Science.gov

Sample records for acute care physicians

  1. [Collaboration with specialists and regional primary care physicians in emergency care at acute hospitals provided by generalists].

    PubMed

    Imura, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    A role of acute hospitals providing emergency care is becoming important more and more in regional comprehensive care system led by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Given few number of emergent care specialists in Japan, generalists specializing in both general internal medicine and family practice need to take part in the emergency care. In the way collaboration with specialists and regional primary care physicians is a key role in improving the quality of emergency care at acute hospitals. A pattern of collaborating function by generalists taking part in emergency care is categorized into four types. PMID:26915241

  2. Characteristics and expectations of fluid bolus therapy: a bi-national survey of acute care physicians.

    PubMed

    Glassford, N J; Jones, S L; Martensson, J; Eastwoods, G M; Bailey, M; Cross, A M; Taylor, D McD; Bellomo, R

    2015-11-01

    There is little consensus on the definition or optimal constituents of fluid bolus therapy (FBT), and there is uncertainty regarding its physiological effects. The aims of this study were to determine clinician-reported definitions of FBT and to explore the physiological responses clinicians expect from such FBT. In June and October 2014, intensive care and emergency physicians in Australia and New Zealand were asked to participate in an electronic questionnaire of the reported practice and expectations of FBT. Two hundred and fifty-one questionnaires were completed, 65.3% from intensivists. We identified the prototypical FBT given by intensivists is more than 250 ml of compound sodium lactate, saline or 4% albumin given in less than 30 minutes, while that given by emergency department physicians is a similar volume of saline delivered over a similar time frame. Intensive care and emergency physicians expected significantly different changes in mean arterial pressure (P=0.001) and heart rate (P=0.033) following FBT. Substantial variation was demonstrated in the magnitude of expected response within both specialties for each variable. Major variations exist in self-reported FBT practice, both within and between acute specialties, and wide variation can be demonstrated in the expected physiological responses to FBT. International explorations of practice and prospective quantification of the actual physiological response to FBT are warranted. PMID:26603800

  3. Is a good death possible in Australian critical and acute settings?: physician experiences with end-of-life care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a “good death” is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician’s ability to manage deaths well. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Conclusions Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development. PMID:25147481

  4. A clinical training unit for diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections: an intervention for primary health care physicians in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Bojalil, R.; Guiscafré, H.; Espinosa, P.; Viniegra, L.; Martínez, H.; Palafox, M.; Gutiérrez, G.

    1999-01-01

    In Tlaxcala State, Mexico, we determined that 80% of children who died from diarrhoea or acute respiratory infections (ARI) received medical care before death; in more than 70% of the cases this care was provided by a private physician. Several strategies have been developed to improve physicians' primary health care practices but private practitioners have only rarely been included. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of in-service training on the case management of diarrhoea and ARI among under-5-year-olds provided by private and public primary physicians. The training consisted of a five-day course of in-service practice during which physicians diagnosed and treated sick children attending a centre and conducted clinical discussions of cases under guidance. Each training course was limited to six physicians. Clinical performance was evaluated by observation before and after the courses. The evaluation of diarrhoea case management covered assessment of dehydration, hydration therapy, prescription of antimicrobial and other drugs, advice on diet, and counselling for mothers; that of ARI case management covered diagnosis, decisions on antimicrobial therapy, use of symptomatic drugs, and counselling for mothers. In general the performance of public physicians both before and after the intervention was better than that of private doctors. Most aspects of the case management of children with diarrhoea improved among both groups of physicians after the course; the proportion of private physicians who had five or six correct elements out of six increased from 14% to 37%: for public physicians the corresponding increase was from 53% to 73%. In ARI case management, decisions taken on antimicrobial therapy and symptomatic drug use improved in both groups; the proportion of private physicians with at least three correct elements out of four increased from 13% to 42%, while among public doctors the corresponding increase was from 43% to 78%. Hands

  5. Acute and chronic urticaria. Challenges and considerations for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, G; Youngberg, G

    2001-02-01

    Urticaria and angioedema are common dermatologic problems seen by primary care physicians. A carefully taken history, physical examination, specific tests, and skin biopsy often provide useful diagnostic information. In patients with chronic urticaria, urticarial vasculitis and diseases that mimic urticaria need to be ruled out. A variety of treatment options are available for patients with urticaria and urticarial vasculitis. Pharmacologic therapy is useful when the specific cause is undetermined. When a trigger has been identified, the patient must avoid exposure to it. Patient education is an important component of management and should include instructions on crisis management, particularly for patients who have angioedema or a tendency for anaphylaxis. PMID:11272687

  6. Primary-care physician compensation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Arik

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews existing models of physician compensation and presents information about current compensation patterns for primary-care physicians in the United States. Theories of work motivation are reviewed where they have relevance to the desired outcome of satisfied, productive physicians whose skills and expertise are retained in the workforce. Healthcare reforms that purport to bring accountability for healthcare quality and value-rather than simply volume-bring opportunities to redesign primary-care physician compensation and may allow for new compensation methodologies that increase job satisfaction. Physicians are increasingly shunning the responsibility of private practice and choosing to work as employees of a larger organization, often a hospital. Employers of physicians are seeking compensation models that reward both productivity and value. PMID:22786738

  7. Training Physicians in Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, J. Cameron; Krammer, Lisa M.; von Gunten, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the elements of a program in hospice and palliative medicine that may serve as a model of an effective system of physician education. Topics for the palliative-care curriculum include hospice medicine, breaking bad news, pain management, the process of dying, and managing personal stress. (JOW)

  8. Physician Migration, Education, and Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcini, John J.; Mazmanian, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is intimately intertwined with medical education. Imbalances in the production of physicians lead to workforce shortages and surpluses that compromise the ability to deliver adequate and equitable health care to large parts of the world's population. In this overview, we address a…

  9. Overview of anesthesia for primary care physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Potyk, D K; Raudaskoski, P

    1998-01-01

    Primary care physicians are frequently asked to evaluate patients before elective surgery. Familiarity with anesthetic technique and physiologic processes can help primary care physicians identify risk factors for perioperative complications, optimize patient care, and enhance communication with surgeons and anesthesiologists. To this end, we review the physiologic processes accompanying tracheal intubation and general and regional anesthesia. There is no convincing evidence that regional anesthesia is safer than general anesthesia. In addition to replacing fluid losses from the surgical field and insensible losses, intraoperative fluid administration may attenuate the cardiovascular and renal effects of anesthesia. Therefore, recommendations to limit fluids should be made with caution and should be tempered with an understanding of intraoperative fluid requirements. An understanding of the physiologic processes of anesthesia, combined with preoperative risk stratification strategies, will enhance a primary care physician's ability to provide meaningful preoperative evaluations. PMID:9655993

  10. Access to care: the physician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Tice, Alan; Ruckle, Janessa E; Sultan, Omar S; Kemble, Stephen

    2011-02-01

    Private practice physicians in Hawaii were surveyed to better understand their impressions of different insurance plans and their willingness to care for patients with those plans. Physician experiences and perspectives were investigated in regard to reimbursement, formulary limitations, pre-authorizations, specialty referrals, responsiveness to problems, and patient knowledge of their plans. The willingness of physicians to accept new patients from specific insurance company programs clearly correlated with the difficulties and limitations physicians perceive in working with the companies (p<0.0012). Survey results indicate that providers in private practice were much more likely to accept University Health Alliance (UHA) and Hawaii Medical Services Association (HMSA) Commercial insurance than Aloha Care Advantage and Aloha Quest. This was likely related to the more favorable impressions of the services, payments, and lower administrative burden offered by those companies compared with others. PMID:21308645

  11. The physician's perception of health care.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, R S

    1994-01-01

    A general malaise appears to have settled on the American medical scene; most Americans continue to trust their own physicians but do not trust the medical profession or the health system as a whole, while many physicians feel harassed by the regulatory, bureaucratic, or litigious intrusions upon the patient-doctor relationship. The strains on mutual trust among physicians, their patients, and the public are being played out against a background of contradictions. The advances of biomedicine are offset by the neglect of social and behavioural aspects of medical care. Preoccupation with specialized, hospital-based treatment is accompanied by isolation of public health and preventive interests from medical education and practice. Society remains uncertain whether health care is a right or a privilege while accepting public responsibility for financing the health care of certain groups such as the indigent sick (Medicaid), the elderly (Medicare), Native Americans, or members of the armed forces and veterans. Rising expectations about better outcomes through advances in technology are accompanied by rising anxieties about cost, appropriateness of care, access, and quality. Physicians must alter their perception of health care by adopting a population-based approach to need, a commitment to restoring equity in staffing patterns and compensation between primary care and specialty care, and adoption of a social contract that provides for full access by all Americans to basic cost-effective preventive and clinical services before spending on less cost-effective services. PMID:8064752

  12. How should managed care physicians be paid?

    PubMed

    Pagano, R

    1994-09-01

    When paying a physician for medical or surgical services, most patients expect the traditional bill or charge for that encounter or visit. While most people also pay health insurance premiums, few patients expect to prepay for their health care. But that is the foundation of most managed health care systems-prepaid medicine. PPOs, IPAs, and HMOs are typically health care providers linked together to provide services to a set population for a specific prepaid fee or "capitation" payment. Other providers contract with these managed care insurers to receive a predetermined and often "discounted" professional fee for services. These managed care organizations have already gone through a number of stages in determining how physicians are to be compensated for their services, and further changes loom on the horizon. PMID:10139077

  13. Ensuring Competent Care by Senior Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Richard E; Welcher, Catherine M; Stagg Elliott, Victoria; Pieters, Richard S; Puscas, Liana; Wick, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of senior physicians and calls for increased accountability of the medical profession by the public have led regulators and policymakers to consider implementing age-based competency screening. Some hospitals and health systems have initiated age-based screening, but there is no agreed upon assessment process. Licensing and certifying organizations generally do not require that senior physicians pass additional assessments of health, competency, or quality performance. Studies suggest that physician performance, on average, declines with increasing years in medical practice, but the effect of age on an individual physician's competence is highly variable. Many senior physicians practice effectively and should be allowed to remain in practice as long as quality and safety are not endangered. Stakeholders in the medical profession should consider the need to develop guidelines and methods for monitoring and/or screening to ensure that senior physicians provide safe and effective care for patients. Any screening process needs to achieve a balance between protecting patients from harm due to substandard practice, while at the same time ensuring fairness to physicians and avoiding unnecessary reductions in workforce. PMID:27584000

  14. Parasitic Skin Infections for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Dadabhoy, Irfan; Butts, Jessica F

    2015-12-01

    The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations. PMID:26612378

  15. Primary care physician supply, physician compensation, and Medicare fees: what is the connection?

    PubMed

    Dummit, Laura A

    2008-11-01

    Primary care, a cornerstone of several health reform efforts, is believed by many to be in a crisis because of inadequate supply to meet future demand. This belief has focused attention on the adequacy of primary care physician supply and ways to boost access to primary care. One suggested approach is to raise Medicare fees for primary care services. Whether higher Medicare fees would increase physician interest in primary care specialties by reducing compensation disparities between primary care and other specialties has not been established. Further, many questions remain about the assumptions underlying these policy concerns. Is there really a primary care physician crisis? Why does compensation across physician specialties vary so widely? Can Medicare physician fee changes affect access to primary care? These questions defy simple answers. This issue brief lays out the latest information on physician workforce, compensation differences across physician specialties, and Medicare's physician fee-setting process. PMID:19048687

  16. Primary Care Physicians' Dementia Care Practices: Evidence of Geographic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortinsky, Richard H.; Zlateva, Ianita; Delaney, Colleen; Kleppinger, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores primary care physicians' (PCPs) self-reported approaches and barriers to management of patients with dementia, with a focus on comparisons in dementia care practices between PCPs in 2 states. Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were mailed to 600 randomly selected licensed PCPs in…

  17. Physician payments under health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate-the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition. PMID:25497755

  18. Physicians' Involvement with the New York State Health Care Proxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Janna C.; Sealy, Yvette M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined physicians' attitude, involvement, and perceived barriers with the health care proxy. A cross sectional, correlational design was used to survey practicing physicians (N = 70). Physicians had positive attitudes toward the health care proxy and indicated that the most significant barriers to health care proxy completion were…

  19. Palliative care/physician-assisted dying: alternative or continuing care?

    PubMed

    Malakoff, Marion

    2006-01-01

    End-of-life care for dying patients has become an issue of importance to physicians as well as patients. The debate centers around whether the option of physician-assisted suicide cuts off, or diminishes the value of palliative care. This ongoing attention makes the crafting of advance directives from patients detailing their end-of-life choices essential. Equally important is the appointment of a health care surrogate. The surrogate, when the patient is too ill to make decisions, should be empowered to make them in his stead. No American court has found a clinician liable for wrongful death for granting a request to refuse life support. An entirely separate issue is that of legalized physician-assisted suicide. As of this writing, only Oregon has made this legal (see Gonzales v. Oregon). It is likely that this issue will be pursued slowly through the state courts, making advance directives and surrogacy all the more crucial. PMID:17219935

  20. Computerized Physician Order Entry: Reluctance of Physician Adoption of Technology Linked to Improving Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulinski, Don

    2013-01-01

    Physicians are the influential force in the complex field of patient care delivery. Physicians determine when and where patient healthcare is delivered and affect 80% of the money spent on it. Computerized systems used in the delivery of healthcare information have become an integral part that physicians use to provide patient care. This study…

  1. Physician, Practice, and Patient Characteristics Related to Primary Care Physician Physical and Mental Health: Results from the Physician Worklife Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Eric S; Konrad, Thomas R; Linzer, Mark; McMurray, Julia; Pathman, Donald E; Gerrity, Martha; Schwartz, Mark D; Scheckler, William E; Douglas, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the impact that physician, practice, and patient characteristics have on physician stress, satisfaction, mental, and physical health. Data Sources Based on a survey of over 5,000 physicians nationwide. Four waves of surveys resulted in 2,325 complete responses. Elimination of ineligibles yielded a 52 percent response rate; 1,411 responses from primary care physicians were used. Study Design A conceptual model was tested by structural equation modeling. Physician job satisfaction and stress mediated the relationship between physician, practice, and patient characteristics as independent variables and physician physical and mental health as dependent variables. Principle Findings The conceptual model was generally supported. Practice and, to a lesser extent, physician characteristics influenced job satisfaction, whereas only practice characteristics influenced job stress. Patient characteristics exerted little influence. Job stress powerfully influenced job satisfaction and physical and mental health among physicians. Conclusions These findings support the notion that workplace conditions are a major determinant of physician well-being. Poor practice conditions can result in poor outcomes, which can erode quality of care and prove costly to the physician and health care organization. Fortunately, these conditions are manageable. Organizational settings that are both “physician friendly” and “family friendly” seem to result in greater well-being. These findings are particularly important as physicians are more tightly integrated into the health care system that may be less clearly under their exclusive control.

  2. Transplantation and the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    McGill, Rita L; Ko, Tina Y

    2011-11-01

    Increasing appreciation of the survival benefits of kidney transplantation, compared with chronic dialysis, has resulted in more patients with kidney disease being referred and receiving organs. The evolving disparity between a rapidly increasing pool of candidates and a smaller pool of available donors has created new issues for the physicians who care for kidney patients and their potential living donors. This article outlines current efforts to address the growing number of patients who await transplantation, including relaxation of traditional donation criteria, maximization of living donation, and donation schemas that permit incompatible donor-recipient pairs to participate through paired donation and transplantation chains. New ethical issues faced by donors and recipients are discussed. Surgical advances that reduce the morbidity of donors are also described, as is the role of the primary physician in medical issues of both donors and recipients. PMID:22098662

  3. Chinese primary care physicians and work attitudes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leiyu; Hung, Li-Mei; Song, Kuimeng; Rane, Sarika; Tsai, Jenna; Sun, Xiaojie; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    China passed a landmark health care reform in 2009, aimed at improving health care for all citizens by strengthening the primary care system, largely through improvements to infrastructure. However, research has shown that the work attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) can greatly affect the stability of the overall workforce and the quality and delivery of health care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between reported work attitudes of PCPs and their personal, work, and educational characteristics. A multi-stage, complex sampling design was employed to select a sample of 434 PCPs practicing in urban and rural primary care settings, and a survey questionnaire was administered by researchers with sponsorship from the Ministry of Health. Four outcome measures describing work attitudes were used, as well as a number of personal-, work-, and practice-related factors. Findings showed that although most PCPs considered their work as important, a substantial number also reported large workloads, job pressure, and turnover intentions. Findings suggest that policymakers should focus on training and educational opportunities for PCPs and consider ways to ease workload pressures and improve salaries. These policy improvements must accompany reform efforts that are already underway before positive changes in reduced disparities and improved health outcomes can be realized in China. PMID:23527460

  4. Physician Job Satisfaction and Quality of Care Among Hospital Employed Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Bito, Seiji; Matsumura, Shinji; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2009-01-01

    Background Physician job satisfaction is reportedly associated with interpersonal quality of care, such as patient satisfaction, but its association with technical quality of care, as determined by whether patients are offered recommended services, is unknown. Objective We explored whether the job satisfaction of hospital-employed physicians in Japan is associated with the technical quality of care, with an emphasis on process qualities as measured by quality indicators. Design Cross-sectional study linking data from physician surveys with data abstracted from outpatient charts. Participants A total of 53 physicians working at 13 hospitals in Japan participated. Medical records covering 568 patients were reviewed. Measurements Disease-specific indicators related to the care of patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and asthma, as well as disease-independent measures of the process of care were abstracted. We analyzed the association between the quality of care score for individual physicians, which is defined as the percentage of quality indicators satisfied among the total for which their patients were eligible, and physician job satisfaction, which was measured by a validated scale. Results No statistically significant association between physician job satisfaction and quality of care was observed. A 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in the physician job satisfaction scale was associated with an increase of only 0.3% for overall quality (P = 0.85), −3.0% for hypertension (P = 0.22), 2.5% for type 2 diabetes (P = 0.44), 8.0% for asthma (P = 0.21), and −0.4% for cross-cutting care (P = 0.76). Conclusion Contrary to the positive association reported between physician job satisfaction and high quality of interpersonal care, no association was seen between physician job satisfaction and the technical quality of care. PMID:19130149

  5. Top 20 Research Studies of 2014 for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Ebell, Mark H; Grad, Roland

    2015-09-01

    A team of primary care clinicians with expertise in evidence-based medicine performed monthly surveillance of more than 110 English-language clinical research journals during 2014, and identified 255 studies that had the potential to change how family physicians practice. Each study was critically appraised and summarized, focusing on its relevance to primary care practice, validity, and likelihood that it could change practice. A validated tool was used to obtain feedback from members of the Canadian Medical Association about the clinical relevance of each POEM (patient-oriented evidence that matters) and the benefits they expect for their practice. This article, the fourth installment in this annual series, summarizes the 20 POEMs based on original research studies judged to have the greatest impact on practice for family physicians. Key studies for this year include advice on symptomatic management and prognosis for acute respiratory infections; a novel and effective strengthening treatment for plantar fasciitis; a study showing that varenicline plus nicotine replacement is more effective than varenicline alone; a network meta-analysis concluding that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are preferred over angiotensin II receptor blockers; the clear benefits of initial therapy with metformin over other agents in patients with diabetes mellitus; and important guidance on the use of anticoagulants. PMID:26371571

  6. Determining Primary Care Physician Information Needs to Inform Ambulatory Visit Note Display

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, M.A.; Steege, L.M.; Moore, J.L.; Koopman, R.J.; Belden, J.L.; Kim, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background With the increase in the adoption of electronic health records (EHR) across the US, primary care physicians are experiencing information overload. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the information needs of primary care physicians (PCPs) as they review clinic visit notes to inform EHR display. Method Data collection was conducted with 15 primary care physicians during semi-structured interviews, including a third party observer to control bias. Physicians reviewed major sections of an artificial but typical acute and chronic care visit note to identify the note sections that were relevant to their information needs. Statistical methods used were McNemar-Mosteller’s and Cochran Q. Results Physicians identified History of Present Illness (HPI), Assessment, and Plan (A&P) as the most important sections of a visit note. In contrast, they largely judged the Review of Systems (ROS) to be superfluous. There was also a statistical difference in physicians’ highlighting among all seven major note sections in acute (p = 0.00) and chronic (p = 0.00) care visit notes. Conclusion A&P and HPI sections were most frequently identified as important which suggests that physicians may have to identify a few key sections out of a long, unnecessarily verbose visit note. ROS is viewed by doctors as mostly “not needed,” but can have relevant information. The ROS can contain information needed for patient care when other sections of the Visit note, such as the HPI, lack the relevant information. Future studies should include producing a display that provides only relevant information to increase physician efficiency at the point of care. Also, research on moving A&P to the top of visit notes instead of having A&P at the bottom of the page is needed, since those are usually the first sections physicians refer to and reviewing from top to bottom may cause cognitive load. PMID:24734131

  7. Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of the Risk between Physicians and the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P < 0.0001) and hyperlipidemia (21.36% versus 12.93%, P < 0.0001) but a lower risk of AMI than did the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46–0.72) after adjusting for DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and area. Between medical specialty, age, and area subgroups, differences in the risk for having an AMI were nonsignificant. Medical center physicians had a lower risk (AOR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.85) than did local clinic physicians. Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment. PMID:25802869

  8. Acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of the risk between physicians and the general population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-ting; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Lin, Hung-Jung; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Physicians in Taiwan have a heavy workload and a stressful workplace, both of which may contribute to cardiovascular disease. However, the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in physicians is not clear. This population-based cohort study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 28,062 physicians as the case group and randomly selected 84,186 nonmedical staff patients as the control group. We used a conditional logistic regression to compare the AMI risk between physicians and controls. Subgroup analyses of physician specialty, age, gender, comorbidities, area, and hospital level were also done. Physicians have a higher prevalence of HTN (23.59% versus 19.06%, P < 0.0001) and hyperlipidemia (21.36% versus 12.93%, P < 0.0001) but a lower risk of AMI than did the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.72) after adjusting for DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, and area. Between medical specialty, age, and area subgroups, differences in the risk for having an AMI were nonsignificant. Medical center physicians had a lower risk (AOR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.20-0.85) than did local clinic physicians. Taiwan's physicians had higher prevalences of HTN and hyperlipidemia, but a lower risk of AMI than did the general population. Medical center physicians had a lower risk than did local clinic physicians. Physicians are not necessary healthier than the general public, but physicians, especially in medical centers, have a greater awareness of disease and greater access to medical care, which permits timely treatment and may prevent critical conditions such as AMI induced by delayed treatment. PMID:25802869

  9. Potential Effects of Health Care Policy Decisions on Physician Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher; Goodrich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many regions in America are experiencing downward trends in the number of practicing physicians and the number of available physician hours, resulting in a worrisome decrease in the availability of health care services. Recent changes in American health care legislation may induce a rapid change in the demand for health care services, which in turn will result in a new supply-demand equilibrium . In this paper we develop a system dynamics model linking physician availability to health care demand and profitability. We use this model to explore scenarios based on different initial conditions and describe possible outcomes for a range of different policy decisions.

  10. The Affordable Care Act: Opportunities and Challenges for Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect many aspects of health care across the nation, presenting both opportunities and challenges. Physicians who have a solid understanding of the recent industry trends and the role they will be playing in the post-ACA world will be able to better adapt to the new environment. This article analyzes the implications of the health care reform for physicians and offers recommendations on how to turn challenges into opportunities. PMID:26501969

  11. How physicians can change the future of health care.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Teisberg, Elizabeth Olmsted

    2007-03-14

    Today's preoccupation with cost shifting and cost reduction undermines physicians and patients. Instead, health care reform must focus on improving health and health care value for patients. We propose a strategy for reform that is market based but physician led. Physician leadership is essential. Improving the value of health care is something only medical teams can do. The right kind of competition--competition to improve results--will drive dramatic improvement. With such positive-sum competition, patients will receive better care, physicians will be rewarded for excellence, and costs will be contained. Physicians can lead this change and return the practice of medicine to its appropriate focus: enabling health and effective care. Three principles should guide this change: (1) the goal is value for patients, (2) medical practice should be organized around medical conditions and care cycles, and (3) results--risk-adjusted outcomes and costs--must be measured. Following these principles, professional satisfaction will increase and current pressures on physicians will decrease. If physicians fail to lead these changes, they will inevitably face ever-increasing administrative control of medicine. Improving health and health care value for patients is the only real solution. Value-based competition on results provides a path for reform that recognizes the role of health professionals at the heart of the system. PMID:17356031

  12. Kinder and gentler: physicians and managed care, 1997-2001.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Bradley C; Reschovsky, James D

    2002-11-01

    Despite the managed care backlash, an overwhelming majority of U.S. physicians continue to contract with managed care health plans. In fact, according to a new Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) study, between 1997 and 2001 physicians reported a modest increase in the proportion of practice revenue from managed care contracts and the average number of contracts. At the same time, the nature of physicians' relationships with health plans changed, with a significant decrease in plans' use of capitation, or fixed monthly payments for each patient regardless of the amount of care provided. Meanwhile, physician practices moved away from using direct financial incentives to influence doctors' clinical decision making, but did experience an increase in the overall influence of treatment guidelines and other practices commonly associated with managed care. PMID:12532972

  13. Point-of-care ultrasonography by pediatric emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-04-01

    Emergency physicians have used point-of-care ultrasonography since the 1990 s. Pediatric emergency medicine physicians have more recently adopted this technology. Point-of-care ultrasonography is used for various scenarios, particularly the evaluation of soft tissue infections or blunt abdominal trauma and procedural guidance. To date, there are no published statements from national organizations specifically for pediatric emergency physicians describing the incorporation of point-of-care ultrasonography into their practice. This document outlines how pediatric emergency departments may establish a formal point-of-care ultrasonography program. This task includes appointing leaders with expertise in point-of-care ultrasonography, effectively training and credentialing physicians in the department, and providing ongoing quality assurance reviews. PMID:25825532

  14. Role Expectations in Dementia Care Among Family Physicians and Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Susan; Cohen, Carole; Persaud, Malini; Lee, Joyce; Drummond, Neil; Dalziel, William; Pimlott, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment and ongoing management of dementia falls largely on family physicians. This pilot study explored perceived roles and attitudes towards the provision of dementia care from the perspectives of family physicians and specialists. Methods Semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted with six family physicians and six specialists (three geriatric psychiatrists, two geriatricians, and one neurologist) from University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals. Transcripts were subjected to thematic content analysis. Results Physicians’ clinical experience averaged 16 years. Both physician groups acknowledged that family physicians are more confident in diagnosing/treating uncomplicated dementia than a decade ago. They agreed on care management issues that warranted specialist involvement. Driving competency was contentious, and specialists willingly played the “bad cop” to resolve disputes and preserve long-standing therapeutic relationships. While patient/caregiver education and support were deemed essential, most physicians commented that community resources were fragmented and difficult to access. Improving collaboration and communication between physician groups, and clarifying the roles of other multi-disciplinary team members in dementia care were also discussed. Conclusions Future research could further explore physicians’ and other multi-disciplinary members’ perceived roles and responsibilities in dementia care, given that different health-care system-wide dementia care strategies and initiatives are being developed and implemented across Ontario. PMID:25232368

  15. Health Care Workplace Discrimination and Physician Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M.; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between physician race/ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Methods Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006–2007 of practicing physicians [n = 529] randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and The National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and χ2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Results Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover [adjusted odes ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4–4.9]. Among physicians who experienced work-place discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .01], and 40% were con-templating a career change (vs 10% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value < .001). Conclusion Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist. PMID:20070016

  16. Attitudes of Washington State physicians toward health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Malter, A D; Emerson, L L; Krieger, J W

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes of Washington State physicians about health care reform and about specific elements of managed competition and single-payer proposals were evaluated. Opinions about President Clinton's reform plan were also assessed. Washington physicians (n = 1,000) were surveyed from October to November 1993, and responses were collected through January 1994; responses were anonymous. The response rate was 80%. Practice characteristics of respondents did not differ from other physicians in the state. Of physicians responding, 80% favored substantial change in the current system, 43% favored managed competition, and 40% preferred a single-payer system. Of physicians responding, 64% thought President Clinton's proposal would not adequately address current problems. Reduced administrative burden, a central element of single-payer plans, was identified by 89% of respondents as likely to improve the current system. Other elements of reform plans enjoyed less support. More procedure-oriented specialists than primary care physicians favored leaving the current system unchanged (28% versus 8%, P < .001). While physicians favor health care reform, there is no consensus on any single plan. It seems unlikely that physicians will be able to speak with a single voice during the current debates on health care reform. PMID:7941503

  17. Impact of Physician Asthma Care Education on Patient Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers…

  18. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  19. Detecting cancer: Pearls for the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Zeichner, Simon B; Montero, Alberto J

    2016-07-01

    Five-year survival rates have improved over the past 40 years for nearly all types of cancer, partially thanks to early detection and prevention. Since patients typically present to their primary care physician with initial symptoms, it is vital for primary care physicians to accurately diagnose common cancers and to recognize unusual presentations of highly curable cancers such as Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancers, for which the 5-year overall survival rates are greater than 85%. This paper reviews these cancers and provides clinically relevant pearls from an oncologic perspective for physicians who are the first point of contact. PMID:27399864

  20. Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Even among advocates of legalising physician-assisted death, many argue that this should be done only once palliative care has become widely available. Meanwhile, according to them, physician-assisted death should be banned. Four arguments are often presented to support this claim, which we call the argument of lack of autonomy, the argument of existing alternatives, the argument of unfair inequalities and the argument of the antagonism between physician-assisted death and palliative care. We argue that although these arguments provide strong reasons to take appropriate measures to guarantee access to good quality palliative care to everyone who needs it, they do not justify a ban on physician-assisted death until we have achieved this goal. PMID:25614156

  1. Physician practice patterns in acute coronary syndromes: an initial report of an individual quality improvement program.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Christopher P; Hoekstra, James W; Larson, David M; Carter, Reshma D; Cornish, Jeanne; Karcher, Rachel B; Mencia, William A; Berry, Carolyn A; Stowell, Stephanie A

    2010-03-01

    The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association guidelines are the nationally accepted standards for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Despite this recognition, adherence to guideline recommendations remains suboptimal with 25% of opportunities to provide guideline appropriate care missed. To address performance gaps related to acute coronary syndrome care and improve patient outcomes, a performance improvement (PI) initiative was designed for cardiologists and emergency department physicians. As an American Medical Association-approved, standardized continuing medical education initiative, participating physicians can earn up to 20 American Medical Association-PRA Category 1 Credits by completing 2 phases of self-assessment in addition to developing and implementing a PI plan to address self-identified areas where improvement in patient care is needed. As the second in a series of 3 articles, this article describes the initial data submitted by 101 participating physicians and how their treatment practices compared with American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines as well as with current national standards. Overall, participating physicians meet guideline expectations with performance and documentation of a 12-lead electrocardiography, measurement of cardiac biomarkers, and administration of aspirin. Identified areas of improvement were the standardization of treatment protocols, use of risk assessment scores, appropriate dosing of anticoagulants, and improvement in patient treatment times. A noted challenge of this PI initiative is the low rate of physician participation, with fewer than 10% of registered physicians actively submitting patient data. This fact may reflect several barriers to PI, such as: (1) lack of time to collect and submit data, (2) the belief that current practices do not need to be improved, and (3) the need for system-based improvements. PMID:20215907

  2. Information-seeking strategies and differences among primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, L D; Wolf, F M; Van Voorhees, C; Stross, J K

    1987-01-01

    Differences in the sources of information that physicians utilize in their practice have several implications for the quality of care delivered and the dissemination of medical information. In order to examine the extent of differences in information preferences in primary care settings, 98 general internal medicine physicians and 73 family physicians were asked to indicate which of six alternative information sources they relied on most when faced with difficult medical problems. The alternatives were: journals, textbooks, informal consultations with colleagues, consultations with community specialists, consultations with outside specialists, and transfer of the patient to another physician. The results indicated that primary care internists have a greater preference for consulting the medical literature, while family physicians more often rely on colleagues and specialists as sources of information. These differences suggest that the focus of information dissemination through journals or textbooks may be more effective for internists, while colleagues or "educationally influential" physicians in the community may be more effective vehicles for information dissemination to family physicians. PMID:10284694

  3. When physicians intervene in their relatives' health care.

    PubMed

    Scarff, Jonathan R; Lippmann, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Physicians often struggle with ethical issues surrounding intervention in their relatives' health care. Many editorials, letters, and surveys have been written on this topic, but there is no systematic review of its prevalence. An Ovid Medline search was conducted for articles in English, written between January 1950 and December 2010, using the key words family member, relatives, treatment, prescribing, physician, and ethics. The search identified 41 articles (editorials, letters, and surveys). Surveys were reviewed to explore demographics of these treating physicians and reasons for and against intervention. Physicians often intervene directly or indirectly in the health care of relatives. The most common reasons were convenience, cost savings, and the perception of having greater knowledge or concern than colleagues. Lost objectivity, fear of misdiagnosis, and inability to provide complete care were the main considerations against intervention. The characteristics of treating doctors were nonspecific. Most surveys recommend against this practice except for emergencies or minor ailments. This review included only a few surveys with small sample size and only assessed scientific literature written in English after 1950. Survey data may be biased by physicians' self-reporting. In conclusion, most doctors occasionally intervene in their relatives' care. The decision to do so is determined by multiple factors. Physicians should treat only short-term or minor illnesses within their scope of practice. Future research should evaluate doctors' attitudes toward their relatives, medical student feelings about treating family, and intervention frequencies of medical and nonmedical professionals. PMID:22262264

  4. Family physicians and sports-injury care. Perceptions of coaches.

    PubMed Central

    Vergeer, I.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe coaches' education in injury care and management and their club's access to medical care, to describe coaches' perceptions of how family physicians care for sports injuries, and to describe strategies used for overcoming perceived poor advice. DESIGN: A telephone survey using both closed and open-ended questions was conducted. Information was collected as background information to a larger study investigating coaches' decisions about allowing injured athletes to compete. SETTING: All 28 competitive gymnastics clubs in the province of Alberta. The clubs trained athletes for all competitive levels. PARTICIPANTS: All 70 coaches registered with the Alberta Gymnastics Federation as working with female gymnasts were approached; 64 coaches were interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury education, access to medical care, perceptions of sports-injury treatment provided by family physicians, strategies employed for overcoming perceived poor advice. RESULTS: Education in injury care and management was varied, as was access to medical care. Direct access to sport-specific medical care was available at three of the five elite-level clubs, an arrangement stemming from dissatisfaction with the conventional health care system. At all competitive levels, most coaches were dissatisfied with the recommendations they received from family physicians. Various strategies were employed to acquire more suitable advice. CONCLUSIONS: The results point to a need for improved communication between family physicians and coaches. PMID:9356756

  5. Building a transdisciplinary approach to palliative care in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Daly, Donnelle; Matzel, Stephen Chavez

    2013-01-01

    A transdisciplinary team is an essential component of palliative and end-of-life care. This article will demonstrate how to develop a transdisciplinary approach to palliative care, incorporating nursing, social work, spiritual care, and pharmacy in an acute care setting. Objectives included: identifying transdisciplinary roles contributing to care in the acute care setting; defining the palliative care model and mission; identifying patient/family and institutional needs; and developing palliative care tools. Methods included a needs assessment and the development of assessment tools, an education program, community resources, and a patient satisfaction survey. After 1 year of implementation, the transdisciplinary palliative care team consisted of seven palliative care physicians, two social workers, two chaplains, a pharmacist, and End-of-Life Nursing Consortium (ELNEC) trained nurses. Palomar Health now has a palliative care service with a consistent process for transdisciplinary communication and intervention for adult critical care patients with advanced, chronic illness. PMID:23977778

  6. The impact of managed care on patients' trust in medical care and their physicians.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D; Schlesinger, M

    1996-06-01

    Social trust in health care organizations and interpersonal trust in physicians may be mutually supportive, but they also diverge in important ways. The success of medical care depends most importantly on patients' trust that their physicians are competent, take appropriate responsibility and control, and give their patients' welfare the highest priority. Utilization review and structural arrangements in managed care potentially challenge trust in physicians by restricting choice, contradicting medical decisions and control, and restricting open communication with patients. Gatekeeping and incentives to limit care also raise serious trust issues. We argue that managed care plans rather than physicians should be required to disclose financial arrangements, that limits be placed on incentives that put physicians at financial risk, and that professional norms and public policies should encourage clear separation of interests of physicians from health plan organization and finance. PMID:8637148

  7. Stoicism, the physician, and care of medical outliers

    PubMed Central

    Papadimos, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical outliers present a medical, psychological, social, and economic challenge to the physicians who care for them. The determinism of Stoic thought is explored as an intellectual basis for the pursuit of a correct mental attitude that will provide aid and comfort to physicians who care for medical outliers, thus fostering continued physician engagement in their care. Discussion The Stoic topics of good, the preferable, the morally indifferent, living consistently, and appropriate actions are reviewed. Furthermore, Zeno's cardinal virtues of Justice, Temperance, Bravery, and Wisdom are addressed, as are the Stoic passions of fear, lust, mental pain, and mental pleasure. These concepts must be understood by physicians if they are to comprehend and accept the Stoic view as it relates to having the proper attitude when caring for those with long-term and/or costly illnesses. Summary Practicing physicians, especially those that are hospital based, and most assuredly those practicing critical care medicine, will be emotionally challenged by the medical outlier. A Stoic approach to such a social and psychological burden may be of benefit. PMID:15588293

  8. Physicians' and consumers' conflicting attitudes toward health care advertising.

    PubMed

    Krohn, F B; Flynn, C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the conflicting attitudes held by physicians and health care consumers toward health care advertising in an attempt to resolve the question. The paper introduces the differing positions held by the two groups. The rationale behind physicians' attitudes is then presented that advertising can be unethical, misleading, deceptive, and lead to unnecessary price increases. They believe that word-of-mouth does and should play the major role in attracting new patients. The opposite view of consumers is then presented which contends that health care advertising leads to higher consumer awareness of services, better services, promotes competitive pricing, and lowers rather than raises health care costs. The final section of the paper compares the arguments presented and concludes that health care advertising clearly has a place in the health care industry. PMID:11968299

  9. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  10. Enhancing family physician capacity to deliver quality palliative home care

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Denise; Howell, Doris; Brazil, Kevin; Howard, Michelle; Taniguchi, Alan

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family physicians face innumerable challenges to delivering quality palliative home care to meet the complex needs of end-of-life patients and their families. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To implement a model of shared care to enhance family physicians’ ability to deliver quality palliative home care, particularly in a community-based setting. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Family physicians in 3 group practices (N = 21) in Ontario’s Niagara West region collaborated with an interprofessional palliative care team (including a palliative care advanced practice nurse, a palliative medicine physician, a bereavement counselor, a psychosocial-spiritual advisor, and a case manager) in a shared-care partnership to provide comprehensive palliative home care. Key features of the program included systematic and timely identification of end-of-life patients, needs assessments, symptom and psychosocial support interventions, regular communication between team members, and coordinated care guided by outcome-based assessment in the home. In addition, educational initiatives were provided to enhance family physicians’ knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION Because of the program, participants reported improved communication, effective interprofessional collaboration, and the capacity to deliver palliative home care, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to end-of-life patients in the community. PMID:19074714

  11. Use of statins by medicare beneficiaries post myocardial infarction: poor physician quality or patient-centered care?

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Mary C; Robinson, Jennifer G; Chapman, Cole G; Brooks, John M

    2015-01-01

    Even though guidelines strongly recommend that patients receive a statin for secondary prevention after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), many elderly patients do not fill a statin prescription within 30 days of discharge. This paper assesses whether patterns of statin use by Medicare beneficiaries post-discharge may be due to a mix of high-quality and low-quality physicians. Our data come from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) and include 100% of Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction in 2008 or 2009. Our study sample included physicians treating at least 10 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries during their MI institutional stay. Physician-specific statin fill rates (the proportion of each physician's patients with a statin within 30 days post-discharge) were calculated to assess physician quality. We hypothesized that if the observed statin rates reflected a mix of high-quality and low-quality physicians, then physician-specific statin fill rates should follow a u-shaped or bimodal distribution. In our sample, 62% of patients filled a statin prescription within 30 days of discharge. We found that the distribution of statin fill rates across physicians was normal, with no clear distinctions in physician quality. Physicians, especially cardiologists, with relatively younger and healthier patient populations had higher rates of statin use. Our results suggest that physicians were engaging in patient-centered care, tailoring treatments to patient characteristics. PMID:25724749

  12. Medicare reform and primary care concerns for future physicians.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Charles H; Spinelli, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    The widening income gap between specialists and primary care physicians (PCPs) has spurred many physician associations to reform the current Resource-Based Relative Value Scale fee schedule and sustainable growth rate expenditure target system. Hoping to better represent primary care, the American Association of Family Physicians formed a task force in 2011 to suggest supplements to the Relative Value Update Committee's procedural code recommendations to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. In addition, the predicted shortage of PCPs has caused many medical schools to increase class sizes; the scarcity of PCPs has also spurred the founding of new medical schools. Such measures, however, have not been met with more residency program sites or graduate medical education funding. The present article highlights major Medicare reform strategies and explores several issues affecting the field of primary care, including reimbursement, representation, and residency training. PMID:24084804

  13. Potential of physician assistants to support primary care

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Sarah; Botting, Ingrid; Huebner, Lori-Anne; Wright, Brock; Beaupre, Beth; Permack, Sheldon; Jones, Ian; Mihlachuk, Ainslie; Edwards, Jeanette; Rhule, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine effective strategies for introducing physician assistants (PAs) in primary care settings and provide guidance to support ongoing provincial planning for PA roles in primary care. Design Time-series research design using multiple qualitative methods. Setting Manitoba. Participants Physician assistants, supervising family physicians, clinic staff, members of the Introducing Physician Assistants into Primary Care Steering Committee, and patients receiving care from PAs. Methods The PA role was evaluated at 6 health care sites between 2012 and 2014; sites varied in size, funding models, geographic locations (urban or rural), specifics of the PA role, and setting type (clinic or hospital). Semistructured interviews and focus groups were conducted; patient feedback on quality improvement was retrieved; observational methods were employed; and documents were reviewed. A baseline assessment was conducted before PA placement. In 2013, there was a series of interviews and focus groups about the introduction of PAs at the 3 initial sites; in 2014 interviews and focus groups included all 6 sites. Main findings The concerns that were expressed during baseline interviews about the introduction of PAs (eg, community and patient acceptance) informed planning. Most concerns that were identified did not materialize. Supervising family physicians, site staff, and patients were enthusiastic about the introduction of PAs. There were a few challenges experienced at the site level (eg, front-desk scheduling), but they were perceived as manageable. Unanticipated challenges at the provincial level were identified (eg, diagnostic test ordering). Increased attachment and improved access—the goals of introducing PAs to primary care—were only some of the positive effects that were reported. Conclusion This first systematic multisite evaluation of PAs in primary care in Canada demonstrated that with appropriate collaborative planning, PAs can effectively

  14. Top 20 Research Studies of 2015 for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Ebell, Mark H; Grad, Roland

    2016-05-01

    In 2015, a group of primary care clinicians with expertise in evidence-based practice performed monthly surveillance of more than 110 English-language clinical research journals. They identified 251 studies that addressed a primary care question and had the potential to change practice if valid (patient-oriented evidence that matters, or POEMs). Each study was critically appraised and disseminated to subscribers via e-mail, including members of the Canadian Medical Association who had the option to use a validated tool to assess the clinical relevance of each POEM and the benefits they expect for their practice. This article, the fifth installment in this annual series, summarizes the 20 POEMs based on original research studies judged to have the greatest clinical relevance for family physicians. Key recommendations include questioning the need for backup throat cultures; avoiding early imaging and not adding cyclobenzaprine or oxycodone to naproxen for patients with acute low back pain; and encouraging patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain to walk. Other studies showed that using a nicotine patch for more than eight weeks has little benefit; that exercise can prevent falls that cause injury in at-risk older women; and that prostate cancer screening provides a very small benefit, which is outweighed by significant potential harms of screening and associated follow-up treatment. Additional highly rated studies found that tight glycemic control provides only a small cardiovascular benefit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the expense of hypoglycemic episodes; that treating mild hypertension can provide a modest reduction in stroke and all-cause mortality; that sterile gloves are not needed for minor uncomplicated skin procedures; that vasomotor symptoms last a mean of 7.4 years; and that three regimens have been shown to provide the best eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27175953

  15. Expanding physician education in health care fraud and program integrity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Tarzy, Bruce; Hunt, Lauren; Taitsman, Julie; Budetti, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Program integrity (PI) spans the entire spectrum of improper payments from fraud to abuse, errors, and waste in the health care system. Few physicians will perpetrate fraud or abuse during their careers, but nearly all will contribute to the remaining spectrum of improper payments, making preventive education in this area vital. Despite the enormous impact that PI issues have on government-sponsored and private insurance programs, physicians receive little formal education in this area. Physicians' lack of awareness of PI issues not only makes them more likely to submit inappropriate claims, generate orders that other providers and suppliers will use to submit inappropriate claims, and document improperly in the medical record but also more likely to become victims of fraud schemes themselves.In this article, the authors provide an overview of the current state of PI issues in general, and fraud in particular, as well as a description of the state of formal education for practicing physicians, residents, and fellows. Building on the lessons from pilot programs conducted by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and partner organizations, the authors then propose a model PI education curriculum to be implemented nationwide for physicians at all levels. They recommend that various stakeholder organizations take part in the development and implementation process to ensure that all perspectives are included. Educating physicians is an essential step in establishing a broader culture of compliance and improved integrity in the health care system, extending beyond Medicare and Medicaid. PMID:23807100

  16. Impact of patient satisfaction ratings on physicians and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Miller, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although patient satisfaction ratings often drive positive changes, they may have unintended consequences. Objective The study reported here aimed to evaluate the clinician-perceived effects of patient satisfaction ratings on job satisfaction and clinical care. Methods A 26-item survey, developed by a state medical society in 2012 to assess the effects of patient satisfaction surveys, was administered online to physician members of a state-level medical society. Respondents remained anonymous. Results One hundred fifty five physicians provided responses (3.9% of the estimated 4,000 physician members of the state-level medical society, or approximately 16% of the state’s emergency department [ED] physicians). The respondents were predominantly male (85%) and practicing in solo or private practice (45%), hospital (43%), or academia (15%). The majority were ED (57%), followed by primary care (16%) physicians. Fifty-nine percent reported that their compensation was linked to patient satisfaction ratings. Seventy-eight percent reported that patient satisfaction surveys moderately or severely affected their job satisfaction; 28% had considered quitting their job or leaving the medical profession. Twenty percent reported their employment being threatened because of patient satisfaction data. Almost half believed that pressure to obtain better scores promoted inappropriate care, including unnecessary antibiotic and opioid prescriptions, tests, procedures, and hospital admissions. Among 52 qualitative responses, only three were positive. Conclusion These pilot-level data suggest that patient satisfaction survey utilization may promote, under certain circumstances, job dissatisfaction, attrition, and inappropriate clinical care among some physicians. This is concerning, especially in the context of the progressive incorporation of patient satisfaction ratings as a quality-of-care metric, and highlights the need for a rigorous evaluation of the optimal methods

  17. Expenditures for physician services under alternative models of managed care.

    PubMed

    Kapur, K; Joyce, G F; Van Vorst, K A; Escarce, J J

    2000-06-01

    This study compares expenditures for physician services in a closed panel gatekeeper health maintenance organization (HMO) and an open panel point of service HMO that share the same physician network. The study uses administrative files of the two study HMOs for 1994-1995 to assess differences in spending for primary care physicians' (PCPs') services, specialists' services, and total physician services. When the copayments for PCP visits and PCP-referred specialist visits were $0, total physician expenditures were 4 percent higher in the gatekeeper HMO than in the point of service plan (p < .05). When the copayments for PCP visits and PCP-referred specialist visits were $10, total physician expenditures ranged from equal in both HMOs to 7 percent higher in the gatekeeper HMO (p < .01), depending on the copayment for self-referred visits. Expenditures for specialists' services were not higher in the point of service plan. The authors conclude that direct patient access to specialists does not necessarily result in higher physician or specialist expenditures in HMOs. PMID:10868071

  18. Physician leadership: a health-care system's investment in the future of quality care.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Rocco; Haytaian, Marcia

    2012-08-01

    The current state of health care and its reform will require physician leaders to take on greater management responsibilities, which will require a set of organizational and leadership competencies that traditional medical education does not provide. Physician leaders can form a bridge between the clinical and administrative sides of a health-care organization, serving to further the organization's strategy for growth and success. Recognizing that the health-care industry is rapidly changing and physician leaders will play a key role in that transformation, Hartford HealthCare has established a Physician Leadership Development Institute that provides advanced leadership skills and management education to select physicians practicing within the health-care system. PMID:23248866

  19. Optimal physicians schedule in an Intensive Care Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidri, L.; Labidi, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we consider a case study for the problem of physicians scheduling in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The objective is to minimize the total overtime under complex constraints. The considered ICU is composed of three buildings and the physicians are divided accordingly into six teams. The workload is assigned to each team under a set of constraints. The studied problem is composed of two simultaneous phases: composing teams and assigning the workload to each one of them. This constitutes an additional major hardness compared to the two phase's process: composing teams and after that assigning the workload. The physicians schedule in this ICU is used to be done manually each month. In this work, the studied physician scheduling problem is formulated as an integer linear program and solved optimally using state of the art software. The preliminary experimental results show that 50% of the overtime can be saved.

