): 95.8 ± 2.2 mmHg; maximal oxygen uptake: 2488 ± 72 ml O2 min−1) were randomized into 8 weeks of either daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n= 14) or of placebo (n= 13) concomitant with high-intensity exercise training. Exercise training led to a 45% greater (P < 0.05) increase in maximal oxygen uptake in the placebo group than in the resveratrol group and to a decrease in MAP in the placebo group only (−4.8 ± 1.7 mmHg; P < 0.05). The interstitial level of vasodilator prostacyclin was lower in the resveratrol than in the placebo group after training (980 ± 90 vs. 1174 ± 121 pg ml−1; P < 0.02) and muscle thromboxane synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P < 0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and triglyceride concentrations in blood (P < 0.05). Resveratrol did not alter the effect of exercise training on the atherosclerosis marker vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation can blunt these effects. PMID:23878368

  3. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  4. Cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Mae, Naomi; Nagata, Shun-ichi; Mamada, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    To determine dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine during anesthesia in horses, increasing doses of dobutamine and phenylephrine were infused to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and infused 3 increasing doses of dobutamine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/kg/min) for 15 min each dose. Following to 30 min of reversal period, 3 increasing doses of phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg/min) were infused. Cardiovascular parameters were measured before and at the end of each 15-min infusion period for each drug. Blood samples were collected every 5 min during phenylephrine infusion period. There were no significant changes in heart rate throughout the infusion period. Both dobutamine and phenylephrine reversed sevoflurane-induced hypotension. Dobutamine increased both mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO) as the result of the increase in stroke volume, whereas phenylephrine increased MAP but decreased CO as the result of the increase in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma phenylephrine concentration increased dose-dependently, and these values at 15, 30 and 45 min were 6.2 ± 1.2, 17.0 ± 4.8 and 37.9 ± 7.3 ng/ml, respectively. PMID:23832627

  5. The effects of exercise and training on human cardiovascular reflex control.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, S E; Bell, C

    2000-07-01

    During physical activity, there is a graded withdrawal of vagal cardiac tone and a graded increase in sympathetic cardiac and vasomotor tone, initiated through both central command from the somatic motor cortex and muscle chemoreceptive and mechanoreceptive inputs. In parallel, there is an upward resetting of the operating point of the arterial baroreflex, with preserved reflex sensitivity. In contrast to the traditional interpretation that blood flow through exercising muscle is independent of vasomotor neural influences because of the dominance of local dilator metabolites, recent evidence suggests that both constrictor and dilator sympathetic neural influences may be involved in determining absolute levels of perfusion. Post-exercise, there is a period of relative hypotension that is associated with decreased peripheral resistance. Some, but not all, evidence indicates a causal role for reduced sympathetic drive. Chronic exercise training appears to reduce resting sympathetic activity, with parallel changes in the gain of a variety of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes initiated from cardiovascular sites. These changes may be attributable at least partly to masking of arterial baroreflexes by the impact of elevated blood volume on low-pressure baroreceptors. The reductions in sympathetic drive that follow training are more pronounced in patients with essential hypertension than in normotensive individuals and are likely to underlie the anti-hypertensive effect of exercise. PMID:10869695

  6. The Effects of Cold and Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A.; Sanders, Gabriel J.; McDaniel, John; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; Glickman, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were recorded every 30 minutes using bioimpedance. Results. When LBNP was applied during the AMB trials, stroke volume immediately decreased. During the COLD trial, there was a five-minute delay before the decrease in stroke volume. Heart rate increased immediately after LBNP initiation during the AMB trials but there was a delay in the increase during the COLD trials. That same pattern was followed with mean arterial blood pressures. Cerebral oxygenation was significantly lower throughout the COLD trial as compared to the AMB trials. Six subjects reported symptoms of syncope or presyncope during the AMB trials but there were no reports of symptoms during the COLD trials. Conclusion. From analysis of this data, cold improved the subject's tolerance to LBNP. PMID:25866805

  7. Update on the metabolic effects of steroidal contraceptives and their relationship to cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Godsland, I F; Crook, D