  20. The paradox of physicians and administrators in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Peirce, J C

    2000-01-01

    Rapidly changing times in health care challenge both physicians and health care administrators to manage the paradox of providing orderly, high quality, and efficient care while bringing forth innovations to address present unmet problems and surprises that emerge. Health care has grown throughout the past several centuries through differentiation and integration, becoming a highly complex biological system with the hospital as the central attractive force--or "strange attractor"--during this century. The theoretical model of complex adaptive systems promises more effective strategic direction in addressing these chaotic times where the new strange attractor moves beyond the hospital. PMID:10710724

  1. Providing primary health care with non-physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1984-04-01

    The definition of primary health care is basically the same, but the wide variety of concepts as to the form and type of worker required is largely due to variations in economic, demographic, socio-cultural and political factors. Whatever form it takes, in many parts of the developing world, it is increasingly clear that primary health care must be provided by non-physicians. The reasons for this trend are compelling, yet it is surprisingly opposed by the medical profession in many a developing country. Nonetheless, numerous field trials are being conducted in a variety of situations in several countries around the world. Non-physician primary health care workers vary from medical assistants and nurse practitioners to aide-level workers called village mobilizers, village volunteers, village aides and a variety of other names. The functions, limitations and training of such workers will need to be defined, so that an optimal combination of skills, knowledge and attitudes best suited to produce the desired effect on local health problems may be attained. The supervision of such workers by the physician and other health professionals will need to be developed in the spirit of the health team. An example of the use of non-physicians in providing primary health care in Sarawak is outlined. PMID:6497324

  2. Physicians, Preventive Care, and Applied Nutrition: Selected Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Karen; Golboy, Mary Neth

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-five articles on medical school curricula and physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to nutritional care, especially concerning heart disease and cholesterol control, were reviewed. It is concluded that nutrition education should occur in undergraduate clinical training and residency periods and that realistic nutrition…

  3. Preparing Physicians for Practice in Managed Care Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nicole

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of managed health care looks at its evolution and characteristics, implications for medical education, and the competencies needed by physicians in this new environment, including epidemiological thinking, understanding of human and organizational behavior, familiarity with information technology, quality control skills, knowledge of…

  4. Physician variations and the ancillary costs of neonatal intensive care.

    PubMed Central

    Perlstein, P H; Atherton, H D; Donovan, E F; Richardson, D K; Kotagal, U R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine to what degree attending physicians contribute to cost variations in the care of ventilator-dependent newborns. DATA SOURCES: Clinical data were merged with hospital financial data describing daily ancillary care costs during the first two weeks of life for 132 extremely low-birthweight newborns. In addition, each patient's chart was reviewed and illness severity graded using both SNAP and CRIB scores. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort of infants with birth weights of less than 1,001 grams and respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation in the first day of life. From birth up to two weeks of life, each received care directed by only one of 11 faculty neonatologists in a single university hospital. Data were analyzed stratified by these physicians. t-Test, ANOVA, and chi-square were used to assess bivariate data. For continuous data, log linear regressions were used. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After controlling for illness severity, when stratified by physicians, there were significant variances in the costs of ancillary resources for the study infants (p < .0001). Twenty-nine percent of the variance was attributable to whether or not the hospital day included the use of a ventilator. Physician identity explained only 5.6 percent (p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Physician identity was significant but explained less than 6 percent of the total variance in ancillary costs. Whether or not a ventilator was used during care was far more important. We conclude that for very sick babies during the first two weeks of care, reducing variations in ancillary services utilization among neonatologists will yield only modest savings. PMID:9240282

  5. Comparison of delay times to hospital presentation for physicians and nonphysicians with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ridker, P M; Manson, J E; Goldhaber, S Z; Hennekens, C H; Buring, J E

    1992-07-01

    To evaluate whether patients who recognize the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and have easy access to medical care have shortened time delays between onset of symptoms and hospital presentation, the total time interval between symptom onset and hospital arrival for 258 U.S. male physicians experiencing a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS) was compared with that of a comparable group of 240 men enrolled in the U.S. component of the Second International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS-2), as well as with those of previously published series of patients with AMI. For patients presenting for medical care within 24 hours of symptom onset, the median time delay from onset of symptoms to presentation for medical care was 1.8 hours in the PHS, and 4.9 hours in the U.S. component of ISIS-2 (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, 56% of participants in the PHS presented for medical care within 2 hours and 72% within 4 hours of symptom onset compared with 20% (p less than 0.001) and 44% (p less than 0.001), respectively, for ISIS-2 participants. In previously published series, the average time to presentation was comparable to that in the ISIS-2 trial, with variation depending on country of origin and on local population density. The median time to medical presentation in any previous series was not shorter than that in the PHS. Thus, physicians in the PHS had significantly shorter time delays between onset of symptoms and presentation for medical care. This difference may help explain the far lower than expected cardiovascular mortality rates among physician participants in the PHS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1615847

  6. 42 CFR 456.604 - Physician team member inspecting care of recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physician team member inspecting care of recipients... Intermediate Care Facilities and Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.604 Physician team member inspecting care of recipients. No physician member of a team may inspect the care of a recipient for whom he...

  7. Supporting frail seniors through a family physician and Home Health integrated care model in Fraser Health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Grace; Miller, Diane; Tien, George; Sheppard, Irene; Bernard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background A major effort is underway to integrate primary and community care in Canada's western province of British Columbia and in Fraser Health, its largest health authority. Integrated care is a critical component of Fraser Health's planning, to meet the challenges of caring for a growing, elderly population that is presenting more complex and chronic medical conditions. Description of integrated practice An integrated care model partners family physicians with community-based home health case managers to support frail elderly patients who live at home. It is resulting in faster response times to patient needs, more informed assessments of a patient's state of health and pro-active identification of emerging patient issues. Early results The model is intended to improve the quality of patient care and maintain the patients’ health status, to help them live at home confidently and safely, as long as possible. Preliminary pilot data measuring changes in home care services is showing positive trends when it comes to extending the length of a person's survival/tenure in the community (living in their home vs. admitted to residential care or deceased). Conclusion Fraser Health's case manager–general practitioner partnership model is showing promising results including higher quality, appropriate, coordinated and efficient care; improved patient, caregiver and physician interactions with the system; improved health and prevention of acute care visits by senior adult patients. PMID:24648834

  8. Caring for LGBTQ patients: Methods for improving physician cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Klein, Elizabeth W; Nakhai, Maliheh

    2016-05-01

    This article summarizes the components of a curriculum used to teach family medicine residents and faculty about LGBTQ patients' needs in a family medicine residency program in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This curriculum was developed to provide primary care physicians and physicians-in-training with skills to provide better health care for LGBTQ-identified patients. The curriculum covers topics that range from implicit and explicit bias and appropriate terminology to techniques for crafting patient-centered treatment plans. Additionally, focus is placed on improving the understanding of specific and unique barriers to competent health care encountered by LGBTQ patients. Through facilitated discussion, learners explore the health disparities that disproportionately affect LGBTQ individuals and develop skills that will improve their ability to care for LGBTQ patients. The goal of the curriculum is to teach family medicine faculty and physicians in training how to more effectively communicate with and treat LGBTQ patients in a safe, non-judgmental, and welcoming primary care environment. PMID:27497452

  9. Building a workforce of physicians to care for underserved patients.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; El Rayess, Fadya; Esquibel, Angela Y; George, Paul; Taylor, Julie

    2014-09-01

    There is a shortage of physicians to care for underserved populations. Medical educators at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University have used five years of Health Resources and Services Administration funding to train medical students to provide outstanding primary care for underserved populations. The grant has two major goals: 1) to increase the number of graduating medical students who practice primary care in underserved communities ("Professional Development"); and 2) to prepare all medical school graduates to care for underserved patients, regardless of specialty choice ("Curriculum Development"). Professional Development, including a new scholarly concentration and an eight-year primary care pipeline, has been achieved in partnership with the Program in Liberal Medical Education, the medical school's Admissions Committee, and an Area Health Education Center. Curriculum Development has involved systematic recruitment of clinical training sites and disease-specific curricula including tools for providing care to vulnerable populations. A comprehensive, longitudinal evaluation is ongoing. PMID:25181744

  10. Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Handover (or 'handoff') is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations); SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan); and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation) duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec). The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9%) of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0) times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45.9% of the

  11. Risk Stratification in Older Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Physicians' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Shelli L.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Dodson, John A.; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Nanna, Michael G.; Allore, Heather G.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Tinetti, Mary E.; Gill, Thomas M.; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Risk stratification models support clinical decision making in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care. Existing models were developed using data from younger populations, potentially limiting accuracy and relevance in older adults. We describe physician-perceived risk factors, views of existing models, and preferences for future model development in older adults. Method Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method. Results Twenty-two physicians from 14 institutions completed the interviews. Median age was 37, and median years of clinical experience was 11.5. Perceived predictors included cardiovascular, comorbid, functional, and social risk factors. Physicians viewed models as easy to use, yet neither inclusive of risk factors nor predictive of non-mortality outcomes germane to clinical decision making in older adults. Ideal models included multidimensional risk domains and operational requirements. Discussion Physicians reported limitations of available risk models when applied to older adults with AMI. New models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. PMID:26100619

  12. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS IN PRIMARY CARE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Roderick S.; Everett, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Shortages of primary care doctors are occurring globally; one means of meeting this demand has been the use of physician assistants (PAs). Introduced in the United States in the late 1960s to address doctor shortages, the PA movement has grown to over 75,000 providers in 2011 and spread to Australia, Canada, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Germany, Ghana, and South Africa. A purposeful literature review was undertaken to assess the contribution of PAs to primary care systems. Contemporary studies suggest that PAs can contribute to the successful attainment of primary care functions, particularly the provision of comprehensive care, accessibility, and accountability. Employing PAs seems a reasonable strategy for providing primary care for diverse populations. PMID:21851446

  13. Top 20 research studies of 2012 for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Ebell, Mark H; Grad, Roland

    2013-09-15

    This is the second annual summary of top research studies in primary care. In 2012, through regular surveillance of more than 100 English-language clinical research journals, seven clinicians identified 270 studies with the potential to change primary care practice, called POEMs, or patient-oriented evidence that matters. These studies were then summarized in brief, structured critical appraisals and e-mailed to subscribers, including members of the Canadian Medical Association. A validated tool was used to obtain feedback from these physicians about the clinical relevance of each POEM and the benefits the physicians expected for their practice. The 20 identified research studies rated as most relevant cover common topics such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease prevention, infectious disease, musculoskeletal disease and exercise, cancer screening, and women's health. PMID:24134045

  14. [The diabetic foot--view of the primary care physician].

    PubMed

    Fritschi, J; Suter, S

    1999-07-01

    When dealing with feet of diabetic patients, disciplined and structured action on the part of the primary care physician--general practitioner or specialist--will ward off disabling and costly consequences. The physician replaces the patient's missing neuropathic sensibility; he demonstrates leadership during visits by checking the patient's feet, their pulse, look, feel of their skin, temperature, neurologic deficits and state of care. Shoes need to be checked thoroughly. Findings include dermatologic, angiologic, neurologic, orthopedic and hygienic problems. These require rapid and expert therapy and prophylaxis even when considered of lesser importance in non-diabetic patients. Practical schemes and sound reasoning along with a treatment team (podologist, orthopedist, diabetic consultant) are the steps to success: keeping the feet free of disease, even with a progressing degree of diabetes. PMID:10444992

  15. Calibrating the physician. Personal awareness and effective patient care. Working Group on Promoting Physician Personal Awareness, American Academy on Physician and Patient.

    PubMed

    Novack, D H; Suchman, A L; Clark, W; Epstein, R M; Najberg, E; Kaplan, C

    1997-08-13

    Physicians' personal characteristics, their past experiences, values, attitudes, and biases can have important effects on communication with patients; being aware of these characteristics can enhance communication. Because medical training and continuing education programs rarely undertake an organized approach to promoting personal awareness, we propose a "curriculum" of 4 core topics for reflection and discussion. The topics are physicians' beliefs and attitudes, physicians' feelings and emotional responses in patient care, challenging clinical situations, and physician self-care. We present examples of organized activities that can promote physician personal awareness such as support groups, Balint groups, and discussions of meaningful experiences in medicine. Experience with these activities suggests that through enhancing personal awareness physicians can improve their clinical care and increase satisfaction with work, relationships, and themselves. PMID:9256226

  16. Physician's assistants in primary care practices: delegation of tasks and physician supervision.

    PubMed Central

    Ekwo, E; Dusdieker, L B; Fethke, C; Daniels, M

    1979-01-01

    Little information is available on factors influencing physicians (MDs) to delegate health care tasks to physician's assistants (PAs). Information about assignment of tasks to PAs was sought from 19 MDs engaged in practice in primary care settings in Iowa. These MDs employed 28 PAs. Tasks assigned to PAs appeared to be those that MDs judged to require little or no supervision. Tasks that could be performed efficiently by other non-MD personnel were not asigned to PAs. However, PAs were observed at the practice sites to perform tasks which the MDs had indicated could be appropriately assigned to PAs, as well as some tasks that could be performed by other non-MD personnel. The MDs provided health care to 126 (13.6 percent) of the 925 patients seen by PAs for whom the sequences of patient-provider contact were recorded. In these settings, the PAs functioned with a high degree of autonomy in providing health care. These findings have implications for educators and potential employers of PAs. PMID:38479

  17. Recommendations for ensuring early thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians for the Emergency Cardiac Care Coalition.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To recommend practical steps to ensure early thrombolytic therapy and thereby reduce mortality and morbidity associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). OPTIONS: Various factors were considered that influence time to thrombolysis related to patients, independent practitioners and health care systems. OUTCOMES: Reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with AMI. EVIDENCE: Early initiation of thrombolytic therapy reduces morbidity and mortality associated with AMI. The ECC Coalition analysed the factors that might impede early implementation of thrombolytic therapy. VALUES: Published data were reviewed, and recommendations were based on consensus opinion of the Emergency Cardiac Care (ECC) Coalition. The ECC Coalition comprises 20 professional, nongovernment and government organizations and has a mandate to improve emergency cardiac care services through collaboration. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Early thrombolytic therapy reduces morbidity and mortality associated with AMI. Implementation of the recommendations will result in reduced time to thrombolytic therapy, streamlining of current practices and enhanced cooperation among health care professionals to expedite care. Depending on existing practices, implementation may require protocol development, and public and professional education. Although costs are associated with educating the public and health care professionals, they are outweighed by the financial and social benefits of reduced morbidity and mortality. RECOMMENDATIONS: Early recognition of AMI symptoms by the public and health care professionals, early access to the emergency medical services system and early action by emergency care providers in administering thrombolytic therapy (within 30 minutes after the patient's arrival at the emergency department). VALIDATION: No similar consensus statements or practice guidelines for thrombolytic therapy in Canada are available for comparison. PMID:8630837

  18. Virtual standardized patients: an interactive method to examine variation in depression care among primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Mensh, Julie; Harless, William; Kuhajda, Melissa C.; Epstein, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Some primary care physicians provide less than optimal care for depression (Kessler et al., Journal of the American Medical Association 291, 2581–90, 2004). However, the literature is not unanimous on the best method to use in order to investigate this variation in care. To capture variations in physician behaviour and decision making in primary care settings, 32 interactive CD-ROM vignettes were constructed and tested. Aim and method The primary aim of this methods-focused paper was to review the extent to which our study method – an interactive CD-ROM patient vignette methodology – was effective in capturing variation in physician behaviour. Specifically, we examined the following questions: (a) Did the interactive CD-ROM technology work? (b) Did we create believable virtual patients? (c) Did the research protocol enable interviews (data collection) to be completed as planned? (d) To what extent was the targeted study sample size achieved? and (e) Did the study interview protocol generate valid and reliable quantitative data and rich, credible qualitative data? Findings Among a sample of 404 randomly selected primary care physicians, our voice-activated interactive methodology appeared to be effective. Specifically, our methodology – combining interactive virtual patient vignette technology, experimental design, and expansive open-ended interview protocol – generated valid explanations for variations in primary care physician practice patterns related to depression care. PMID:20463864

  19. Alberta's Acute Care Funding Project.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M; Lave, J R; Glendining, M

    1992-01-01

    Alberta initiated the Acute Care Funding Project (ACFP) in 1988, a new hospital funding system that institutes case mix budgeting adjustments to the global budget so that hospitals can be treated more equitably. The initiative is a significant departure in principle from the former method of funding. The ACFP is summarized and critiqued, and focuses on the inpatient side of the picture. The various elements of the project are discussed, such as the hospital performance index, the hospital performance measure, the Refined Diagnostic Related Group, case weights, typical and outlier cases, and the costing mechanisms. Since its implementation, the ACFP has undergone substantial changes; these are discussed, as well as some of the problems that still need to be addressed. Overall, the system offers incentives to reduce length of stay and to increase the efficiency with which inpatient care is provided. PMID:10121446

  20. Improving interunit transitions of care between emergency physicians and hospital medicine physicians: a conceptual approach.

    PubMed

    Beach, Christopher; Cheung, Dickson S; Apker, Julie; Horwitz, Leora I; Howell, Eric E; O'Leary, Kevin J; Patterson, Emily S; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Wears, Robert; Williams, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Patient care transitions across specialties involve more complexity than those within the same specialty, yet the unique social and technical features remain underexplored. Further, little consensus exists among researchers and practitioners about strategies to improve interspecialty communication. This concept article addresses these gaps by focusing on the hand-off process between emergency and hospital medicine physicians. Sensitivity to cultural and operational differences and a common set of expectations pertaining to hand-off content will more effectively prepare the next provider to act safely and efficiently when caring for the patient. Through a consensus decision-making process of experienced and published authorities in health care transitions, including physicians in both specialties as well as in communication studies, the authors propose content and style principles clinicians may use to improve transition communication. With representation from both community and academic settings, similarities and differences between emergency medicine and internal medicine are highlighted to heighten appreciation of the values, attitudes, and goals of each specialty, particularly pertaining to communication. The authors also examine different communication media, social and cultural behaviors, and tools that practitioners use to share patient care information. Quality measures are proposed within the structure, process, and outcome framework for institutions seeking to evaluate and monitor improvement strategies in hand-off performance. Validation studies to determine if these suggested improvements in transition communication will result in improved patient outcomes will be necessary. By exploring the dynamics of transition communication between specialties and suggesting best practices, the authors hope to strengthen hand-off skills and contribute to improved continuity of care. PMID:23035952

  1. Critical care physician cognitive task analysis: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, James C; Watts, Charles; Grome, Anna; Miller, Thomas; Crandall, Beth; Pronovost, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction For better or worse, the imposition of work-hour limitations on house-staff has imperiled continuity and/or improved decision-making. Regardless, the workflow of every physician team in every academic medical centre has been irrevocably altered. We explored the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques, most commonly used in other high-stress and time-sensitive environments, to analyse key cognitive activities in critical care medicine. The study objective was to assess the usefulness of CTA as an analytical tool in order that physician cognitive tasks may be understood and redistributed within the work-hour limited medical decision-making teams. Methods After approval from each Institutional Review Board, two intensive care units (ICUs) within major university teaching hospitals served as data collection sites for CTA observations and interviews of critical care providers. Results Five broad categories of cognitive activities were identified: pattern recognition; uncertainty management; strategic vs. tactical thinking; team coordination and maintenance of common ground; and creation and transfer of meaning through stories. Conclusions CTA within the framework of Naturalistic Decision Making is a useful tool to understand the critical care process of decision-making and communication. The separation of strategic and tactical thinking has implications for workflow redesign. Given the global push for work-hour limitations, such workflow redesign is occurring. Further work with CTA techniques will provide important insights toward rational, rather than random, workflow changes. PMID:19265517

  2. The management of health care service quality. A physician perspective.

    PubMed

    Bobocea, L; Gheorghe, I R; Spiridon, St; Gheorghe, C M; Purcarea, V L

    2016-01-01

    Applying marketing in health care services is presently an essential element for every manager or policy maker. In order to be successful, a health care organization has to identify an accurate measurement scale for defining service quality due to competitive pressure and cost values. The most widely employed scale in the services sector is SERVQUAL scale. In spite of being successfully adopted in fields such as brokerage and banking, experts concluded that the SERVQUAL scale should be modified depending on the specific context. Moreover, the SERVQUAL scale focused on the consumer's perspective regarding service quality. While service quality was measured with the help of SERVQUAL scale, other experts identified a structure-process-outcome design, which, they thought, would be more suitable for health care services. This approach highlights a different perspective on investigating the service quality, namely, the physician's perspective. Further, we believe that the Seven Prong Model for Improving Service Quality has been adopted in order to effectively measure the health care service in a Romanian context from a physician's perspective. PMID:27453745

  3. PacifiCare rushes communications to its physicians, members and the community.

    PubMed

    Herreria, J

    1999-01-01

    PacifiCare of Colorado educates key audiences on the company's physician contract negotiations and its desire to balance physician financial success with consumers' need for affordable health care premiums and to reassure members of its desire and goal to maintain the existing physician network. PacifiCare created two advertorials for the local newspaper to communicate its goal to the community members and physicians. PMID:10387453

  4. Appendicitis Diagnosed by Emergency Physician Performed Point-of-Care Transvaginal Ultrasound: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Bramante, Robert; Radomski, Marek; Nelson, Mathew; Raio, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Lower abdominal pain in females of reproductive age continues to be a diagnostic dilemma for the emergency physician (EP). Point-of-care ultrasound (US) allows for rapid, accurate, and safe evaluation of abdominal and pelvic pain in both the pregnant and non-pregnant patient. We present 3 cases of females presenting with right lower quadrant and adnexal tenderness where transvaginal ultrasonography revealed acute appendicitis. The discussion focuses on the use of EP- performed transvaginal US in gynecologic and intra-abdominal pathology and discusses the use of a staged approach to evaluation using US and computed tomography, as indicated. PMID:24106529

  5. Clinical Effectiveness of Online Training in Palliative Care of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Agra-Varela, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary care physicians (PCPs) have a major responsibility in the management of palliative patients. Online palliative care (PC) education has not been shown to have a clinical impact on patients that is equal or different to traditional training. Objective This study tested the clinical effectiveness of online PC education of physicians through impact on symptom control, quality of life (QOL), caregiver satisfaction, and knowledge-attitude of physicians at 18 months of the intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 169 physicians randomly assigned to receive the online model or traditional training. Consecutive patients with advanced cancer requiring PC were included. Physicians and patients completed the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS), and patients the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL) twice, 7 to 10 days apart. Caregivers completed the SERVQUAL. Physicians' level of knowledge-attitude was measured at 18 months. Results Sixty-seven physicians enrolled 117 patients. The intervention group had reduced scores for pain, symptoms, and family anxiety. The global RSCL scale showed a difference between groups. There was no significant difference in the questionnaires used. Caregiver satisfaction was comparable between groups. Physicians in the intervention group significantly increased their knowledge without any differences in attitude. Online training was completed by 86.6% in the intervention group, whereas 13.4% in the control group accessed traditional training. Conclusions Participation in an online PC education program by PCPs improved patient scores for some symptoms and family anxiety on the POS and also showed improved global QOL. Significant differences were found in physicians' knowledge at short and long term. PMID:23987657

  6. Effectiveness of "Primary Bereavement Care" for Widows: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Family Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Jesus A.; Landa, Victor; Grandes, Gonzalo; Pombo, Haizea; Mauriz, Amaia

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one family physicians, from 19 primary care teams in Biscay (Spain), were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. The 15 intervention family physicians, after training in primary bereavement care, saw 43 widows for 7 sessions, from the 4th to 13th month after their loss. The 16 control family physicians, without primary…

  7. Attitudes and Preferences of Pennsylvania Primary Care Physicians Regarding Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phyllis; And Others

    Primary care physicians in Pennsylvania were asked to give their attitudes and preferences regarding continuing medical education (CME) in an effort to expand and develop physician-oriented CME programs for the Hershey Continuing Education department at Penn State. A 32-item questionnaire was mailed to 952 primary care physicians practicing in…

  8. Lesbian health care. What a primary care physician needs to know.

    PubMed

    White, J C; Levinson, W

    1995-05-01

    Many primary care physicians take care of lesbians and women sexually active with women without being aware of their patients' sexual orientation. These women have unique medical and psychosocial needs that each physician must consider. Lesbian identity or being sexually active exclusively with women influences care in areas such as sexually transmitted diseases, risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection, counseling, cancer risk, screening, parenting, depression, alcohol use, and violence. We review an approach to taking a history with all women that facilitates open, comfortable communication with lesbians. We also review specific medical and psychosocial areas of primary care in which caring for lesbians is different from caring for other women. Further research is needed on lesbian health issues to provide appropriate guidelines to clinicians. PMID:7785267

  9. Access, quality, and costs of care at physician owned hospitals in the United States: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Orav, E John; Jena, Anupam B; Dudzinski, David M; Le, Sidney T; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare physician owned hospitals (POHs) with non-POHs on metrics around patient populations, quality of care, costs, and payments. Design Observational study. Setting Acute care hospitals in 95 hospital referral regions in the United States, 2010. Participants 2186 US acute care hospitals (219 POHs and 1967 non-POHs). Main outcome measures Proportions of patients using Medicaid and those from ethnic and racial minority groups; hospital performance on patient experience metrics, care processes, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, and readmission rates; costs of care; care payments; and Medicare market share. Results The 219 POHs were more often small (<100 beds), for profit, and in urban areas. 120 of these POHs were general (non-specialty) hospitals. Compared with patients from non-POHs, those from POHs were younger (77.4 v 78.4 years, P<0.001), less likely to be admitted through an emergency department (23.2% v. 29.0%, P<0.001), equally likely to be black (5.1% v 5.5%, P=0.85) or to use Medicaid (14.9% v 15.4%, P=0.75), and had similar numbers of chronic diseases and predicted mortality scores. POHs and non-POHs performed similarly on patient experience scores, processes of care, risk adjusted 30 day mortality, 30 day readmission rates, costs, and payments for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia. Conclusion Although POHs may treat slightly healthier patients, they do not seem to systematically select more profitable or less disadvantaged patients or to provide lower value care. PMID:26333819

  10. The Rise of Primary Care Physicians in the Provision of US Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Olfson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Primary care physicians have assumed an increasingly important role in US outpatient mental health care. They are providing an increasing volume of outpatient mental health services, prescribing a growing number and variety of psychotropic medications, and treating patients with a broader array of mental health conditions. These trends, which run counter to a general trend toward specialization and subspecialization within US health care, place new strains on the clinical competencies of primary care physicians. They also underscore the importance of implementing more effective models of collaboration between primary care physicians and mental health specialists. Several elements of the Affordable Care Act provide options for financing and organizing the delivery of integrated general medical and behavioral services. Such integrated services have the potential to improve access and quality of outpatient mental health care for a range of psychiatric disorders. Because people with severe and persisting mental disorders commonly require a higher-level medical expertise than is readily available within primary care as well as a complex array of social services, separate specialized mental health will likely continue to play a vitally important role in caring for this population. PMID:27127264

  11. Residential Segregation and the Availability of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Gaskin, Darrell J; Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y; Chan, Kitty S; McCleary, Rachael R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between residential segregation and geographic access to primary care physicians (PCPs) in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Data Sources We combined zip code level data on primary care physicians from the 2006 American Medical Association master file with demographic, socioeconomic, and segregation measures from the 2000 U.S. Census. Our sample consisted of 15,465 zip codes located completely or partially in an MSA. Methods We defined PCP shortage areas as those zip codes with no PCP or a population to PCP ratio of >3,500. Using logistic regressions, we estimated the association between a zip code's odds of being a PCP shortage area and its minority composition and degree of segregation in its MSA. Principal Findings We found that odds of being a PCP shortage area were 67 percent higher for majority African American zip codes but 27 percent lower for majority Hispanic zip codes. The association varied with the degree of segregation. As the degree of segregation increased, the odds of being a PCP shortage area increased for majority African American zip codes; however, the converse was true for majority Hispanic and Asian zip codes. Conclusions Efforts to address PCP shortages should target African American communities especially in segregated MSAs. PMID:22524264

  12. Evaluation of Academic Detailing for Primary Care Physician Dementia Education

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Marcia J.; Horst, Micki; Lawhorne, Larry W.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this evaluation study was to assess the effect of academic detailing (AcD) as a strategy to increase early detection of dementia in primary care practice and to improve support and management of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia disorders by increasing communication and referrals to local community agencies. As designed for dementia education, AcD consisted of 15-minute educational sessions delivered in primary care practice offices. Twenty-nine visits were conducted by trained teams comprised of a physician and representatives of the Alzheimer’s Association (AA) and Area Agency on Aging (AAA). A key outcome of the visits was increased knowledge of the specific programs and services available. In all, 77.4% rated the visit very effective, and follow-up evaluation suggests visits led to an increase in referral to these agencies (55%) and potentially enhanced early detection of dementia by physicians as measured by 35% making changes in the way they identify at-risk patients. PMID:20228361

  13. Physician Professional Satisfaction and Area of Clinical Practice: Evidence from an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Caloyeras, John P; Kanter, Michael; Ives, Nicole; Kim, Chong Y; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Berry, Sandra H; Brook, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Context: For health care reform to succeed, health care systems need a professionally satisfied primary care workforce. Evidence suggests that primary care physicians are less satisfied than those in other medical specialties. Objective: To assess three domains of physician satisfaction by area of clinical practice among physicians practicing in an established integrated health system. Design: Cross-sectional online survey of all Southern California Permanente Medical Group (SCPMG) partner and associate physicians (N = 1034) who were primarily providing clinic-based care in 1 of 4 geographically and operationally distinct Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Centers. Main Outcome Measures: Primary measure was satisfaction with one’s day-to-day professional life as a physician. Secondary measures were satisfaction with quality of care and income. Results: Of the 636 physicians responding to the survey (61.5% response rate), on average, 8 in 10 SCPMG physicians reported satisfaction with their day-to-day professional life as a physician. Primary care physicians were only minimally less likely to report being satisfied (difference of 8.2–9.5 percentage points; p < 0.05) than were other physicians. Nearly all physicians (98.2%) were satisfied with the quality of care they are able to provide. Roughly 8 in 10 physicians reported satisfaction with their income. No differences were found between primary care physicians and those in other clinical practice areas regarding satisfaction with quality of care or income. Conclusion: It is possible to create practice settings, such as SCPMG, in which most physicians, including those in primary care, experience high levels of professional satisfaction. PMID:27057819

  14. Substitution of physicians and other providers in outpatient mental health care.

    PubMed

    Deb, P; Holmes, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper evaluates the extent to which patients may substitute physician and non-physician outpatient mental health services in response to insurance coverage which differs by provider type. Using data from the National Medical Expenditure Survey, a semi-flexible two-stage demand specification is used to estimate substitution elasticities. Our results indicate that insurance coverage significantly affects the choice of provider from whom care is sought and, for individuals who seek care from both provider types, that physician and non-physician services are substitutes. Our elasticity estimates provide a welfare economic argument supporting coverage parity of physician and non-physician mental health services. PMID:9683095

  15. Top 10 Things Primary Care Physicians Should Know About Maintenance Immunosuppression for Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2016-06-01

    The success of organ transplantation allows many transplant recipients to return to life similar to nontransplant patients. Their need for regular health care, including preventive medicine, has switched the majority of responsibilities for their health care from transplant specialists to primary care physicians. To take care of transplant recipients, it is critical for primary care physicians to be familiar with immunosuppressive medications, their side effects, and common complications in transplant recipients. Ten subjects are reviewed here in order to assist primary care physicians in providing optimal care for transplant recipients. PMID:26714210

  16. 75 FR 4655 - National Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse Information on Physicians and Other Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Practitioner Data Bank for Adverse Information on Physicians and Other Health Care Practitioners: Reporting on... Information on Physicians and Other Health Care Practitioners: Reporting on Adverse and Negative Actions... rule revises existing regulations under sections 401 through 432 of the Health Care Quality...

  17. How sequestration cuts affect primary care physicians and graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bindiya; Coffin, Janis

    2013-01-01

    On April 1, 2013, sequestration cuts went into effect impacting Medicare physician payments, graduate medical education, and many other healthcare agencies. The cuts range from 2% to 5%, affecting various departments and organizations. There is already a shortage of primary care physicians in general, not including rural or underserved areas, with limited grants for advanced training. The sequestration cuts negatively impact the future of many primary care physicians and hinder the care many Americans will receive over time. PMID:24044191

  18. Physician Acceptance of a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Treatment Model for Hypertension Management in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Hasan, Michaela; Huebschmann, Amy G; Penaloza, Richard; Schorr-Ratzlaff, Wagner; Sieja, Amber; Roscoe, Nicholai; Trinkley, Katy E

    2015-09-01

    Physician-pharmacist collaborative care (PPCC) is effective in improving blood pressure (BP) control, but primary care provider (PCP) engagement in such models has not been well-studied. The authors analyzed data from PPCC referrals to 108 PCPs, for patients with uncontrolled hypertension, assessing the proportion of referral requests approved, disapproved, and not responded to, and reasons for disapproval. Of 2232 persons with uncontrolled hypertension, PPCC referral requests were sent for 1516 (67.9%): 950 (62.7%) were approved, 406 (26.8%) were disapproved, and 160 (10.6%) received no response. Approval rates differed widely by PCP with a median approval rate of 75% (interquartile range, 41%-100%). The most common reasons for disapproval were: PCP prefers to manage hypertension (19%), and BP controlled per PCP (18%); 8% of cases were considered too complex for PPCC. Provider acceptance of a PPCC hypertension clinic was generally high and sustained but varied widely among PCPs. No single reason for disapproval predominated. PMID:26032586

  19. Primary care physicians' and psychiatrists' approaches to treating mild depression

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, R. E.; Rasinski, K. A.; Yoon, J. D.; Meador, K. G.; Koenig, H. G.; Curlin, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure how primary care physicians (PCPs) and psychiatrists treat mild depression. Method We surveyed a national sample of US PCPs and psychiatrists using a vignette of a 52-year-old man with depressive symptoms not meeting Major Depressive Episode criteria. Physicians were asked how likely they were to recommend an antidepressant counseling, combined medication, and counseling or to make a psychiatric referral. Results Response rate was 896/1427 PCPs and 312/487 for psychiatrists. Compared with PCPs, psychiatrists were more likely to recommend an antidepressant (70% vs. 56%), counseling (86% vs. 54%), or the combination of medication and counseling (61% vs. 30%). More psychiatrists (44%) than PCPs (15%) were `very likely' to promote psychiatric referral. PCPs who frequently attended religious services were less likely (than infrequent attenders) to refer the patient to a psychiatrist (12% vs. 18%); and more likely to recommend increased involvement in meaningful relationships/activities (50% vs. 41%) and religious community (33% vs. 17%). Conclusion Psychiatrists treat mild depression more aggressively than PCPs. Both are inclined to use antidepressants for patients with mild depression. PMID:22616640

  20. Primary Care Physicians Practicing Preventive Medicine in the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Snipelisky, David; Carter, Kimberly; Sundsted, Karna; Burton, M. Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventive care is an important part of primary care medicine, yet much variation in its practice exists. The aim of this study is to assess physicians’ perspectives of practicing preventive medicine and evaluate which topics are deemed most important. Methods: All primary care medicine providers at two separate academic medical centers (Mayo Clinic, MN and Mayo Clinic, FL) were surveyed via an E-mail questionnaire assessing physicians’ perception of the role of preventive medicine during both acute/routine and yearly visits, physicians’ perception of patients’ response to preventive medicine topics, and which preventive medicine topics are commonly practiced. Results: Of 445 providers meeting inclusion criteria, a total of 183 (41.1%) responded. Providers were more likely to engage patients in preventive medicine during yearly visits more so than acute visits (3.82 vs. 4.72, range 1–5 Likert Scale), yet providers were very likely to partake in such practices during both visits. Providers perceived that patients received the practice of preventive medicine very well (4.13 on 1–5 Likert Scale). No significant difference between provider practice and patient perception was noted between the two sites, although there was some variation based on clinical experience of the provider. Providers were found to most commonly practice topics recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Conclusions: Our study found a high predisposition to practicing preventive medicine. Providers seem to practice according to published evidence-based medicine recommendations. PMID:26941906

  1. Uncompensated care provided by private practice physicians in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, K E; Miller, M K; Dwyer, J W; Nissen, D

    1991-01-01

    While a great deal of attention has been paid in recent years to establishing the magnitude and characteristics of uncompensated care in hospitals, comparatively little research has been undertaken to study physician uncompensated care. This article reports the results of a prospective patient-specific study of uncompensated care in Florida. Of 4,042 cases examined, 26.2 percent had charges voluntarily reduced below the usual and customary charge at the time of service. However, only 13.5 percent of those reductions were attributed to charity. Overall, 10.4 percent of the total billed amount was left unresolved. When payment source was considered, it was found that self-pay patients accounted for 30.6 percent of the cases but accounted for 52.0 percent of the unresolved amounts. Further analysis indicated that the self-pay patients were 35.5 times more likely to leave an outstanding balance than individuals with some type of insurance coverage. Odds of unresolved balances were also calculated as a function of income, specialty type, practice size, and type of visit. PMID:1669686

  2. Acute care hospitals' accountability to provincial funders.

    PubMed

    Kromm, Seija K; Ross Baker, G; Wodchis, Walter P; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Ontario's acute care hospitals are subject to a number of tools, including legislation and performance measurement for fiscal accountability and accountability for quality. Examination of accountability documents used in Ontario at the government, regional and acute care hospital levels reveals three trends: (a) the number of performance measures being used in the acute care hospital sector has increased significantly; (b) the focus of the health system has expanded from accountability for funding and service volumes to include accountability for quality and patient safety; and (c) the accountability requirements are misaligned at the different levels. These trends may affect the success of the accountability approach currently being used. PMID:25305386

  3. Acute Care Hospitals' Accountability to Provincial Funders

    PubMed Central

    Kromm, Seija K.; Ross Baker, G.; Wodchis, Walter P.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Ontario's acute care hospitals are subject to a number of tools, including legislation and performance measurement for fiscal accountability and accountability for quality. Examination of accountability documents used in Ontario at the government, regional and acute care hospital levels reveals three trends: (a) the number of performance measures being used in the acute care hospital sector has increased significantly; (b) the focus of the health system has expanded from accountability for funding and service volumes to include accountability for quality and patient safety; and (c) the accountability requirements are misaligned at the different levels. These trends may affect the success of the accountability approach currently being used. PMID:25305386

  4. Hepatitis C: a review for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tom; Lee, Samuel S

    2006-02-28

    Primary care physicians see many of the estimated 250 000 Canadians chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Of this number, about one-third are unaware they are infected, which constitutes a large hidden epidemic. They continue to spread HCV unknowingly and cannot benefit from advances in antiviral therapy that may clear them of the virus. Many HCV-infected people remain asymptomatic, which means it is important to assess for risk factors and test patients accordingly. The third-generation enzyme immunoassay for HCV antibodies is a sensitive and specific test, although the presence of the virus can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing for HCV RNA in some circumstances. Pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy clears the virus in about 45%-80% of patients, depending on viral genotype. Preventive strategies and counselling recommendations are also reviewed. PMID:16505462

  5. Nocturia: diagnosis and management for the primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jack

    2016-02-01

    Primary care physicians commonly see men or women with nocturia (or nocturnal polyuria). Nocturia can have a dramatic impact on a patient's physical and emotional quality of life, including work performance or ability to function, because of the interrupted sleep patterns. It has also been determined that the most important sleep interval is the time from first falling asleep until first awakening. Nocturia is one of the most common and most bothersome symptoms of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In a man, LUTS is most commonly caused by benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) related to the enlargement of the prostate. In a woman, the most common cause of LUTS is overactive bladder (OAB). This article first explores the different causes and types of nocturia, then describes how to diagnose different types of nocturia (including use of frequency-volume charts), and last, discusses different approaches for managing nocturia (including the use of desmopressin), depending on the type and cause. PMID:26924591

  6. Associations between primary care physician satisfaction and self-reported aspects of utilization management.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, E A; Mittman, B S; Hays, R D; Zemencuk, J K; Pitts, J; Brook, R H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between physician-reported utilization management (UM) techniques in capitated physician groups and physician satisfaction with capitated care. STUDY SETTING: 1,138 primary care physicians from 89 California capitated physician groups in 1995. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty percent of physicians (N = 910) responded to a mail survey regarding the UM policies in their groups and their satisfaction with the care they deliver. Physician-reported UM strategies measured included group-mandated preauthorization (number of referrals requiring preauthorization, referral denial rate, and referral turnaround time), group-provided explicit practice guidelines, and group-delivered educational programs regarding capitated care. We also measured two key dimensions of satisfaction with capitated care (multi-item scales): (1) satisfaction with capitated care autonomy and quality, and (2) satisfaction with administrative burden for capitated patients. EXTRACTION METHODS: We constructed two multivariate linear regression models to examine associations between physician-reported UM strategies and physician satisfaction, controlling for demographic and practice characteristics and adjusting for clustering. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physician-reported denial rate and turnaround time were significantly negatively associated with capitated care satisfaction. Physicians who reported that their groups provided more guidelines were more satisfied on both dimensions, while physicians who reported that their groups sponsored more educational programs were more satisfied with administrative burden. The number of clinical decisions requiring preauthorization was not significantly associated with either dimension of satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who reported that their groups used UM methods that directly affected their autonomy (high denial rates and long turnaround times) were less satisfied with care for capitated patients. However, a preauthorization policy for

  7. Acute care management of spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Mitcho, K; Yanko, J R

    1999-08-01

    Meeting the health care needs of the spinal cord-injured patient is an immense challenge for the acute care multidisciplinary team. The critical care nurse clinician, as well as other members of the team, needs to maintain a comprehensive knowledge base to provide the care management that is essential to the care of the spinal cord-injured patient. With the active participation of the patient and family in care delivery decisions, the health care professionals can help to meet the psychosocial and physical needs of the patient/family unit. This article provides an evidence-based, comprehensive review of the needs of the spinal cord-injured patient in the acute care setting including optimal patient outcomes, methods to prevent complications, and a plan that provides an expeditious transition to rehabilitation. PMID:10646444

  8. The duty of the physician to care for the family in pediatric palliative care: context, communication, and caring.

    PubMed

    Jones, Barbara L; Contro, Nancy; Koch, Kendra D

    2014-02-01

    Pediatric palliative care physicians have an ethical duty to care for the families of children with life-threatening conditions through their illness and bereavement. This duty is predicated on 2 important factors: (1) best interest of the child and (2) nonabandonment. Children exist in the context of a family and therefore excellent care for the child must include attention to the needs of the family, including siblings. The principle of nonabandonment is an important one in pediatric palliative care, as many families report being well cared for during their child's treatment, but feel as if the physicians and team members suddenly disappear after the death of the child. Family-centered care requires frequent, kind, and accurate communication with parents that leads to shared decision-making during treatment, care of parents and siblings during end-of-life, and assistance to the family in bereavement after death. Despite the challenges to this comprehensive care, physicians can support and be supported by their transdisciplinary palliative care team members in providing compassionate, ethical, and holistic care to the entire family when a child is ill. PMID:24488541

  9. PHYSICIAN-PHARMACIST COLLABORATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA IN PRIMARY CARE

    PubMed Central

    Gums, Tyler H.; Carter, Barry L.; Milavetz, Gary; Buys, Lucinda; Rosenkrans, Kurt; Uribe, Liz; Coffey, Christopher; MacLaughlin, Eric J.; Young, Rodney B.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Patel-Shori, Nima; Wisniewski, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if asthma control improves in patients who receive physician-pharmacist collaborative management (PPCM) during visits to primary care medical offices. Design Prospective pre-post study of patients who received the intervention in primary care offices for 9 months. The primary outcome was the sum of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations at 9 months before, 9 months during, and 9 months following the intervention. Events were analyzed using linear mixed effects regression. Secondary analysis was conducted for patients with uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test [ACT]<20). Additional secondary outcomes included the ACT, the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire by Marks (AQLQ-M) scores, and medication changes. Intervention Pharmacists provided patients with an asthma self-management plan and education and made pharmacotherapy recommendations to physicians when appropriate. Results Of 126 patients, the number of emergency department (ED) visits and/or hospitalizations decreased 30% during the intervention (p=0.052) and then returned to pre-enrollment levels after the intervention was discontinued (p=0.83). Secondary analysis of patients with uncontrolled asthma at baseline (ACT<20), showed 37 ED visits and hospitalizations prior to the intervention, 21 during the intervention, and 33 after the intervention was discontinued (p=0.019). ACT and AQLQ-M scores improved during the intervention (ACT mean absolute increase of 2.11, AQLQ-M mean absolute decrease of 4.86, p<0.0001 respectively) and sustained a stable effect after discontinuation of the intervention. Inhaled corticosteroid use increased during the intervention (p=0.024). Conclusions The PPCM care model reduced asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations and improved asthma control and quality of life. However, the primary outcome was not statistically significant for all patients. There was a significant reduction in ED visits and hospitalizations during

  10. Medical guidelines, physician density, and quality of care: evidence from German SHARE data.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik; Pohl, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    We use German SHARE data to study the relationship between district general practitioner density and the quality of preventive care provided to older adults. We measure physician quality of care as the degree of adherence to medical guidelines (for the management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the prevention of falls) as reported by patients. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we find only weak and insignificant effects of physician density on quality of care. Our results shed doubt on the notion that increasing physician supply will increase the quality of care provided in Germany's present health care system. PMID:22203268

  11. Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    Angoff, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper responds to the question: Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? First, the social and political milieu in which this question arises is sampled. Here physicians as well as other members of the community are found declaring an unwillingness to be exposed to people with AIDS. Next, laws, regulations, ethical codes and principles, and the history of the practice of medicine are examined, and the literature as it pertains to these areas is reviewed. The obligation to care for patients with AIDS, however, cannot be located in an orientation to morality defined in rules and codes and an appeal to legalistic fairness. By turning to the orientation to morality that emerges naturally from connection and is defined in caring, the physicians' ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS is found. Through an exploration of the writings of modern medical ethicists, it is clear that the purpose of the practice of medicine is healing, which can only be accomplished in relationship to the patient. It is in relationship to patients that the physician has the opportunity for self-realization. In fact, the physician is physician in relationship to patients and only to the extent that he or she acts virtuously by being morally responsible for and to those patients. Not to do so diminishes the physician's ethical ideal, a vision of the physician as good physician, which has consequences for the physician's capacity to care and for the practice of medicine. PMID:1788990

  12. The Primary Care Physician Workforce in Massachusetts: Implications for the Workforce in Rural, Small Town America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenger, Joseph; Cashman, Suzanne B.; Savageau, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Small towns across the United States struggle to maintain an adequate primary care workforce. Purpose: To examine factors contributing to physician satisfaction and retention in largely rural areas in Massachusetts, a state with rural pockets and small towns. Methods: A survey mailed in 2004-2005 to primary care physicians, practicing in…

  13. Point-of-care ultrasonography by pediatric emergency physicians. Policy statement.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-04-01

    Point-of-care ultrasonography is increasingly being used to facilitate accurate and timely diagnoses and to guide procedures. It is important for pediatric emergency physicians caring for patients in the emergency department to receive adequate and continued point-of-care ultrasonography training for those indications used in their practice setting. Emergency departments should have credentialing and quality assurance programs. Pediatric emergency medicine fellowships should provide appropriate training to physician trainees. Hospitals should provide privileges to physicians who demonstrate competency in point-of-care ultrasonography. Ongoing research will provide the necessary measures to define the optimal training and competency assessment standards. Requirements for credentialing and hospital privileges will vary and will be specific to individual departments and hospitals. As more physicians are trained and more research is completed, there should be one national standard for credentialing and privileging in point-of-care ultrasonography for pediatric emergency physicians. PMID:25805037

  14. The attitudes of physicians toward health care cost-containment policies.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, L; Fisher, D

    1990-01-01

    This study analyzed physician attitudes toward a variety of health care cost-containment policies, based on a national survey of 500 practicing doctors in 1984. Reactions to 23 policies were simplified to nine common themes using factor analysis. Although there was great diversity in views, physicians generally favored policies that increased responsibilities or costs for patients and disfavored policies that decreased physicians' autonomy of practice. For most policies, practice characteristics (specialty; type of practice, e.g., solo or group, salaried or self-employed; membership in medical societies; or percent of time in direct patient care) were not significant determinants of attitudes. Physicians who were more "conservative" with respect to the health care system tended to favor policies that shifted cost to patients, while more "liberal" doctors were more supportive of using prepaid health care, reducing the intensity of care, or selecting efficient providers. Overall, this study indicates that physicians still place a high value on their professional autonomy. PMID:2329048

  15. The Phoenix Physician: defining a pathway toward leadership in patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Good, Robert G; Bulger, John B; Hasty, Robert T; Hubbard, Kevin P; Schwartz, Elliott R; Sutton, John R; Troutman, Monte E; Nelinson, Donald S

    2012-08-01

    Health care delivery has evolved in reaction to scientific and technological discoveries, emergent patient needs, and market forces. A current focus on patient-centered care has pointed to the need for the reallocation of resources to improve access to and delivery of efficient, cost-effective, quality care. In response to this need, primary care physicians will find themselves in a new role as team leader. The American College of Osteopathic Internists has developed the Phoenix Physician, a training program that will prepare primary care residents and practicing physicians for the changes in health care delivery and provide them with skills such as understanding the contributions of all team members (including an empowered and educated patient), evaluating and treating patients, and applying performance metrics and information technology to measure and improve patient care and satisfaction. Through the program, physicians will also develop personal leadership and communication skills. PMID:22904250

  16. Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label, Phase III Trial of Decitabine Versus Patient Choice, With Physician Advice, of Either Supportive Care or Low-Dose Cytarabine for the Treatment of Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Thomas, Xavier G.; Dmoszynska, Anna; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Mazur, Grzegorz; Mayer, Jiri; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Chou, Wen-Chien; Buckstein, Rena; Cermak, Jaroslav; Kuo, Ching-Yuan; Oriol, Albert; Ravandi, Farhad; Faderl, Stefan; Delaunay, Jacques; Lysák, Daniel; Minden, Mark; Arthur, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of decitabine with treatment choice (TC) in older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and poor- or intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 485) age ≥ 65 years were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive decitabine 20 mg/m2 per day as a 1-hour intravenous infusion for five consecutive days every 4 weeks or TC (supportive care or cytarabine 20 mg/m2 per day as a subcutaneous injection for 10 consecutive days every 4 weeks). The primary end point was overall survival (OS); the secondary end point was the complete remission (CR) rate plus the CR rate without platelet recovery (CRp). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Results The primary analysis with 396 deaths (81.6%) showed a nonsignificant increase in median OS with decitabine (7.7 months; 95% CI, 6.2 to 9.2) versus TC (5.0 months; 95% CI, 4.3 to 6.3; P = .108; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.04). An unplanned analysis with 446 deaths (92%) indicated the same median OS (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.99; nominal P = .037). The CR rate plus CRp was 17.8% with decitabine versus 7.8% with TC (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.8; P = .001). AEs were similar for decitabine and cytarabine, although patients received a median of four cycles of decitabine versus two cycles of TC. The most common drug-related AEs with decitabine were thrombocytopenia (27%) and neutropenia (24%). Conclusion In older patients with AML, decitabine improved response rates compared with standard therapies without major differences in safety. An unplanned survival analysis showed a benefit for decitabine, which was not observed at the time of the primary analysis. PMID:22689805

  17. The Rural Physician Workforce in Florida: A Survey of U.S.- and Foreign-Born Primary Care Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Robert G.; Mardon, Russell; Clawson, Art

    2003-01-01

    Survey responses from 1,000 primary-care physicians (PCPs) in Florida showed that nearly half of rural PCPs were foreign-born. Overall and for native-born PCPs, rural practice was related to rural upbringing and exposure to rural medical practice during training. Rural PCPs were more likely than others to be participants in the National Health…

  18. The Development of Sustainable Emergency Care in Ghana: Physician, Nursing and Prehospital Care Training Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Martel, John; Oteng, Rockefeller; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Bell, Sue Anne; Zakariah, Ahmed; Oduro, George; Kowalenko, Terry; Donkor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghana’s first Emergency Medicine residency and nursing training programs were initiated in 2009 and 2010, respectively, at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the city of Kumasi in association with Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and the Universities of Michigan and Utah. In addition, the National Ambulance Service was commissioned initially in 2004 and has developed to include both prehospital transport services in all regions of the country and Emergency Medical Technician training. Over a decade of domestic and international partnership has focused on making improvements in emergency care at a variety of institutional levels, culminating in the establishment of comprehensive emergency care training programs. Objective We describe the history and status of novel post-graduate emergency physician, nurse and prehospital provider training programs as well as the prospect of creating a board certification process and formal continuing education program for practicing emergency physicians. Discussion Significant strides have been made in the development of emergency care and training in Ghana over the last decade, resulting in the first group of Specialist level EM physicians as of late 2012, as well as development of accredited emergency nursing curricula and continued expansion of a national EMS. Conclusion This work represents a significant move toward in-country development of sustainable, interdisciplinary, team-based emergency provider training programs designed to retain skilled healthcare workers in Ghana and may serve as a model for similar developing nations. PMID:25066956

  19. The contribution of Physician Assistants in primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary care provision is important in the delivery of health care but many countries face primary care workforce challenges. Increasing demand, enlarged workloads, and current and anticipated physician shortages in many countries have led to the introduction of mid-level professionals, such as Physician Assistants (PAs). Objective: This systematic review aimed to appraise the evidence of the contribution of PAs within primary care, defined for this study as general practice, relevant to the UK or similar systems. Methods Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BNI, SSCI and SCOPUS databases were searched from 1950 to 2010. Eligibility criteria: PAs with a recognised PA qualification, general practice/family medicine included and the findings relevant to it presented separately and an English language journal publication. Two reviewers independently identified relevant publications, assessed quality using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools and extracted findings. Findings were classified and synthesised narratively as factors related to structure, process or outcome of care. Results 2167 publications were identified, of which 49 met our inclusion criteria, with 46 from the United States of America (USA). Structure: approximately half of PAs are reported to work in primary care in the USA with good support and a willingness to employ amongst doctors. Process: the majority of PAs’ workload is the management of patients with acute presentations. PAs tend to see younger patients and a different caseload to doctors, and require supervision. Studies of costs provide mixed results. Outcomes: acceptability to patients and potential patients is consistently found to be high, and studies of appropriateness report positively. Overall the evidence was appraised as of weak to moderate quality, with little comparative data presented and little change in research questions over time. Limitations: identification of a broad range of studies examining ‘contribution’ made

  20. Can Physicians Deliver Chronic Medications at the Point of Care?

    PubMed

    Palacio, Ana; Keller, Vaughn F; Chen, Jessica; Tamariz, Leonardo; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Tanio, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Interventions aimed at improving medication adherence are challenging to integrate into clinical practice. Point-of-care medication delivery systems (POCMDSs) are an emerging approach that may be sustainable. A mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the implementation of a POCMDS in a capitated network of clinics serving vulnerable populations. The analytical approach was informed by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) and CFIR (Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research) theoretical frameworks. Data were obtained through key informant interviews, site visits, patient surveys, and claims data. POCMDS has been implemented in 23 practices in 4 states. Key facilitators were leadership and staff commitment, culture of prevention, and a feasible business model. Of the 426 diabetic patients surveyed, 92% stated that POCMDS helps them, 90% stated that refilling medications is more convenient, 90% reported better understanding of the medications, and 80% stated that POCMDS had improved communication with the physician. POCMDS is a feasible patient-centered intervention that reduces adherence barriers. PMID:25681493

  1. Nurses versus physicians' knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the family members of dying patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Amrollahimishvan, Fatemeh; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nurses and physicians must be competent enough to provide care for the clients. As a lack of knowledge and a poor attitude result in a low performance of delivering care, this study aimed to explore the nurses versus physicians’ knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the family members of dying patients (FMDPs). Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at the educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The samples were 110 nurses and 110 physicians. The data were collected through a convenience sampling method and using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The average knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the FMDPs were not significantly different between nurses and physicians (p>0.05). The majority of nurses (55.4%) and physician (63.6%) were at a moderate and a fair level of knowledge of care for the FMDPs. Most of the nurses (81%) and physicians (87.3%) had a positive attitude towards caring the FMDPs. Most of the nurses (70%) and physicians (86.3%) had a moderate and fair performance. Conclusion: Having enough knowledge and skills, and a positive attitude are necessary for caring the FMDPs. Nurses’ and physicians' competencies must be improved through continuing educational programs and holding international and national conferences with a focus on the palliative care. PMID:26838571

  2. "Sometimes I feel overwhelmed": educational needs of family physicians caring for people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Joanne; Dreyfus, Deborah; Cerreto, Mary; Bokhour, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Primary care physicians who care for adults with intellectual disability often lack experience with the population, and patients with intellectual disability express dissatisfaction with their care. Establishing a secure primary care relationship is particularly important for adults with intellectual disability, who experience health disparities and may rely on their physician to direct/coordinate their care. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 22 family physicians with the goal of identifying educational needs of family physicians who care for people with intellectual disability. Interviews were transcribed and coded using tools from grounded theory. Several themes related to educational needs were identified. Physician participants identified themes of "operating without a map," discomfort with patients with intellectual disability, and a need for more exposure to/experience with people with intellectual disability as important content areas. The authors also identified physician frustration and lack of confidence, compounded by anxiety related to difficult behaviors and a lack of context or frame of reference for patients with intellectual disability. Primary care physicians request some modification of their educational experience to better equip them to care for patients with intellectual disability. Their request for experiential, not theoretical, learning fits well under the umbrella of cultural competence (a required competency in U.S. medical education). PMID:22731973

  3. Physicians' perceptions of mobile technology for enhancing asthma care for youth.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tali; Panzera, Anthony Dominic; Martinasek, Mary; McDermott, Robert; Couluris, Marisa; Lindenberger, James; Bryant, Carol

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed physicians' receptivity to using mobile technology as a strategy in patient care for adolescents with asthma. Understanding physicians' perceived barriers and benefits of integrating mobile technology in adolescents' asthma care and self-management is an initial step in enhancing overall patient and disease outcomes. We conducted in-depth interviews with second- and third-year pediatric residents and attending physicians who oversee pediatric residents in training (N = 27) at an academic medical center in the southeastern United States. We identified both benefits from and barriers to broader use of mobile technologies for improving asthma outcomes in adolescents. Resident physicians demonstrated greater readiness for integrating these technologies than did attending physicians. Prior to adoption of mobile technologies in the care of adolescent asthma patients, barriers to implementation should be understood. Prior to widespread adoption, such systems will need to be evaluated against traditional care for demonstration of patient outcomes that improve on the current situation. PMID:25427556

  4. "Sometimes I Feel Overwhelmed": Educational Needs of Family Physicians Caring for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Joanne; Dreyfus, Deborah; Cerreto, Mary; Bokhour, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Primary care physicians who care for adults with intellectual disability often lack experience with the population, and patients with intellectual disability express dissatisfaction with their care. Establishing a secure primary care relationship is particularly important for adults with intellectual disability, who experience health disparities…

  5. Association of primary care physician sex with cervical cancer and mammography screening

    PubMed Central

    Ince-Cushman, Daniel; Correa, José A.; Shuldiner, Jennifer; Segouin, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the sex of primary care physicians is associated with differing rates of cervical cancer and mammography screening in a contemporary multicultural context. Design Structured medical record review of a retrospectively defined cohort. Setting Academic urban primary care clinic in Montreal, Que. Participants Seven male physicians and 9 female physicians, and all female patients aged 14 to 69 years registered to one of the physicians (N = 1948). Main outcome measures Screening compliance rates as measured by the elapsed time between the last visit and cervical cancer screening for all women in the study. In addition, in women aged 50 to 69 years, elapsed time between the last visit and mammography screening. Results Crude rates of Papanicolaou tests for patients of female primary care physicians were higher than for patients of male primary care physicians in all patient age groups. The lowest rates of Pap testing were among the youngest and oldest patients. After adjustment for patient age, first language, and region of birth, as well as physician age, the odds ratio of having a Pap test was 2.24 (95% CI 1.18 to 4.28) for the patients of female physicians, relative to those of male physicians. The adjusted odds ratio for mammography screening was 1.25 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.61) for patients of female physicians. Conclusion Male primary care physician sex is associated with lower rates of cervical cancer screening in an urban multicultural context. The study did not detect a physician sex effect in the mammography cohort. PMID:23341674

  6. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for physicians who were involved in providing CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Method The study followed the phenomenological qualitative tradition. Three physicians involved in group prenatal care participated in a one-on-one interview between November and December 2009. Two physicians participated in verification sessions. Interviews followed an open ended general guide and were audio recorded and transcribed. The purpose of the analysis was to identify meaning themes and the core meaning experienced by the physicians. Results Six themes emerged: (1) having a greater exchange of information, (2) getting to knowing, (3) seeing women get to know and support each other, (4) sharing ownership of care, (5) having more time, and (6) experiencing enjoyment and satisfaction in providing care. These themes contributed to the core meaning for physicians of “providing richer care.” Conclusions Physicians perceived providing better care and a better professional experience through CenteringPregnancy compared to their experience of individual prenatal care. Thus, CenteringPregnancy could improve work place satisfaction, increase retention of providers in maternity care, and improve health care for women. PMID:23445867

  7. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  8. Health care reform and job satisfaction of primary health care physicians in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Bliudziute, Egle

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this research paper is to study job satisfaction of physicians and general practitioners at primary health care institutions during the health care reform in Lithuania. Methods Self-administrated anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and general practitioners (N = 243, response rate – 78.6%), working at Kaunas primary health care level establishments, in October – December 2003. Results 15 men (7.9%) and 176 women (92.1%) participated in the research, among which 133 (69.6%) were GPs and 58 (30.4%) physicians. Respondents claimed to have chosen to become doctors, as other professions were of no interest to them. Total job satisfaction of the respondents was 4.74 point (on a 7 point scale). Besides 75.5% of the respondents said they would not recommend their children to choose a PHC level doctor's profession. The survey also showed that the respondents were most satisfied with the level of autonomy they get at work – 5.28, relationship with colleagues – 5.06, and management quality – 5.04, while compensation (2.09), social status (3.36), and workload (3.93) turned to be causing the highest dissatisfaction among the respondents. The strongest correlation (Spearmen's ratio) was observed between total job satisfaction and such factors as the level of autonomy – 0.566, workload – 0.452, and GP's social status – 0.458. Conclusion Total job satisfaction of doctors working at primary health care establishments in Lithuania is relatively low, and compensation, social status, and workload are among the key factors that condition PHC doctors' dissatisfaction with their job. PMID:15748299

  9. Associations between Physician Characteristics and Quality of Care

    PubMed Central

    Orler, Rachel L.; Friedberg, Mark W.; Adams, John L.; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Physicians’ performance on measures of clinical quality is rarely available to patients. Instead, patients are encouraged to select physicians on the basis of characteristics such as education, board certification, and malpractice history. In a large sample of Massachusetts physicians, we examined the relationship between physician characteristics and performance on a broad range of quality measures. METHODS We calculated overall performance scores on 124 quality measures from RAND’s Quality Assessment Tools for each of 10,408 Massachusetts physicians using claims generated by 1.13 million adult patients. The patients were continuously enrolled in 1 of 4 Massachusetts commercial health plans during 2004–2005. Physician characteristics were obtained from the Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine. Associations between physician characteristics and overall performance scores were assessed using multivariate linear regression. RESULTS The mean overall performance score was 62.5%% (5th to 95th percentile range, 48.2% to 74.9%). Three physician characteristics were independently associated with significantly higher overall performance: female gender (1.6 percentage points higher than male, p<0.001), board certification (3.3 percentage points higher than non-certified, p<0.001), and graduation from a domestic medical school (1.0 percentage points higher than international, p<0.001). There was no association between performance and malpractice claims or disciplinary action. CONCLUSION Few characteristics of individual physicians were associated with higher performance on measures of quality, and observed associations were small in magnitude. Publicly available characteristics of individual physicians are poor proxies for performance on clinical quality measures. PMID:20837830

  10. Comparative Effectiveness Research: Alternatives to "Traditional" Computed Tomography Use in the Acute Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher L; Broder, Joshua; Gunn, Martin L; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Cody, Dianna; Cullison, Kevin; Daniels, Brock; Gans, Bradley; Kennedy Hall, M; Gaines, Barbara A; Goldman, Sarah; Heil, John; Liu, Rachel; Marin, Jennifer R; Melnick, Edward R; Novelline, Robert A; Pare, Joseph; Repplinger, Michael D; Taylor, Richard A; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2015-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning is an essential diagnostic tool and has revolutionized care of patients in the acute care setting. However, there is widespread agreement that overutilization of CT, where benefits do not exceed possible costs or harms, is occurring. The goal was to seek consensus in identifying and prioritizing research questions and themes that involve the comparative effectiveness of "traditional" CT use versus alternative diagnostic strategies in the acute care setting. A modified Delphi technique was used that included input from emergency physicians, emergency radiologists, medical physicists, and an industry expert to achieve this. PMID:26576033

  11. Acute care of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, M. B.; Lee, T. F.; Gin, K.; Ho, K.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with acute myocardial infarct (AMI) need rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of thrombolytic therapy. Patients with suspected cardiac ischemia must receive a coordinated team response by the emergency room staff including rapid electrocardiographic analysis and a quick but thorough history and physical examination to diagnose AMI. Thrombolysis and adjunct therapies should be administered promptly when indicated. The choice of thrombolytics is predicated by the location of the infarct. PMID:8754702

  12. End-of-life care beliefs among Hindu physicians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Vijaya Sivalingam; Saeed, Fahad; Sinnakirouchenan, Ramapriya; Holley, Jean L; Srinivasan, Sinnakirouchenan

    2015-02-01

    Several studies from the United States and Europe showed that physicians' religiosity is associated with their approach to end-of-life care beliefs. No such studies have focused exclusively on Hindu physicians practicing in the United States. A 34-item questionnaire was sent to 293 Hindu physicians in the United States. Most participants believed that their religious beliefs do not influence their practice of medicine and do not interfere with withdrawal of life support. The US practice of discussing end-of-life issues with the patient, rather than primarily with the family, seems to have been adopted by Hindu physicians practicing in the United States. It is likely that the ethical, cultural, and patient-centered environment of US health care has influenced the practice of end-of-life care by Hindu physicians in this country. PMID:24052431

  13. Use of spirometry among chest physicians and primary care physicians in India

    PubMed Central

    Vanjare, Nitin; Chhowala, Sushmeeta; Madas, Sapna; Kodgule, Rahul; Gogtay, Jaideep; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Although spirometry is the gold-standard diagnostic test for obstructive airways diseases, it remains poorly utilised in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the use of spirometry across India, the change in its usage over a period of time and to understand the reasons for its under-utilisation. Two nationwide surveys were conducted in the years 2005 and 2013, among four groups of doctors: chest physicians (CPs), general physicians (GenPs), general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians (Ps). A total of 1,000 physicians from each of the four groups were randomly selected from our database in the years 2005 and 2013. These surveys were conducted in 52 cities and towns across 15 states in India. A questionnaire was administered to the physicians, which captured information about their demographic details, type of practice and use of spirometry. The overall response rates of the physicians in 2005 and 2013 were 42.8% and 54.9%, respectively. Spirometry was reported to be used by 55% CPs, 20% GenPs, 10% GPs and 5% Ps in 2005, and this increased by 30.9% among CPs (P value <0.01), 18% among GenPs (P value=0.01), 20% among GPs (P value: not significant) and 224% among Ps (P value <0.01). The reasons for not using spirometry varied between 2005 and 2013. In all, 32.2% of physicians were unaware of which predicted equation they were using. The use of spirometry in India is low, although it seems to have improved over the years. The reasons identified in this study for under-utilisation should be used to address initiatives to improve the use of spirometry in clinical practice. PMID:27385406

  14. Use of spirometry among chest physicians and primary care physicians in India.

    PubMed

    Vanjare, Nitin; Chhowala, Sushmeeta; Madas, Sapna; Kodgule, Rahul; Gogtay, Jaideep; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Although spirometry is the gold-standard diagnostic test for obstructive airways diseases, it remains poorly utilised in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the use of spirometry across India, the change in its usage over a period of time and to understand the reasons for its under-utilisation. Two nationwide surveys were conducted in the years 2005 and 2013, among four groups of doctors: chest physicians (CPs), general physicians (GenPs), general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians (Ps). A total of 1,000 physicians from each of the four groups were randomly selected from our database in the years 2005 and 2013. These surveys were conducted in 52 cities and towns across 15 states in India. A questionnaire was administered to the physicians, which captured information about their demographic details, type of practice and use of spirometry. The overall response rates of the physicians in 2005 and 2013 were 42.8% and 54.9%, respectively. Spirometry was reported to be used by 55% CPs, 20% GenPs, 10% GPs and 5% Ps in 2005, and this increased by 30.9% among CPs (P value <0.01), 18% among GenPs (P value=0.01), 20% among GPs (P value: not significant) and 224% among Ps (P value <0.01). The reasons for not using spirometry varied between 2005 and 2013. In all, 32.2% of physicians were unaware of which predicted equation they were using. The use of spirometry in India is low, although it seems to have improved over the years. The reasons identified in this study for under-utilisation should be used to address initiatives to improve the use of spirometry in clinical practice. PMID:27385406

  15. The Role of Physician Assistants in Rural Health Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lisa R.; Hooker, Roderick S.; Yates, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A literature review was performed to assess the role of physician assistants (PAs) in rural health care. Four categories were examined: scope of practice, physician perceptions, community perceptions, and retention/recruitment. Methods: A search of the literature from 1974 to 2008 was undertaken by probing the electronic bibliographic…

  16. Missed Opportunity: National Survey of Primary Care Physicians and Patients on Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    A national representative survey of primary care physicians (N=648) was conducted to determine how they deal with patients who have substance abuse problems. The survey revealed how physicians identify substance abuse in their patients, what efforts they make to help these patients, and what barriers they find to effective diagnosis and treatment.…

  17. Female Patient and Physician Communication and Discussion of Gynecological Health Care Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeless, Virginia Eman

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that a female patient's trust in, receptivity to, and communication apprehension regarding her physician constitute significant predictors of her (1) likelihood of discussing health care issues, (2) knowledge of gynecological health needs, and (3) feelings toward the gynecologist during examination. Finds that the physician's gender does…

  18. The relationship between office system tools and evidence-based care in primary care physician practice.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Pavur, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    A number of office system tools have been developed to improve the rates of preventive services and enhance the quality of medical care in practice settings. New approaches to measuring physician adherence to evidence-based standards of treatment, offer a unique opportunity to examine the link between the use of office system tools and evidence-based practices in primary care. Using episode-based profiling measures of adherence as the criterion, results from this investigation suggest that the application of simple physician reminders can be an effective technique for promoting evidence-based treatment. The data also reveal that the influence of health information technology (HIT) resources on adherence was not exclusively positive. Specifically, adherence to evidence-based standards was higher for primary care practices that employed HIT resources judiciously. In contrast, extensive use of personal digital assistants was negatively associated with adherence. Despite concerns directed towards the new generation of episode-based profiling measures, results from this research indicate that the measures behave similarly to traditional measures of quality. PMID:21840895

  19. Truth Telling and Treatment Strategies in End-of-Life Care in Physician-Led Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsien-Liang; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Yao, Chien-An; Hu, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Providing patient-centered care from preventive medicine to end-of-life care in order to improve care quality and reduce medical cost is important for accountable care. Physicians in the accountable care organizations (ACOs) are suitable for participating in supportive end-of-life care especially when facing issues in truth telling and treatment strategy. This study aimed to investigate patients’ attitudes toward truth telling and treatment preferences in end-of-life care and compare patients’ attitudes with their ACOs physicians’ perceptions. This nationwide study applied snowball sampling to survey physicians in physician-led ACOs and their contracted patients by questionnaire from August 2010 to July 2011 in Taiwan. The main outcome measures were beliefs about palliative care, attitudes toward truth telling, and treatment preferences. The data of 314 patients (effective response rate = 88.7%) and 177 physicians (88.5%) were analyzed. Regarding truth telling about disease prognosis, 94.3% of patients preferred to be fully informed, whereas only 80% of their physicians had that perception (P < 0.001). Significant differences were also found in attitudes toward truth telling even when encountering terminal disease status (98.1% vs 85.3%). Regarding treatment preferences in terminal illness, nearly 90% of patients preferred supportive care, but only 15.8% of physicians reported that their patients had this preference (P < 0.001). Significant discrepancies exist between patients’ preferences and physicians’ perceptions toward truth telling and treatment strategies in end-of-life care. It is important to enhance physician–patient communication about end-of-life care preferences in order to achieve the goal of ACOs. Continuing education on communication about end-of-life care during physicians’ professional development would be helpful in the reform strategies of establishing accountable care around the world. PMID:25906093

  20. Primary Care Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care Model: Strategies for Implementation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Barry L

    2016-04-01

    The Collaboration Among Pharmacists and Physicians To Improve Outcomes Now (CAPTION) trial recently found that a pharmacist intervention for hypertension could be implemented in diverse medical offices. In this issue of Pharmacotherapy, the article by Brian Isetts and colleagues discusses the complexity of the patient population, the specific functions the pharmacists performed, and the time estimates from billing records used to quantify time spent during face-to-face patient encounters. This invited commentary will discuss findings from the CAPTION trial and provide recommendations for strategies to implement similar interventions for patients with other chronic medical conditions seen in primary care practices. PMID:26931738

  1. 20 CFR 725.707 - Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... medical care. 725.707 Section 725.707 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.707 Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care. (a) Within 30 days...) In order to permit continuing supervision of the medical care provided to the miner with respect...

  2. 20 CFR 725.707 - Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... medical care. 725.707 Section 725.707 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.707 Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care. (a) Within 30 days...) In order to permit continuing supervision of the medical care provided to the miner with respect...

  3. 20 CFR 725.707 - Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... medical care. 725.707 Section 725.707 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.707 Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care. (a) Within 30 days...) In order to permit continuing supervision of the medical care provided to the miner with respect...

  4. 20 CFR 725.707 - Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... medical care. 725.707 Section 725.707 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... Vocational Rehabilitation § 725.707 Reports of physicians and supervision of medical care. (a) Within 30 days...) In order to permit continuing supervision of the medical care provided to the miner with respect...

  5. Physician Perspectives on Providing Primary Medical Care to Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Marji Erickson; Crossman, Morgan K.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Der Weerd, Emma; Kuhlthau, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth case studies of 10 health care professionals who actively provide primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The study sought to understand their experiences in providing this care, the training they had received, the training they lack and their suggestions for encouraging more physicians to provide this…

  6. Benchmarks for acute stroke care delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Ruth E.; Khan, Ferhana; Bayley, Mark T.; Asllani, Eriola; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D.; O'Callaghan, Christina; Silver, Frank L.; Kapral, Moira K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread interest in many jurisdictions in monitoring and improving the quality of stroke care delivery, benchmarks for most stroke performance indicators have not been established. The objective of this study was to develop data-derived benchmarks for acute stroke quality indicators. Design Nine key acute stroke quality indicators were selected from the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Performance Measures Manual. Participants A population-based retrospective sample of patients discharged from 142 hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 (N = 3191) was used to calculate hospital rates of performance and benchmarks. Intervention The Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC™) methodology was used to create benchmarks based on the performance of the upper 15% of patients in the top-performing hospitals. Main Outcome Measures Benchmarks were calculated for rates of neuroimaging, carotid imaging, stroke unit admission, dysphasia screening and administration of stroke-related medications. Results The following benchmarks were derived: neuroimaging within 24 h, 98%; admission to a stroke unit, 77%; thrombolysis among patients arriving within 2.5 h, 59%; carotid imaging, 93%; dysphagia screening, 88%; antithrombotic therapy, 98%; anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, 94%; antihypertensive therapy, 92% and lipid-lowering therapy, 77%. ABC™ acute stroke care benchmarks achieve or exceed the consensus-based targets required by Accreditation Canada, with the exception of dysphagia screening. Conclusions Benchmarks for nine hospital-based acute stroke care quality indicators have been established. These can be used in the development of standards for quality improvement initiatives. PMID:24141011

  7. Gender and the professional career of primary care physicians in Andalusia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the proportion of women in medicine is growing, female physicians continue to be disadvantaged in professional activities. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the professional activities of female and male primary care physicians in Andalusia and to assess the effect of the health center on the performance of these activities. Methods Descriptive, cross-sectional, and multicenter study. Setting: Spain. Participants: Population: urban health centers and their physicians. Sample: 88 health centers and 500 physicians. Independent variable: gender. Measurements: Control variables: age, postgraduate family medicine specialty (FMS), patient quota, patients/day, hours/day housework from Monday to Friday, idem weekend, people at home with special care, and family situation. Dependent variables: 24 professional activities in management, teaching, research, and the scientific community. Self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Response: 73.6%. Female physicians: 50.8%. Age: female physicians, 49.1 ± 4.3 yrs; male physicians, 51.3 ± 4.9 yrs (p < 0.001). Female physicians with FMS: 44.2%, male physicians with FMS: 33.3% (p < 0.001). Female physicians dedicated more hours to housework and more frequently lived alone versus male physicians. There were no differences in healthcare variables. Thirteen of the studied activities were less frequently performed by female physicians, indicating their lesser visibility in the production and diffusion of scientific knowledge. Performance of the majority of professional activities was independent of the health center in which the physician worked. Conclusions There are gender inequities in the development of professional activities in urban health centers in Andalusia, even after controlling for family responsibilities, work load, and the effect of the health center, which was important in only a few of the activities under study

  8. Physician Care Patterns and Adherence to Postpartum Glucose Testing after Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Monica L.; Donatelle, Rebecca J.; Lindsay, Karen; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines obstetrician/gynecologists and family medicine physicians' reported care patterns, attitudes and beliefs and predictors of adherence to postpartum testing in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Research Design and Methods In November–December 2005, a mailed survey went to a random, cross-sectional sample of 683 Oregon licensed physicians in obstetrician/gynecologists and family medicine from a population of 2171. Results Routine postpartum glucose tolerance testing by both family physicians (19.3%) and obstetrician/gynecologists physicians (35.3%) was reportedly low among the 285 respondents (42% response rate). Factors associated with high adherence to postpartum testing included physician stated priority (OR 4.39, 95% CI: 1.69–7.94) and physician beliefs about norms or typical testing practices (OR 3.66, 95% CI: 1.65–11.69). Specialty, sex of physician, years of practice, location, type of practice, other attitudes and beliefs were not associated with postpartum glucose tolerance testing. Conclusions Postpartum glucose tolerance testing following a gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy was not routinely practiced by responders to this survey. Our findings indicate that physician knowledge, attitudes and beliefs may in part explain suboptimal postpartum testing. Although guidelines for postpartum care are established, some physicians do not prioritize these guidelines in practice and do not believe postpartum testing is the norm among their peers. PMID:23071709

  9. Assessing the Proximity Relationship of Walk-in Clinics and Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Alissa; Revere, Lee; Ramphul, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    This article evaluates the spatial relationship between primary care provider clinics and walk-in clinics. Using ZIP code level data from Harris County, Texas, the results suggest that primary care physicians and walk-in clinics are similarly located at lower rates in geographic areas with populations of lower socioeconomic status. Although current clinic location choices effectively broaden the gap in primary care access for the lower income population, the growing number of newly insured individuals may make it increasingly attractive for walk-in clinics to locate in geographic areas with populations of lower socioeconomic status and less competition from primary care physicians. PMID:27576053

  10. Electronic medical records and physician stress in primary care: results from the MEMO Study

    PubMed Central

    Babbott, Stewart; Manwell, Linda Baier; Brown, Roger; Montague, Enid; Williams, Eric; Schwartz, Mark; Hess, Erik; Linzer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Little has been written about physician stress that may be associated with electronic medical records (EMR). Objective We assessed relationships between the number of EMR functions, primary care work conditions, and physician satisfaction, stress and burnout. Design and participants 379 primary care physicians and 92 managers at 92 clinics from New York City and the upper Midwest participating in the 2001–5 Minimizing Error, Maximizing Outcome (MEMO) Study. A latent class analysis identified clusters of physicians within clinics with low, medium and high EMR functions. Main measures We assessed physician-reported stress, burnout, satisfaction, and intent to leave the practice, and predictors including time pressure during visits. We used a two-level regression model to estimate the mean response for each physician cluster to each outcome, adjusting for physician age, sex, specialty, work hours and years using the EMR. Effect sizes (ES) of these relationships were considered small (0.14), moderate (0.39), and large (0.61). Key results Compared to the low EMR cluster, physicians in the moderate EMR cluster reported more stress (ES 0.35, p=0.03) and lower satisfaction (ES −0.45, p=0.006). Physicians in the high EMR cluster indicated lower satisfaction than low EMR cluster physicians (ES −0.39, p=0.01). Time pressure was associated with significantly more burnout, dissatisfaction and intent to leave only within the high EMR cluster. Conclusions Stress may rise for physicians with a moderate number of EMR functions. Time pressure was associated with poor physician outcomes mainly in the high EMR cluster. Work redesign may address these stressors. PMID:24005796

  11. Teleconferenced Educational Detailing: Diabetes Education for Primary Care Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stewart B.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Van, Daphne M.; O'Neill, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Formal didactic continuing medical education (CME) is relatively ineffective for changing physician behavior. Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent disease, and interventions to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are needed. Methods: A stratified, cluster-randomized, controlled trial design was used to…

  12. Alabama Physicians and Accountable Care Organizations: Will What We Don't Know Hurt Us?

    PubMed

    Powell, M Paige; Post, Lindsey R; Bishop, Blake A

    2016-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) were designed to improve the quality of care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries while also halting the growth in Medicare spending. Many existing health systems in the Northeast, Midwest, and West have formed ACOs, whereas implementation in Southern states has been slower. The study team conducted a survey of all physician members of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama to determine the likelihood of their participation in an ACO and their attitudes toward some of the characteristics, such as quality measures, regulations, and risks versus rewards. The team found that many physicians reported a lack of knowledge about these areas. Physicians who reported that they were either likely or not likely to participate overwhelmingly held unfavorable attitudes about ACOs. It would be advantageous for Alabama physicians to become more knowledgeable about ACOs in the case that they become a more predominant form of care delivery in the future. PMID:25414377

  13. Palliative care by family physicians in the 1990s. Resilience amid reform.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, F.; McIntyre, P.; Twohig, P.; Cummings, I.; Kaufman, D.; Frager, G.; Pollett, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore issues family physicians face in providing community-based palliative care to their patients in the context of a changing health care system. DESIGN: Focus groups. SETTING: Small (< 10,000 population), medium-sized (10,000 to 50,000), and large (> 50,000) communities in Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five men and women physicians with varying years of practice experience in both solo and group practices. METHOD: A semistructured approach was used, asking physicians to reflect on recent palliative care experiences in order to explore issues of care. MAIN FINDINGS: Five themes emerged from the discussions: resources needed, availability of family support, time and money supporting physicians' activities, symptom control for patients, and physicians' emotional reactions to caring for dying patients. CONCLUSION: With downsizing of hospitals and greater emphasis on community-based care, the issues identified in this study will need attention, particularly in designing an integrated service delivery model for palliative care. PMID:11723593

  14. An Evolving Identity: How Chronic Care Is Transforming What it Means to Be a Physician.

    PubMed

    Bogetz, Alyssa L; Bogetz, Jori F

    2015-12-01

    Physician identity and the professional role physicians play in health care is rapidly evolving. Over 130 million adults and children in the USA have complex and chronic diseases, each of which is shaped by aspects of the patient's social, psychological, and economic status. These patients have lifelong health care needs that require the ongoing care of multiple health care providers, access to community services, and the involvement of patients' family support networks. To date, physician professional identity formation has centered on autonomy, authority, and the ability to "heal." These notions of identity may be counterproductive in chronic disease care, which demands interdependency between physicians, their patients, and teams of multidisciplinary health care providers. Medical educators can prepare trainees for practice in the current health care environment by providing training that legitimizes and reinforces a professional identity that emphasizes this interdependency. This commentary outlines the important challenges related to this change and suggests potential strategies to reframe professional identity to better match the evolving role of physicians today. PMID:24809687

  15. 38 CFR 17.56 - Payment for non-VA physician and other health care professional services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...' (CMS) participating physician fee schedule for the period in which the service is provided (see 42 CFR... physician and other health care professional services. 17.56 Section 17.56 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans...-VA physician and other health care professional services. (a) Except for anesthesia services,...