    1994-05-01

    Evaluation of metabolic disturbances has had an important role in the modification of oral contraceptive formulations toward estrogen-progestin combinations with reduced adverse metabolic impact. An increasing number of interrelationships between metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease are being recognized, and a metabolic syndrome of disturbances has been identified with insulin resistance as a potential underlying factor. The insulin resistance syndrome includes hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein concentrations, and hypertension. Increased concentration of a small, dense, low-density lipoprotein subtype may also be important. Depending on steroid type and dose, combined oral contraceptives may induce all the features of the insulin resistance syndrome. Reduction in estrogen dose and modification of progestin content have resulted in formulations with no adverse effect on high-density lipoprotein and blood pressure, but insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia remain. These are caused primarily by the estrogen component. Therefore modification of the estrogen content of oral contraceptives might result in "metabolically transparent" formulations that could conceivably afford a degree of cardiovascular protection. PMID:8178902

  8. Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Control on Cardiovascular Remodeling in Hypertensive Patients with Nephrosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwagyan, John; Pogue, Velvie; Xu, Shichen; Greene, Tom; Wang, Xuelei; Agodoa, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Pulse pressure (PP), a marker of arterial system properties, has been linked to cardiovascular (CV) complications. We examined (a) association between unit changes of PP and (i) composite CV outcomes and (ii) development of left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and (b) effect of mean arterial pressure (MAP) control on rate of change in PP. We studied 1094 nondiabetics with nephrosclerosis in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Subjects were randomly assigned to usual MAP goal (102–107 mmHg) or a lower MAP goal (≤92 mmHg) and randomized to beta-blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or calcium channel blocker. After covariate adjustment, a higher PP was associated with increased risk of CV outcome (RR = 1.28, CI = 1.11–1.47, P < 0.01) and new LVH (RR = 1.26, CI = 1.04–1.54, P = 0.02). PP increased at a greater rate in the usual than in lower MAP groups (slope ± SE: 1.08 ± 0.15 versus 0.42 ± 0.15 mmHg/year, P = 0.002), but not by the antihypertensive treatment assignment. Observations indicate that control to a lower MAP slows the progression of PP, a correlate of cardiovascular remodeling and complications, and may be beneficial to CV health. PMID:24102027

  9. The effects of phthalates in the cardiovascular and reproductive systems: A review.

    PubMed

    Mariana, Melissa; Feiteiro, Joana; Verde, Ignacio; Cairrao, Elisa

    2016-09-01

    Every year millions of tons of plastic are produced around the world and humans are increasingly exposed to them. This constant exposure to plastics has raised some concerns against human health, particularly when it comes to phthalates. These compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties, as they have the ability to bind molecular targets in the body and interfere with hormonal function and quantity. The main use of phthalates is to give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers. Phthalates are found in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and as they are not covalently bound to the plastic, phthalates contaminate the environment from which human exposure occurs. Studies in human and animal populations suggest a correlation between phthalate exposure and adverse health outcomes, particularly at the reproductive and cardiovascular systems, however there is much less information about the phthalate toxicity of the later. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to present the studies relating the effects already stated of phthalates on the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and also present the link between these two systems. PMID:27424259

  10. Effects of azaperone on cardiovascular and respiratory functions in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, P; Serrano, L

    1976-01-01

    1 The butyrophenone tranquilizer, azaperone, was administered intramuscularly, at dose levels of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, to ponies and its effects on cardiovascular and respiratory functions assessed. 2 Arterial blood pH, CO2 tension (PaCO2) and O2 tension (PaO2) remained relatively constant throughout the course of action of azaperone. 3 Azaperone did not modify plasma protein concentration but venous blood packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration were reduced by 5 to 10% for at least 4 hours. These changes were probably caused by uptake of erythrocytes into the splenic reservoir. 4 Small increases in heart rate occurred for up to 60 min after administration of the drug, and this was followed by a slight bradycardia in some ponies. 5 Azaperone reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) for at least 4 h, by which time its ataractic action was generally no longer apparent. The hypotension was caused, during the early phase of action at least, by a reduction in peripheral resistance, since cardiac output was increased slightly 20 min after its administration. Possible mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular changes are discussed. 6 In spite of reductions in arterial blood O2 content and MAP produced by azaperone, it is likely that tissue oxygenation was adequate, since arterial blood lactate concentrations were not increased. PMID:1260170

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