  16. Word of mouth and physician referrals still drive health care provider choice.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ha T; Lauer, Johanna R

    2008-12-01

    Sponsors of health care price and quality transparency initiatives often identify all consumers as their target audiences, but the true audiences for these programs are much more limited. In 2007, only 11 percent of American adults looked for a new primary care physician, 28 percent needed a new specialist physician and 16 percent underwent a medical procedure at a new facility, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Among consumers who found a new provider, few engaged in active shopping or considered price or quality information--especially when choosing specialists or facilities for medical procedures. When selecting new primary care physicians, half of all consumers relied on word-of-mouth recommendations from friends and relatives, but many also used doctor recommendations (38%) and health plan information (35%), and nearly two in five used multiple information sources when choosing a primary care physician. However, when choosing specialists and facilities for medical procedures, most consumers relied exclusively on physician referrals. Use of online provider information was low, ranging from 3 percent for consumers undergoing procedures to 7 percent for consumers choosing new specialists to 11 percent for consumers choosing new primary care physicians PMID:19054900

  17. Caring for oneself to care for others: physicians and their self-care

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise; Bernacki, Rachelle; O'Neill, Lynn; Kapo, Jennifer; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S.; Thomas, Jane deLima

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that clinicians experience distress and grief in response to their patients' suffering. Oncologists and palliative care specialists are no exception since they commonly experience patient loss and are often affected by unprocessed grief. These emotions can compromise clinicians' personal well-being, since unexamined emotions may lead to burnout, moral distress, compassion fatigue, and poor clinical decisions which adversely affect patient care. One approach to mitigate this harm is self-care, defined as a cadre of activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain personal well-being throughout life. This article emphasizes the importance of having a self-care and self-awareness plan when caring for patients with life-limiting cancer and discusses validated methods to increase self-care, enhance self-awareness and improve patient care. PMID:23967495

  18. Educational outreach and collaborative care enhances physician's perceived knowledge about Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robin; Missiuna, Cheryl; Egan, Mary; McLean, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental condition that affects 5–6% of children. When not recognized and properly managed during the child's development, DCD can lead to academic failure, mental health problems and poor physical fitness. Physicians, working in collaboration with rehabilitation professionals, are in an excellent position to recognize and manage DCD. This study was designed to determine the feasibility and impact of an educational outreach and collaborative care model to improve chronic disease management of children with DCD. Methods The intervention included educational outreach and collaborative care for children with suspected DCD. Physicians were educated by and worked with rehabilitation professionals from February 2005 to April 2006. Mixed methods evaluation approach documented the process and impact of the intervention. Results Physicians: 750 primary care physicians from one major urban area and outlying regions were invited to participate; 147 physicians enrolled in the project. Children: 125 children were identified and referred with suspected DCD. The main outcome was improvement in knowledge and perceived skill of physicians concerning their ability to screen, diagnose and manage DCD. At baseline 91.1% of physicians were unaware of the diagnosis of DCD, and only 1.6% could diagnose condition. Post-intervention, 91% of participating physicians reported greater knowledge about DCD and 29.2% were able to diagnose DCD compared to 0.5% of non-participating physicians. 100% of physicians who participated in collaborative care indicated they would continue to use the project materials and resources and 59.4% reported they would recommend or share the materials with medical colleagues. In addition, 17.6% of physicians not formally enrolled in the project reported an increase in knowledge of DCD. Conclusion Physicians receiving educational outreach visits significantly improved their knowledge about

  19. Patient-care time allocation by nurse practitioners and physician assistants in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Use of nurse practitioners and physician assistants ("affiliates") is increasing significantly in the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite this, few data exist on how affiliates allocate their time in the ICU. The purpose of this study was to understand the allocation of affiliate time into patient-care and non-patient-care activity, further dividing the time devoted to patient care into billable service and equally important but nonbillable care. Methods We conducted a quasi experimental study in seven ICUs in an academic hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. After a period of self-reporting, a one-time monetary incentive of $2,500 was offered to 39 affiliates in each ICU in which every affiliate documented greater than 75% of their time devoted to patient care over a 6-month period in an effort to understand how affiliates allocated their time throughout a shift. Documentation included billable time (critical care, evaluation and management, procedures) and a new category ("zero charge time"), which facilitated record keeping of other patient-care activities. Results At baseline, no ICUs had documentation of 75% patient-care time by all of its affiliates. In the 6 months in which reporting was tied to a group incentive, six of seven ICUs had every affiliate document greater than 75% of their time. Individual time documentation increased from 53% to 84%. Zero-charge time accounted for an average of 21% of each shift. The most common reason was rounding, which accounted for nearly half of all zero-charge time. Sign out, chart review, and teaching were the next most common zero-charge activities. Documentation of time spent on billable activities also increased from 53% of an affiliate's shift to 63%. Time documentation was similar regardless of during which shift an affiliate worked. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of an affiliate's shift is spent providing billable services to patients. Greater than 20% of each shift is spent providing

  20. Umbilical cord blood: a guide for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul L; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Hesse, Brett

    2011-09-15

    Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplants are used to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. Physicians have an important role in educating, counseling, and offering umbilical cord blood donation and storage options to patients. Parents may donate their infant's cord blood to a public bank, pay to store it in a private bank, or have it discarded. The federal government and many state governments have passed laws and issued regulations regarding umbilical cord blood, and some states require physicians to discuss cord blood options with pregnant women. Five prominent medical organizations have published recommendations about cord blood donation and storage. Current guidelines recommend donation of umbilical cord blood to public banks when possible, or storage through the Related Donor Cord Blood Program when a sibling has a disease that may require a stem cell transplant. Experts do not currently recommend private banking for unidentified possible future use. Step-by-step guidance and electronic resources are available to physicians whose patients are considering saving or donating their infant's umbilical cord blood. PMID:21916391

  1. Religion, spirituality, health and medicine: why should Indian physicians care?

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S

    2007-01-01

    Religion, spirituality, health and medicine have common roots in the conceptual framework of relationship amongst human beings, nature and God. Of late, there has been a surge in interest in understanding the interplay of religion, spirituality, health and medicine, both in popular and scientific literature. A number of published empirical studies suggest that religious involvement is associated with better outcomes in physical and mental health. Despite some methodological limitations, these studies do point towards a positive association between religious involvement and better health. When faced with disease, disability and death, many patients would like physicians to address their emotional and spiritual needs, as well. The renewed interest in the interaction of religion and spirituality with health and medicine has significant implications in the Indian context. Although religion is translated as dharma in major Indian languages, dharma and religion are etymologically different and dharma is closer to spirituality than religion as an organized institution. Religion and spirituality play important roles in the lives of millions of Indians and therefore, Indian physicians need to respectfully acknowledge religious issues and address the spiritual needs of their patients. Incorporating religion and spirituality into health and medicine may also go a long way in making the practice of medicine more holistic, ethical and compassionate. It may also offer new opportunities to learn more about Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine and have more enriched understanding and collaborative interaction between different systems of medicine. Indian physicians may also find religion and spirituality significant and fulfilling in their own lives. PMID:18097118

  2. Factors explaining the increase in cost for physician care in Quebec's elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Demers, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine what role demographic factors and increases in physician fees and utilization played in the rise in costs of physician services provided for elderly people in Quebec between 1982 and 1992, and to investigate changes in patterns of care (type and amount of services) related to utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective study of population-based data. SETTING: Province of Quebec. SUBJECTS: Elderly people (65 years of age and over) in Quebec in 1982 (n = 589,800) and in 1992 (n = 803,600). OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of the increase in physician care costs attributable to (a) aging (defined as a shift in the age distribution) of the elderly population, (b) the increase in the size of the elderly population, (c) the increase in physician fees and (d) the increase in utilization of physician services; proportion of care provided by general practitioners (GPs) and by specialists; proportion of minor and complete examinations provided by GPs; and rates of hospital admissions and surgery. RESULTS: Aging was responsible for 0.5% of the increase in physician care costs between 1982 and 1992, population growth for 27.0% and the increase in physician fees for 25.5%. The increased utilization accounted for 47.0% of the total cost increase. Analyses of the utilization data revealed a shift toward more costly services, more visits to specialists and higher rates of hospital admissions and surgery in 1992 than in 1982. CONCLUSIONS: Aging and population growth had minor effects on the increase in physician care costs between 1982 and 1992. Increased utilization was the most important factor. The appropriateness of this trend needs to be verified. PMID:8956832

  3. AIDS-related experiences of primary care physicians in rural California, 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, C E

    1996-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted of primary care physicians in nonmetropolitan counties of California. In a random sample of those counties reporting fewer than 30 cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as of December 1994, all physicians in practice were called; in counties reporting from 31 to 150 cases of AIDS as of the same date, a 30% random sample was selected for interviewing. Completion rates were 82% in the smallest counties and 70% in the larger counties (overall 72%). Two thirds of physicians reported that they had seen a patient positive for the human immunodeficiency virus and were providing continuing care for the disease. In all, 60% of physicians had seen a patient with AIDS. In these counties, there were 653 primary care physicians and 873 patients living with AIDS. The proportion of physicians providing care to persons with AIDS was twice that reported in previous surveys done in Los Angeles, California. In the interval (1985-1994), there was a 20-fold increase in the number of AIDS cases in California. In the nonmetropolitan areas, the number of AIDS cases in late 1994 was 290 times that reported in 1985. PMID:8686298

  4. From physician to consumer: the effectiveness of strategies to manage health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Smith, Maureen A; Davis, Margaret K

    2002-12-01

    Many strategies are commonly used to influence physician behavior in managed care organizations. This review examines the effectiveness of three mechanisms to influence physician behavior: financial incentives directed at providers or patients, policies/procedures for managing care, and the selection/education of both providers and patients. The authors reach three conclusions. First, all health care systems use financial incentives, but these mechanisms are shifting away from financial incentives directed at the physician to those directed at the consumer. Second, heavily procedural strategies such as utilization review and gatekeeping show some evidence of effectiveness but are highly unpopular due to their restrictions on physician and patient choice. Third, a future system built on consumer choice is contradicted by mechanisms that rely solely on narrow networks of providers or the education of physicians. If patients become the new locus of decision making in health care, provider-focused mechanisms to influence physician behavior will not disappear but are likely to decline in importance. PMID:12508705

  5. An Approach to Training and Retaining Primary Care Physicians in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Allan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine's success in educating and retaining primary care physicians for practice in rural Appalachia is ascribed to its focused mission; a multistate student exchange program; careful recruitment, admission, and placement; early clinical training in rural sites; and status as a state-supported institution.…

  6. Comparison of Healthcare Quality Outcomes Between Accountable Care Organizations and Physician Group Practices.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhchain; Khosla, Sandeep; Sethi, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) were created under the Affordable Care Act to deliver better quality of care at reduced cost compare with the traditional fee-for-service model. But their effectiveness in achieving healthcare quality metrics is unclear. We analyzed ACO and physician group practice (PGP) performance rates for the single coronary artery disease measure and four diabetes mellitus measures now publicly reported on the Medicare Physician Compare Web site for program year 2012. There was no statistically significant difference in reported quality measures between ACOs and PGPs. Our study shows that PGPs can achieve outcomes at par with ACOs. PMID:26223106

  7. Cutting out the middleman: physicians can contract directly with employers--a viable alternative to adversarial managed care agreements.

    PubMed

    Lester, Howard

    2002-01-01

    HMOs, PPOs, and other managed care "middlemen" control the means by which most physicians do business with employers. As physicians face dwindling reimbursements, greater practice restrictions, and increased pressure to sign adversarial middleman contracts, interest in direct contracting has grown. This article introduces direct contracting as an important alternative to commercial managed care agreements; cites the key advantages and process of direct contracting; and offers practical recommendations for helping physician practices successfully negotiate direct physician/employer agreements. PMID:12534262

  8. Teamwork and Patient Care Teams in an Acute Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Andrea; Heale, Roberta; Hunt, Elena; Parent, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The literature suggests that effective teamwork among patient care teams can positively impact work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived level of nursing teamwork by registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers and unit clerks working on patient care teams in one acute care hospital in northern Ontario, Canada, and to determine if a relationship exists between the staff scores on the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) and participant perception of adequate staffing. Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, 600 staff members were invited to complete the NTS and a 33% response rate was achieved (N=200). The participants from the critical care unit reported the highest scores on the NTS, whereas participants from the inpatient surgical (IPS) unit reported the lowest scores. Participants from the IPS unit also reported having less experience, being younger, having less satisfaction in their current position and having a higher intention to leave. A high rate of intention to leave in the next year was found among all participants. No statistically significant correlation was found between overall scores on the NTS and the perception of adequate staffing. Strategies to increase teamwork, such as staff education, among patient care teams may positively influence job satisfaction and patient care on patient care units. PMID:26560255

  9. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care. PMID:26595370

  10. Medicare program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system and fiscal year 2015 rates; quality reporting requirements for specific providers; reasonable compensation equivalents for physician services in excluded hospitals and certain teaching hospitals; provider administrative appeals and judicial review; enforcement provisions for organ transplant centers; and electronic health record (EHR) incentive program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-08-22

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, and other legislation. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, unless otherwise specified in this final rule. We also are updating the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2014. We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014. In addition, we discuss our proposals on the interruption of stay policy for LTCHs and on retiring the "5 percent" payment adjustment for collocated LTCHs. While many of the statutory mandates of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act apply to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2014, others will not begin to apply until 2016 and beyond. In addition, we are making a number of changes relating to direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) payments. We are establishing new requirements or revising requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that

  11. Effects of the Israel physicians' strike on the treatment and outcome of acute appendicitis in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Ellencweig, A Y; Ginat-Israeli, T

    1990-10-01

    We sought to determine whether a prolonged physicians' strike causes changes in the delivery of health care and in the behavior of health care seekers? We compared appendectomy patients during the 1983 physicians' strike in Israel and during a control period in 1984, by analyzing the records of 171 patients in two Jerusalem hospitals. Patients had similar demographic characteristics and disease manifestation, but differed in their health care seeking behavior. The 1983 patients tended to postpone their first contact with the health system and frequently failed to present themselves for a follow-up visit after discharge. Control group patients were more likely to receive preoperative antibiotics and less likely to develop postoperative fever than the strike group patients. The findings confirmed that the differences between the strike and control groups were caused by administrative barriers resulting from the strike rather than by differences in actual medical treatment. PMID:2249930

  12. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Elizabeth N; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although the medical profession strives for equal treatment of all patients, disparities in health care are prevalent. Cultural stereotypes may not be consciously endorsed, but their mere existence influences how information about an individual is processed and leads to unintended biases in decision-making, so called "implicit bias". All of society is susceptible to these biases, including physicians. Research suggests that implicit bias may contribute to health care disparities by shaping physician behavior and producing differences in medical treatment along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics. We review the origins of implicit bias, cite research documenting the existence of implicit bias among physicians, and describe studies that demonstrate implicit bias in clinical decision-making. We then present the bias-reducing strategies of consciously taking patients' perspectives and intentionally focusing on individual patients' information apart from their social group. We conclude that the contribution of implicit bias to health care disparities could decrease if all physicians acknowledged their susceptibility to it, and deliberately practiced perspective-taking and individuation when providing patient care. We further conclude that increasing the number of African American/Black physicians could reduce the impact of implicit bias on health care disparities because they exhibit significantly less implicit race bias. PMID:23576243

  13. Diabetes Mellitus Care Provided by Nurse Practitioners vs Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.; Chen, Nai-Wei; Lwin, Kyaw K.; Baillargeon, Jacques; Raji, Mukaila A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare processes and cost of care of older adults with diabetes mellitus cared for by nurse practitioners (NPs) with processes and cost of those cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care in communities. Participants Individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in 2009 who received all their primary care from NPs or PCPs were selected from a national sample of Medicare beneficiaries (N = 64,354). Measurements Propensity score matching within each state was used to compare these two cohorts with regard to rate of eye examinations, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) testing, nephropathy monitoring, specialist consultation, and Medicare costs. The two groups were also compared regarding medication adherence and use of statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (for individuals with a diagnosis of hypertension), and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Results Nurse practitioners and PCPs had similar rates of LDL-C testing (odds ratio (OR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94–1.09) and nephropathy monitoring (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.98–1.03), but NPs had lower rates of eye examinations (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84– 0.93) and HbA1C testing (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79– 0.98). NPs were more likely to have consulted cardiologists (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.21–1.37), endocrinologists (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.48–1.82), and nephrologists (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.67–2.17) and more likely to have prescribed PIMs (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.12). There was no statistically significant difference in adjusted Medicare spending between the two groups (P = .56). Conclusion Nurse practitioners were similar to PCPs or slightly lower in their rates of diabetes mellitus guideline–concordant care. NPs used specialist consultations more often but had similar overall costs of care to PCPs. PMID:26480967

  14. Building relationships with physicians. Internal marketing efforts help strengthen organizational bonds at a rural health care clinic.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J W; Boyt, T; Westfall, J E

    1997-01-01

    Physician turnover is costly for health care organizations, especially for rural organizations. One approach management can take to reduce turnover is to promote physician loyalty by treating them as an important customer segment. The authors develop an information--oriented framework for generating physician loyalty and illustrate how this framework has helped to eliminate physician turnover at a rural health care clinic. Rural health care organizations must develop a more internal marketing orientation in their approach to establishing strong relationship bonds with physicians. PMID:10173904

  15. Independent practice associations and physician-hospital organizations can improve care management for smaller practices.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Wu, Frances M; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Pay-for-performance, public reporting, and accountable care organization programs place pressures on physicians to use health information technology and organized care management processes to improve the care they provide. But physician practices that are not large may lack the resources and size to implement such processes. We used data from a unique national survey of 1,164 practices with fewer than twenty physicians to provide the first information available on the extent to which independent practice associations (IPAs) and physician-hospital organizations (PHOs) might make it possible for these smaller practices to share resources to improve care. Nearly a quarter of the practices participated in an IPA or a PHO that accounted for a significant proportion of their patients. On average, practices participating in these organizations provided nearly three times as many care management processes for patients with chronic conditions as nonparticipating practices did (10.4 versus 3.8). Half of these processes were provided only by IPAs or PHOs. These organizations may provide a way for small and medium-size practices to systematically improve care and participate in accountable care organizations. PMID:23918481

  16. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32–0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was

  17. Development of scales to assess patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rukhsana; Bates, Benjamin R

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development of scales to measure patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions and thus contributes to promoting awareness of physician-patient intercultural interaction processes. Surveys were administrated to a total of 682 participants. Exploratory factor analyses were employed to assess emergent scales and subscales to develop reliable instruments. The first two phases were devoted to formative research and pilot study. The third phase was devoted to scale development, which resulted in a five-factor solution to measure patient perception of physicians' cultural competence for patient satisfaction. PMID:22477717

  18. Rural physicians, rural networks, and free market health care in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, T C; James, P; Fox, C; Wysong, J; FitzPatrick, P G

    1997-01-01

    The changes brought about by managed care in America's urban communities will have profound effects on rural physicians and hospitals. The rural health care market characterized by small, independent group practices working with community hospitals is being offered affiliations with large, often urban-based health care organizations. Health care is evolving into a free market system characterized by large networks of organizations capable of serving whole regions. Rural provider-initiated networks can assure local representation when participating in the new market and improve the rural health infrastructure. Although an extensive review of the literature from 1970 to 1996 reveals little definitive research about networks, many rural hospitals have embraced networking as one strategy to unify health care systems with minimal capitalization. These networks, now licensed in Minnesota and New York, offer rural physicians the opportunity to team up with their community hospital and enhance local health care accessibility. PMID:9225701

  19. Osteoporosis management in long-term care. Survey of Ontario physicians.

    PubMed Central

    McKercher, H. G.; Crilly, R. G.; Kloseck, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To survey physicians in Ontario regarding their approach to diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis among residents of long-term care facilities. DESIGN: Mailed questionnaire covering physician demographics; current clinical practice relating to osteoporosis; and perceived barriers to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. SETTING: Long-term care facilities in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Medical directors of long-term care facilities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic variables; physician attitudes; and practices concerning awareness, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. RESULTS: Respondents returned 275 of 490 questionnaires, for a response rate of 56.1%. Most respondents (92.4%) were family physicians; 28.7% were caring for more than 100 patients in long-term care. Most (85.8%) saw from one to 10 hip fractures yearly in their practices. Although 49.6% of respondents estimated the prevalence of osteoporosis to be 40% to 80% among their long-term care patients, 45.5% said that they did not routinely assess their patients for the disease, and 26.8% do not routinely treat it. Half (50.9%) of physicians would treat patients at high risk based on clinical history; 47.9% if patients had a vertebral compression fracture on plain x-ray examination; 43.8% if patients were highly functional; 42.0% if osteoporosis were confirmed with bone mineral densitometry; and 30.0% if patients had a recent fracture. Perceived barriers to initiating treatment included cost of therapy, patient or family reluctance to accept therapy, and time or cost of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Although physicians are aware that patients in long-term care facilities are at high risk for osteoporosis and hip fractures, the disease remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:11143582

  20. A guide to the management of urologic dilemmas for the primary care physician (PCP).

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jack; Rosenberg, Matt T; Miner, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Patients with urologic conditions may present to a primary care physician (PCP) in the emergency department or in the PCP's office. Some conditions are true emergencies that require immediate surgical intervention. Others may require medical treatment or possibly simply reassuring the patient that there is no serious medical problem. Sometimes the diagnosis can be easily made, whereas other times the PCP needs to be able to rule out serious causes for a presenting problem and execute a guideline-recommended patient work up, to make a final diagnosis. Sometimes recommended diagnostic tests may not be readily available. When a PCP believes that a patient may have a serious urologic condition and is unsure of the appropriate patient management strategy, then he or she must quickly refer the patient to a urologist. This article describes common urology-related issues-hematuria, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test interpretation, phimosis and paraphimosis, acute scrotal pain and masses in the child and adult, urinary tract infection, renal colic, and castration-treatment-induced bone loss. It provides insights into decision-making processes for patient management of some urologic conditions, and information about managing sequelae and side effects of long term treatment. It includes practical diagnostic suggestions and patient management strategies based on the authors' years of urologic clinical practice experience. PMID:24978632

  1. Managing Osteoporosis: A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices among Primary Care Physicians in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Elena; Ish-Shalom, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by impaired bone quality and microstructural deterioration leading to an increased propensity to fractures. This is a major health problem for older adults, which comprise an increasingly greater proportion of the general population. Due to a large number of patients and the insufficient availability of specialists in Israel and worldwide, osteoporosis is treated in large part by primary care physicians. We assessed the knowledge of primary care physicians on the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Methods Physician's knowledge, sources of knowledge acquisition and self-evaluation of knowledge were assessed using a multiple choice questionnaire. Professional and demographic characteristics were assessed as well. Results Of 490 physicians attending a conference, 363 filled the questionnaires (74% response rate). The physicians demonstrated better expertise in diagnosis than in medications (mechanism of action, side effects or contra-indications) but less than for other treatment related decisions. Overall, 50% demonstrated adequate knowledge of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, 51% were aware of the main therapeutic purpose of osteoporosis pharmacotherapy and 3% were aware that bisphosphonates should be avoided in patients with impaired renal function. Respondents stated frontal lectures at meetings as their main source of information on the subject. Conclusion The study indicates the need to intensify efforts to improve the knowledge of primary care physicians regarding osteoporosis, in general; and osteoporosis pharmacotherapy, in particular. PMID:27494284

  2. Nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among primary care physicians in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, S P; Wu, M Y; Liu, J F

    1997-10-01

    A questionnaire completed by 331 primary health care physicians in Taiwan revealed deficiencies in nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Questionnaires were sent to all 1210 physicians on the mailing list of the National Health Administration; the response rate was 27%. Physicians answered 59% of the 26 knowledge-related questions correctly. The highest proportion of correct responses was obtained for questions related to nutrient functions and nutrition during pregnancy (both 70.6%), while the lowest was recorded for the item concerning nutritional assessment (42%). Overall, physicians considered nutrition to be important in their personal and clinical practice. However, only 78% expressed agreement with the statement that nutrition consultation should be a part of health care. Nutrition knowledge was higher among female physicians, those under 35 years of age, and non-smokers. Finally, there was a significant correlation between nutrition knowledge and attitudes. Although this study is limited by the poor response rate, the results indicate a need for improvements in the basic nutritional knowledge and practices of primary care physicians in Taiwan. PMID:9322193

  3. Physician Practice Participation in Accountable Care Organizations: The Emergence of the Unicorn

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, Stephen M; McClellan, Sean R; Ramsay, Patricia P; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide the first nationally based information on physician practice involvement in ACOs. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data from the third National Survey of Physician Organizations (January 2012–May 2013). Study Design We conducted a 40-minute phone survey in a sample of physician practices. A nationally representative sample of practices was surveyed in order to provide estimates of organizational characteristics, care management processes, ACO participation, and related variables for four major chronic illnesses. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We evaluated the associations between ACO participation, organizational characteristics, and a 25-point index of patient-centered medical home processes. Principal Findings We found that 23.7 percent of physician practices (n = 280) reported joining an ACO; 15.7 percent (n = 186) were planning to become involved within the next 12 months and 60.6 percent (n = 717) reported no involvement and no plans to become involved. Larger practices, those receiving patients from an IPA and/or PHO, those that were physician-owned versus hospital/health system-owned, those located in New England, and those with greater patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care management processes were more likely to have joined an ACO. Conclusions Physician practices that are currently participating in ACOs appear to be relatively large, or to be members of an IPA or PHO, are less likely to be hospital-owned and are more likely to use more care management processes than nonparticipating practices. PMID:24628449

  4. Employed Family Physician Satisfaction and Commitment to Their Practice, Work Group, and Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Beasley, John W; Brown, Roger L

    2010-01-01

    Objective Test a model of family physician job satisfaction and commitment. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 1,482 family physicians in a Midwest state during 2000–2001. The sampling frame came from the membership listing of the state's family physician association, and the analyzed dataset included family physicians employed by large multispecialty group practices. Study Design and Data Collection A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data about physician working conditions, job satisfaction, commitment, and demographic variables. Principal Findings The response rate was 47 percent. Different variables predicted the different measures of satisfaction and commitment. Satisfaction with one's health care organization (HCO) was most strongly predicted by the degree to which physicians perceived that management valued and recognized them and by the extent to which physicians perceived the organization's goals to be compatible with their own. Satisfaction with one's workgroup was most strongly predicted by the social relationship with members of the workgroup; satisfaction with one's practice was most strongly predicted by relationships with patients. Commitment to one's workgroup was predicted by relationships with one's workgroup. Commitment to one's HCO was predicted by relationships with management of the HCO. Conclusions Social relationships are stronger predictors of employed family physician satisfaction and commitment than staff support, job control, income, or time pressure. PMID:20070386

  5. Physician's self-perceived abilities at primary care settings in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Istiono, Wahyudi; Claramita, Mora; Ekawati, Fitriana Murriya; Gayatri, Aghnaa; Sutomo, Adi Heru; Kusnanto, Hari; Graber, Mark Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Southeast Asian countries with better-skilled primary care physicians have been shown to have better health outcomes. However, in Indonesia, there has been a large number of inappropriate referrals, leading to suboptimal health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the reasons underlying the unnecessary referrals as related to Indonesian physicians’ standard of abilities. Materials and Methods: This was a multiple-case study that explored physicians’ self-evaluation of their abilities. Self-evaluation questionnaires were constructed from the Indonesian Standards of Physicians Competences of 2006-2012 (ISPC), which is a list of 155 diseases. This study was undertaken in three cities, three towns, and one “border-less developed” area during 2011-2014. The study involved 184 physicians in those seven districts. Data were collected using one-on-one, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), and clinical observations. Results: This study found that primary care physicians in Indonesia felt that they were competent to handle less than one-third of “typical” primary care cases. The reasons were limited understanding of person-centered care principles and limited patient care services to diagnosis and treatment of common biomedical problems. Additionally, physical facilities in primary care settings are lacking. Discussions and Conclusions: Strengthening primary health care in Indonesia requires upscaling doctors’ abilities in managing health problems through more structured graduate education in family medicine, which emphasizes the bio-psycho-socio-cultural background of persons; secondly, standardizing primary care facilities to support physicians’ performance is critical. Finally, a strong national health policy that recognizes the essential role of primary care physicians in health outcomes is an urgent need. PMID:26985415

  6. Who steers the ship? Rural family physicians' views on collaborative care models for patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Kosteniuk, Julie; Morgan, Debra; Innes, Anthea; Keady, John; Stewart, Norma; D'Arcy, Carl; Kirk, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the views of rural family physicians (FPs) regarding collaborative care models for patients with dementia. The study aims were to explore FPs' views regarding this issue, their role in providing dementia care, and the implications of providing dementia care in a rural setting. This study employed an exploratory qualitative design with a sample of 15 FPs. All rural FPs indicated acceptance of collaborative models. The main disadvantages of practicing rural were accessing urban-based health care and related services and a shortage of local health care resources. The primary benefit of practicing rural was FPs' social proximity to patients, families, and some health care workers. Rural FPs provided care for patients with dementia that took into account the emotional and practical needs of caregivers and families. FPs described positive and negative implications of rural dementia care, and all were receptive to models of care that included other health care professionals. PMID:23552172

  7. Hypoglycemia Revisited in the Acute Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shih-Hung; Lin, Yen-Yue; Hsu, Chin-Wang; Cheng, Chien-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common finding in both daily clinical practice and acute care settings. The causes of severe hypoglycemia (SH) are multi-factorial and the major etiologies are iatrogenic, infectious diseases with sepsis and tumor or autoimmune diseases. With the advent of aggressive lowering of HbA1c values to achieve optimal glycemic control, patients are at increased risk of hypoglycemic episodes. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia can cause recurrent morbidity, sometime irreversible neurologic complications and even death, and further preclude maintenance of euglycemia over a lifetime of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that hypoglycemia is associated with adverse outcomes in many acute illnesses. In addition, hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality among elderly and non-diabetic hospitalized patients. Clinicians should have high clinical suspicion of subtle symptoms of hypoglycemia and provide prompt treatment. Clinicians should know that hypoglycemia is associated with considerable adverse outcomes in many acute critical illnesses. In order to reduce hypoglycemia-associated morbidity and mortality, timely health education programs and close monitoring should be applied to those diabetic patients presenting to the Emergency Department with SH. ED disposition strategies should be further validated and justified to achieve balance between the benefits of euglycemia and the risks of SH. We discuss relevant issues regarding hypoglycemia in emergency and critical care settings. PMID:22028152

  8. Innovative generalist programs: academic health care centers respond to the shortage of generalist physicians.

    PubMed

    Urbina, C; Hickey, M; McHarney-Brown, C; Duban, S; Kaufman, A

    1994-04-01

    Academic health care centers increasingly are exploring innovative ways to increase the supply of generalist physicians. The authors review successful innovations at representative academic health centers in the areas of recruitment and admissions, undergraduate medical education, residency training, and practice support. Lessons learned focus on those areas that have demonstrated improvements in the number and quality of physicians trained in family practice, general pediatrics, and general internal medicine. Successful recruitment of generalism-oriented applicants requires identification and tracking of rural, minority, and other special groups of students at the high school and college levels. Academic health care centers that provide early, sustained, community-based, ambulatory experiences for medical students and residents encourage trainees to maintain and choose generalist careers. Finally, academic health care centers that link with community providers and with state government encourage the retention of generalist physicians through continuing education and teaching networks. PMID:8014749

  9. Public reporting helped drive quality improvement in outpatient diabetes care among Wisconsin physician groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maureen A; Wright, Alexandra; Queram, Christopher; Lamb, Geoffrey C

    2012-03-01

    Public reporting on the quality of ambulatory health care is growing, but knowledge of how physician groups respond to such reporting has not kept pace. We examined responses to public reporting on the quality of diabetes care in 409 primary care clinics within seventeen large, multispecialty physician groups. We determined that a focus on publicly reported metrics, along with participation in large or externally sponsored projects, increased a clinic's implementation of diabetes improvement interventions. Clinics were also more likely to implement interventions in more recent years. Public reporting helped drive both early implementation of a single intervention and ongoing implementation of multiple simultaneous interventions. To fully engage physician groups, accountability metrics should be structured to capture incremental improvements in quality, thereby rewarding both early and ongoing improvement activities. PMID:22392668

  10. Practicing End-of-Life Conversations: Physician Communication Training Program in Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Bronwyn; Browning, David M

    2015-01-01

    A Physician Communication Training Program (PCTP) utilizing scripts based on actual family conferences with patients, families, and the health care team was developed at one medical center in the Northeast. The program was designed, adapted, and directed by a palliative care social worker. The primary goal of the program is to help residents and attending physicians build better communication skills in establishing goals of care and in end-of-life planning. The scripts focus on improving physicians' basic skills in conducting family meetings, discussing advance directives, prognosis, brain death, and withdrawal of life support. Excerpts from the scripts utilized in the program are included. Feedback from participants has been positive, with all respondents indicating improvement in their capacity to take part in these challenging conversations. PMID:26380923

  11. Managed care regulation in the States: the impact on physicians' practices and clinical autonomy.

    PubMed

    Kronebusch, Karl; Schlesinger, Mark; Thomas, Tracey

    2009-04-01

    While the states engaged in an extended period of adopting and revising laws regulating managed care during the 1990s, there has been to date only limited empirical assessment of the impacts of these laws. For this analysis, we constructed a data set using information on state laws combined with survey responses of physicians. We distinguish regulations with a typology based on whether they affect the context or content of care and the target group of the regulation (consumer or provider). Our findings indicate that the context of care appears to be more efficaciously regulated than the content of care. Provisions concerning consumer access and contractual relationships lead to greater reported physician ability to obtain referrals and services, improved quality of clinical interactions, and greater perceived clinical autonomy. Regulations intended to enhance professional autonomy are associated with lower reported levels of utilization constraints and higher reported quality of clinical interactions. In contrast, consumer protection provisions, including procedures for appeals from plan decisions, appear to have had little impact on most physicians' practices. Despite structural and legal constraints on the potential effectiveness of these regulations, state managed care legislation appears to have provided some protections against managed care restrictions on physicians' clinical autonomy. PMID:19276317

  12. Prehospital care of the acute stroke patient.

    PubMed

    Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Saver, Jeffrey

    2005-06-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) is the first medical contact for most acute stroke patients, thereby playing a pivotal role in the identification and treatment of acute cerebrovascular brain injury. The benefit of thrombolysis and interventional therapies for acute ischemic stroke is highly time dependent, making rapid and effective EMS response of critical importance. In addition, the general public has suboptimal knowledge about stroke warning signs and the importance of activating the EMS system. In the past, the ability of EMS dispatchers to recognize stroke calls has been documented to be poor. Reliable stroke identification in the field enables appropriate treatment to be initiated in the field and potentially inappropriate treatment avoided; the receiving hospital to be prenotified of a stroke patient's imminent arrival, rapid transport to be initiated; and stroke patients to be diverted to stroke-capable receiving hospitals. In this article we discuss research studies and educational programs aimed at improving stroke recognition by EMS dispatchers, prehospital personnel, and emergency department (ED) physicians and how this has impacted stroke treatment. In addition public educational programs and importance of community awareness of stroke symptoms will be discussed. For example, general public's utilization of 911 system for stroke victims has been limited in the past. However, it has been repeatedly shown that utilization of the 911 system is associated with accelerated arrival times to the ED, crucial to timely treatment of stroke patients. Finally, improved stroke recognition in the field has led investigators to study in the field treatment of stroke patients with neuroprotective agents. The potential impact of this on future of stroke treatment will be discussed. PMID:16194754

  13. What Physicians from Diverse Specialties Know and Support in Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Ganjian, Sheila; Dowling, Patrick T.; Hove, Jason; Moreno, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Background The US is in an unprecedented era of health care reform that is pushing medical professionals and medical educators to evaluate the future of their patients, careers, and the field of medicine. Objectives To describe physician familiarity and knowledge with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and to determine if knowledge is associated with support and endorsement of the ACA. Methods Cross-sectional internet-based survey of 559 physicians practicing in California. Primary outcomes were physician support and endorsement of ACA: 1) overall impact on the country (1 item), and 2) perceived impact on physician’s medical practice (1 item). The primary predictor was knowledge of the ACA as measured with 10 questions. Other measures included age, gender, race-ethnicity, specialty, political views, provision of direct care, satisfaction with the practice of medicine, and compensation type. Descriptive statistics and multiple variable regression models were calculated. Results Respondents were 65% females, and the mean age was 54 years (+/− 9.7). Seventy-seven percent of physicians understood the ACA somewhat well/very well, and 59% endorsed the ACA, but 36% of physicians believed that health care reform will most likely hurt their practice. Primary care physicians were more likely to perceive that the new law will help their practice, compared to procedural specialties. Satisfaction with the practice of medicine, political affiliation, compensation type, and more knowledge of the health care law were independently associated with endorsement of the ACA. Conclusions Endorsement of the ACA varied by specialty, knowledge, and satisfaction with the practice of medicine. PMID:25853599

  14. Risks of Treated Insomnia, Anxiety, and Depression in Health Care-Seeking Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Wu, Ming-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract High occupational stress and burnout among physicians can lead to sleep problems, anxiety, depression, and even suicide. Even so, the actual risk for these behavioral health problems in health care-seeking physicians has been seldom explored. The aim of this study was to determine whether physicians have higher odds of treated insomnia, anxiety, and depression than the normal population. This is a nationwide population-based case–control study using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan for the years 2007 to 2011. Physicians were obtained from the Registry for Medical Personnel in 2009. Hospital physicians who had at least 3 coded ambulatory care claims or 1 inpatient claim with a principal diagnosis of insomnia, anxiety, or depression were identified. A total of 15,150 physicians and 45,450 matched controls were enrolled. Odd ratios (ORs) of insomnia, anxiety, and depression between physicians and their control counterparts were measured. The adjusted ORs for treated insomnia, anxiety, and depression among all studied physicians were 2.028 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.892–2.175), 1.103 (95% CI, 1.020–1.193), and 0.716 (95% CI, 0.630–0.813), respectively. All specialties of physicians had significantly higher ORs for treated insomnia; among the highest was the emergency specialty. The adjusted ORs for treated anxiety among male and female physicians were 1.136 (95% CI, 1.039–1.242) and 0.827 (95% CI, 0.686–0.997), respectively. Among specialties, psychiatry and “others” had significantly higher risks of anxiety. Obstetrics and gynecology and surgery specialties had significantly lower risks of anxiety. The adjusted ORs for treated depression among physicians in age groups 35 to 50 years and >50 years were 0.560 (95% CI, 0.459–0.683) and 0.770 (95% CI, 0.619–0.959), respectively. Those in the psychiatry specialty had significantly higher risks of depression; internal and surgery specialties had significant lower

  15. Secure e-mailing between physicians and patients: transformational change in ambulatory care.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Terhilda; Meng, Di; Wang, Jian J; Palen, Ted E; Kanter, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Secure e-mailing between Kaiser Permanente physicians and patients is widespread; primary care providers receive an average of 5 e-mails from patients each workday. However, on average, secure e-mailing with patients has not substantially impacted primary care provider workloads. Secure e-mail has been associated with increased member retention and improved quality of care. Separate studies associated patient portal and secure e-mail use with both decreased and increased use of other health care services, such as office visits, telephone encounters, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Directions for future research include more granular analysis of associations between patient-physician secure e-mail and health care utilization. PMID:24887522

  16. The adoption of the Reference Framework for diabetes care among primary care physicians in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C.S.; Wang, Harry H.X.; Kwan, Mandy W.M.; Chan, Wai Man; Fan, Carmen K.M.; Liang, Miaoyin; Li, Shannon TS; Fung, Franklin D.H.; Yeung, Ming Sze; Chan, David K.L.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been increasing both globally and locally. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are in a privileged position to provide first contact and continuing care for diabetic patients. A territory-wide Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults has been released by the Hong Kong Primary Care Office in 2010, with the aim to further enhance evidence-based and high quality care for diabetes in the primary care setting through wide adoption of the Reference Framework. A valid questionnaire survey was conducted among PCPs to evaluate the levels of, and the factors associated with, their adoption of the Reference Framework. A total of 414 completed surveys were received with the response rate of 13.0%. The average adoption score was 3.29 (SD 0.51) out of 4. Approximately 70% of PCPs highly adopted the Reference Framework in their routine practice. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the PCPs perceptions on the inclusion of sufficient local information (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.748, 95%CI 1.597–14.115, P = 0.005) and reduction of professional autonomy of PCPs (aOR = 1.859, 95%CI 1.013–3.411, P = 0.045) were more likely to influence their adoption level of the Reference Framework for diabetes care in daily practices. The overall level of guideline adoption was found to be relatively high among PCPs for adult diabetes in primary care settings. The adoption barriers identified in this study should be addressed in the continuous updating of the Reference Framework. Strategies need to be considered to enhance the guideline adoption and implementation capacity. PMID:27495018

  17. Attitudes towards prescribing cognitive enhancers among primary care physicians in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians are gate keepers to the medical system having a key role in giving information and prescribing drugs to their patients. In this respect they are involved in claims of patients/clients for pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement (CE). Therefore, we studied the knowledge of primary care physicians about CE and their attitudes toward prescribing CE drugs to healthy subjects. Methods A self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire and case vignettes describing a hypothetical CE drug were sent out to all 2,753 registered primary care physicians in Rhineland Palatine, Germany. 832, i.e. 30.2% filled in the questionnaire anonymously. Results 96.0% of all participating physicians had already heard about CE. However, only 5.3% stated to be very familiar with this subject and 43.5% judged themselves as being not familiar with CE. 7.0% had been asked by their clients to prescribe a drug for CE during the last week, 19.0% during the last month, and 40.8% during the last year. The comfort level to prescribe CE drugs was very low and significantly lower than to prescribe sildenafil (Viagra®). Comfort level was mainly affected by the age of the client asking for prescription of CE drugs, followed by the availability of non-pharmacological alternatives, fear of misuse of the prescribed drug by the client and the missing indication of prescribing a drug. Conclusions Although a relatively high proportion of primary care physicians have been asked by their clients to prescribe CE drugs, only a small proportion are well informed about the possibilities of CE. Since physicians are gate keepers to the medical system and have a key role regarding a drugs’ prescription, objective information should be made available to physicians about biological, ethical and social consequences of CE use. PMID:24397728

  18. Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Management in Primary Care by Sex of Physician and Patient

    PubMed Central

    Tabenkin, Hava; Eaton, Charles B.; Roberts, Mary B.; Parker, Donna R.; McMurray, Jerome H.; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors based upon the sex of the patient and physician and their interaction in primary care practice. METHODS We evaluated CVD risk factor management in 4,195 patients cared for by 39 male and 16 female primary care physicians in 30 practices in southeastern New England. RESULTS Many of the sex-based differences in CVD risk factor management on crude analysis are lost once adjusted for confounding factors found at the level of the patient, physician, and practice. In multilevel adjusted analyses, styles of CVD risk factor management differed by the sex of the physician, with more female physicians documenting diet and weight loss counseling for hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–4.40) and obesity (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.30–3.51) and more physical activity counseling for obesity (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30–3.18) and diabetes (OR = 6.55; 95% CI, 2.01–21.33). Diabetes management differed by the sex of the patient, with fewer women receiving glucose-lowering medications (OR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.94), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy (OR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22–0.72), and aspirin prophylaxis (OR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.15–0.58). CONCLUSION Quality of care as measured by patients meeting CVD risk factors treatment goals was similar regardless of the sex of the patient or physician. Selected differences were found in the style of CVD risk factor management by sex of physician and patient. PMID:20065275

  19. Physician-Directed Heart Failure Transitional Care Program: A Retrospective Case Review

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Ken S.; Beutler, David S.; Gerkin, Richard D.; Weiss, Jessica L.; Loli, Akil I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a variety of national efforts to improve transitions of care for patients at risk for rehospitalization, 30-day rehospitalization rates for patients with heart failure have remained largely unchanged. Methods This is a retrospective review of 73 patients enrolled in our hospital-based, physican-directed Heart Failure Transitional Care Program (HFTCP). This study evaluated the 30- and 90- day readmission rates before and after enrollment in the program. The Transitionalist’s services focused on bedside consultation prior to hospital discharge, follow-up home visits within 72 hours of discharge, frequent follow-up phone calls, disease-specific education, outpatient intravenous diuretic therapy, and around-the-clock telephone access to the Transitionalist. Results The pre-enrollment 30-day readmission rates for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and all-cause readmission was 26.0% and 28.8%, respectively, while the post-enrollment rates for ADHF and all-cause readmission were 4.1% (P < 0.001) and 8.2% (P = 0.002), respectively. The pre-enrollment 90-day all-cause and ADHF readmission rates were 69.8%, and 58.9% respectively, while the post-enrollment rates for all-cause and ADHF were 27.3% (P < 0.001) and 16.4% (P < 0.001) respectively. Conclusions Our physician-implemented HFTCP reduced rehospitalization risk for patients enrolled in the program. This program may serve as a model to assist other hospital systems to reduce readmission rates of patients with HF. PMID:23976905

  20. Selecting tomorrow's physicians: the key to the future health care workforce.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Kelly E; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-12-01

    Recent U.S. health care reform efforts have focused on three main goals: improving health care for individuals, improving population health, and lowering costs. Physicians, who traditionally have practiced with considerable autonomy, will be required to become members of the team-based patient care models necessary to achieve these goals. In this perspective, the authors assert that medical school admissions, the selection of the future physician workforce, is a key component of health care reform. They review the historical context for medical school admission processes, which have placed a premium on grades and standardized test scores, and examine how admission practices are undergoing fundamental changes in order to select physicians with both the academic and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies necessary to operate in the health care system of the future. The authors describe how new techniques, such as holistic review and multiple mini-interviews, are contributing to the shift toward competency-based medical education. Innovations underway at the Association of American Medical Colleges to transform medical school admissions also are explored. The authors conclude by arguing that although the admission process has great potential to transform the future health care workforce, major overhauls of the health care payment and delivery systems must be achieved alongside innovations in health professions education to truly transform the U.S. health care system. PMID:24128626

  1. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Korde, Larissa A.; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer risk factors in the course of advising primary care patients regarding a healthy lifestyle. Clinical guidelines targeting both genetic and modifiable cancer risk factors are available, and can facilitate applying these health care principles in the primary care setting. PMID:19616151

  2. [Family physicians and psychiatrists' collaborative care for mental health problems].

    PubMed

    Bonsack, Charles; Wick, Decrey Hedi; Conus, Philippe

    2014-09-17

    The burden of disease linked to mental disorders represents more than one-fifth of years lived with disability in the world. Less than half of people suffering from mental disorders are adequately treated. Three quarter of those who receive treatment are followed by primary care. Collaborative care aims to increase the efficiency of direct general practitioner's treatment. Main components are sustainable and individualized consultation-liaison relationship (1/2 day of psychiatrist by 15 days for 10-15 general practitioners), and support of a clinical case manager for complex situations. Collaboration is bidirectional: early or crisis access to specialist care and long-term followup by general practitioner. This model is a challenge for the doctor-patient dual relationship and requires incentives in a public health perspective. PMID:25322502

  3. Sociodemographic and geographic characteristics associated with patient visits to osteopathic physicians for primary care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care reform promises to dramatically increase the number of Americans covered by health insurance. Osteopathic physicians (DOs) are recognized for primary care, including a "hands-on" style with an emphasis on patient-centered care. Thus, DOs may be well positioned to deliver primary care in this emerging health care environment. Methods We used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2002-2006) to study sociodemographic and geographic characteristics associated with patient visits to DOs for primary care. Descriptive analyses were initially performed to derive national population estimates (NPEs) for overall patient visits, primary care patient visits, and patient visits according to specialty status. Osteopathic and allopathic physician (MD) patient visits were compared using cross-tabulations and multiple logistic regression to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for DO patient visits. The latter analyses were also conducted separately for each geographic characteristic to assess the potential for effect modification based on these factors. Results Overall, 134,369 ambulatory medical care visits were surveyed, representing 4.6 billion (NPE) ± 220 million (SE) patient visits when patient visit weights were applied. Osteopathic physicians provided 336 million ± 30 million (7%) of these patient visits. Osteopathic physicians provided 217 million ± 21 million (10%) patient visits for primary care services; including 180 million ± 17 million (12%) primary care visits for adults (21 years of age or older) and 37 million ± 5 million (5%) primary care visits for minors. Osteopathic physicians were more likely than MDs to provide primary care visits in family and general medicine (OR, 6.03; 95% CI, 4.67-7.78), but were less likely to provide visits in internal medicine (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24-0.58) or pediatrics (OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.11-0.40). Overall, patients in the pediatric and geriatric ages, Blacks

  4. Barriers to treatment: the unique challenges for physicians providing dementia care.

    PubMed

    Foster, N L

    2001-01-01

    Evaluating and treating dementia is intellectually demanding and enormously satisfying. However, physicians providing dementia care also confront unique challenges that cause discomfort and overwhelming frustration unless they are recognized and overcome. Physicians must care for individuals who do not adopt the "sick role." They must establish and maintain rapport with patients while also approaching collateral sources to obtain a complete history. They must develop a complex alliance with the patient, caregivers, community agencies, and other health professionals to provide effective treatment. Physicians must relate "bad news" to several people at once who are unequally prepared for it, while dealing with their own diagnostic uncertainty. Furthermore, physicians must honor patient autonomy and balance it with the needs of caregivers. Since the demands of providing dementia care are not typical of most medical practice, the special attributes needed are often not taught to students or adequately reimbursed by health insurance. The quality of dementia care will improve when strategies that address these aspects of care for patients with dementia are widely adopted. PMID:11794447

  5. The management of health care service quality. A physician perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bobocea, L; Gheorghe, IR; Spiridon, St; Gheorghe, CM; Purcarea, VL

    2016-01-01

    Applying marketing in health care services is presently an essential element for every manager or policy maker. In order to be successful, a health care organization has to identify an accurate measurement scale for defining service quality due to competitive pressure and cost values. The most widely employed scale in the services sector is SERVQUAL scale. In spite of being successfully adopted in fields such as brokerage and banking, experts concluded that the SERVQUAL scale should be modified depending on the specific context. Moreover, the SERVQUAL scale focused on the consumer’s perspective regarding service quality. While service quality was measured with the help of SERVQUAL scale, other experts identified a structure-process-outcome design, which, they thought, would be more suitable for health care services. This approach highlights a different perspective on investigating the service quality, namely, the physician’s perspective. Further, we believe that the Seven Prong Model for Improving Service Quality has been adopted in order to effectively measure the health care service in a Romanian context from a physician’s perspective. PMID:27453745

  6. Access to Care: Overcoming the Rural Physician Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes three state-initiated programs that address the challenge of providing access to health care for Appalachia's rural residents: a traveling pediatric diabetes clinic serving eastern Kentucky; a telemedicine program operated out of Knoxville, Tennessee; and a new medical school in Kentucky dedicated to training doctors from Appalachia for…

  7. How Do Physicians Teach Empathy in the Primary Care Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    Explored how primary care clinician-teachers actually attempt to convey empathy to medical students and residents. Found that they stress the centrality of role modeling in teaching, and most used debriefing strategies as well as both learner- and patient-centered approaches in instructing learners about empathy. (EV)

  8. Medical Problems Referred to a Care of the Elderly Physician: Insight for Future Geriatrics CME

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Robert; Gallinaro, Anna; Adleman, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Family physicians provide the majority of elderly patient care in Canada. Many experience significant challenges in serving this cohort. This study aimed to examine the medical problems of patients referred to a care of the elderly physician, to better understand the geriatric continuing medical education (CME) needs of family doctors. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients assessed at an urban outpatient seniors’ clinic between 2003 and 2008 was conducted. Data from 104 charts were analyzed and survey follow-up with 28 of the referring family physicians was undertaken. Main outcomes include the type and frequency of medical problems actually referred to a care of the elderly physician. Clarification of future geriatric CME topics of need was also assessed. Results Preventive care issues were addressed with 67 patients. Twenty-four required discussion of advance directives. The most common medical problems encountered were osteoarthritis (42), hypertension (34), osteoporosis (32), and depression or anxiety (23). Other common problems encountered that have not been highly cited as being a target of CME included musculoskeletal and joint pain (41), diabetes (23), neck and back pain (20), obesity (11), insomnia (11), and neuropathic, fibromyalgia and “leg cramps” pain (10). The referring family physicians surveyed agreed that these were topics of need for future CME. Conclusions The findings support geriatric CME for the common medical problems encountered. Chronic pain, diabetes, obesity and insomnia continue to be important unresolved issues previously unacknowledged by physicians as CME topics of need. Future CME focusing more on process of geriatric care may also be relevant. PMID:23983827

  9. The Affordable Care Act's Effects On The Formation, Expansion, And Operation Of Physician-Owned Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Elizabeth; Wempe, William

    2016-08-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) imposed new restrictions on the formation and expansion of physician-owned hospitals. These restrictions provided incentives for the hospitals and their owners to take preemptive actions before the effective dates of ACA provisions and modify their operations thereafter. We studied 106 physician-owned hospitals in Texas to determine how they responded to ACA restrictions. We found that there were significant pre-ACA increases in the formation, physician ownership, and physical capacity of physician-owned hospitals, which suggests that they reacted quickly to the policy changes. After the ACA's provisions took effect, the hospitals improved the use of their assets to generate increased amounts of services, revenue, and profits. We found no evidence that existing physician-owned hospitals stopped accepting Medicare to avoid the ACA restrictions, although some investors adopted a seemingly unsuccessful strategy of not accepting Medicare at physician-owned hospitals formed after implementation of the ACA. We conclude that the ACA restrictions effectively eliminated the formation of new physician-owned hospitals, thus accomplishing what previous legislative efforts had failed to do. PMID:27503971

  10. Consumerism in action: how patients and physicians negotiate payment in health care.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyeyoung

    2013-03-01

    Drawing from the medical sociology literature on the patient-doctor relationship and microeconomic sociological scholarship about the role of money in personal relationships, I examined patient-physician interactions within a clinic that offered eye health and cosmetic facial services in the United States. Relying on ethnographic observations conducted in 2008, I evaluated how financial pressures shape the patient-physician relationship during the clinical encounter. To gain a financial advantage, patients attempted to reshape the relationship toward a socially intimate one, where favor and gift exchanges are more common. To ensure the rendering of services, the physician in turn allied herself with the patient, demonstrating how external parties are the barriers to affordable care. This allied relationship was tested when conflicts emerged, primarily because of the role of financial intermediaries in the clinical encounter. These conflicts resulted in the disintegration of the personal relationship, with patient and physician pitted against one another. PMID:23202480

  11. Pre-exercise screening: role of the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth A; Pescatello, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of benefits including a reduction in chronic disease and premature mortality, and improved quality of life. All segments of society need to collaborate with one another in an effort to promote active lives. The Israeli "Gymnasium Law" requires pre-exercise evaluation prior to exercise participation in a health club. Recently that law was modified to allow for participant pre-screening with the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+). This change reflects the evidence that the risk of catastrophic events (e.g. heart attack) during moderate intensity physical activity is low, and the likelihood of detecting heart disease in asymptomatic adults is low. This change will likely reduce the number of individuals who require physician evaluation. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recently updated their recommendations for pre-exercise evaluation. The ACSM guidelines have replaced risk factor assessment, with an algorithm that first stratifies based on current physical activity level, then by the presence of chronic disease, and/or signs and symptoms of chronic disease, and last by desired exercise intensity. The goal of these efforts is to reduce barriers to regular physical activity, by eliminating unnecessary medical evaluations. All adults should be encouraged to be physically active. PMID:27358724

  12. Primary care physician beliefs about insulin initiation in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, R P; Fitzgerald, J T; Jacober, S J

    2008-01-01

    Background Insulin is the most effective drug available to achieve glycaemic goals in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yet, there is reluctance among physicians, specifically primary care physicians (PCPs) in the USA, to initiate insulin therapy in these patients. Aims To describe PCPs’ attitudes about the initiation of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes and identify areas in which there is a clear lack of consensus. Methods Primary care physicians practicing in the USA, seeing 10 or more patients with type 2 diabetes per week, and having > 3 years of clinical practice were surveyed via an internet site. The survey was developed through literature review, qualitative study and expert panel. Results Primary care physicians (n = 505, mean age = 46 years, 81% male, 62% with > 10 years practice; 52% internal medicine) showed greatest consensus on attitudes regarding risk/benefits of insulin therapy, positive experiences of patients on insulin and patient fears or concerns about initiating insulin. Clear lack of consensus was seen in attitudes about the metabolic effects of insulin, need for insulin therapy, adequacy of self-monitoring blood glucose, time needed for training and potential for hypoglycaemia in elderly patients. Conclusions The beliefs of some PCPs are inconsistent with their diabetes treatment goals (HbA1c ≤ 7%). Continuing medical education programmes that focus on increasing primary care physician knowledge about the progression of diabetes, the physiological effects of insulin, and tools for successfully initiating insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes are needed. Disclosures Drs Hayes and Jacober are employees and stockholders of Eli Lilly and Company. Dr Fitzgerald is a consultant to Eli Lilly and Company. What's known Insulin is the most effective drug available to achieve glycaemic goals in patients with type 2 diabetes, yet there is reluctance among many physicians to initiate insulin therapy in these patients. Diabetes specialists

  13. The Dynamics of Community Health Care Consolidation: Acquisition of Physician Practices

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, Jon B; Carlin, Caroline S; Warrick, Louise H

    2014-01-01

    Context Health care delivery systems are becoming increasingly consolidated in urban areas of the United States. While this consolidation could increase efficiency and improve quality, it also could raise the cost of health care for payers. This article traces the consolidation trajectory in a single community, focusing on factors influencing recent acquisitions of physician practices by integrated delivery systems. Methods We used key informant interviews, supplemented by document analysis. Findings The acquisition of physician practices is a process that will be difficult to reverse in the current health care environment. Provider revenue uncertainty is a key factor driving consolidation, with public and private attempts to control health care costs contributing to that uncertainty. As these efforts will likely continue, and possibly intensify, community health care systems now are less consolidated than they will be in the future. Acquisitions of multispecialty and primary care practices by integrated delivery systems follow a common process, with relatively predictable issues relating to purchase agreements, employment contracts, and compensation. Acquisitions of single-specialty practices are less common, with motivations for acquisitions likely to vary by specialty type, group size, and market structure. Total cost of care contracting could be an important catalyst for practice acquisitions in the future. Conclusions In the past, market and regulatory forces aimed at controlling costs have both encouraged and rewarded the consolidation of providers, with important new developments likely to create momentum for further consolidation, including acquisitions of physician practices. PMID:25199899

  14. Physician-pharmacist collaboration versus usual care for treatment-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Carris, Nicholas W; Dietrich, Eric; Gums, John G; Uribe, Liz; Coffey, Christopher S; Gums, Tyler H; Carter, Barry L

    2016-04-01

    Team-based care has been recommended for patients with treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH), but its efficacy in this setting is unknown. We compared a physician-pharmacist collaborative model (PPCM) to usual care in patients with TRH participating in the Collaboration Among Pharmacists and Physicians To Improve Outcomes Now study. At baseline, 169 patients (27% of Collaboration Among Pharmacists and Physicians To Improve Outcomes Now patients) had TRH: 111 received the PPCM intervention and 58 received usual care. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment arms. After 9 months, adjusted mean systolic blood pressure was reduced by 7 mm Hg more with PPCM intervention than usual care (P = .036). Blood pressure control was 34.2% with PPCM versus 25.9% with usual care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-11.2). These findings suggest that team-based care in the primary care setting may be effective for TRH. Additional research is needed regarding the long-term impact of these models and to identify patients most likely to benefit from team-based interventions. PMID:26852290

  15. Is burnout in family physicians in Croatia related to interpersonal quality of care?

    PubMed

    Ožvačić Adžić, Zlata; Katić, Milica; Kern, Josipa; Soler, Jean Karl; Cerovečki, Venija; Polašek, Ozren

    2013-06-01

    The impact of physician burnout on the quality of patient care is unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of burnout in family physicians in Croatia and its association with physician and practice characteristics, and patient enablement as a consultation outcome measure. Hundred and twenty-five out of 350 family physicians responded to our invitation to participate in the study. They were asked to collect data from 50 consecutive consultations with their adult patients who had to provide information on patient enablement (Patient Enablement Instrument). Physicians themselves provided their demographic and professional data, including workload, job satisfaction, consultation length, and burnout [Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS)]. MBI-HSS scores were analysed in three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). Of the responding physicians, 42.4% scored high for EE burnout, 16.0% for DP, and 15.2% for PA. Multiple regression analysis showed that low job satisfaction and more patients per day predicted high EE scores. Low job satisfaction, working more years at a current workplace, and younger age predicted high DP scores. Lack of engagement in education and academic work, shorter consultations, and working more years at current workplace predicted low PA scores, respectively (P<0.05 for each). Burnout is common among family physicians in Croatia yet burnout in our physicians was not associated with patient enablement, suggesting that it did not affect the quality of interpersonal care. Job satisfaction, participation in educational or academic activities and sufficient consultation time seem to reduce the likelihood of burnout. PMID:23819934

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy: Promoting awareness among primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Sicher, Sarah; Gedzior, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to promote awareness among primary care providers and support electroconvulsive therapy as a generally well-tolerated, effective therapeutic modality to treat specific psychiatric conditions in appropriately selected patients. There seem to be several potential barriers to treatment with electroconvulsive therapy including stigma, lack of providers who preform it, and lack of awareness among providers referring patients who may be appropriate candidates. The article provides a brief overview of electroconvulsive therapy principles and topics and includes a case report to illustrate clinical utility. The article proposes the concept that a potential way to overcome barriers to treatment with electroconvulsive therapy may be to promote education and awareness of it as a viable treatment modality among primary care providers. PMID:27284120

  17. Physicians in health care management: 10. Managing conflict through negotiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux-Charles, L

    1994-01-01

    The recent focus on collaborative relationships in health care means that people and groups must cooperate to accomplish clinical and management tasks. This increasing interdependence may also cause increased organizational conflict. The management of conflicts is critical to the effectiveness of an organization. Negotiating strategies, based on Fisher and Ury's method of "principled negotiation," include establishing superordinate goals, separating the people from the problem, focussing on interests, inventing options, using objective criteria and defining success in terms of gains. PMID:7922944

  18. Physicians' and patients' valuation of pharmaceutical care implementation in Poznan (Poland) community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Waszyk-Nowaczyk, Magdalena; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Simon, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of pharmaceutical care (PC) in Poland is of great importance to patients, who, on the one hand, often follow complex pharmacological treatment regimens recommended by several physicians of different specialties, and, on the other, take up the decision on self-treatment due to availability of OTC medications. The aim of the present study was to assess the opinion of both patients and physicians about implementation of PC service in Polish community pharmacies. A cross sectional study was carried out from September 2009 to September 2010 by a pharmacist (author of the study) on the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, where demand of physicians (n = 104) and patients (n = 202) for implementation of PC in a community pharmacy was assessed. The study was planned to determine the relationship between implementation of PC, cost and time of this service and patients' and physicians' socio-economic information. Responding patients (85.64%) and physicians (76.92%) unanimously confirmed the need for implementation of PC. Most people convinced of the service implementation were 88.89% of physicians under the age of 35 and all the respondents were over 65 years of age (p = 0.027), just as 93.33% with service lesser than 5 years and 73.68% of respondents working a maximum of 20 years (p = 0.023). Mainly according to 90.00% of physicians with specialty in internal medicine and 92.59% of physicians of the group "Others" (p = 0.012), PC should be implemented in pharmacies. Women more frequently than men reckoned that appointments with a pharmacist should last up to 15 min (p = 0.012). According to 77.78% of the youngest physicians and 83.33% of the oldest ones, appointments should last from 5 to 15 min (p = 0.049), and a similar opinion was shared by 80.77% of physicians without specialty and 77.78% of physicians of the group "Others" (p = 0.0009). According to patients, the mean cost of the visit should be USD 7. Physicians most often assessed

  19. Top 10 Tips About the Physician Quality Reporting System for Palliative Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Bull, Janet; Kamal, Arif H; Jones, Christopher; Bonsignore, Lindsay; Acevedo, Jean

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. healthcare system is shifting from a fee-for-service (FFS) system to a valued-based reimbursement system focused on improving the quality of healthcare. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) as an important component of this transition. All clinicians, including physicians, nurse practitioners, or physician assistants who bill to Medicare Part B FFS, should submit quality data to the PQRS in 2015 or they will receive up to a 4% negative reimbursement penalty in 2017. As implementing and reporting PQRS measures can be a daunting task, especially for palliative care professionals, this article provides high priority tips identified by the authors for PQRS reporting in the palliative care field. PMID:27139259

  20. Physician payment disclosure under health care reform: will the sun shine?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing has become a mainstay in U.S. health care delivery and traditionally has been directed toward physicians. In an attempt to address potential undue influence of industry and conflicts of interest that arise, states and the recently upheld health care reform act have passed transparency, or "sunshine," laws requiring disclosure of industry payments to physicians. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services recently announced the final rule for the Sunshine Provisions as part of the reform act. However, the future effectiveness of these provisions are questionable and may be limited given the changing landscape of pharmaceutical marketing away from physician detailing to other forms of promotion. To address this changing paradigm, more proactive policy solutions will be necessary to ensure adequate and ethical regulation of pharmaceutical promotion. PMID:23657702

  1. [Thrombotic microangiopathy : Relevant new aspects for intensive care physicians].

    PubMed

    Gaggl, M; Aigner, C; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Schmidt, A

    2016-06-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury, known as atypical hemolytic syndrome (aHUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and shigatoxin-associated HUS (STEC-HUS) among others. Several diseases, like malignoma, infections, malignant hypertension, or autoimmune disease can result in secondary TMAs. aHUS is caused by a hyperactivated complement system. Identification of the underlying causes of the TMA is the most important issue and directly associated with treatment success. In case of secondary TMAs, treatment of the actual disease is the most important step, while in case of complement-mediated HUS treatment of choice is plasma exchange or anticomplement agents. For the treatment of TTP, rapid initiation of plasma exchange or plasma infusion is the treatment of choice. Patients with STEC-HUS should solely receive supportive treatment. PMID:27255224

  2. Views of family physicians about survivorship care plans to provide breast cancer follow-up care: exploration of results from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, M.A.; Grunfeld, E.; Sussman, J.; Porter, G.; Mobilio, M. Hammond

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S. Institute of Medicine recommends that cancer patients receive survivorship care plans, but evaluations to date have found little evidence of the effectiveness of such plans. We conducted a qualitative follow-on study to a randomized controlled trial (rct) to understand the experiences of family physicians using survivorship care plans to support the follow-up of breast cancer patients. Methods A subset of family physicians whose patients were enrolled in the parent rct in Ontario and Nova Scotia were eligible for this study. In interviews, the physicians discussed survivorship care plans (intervention) or usual discharge letters (control), and their confidence in providing follow-up cancer care. Results Of 123 eligible family physicians, 18 (10 intervention, 8 control) were interviewed. In general, physicians receiving a survivorship care plan found only the 1-page care record to be useful. Physicians who received only a discharge letter had variable views about the letter’s usefulness; several indicated that it lacked information about potential cancer- or treatment-related problems. Most physicians were comfortable providing care 3–5 years after diagnosis, but desired timely and informative communication with oncologists. Conclusions Although family physicians did not find extensive survivorship care plans useful, discharge letters might not be sufficiently comprehensive for follow-up breast cancer care. Effective strategies for two-way communication between family physicians and oncologists are still lacking. PMID:26300663

  3. Patient satisfaction with breast cancer follow-up care provided by family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Thind, Amardeep; Liu, Yihang; Maly, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Purpose There is little evidence to document patient satisfaction with follow up care provided by family physicians/general practitioners (FP/GP) to breast cancer patients. We aimed to identify determinants of satisfaction with such care in low-income medically underserved women with breast cancer. Methods Cross sectional study of 145 women who reported receiving follow up care from a FP/GP. Women were enrolled in California’s Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Program and were interviewed by phone 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Cleary and McNeil’s model, which states that patient satisfaction is a function of patient characteristics, structure of care, and processes of care, was used to understand the determinants of satisfaction. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors. Results 73.4% reported that they were extremely satisfied with their treatment by the family physician/general practitioner. Women who were able to ask their family physicians questions about their breast cancer had six times greater odds of being extremely satisfied compared to women who were not able to ask any questions. Women who scored the family physician higher on the ability to explain things in a way she could understand had a higher odds of being extremely satisfied compared to women who scored their family physicians lower. Conclusions FP/GPs providing follow up care for breast cancer patients should encourage patients to ask questions, and must communicate in a way that patients understand. These recommendations are congruent with the characteristics of patient centered communication for cancer patients enunciated in a recent NCI monograph. PMID:22086814

  4. Critical care ultrasonography in acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Vignon, Philippe; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Maury, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a leading indication for performing critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) which, in these patients, combines critical care echocardiography (CCE) and chest ultrasonography. CCE is ideally suited to guide the diagnostic work-up in patients presenting with ARF since it allows the assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and the identification of a potential underlying cardiopathy. In addition, CCE precisely depicts the consequences of pulmonary vascular lesions on right ventricular function and helps in adjusting the ventilator settings in patients sustaining moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, CCE helps in identifying patients at high risk of ventilator weaning failure, depicts the mechanisms of weaning pulmonary edema in those patients who fail a spontaneous breathing trial, and guides tailored therapeutic strategy. In all these clinical settings, CCE provides unparalleled information on both the efficacy and tolerance of therapeutic changes. Chest ultrasonography provides further insights into pleural and lung abnormalities associated with ARF, irrespective of its origin. It also allows the assessment of the effects of treatment on lung aeration or pleural effusions. The major limitation of lung ultrasonography is that it is currently based on a qualitative approach in the absence of standardized quantification parameters. CCE combined with chest ultrasonography rapidly provides highly relevant information in patients sustaining ARF. A pragmatic strategy based on the serial use of CCUS for the management of patients presenting with ARF of various origins is detailed in the present manuscript. PMID:27524204

  5. Restructuring the primary health care services and changing profile of family physicians in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, F; Sarp, N

    1998-12-01

    A new health-reform process has been initiated by Ministry of Health in Turkey. The aim of that reform is to improve the health status of the Turkish population and to provide health care to all citizens in an efficient and equitable manner. The restructuring of the current health system will allow more funds to be allocated to primary and preventive care and will create a managed market for secondary and tertiary care. In this article, we review the current and proposed primary care services models and the role of family physicians therein. PMID:10078801

  6. Health Care of Adolescents by Office-Based Physicians: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cypress, Beulah K.

    1984-01-01

    This report examines the nature of the conditions presented by adolescents and the health care provided by office-based physicians. The characteristics of patients are noted and the reason for the visit to the doctor and the length of the visit are summarized. Tables present information on: (1) average annual rate of office visits of adolescents…

  7. Physician Assistants and Nurse Practitioners as a Usual Source of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Christine M.; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Wright, Alexandra; Smith, Maureen A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To identify characteristics and outcomes of patients who use physician assistants and nurse practitioners (PA/NPs) as a usual source of care. Methods: Cross sectional analysis using the telephone and mail surveys of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), a prospective cohort study of Wisconsin high school graduates and selected siblings…

  8. Caring for patients with HIV infection. Management plan for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Bally, G.

    1993-01-01

    Caring for and treating patients living with human immunodeficiency virus is challenging for busy family physicians. I present one strategy for managing patients with this complex infectious disease. Using averaged T4 blood cell counts as a marker of disease progression, I use antiretroviral treatment and preventive drug therapy against the complications of HIV infection. PMID:8219865

  9. An Investigation of Nurses' Interaction Styles with Physicians and Suggested Patient Care Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redland, Alice R.

    The purpose of this study was to identify relations between nurses' interaction styles and patient care interventions (PCI) that occurred after nurse-doctor interactions. A nonparticipant observer recorded interactions of 48 female registered nurses with physicians. Transcripts were coded and assigned to one of five theoretical nurse interaction…

  10. Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care for Dyslipidemia Patients: Knowledge and Skills of Community Pharmacists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villeneuve, Julie; Lamarre, Diane; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Genest, Jacques; Blais, Lucie; Hudon, Eveline; Perreault, Sylvie; Berbiche, Djamal; Lalonde, Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In a physician-pharmacist collaborative-care (PPCC) intervention, community pharmacists were responsible for initiating lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and adjusting the medication dosage. They attended a 1-day interactive workshop supported by a treatment protocol and clinical and communication tools. Afterwards, changes in…

  11. Postgraduate Educational Program for Primary Care Physicians in Remote Areas in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saab, Bassem Roberto; Kanaan, Nabil; Hamadeh, Ghassan; Usta, Jinan

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Continuing medical education (CME) is a requirement in many developed countries. Lebanon lacks such a rule; hence, the dictum "once a doctor always a doctor" holds. This article describes a pioneering postgraduate educational program for primary care physicians in remote areas of Lebanon. Method: The Lebanese Society of Family…

  12. 42 CFR 485.711 - Condition of participation: Plan of care and physician involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.711... physical therapy or speech pathology services, there is a written plan of care established and periodically reviewed by a physician, or by a physical therapist or speech pathologist respectively. (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 485.711 - Condition of participation: Plan of care and physician involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.711... physical therapy or speech pathology services, there is a written plan of care established and periodically reviewed by a physician, or by a physical therapist or speech pathologist respectively. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 485.711 - Condition of participation: Plan of care and physician involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agencies as Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.711... physical therapy or speech pathology services, there is a written plan of care established and periodically reviewed by a physician, or by a physical therapist or speech pathologist respectively. (a)...

  15. Training Physicians To Care for Older Americans: Progress, Obstacles, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuben, David B.; Beck, John C.

    This background paper, prepared by two members of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Strengthening the Geriatric Content of Medical Education, addresses the progress made in physicians' geriatric and gerontological education. The report appears in six chapters. After a brief introduction on health care reform and medical education, geriatric…

  16. Evaluation of Developmental Surveillance by Physicians at the Two-Month Preventive Care Visit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyp, Sarah S.; Barone, Vincent J.; Kruger, Tarah; Garrison, Carol B.; Robertsen, Christine; Christophersen, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feedback and instruction on resident physician performance during developmental surveillance of infants at 2-month preventive care visits. Baseline data were obtained by videotaping 3 residents while they performed the physical and developmental exam components. Training consisted of individualized feedback and a brief…

  17. Attitudes of Physicians, Housestaff, and Nurses on Care for the Terminally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincade, Jean E.

    1982-01-01

    Compared attitudes of physicians, housestaff, and nurses (N=483) on care of the dying. Overall, health professionals responding to the survey felt comfortable talking to dying patients and supported the belief that patients should be informed of their prognosis. Substantial differences were found in beliefs about analgesic administration.…

  18. 42 CFR 476.102 - Involvement of health care practitioners other than physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Involvement of health care practitioners other than physicians. 476.102 Section 476.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities...

  19. Physicians Who Treat the Elderly in Rural Florida: Trends Indicating Concerns regarding Access to Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Anne; Menachemi, Nir; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Brooks, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Context: Rural elderly patients are faced with numerous challenges in accessing care. Additional strains to access may be occurring given recent market pressures, which would have significant impact on this vulnerable population. Purpose: This study focused on the practice patterns and future plans of rural Florida physicians who routinely see…

  20. Primary care physician's attitude towards the German e-health card project--determinants and implications.

    PubMed

    Ernstmann, Nicole; Ommen, Oliver; Neumann, Melanie; Hammer, Antje; Voltz, Raymond; Pfaff, Holger

    2009-06-01

    In Germany e-health cards will be distributed nationwide to over 80 million patients. Given the impending mandatory introduction of the e-health technology, the objective of this study was to examine the determinants of primary care physicians' acceptance of the technological innovation. The study was conducted prior to the introduction of the e-health cards. A questionnaire survey was carried out addressing primary care physicians from different fields. The reduction of medication error rates and the improvement of communication between medical caregivers are central aspects of the perceived usefulness. Primary care physicians rate their involvement in the process of the development of the technology and their own IT expertise concerning the technological innovation as rather low. User involvement and IT expertise can explain 46 % of the variance of perceived usefulness of the e-health card. User involvement plays a crucial role in the adoption of the German e-health card. Primary care physician's perspective should be represented in the process of developing and designing the technology. PMID:19408451

  1. How, what, and why of sleep apnea. Perspectives for primary care physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sharon A.; Jairam, Shani; Hussain, Mohamed R. G.; Shapiro, Colin M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the need for primary care physicians to screen for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Literature was reviewed via MEDLINE from 1993 to 2000, inclusive, using the search term "sleep apnea" combined with "epidemiology," "outcome," and "diagnosis and treatment." Citations in this review favour more recent, well controlled and randomized studies, but findings of pilot studies are included where other research is unavailable. MAIN MESSAGE: Obstructive sleep apnea is a disorder with serious medical, socioeconomic, and psychological morbidity, yet most patients with OSA remain undetected. Primary care physicians have a vital role in screening for these patients because diagnosis can be made only through overnight (polysomnographic) studies at sleep clinics. Physicians should consider symptoms of excessive or loud snoring, complaints of daytime sleepiness or fatigue, complaints of unrefreshing sleep, and an excess of weight or body fat distribution in the neck or upper chest area as possible indications of untreated OSA. CONCLUSION: Current research findings indicate that treating OSA patients substantially lowers morbidity and mortality rates and reduces health care costs. Primary care physicians need more information about screening for patients with OSA to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of those with the condition. PMID:12113194

  2. Adherence of Primary Care Physicians to Evidence-Based Recommendations to Reduce Ovarian Cancer Mortality.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherri L; Townsend, Julie S; Puckett, Mary C; Rim, Sun Hee

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Receipt of treatment from a gynecologic oncologist is an evidence-based recommendation to reduce mortality from the disease. We examined knowledge and application of this evidence-based recommendation in primary care physicians as part of CDC gynecologic cancer awareness campaign efforts and discussed results in the context of CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP). We analyzed primary care physician responses to questions about how often they refer patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer to gynecologic oncologists, and reasons for lack of referral. We also analyzed these physicians' knowledge of tests to help determine whether a gynecologic oncologist is needed for a planned surgery. The survey response rate was 52.2%. A total of 84% of primary care physicians (87% of family/general practitioners, 81% of internists and obstetrician/gynecologists) said they always referred patients to gynecologic oncologists for treatment. Common reasons for not always referring were patient preference or lack of gynecologic oncologists in the practice area. A total of 23% of primary care physicians had heard of the OVA1 test, which helps to determine whether gynecologic oncologist referral is needed. Although referral rates reported here are high, it is not clear whether ovarian cancer patients are actually seeing gynecologic oncologists for care. The NCCCP is undertaking several efforts to assist with this, including education of the recommendation among women and providers and assistance with treatment summaries and patient navigation toward appropriate treatment. Expansion of these efforts to all populations may help improve adherence to recommendations and reduce ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26978124

  3. Importance-satisfaction analysis for primary care physicians' perspective on EHRs in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Wene, Hsyien-Chia; Chu, Chi-Ming; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Wang, Jen-Leng

    2014-06-01

    The Taiwan government has been promoting Electronic Health Records (EHRs) to primary care physicians. How to extend EHRs adoption rate by measuring physicians' perspective of importance and performance of EHRs has become one of the critical issues for healthcare organizations. We conducted a comprehensive survey in 2010 in which a total of 1034 questionnaires which were distributed to primary care physicians. The project was sponsored by the Department of Health to accelerate the adoption of EHRs. 556 valid responses were analyzed resulting in a valid response rate of 53.77%. The data were analyzed based on a data-centered analytical framework (5-point Likert scale). The mean of importance and satisfaction of four dimensions were 4.16, 3.44 (installation and maintenance), 4.12, 3.51 (product effectiveness), 4.10, 3.31 (system function) and 4.34, 3.70 (customer service) respectively. This study provided a direction to government by focusing on attributes which physicians found important but were dissatisfied with, to close the gap between actual and expected performance of the EHRs. The authorities should emphasize the potential advantages in meaningful use and provide training programs, conferences, technical assistance and incentives to enhance the national level implementation of EHRs for primary physicians. PMID:24914640

  4. Professional networks and EBM use: a study of inter-physician interaction across levels of care.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Daniele; Dandi, Roberto; Di Vincenzo, Fausto

    2014-10-01

    Physicians around the globe are increasingly encouraged to adopt guidelines, protocols and other scientific material when making clinical decisions. Extant research suggests that the clinicians' propensity to use evidence-based medicine (EBM) is strongly associated with the professional collaborative networks they establish and maintain with peers. In this paper we explore whether and how the connectedness of primary care physicians with colleagues working in hospital settings is related to their frequency of EBM use in clinical practice. We used survey data from 104 pediatricians working in five local health authorities in the Italian NHS. Social network and attributional data concerning single physicians, as well as their self-reported frequency of EBM use, were collected for three major pathologies in pediatric care: asthmatic, gastro-enteric and urinary pathologies. Ordered regression analysis was employed. Our findings documented a positive association between the number of physicians' relationships with hospital colleagues and the frequency of use EBM. Results also indicated that physicians' organizational affiliations influence the frequency of EBM use. Finally, contrary to our expectations, it was found that clinicians' affiliation to formal collaborative arrangements is at odds with the likelihood of reporting higher frequency of EBM use. PMID:25022323

  5. The Influence of Trust in Physicians and Trust in the Healthcare System on Linkage, Retention, and Adherence to HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Graham, James L; Shahani, Lokesh; Grimes, Richard M; Hartman, Christine; Giordano, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    Lack of trust by the patient in the physicians or the healthcare system has been associated with poorer health outcomes. The present study was designed to determine if trust in physicians and the healthcare system among persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection was predictive of patients' subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. 178 newly diagnosed HIV infected patients were administered the trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scales. Median trust-in-physicians and trust-in-healthcare system scores were compared for all the mentioned subsequent linkage, retention, and adherence to HIV care. Univariate logistic regression using the trust-in-physician scale confirmed significant association with retention in care (p = 0.04), which persisted in multivariate analyses (p = 0.04). No significant association was found between trust-in-physicians and linkage to care or adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Trust in the healthcare system was not associated with any of the outcomes. Patients with higher trust in physicians were more likely to be retained in HIV care. Trust at diagnosis may not be a barrier to better clinical outcomes, either because trust changes based on subsequent interactions, or because trust is not a determining feature. Interventions to improve retention in care could include improving trust in physicians or target persons with low trust in physicians. PMID:26669793

  6. Patient Physical Characteristics and Primary Care Physician Decision Making in Preconception Genetic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, V.L.; Knerr, S.; Feero, W.G.; Stevens, N.; Jenkins, J.F.; McBride, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been growing emphasis on preconception care as a strategy to improve maternal and child health since the 1980s. Increasingly, development of genetic tests will require primary care providers to make decisions about preconception genetic screening. Limited research has been conducted on how primary care providers interpret patients’ characteristics and use constructs, such as ethnicity and race, to decide whom to offer preconception genetic screening. Objective This report assessed the influence of patient characteristics on decisions to offer preconception genetic screening. Methods A web-based survey of family physicians was conducted. Physicians reviewed a clinical vignette that was accompanied by a picture of either a black or a white patient. Physicians indicated whether they would offer genetic screening, and if yes, what tests they would offer and what factors influenced their decisions. Results The majority (69.2%) of physicians reported that they would not offer genetic screening. Respondents who reviewed the vignette accompanied by a picture of the black patient were more likely to offer screening (35% vs. 26%, p = 0.0034) and rated race as more important to their decision to offer testing than those who viewed the picture of the white patient (76% vs. 49%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that patient race is important to physicians when making decisions about preconception genetic testing and that decision making is influenced by patients’ physical characteristics. The reticence of physicians in this sample to offer preconception screening is an important finding for public health and clinical practice. PMID:19940457

  7. Difficulties faced by family physicians in primary health care centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mumenah, Sahar H.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the difficulties faced by family physicians, and compare how satisfied those working with the Ministry of Health (MOH) are with their counterparts who work at some selected non-MOH hospitals. Methods: An analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH and RC), and 40 MOH primary health care centers across Jeddah. A structured multi-item questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and information on the difficulties family physicians face. The physicians’ level of satisfaction and how it was affected by the difficulties was assessed. Results: Women constituted 71.9% of the sample. Problems with transportation formed one of the main difficulties encountered by physicians. Compared to non-MOH physician, a significantly higher proportion of MOH physicians reported unavailability of radiology technicians (P = 0.011) and radiologists (P < 0.001), absence of the internet and computer access (P < 0.001), unavailability of laboratory services (P = 0.004), reagents (P = 0.001), X-ray equipment (P = 0.027), ultrasound equipment (P < 0.001), an electronic medical records system (P < 0.001), insufficient laboratory tests (P = 0.0001), and poor building maintenance (P < 0.001). Family physicians with the MOH were less satisfied with their jobs compared with non-MOH physicians (P = 0.032). Conclusion: MOH family physicians encountered difficulties relating to staff, services, and infrastructure, which consequently affected their level of satisfaction. PMID:26392794

  8. Self-care of physicians caring for patients at the end of life: "Being connected... a key to my survival".

    PubMed

    Kearney, Michael K; Weininger, Radhule B; Vachon, Mary L S; Harrison, Richard L; Mount, Balfour M

    2009-03-18

    Physicians providing end-of-life care are subject to a variety of stresses that may lead to burnout and compassion fatigue at both individual and team levels. Through the story of an oncologist, we discuss the prodromal symptoms and signs leading to burnout and compassion fatigue and present the evidence for prevention. We define and discuss factors that contribute to burnout and compassion fatigue and consider factors that may mitigate burnout. We explore the practice of empathy and discuss an approach for physicians to maximize wellness through self-awareness in the setting of caring for patients with end-stage illness. Finally, we discuss some practical applications of self-care in the workplace. PMID:19293416

  9. Health Care Austerity Measures in Times of Crisis: The Perspectives of Primary Health Care Physicians in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Heras-Mosteiro, Julio; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-Garcia, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The current financial crisis has seen severe austerity measures imposed on the Spanish health care system, including reduced public spending, copayments, salary reductions, and reduced services for undocumented migrants. However, the impacts have not been well-documented. We present findings from a qualitative study that explores the perceptions of primary health care physicians in Madrid, Spain. This article discusses the effects of austerity measures implemented in the public health care system and their potential impacts on access and utilization of primary health care services. This is the first study, to our knowledge, exploring the health care experiences during the financial crisis of general practitioners in Madrid, Spain. The majority of participating physicians disapproved of austerity measures implemented in Spain. The findings of this study suggest that undocumented migrants should regain access to health care services; copayments should be minimized and removed for patients with low incomes; and health care professionals should receive additional help to avoid burnout. Failure to implement these measures could result in the quality of health care further deteriorating and could potentially have long-term negative consequences on population health. PMID:26825100

  10. The Leapfrog initiative for intensive care unit physician staffing and its impact on intensive care unit performance: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Gasperino, James

    2011-10-01

    The field of critical care has changed markedly in recent years to accommodate a growing population of chronically critically ill patients. New administrative structures have evolved to include divisions, departments, and sections devoted exclusively to the practice of critical care medicine. On an individual level, the ability to manage complex multisystem critical illnesses and to introduce invasive monitoring devices defines the intensivist. On a systems level, critical care services managed by an intensivist-led multidisciplinary team are now recognized by their ability to efficiently utilize hospital resources and improve patient outcomes. Due to the numerous cost and quality issues related to the delivery of critical care medicine, intensive care unit physician staffing (IPS) has become a charged subject in recent years. Although the federal government has played a large role in regulating best practices by physicians, other third parties have entered the arena. Perhaps the most influential of these has been The Leapfrog Group, a consortium representing 130 employers and 65 Fortune 500 companies that purchase health care for their employees. This group has proposed specific regulatory guidelines for IPS that are purported to result in substantial cost containment and improved quality of care. This narrative review examines the impact of The Leapfrog Group's recommendations on critical care delivery in the United States. PMID:21439669

  11. Advance Directives and Communication Skills of Prehospital Physicians Involved in the Care of Cardiovascular Patients.

    PubMed

    Gigon, Fabienne; Merlani, Paolo; Ricou, Bara

    2015-12-01

    Advance directives (AD) were developed to respect patient autonomy. However, very few patients have AD, even in cases when major cardiovascular surgery is to follow. To understand the reasons behind the low prevalence of AD and to help decision making when patients are incompetent, it is necessary to focus on the impact of prehospital practitioners, who may contribute to an increase in AD by discussing them with patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated communication skills and the attitudes of physicians potentially involved in the care of cardiovascular patients toward AD.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to general practitioners, cardiologists, internists, and intensivists, including the Quality of Communication Score, divided into a General Communication score (QOCgen 6 items) and an End-of-life Communication score (QOCeol 7 items), as well as questions regarding opinions and practices in terms of AD.One hundred sixty-four responses were received. QOCgen (mean (±SD)): 9.0/10 (1.0); QOCeol: 7.2/10 (1.7). General practitioners most frequently start discussions about AD (74/149 [47%]) and are more prone to designate their own specialty (30/49 [61%], P < 0.0001). Overall, only 57/159 (36%) physicians designated their own specialty; 130/158 (82%) physicians ask potential cardiovascular patients if they have AD and 61/118 (52%) physicians who care for cardiovascular patients talk about AD with some of them.The characteristics of physicians who do not talk about AD with patients were those who did not personally have AD and those who work in private practices.One hundred thirty-three (83%) physicians rated the systematic mention of patients' AD in the correspondence between physicians as good, while 114 (71%) at the patients' first registration in the private practice.Prehospital physicians rated their communication skills as good, whereas end-of-life communication was rated much lower. Only half of those surveyed speak about AD

  12. Substitution of physicians by nurses in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, substitution of physicians by nurses has become common due to the shortage of physicians and the need for high-quality, affordable care, especially for chronic and multi-morbid patients. We examined the evidence on the clinical effectiveness and care costs of physician-nurse substitution in primary care. Methods We systematically searched OVID Medline and Embase, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL, up to August 2012; selected and critically appraised published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared nurse-led care with care by primary care physicians on patient satisfaction, Quality of Life (QoL), hospital admission, mortality and costs of healthcare. We assessed the individual study risk of bias, calculated the study-specific and pooled relative risks (RR) or standardised mean differences (SMD); and performed fixed-effects meta-analyses. Results 24 RCTs (38,974 participants) and 2 economic studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled analyses showed higher overall scores of patient satisfaction with nurse-led care (SMD 0.18, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.23), in RCTs of single contact or urgent care, short (less than 6 months) follow-up episodes and in small trials (N ≤ 200). Nurse-led care was effective at reducing the overall risk of hospital admission (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.91), mortality (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.96), in RCTs of on-going or non-urgent care, longer (at least 12 months) follow-up episodes and in larger (N > 200) RCTs. Higher quality RCTs (with better allocation concealment and less attrition) showed higher rates of hospital admissions and mortality with nurse-led care albeit less or not significant. The results seemed more consistent across nurse practitioners than with registered or licensed nurses. The effects of nurse-led care on QoL and costs were difficult to interpret due to heterogeneous outcome reporting, valuation of resources and the small number of studies. Conclusions The available evidence

  13. Physician perspectives on care of individuals with severe mobility impairments in primary care in Southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Colleen; Lee, Joseph; Milligan, James; Hillier, Loretta M; Bauman, Craig

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high health risks associated with severe mobility impairments, individuals with physical disabilities are less likely to receive the same level of primary care as able-bodied persons. This study explores family physicians' perspectives on primary care for individuals with mobility impairments to identify and better understand the challenges that prevent equitable service delivery to this group of patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2012 with a purposeful sample of 20 family physicians practising in Southwestern Ontario to gather their perspectives of the personal and professional barriers to healthcare delivery for individuals with mobility impairments, including perceptions of challenges, contributing reasons and possible improvements. A thematic analysis was conducted on the transcripts generated from the interviews to identify perceptions of existing barriers and gaps in care, needs and existing opportunities for improving primary care for this patient population. Eight themes emerged from the interviews that contributed to understanding the perceived challenges of providing care to patients with mobility impairments: transportation barriers, knowledge gaps and practice constraints resulting in episodic care rather than preventive care, incongruence between perceived and actual accessibility to care, emergency departments used as centres for primary care, inattention to mobility issues among specialist and community services, lack of easily accessible practice tools, low patient volumes impact decision-making regarding building decreased motivation to expand clinical capacity due to low patient volume, and lastly, remuneration issues. Despite this patient population presenting with high healthcare needs and significant barriers and care gaps in primary care, low prevalence rates negatively impact the acquisition of necessary equipment and knowledge required to optimally care for these patients in typical primary care

  14. The Physician Quality Improvement Initiative: Engaging Physicians in Quality Improvement, Patient Safety, Accountability and their Provision of High-Quality Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Wentlandt, Kirsten; Degendorfer, Niki; Clarke, Cathy; Panet, Hayley; Worthington, Jim; McLean, Richard F; Chan, Charlie K N

    2016-01-01

    University Health Network has been working to become a high-reliability organization, with a focus on safe, quality patient care. In response, the Medical Affairs Department has implemented several strategic initiatives to drive accountability, quality improvement and engagement with our physician population. One of these initiatives, the Physician Quality Improvement Initiative (PQII) is a physician-led project designed to provide active medical staff, in collaboration with their physician department chiefs, a comprehensive approach to focused and practical quality improvement in their practice. In this document, we outline the project, including its implementation strategy, logic model and outcomes, and provide discussion on how it fits into UHN's global strategy to provide safe, quality patient care. PMID:27009706

  15. Structural Characteristics of Migrant Farmworkers Reporting a Relationship with a Primary Care Physician.

    PubMed

    McCoy, H Virginia; Williams, Mark L; Atkinson, John S; Rubens, Muni

    2016-06-01

    Migrant farmworkers are disproportionately affected by many adverse health conditions, but access healthcare sparingly. This study of migrant farmworkers examined the distribution and general characteristics associated with having access to healthcare. Access to healthcare was measured by asking whether the participants (N = 413) had a primary care physician. Majority of participants did not have a primary care physician. Female migrant workers (AOR = 2.823 CI: 1.575-4.103) with insurance (AOR = 6.183 CI: 4.956-11.937) who lived at study site for more than 5 years (AOR = 2.728 CI: 1.936-7.837) and born in the United States (AOR = 2.648 CI: 1.373-3.338) had greater odds to have a primary care physician than recent male migrants without insurance who were born outside United States. There is a need to focus on Community Health Centers and Migrant Health Centers in tailoring their services and to widen the implementation and improve funding of Accountable Care Organizations to improve access to care of migrant farmworkers. PMID:26265029

  16. Physician-Directed Diagnostic and Therapeutic Plans: a quality cure for America's health-care crisis.

    PubMed

    Musfeldt, C; Hart, R I

    1993-01-01

    The most effective way to improve quality is to reduce variation in the processes of providing a service. Physician-Directed Diagnostic and Therapeutic (PDDT) Plans are a proven methodology for reducing variation in clinical processes and improving the quality of care. A major part of the PDDT Plan process is the development of a critical pathway. Critical pathways are an application of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to clinical care which have provided clear, tangible results in those hospitals committed to this process. These pathways define the processes, timelines and responsibilities associated with the patient's clinical needs from preadmission to post discharge. Representatives of the various health-care professions involved in treating the specified patient populations work together, led by a physician, to define the processes of care. When completed, everyone involved in treating the patient understands what is to be done, by whom, and when. The pathways allow clinicians to plan ahead and let the patient and family know what to expect. Through establishing standards of care, these critical pathways also reduce the uncertainty of treatment decisions and free physicians from having to practice defensive medicine, and thus reduce cost. While the most visible outcome of this process is the actual PDDT Plan, it is not necessarily the most important. The very process of designing the pathway improves intra- and interdisciplinary communication, and fosters teamwork. PMID:8268471

  17. Weight maintenance: challenges, tools and strategies for primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Garvey, W T

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a chronic disease and one of the major healthcare challenges facing us today. Weight loss can be achieved via lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical interventions, but weight maintenance remains a lifetime challenge for individuals with obesity. Guidelines for the management of obesity have highlighted the role of primary care providers (PCPs). This review examines the long-term outcomes of clinical trials to identify effective weight maintenance strategies that can be utilized by PCPs. Because of the broad nature of the topic, a structured PubMed search was conducted to identify relevant research articles, peer-reviewed reviews, guidelines and articles published by regulatory bodies. Trials have demonstrated the benefit of sustained weight loss in managing obesity and its comorbidities. Maintaining 5-10% weight loss for ≥1 year is known to ameliorate many comorbidities. Weight maintenance with lifestyle modification - although challenging - is possible but requires long-term support to reinforce diet, physical activity and behavioural changes. The addition of pharmacotherapy to lifestyle interventions promotes greater and more sustained weight loss. Clinical evidence and recently approved pharmacotherapy has given PCPs improved strategies to support their patients with maintenance of weight loss. Further studies are needed to assess the translation of these strategies into clinical practice. PMID:26490059

  18. The use of governance tools in promotion of health care information technology adoption by physicians.

    PubMed

    Noblin, Alice M; Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Liu, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records are important technology for health care with promises of streamlining and improving care. However, physicians have been slow to adopt the technology usually because of financial constraints. Third-party payers, including Medicare and Medicaid, are coming forward with solutions and funding. While payers have the most to gain in terms of cost savings, they have been slow to provide a solution to the financial dilemmas posed by the new technology. This article details some governance tools that are frequently used to alleviate the financial concerns. Grants, loans, and tax expenditures are some of the options available to physicians to purchase electronic health records and other types of health care information technology. PMID:21808178

  19. Social Determinants of Health and Beyond: Information to Help Family Physicians Improve Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Marjorie A; Neale, Anne Victoria; Seehusen, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health (SDOHs) are a theme in this issue. In addition, we include a series of clinical articles to inform family medicine. One helps to demystify the process of obtaining hearing care. Another provides a case report of how a vanishing twin can confuse a newly available test. We also share articles on the early symptoms and signs of femoral insufficiency fractures and a simple test to help diagnose basal cell carcinomas. Family physicians provide their views on point-of-care tests. Positive outcomes are reported for behavioral health integration into family medicine offices and for diabetes education among patients cared for within patient-centered medical homes. A questionnaire can help family physicians identify and facilitate conversations with their patients about adverse childhood experiences. PMID:27170784

  20. Counseling patients to counsel physicians on future care in the event of patient incompetence.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, L J; Arras, J D

    1985-05-01

    Physicians and patients share a common interest in clarifying and maximizing the powers and protection of advanced directives for future care in the event of patient incompetence. Although the complexity and unpredictability of health care circumstances make it impossible to guarantee complete control over therapeutic measures to be used when survival is in question, physicians should offer their patients the opportunity to reflect on their values and wishes and to express them explicitly. The ideal advanced directive should clearly state the author's intentions; contain clear documentation regarding authorship; be flexible, allowing family and caregivers to respond appropriately to changing circumstances; be available when needed; and be supported by legal powers that grant patients the right of enforcement and grant health care providers protection from liability. Advanced directives can be set as instruction directives or proxy directives, each form having advantages and disadvantages. PMID:3985517

  1. The military veteran to physician assistant pathway: building the primary care workforce.

    PubMed

    Brock, Douglas; Bolon, Shannon; Wick, Keren; Harbert, Kenneth; Jacques, Paul; Evans, Timothy; Abdullah, Athena; Gianola, F J

    2013-12-01

    The physician assistant (PA) profession emerged to utilize the skills of returning Vietnam-era military medics and corpsmen to fortify deficits in the health care workforce. Today, the nation again faces projected health care workforce shortages and a significant armed forces drawdown. The authors describe national efforts to address both issues by facilitating veterans' entrance into civilian PA careers and leveraging their skills.More than 50,000 service personnel with military health care training were discharged between 2006 and 2010. These veterans' health care experience and maturity make them ideal candidates for civilian training as primary care providers. They trained and practiced in teams and functioned under minimal supervision to care for a broad range of patients. Military health care personnel are experienced in emergency medicine, urgent care, primary care, public health, and disaster medicine. However, the PA profession scarcely taps this valuable resource. Fewer than 4% of veterans with health care experience may ever apply for civilian PA training.The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) implements two strategies to help prepare and graduate veterans from PA education programs. First, Primary Care Training and Enhancement (PCTE) grants help develop the primary care workforce. In 2012, HRSA introduced reserved review points for PCTE: Physician Assistant Training in Primary Care applicants with veteran-targeted activities, increasing their likelihood of receiving funding. Second, HRSA leads civilian and military stakeholder workgroups that are identifying recruitment and retention activities and curricula adaptations that maximize veterans' potential as PAs. Both strategies are described, and early outcomes are presented. PMID:24128629

  2. Potential Impact of Increased Numbers of Physicians upon Physician Behavior, Access to, and Cost of, Medical Care. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Gerald L.

    A study that forecast the consequences of the projected growth in the number of practicing U.S. physicians during the 1980s and beyond is summarized. Attention was directed to the potential impact of the increasing supply of physicians on physician behavior, the cost of medical services, and access to services. Econometric modeling and analysis of…

  3. Potential Impact of Increased Numbers of Physicians upon Physician Behavior, Access to, and Cost of, Medical Care. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Gerald L.

    The potential impact of the increasing supply of physicians on physician behavior, the cost of medical services, and access to services is addressed in detail in this final research report. Econometric modeling and analyses of economic activity within the health sector were undertaken. An eight equation model of the hospital and physician sectors…

  4. Implementing Routine Cognitive Screening of Older Adults in Primary Care: Process and Impact on Physician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, James; Hummel, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Kathy; Lessig, Mary; Zuhr, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive impairment is a goal of high-quality geriatric medical care, but new approaches are needed to reduce rates of missed cases. Objective To evaluate whether adding routine cognitive screening to primary care visits for older adults increases rates of dementia diagnosis, specialist referral, or prescribing of antidementia medications. Setting Four primary care clinics in a university-affiliated primary care network. Design A quality improvement screening project and quasiexperimental comparison of 2 intervention clinics and 2 control clinics. The Mini-Cog was administered by medical assistants to intervention clinic patients aged 65+ years. Rates of dementia diagnoses, referrals, and medication prescribing were tracked over time using computerized administrative data. Results Twenty-six medical assistants successfully screened 70% (n = 524) of all eligible patients who made at least 1 clinic visit during the intervention period; 18% screened positive. There were no complaints about workflow interruption. Relative to baseline rates and control clinics, Mini-Cog screening was associated with increased dementia diagnoses, specialist referrals, and prescribing of cognitive enhancing medications. Patients without previous dementia indicators who had a positive Mini-Cog were more likely than all other patients to receive a new dementia diagnosis, specialty referral, or cognitive enhancing medication. However, relevant physician action occurred in only 17% of screen-positive patients. Responses were most related to the lowest Mini-Cog score level (0/5) and advanced age. Conclusion Mini-Cog screening by office staff is feasible in primary care practice and has measurable effects on physician behavior. However, new physician action relevant to dementia was likely to occur only when impairment was severe, and additional efforts are needed to help primary care physicians follow up appropriately on information suggesting cognitive

  5. Attitudes to and management of fertility among primary health care physicians in Turkey: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Hassa, Hikmet; Ayranci, Unal; Unluoglu, Ilhami; Metintas, Selma; Unsal, Alaeddin

    2005-01-01

    Background The subject of infertility has taken its place in the health sector at the top level. Since primary health care services are insufficient, most people, especially women, keep on suffering from it all over the world, namely in underdeveloped or developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine primary care physicians' opinions about the approach to infertility cases and their place within primary health care services (PHCSs). Methods The study was conducted between October 2003 and April 2004. The study group comprised 748 physicians working in PHCSs. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire with questions pertaining to infertility support, laboratory and treatment algorithms, as well as the demographic characteristics. The data was evaluated using the chi square test, percentage rates and a logistic regression model. Results The multivariate analyses showed that having a previous interest in infertility and having worked for a postgraduate period of between 5–9 years and ≥10 years were the variables that most positively influenced them in their approach to cases of infertility (p < 0.05, each one). Just 28.7% of the physicians indicated that they believed cases of infertility could be evaluated at the primary care level. The most frequently proposed reason for indicating 'difficulty in practice' (n = 533) was inadequate provision of equipment in PHCSs (55.7%). The physicians reported that they were able to perform most of the supportive treatments and proposals (between 64.6%–87.7%). The most requested laboratory investigations were the instruction of patients in taking basal body temperatures and semen analysis (89.7% and 88.7%, respectively). The most preferential course of treatment was that of sexually transmitted diseases (95.5%). Conclusion It is clear that not enough importance is attached to the provision of care to infertile couples within PHCSs. This leads us to conclude that an integration of infertility services in primary

  6. Detecting psychological distress among patients attending secondary health care clinics. Self-report and physician rating.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D; Rabinowitz, J; Ben Yehuda, Y

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of psychological distress, as reported by patients and their physicians, in orthopedic, neurology, dermatology, and ophthalmology clinics; to study their accuracy in detecting psychological distress; and to determine if there is any connection among psychological distress, accuracy of detecting distress, and use of mental health and primary health care physicians' prognosis for the somatic complaints. Five hundred and fifty-six patients, ages 18-21, responded to the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Demoralization Scale (PERI-D), a measure of psychological distress, and to questions about their mental health and use of mental health and primary health services. Physicians, who were blind to patients' responses, were asked to what extent they thought the cause of patients' complaints was physical and to what extent they thought it was psychological in nature, and to prognosticate. Based on the PERI-D, about 25% of patients were distressed, this was less for females than males and varied between clinics. Based on self-reporting, about 14% of patients (males and females) were distressed. Based on physician reporting, about 17% (males less) were distressed. Physicians identified 35% of the PERI-D-distressed cases and 79% of nondistressed cases. About 66% of patients identified their distress and 83% their lack of distress. Increased use of primary health care and mental health care was related to distress. The prognosis was negatively related to distress. Based on this study, there is a need for more attention to psychological distress among secondary health care patients. Patients' ability to identify their distress suggests the importance of involving the patient in the diagnostic process. Correct detection of distress alone does not appear to decrease the use of primary medical and mental health services. PMID:8714802

  7. Initial evaluation and management of infertility by the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A; Patel, Ketan S

    2004-11-01

    Infertility is a common condition seen in primary care practices. Infertility is defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse during which a pregnancy is not achieved. in the United States, 15% to 20% of all couples are infertile, with higher rates seen in older couples. The causes of infertility include abnormalities of any portion of the male or female reproductive system. The female partner usually presents initially for an infertilty problem, often in the context of an annual well-women examination. The primary care physician who provides such preventive care can initiate the diagnostic evaluation and can treat some causes of infertility. PMID:15544024

  8. Physician Perspectives on Providing Primary Medical Care to Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Warfield, Marji Erickson; Crossman, Morgan K; Delahaye, Jennifer; Der Weerd, Emma; Kuhlthau, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    We conducted in-depth case studies of 10 health care professionals who actively provide primary medical care to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The study sought to understand their experiences in providing this care, the training they had received, the training they lack and their suggestions for encouraging more physicians to provide this care. Qualitative data were gathered by phone using a structured interview guide and analyzed using the framework approach. Challenges to providing care were identified at the systems, practice and provider, and education and training levels. Solutions and interventions targeting needed changes at each level were also proposed. The findings have implications for health care reform, medical school and residency training programs, and the development of best practices. PMID:25724445

  9. Acute and critical care in neurology.

    PubMed

    Bertram, M; Schwarz, S; Hacke, W

    1997-01-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic management of selected neurological diseases requiring intensive treatment is summarized with special regard for current standards and new developments in therapy. Ischemic stroke is an emergency since the outcome can be improved by immediate and adequate general supporting as well as specific (thrombolytic) therapy in specialized stroke units. Surgical evacuation of supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We give an overview of conditions in which surgical therapy such as cerebellar hemorrhage and large, nondominant ganglionic hemorrhage might be advisable. Cerebral venous thrombosis is treated with full-dose intravenous heparin even if hemorrhage is present. In acute bacterial meningitis, early treatment of foci and empiric antibiotic therapy is crucial in order to prevent complications. The outcome of herpes simplex encephalitis can be favorably influenced by treatment with aciclovir and aggressive therapy of elevated ICP and seizures. Acute Guillain-Barré syndrome requires daily monitoring of vital functions in order to recognize the need for intensive care; intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are equally recommended for clinical and financial reasons. PMID:9363827

  10. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff

    PubMed Central

    Langhan, Melissa L.; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C.; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practise. We elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. Methods A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within ten emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Results Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practise, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use, and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff, and user friendliness were facilitators. Conclusions This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

  11. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff.

    PubMed

    Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G

    2015-01-01

    Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

  12. The Sexual History-Taking and Counseling Practices of Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Charles E.; Freeman, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a statewide survey of experiences related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and competencies of a random sample of primary care physicians in California done in early 1986, we interviewed 1,000 internists, family and general practitioners about their sexual history-taking and counseling practices. Less than 4% have patients complete a history form that includes questions about sexual orientation or practices, and only 10% ask new patients questions specific enough to identify those at high risk of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. Internists, women and younger physicians and those expressing little discomfort in dealing with gay men more often took adequate sexual histories and gave appropriate advice. Among those physicians with patients at risk of becoming infected, only half recommended the use of condoms and 60% advised a reduction in the number of partners. More than 15% recommended abstention from sexual intercourse, and 8% suggested these patients should switch to a heterosexual life-style. PMID:3660773

  13. Ethical dilemmas in the care of the ill. I. What is the physician's service?

    PubMed

    Kass, L R

    1980-10-17

    Physicians must continue to rely on their own powers of discernment and prudent judgment and not look to external "expert" guidance or expect simple solutions in facing the myriad ethical dilemmas in caring for the ill. Their ability to exercise the requisite virtues in particular cases requires, however, greater self-consciousness and thoughtfulness about the nature and purpose of medicine, including such questions as the following: Who and what is the physician? Whom and what does he serve? What is his relation to his patient and society? In exploring these questions, this article discusses how and why the medical profession's perception of its ethical dilemmas may differ from that of the broader American society and how physicians must respond to protect and preserve the integrity of their profession. PMID:7420682

  14. “Sometimes I Feel Overwhelmed”: Educational Needs of Family Physicians Caring for People with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joanne; Dreyfus, Deborah; Cerreto, Mary; Bokhour, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Primary care physicians who care for adults with intellectual disability often lack experience with the population, and patients with intellectual disability express dissatisfaction with their care. Establishing a secure primary care relationship is particularly important for adults with intellectual disability, who experience health disparities and may rely on their physician to direct/coordinate their care. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 22 family physicians with the goal of identifying educational needs of family physicians who care for people with intellectual disability. Interviews were transcribed and coded using tools from grounded theory. Several themes related to educational needs were identified. Physician participants identified themes of “operating without a map,” discomfort with patients with intellectual disability, and a need for more exposure to/experience with people with intellectual disability as important content areas. The authors also identified physician frustration and lack of confidence, compounded by anxiety related to difficult behaviors and a lack of context or frame of reference for patients with intellectual disability. Primary care physicians request some modification of their educational experience to better equip them to care for patients with intellectual disability. Their request for experiential, not theoretical, learning fits well under the umbrella of cultural competence (a required competency in U.S. medical education). PMID:22731973

  15. Physician Factors Associated with Discussions about End-of-Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Nancy L.; Landrum, Mary Beth; Rogers, Selwyn O.; Baum, Susan K.; Virnig, Beth A.; Huskamp, Haiden A.; Earle, Craig C.; Kahn, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend advanced care planning for terminally-ill patients with less than one year to live. Few data are available about when physicians and their terminally-ill patients typically discuss end-of-life issues. Methods National survey of physicians caring for cancer patients about timing of discussions regarding prognosis, DNR status, hospice, and preferred site of death with their terminally-ill patients. We used logistic regression to identify physician and practice characteristics associated with earlier discussions. Results Among 4,074 respondents, 65% would discuss prognosis “now” (patient has 4–6 months to live, asymptomatic). Fewer would discuss DNR status (44%), hospice (26%) or preferred site of death (21%) “now”, with most physicians waiting for patient symptoms or until there are no more treatments to offer. In multivariable analyses, younger physicians more often discussed prognosis, DNR status, hospice, and site of death “now” (all P<.05). Surgeons and oncologists were more likely than noncancer specialists to discuss prognosis now (P=.008), but noncancer specialists were more likely than cancer specialists to discuss DNR status, hospice, and preferred site of death “now” (all P<.001). Conclusions Most physicians report they would not discuss end-of-life options with terminally-ill patients who are feeling well, instead waiting for symptoms or until there are no more treatments to offer. More research is needed to understand physicians’ reasons for timing of discussions and how their propensity to aggressively treat metastatic disease influences timing, as well as how the timing of discussions influences patient and family experiences at the end of life. PMID:20066693

  16. Attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration among primary care physicians and nurses in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruth Mingli; Sim, Yu Fan; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) has been shown to improve patient outcomes, cost efficiency, and health professional satisfaction, and enhance healthy workplaces. We determined the attitudes of primary care physicians and nurses towards IPC and factors facilitating IPC using a cross-sectional study design in Singapore. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, based on the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC), was distributed to primary healthcare physicians and nurses working in National Healthcare Group Polyclinics (N = 455). We found that the mean JSAPNC score for physicians was poorer than that for nurses (50.39 [SD = 4.67] vs. 51.61 [SD = 4.19], respectively, mean difference, MD = 1.22, CI = 0.35-2.09, p = .006). Nurses with advanced education had better mean JSAPNC score than nurses with basic education (52.28 [SD = 4.22] vs. 51.12 [SD = 4.11], respectively, MD = 1.16, CI = 0.12-2.20, p = .029). Male participants had poorer mean JSAPNC score compared to females (50.27 [SD = 5.02] vs. 51.38 [SD = 4.22], respectively MD = 1.11, CI = 0.07-2.14, p = .036). With regression analysis, only educational qualification among nurses was independently and positively associated with JSAPNC scores (p = .018). In conclusion, primary care nurses in Singapore had more positive attitudes towards IPC than physicians. Among nurses, those with advanced education had more positive attitudes than those with basic education. Greater emphasis on IPC education in training of physicians and nurses could help improve attitudes further. PMID:27269233

  17. Measuring accuracy of sphygmomanometers in the medical practices of Swiss primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Arterial hypertension has a high prevalence in most countries. Blood pressure measurements are performed frequently by primary care physicians. Recommendations from different societies emphasise the importance of measuring blood pressure with well maintained and calibrated instruments only. Since appropriate quality control measures are lacking the following survey was conducted in the medical practices of Swiss primary care physicians. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey with Swiss primary care physicians. Nine hundred and seventy-five sphygmomanometers used in the daily practice of medicine were compared and calibrated against a certified calibrator. The magnitude of the measuring error before and after calibration was determined. Results The proportion of the instruments that measured within the required tolerance of ± 3 mmHg over all measuring ranges was 81.4%. The average maintenance time was 5.6 years (± 3.8), and 97% (n = 353) of these instruments had not been maintained for two years (i.e. the recommended maintenance interval) or more. Two years after maintenance the number of devices with measurement errors of more than ± 3 mmHg increased significantly. Conclusion In Swiss primary care practices, the majority of upper arm and wrist sphygmomanometers measured blood pressure within a tolerance of ± 3 mmHg despite low adherence to the recommended maintenance interval. Two years after maintenance the number of sphygmomanometers with measurement errors increased significantly. PMID:23822652

  18. Older Jail Inmates and Community Acute Care Use

    PubMed Central

    Chodos, Anna H.; Ahalt, Cyrus; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Myers, Janet; Goldenson, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined older jail inmates’ predetainment acute care use (emergency department or hospitalization in the 3 months before arrest) and their plans for using acute care after release. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study of 247 jail inmates aged 55 years or older assessing sociodemographic characteristics, health, and geriatric conditions associated with predetainment and anticipated postrelease acute care use. Results. We found that 52% of older inmates reported predetainment acute care use and 47% planned to use the emergency department after release. In modified Poisson regression, homelessness was independently associated with predetainment use (relative risk = 1.42; 95% confidence interval = 1.10, 1.83) and having a primary care provider was inversely associated with planned use (relative risk = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.53, 0.89). Conclusions. The Affordable Care Act has expanded Medicaid eligibility to all persons leaving jail in an effort to decrease postrelease acute care use in this high-risk population. Jail-to-community transitional care models that address the health, geriatric, and social factors prevalent in older adults leaving jail, and that focus on linkages to housing and primary care, are needed to enhance the impact of the act on acute care use for this population. PMID:25033146

  19. Heart Failure in Post-Acute and Long-Term Care: Evidence and Strategies to Improve Transitions, Clinical Care, and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Arif; Smucker, William D

    2015-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent among older patients in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). HF outcomes for SNF patients suffer because of many factors, including staff training, lack of physician availability, and failure to implement evidence-based care. AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine has recently updated the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Heart Failure Management in SNFs. This review supplements the Guidelines with a robust focus on best practices for transitional care, symptom management, treatment and monitoring, and palliative care in patients with HF. PMID:26089116

  20. Making post-acute care assets viable: a system's approach to continuing care.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Jeffery S; Oberst, Larry; Griffin, Kathleen M

    2013-04-01

    To build a strong continuing care network, leaders at Spectrum Health: Recruited industry veterans in post-acute care, Increased the visibility of the parent brand, Gained greater alignment throughout the system, Filled gaps in the health system's post-acute care portfolio. PMID:23596835

  1. Training Primary Care Physicians in Flexible Sigmoidoscopy—Performance Evaluation of 17, 167 Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Groveman, Howard D.; Sanowski, Robert A.; Klauber, Melville R.

    1988-01-01

    The flexible fiber-optic sigmoidoscope is rapidly replacing the rigid sigmoidoscope in routine screening for colorectal cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the safety, usage pattern, and efficacy of fiber-optic sigmoidoscopy by evaluating the outcome of training and the results of procedures carried out by a group of primary care physicians. Of 1,153 participants in one-day flexible sigmoidoscopy workshops, 764 (66%) returned questionnaires evaluating their experiences following this training. Of these, 438 physicians had obtained a flexible sigmoidoscope, used it frequently, and had done a total of 17,167 examinations. The average time of scope usage was nine months. Although additional supervised training was suggested at the time of the workshop, 68% of physicians began doing flexible sigmoidoscopy without it. A total of 465 polyps and 153 cancers were detected by the study group for an overall detection rate of 2.7% for polyps and 0.9% for cancers. Four complications were reported. This study indicates that the technique of flexible sigmoidoscopy is readily learned, is diagnostically productive, and is reasonably safe in the hands of primary care physicians. PMID:3348037

  2. Effective Patient-Physician Communication Based on Osteopathic Philosophy in Caring for Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Noll, Donald R; Ginsberg, Terrie; Elahi, Abdul; Cavalieri, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss effective communication strategies between elderly patients and their physicians from the perspective of osteopathic heritage. The patient-physician communication styles of Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, and early osteopathic physicians (ie, DOs) may have influenced how DOs today communicate with their patients. Historical literature describes how Still would discuss with his patients the causes of their health problems using analogies and language they would understand, and how, when caring for a patient at the end of life, he empathically provided emotional support for both patients and their families. Early DOs advocated setting clear expectations for patients regarding clinical outcomes and carefully listening to patients to build trust. The Osteopathic Oath, which calls for the DO to view the patient as a friend, may also affect patient-physician communication. Early osteopathic philosophy and culture, as modeled by Dr Still in his approach to elderly patients, should inspire today's DOs in their communication with their elderly patients. PMID:26745563

  3. Emigrant physicians evaluate the health care system of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J H; Shuval, J T

    1994-02-01

    This study is a retrospective evaluation of the Soviet health care system by 1,100 Jewish physicians who immigrated to Israel in 1990, but were professionally active in the former Soviet Union before and during the Gorbachev era. Medical education and the process of specialization; gender differences within the medical profession; sources of work satisfaction and dissatisfaction; self-evaluations of professional behavior; and assessments of patient behavior are included in this empirical study. Although high levels of dissatisfaction were found regarding instrumental aspects of work, the physicians reported high levels of satisfaction with their relationships with colleagues and patients. The recent emigrants assessed their own role behavior and that of their patients more critically than did physicians who left the Soviet Union in 1972, and who answered identical questions in 1975. Among the recent emigrants, men, older physicians, and those with higher status within the profession tended to be more satisfied with their work and less critical about their own and their patients' behavior than their female, younger and lower status colleagues. The subjective perceptions of former "insiders," which complement the reports that have appeared in recent years in the medical literature, are discussed in terms of the impact of glasnost and perestroika on reporting behavior and on the real deterioration that occurred in the health care system of the former Soviet Union. PMID:8302106

  4. Impact of Burnout on Self-Reported Patient Care Among Emergency Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dave W.; Dresden, Scott; McCloskey, Colin; Branzetti, Jeremy; Gisondi, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs) experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL) and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results We included 77 out of 155 (49.7%) responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012) and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036) than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744). Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011) and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02). EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary. PMID:26759643

  5. End-of-Life Care in an Acute Care Hospital: Linking Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Ros; Iedema, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The care of people who die in hospitals is often suboptimal. Involving patients in decisions about their care is seen as one way to improve care outcomes. Federal and state government policymakers in Australia are promoting shared decision making in acute care hospitals as a means to improve the quality of end-of-life care. If policy is to be…

  6. Using Discrete Event Computer Simulation to Improve Patient Flow in a Ghanaian Acute Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Best, Allyson M.; Dixon, Cinnamon A.; Kelton, W. David; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Crowding and limited resources have increased the strain on acute care facilities and emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. These problems are particularly prevalent in developing countries. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a computer-based tool that can be used to estimate how changes to complex healthcare delivery systems, such as EDs, will affect operational performance. Using this modality, our objective was to identify operational interventions that could potentially improve patient throughput of one acute care setting in a developing country. Methods We developed a simulation model of acute care at a district level hospital in Ghana to test the effects of resource-neutral (e.g. modified staff start times and roles) and resource-additional (e.g. increased staff) operational interventions on patient throughput. Previously captured, de-identified time-and-motion data from 487 acute care patients were used to develop and test the model. The primary outcome was the modeled effect of interventions on patient length of stay (LOS). Results The base-case (no change) scenario had a mean LOS of 292 minutes (95% CI 291, 293). In isolation, neither adding staffing, changing staff roles, nor varying shift times affected overall patient LOS. Specifically, adding two registration workers, history takers, and physicians resulted in a 23.8 (95% CI 22.3, 25.3) minute LOS decrease. However, when shift start-times were coordinated with patient arrival patterns, potential mean LOS was decreased by 96 minutes (95% CI 94, 98); and with the simultaneous combination of staff roles (Registration and History-taking) there was an overall mean LOS reduction of 152 minutes (95% CI 150, 154). Conclusions Resource-neutral interventions identified through DES modeling have the potential to improve acute care throughput in this Ghanaian municipal hospital. DES offers another approach to identifying potentially effective interventions to improve patient flow in emergency and acute

  7. Experiences with Capnography in Acute Care Settings: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Clinical Staff

    PubMed Central

    Langhan, Melissa L.; Kurtz, Jordan C.; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G.; Riera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While capnography is being incorporated into clinical guidelines, it is not used to it's full potential. We investigated reasons for limited implementation of capnography in acute care areas and explored facilitators and barriers to its implementation. Methods A purposeful sample of physicians and nurses in emergency departments (ED) and intensive care units (ICU) participated in semistructured interviews. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Results Nineteen providers were interviewed from five hospitals. Six themes were identified: variability in use of capnography among acute care units, availability and accessibility of capnography equipment, the evidence behind capnography use, the impact of capnography on patient care, personal experiences impacting use of capnography, and variable knowledge about capnography. Barriers and facilitators to use were found within each theme. Conclusions We observed varied responsiveness to capnography and identified factors that work to foster or discourage its use. This data can guide future implementation strategies. A deliberate strategy to foster utilization, mitigate barriers and broadly accelerate implementation has the potential to profoundly impact use of capnography in acute care areas with the goal of improving patient care. PMID:25129575

  8. Considerations for a Primary Care Physician Assistant in Treating Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Ryan; Durkin, Allison; Harris, Kristen; Mace, Amanda; Moore, Sierra; Smith, Brittany; Soult, Eric; Wright, Mara; Yothers, Dustin; Latos, Derrick L.; Horzempa, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The escalating amount of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) represents a significant dilemma for primary care providers. As the number of physician assistants (PAs) has been steadily increasing in primary care in the United States, the utilization of these healthcare professionals presents a solution for the care of post-kidney transplant recipients. A physician assistant (PA) is a state licensed healthcare professional who practices medicine under physician supervision and can alleviate some of the increasing demands for primary patient care. Here we provide an outline of the crucial components and considerations for PAs caring for kidney transplant recipients. These include renal function and routine screenings, drug monitoring (both immunosuppressive and therapeutic), pre-existing and co-existing conditions, immunizations, nutrition, physical activity, infection, cancer, and the patient’s emotional well-being. PAs should routinely monitor renal function and blood chemistry of KTRs. Drug monitoring of KTRs is a crucial responsibility of the PA because of the possible side-effects and potential drug-drug interactions. Therefore, PAs should obtain a careful and detailed patient history from KTRs. PAs should be aware of pre- and co-existing conditions of KTRs as this impacts treatment decisions. Regarding immunization, PAs should avoid administering vaccines containing live or attenuated viruses to KTRs. Because obesity following kidney transplantation is associated with decreased allograft survival, PAs should encourage KTRs to maintain a balanced diet with limited sugar. In addition, KTRs should be urged to gradually increase their levels of physical activity over subsequent years following surgery. PAs should be aware that immunosuppressive medications diminish immune defenses and make KTRs more susceptible to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Moreover, KTRs should be screened routinely for cancer due to the higher risk of development from

  9. Evidence-based cardiovascular care. Family physicians' views of obstacles and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Wayne; Twohig, Peter L.; Burge, Frederick I.; Jackson, Lois A.; Cox, Jafna L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore obstacles to and opportunities for applying specific lifestyle and pharmacologic recommendations on chronic ischemic heart disease. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Rural, town, and city settings in Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty family physicians caring for patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease. METHOD: Nine focus groups were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Seven recommendations had been selected for discussion based on their relevance to primary care, strength, and class of supporting evidence. Analysis was guided by grounded-theory methodology. MAIN FINDINGS: "Ischemic events" can be powerful motivators for change, whereas the asymptomatic nature of CV risks and distant outcomes can form obstacles. Trust built through previous experiences and the opportunity to repeat important messages can facilitate application of evidence, but patient-physician relationships can also pose obstacles. CONCLUSION: Physicians can take steps to improve care, but success at reducing CV risks depends upon active involvement of many health professionals and community resources. Future guideline implementation should focus on patient-oriented issues, such as comorbidity and treatment preferences. PMID:15526877

  10. A national survey of board-certified emergency physicians: quality of care and practice structure issues.

    PubMed

    Plantz, S H; Kreplick, L W; Panacek, E A; Mehta, T; Adler, J; McNamara, R M

    1998-01-01

    The opinions and experiences of board-certified emergency physicians regarding employment structure and finances, professional society policies, and quality of patient care have never been formally studied. A survey questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 1,050 emergency physicians certified by the American Board of Emergency Medicine. The survey contained 29 multiple choice questions. Of the 1,050, 465 (44.3%) of the surveys were returned. Respondents averaged 13.5 years of emergency medicine practice, 83% were members of the American College of Emergency Physicians, and 44% were emergency medicine residency trained. Seventy-five percent felt they had been financially exploited by the emergency department contract holder and 49% considered leaving their employer because of unfair business practices. Fifteen percent have been terminated without due process/peer review, and 11% have been forced to leave a position, move, or pay compensation because of noncompete clauses. The majority reported encountering instances of substandard emergency medical care, most commonly in settings with multihospital contract company coverage. The majority also believe their specialty societies should address issues of employment structure and quality of patient care standards. PMID:9451304

  11. Medical tourism in India: perceptions of physicians in tertiary care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Imrana; Reddy, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Senior physicians of modern medicine in India play a key role in shaping policies and public opinion and institutional management. This paper explores their perceptions of medical tourism (MT) within India which is a complex process involving international demands and policy shifts from service to commercialisation of health care for trade, gross domestic profit, and foreign exchange. Through interviews of 91 physicians in tertiary care hospitals in three cities of India, this paper explores four areas of concern: their understanding of MT, their views of the hospitals they work in, perceptions of the value and place of MT in their hospital and their views on the implications of MT for medical care in the country. An overwhelming majority (90%) of physicians in the private tertiary sector and 74.3 percent in the public tertiary sector see huge scope for MT in the private tertiary sector in India. The private tertiary sector physicians were concerned about their patients alone and felt that health of the poor was the responsibility of the state. The public tertiary sector physicians' however, were sensitive to the problems of the common man and felt responsible. Even though the glamour of hi-tech associated with MT dazzled them, only 35.8 percent wanted MT in their hospitals and a total of 56 percent of them said MT cannot be a public sector priority. 10 percent in the private sector expressed reservations towards MT while the rest demanded state subsidies for MT. The disconnect between their concern for the common man and professionals views on MT was due to the lack of appreciation of the continuum between commercialisation, the denial of resources to public hospitals and shift of subsidies to the private sector. The paper highlights the differences and similarities in the perceptions and context of the two sets of physicians, presents evidence, that questions the support for MT and finally analyzes some key implications of MT on Indian health services, ethical

  12. Ethics of the Physician's Role in Health-Care Cost Control: AOA Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Joseph; Iorio, Richard; Barber, Thomas; Barron, Chloe; Caplan, Arthur

    2016-07-20

    The United States health-care expenditure is rising precipitously. The Congressional Budget Office has estimated that, in 2025, at our current rate of increased spending, 25% of the gross domestic product will be allocated to health care. Our per-capita spending on health care also far exceeds that of any other industrialized country. Health-care costs must be addressed if our country is to remain competitive in the global marketplace and to maintain its financial solvency. If unchecked, the uncontrolled rise in health-care expenditures will not only affect our capacity to provide our patients with high-quality care but also threaten the ability of our nation to compete economically on the global stage. This is not hyperbole but fiscal reality.As physicians, we are becoming increasingly familiar with the economics impacting health-care policy. Thus, we are in a unique position to control the cost of health care. This includes an increased reliance on creating and adhering to evidence-based guidelines. We can do this and still continue to respect the primacy of patient welfare and the right of patients to act in their own self-interest. However, as evidenced by the use of high-volume centers of excellence, each strategy adapted to control costs must be vetted and must be monitored for its unintended ethical consequences.The solution to this complex problem must involve the input of all of the health-care stakeholders, including the patients, payers, and providers. Physicians ought to play a role in designing and executing a remedy. After all, we are the ones who best understand medicine and whose moral obligation is to the welfare of our patients. PMID:27440574

  13. Strategic Directions Within Health Care Institutions: The Role of the Physician

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Reuben R.; Ashmos, Donde P.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of the strategic problem faced by health care institutions is identified. Physicians are urged to be involved in the strategic decision-making process and are offered several alternative roles that they might play in strategy development. A set of conceptual frameworks from the generic management decision-making literature is used to organize the analysis in addition to the literature of health care management. This combination affords a different perspective into the nature of the problems and new insights into these critical issues. PMID:3746932

  14. What primary care physician teachers need to sustain community based education in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community based education (CBE), defined as “a means of achieving educational relevance to community needs and, consequently, of implementing a community oriented educational program,” is reported to be useful for producing rural physicians in Western countries. However, why some physicians withdraw from their teaching roles is not well known, especially in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to clarify the requisites and obstacles for taking part in CBE. Methods We combined two steps: preliminary semi-structured interviews followed by workshop discussions. First of all, we interviewed four designated physicians (all male, mean age 48 years) working in one rural area of Japan, with less than 10,000 residents. Secondly, we held a workshop at the academic conference of the Japan Primary Care Association. Fourteen participants attending the workshop (seven male physicians, mean age 45 years, and seven medical students (one female and six male), mean age 24 years) were divided into two groups and their opinions were summarized. Results In the first stage, we extracted three common needs from interviewees; 1. Sustained significant human relationships; 2. Intrinsic motivation; and 3. Tangible rewards. In the second stage, we summarized three major problems from three different standpoints; A. Preceptors’ issues: more educational knowledge or skills, B. Learner issues: role models in rural areas, and C. System issues: supportive educational system for raising rural physicians. Conclusions Our research findings revealed that community physicians require non-monetary support or intrinsic motivation for their CBE activities, which is in accordance with previous Western studies. In addition, we found that system support, as well as personal support, is required. Complementary questionnaire surveys in other Asian countries will be needed to validate our results. PMID:24822033

  15. Physician anger: Leggo dem managed care blues--leadership beyond the era of managed cost.

    PubMed

    Kirz, H L

    1999-01-01

    While managed care has caused great disruption, it has also provided physician executives with a natural leadership raison d'être. Managed care, with all its pros and cons, is largely a response to certain unrelenting trends. The core functions of leaders comprise the stewardship of organizations and colleagues in response to these trends. Four trends are explored: (1) The demise of open-ended funding of American health care; (2) continued competition for health care resources; (3) thriving pluralism; and (4) patients continually adjusting to assure themselves of appropriate health care access, quality, and service. In the 21st century, the industry will need a new brand of leader, one capable of balancing the needs of the professionals with the business and accountability requirements of a permanently competitive and resource-constrained service industry. The keys to successful leadership in the future include: (1) Clear service differentiation and a compelling vision to match it; (2) recruiting and retaining top clinical talent, including the required return to physician self-direction and governance; (3) successful partnerships with others outside your organization; and (4) a steady focus on performance in all its dimensions. PMID:10351726

  16. Curing and Caring: The Work of Primary Care Physicians With Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    CarolinaApesoa-Varano, Ester; Barker, Judith C.; Hinton, Ladson

    2013-01-01

    The symbolic framework guiding primary care physicians’ (PCPs) practice is crucial in shaping the quality of care for those with degenerative dementia. Examining the relationship between the cure and care models in primary care offers a unique opportunity for exploring change toward a more holistic approach to health care. The aims of this study were to (a) explore how PCPs approach the care of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and (b) describe how this care unfolds from the physicians’ perspectives. This was a cross-sectional study of 40 PCPs who completed semistructured interviews as part of a dementia caregiving study. Findings show that PCPs recognize the limits of the cure paradigm and articulate a caring, more holistic model that addresses the psychosocial needs of dementia patients. However, caring is difficult to uphold because of time constraints, emotional burden, and jurisdictional issues. Thus, the care model remains secondary and temporary. PMID:21685311

  17. Prescribing Exercise for Older Adults: A Needs Assessment Comparing Primary Care Physicians, Nurse Practitioners, and Physician Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Jason A.; Podgorski, Carol A.; Karuza, Jurgis

    2006-01-01

    To inform the development of educational programming designed to teach providers appropriate methods of exercise prescription for older adults, the authors conducted a survey of 177 physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (39% response rate). The survey was designed to better understand the prevalence of exercise prescriptions,…

  18. Hispanic-Asian Immigrant Inequality in Perceived Medical Need and Access to Regular Physician Care.

    PubMed

    Howe Hasanali, Stephanie; De Jong, Gordon F; Roempke Graefe, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    In the face of continuing large immigrant streams, Hispanic and Asian immigrants' human and social capital inequalities will heighten U.S. race/ethnic health and health care disparities. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this study assessed Hispanic-Asian immigrant disparity in access to health care, measured by perceived medical need and regular access to a physician. Logistic regression results indicated that Hispanics had lower perceived met medical need and were less likely to see a doctor regularly. These disparities were significantly attenuated by education and health insurance. Assimilation-related characteristics were significantly associated with a regular doctor visit and were not fully mediated by socioeconomic variables. Findings indicate the importance of education above and beyond insurance coverage for access to health care and suggest the potential for public health efforts to improve preventive care among immigrants. PMID:25420782

  19. Acute coronary care: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 58 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques for Diagnosing and Sizing of Myocardial Infarction; The Use of Serial Radionuclide Angiography for Monitoring Function during Acute Myocardial Infarction; Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction; and The Valve of Radionuclide Angiography for Risk Assessment of Patients following Acute Myocardial Infarction.

  20. Emergency Department Coverage by Primary Care Physicians in a Rural Practice-Based Research Network: Incentives, Confidence, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Edward; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Mattek, Nora; Mahler, Jo; Lowe, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: In rural areas of the United States, emergency departments (EDs) are often staffed by primary care physicians, as contrasted to urban and suburban hospitals where ED coverage is usually provided by physicians who are residency-trained in emergency medicine. Purpose: This study examines the reasons and incentives for rural Oregon primary…

  1. The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician…

  2. Development of a food allergy education resource for primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joyce E; Kumar, Arvind; Bruhn, Christine; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy is estimated to affect 3–4% of adults in the US, but there are limited educational resources for primary care physicians. The goal of this study was to develop and pilot a food allergy educational resource based upon a needs survey of non-allergist healthcare providers. Methods A survey was undertaken to identify educational needs and preferences for providers, with a focus on physicians caring for adults and teenagers, including emergency medicine providers. The results of the survey were used to develop a teaching program that was subsequently piloted on primary care and emergency medicine physicians. Knowledge base tests and satisfaction surveys were administered to determine the effectiveness of the educational program. Results Eighty-two physicians (response rate, 65%) completed the needs assessment survey. Areas of deficiency and educational needs identified included: identification of potentially life-threatening food allergies, food allergy diagnosis, and education of patients about treatment (food avoidance and epinephrine use). Small group, on-site training was the most requested mode of education. A slide set and narrative were developed to address the identified needs. Twenty-six separately enrolled participants were administered the teaching set. Pre-post knowledge base scores increased from a mean of 38% correct to 64% correct (p < 0.001). Ability to correctly demonstrate the use of epinephrine self injectors increased significantly. Nearly all participants (>95%) indicated that the teaching module increased their comfort with recognition and management of food allergy. Conclusion Our pilot food allergy program, developed based upon needs assessments, showed strong participant satisfaction and educational value. PMID:18826650

  3. Differences in the structure of outpatient diabetes care between endocrinologist- led and general physician- led services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a shift in diabetes care internationally from secondary to primary care, diabetes care in the Republic of Ireland remains very hospital-based. Significant variation in the facilities and resources available to hospitals providing outpatient diabetes care have been reported in the UK. The aim of this study was to ascertain the structure of outpatient diabetes care in public hospitals in the Republic of Ireland and whether differences existed in services provided across hospitals. Methods We conducted a cross sectional observational study of the 36 public general hospitals providing adult outpatient diabetes care in the Republic of Ireland. Data relating to numbers of specialist medical, nursing and allied health professionals, waiting times for new and return patients, patterns of discharge back to primary care and engagement in quality improvement initiatives were recorded. Results Thirty-five of the 36 eligible hospitals participated in the study. Sixty percent of these had at least one consultant endocrinologist in post, otherwise care delivery was led by a general physician. Waiting times for newly diagnosed patients exceeded six months in 30% of hospitals and this was higher where an endocrinologist was in place (47% V 7%, p = 0.013). Endocrinologists were more likely to have developed subspecialty clinics, access to allied health professionals and engage more in quality improvement initiatives but less likely to discharge patients back to primary care than general physicians (76 v 29%, p = 0.005). Conclusions Variations exist in the structure and provision of diabetes care in Irish hospitals. Endocrinology-led services have more developed subspecialty structures and access to specialist allied health professionals and engage more in quality improvement initiatives. Nonetheless, waiting times are longer and discharge rates to primary care are lower than for non-specialty led services. Further studies to determine the extent to which

  4. Cost Containment Through Risk-Sharing by Primary Care Physicians: A History of the Development of United Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stephen H.; Martin, Diane P.; Richardson, William C.; Riedel, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of Independent practice association has been organized to encourage primary care physicians in private practice to become coordinators and financial managers for their patients' medical care. Each patient chooses one internist, family or general physician, or pediatrician and must be referred by that physician for all specialized care. The primary care physician authorizes payment from his/her own account for hospital and referral care provided to patients. He or she shares any deficit or surplus remaining at the end of the year. This is a background paper detailing the history of development and specific features contained in this new concept of putting the physician in charge and “at risk” for the costs of medical care to his/her patients. The plan has been operating in northern California, Washington, and Utah and has 40,000 members and 750 participating physicians. This historical background paper is part of a large project—State Employees' Insurance Benefits Utilization Study (SEIBUS) being done by the University of Washington School of Public Health to evaluate use and costs of medical care under this innovative plan. PMID:10309220

  5. The Role of Obesity Training in Medical School and Residency on Bariatric Surgery Knowledge in Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Johnson, Erica D.; Claridy, Mechelle D.; Earle, Rebecca L.; Kaplan, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. US primary care physicians are inadequately educated on how to provide obesity treatment. We sought to assess physician training in obesity and to characterize the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and treatment patterns of primary care physicians. Methods. We administered a cross-sectional web-based survey from July to October 2014 to adult primary care physicians in practices affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). We evaluated survey respondent demographics, personal health habits, obesity training, knowledge of bariatric surgery care, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the etiology of obesity and treatment strategies. Results. Younger primary care physicians (age 20–39) were more likely to have received some obesity training than those aged 40–49 (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.008–0.822) or those 50+ (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004–0.321). Physicians who were young, had obesity, or received obesity education in medical school or postgraduate training were more likely to answer bariatric surgery knowledge questions correctly. Conclusions. There is a need for educational programs to improve physician knowledge and competency in treating patients with obesity. Obesity is a complex chronic disease, and it is important for clinicians to be equipped with the knowledge of the multiple treatment modalities that may be considered to help their patients achieve a healthy weight. PMID:26339506

  6. Sexual Abuse of the Mentally Retarded Patient: Medical and Legal Analysis for the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Jamie P.

    2001-01-01

    The primary care physician has a vital role in documenting and preventing sexual abuse among the mentally retarded populations in our community. Since the current national trend is to integrate citizens with mental retardation into the community away from institutionalized care, it is essential that all physicians have a basic understanding of the unique medical and legal ramifications of their clinical diagnoses. As the legal arena is currently revising laws concerning rights of sexual consent among the mentally retarded, it is essential that determinations of mental competency follow national standards in order to delineate clearly any instance of sexual abuse. Clinical documentation of sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease is an important part of a routine examination since many such individuals are indeed sexually active. Legal codes adjudicating sexual abuse cases of the mentally retarded often offer scant protection and vague terminology. Thus, medical documentation and physician competency rulings form a solid foundation for future work toward legal recourse for the abused. PMID:15014610

  7. Mechanical circulatory assist devices: a primer for critical care and emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ayan; Larson, Joel S; Kashani, Kianoush B; Libricz, Stacy L; Patel, Bhavesh M; Guru, Pramod K; Alwardt, Cory M; Pajaro, Octavio; Farmer, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical circulatory assist devices are now commonly used in the treatment of severe heart failure as bridges to cardiac transplant, as destination therapy for patients who are not transplant candidates, and as bridges to recovery and "decision-making". These devices, which can be used to support the left or right ventricles or both, restore circulation to the tissues, thereby improving organ function. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are the most common support devices. To care for patients with these devices, health care providers in emergency departments (EDs) and intensive care units (ICUs) need to understand the physiology of the devices, the vocabulary of mechanical support, the types of complications patients may have, diagnostic techniques, and decision-making regarding treatment. Patients with LVADs who come to the ED or are admitted to the ICU usually have nonspecific clinical symptoms, most commonly shortness of breath, hypotension, anemia, chest pain, syncope, hemoptysis, gastrointestinal bleeding, jaundice, fever, oliguria and hematuria, altered mental status, headache, seizure, and back pain. Other patients are seen for cardiac arrest, psychiatric issues, sequelae of noncardiac surgery, and trauma. Although most patients have LVADs, some may have biventricular support devices or total artificial hearts. Involving a team of cardiac surgeons, perfusion experts, and heart-failure physicians, as well as ED and ICU physicians and nurses, is critical for managing treatment for these patients and for successful outcomes. This review is designed for critical care providers who may be the first to see these patients in the ED or ICU. PMID:27342573

  8. Integrity in the care of elderly people, as narrated by female physicians.

    PubMed

    Nordam, Ann; Sørlie, Venke; Förde, R

    2003-07-01

    Three female physicians were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of female and male physicians and nurses, concerning their experience of being in ethically difficult care situations in the care of elderly people. The interviewees expressed great concern for the low status of care for elderly people, and the need fight for the specialty and for the care and rights of their patients. All the interviewees' narratives concerned problems relating to perspectives of both action ethics and relational ethics. The main focus was on problems concerning the latter perspective, expressed profound concern and respect for the individual patient. Secondary emphasis was placed on relationships with relatives and other professionals. The most common themes in action ethics perspective were too little treatment and the lack of health services for older patients, together with overtreatment and death with dignity. These results were discussed in the light of Løgstrup's ethics, which emphasize that human life means expressing oneself, in the expectation of being met by others. Both Ricoeur's concept of an ethics of memory and Aristotle's virtue ethics are presented in the discussion of too little and too much treatment. PMID:12875536

  9. Medical tourism in india: perceptions of physicians in tertiary care hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Senior physicians of modern medicine in India play a key role in shaping policies and public opinion and institutional management. This paper explores their perceptions of medical tourism (MT) within India which is a complex process involving international demands and policy shifts from service to commercialisation of health care for trade, gross domestic profit, and foreign exchange. Through interviews of 91 physicians in tertiary care hospitals in three cities of India, this paper explores four areas of concern: their understanding of MT, their views of the hospitals they work in, perceptions of the value and place of MT in their hospital and their views on the implications of MT for medical care in the country. An overwhelming majority (90%) of physicians in the private tertiary sector and 74.3 percent in the public tertiary sector see huge scope for MT in the private tertiary sector in India. The private tertiary sector physicians were concerned about their patients alone and felt that health of the poor was the responsibility of the state. The public tertiary sector physicians’ however, were sensitive to the problems of the common man and felt responsible. Even though the glamour of hi-tech associated with MT dazzled them, only 35.8 percent wanted MT in their hospitals and a total of 56 percent of them said MT cannot be a public sector priority. 10 percent in the private sector expressed reservations towards MT while the rest demanded state subsidies for MT. The disconnect between their concern for the common man and professionals views on MT was due to the lack of appreciation of the continuum between commercialisation, the denial of resources to public hospitals and shift of subsidies to the private sector. The paper highlights the differences and similarities in the perceptions and context of the two sets of physicians, presents evidence, that questions the support for MT and finally analyzes some key implications of MT on Indian health services, ethical

  10. [Stroke always with an emergency physician? - Pro].

    PubMed

    Harding, U; Lechleuthner, A; Ritter, M A; Schilling, M; Kros, M; Ohms, M; Bohn, A

    2013-06-01

    Good management of acute stroke is dependent on time and expertise. In Germany emergency medical care by ambulance services sometimes occurs without an emergency physician being sent to the scene. By reviewing current literature the question of patient care in the ambulance with or without an emergency physician is discussed. Presence of an emergency physician at the scene results in high diagnostic accuracy, allows for invasive procedures to be carried out, and enables referral to a specialist centre with a stroke-unit. The "rendezvous" system of separate deployment of patient ambulance and emergency physician allow flexible assignment of the physician resulting in short response times. Current research does not support a turn away from the deployment of an emergency physician in cases of acute stroke. PMID:23010854

  11. Identifying and managing patients with delirium in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Bond, Penny; Goudie, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Delirium is an acute medical emergency affecting about one in eight acute hospital inpatients. It is associated with poor outcomes, is more prevalent in older people and it is estimated that half of all patients receiving intensive care or surgery for a hip fracture will be affected. Despite its prevalence and impact, delirium is not reliably identified or well managed. Improving the identification and management of patients with delirium has been a focus for the national improving older people's acute care work programme in NHS Scotland. A delirium toolkit has been developed, which includes the 4AT rapid assessment test, information for patients and carers and a care bundle for managing delirium based on existing guidance. This toolkit has been tested and implemented by teams from a range of acute care settings to support improvements in the identification and immediate management of delirium. PMID:26511424

  12. Ethical challenges in the neonatal intensive care units: perceptions of physicians and nurses; an Iranian experience.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Maliheh; Mosayebi, Ziba; Asghari, Fariba; Zarrini, Pari

    2015-01-01

    The challenging nature of neonatal medicine today is intensified by modern advances in intensive care and treatment of sicker neonates. These developments have caused numerous ethical issues and conflicts in ethical decision-making. The present study surveyed the challenges and dilemmas from the viewpoint of the neonatal intensive care personnel in the teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in the capital of Iran. In this comparative cross-sectional study conducted between March 2013 and February 2014, the physicians' and nurses' perceptions of the ethical issues in neonatal intensive care units were compared. The physicians and nurses of the study hospitals were requested to complete a 36-item questionnaire after initial accommodations. The study samples consisted of 284 physicians (36%) and nurses (64%). Content validity and internal consistency calculations were used to examine the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression using SPSS v. 22. Respecting patients' rights and interactions with parents were perceived as the most challenging aspects of neonatal care. There were significant differences between sexes in the domains of the perceived challenges. According to the linear regression model, the perceived score would be reduced 0.33 per each year on the job. The results of our study showed that the most challenging issues were related to patients' rights, interactions with parents, communication and cooperation, and end of life considerations respectively. It can be concluded, therefore, that more attention should be paid to these issues in educational programs and ethics committees of hospitals. PMID:26839675

  13. Assessment of medical care by elderly people: general satisfaction and physician quality.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y; Kasper, J D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify personal characteristics and factors related to health and patterns of healthcare utilization associated with the elderly people's satisfaction with medical care. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data from the 1991 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) on 8,859 persons age 65 and over living in the community. STUDY DESIGN: Items reflecting general satisfaction with care and views of physician quality are examined and, based on factor analysis, grouped in dimensions of two (global quality, access) and three (technical skills, interpersonal manner, information-giving), respectively. The relationship of high levels of satisfaction in each dimension to personal characteristics of elderly people, and to measures of access and utilization, is assessed using logistic regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While satisfaction is high, with over 90 percent surveyed expressing some satisfaction, there is substantial variation with less likelihood of high satisfaction among those 80 or older, with less education and income and in poorer health. Longer waiting time at visits and less frequent visits are factors in lower satisfaction as well. A favorable perception of physician quality, especially regarding technical skills, appears to play a significant role in satisfaction with global quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: Studies of patient satisfaction in elderly people are rare. Some factors expected to be related to positive assessment based on earlier studies, were, e.g., better health and shorter waiting time, while others were not, e.g., increasing age. Elderly people appear to place greater importance on physician technical skills, as opposed to interpersonal dimensions, in assessing global quality. These findings suggest the need for a better understanding of how elderly people evaluate care and what they value in interactions with the healthcare system. Images Figure 1 PMID:9460484

  14. Addressing domestic violence in primary care: what the physician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Usta, Jinan; Taleb, Rim

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is quite prevalent and negatively impacts the health and mental wellbeing of those affected. Victims of DV are frequent users of health service, yet they are infrequently recognized. Physicians tend to treat the presenting complaints without addressing the root cause of the problem. Lack of knowledge on adequately managing cases of DV and on appropriate ways to help survivors is commonly presented as a barrier. This article presents the magnitude of the problem of DV in the Arab world, highlights the role of the primary care physician in addressing this problem, and provides practical steps that can guide the clinician in the Arab world in giving a comprehensive and culturally sensitive service to the survivors of DV. PMID:24647277

  15. Addressing domestic violence in primary care: what the physician needs to know

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Jinan; Taleb, Rim

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is quite prevalent and negatively impacts the health and mental wellbeing of those affected. Victims of DV are frequent users of health service, yet they are infrequently recognized. Physicians tend to treat the presenting complaints without addressing the root cause of the problem. Lack of knowledge on adequately managing cases of DV and on appropriate ways to help survivors is commonly presented as a barrier. This article presents the magnitude of the problem of DV in the Arab world, highlights the role of the primary care physician in addressing this problem, and provides practical steps that can guide the clinician in the Arab world in giving a comprehensive and culturally sensitive service to the survivors of DV. PMID:24647277

  16. Adaptability of Physicians Offering Primary Care to the Poor: Social Competency Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Loignon, Christine; Boudreault-Fournier,, Alexandrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to go deeper into the topic of social competency of physicians who provide primary care to populations living in poverty in Montreal. Adaptability as well as the ability to tailor practices according to patient expectations, needs and capabilities were found to be important in the development of the concept of social competency. The case of paternalism is used to demonstrate how a historically and socially contested medical approach is readapted by players in certain contexts in order to better meet patient expectations. This paper presents data collected in a qualitative study comprising 25 semi-supervised interviews with physicians recognized by their peers as having developed exemplary practices in Montreal's impoverished neighbourhoods. PMID:24289940

  17. Variations among Primary Care Physicians in Exercise Advice, Imaging, and Analgesics for Musculoskeletal Pain: Results from a Factorial Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Maserejian, Nancy N.; Fischer, Michael A.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Yu, Jing; Marceau, Lisa D.; McKinlay, John B.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether medical decisions regarding evaluation and management of musculoskeletal pain conditions varied systematically by characteristics of the patient or provider. Methods We conducted a balanced factorial experiment among primary care physicians in the U.S. Physicians (N=192) viewed two videos of different patients (actors) presenting with pain: (1) undiagnosed sciatica symptoms or (2) diagnosed knee osteoarthritis. Systematic variations in patient gender, socioeconomic status (SES), race, physician gender and experience (<20 vs. ≥20 years in practice) permitted estimation of unconfounded effects. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate associations between patient or provider attributes and clinical decisions. Quality of decisions was defined based on the current recommendations of the ACR, American Pain Society, and clinical expert consensus. Results Despite current recommendations, under one-third of physicians would provide exercise advice (30.2% for osteoarthritis, 32.8% for sciatica). Physicians with fewer years in practice were more likely to provide advice on lifestyle changes, particularly exercise (P<0.01), and to prescribe NSAIDs for pain relief, both of which were appropriate and consistent with current recommendations for care. Newer physicians ordered fewer tests, particularly basic laboratory investigations or urinalysis. Test ordering decreased as organizational emphasis on business or profits increased. Patient factors and physician gender had no consistent effects on pain evaluation or treatment. Conclusion Physician education on disease management recommendations regarding exercise and analgesics, and implementation of quality measures may be useful, particularly for physicians with more years in practice. PMID:24376249

  18. Dignity in end-of-life care: results of a national survey of US physicians

    PubMed Central

    Antiel, Ryan M.; Curlin, Farr A.; James, Katherine M.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Tilburt, Jon C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Debates persist about the relevance of “dignity” as an ethical concept in US healthcare, especially in end-of-life care. Objective To describe the attitudes and beliefs regarding the usefulness and meaning of the concept of dignity and to examine judgments about a clinical scenario in which dignity might be relevant. Methods 2000 practicing U.S. physicians, from all specialties, were mailed a survey. Main measures included physician’s judgments about an end-of-life clinical scenario (criterion variable), attitudes about the concept of dignity (predictors), and their religious characteristics (predictors). Results 1032 eligible physicians (54%) responded. Nine out of ten (90%) physicians reported that dignity was relevant to their practice. After controlling for age, gender, region, and specialty, physicians who judged that the case patient had either some dignity or full dignity, and who agreed that dignity is given by a creator, were all positively associated with believing that the patient’s life was worth living [OR 10.2 (5.8–17.8), OR 20.5 (11.4–36.8), OR 4.7 (3.1–7.0), respectively]. Respondents who strongly agreed that “all living humans have the same amount of dignity” were also more likely to believe that the patient’s life was worth living [OR 1.8 (1.2–2.7)]. Religious characteristics were also associated with believing that the case patient’s life was worth living [OR 4.1 (2.4–7.2), OR 3.2 (1.6–6.3), OR 9.2 (4.3–19.5), respectively]. Conclusion US physicians view the concept of dignity as useful. Those views are associated with their judgments about common end-of-life scenarios in which dignity concepts may be relevant. PMID:22762966

  19. Why Is Spiritual Care Infrequent at the End of Life? Spiritual Care Perceptions Among Patients, Nurses, and Physicians and the Role of Training

    PubMed Central

    Balboni, Michael J.; Sullivan, Adam; Amobi, Adaugo; Phelps, Andrea C.; Gorman, Daniel P.; Zollfrank, Angelika; Peteet, John R.; Prigerson, Holly G.; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Balboni, Tracy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine factors contributing to the infrequent provision of spiritual care (SC) by nurses and physicians caring for patients at the end of life (EOL). Patients and Methods This is a survey-based, multisite study conducted from March 2006 through January 2009. All eligible patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative radiation therapy and oncology physician and nurses at four Boston academic centers were approached for study participation; 75 patients (response rate = 73%) and 339 nurses and physicians (response rate = 63%) participated. The survey assessed practical and operational dimensions of SC, including eight SC examples. Outcomes assessed five factors hypothesized to contribute to SC infrequency. Results Most patients with advanced cancer had never received any form of spiritual care from their oncology nurses or physicians (87% and 94%, respectively; P for difference = .043). Majorities of patients indicated that SC is an important component of cancer care from nurses and physicians (86% and 87%, respectively; P = .1). Most nurses and physicians thought that SC should at least occasionally be provided (87% and 80%, respectively; P = .16). Majorities of patients, nurses, and physicians endorsed the appropriateness of eight examples of SC (averages, 78%, 93%, and 87%, respectively; P = .01). In adjusted analyses, the strongest predictor of SC provision by nurses and physicians was reception of SC training (odds ratio [OR] = 11.20, 95% CI, 1.24 to 101; and OR = 7.22, 95% CI, 1.91 to 27.30, respectively). Most nurses and physicians had not received SC training (88% and 86%, respectively; P = .83). Conclusion Patients, nurses, and physicians view SC as an important, appropriate, and beneficial component of EOL care. SC infrequency may be primarily due to lack of training, suggesting that SC training is critical to meeting national EOL care guidelines. PMID:23248245

  20. Practical suicide-risk management for the busy primary care physician.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Anna K; Lineberry, Timothy W; Bostwick, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    Suicide is a public health problem and a leading cause of death. The number of people thinking seriously about suicide, making plans, and attempting suicide is surprisingly high. In total, primary care clinicians write more prescriptions for antidepressants than mental health clinicians and see patients more often in the month before their death by suicide. Treatment of depression by primary care physicians is improving, but opportunities remain in addressing suicide-related treatment variables. Collaborative care models for treating depression have the potential both to improve depression outcomes and decrease suicide risk. Alcohol use disorders and anxiety symptoms are important comorbid conditions to identify and treat. Management of suicide risk includes understanding the difference between risk factors and warning signs, developing a suicide risk assessment, and practically managing suicidal crises. PMID:21709131

  1. Physician perspectives on colorectal cancer surveillance care in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane; Sterba, Katherine R; LaPelle, Nancy; Armeson, Kent; Burshell, Dana R; Ford, Marvella E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this formative qualitatively driven mixed-methods study was to refine a measurement tool for use in interventions to improve colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance care. We employed key informant interviews to explore the attitudes, practices, and preferences of four physician specialties. A national survey, literature review, and expert consultation also informed survey development. Cognitive pretesting obtained participant feedback to improve the survey's face and content validity and reliability. Results showed that additional domains were needed to reflect contemporary interdisciplinary trends in survivorship care, evolving practice changes and current health policy. Observed dissonance in specialists' perspectives poses challenges for the development of interventions and psychometrically sound measurement. Implications for future research include need for a flexible care model with enhanced communication and role definitions among clinical specialists, improvements in surveillance at multilevels (patients, providers, and systems), and measurement tools that focus on multispecialty involvement and the changing practice and policy environment. PMID:25878188

  2. Practical Suicide-Risk Management for the Busy Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Anna K.; Lineberry, Timothy W.; Bostwick, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem and a leading cause of death. The number of people thinking seriously about suicide, making plans, and attempting suicide is surprisingly high. In total, primary care clinicians write more prescriptions for antidepressants than mental health clinicians and see patients more often in the month before their death by suicide. Treatment of depression by primary care physicians is improving, but opportunities remain in addressing suicide-related treatment variables. Collaborative care models for treating depression have the potential both to improve depression outcomes and decrease suicide risk. Alcohol use disorders and anxiety symptoms are important comorbid conditions to identify and treat. Management of suicide risk includes understanding the difference between risk factors and warning signs, developing a suicide risk assessment, and practically managing suicidal crises. PMID:21709131

  3. New care model targets high-utilizing, complex patients, frees up emergency providers to focus on acute care concerns.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis, MN, has developed a new model of care, designed to meet the needs of high-utilizing hospital and ED patients with complex medical, social, and behavioral needs.The Coordinated Care Center (CCC) provides easy access to patients with a history of high utilization, and delivers multidisciplinary care in a one-stop-shop format. In one year, the approach has slashed ED visits by 37%, freeing up emergency providers to focus on patients with acute needs. In-patient care stays are down by 25%. The CCC focuses on patients with diagnoses that are primarily medical, such as CHF [congestive heart failure], COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease], or diabetes. ED-based clinical coordinators keep an eye out for patients who world be good candidates for the CCC, and facilitate quick transitions when their needs would be better served in that setting. Administrators describe CCC as an ambulatory intensive care unit, with an on-site pharmacist, social worker, psychologist, and chemical health counselor as well as physicians, nurse practitioners, LPNs, and patient navigators--enough personnel to comprise two full care teams. While the model does not pay for itself under current payment models, administrators anticipate that the approach will work well under future payment reforms that focus on total cost of care. PMID:24195142

  4. Antibiotic use and clinical outcomes in the acute setting under management by an infectious diseases acute physician versus other clinical teams: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nicola; Mistry, Vikash; Crook, Derrick; Peto, Tim; Walker, A Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the magnitude of difference in antibiotic use between clinical teams in the acute setting and assess evidence for any adverse consequences to patient safety or healthcare delivery. Design Prospective cohort study (1 week) and analysis of linked electronic health records (3 years). Setting UK tertiary care centre. Participants All patients admitted sequentially to the acute medical service under an infectious diseases acute physician (IDP) and other medical teams during 1 week in 2013 (n=297), and 3 years 2012–2014 (n=47 585). Primary outcome measure Antibiotic use in days of therapy (DOT): raw group metrics and regression analysis adjusted for case mix. Secondary outcome measures 30-day all-cause mortality, treatment failure and length of stay. Results Antibiotic use was 173 vs 282 DOT/100 admissions in the IDP versus non-IDP group. Using case mix-adjusted zero-inflated Poisson regression, IDP patients were significantly less likely to receive an antibiotic (adjusted OR=0.25 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.84), p=0.03) and received shorter courses (adjusted rate ratio (RR)=0.71 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.93), p=0.01). Clinically stable IDP patients of uncertain diagnosis were more likely to have antibiotics held (87% vs 55%; p=0.02). There was no significant difference in treatment failure or mortality (adjusted p>0.5; also in the 3-year data set), but IDP patients were more likely to be admitted overnight (adjusted OR=3.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 10.03), p=0.03) and have longer length of stay (adjusted RR=1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.36), p=0.007). Conclusions The IDP-led group used 30% less antibiotic therapy with no adverse clinical outcome, suggesting antibiotic use can be reduced safely in the acute setting. This may be achieved in part by holding antibiotics and admitting the patient for observation rather than prescribing, which has implications for costs and hospital occupancy. More information is needed to indicate whether any such longer admission will

  5. Primary care physicians and pandemic influenza: an appraisal of the 1918 experience and an assessment of contemporary planning.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Jacob; Kastner, Justin; Nutsch, Abbey

    2008-01-01

    This multidisciplinary research project examined the role of primary care physicians in past pandemic flu responses and current planning efforts. Project researchers gathered and synthesized historical research, state and federal planning documents, and interview-based data. The 1918 influenza pandemic presented one model from which to understand the role played by physicians during a large-scale disease outbreak, and the challenges they faced. Contemporary planning documents were assessed for their inclusion of primary care physicians. Literature reviews and interviews comprised the principal sources of information. Findings included the following: (1) primary care physicians do not have the time to engage fully in pandemic planning activities; (2) physicians are willing to serve during a pandemic; however, government support and the availability of resources will affect their level of involvement; (3) communities should develop plans for coordinating local physicians who will allow alternative care sites to be functionally staffed; and (4) full coordination of physicians is not possible under the US healthcare system. PMID:18552650

  6. Medicaid Primary Care Physician Fees and the Use of Preventive Services among Medicaid Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Adam; Mortensen, Karoline

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) increases Medicaid physician fees for preventive care up to Medicare rates for 2013 and 2014. The purpose of this paper was to model the relationship between Medicaid preventive care payment rates and the use of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)–recommended preventive care use among Medicaid enrollees. Data Sources/Study Session We used data from the 2003 and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a national probability sample of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population, linked to Kaiser state Medicaid benefits data, including the state Medicaid-to-Medicare physician fee ratio in 2003 and 2008. Study Design Probit models were used to estimate the probability that eligible individuals received one of five USPSF-recommended preventive services. A difference-in-difference model was used to separate out the effect of changes in the Medicaid payment rate and other factors. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were linked using state identifiers. Principal Findings Although Medicaid enrollees had a lower rate of use of the five preventive services in univariate analysis, neither Medicaid enrollment nor changes in Medicaid payment rates had statistically significant effects on meeting screening recommendations for the five screenings. The results were robust to a number of different sensitivity tests. Individual and state characteristics were significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that although temporary changes in primary care provider payments for preventive services for Medicaid enrollees may have other desirable effects, they are unlikely to substantially increase the use of these selected USPSTF-recommended preventive care services among Medicaid enrollees. PMID:24628495

  7. Female genital cutting: an evidence-based approach to clinical management for the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Hearst, Adelaide A; Molnar, Alexandra M

    2013-06-01

    The United States has more than 1.5 million immigrants from countries in Africa and the Middle East where female genital cutting (FGC) is known to occur. Often, FGC occurs in infancy and childhood in the countries where it is practiced, but patients of any age can present with complications. Lack of understanding of this common problem can potentially alienate and lower quality of care for this patient population. We provide an introduction to the practice of FGC and practice guidelines for the primary care physician. We reviewed original research, population-based studies, and legal research from PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and Legal Trac. The terms searched included female genital cutting, female genital circumcision, and female genital mutilation alone and with the term complications or health consequences; no limit on date published. Legal databases were searched using the above terms, as well as international law and immigration law. Editorials and review articles were excluded. This review discusses the different types of FGC, important cultural considerations for physicians caring for patients with FGC, the common early and late medical complications and their management, and psychosocial issues associated with FGC. Current laws pertaining to FGC are briefly reviewed, as well as implications for patients seeking asylum status in the United States because of FGC. Finally, the article presents evidence-based, culturally sensitive approaches to discussions of FGC with girls and women for whom this is an issue. PMID:23726401

  8. Verbal Communication among Alzheimer’s Disease Patients, their Caregivers, and Primary Care Physicians during Primary Care Office Visits

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objective Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual’s verbal participation in these triadic interactions. Methods To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. Results PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver’s own verbal participation. Conclusion Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Practice Implications Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient’s active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits. PMID:19395224

  9. Assessment of acute trauma care training in Kenya.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Jana B A; Gravelin, Sara; Jones, Tait; Gololov, Alex; Thomas, Michelle; Omondi, Benson; Bukusi, E

    2009-11-01

    An Acute Trauma Care (ATC) course was adapted for resource-limited healthcare systems based on the American model of initial care for injured patients. The course was taught to interested medical personnel in Kenya. This study undertook a survey of the participants' healthcare facilities to maximize the applicability of ATC across healthcare settings. The ATC course was conducted three times in Kenya in 2006. A World Health Organization (WHO) Needs Assessment survey was administered to 128 participants. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Ninety-two per cent had a physician available in the emergency department and 63 per cent had a clinical officer. A total of 71.7 per cent reported having a designated trauma room. A total of 96.7 per cent reported running water, but access was uninterrupted more often in private hospitals as opposed to public facilities (92.5 vs 63.6%, P = 0.0005). Private and public employees equally had an oxygen cylinder (95.6 vs 98.5%, P > 0.05), oxygen concentrator (69.2 vs 54.2%, P = 0.12), and oxygen administration equipment (95.7 vs 91.4%, P > 0.05) at their facilities. However, private employees were more likely to report that "all" of their equipment was in working order (53 vs 7.9%, P < 0.0001). Private employees were also more likely to report that they had access to information on emergency procedures and equipment (64.4 vs 33.3%, P = 0.001) and that they had learned new procedures (54.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.002). Despite a perception of public facility lack, this survey showed that public institutions and private institutions have similar basic equipment availability. Yet, problems with equipment malfunction, lack of repair, and availability of required information and training are far greater in the public sector. The content of the ATC course is valid for both private and public sector institutions, but refinements of the course should focus on varying facets of inexpensive and alternative equipment resources

  10. Importance of telemedicine in diabetes care: Relationships between family physicians and ophthalmologists

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Sagarra-Alamo, Ramon; Pareja-Rios, Alicia; López, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the worldwide leading cause of legal blindness. In 2010, 1.9% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were legally blind and 10.2% had visual impairment. The control of DM parameters (glycemia, arterial tension and lipids) is the gold standard for preventing DR complications, although, unfortunately, DR still appeared in a 25% to 35% of patients. The stages of severe vision threading DR, include proliferative DR (6.96%) and diabetic macular edema (6.81%). This review aims to update our knowledge on DR screening using telemedicine, the different techniques, the problems, and the inclusion of different professionals such as family physicians in care programs. PMID:26240697

  11. A manual for managed care physicians: why needed, how developed, and how used.

    PubMed

    Herschberg, S

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the development of and rationale for a "Physician Manual" in a managed care setting. The article begins with introductory information on the use of similar documents in industry generally and then provides background information on the author's organization. The contents of the manual are given in outline form, with additional details provided as necessary. The need to regard the manual as a "living" document is emphasized, and probable reasons for change are noted, along with recommendations for intervals at which review and change are appropriate. PMID:10136174

  12. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  13. Health advocacy training: why are physicians withholding life-saving care?

    PubMed

    Gill, Peter J; Gill, Harbir S

    2011-01-01

    The societal responsibility of physicians to be health advocates, both at the population and patient level is necessary to positively influence public health and policy. Physicians must commit to learn about policy reform and the legislative process. Several regulatory physician organizations emphasize the importance of health. In addition, the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC) Medical Schools Objectives Project, the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination objectives and several Canadian medical schools outline advocacy as an objective. As a result, several US medical schools have designed and incorporated health advocacy into their curricula. Canadian medical schools, however, have been lagging behind. To address this deficiency, the University of Alberta and the University of Calgary hosted the 1st Annual Alberta Political Action Day (PAD) to engage medical students in advocacy and the policy making process. The two-day time requirement of PAD makes it an efficient model to incorporate health advocacy into the already demanding undergraduate medical curriculum. Canadian medical schools must follow the American example and further integrate initiatives such as PAD to teach health advocacy. The skills developed will enhance student's comprehension of how they can shape health policy and truly advocate for optimal patient care. PMID:21070115

  14. Time-trend of melanoma screening practice by primary care physicians: A meta-regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Davide; Karampoiki, Vassiliki; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Cortinovis, Ivan; Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Xilomenos, Apostolos; Tsappi, Maria; Casazza, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the proportion of primary care physicians implementing full body skin examination (FBSE) to screen for melanoma changed over time. Methods Meta-regression analyses of available data. Data Sources: MEDLINE, ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Results Fifteen studies surveying 10,336 physicians were included in the analyses. Overall, 15%–82% of them reported to perform FBSE to screen for melanoma. The proportion of physicians using FBSE screening tended to decrease by 1.72% per year (P =0.086). Corresponding annual changes in European, North American, and Australian settings were −0.68% (P =0.494), −2.02% (P =0.044), and +2.59% (P =0.010), respectively. Changes were not influenced by national guide-lines. Conclusions Considering the increasing incidence of melanoma and other skin malignancies, as well as their relative potential consequences, the FBSE implementation time-trend we retrieved should be considered a worrisome phenomenon. PMID:19242870

  15. Financial performance of primary care physician practices prior to electronic health record implementation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Edmund R.; Culler, Steven; Cheng, Dunlei; McCorkle, Russell; Ballard, David J.

    2009-01-01

    While electronic health records (EHRs) are being widely implemented across the nation, few empirical data are currently available regarding their potential impact on financial performance and resource use. HealthTexas Provider Network is implementing a networkwide EHR, providing a unique opportunity to describe and evaluate fiscal effects. We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal observational study of financial performance related to inputs and income- and productivity-related outputs for the 33 primary care practices (July 2002–April 2006). Models for each outcome were constructed to test for a linear trend over time, adjusted for practice characteristics. F tests based on these models were used to determine the effect of each adjustor and to determine existence of a trend in each outcome. The observed staff per physician full-time equivalent (FTE) (3.6) was similar to staffing ratios reported for other primary care–only practices, while observation of 4692 work relative value units per physician FTE annually was higher than reported nationally. Significant monthly trends were identified for three of the outcome measures. During the pre-EHR baseline period, staffing ratios were equivalent to and physician productivity greater than reports available for these measures nationally or in other settings. Identification of time trends in three measures will allow these to be accounted for in the model used to evaluate the financial performance impact of EHR implementation. PMID:19381309

  16. Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web-based survey of primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The appropriateness and cost-effectiveness of screening mammography (SM) for women younger than 50 and older than 74 years is debated in the clinical research community, among health care providers, and by the American public. This study explored primary care physicians' (PCPs) perceptions of the influence of clinical practice guidelines for SM; the recommendations for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios; and the factors associated with perceived SM effectiveness and recommendations in the US from June to December 2009 before the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently revised guidelines. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11,922 PCPs was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. The response rate was 5.7% (684); (41%) 271 family physicians (FP), (36%) 232 general internal medicine physicians (IM), (23%) 150 obstetrician-gynaecologists (OBG), and (0.2%) 31 others. Cross-sectional analysis examined PCPs perceived effectiveness of SM, and recommendation for SM in response to hypothetical case scenarios. PCPs responses were measured using 4-5 point adjectival scales. Differences in perceived effectiveness and recommendations for SM were examined after adjusting for PCPs specialty, race/ethnicity, and the US region. Results Compared to IM and FP, OBG considered SM more effective in reducing breast cancer mortality among women aged 40-49 years (p = 0.003). Physicians consistently recommended mammography to women aged 50-69 years with no differences by specialty (p = 0.11). However, 94% of OBG "always recommended" SM to younger and 86% of older women compared to 81% and 67% for IM and 84% and 59% for FP respectively (p = < .001). In ordinal regression analysis, OBG specialty was a significant predictor for perceived higher SM effectiveness and recommendations for younger and older women. In evaluating hypothetical scenarios, overall PCPs would recommend SM for the 80 year woman with CHF with a significant variation

  17. Tools for tomorrow's health care system: a systems-informed mental model, moral imagination, and physicians' professionalism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Donna T; Mills, Ann E; Werhane, Patricia H

    2008-08-01

    Physician educators have been charged with incorporating systems-based approaches into medical education and residency training to help future physicians understand how their ability to provide high-quality health care depends on other individual and organizational stakeholders with whom and, in some cases, for whom they work. In part, this also requires that physicians accept that they have responsibilities to various system stakeholders. These changes are controversial because some fear they might distract physicians from their primary ethical obligation to their patients. However, systems theories and their applications in organizational management and business ethics support the notions that individuals can maintain primary professional ethical obligations while working within complex systems and that organizational systems can be constructed to support individual professional practice. If physicians are to commit to working within and, ultimately, improving systems of care as part of their ethical practice of medicine, then they will need a new mental model. Leading thinkers have used various models of systems and have highlighted different aspects of systems theories in describing organizations, groups of organizations, and organizational processes. This essay draws from these models some basic concepts and elements and introduces a simple but comprehensive mental model of systems for physicians. If it is used with professionalism and moral imagination, physicians might have a tool that they can use to understand, work with, and, ultimately, improve the systems of care that they rely on in their practice of medicine and that critically affect the welfare of their patients. PMID:18667882

  18. Promoting Chinese-speaking primary care physicians' communication with immigrant patients about colorectal cancer screening: a cluster randomized trial design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Judy Huei-yu; Liang, Wenchi; Ma, Grace X; Gehan, Edmund; Wang, Haoying Echo; Ji, Cheng-Shuang; Tu, Shin-Ping; Vernon, Sally W; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2014-08-01

    Chinese Americans underutilize colorectal cancer screening. This study evaluated a physician-based intervention guided by social cognitive theory (SCT) to inform future research involving minority physicians and patients. Twenty-five Chinese-speaking primary care physicians were randomized into intervention or usual care arms. The intervention included two 45-minute in-office training sessions paired with a dual-language communication guide detailing strategies in addressing Chinese patients' screening barriers. Physicians' feedback on the intervention, their performance data during training, and pre-post intervention survey data were collected and analyzed. Most physicians (~85%) liked the intervention materials but ~84% spent less than 20 minutes reading the guide and only 46% found the length of time for in-office training acceptable. Despite this, the intervention increased physicians' perceived communication self-efficacy with patients (p<.01). This study demonstrated the feasibility of enrolling and intervening with minority physicians. Time constraints in primary care practice should be considered in the design and implementation of interventions. PMID:25130226

  19. Components of nurse innovation: a model from acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Neidlinger, S H; Drews, N; Hukari, D; Bartleson, B J; Abbott, F K; Harper, R; Lyon, J

    1992-12-01

    Components that promote nurse innovation in acute care hospitals are explicated in the Acute Care Nursing Innovation Model. Grounded in nursing care delivery systems and excellent management-organizations perspectives, nurse executives and 30 nurse "intrapreneurs" from 10 innovative hospitals spanning the United States shared their experiences and insights through semistructured, tape-recorded telephone interviews. Guided by interpretive interactionist strategies, the essential components, characteristics, and interrelationships are conceptualized and described so that others may be successful in their innovative endeavors. Successful innovation is dependent on the fit between and among the components; the better the fit, the more likely the innovation will succeed. PMID:1444282

  20. Management of the early and late presentations of rheumatoid arthritis: a survey of Ontario primary care physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Glazier, R H; Dalby, D M; Badley, E M; Hawker, G A; Bell, M J; Buchbinder, R; Lineker, S C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine primary care physicians' management of rheumatoid arthritis, ascertain the determinants of management and compare management with that recommended by a current practice panel. DESIGN: Mail survey (self-administered questionnaire). SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A stratified computer-generated random sample of 798 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of respondents who chose various items in the management of two hypothetical patients, one with early rheumatoid arthritis and one with late rheumatoid arthritis. Scores for investigations, interventions and referrals for each scenario were generated by summing the recommended items chosen by respondents and then dividing by the total number of items recommended in that category. The scores were examined for their association with physician and practice characteristics and physician attitudes. RESULTS: The response rate was 68.3% (529/775 eligible physicians). Recommended investigations were chosen by more than two thirds of the respondents for both scenarios. Referrals to physiotherapy, occupational therapy and rheumatology, all recommended by the panel, were chosen by 206 (38.9%), 72 (13.6%) and 309 (58.4%) physicians respectively for early rheumatoid arthritis. These proportions were significantly higher for late rheumatoid arthritis (p < 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, for early rheumatoid arthritis, internship or residency training in rheumatology was associated with higher investigation and intervention scores, for late rheumatoid arthritis, older physicians had higher intervention scores and female physicians had higher referral scores. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care physicians' investigation of rheumatoid arthritis was in accord with panel recommendations. However, rates of referral to rheumatologists and other health care professionals were very low, especially for the early presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. More exposure to

  1. Promoting patient-centred fundamental care in acute healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Feo, Rebecca; Kitson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    Meeting patients' fundamental care needs is essential for optimal safety and recovery and positive experiences within any healthcare setting. There is growing international evidence, however, that these fundamentals are often poorly executed in acute care settings, resulting in patient safety threats, poorer and costly care outcomes, and dehumanising experiences for patients and families. Whilst care standards and policy initiatives are attempting to address these issues, their impact has been limited. This discussion paper explores, through a series of propositions, why fundamental care can be overlooked in sophisticated, high technology acute care settings. We argue that the central problem lies in the invisibility and subsequent devaluing of fundamental care. Such care is perceived to involve simple tasks that require little skill to execute and have minimal impact on patient outcomes. The propositions explore the potential origins of this prevailing perception, focusing upon the impact of the biomedical model, the consequences of managerial approaches that drive healthcare cultures, and the devaluing of fundamental care by nurses themselves. These multiple sources of invisibility and devaluing surrounding fundamental care have rendered the concept underdeveloped and misunderstood both conceptually and theoretically. Likewise, there remains minimal role clarification around who should be responsible for and deliver such care, and a dearth of empirical evidence and evidence-based metrics. In explicating these propositions, we argue that key to transforming the delivery of acute healthcare is a substantial shift in the conceptualisation of fundamental care. The propositions present a cogent argument that counters the prevailing perception that fundamental care is basic and does not require systematic investigation. We conclude by calling for the explicit valuing and embedding of fundamental care in healthcare education, research, practice and policy. Without this

  2. Large-system acute care transformation.

    PubMed

    Tatman, Judy; Zauner, Janiece

    2014-01-01

    All organizations are steeped in making delivery model changes to address the changing health care landscape specific to the expectations of health care reform. Too often, these changes focus solely on improving processes rather than developing creative and innovative work processes that decrease waste and increase quality. The Providence Health and Services system has embraced the challenge to transform health care services from a large-system perspective, beginning with 1 region. The authors share the beginning stages of this innovative work, the unique contributions to health care processes, and the early outcomes on 2 patient care units. PMID:24317032

  3. Barriers Facing Primary Health Care Physicians When Dealing with Emergency Cases in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aloufi, Majed A.; Bakarman, Marwan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of emergency cases reporting to Primary Health Care centers (PHC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to explore the barriers facing PHC physicians when dealing with such emergency cases. Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study, where all physicians working in the PHC of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Jeddah; were invited to participate (n=247). The study period was from July 2013 till December 2013. Data were collected through two sources. 1- A self-administered questionnaire used to determine the physicians’ perceived competence when dealing with emergency cases. 2- A structured observation sheet used to evaluate availability of equipment, drugs, ambulances and other supporting facilities required to deal with emergency cases. Results: The response rate was 83.4%. The physicians’ age ranged between 25 and 60 years with a mean ±SD of 34.4±7.5 years. Majority of them (83.5%) did not attend ATLS courses at all whereas 60.7% never attended ACLS courses. The majority (97.1%) had however attended BLS courses. Physicians in the age group 36-45 years, non-Saudi, those who had SBFM, those who reported experience in working in emergency departments and physicians who reported more working years in PHCCs (>5 years) had a significant higher score of perceived level of competence in performing emergency skill scale than others (P<0.05). The prevalence of emergency cases attending PHC in Jeddah (2013) was 5.2%. Conclusion: Emergency services at PHC in Jeddah are functioning reasonably well, but require fine tuning of services and an upgrade in their quality. PMID:27045411

  4. The ethical self-fashioning of physicians and health care systems in culturally appropriate health care.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan J; Armin, Julie

    2011-06-01

    Diverse advocacy groups have pushed for the recognition of cultural differences in health care as a means to redress inequalities in the U.S., elaborating a form of biocitizenship that draws on evidence of racial and ethnic health disparities to make claims on both the state and health care providers. These efforts led to federal regulations developed by the U.S. Office of Minority Health requiring health care organizations to provide Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services. Based on ethnographic research at workshops and conferences, in-depth interviews with cultural competence trainers, and an analysis of postings to a moderated listserv with 2,000 members, we explore cultural competence trainings as a new type of social technology in which health care providers and institutions are urged to engage in ethical self-fashioning to eliminate prejudice and embody the values of cultural relativism. Health care providers are called on to re-orient their practice (such as habits of gaze, touch, and decision-making) and to act on their own subjectivities to develop an orientation toward Others that is "culturally competent." We explore the diverse methods that cultural competence trainings use to foster a health care provider's ability to be self-reflexive, including face-to-face workshops and classes and self-guided on-line modules. We argue that the hybrid formation of culturally appropriate health care is becoming detached from its social justice origins as it becomes rationalized by and more firmly embedded in the operations of the health care marketplace. PMID:21553151

  5. Health care politics and policy: the business of medicine: a course for physician leaders.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Theodore Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article is a condensed and edited version of a speech delivered to the business of medicine: A Course for Physician Leaders symposium presented by Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Medical Directors Leadership Council at Yale University in November 2012 and drawn from Politics, Health, and Health Care: Selected Essays by Theodore R. Marmor and Rudolf Klein [1]. It faithfully reflects the major argument delivered, but it does not include the typical range of citations in a journal article. The material presented here reflects more than 40 years of teaching a course variously described as Political Analysis and Management, Policy and Political Analysis, and The Politics of Policy. The aim of all of these efforts is to inform audiences about the necessity of understanding political conflict in any arena, not least of which is the complex and costly world of medical care. PMID:24058315

  6. The education of physicians and other health care professionals about climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.L.; Hussain, S.T.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of rapidly changing local and regional environments upon the health of human populations must be appreciated by physicians as well as other public health officials. Any system of health care delivery depends upon an understanding of scientific principles. Current issues of importance include the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole, global warming, sea level rise, emerging and resurgent microbial diseases, air and water pollution, biodiversity losses, UVB-induced immunosuppression, and antibiotic resistance. These concerns must be firmly within the grasp of the health care practitioner for the 21st century. To assure transfer of information, these topics should be integrated into existing course content or should provide the basis for new course offerings during the training of the professional. Focus should be given to scientific principles as the foundation for understanding climate change.

  7. Physician, philosopher, and paediatrician: John Locke's practice of child health care.

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    2006-01-01

    G.F. Still's History of Paediatrics restricted the philosopher John Locke's (1632-1704) influence in paediatrics to pedagology and specifically his Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693). This significantly limits Locke's immense ongoing influence on child health care and human rights. Locke was a physician and had a lifelong interest in medicine. His case records and journals relate some of his paediatric cases. His correspondence includes letters from Thomas Sydenham, the "English Hippocrates" (1624-89) when Locke has sought advice on a paediatric case as well as other correspondence from parents regarding child health care and management of learning disability. Locke assisted and influenced Thomas Sydenham with his writing, and Locke's own work, Two Treatises on Government, clearly stated the rights of children and limitation of parental authority. Furthermore, Locke's thoughts on Poor Law, making an economic case for a workhouse in every parish, were implemented from 1834. PMID:16371386

  8. Prenatal care: a comparative evaluation of nurse-midwives and family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Buhler, L; Glick, N; Sheps, S B

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the prenatal care provided to 44 low-risk women by nurse-midwives (NMs) at a special clinic of a large obstetric referral hospital and a sample of 88 low-risk women attended by family physicians (FPs) in their offices. The women were matched on the basis of date of delivery, age, parity, number of previous miscarriages, gravidity, socioeconomic status and delivery after 32 weeks' gestation. The Burlington Randomized Controlled Trial criteria, which reflect community standards of care, were updated and used to assess the information, which was provided on standard provincial prenatal care forms. Scoring was carried out blindly, and interrater reliability was high. A highly significant difference was found in the proportions of NM and FP charts that were rated adequate, superior or inadequate: 77% v. 24%, 7% v. 16% and 16% v. 60% respectively. The rate at which procedures were omitted (leading to an inadequate score) in the categories of initial assessment, monitoring and management also varied between the two patient groups. These findings, even when considered in terms of several biases that may have resulted in the high proportion of NM charts rated at least adequate, suggest that NMs provide prenatal care to low-risk women that is comparable, if not superior, to the care provided by FPs. PMID:3214491

  9. Decision making in interhospital transport of critically ill patients: national questionnaire survey among critical care physicians

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Rien; Binnekade, Jan M.; de Haan, Rob; Schultz, Marcus J.; Vroom, Margreeth B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the relative importance of clinical and transport-related factors in physicians' decision-making regarding the interhospital transport of critically ill patients. Methods The medical heads of all 95 ICUs in The Netherlands were surveyed with a questionnaire using 16 case vignettes to evaluate preferences for transportability; 78 physicians (82%) participated. The vignettes varied in eight factors with regard to severity of illness and transport conditions. Their relative weights were calculated for each level of the factors by conjoint analysis and expressed in β. The reference value (β = 0) was defined as the optimal conditions for critical care transport; a negative β indicated preference against transportability. Results The type of escorting personnel (paramedic only: β = –3.1) and transport facilities (standard ambulance β = –1.21) had the greatest negative effect on preference for transportability. Determinants reflecting severity of illness were of relative minor importance (dose of noradrenaline β = –0.6, arterial oxygenation β = –0.8, level of peep β = –0.6). Age, cardiac arrhythmia, and the indication for transport had no significant effect. Conclusions Escorting personnel and transport facilities in interhospital transport were considered as most important by intensive care physicians in determining transportability. When these factors are optimal, even severely critically ill patients are considered able to undergo transport. Further clinical research should tailor transport conditions to optimize the use of expensive resources in those inevitable road trips. PMID:18283432

  10. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218

  11. African Female Physicians and Nurses in the Global Care Chain: Qualitative Explorations from Five Destination Countries.

    PubMed

    Wojczewski, Silvia; Pentz, Stephen; Blacklock, Claire; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Peersman, Wim; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Kutalek, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This paper explores the experiences of high-skilled female African migrant health-workers (MHW) utilising the framework of Global Care Chain (GCC) research. In the frame of the EU-project HURAPRIM (Human Resources for Primary Health Care in Africa), the research team conducted 88 semi-structured interviews with female and male African MHWs in five countries (Botswana, South Africa, Belgium, Austria, UK) from July 2011 until April 2012. For this paper we analysed the 34 interviews with female physicians and nurses using the qualitative framework analysis approach and the software atlas.ti. In terms of the effect of the migration on their career, almost all of the respondents experienced short-term, long-term or permanent inability to work as health-care professionals; few however also reported a positive career development post-migration. Discrimination based on a foreign nationality, race or gender was reported by many of our respondents, physicians and nurses alike, whether they worked in an African or a European country. Our study shows that in addition to the phenomenon of deskilling often reported in GCC research, many female MHW are unable to work according to their qualifications due to the fact that their diplomas are not recognized in the country of destination. Policy strategies are needed regarding integration of migrants in the labour market and working against discrimination based on race and gender. PMID:26068218

  12. Government participation in physician negotiations in German economic policy as applied to universal health care coverage in the United States.

    PubMed

    Powell, F D

    1994-01-01

    Systems of universal health care coverage in western industrial societies have usually established some form of government participation in negotiations over physician payment as a means of controlling costs. In the Federal Republic of Germany, a mixed private and public body. Concerted Action in Health Care sets a 'target' for physician and 'sickness fund' negotiators. This indirect form of government participation is effective in 'linking' fees with utilization during negotiations, avoiding inflationary trends inherent in fee-for-service systems. This target-setting factor is a necessary complement to negotiation of a 'pool' of money, wage level and technological adjustment factors, as contained in a model of German economic health care policy. These four elements of economic policy are recommended as cost control measures for office-based physician payments under conditions of universal health care coverage in the United States. Indirect government participation through setting 'targets' for negotiations is seen as consistent with established American institutional practices. PMID:8146713

  13. Defensive medicine or economically motivated corruption? A confucian reflection on physician care in China today.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2007-01-01

    In contemporary China, physicians tend to require more diagnostic work-ups and prescribe more expensive medications than are clearly medically indicated. These practices have been interpreted as defensive medicine in response to a rising threat of potential medical malpractice lawsuits. After outlining recent changes in Chinese malpractice law, this essay contends that the overuse of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions cannot be attributed to malpractice concerns alone. These practice patterns are due as well, if not primarily, to the corruption of medical decision-making by physicians being motivated to earn supplementary income, given the constraints of an ill-structured governmental policy by the over-use of expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. To respond to these difficulties of Chinese health care policy, China will need not only to reform the particular policies that encourage these behaviors, but also to nurture a moral understanding that can place the pursuit of profit within the pursuit of virtue. This can be done by drawing on Confucian moral resources that integrate the pursuit of profit within an appreciation of benevolence. It is this Confucian moral account that can formulate a medical care policy suitable to China's contemporary market economy. PMID:18027252

  14. The Chinese physicians' CardiovAscular Risk Evaluation (CARE) survey: an assessment of physicians' own cardiovascular risks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D-Y; Yu, J-M; Chen, F; Sun, Y-H; Jiang, Q-W

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) in physicians using two models (the Chinese and Framingham models). Methods This was a multicentre, cross-sectional survey, which recruited cardiovascular physicians from 386 medical centres in all 31 provinces and municipalities in China. Cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol were recorded during enrolment. Control rates (%) of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes were defined according to guidelines. Participants aged ≥35 years completed the Framingham model and participants aged ≤59 years completed the Chinese prediction model. Results A total of 820 (41.5%) women and 1598 (78.7%) men had ≥1 markedly raised CVD risk factors. The Chinese prediction model showed that 22 (1.2%) women and 143 (7.6%) men had a 10-year risk of ischaemic CVD ≥5%, and an above-average level of 10-year ischaemic CVD risk factors was found in 20.6% of women and in 54.6% of men. When the Framingham model was used, 268 (13.6%) women and 724 (35.7%) men had a 10-year absolute risk of CHD ≥5%. Hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia were only controlled in 58.2%, 46.6% and 38.5% of participants, respectively. Only 30.3% of physicians with a 10-year risk of CHD ≥10% were using aspirin. Conclusions The results show suboptimal awareness in physicians of their own cardiovascular risks, and low use of prophylactic agents. Improvement of physicians' risk factors in will improve their ability to act as role models in the promotion of primary and secondary prevention initiatives. PMID:27325952

  15. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician’s care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. RESULTS The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P <.001), 5.9% (P = .01), and 4.6% (P <.001), respectively, with increasing panel size (from 1,200 to 3,900). Eight chronic care indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P <.001) with higher panel size. Increasing panel size was also associated with a 10.8% relative increase in hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care–sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P <.001), and comprehensiveness had a small decrease (P = .03) with increasing panel size. CONCLUSIONS Increasing panel size was associated with small decreases in cancer screening, continuity, and comprehensiveness, but showed no consistent relationships with chronic disease management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. PMID:26755780

  16. Improving acute care for patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kate

    People with dementia are more likely to experience a decline in function, fall or fracture when admitted to hospital than the general hospital population. Informal carers' views were sought on the care their relative with dementia received in hospital. Participants were concerned about a lack of essential nursing care, harmful incidents, a decline in patient function, poor staff communication and carers' needs not being acknowledged. Care can be improved through further training, more effective communication, consideration of the appropriate place to care for people and more use of carers' knowledge. PMID:27017677

  17. Policy recommendations to guide the use of telemedicine in primary care settings: an American College of Physicians position paper.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Hilary; Sulmasy, Lois Snyder

    2015-11-17

    Telemedicine-the use of technology to deliver care at a distance-is rapidly growing and can potentially expand access for patients, enhance patient-physician collaboration, improve health outcomes, and reduce medical costs. However, the potential benefits of telemedicine must be measured against the risks and challenges associated with its use, including the absence of the physical examination, variation in state practice and licensing regulations, and issues surrounding the establishment of the patient-physician relationship. This paper offers policy recommendations for the practice and use of telemedicine in primary care and reimbursement policies associated with telemedicine use. The positions put forward by the American College of Physicians highlight a meaningful approach to telemedicine policies and regulations that will have lasting positive effects for patients and physicians. PMID:26344925

  18. What Makes a Good Palliative Care Physician? A Qualitative Study about the Patient’s Expectations and Needs when Being Admitted to a Palliative Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Eva K; Kitta, Anna; Huber, Patrick; Rumpold, Tamara; Unseld, Matthias; Schur, Sophie; Porpaczy, Edit; Watzke, Herbert H

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to examine a) patients’ knowledge of palliative care, b) patients’ expectations and needs when being admitted to a palliative care unit, and c) patient’s concept of a good palliative care physician. Methods The study was based on a qualitative methodology, comprising 32 semistructured interviews with advanced cancer patients admitted to the palliative care unit of the Medical University of Vienna. Interviews were conducted with 20 patients during the first three days after admission to the unit and after one week, recorded digitally, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using NVivo 10 software, based on thematic analysis enhanced with grounded theory techniques. Results The results revealed four themes: (1) information about palliative care, (2) supportive care needs, (3) being treated in a palliative care unit, and (4) qualities required of palliative care physicians. The data showed that patients lack information about palliative care, that help in social concerns plays a central role in palliative care, and attentiveness as well as symptom management are important to patients. Patients desire a personal patient-physician relationship. The qualities of a good palliative care physician were honesty, the ability to listen, taking time, being experienced in their field, speaking the patient’s language, being human, and being gentle. Patients experienced relief when being treated in a palliative care unit, perceived their care as an interdisciplinary activity, and felt that their burdensome symptoms were being attended to with emotional care. Negative perceptions included the overtly intense treatment. Conclusions The results of the present study offer an insight into what patients expect from palliative care teams. Being aware of patient’s needs will enable medical teams to improve professional and individualized care. PMID:27389693

  19. Physician payment 2008 for interventionalists: current state of health care policy.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Giordano, James

    2007-09-01

    Physicians in the United States have been affected by significant changes in the pattern(s) of medical practice evolving over the last several decades. These changes include new measures to 1) curb increasing costs, 2) increase access to patient care, 3) improve quality of healthcare, and 4) pay for prescription drugs. Escalating healthcare costs have focused concerns about the financial solvency of Medicare and this in turn has fostered a renewed interest in the economic basis of interventional pain management practices. The provision and systemization of healthcare in North America and several European countries are difficult enterprises to manage irrespective of whether these provisions and systems are privatized (as in the United States) or nationalized or seminationalized (as in Great Britain, Canada, Australia and France). Consequently, while many management options have been put forth, none seem to be optimally geared toward affording healthcare as a maximized individual and social good, and none have been completely enacted. The current physician fee schedule (released on July 12, 2007) includes a 9.9% cut in payment rate. Since the Medicare program was created in 1965, several methods have been used to determine physicians' rate(s) for each covered service. The sustained growth rate (SGR) system, established in 1998, has evoked negative consequences on physician payment(s). Based on the current Medicare expenditure index, practice expenses are projected to increase by 34.5% from 2002 to 2016, whereas, if actual practice inflation is considered, this increase will be 90%. This is in contrast to projected physician payment cuts that are depicted to be 51%. No doubt, this scenario will be devastating to many practices and the US medical community at large. Resolutions to this problem have been offered by MedPAC, the Government Accountability Office, physician organizations, economists, and various other interested groups. In the past, temporary measures have

  20. Nurse-Physician Communication in the Long-Term Care Setting: Perceived Barriers and Impact on Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Tjia, Jennifer; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Field, Terry; Meterko, Vanessa; Spenard, Ann; Gurwitz, Jerry H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Clear and complete communication between health care providers is a prerequisite for safe patient management and is a major priority of the Joint Commission's 2008 National Patient Safety Goals. The goal of this study was to describe nurses' perceptions of nurse-physician communication in the long-term care (LTC) setting. Methods Mixed-method study including a self-administered questionnaire and qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews of licensed nurses from 26 LTC facilities in Connecticut. The questionnaire measured perceived openness to communication, mutual understanding, language comprehension, frustration, professional respect, nurse preparedness, time burden and logistical barriers. Qualitative interviews focused on identifying barriers to effective nurse-physician communication that may not have previously been considered and eliciting nurses' recommendations for overcoming those barriers. Results Three-hundred seventy-five (375) nurses completed the questionnaire and 21 nurses completed qualitative interviews. Nurses identified several barriers to effective nurse-physician communication: lack of physician openness to communication, logistic challenges, lack of professionalism, and language barriers. Feeling hurried by the physician was the most frequent barrier (28%), followed by finding a quiet place to call (25%) and difficulty reaching the physician (21%). In qualitative interviews, there was consensus that nurses needed to be brief and prepared with relevant clinical information when communicating with physicians and that physicians needed to be more open to listening. Conclusions A combination of nurse and physician behaviors contributes to ineffective communication in the LTC setting. These findings have important implications for patient safety and support the development of structured communication interventions to improve quality of nurse-physician communication. PMID:19927047

  1. A national long-term care program for the United States. A caring vision. The Working Group on Long-term Care Program Design, Physicians for a National Health Program.

    PubMed

    Harrington, C; Cassel, C; Estes, C L; Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U

    1991-12-01

    The financing and delivery of long-term care (LTC) need substantial reform. Many cannot afford essential services; age restrictions often arbitrarily limit access for the nonelderly, although more than a third of those needing care are under 65 years old; Medicaid, the principal third-party payer for LTC, is biased toward nursing home care and discourages independent living; informal care provided by relatives and friends, the only assistance used by 70% of those needing LTC, is neither supported nor encouraged; and insurance coverage often excludes critically important services that fall outside narrow definitions of medically necessary care. We describe an LTC program designed as an integral component of the national health program advanced by Physicians for a National Health Program. Everyone would be covered for all medically and socially necessary services under a single public plan, federally mandated and funded but administered locally. An LTC payment board in each state would contract directly with providers through a network of local public agencies responsible for eligibility determination and care coordination. Nursing homes, home care agencies, and other institutional providers would be paid a global budget to cover all operating costs and would not bill on a per-patient basis. Alternatively, integrated provider organizations could receive a capitation fee to cover a broad range of LTC and acute care services. Individual practitioners could continue to be paid on a fee-for-service basis or could receive salaries from institutional providers. Support for innovation, training of LTC personnel, and monitoring of the quality of care would be greatly augmented. For-profit providers would be compensated for past investments and phased out. Our program would add between $18 billion and $23.5 billion annually to current spending on LTC. Polls indicate that a majority of Americans want such a program and are willing to pay earmarked taxes to support it. PMID

  2. Primary care physician versus urologist: how does their medical management of LUTS associated with BPH differ?

    PubMed

    Miner, Martin M

    2009-07-01

    Medical and surgical therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are based largely on the results from adherence to the 2003 American Urological Association Guidelines. However, with the emergenceof medical therapies as first-line treatment and the expansion of medical therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) into the primary care office, the evaluation and management of men presenting with urinary symptoms can vary depending on provider type. This review explains the basis for BPH medical management in primary care with the review of three key studies. In addition, this review utilizes the data provided by the first longitudinal, observational BPH registry to evaluate patient outcomes and practice patterns in both urologist and primary care offices. From these data, we can conclude that men seeing urologists were more likely to be on medical therapy than men seeing primary care physicians (PCPs), who more often utilized watchful waiting. Urologists also were more likely to prescribe 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), combination therapy with an alpha-blocker and 5ARI, and anticholinergic therapy. In contrast, the use of nonselective alpha-blockerswas appreciably greater among men seeing PCPs than men seeing urologists. PMID:19570485

  3. Managing chronic illness: physician practices increased the use of care management and medical home processes.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James A; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Shortell, Stephen M; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ramsay, Patricia P; Bibi, Salma; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon R; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of patients with chronic illnesses is critical to bending the curve of health care spending in the United States and is a crucial test for health care reform. In this article we used data from three national surveys of physician practices between 2006 and 2013 to determine the extent to which practices of all sizes have increased their use of evidence-based care management processes associated with patient-centered medical homes for patients with asthma, congestive heart failure, depression, and diabetes. We found relatively large increases over time in the overall use of these processes for small and medium-size practices as well as for large practices. However, the large practices used fewer than half of the recommended processes, on average. We also identified the individual processes whose use increased the most and show that greater use of care management processes is positively associated with public reporting of patient experience and clinical quality and with pay-for-performance. PMID:25561647

  4. Physicians' experiences of caring for late-stage HIV patients in the post-HAART era: challenges and adaptations.

    PubMed

    Karasz, Alison; Dyche, Larry; Selwyn, Peter

    2003-11-01

    As medical treatment for AIDS has become more complex, the need for good palliative and end-of-life care has also increased for patients with advanced disease. Such care is often inadequate, especially among low-income, ethnic minority patients. The current study investigated physicians' experiences with caring for dying HIV patients in an underserved, inner city community in the Bronx, NY. The goals of the study included: (1) to investigate the barriers to effective end-of-life care for HIV patients; and (2) to examine physicians' experiences of role hindrance and frustration in caring for dying patients in the era of HAART. Qualitative, open-ended interviews were conducted with 16 physicians. Physicians identified two core, prescriptive myths shaping their care for patients with HIV. The 'Good Doctor Myth' equates good medical care with the delivery of efficacious biomedical care. The role of the physician is defined as technical curer, while the patient's role is limited to consultation and compliance. The 'Good Death Myth' envisions an ideal death which is acknowledged, organized, and pain free: the role of the physician is defined as that of comforter and supporter in the dying process. Role expectations associated with these myths were often disappointed. First, late-stage patients refused to adhere to treatment and were thus dying "unnecessarily." Second, patients often refused to acknowledge, accept, or plan for the end of life and as a result died painful, chaotic deaths. These realities presented intense psychological and practical challenges for providers. Adaptive coping included both behavioral and cognitive strategies. Successful adaptation resulted in "positive engagement," experienced by participants as a continuing sense of fascination, gratification, and joy. Less successful adaptation could result in detachment or anger. Participants believed that engagement had a powerful impact on patient care. Working with dying HIV patients in the post

  5. Physicians' preferences and attitudes about end-of-life care in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Sherazi, Saadia; Daubert, James P; Block, Robert C; Jeevanantham, Vinodh; Abdel-Gadir, Khalid; DiSalle, Michael R; Haley, James M; Shah, Abrar H

    2008-10-01

    Clinical guidance is deficient regarding deactivation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in patients with terminal illnesses. We hypothesized that many physicians are apprehensive about discussing ICD deactivation with their dying patients. Thus, we conducted an anonymous survey of all the physicians in the Department of Medicine at Unity Health System in Rochester, NY. The survey collected information about the knowledge and preferences of these physicians regarding the medical, ethical, and legal issues involved in caring for patients with an ICD and terminal illness. Of the 204 surveys distributed, 87 (43%) were returned. Among the physicians who responded, 64 (74%) reported experience caring for a patient with an ICD and terminal illness. Forty physicians (46%) either thought it was illegal or were not sure if it was legal to deactivate an ICD in these circumstances. However, if reassured about the legality of discontinuing ICD therapy, 79 (91%) of these same respondents said that they would be willing to discuss voluntary ICD deactivation with their dying patients. With increased knowledge about managing the withdrawal of this potentially life-prolonging therapy, physicians are likely to become more skilled at caring for dying patients with an ICD. PMID:18828973

  6. Physician strikes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2014-11-01

    Throughout medical history, physicians have rarely formed unions and/or carried out strikes. In a profession faced with the turmoil of health reform and increasing pressure to change their practices and lifestyles, will physicians resort to unionization for collective bargaining, and will a strike weapon be used to fight back against the array of corporate and government powers involved in the transformation of the American health-care system? This article examines the question of whether there could be such a thing as an ethical physician strike. Although physicians have not historically used collective bargaining or the strike weapon, the rapidly changing practice environment in the United States might push physicians and other health-care professionals toward unionization. This article considers the ethical questions that would arise if physicians started taking advantage of labor laws, and it lays out criteria for an ethical strike. PMID:25367473

  7. Psychosocial Care and its Association with Severe Acute Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anurag; Agarwal, Sheesham

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study compared 120 children having severe acute malnutrition with 120 healthy children for exposure to 40 behaviors, by measuring psychosocial care based on Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory. The mean (SD) psychosocial care score of cases and controls significantly differed [18.2 (2.2) vs 23.5 (2.1); P<0.001]. A score of less than 14 was significantly associated with severe acute malnutrition (OR 23.2; 95% CI 8.2, 50). PMID:27254059

  8. Role and Involvement of Life End Information Forum Physicians in Euthanasia and Other End-of-Life Care Decisions in Flanders, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Van Wesemael, Yanna; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Bilsen, Johan; Distelmans, Wim; Deliens, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe role and involvement of Life End Information Forum (LEIF) physicians in end-of-life care decisions and euthanasia in Flanders. Study Design All 132 LEIF physicians in Belgium received a questionnaire inquiring about their activities in the past year, and their end-of-life care training and experience. Principal Findings Response rate was 75 percent. Most respondents followed substantive training in end-of-life care. In 1 year, LEIF physicians were contacted 612 times for consultations in end-of-life decisions, of which 355 concerned euthanasia requests eventually resulting in 221 euthanasia cases. LEIF physicians also gave information about various end-of-life issues (including palliative care) to patients and colleagues. Conclusions LEIF physicians provide a forum for information and advice for physicians and patients. A similar health service providing support to physicians for all end-of-life decisions could also be beneficial for countries without a euthanasia law. PMID:19780854

  9. Physicians' tobacco intervention counseling in a tertiary care hospital of South India.

    PubMed

    Akshaya, K M; Majra, J P

    2014-10-01

    The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the present world with a substantial contribution to mortality and morbidity. Patients' visits to their doctors for illnesses and health check-ups offer a great opportunity to screen them for tobacco use and also counsel them to quit tobacco use. This cross sectional study was carried out in out-patient departments of General Medicine and Pulmonary Medicine of a tertiary care medical college teaching hospital in Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka state of India between April 2012 and July 2012 among the patients aged 18 years or above who were diagnosed as suffering from tobacco related diseases. Exit interview was conducted on the patients after obtaining a written informed consent using a pre designed semi-structured questionnaire. Data was entered, analyzed using SPSS v17 and Descriptive statistics, Fisher Exact test, Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. The present study reveals that 305 (87.1 %), 281 (80.3 %) and 257 (73.1 %) of the 350 participants were asked, assessed and advised respectively by the treating physicians to quit tobacco use where as only 18 (15.1 %) were assisted in their efforts to quit tobacco. Physician's counseling inventions were significantly associated with patient's age, sex, education, marital status and socio economic status of the patients as well as the treating physician's experience of more than 3 years. There is a need to incorporate tobacco history taking as a vital sign during medical history taking and this should be made as a routine in medical schools. PMID:24927976

  10. Optimizing physician access to surgical intensive care unit laboratory information through mobile computing.

    PubMed Central

    Strain, J. J.; Felciano, R. M.; Seiver, A.; Acuff, R.; Fagan, L.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 30 minutes of computer access time are required by surgical residents at Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) to examine the lab values of all patients on a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) service, a task that must be performed several times a day. To reduce the time accessing this information and simultaneously increase the readability and currency of the data, we have created a mobile, pen-based user interface and software system that delivers lab results to surgeons in the ICU. The ScroungeMaster system, loaded on a portable tablet computer, retrieves lab results for a subset of patients from the central laboratory computer and stores them in a local database cache. The cache can be updated on command; this update takes approximately 2.7 minutes for all ICU patients being followed by the surgeon, and can be performed as a background task while the user continues to access selected lab results. The user interface presents lab results according to physiologic system. Which labs are displayed first is governed by a layout selection algorithm based on previous accesses to the patient's lab information, physician preferences, and the nature of the patient's medical condition. Initial evaluation of the system has shown that physicians prefer the ScroungeMaster interface to that of existing systems at SUMC and are satisfied with the system's performance. We discuss the evolution of ScroungeMaster and make observations on changes to physician work flow with the presence of mobile, pen-based computing in the ICU. PMID:8947778

  11. Do Primary Care Physician Perform Clinical Breast Exams Prior to Ordering a Mammogram?

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelsey E; Cowher, Michael S; O'Rourke, Colin; Patel, Mita; Pratt, Debra

    2016-03-01

    Both the American Cancer Society and National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend annual clinical breast examination (CBE) along with screening mammogram (SM) for patients starting at 40 years of age. However, patients with a palpable breast mass should have a diagnostic mammogram (DM) during workup. Review at our institution demonstrated that 11% of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and self-identified breast mass had SM instead of DM. This led us to question whether primary care physicians (PCP) perform CBE prior to ordering mammography. As part of the routine preimaging screening, patients were asked if they had undergone breast examination by a medical provider prior to mammogram order. Data on mammogram type, ordering physician specialty, and presence of symptoms on day of mammogram were recorded. Of 6,109 mammograms, 4,823 were ordered by PCPs. CBE was performed prior to 67.2% SM and 64.8% DM (p = 0.12). OB/GYN performed statistically significantly higher CBE (81.6%) compared to internal (45.4%) and family (50.5%) medicine physicians (p < 0.001). Of patients with self-reported breast symptoms, 8.7% had SM ordered rather than DM. Despite recommendations, approximately 1/3 of women report not having CBE prior to mammogram. The chances of having a CBE varied significantly by PCP specialty. Lack of CBE can lead to incorrect type of mammogram, with possibly increased cost and delay in diagnosis. Further evaluation is needed to understand why CBE was not performed in some patients. PMID:26687763

  12. Seamless health care for chronic diseases in a dual health care system: managed care and the role of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, A

    1998-01-01

    Neither private nor state run health care systems are perfect. Although there is increasing evidence that Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) provide comparable care at lower cost, HMOs tend to select healthy patients. The dual health care system in Hong Kong spends about 3.9 per cent of GDP, with health indices among the best in the world. Hong Kong still faces the problem of escalating health care expenditure. One should take advantage of the dual health care system to evolve a new paradigm for a primary-led seamless health care service. The Diabetes Centre of a university teaching hospital together with the University of Community and Family Medicine has started a structured shared care programme in diabetes mellitus, involving general practitioners in both the private and public sectors integrating the primary and secondary care, and the private and public sectors. This programme starts to develop an infrastructure for providing quality care at an affordable cost for a large pool of patients with chronic disease. Unlike other "managed care schemes", this one is not run by profit-oriented companies, but by health professionals with an interest in providing best possible care at an affordable cost. The "disease management" approach needs a care delivery system without traditional boundaries; and a continuous improvement process which develops and refines the knowledge base, guidelines and delivery system. PMID:10351265

  13. The orginization of medical practice and practice orientations among physicians in prepaid and nonprepaid primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1975-03-01

    Data are presented on office-based general practitioners and pediatricians working in varying practice settings. Fee-for-service physicians spend more time in direct patient care activities than those in prepaid practice, and devote more time to each patient. The data suggest that the patient load characteristic of general practice in prepaid groups encourages a more assembly line practice which is less responsive to patients than the pattern characteristic of fee-for-service practice. Prepaid physicians work during scheduled hours and may deal with increased load by processing patients more rapidly. Fee-for-service physicians tend to respond to increased demand by working longer hours. The responsiveness of primary care physicians to patient problems seems to reflect primarily their social orientations to medical practice and the time pressures they face. Varying practice settings result in different techniques of coping with the pressures of practice. Data are also presented on sociodemographic and professional characteristics of primary care physicians in varying settings, workload, use of diagnostic and laboratory procedures, social orientations to medical practice, satisfactions and dissatisfactions, and attitudes toward sociopolitical aspects of medical care. Suggestions are offered for improving the responsiveness of prepaid practice. PMID:1113557

  14. Do family physicians know the costs of medical care? Survey in British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Innes, Grant D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost of 46 commonly used investigations and therapies and to assess British Columbia family doctors' awareness of these costs. DESIGN: Mailed survey asking about costs of 23 investigations and 23 therapies relevant to family practice. A random sample of 600 doctors was asked to report their awareness of costs and to estimate costs of the 46 items. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred family physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates within 25% of actual cost were considered correct. Associations between cost awareness and respondents'characteristics (eg, sex, practice location) were sought. Degree of error in estimates was also assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 283 (47.2%) surveys were returned and 259 analyzed. Few respondents estimated costs within 25% of true cost, and estimates were highly variable. Physicians underestimated costs of expensive drugs and laboratory investigations and overestimated costs of inexpensive drugs. Cost awareness did not correlate with sex, practice location, College certification, faculty appointment, or years in practice. CONCLUSION: Family doctors in British Columbia have little awareness of the costs of medical care. PMID:15000338

  15. Care of Older Adults: Role of Primary Care Physicians in the Treatment of Cataracts and Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Kuperwaser, Mark C; Campo, Rafael; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2016-02-01

    This article aims to facilitate optimal management of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by providing information on indications, risk factors, referral guidelines, and treatments and to describe techniques to maximize quality of life (QOL) for people with irreversible vision loss. A review of PubMed and other online databases was performed for peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 through August 2012 on visual impairment in elderly adults. Search terms included vision loss, visual impairment, blind, low vision, QOL combined with age-related, elderly, and aging. Articles were selected that discussed vision loss in elderly adults, effects of vision impairment on QOL, and care strategies to manage vision loss in older adults. The ability of primary care physicians (PCPs) to identify early signs of cataracts and AMD in individuals at risk of vision loss is critical to early diagnosis and management of these common age-related eye diseases. PCPs can help preserve vision by issuing aptly timed referrals and encouraging behavioral modifications that reduce risk factors. With knowledge of referral guidelines for soliciting low-vision rehabilitation services, visual aids, and community support resources, PCPs can considerably increase the QOL of individuals with uncorrectable vision loss. By offering appropriately timed referrals, promoting behavioral modifications, and allocating low-vision care resources, PCPs may play a critical role in preserving visual health and enhancing the QOL for the elderly population. PMID:26825587

  16. Improving patients' and staff's experiences of acute care.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Rob; Crawshaw, Jacob; Hood, Chloe

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the effect of the Quality Mark programme on the quality of acute care received by older patients by comparing the experiences of staff and older adults before and after the programme. Data from 31 wards in 12 acute hospitals were collected over two stages. Patients and staff completed questionnaires on the perceived quality of care on the ward. Patients rated improved experiences of nutrition, staff availability and dignity. Staff received an increase in training and reported better access to support, increased time and skill to deliver care and improved morale, leadership and teamwork. Problems remained with ward comfort and mealtimes. Overall, results indicated an improvement in ratings of care quality in most domains during Quality Mark data collection. Further audits need to explore ways of improving ward comfort and mealtime experience. PMID:25727634

  17. Frequency and Factors Associated with Unexpected Death in an Acute Palliative Care Unit: Expect the Unexpected

    PubMed Central

    Bruera, Sebastian; Chisholm, Gary; Santos, Renata Dos; Bruera, Eduardo; Hui, David

    2015-01-01

    Context Few studies have examined the frequency of unexpected death and its associated factors in a palliative care setting. Objectives To determine the frequency of unexpected death in two acute palliative care units (APCUs); to compare the frequency of signs of impending death between expected and unexpected deaths; and to determine the predictors associated with unexpected death. Methods In this prospective, longitudinal, observational study, consecutive patients admitted to two APCUs were enrolled and physical signs of impending death were documented twice daily until discharge or death. Physicians were asked to complete a survey within 24 hours of APCU death. The death was considered unexpected if the physician answered “yes” to the question “Were you surprised by the timing of the death?” Results In total, 193 of 203 after-death assessments (95%) were collected for analysis. Nineteen of 193 patients died unexpectedly (10%). Signs of impending death, including nonreactive pupils, inability to close eyelids, decreased response to verbal stimuli, drooping of nasolabial folds, peripheral cyanosis, pulselessness of the radial artery, and respiration with mandibular movement, were documented more frequently in expected deaths than unexpected deaths (P < 0.05). Longer disease duration was associated with unexpected death (33 months vs. 12 months, P=0.009). Conclusion Unexpected death occurred in an unexpectedly high proportion of patients in the APCU setting, and was associated with fewer signs of impending death. Our findings highlight the need for palliative care teams to be prepared for the unexpected. PMID:25499421

  18. Long-term Medical Management of the Liver Transplant Recipient: What the Primary Care Physician Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Siddharth; Watt, Kymberly D.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition, management, and prevention of medical complications and comorbidities after liver transplant is the key to improved long-term outcomes. Beyond allograft-related complications, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, renal dysfunction, and malignancies are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Primary care physicians have an important role in improving outcomes of liver transplant recipients and are increasingly relied on for managing these complex patients. This review serves to assist the primary care physician in the long-term management issues of liver transplant recipients. PMID:22763347

  19. The primary health care physician and the cancer patient: tips and strategies for managing sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Nekhlyudov, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    There is a large and growing population of long-term cancer survivors. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are playing an increasingly greater role in the care of these patients across the continuum of cancer survivorship. In this role, PCPs are faced with the responsibility of managing a range of medical and psychosocial late effects of cancer treatment. In particular, the sexual side effects of treatment which are common and have significant impact on quality of life for the cancer survivor, often go unaddressed. This is an area of clinical care and research that has received increasing attention, highlighted by the presentation of this special issue on Cancer and Sexual Health. The aims of this review are 3-fold. First, we seek to overview common presentations of sexual dysfunction related to major cancer diagnoses in order to give the PCP a sense of the medical issues that the survivor may present with. Barriers to communication about sexual health issues between patient/PCPs in order are also described in order to emphasize the importance of PCPs initiating this important conversation. Next, we provide strategies and resources to help guide the PCP in the management of sexual dysfunction in cancer survivors. Finally, we discuss case examples of survivorship sexual health issues and highlight the role that a PCP can play in each of these case examples. PMID:26816826

  20. Modifying health behavior to prevent cardiovascular diseases: a nationwide survey among German primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina; Bock, Christina; Herr, Raphael M; Mayer, Manfred; Görig, Tatiana

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs) were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72%) and alcohol (61%) consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%), and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%), and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%). However, only between 23% (quitting smoking) and 49% (diet modification) of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD. PMID:24739770

  1. [Update of diabetic retinopathy for Primary Care physicians: Towards an improvement of telematic medicine].

    PubMed

    Muñoz de Escalona-Rojas, J E; Quereda-Castañeda, A; García-García, O

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is considered the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population in industrialised countries, with diabetic macular oedema being the most common reason of decreased visual acuity in diabetics. According to the results of large multicentre studies, blindness prevention for RD involves conducting periodic check-ups, which include examinations of the back of the eye, so they can be treated in time. The use of non-mydriatic cameras and telemedicine have been shown to be useful in this regard (sensitivity>80% and specificity>90%). If this procedure is followed, the first retinography should be performed 5 years from diagnosis in type 1 diabetics and immediately after diagnosis in type 2 diabetics. Therefore the role of the Primary Care physician is crucial to enable early diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26239670

  2. Nissen fundoplication and gastrointestinal-related complications: a guide for the primary care physician.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Tal B; Gamarra, Fernando N; Stawick, Lawrence; Maas, Luis C

    2009-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common condition affecting many individuals in the Western world. Most patients are managed successfully with acid suppression, while others may require more invasive interventions. The majority of patients undergoing antireflux surgery will have favorable outcomes. A small percentage, however, will be considered surgical failures and will either present with new or recurrent symptoms, or develop postoperative complications. These include, but are not limited to, symptoms such as dysphagia, gas-bloat syndrome, and bowel dysfunctions that may significantly impair the patient's health and quality of life. As the number of antireflux procedures for this condition continue to increase, the number of complications is also likely to become more prevalent. The primary care physician will be challenged to recognize them and initiate appropriate management. In this review, we address the more common gastrointestinal complications of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and offer general guidelines in their diagnosis and management. PMID:19738518

  3. [Update on current care guidelines. Current care guideline: Acute lower respiratory tract infection in adults].

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Pekka; Broas, Markku; Hedman, Jouni; Jartti, Airi; Järvinen, Asko; Koskela, Markku; Meinander, Tuula; Puolijoki, Hannu; Rautakorpi, Ulla; Syrjälä, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is recognised in patients suffering from acute cough or deteriorated general condition. Patients with acute cough without pneumonia-related symptoms or clinical findings do not benefit from antimicrobial treatment. Those with suspected or confirmed pneumonia are treated with antibiotics, amoxicillin being the first choice. Most patients with pneumonia can be treated at home. Those with severe symptoms are referred to hospital. Patients are always encouraged to contact his/her physician if the symptoms worsen or do not ameliorate within 2-3 days. Patients aged 50 years or older and smokers are controlled by thoracic radiography in 6-8 weeks. PMID:26237912

  4. Examining implicit bias of physicians who care for individuals with spinal cord injury: A pilot study and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Leslie R. M.; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Niyonkuru, Christian; Oyster, Michelle L.; Switzer, Galen E.; Burkitt, Kelly H.; Fine, Michael J.; Gao, Shasha; Boninger, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Context Despite evidence that healthcare providers have implicit biases that can impact clinical interactions and decisions, implicit bias among physicians caring for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been examined. Objective Conduct a pilot study to examine implicit racial bias of SCI physicians and its association with functioning and wellbeing for individuals with SCI. Design Combined data from cross-sectional surveys of individuals with SCI and their SCI physicians. Setting Four national SCI Model Systems sites. Participants Individuals with SCI (N = 162) and their SCI physicians (N = 14). Outcome measures SCI physicians completed online surveys measuring implicit racial (pro-white/anti-black) bias. Individuals with SCI completed questionnaires assessing mobility, physical independence, occupational functioning, social integration, self-reported health, depression, and life satisfaction. We used multilevel regression analyses to examine the associations of physician bias and outcomes of individuals with SCI. Results Physicians had a mean bias score of 0.62 (SD = 0.35), indicating a strong pro-white/anti-black bias. Greater physician bias was associated with disability among individuals with SCI in the domain of social integration (odds ratio = 4.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44, 16.04), as well as higher depression (B = 3.24, 95% CI = 1.06, 5.41) and lower life satisfaction (B = −4.54, 95% CI= −8.79, −0.28). Conclusion This pilot study indicates that SCI providers are susceptible to implicit racial bias and provides preliminary evidence that greater implicit racial bias of physicians is associated with poorer psychosocial health outcomes for individuals with SCI. It demonstrates the feasibility of studying implicit bias among SCI providers and provides guidance for future research on physician bias and patient outcomes. PMID:24621034

  5. Intensive Care Unit Physician's Attitudes on Do Not Resuscitate Order in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Fatima S; Radaeda, Mahdy S; Gaghama, Maram K; Salameh, Basma

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is some ambiguity concerning the do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in the Arabic world. DNR is an order written by a doctor, approved by the patient or patient surrogate, which instructs health care providers to not do CPR when cardiac or respiratory arrest occurs. Therefore, this research study investigated the attitudes of Intensive Care Unit physicians and nurses on DNR order in Palestine. Materials and Methods: A total of 123 males and females from four different hospitals voluntarily participated in this study by signing a consent form; which was approved by the Ethical Committee at Birzeit University and the Ministry of Health. A non-experimental, quantitative, descriptive, and co-relational method was used, the data collection was done by a three page form consisting of the consent form, demographical data, and 24 item-based questionnaire based on a 5-point-Likert scale from strongly agree (score 1) to strongly disagree (score 5). Results: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. Finding showed no significant relationship between culture and opinion regarding the DNR order, but religion did. There was statistical significance difference between the physicians’ and nurses’ religious beliefs, but there was no correlation. Moreover, a total of 79 (64.3%) physicians and nurses agreed with legalizing the DNR order in Palestine. Conclusion: There was a positive attitude towards the legalization of the DNR order in Palestine, and culture and religion did not have any affect towards their attitudes regarding the legalization in Palestine. PMID:26962279

  6. Paediatric emergency and acute care in resource poor settings.

    PubMed

    Duke, Trevor; Cheema, Baljit

    2016-02-01

    Acute care of seriously ill children is a global public health issue, and there is much scope for improving quality of care in hospitals at all levels in many developing countries. We describe the current state of paediatric emergency and acute care in the least developed regions of low and middle income countries and identify gaps and requirements for improving quality. Approaches are needed which span the continuum of care: from triage and emergency treatment, the diagnostic process, identification of co-morbidities, treatment, monitoring and supportive care, discharge planning and follow-up. Improvements require support and training for health workers and quality processes. Effective training is that which is ongoing, combining good technical training in under-graduate courses and continuing professional development. Quality processes combine evidence-based guidelines, essential medicines, appropriate technology, appropriate financing of services, standards and assessment tools and training resources. While initial emergency treatment is based on common clinical syndromes, early differentiation is required for specific treatment, and this can usually be carried out clinically without expensive tests. While global strategies are important, it is what happens locally that makes a difference and is too often neglected. In rural areas in the poorest countries in the world, public doctors and nurses who provide emergency and acute care for children are revered by their communities and demonstrate daily that much can be carried out with little. PMID:27062627

  7. Developing "Care Assistant": A smartphone application to support caregivers of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingting; Yao, Nengliang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Fen; Liu, Yanyan; Geng, Zhaohui; Yuan, Changrong

    2016-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Caring for children with ALL is an uncommon experience for parents without medical training. They urgently need professional assistance when their children are recovering at home. This paper documents the process of developing an Android application (app) "Care Assistant" for family caregivers of children with ALL. Key informant interviews and focus group studies were used before programming the app. The key informants and focus group members included: caregivers of children with ALL, cancer care physicians and nurses, and software engineers. We found several major challenges faced by caregivers: limited access to evidence-based clinic information, lack of financial and social assistance, deficient communications with doctors or nurses, lack of disease-related knowledge, and inconvenience of tracking treatments and testing results. This feedback was used to develop "Care Assistant". This app has eight modules: personal information, treatment tracking, family care, financial and social assistance, knowledge centre, self-assessment questionnaires, interactive platform, and reminders. We have also developed a web-based administration portal to manage the app. The usability and effectiveness of "Care Assistant" will be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26271029

  8. Noninvasive ventilation practice patterns for acute respiratory failure in Canadian tertiary care centres: A descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Digby, Geneviève C; Keenan, Sean P; Parker, Christopher M; Sinuff, Tasnim; Burns, Karen E; Mehta, Sangeeta; Ronco, Juan J; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Rose, Louise; Ayas, Najib T; Berthiaume, Luc R; D’Arsigny, Christine L; Stollery, Daniel E; Muscedere, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe NIV practice variation in the acute setting. METHODS: A prospective observational study involving 11 Canadian tertiary care centres was performed. Data regarding NIV indication, mode and outcomes were collected for all adults (>16 years of age) treated with NIV for acute respiratory failure during a four-week period (between February and August 2011). Logistic regression with site as a random effect was used to examine the association between preselected predictors and mortality or intubation. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients (mean [± SD] 30±12 per centre) were included. The most common indications for NIV initiation were pulmonary edema (104 [31.5%]) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (99 [30.0%]). Significant differences in indications for NIV use across sites, specialty of ordering physician and location of NIV initiation were noted. Although intubation rates were not statistically different among sites (range 10.3% to 45.4%), mortality varied significantly (range 6.7% to 54.5%; P=0.006). In multivariate analysis, the most significant independent predictor of avoiding intubation was do-not-resuscitate status (OR 0.11 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.37]). CONCLUSION: Significant variability existed in NIV use and associated outcomes among Canadian tertiary care centres. Assignment of do-not-resuscitate status prevented intubation. PMID:26469155

  9. Recruiting and Retaining Primary Care Physicians in Urban Underserved Communities: The Importance of Having a Mission to Serve

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Ramey, Robin; Nunez, Felix L.; Beltran, Robert; Splawn, Robert G.; Brown, Arleen F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined factors influencing physician practice decisions that may increase primary care supply in underserved areas. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 42 primary care physicians from Los Angeles County, California, stratified by race/ethnicity (African American, Latino, and non-Latino White) and practice location (underserved vs nonunderserved area). We reviewed transcriptions and coded them into themes by using standard qualitative methods. Results. Three major themes emerged in relation to selecting geographic- and population-based practice decisions: (1) personal motivators, (2) career motivators, and (3) clinic support. We found that subthemes describing personal motivators (e.g., personal mission and self-identity) for choosing a practice were more common in responses among physicians who worked in underserved areas than among those who did not. By contrast, physicians in nonunderserved areas were more likely to cite work hours and lifestyle as reasons for selecting their current practice location or for leaving an underserved area. Conclusions. Medical schools and shortage-area clinical practices may enhance strategies for recruiting primary care physicians to underserved areas by identifying key personal motivators and may promote long-term retention through work–life balance. PMID:20935263

  10. A comprehensive information technology system to support physician learning at the point of care.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Sorensen, Kristi J; Nishimura, Rick A; Ommen, Steve R; Lloyd, Farrell J

    2015-01-01

    MayoExpert is a multifaceted information system integrated with the electronic medical record (EMR) across Mayo Clinic's multisite health system. It was developed as a technology-based solution to manage information, standardize clinical practice, and promote and document learning in clinical contexts. Features include urgent test result notifications; models illustrating expert-approved care processes; concise, expert-approved answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs); a directory of topic-specific experts; and a portfolio for provider licensure and credentialing. The authors evaluate MayoExpert's reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Evaluation data sources included usage statistics, user surveys, and pilot studies.As of October 2013, MayoExpert was available at 94 clinical sites in 12 states and contained 1,368 clinical topics, answers to 7,640 FAQs, and 92 care process models. In 2012, MayoExpert was accessed at least once by 2,578/3,643 (71%) staff physicians, 900/1,374 (66%) midlevel providers, and 1,728/2,291 (75%) residents and fellows. In a 2013 survey of MayoExpert users with 536 respondents, all features were highly rated (≥67% favorable). More providers reported using MayoExpert to answer questions before/after than during patient visits (68% versus 36%). During November 2012 to April 2013, MayoExpert sent 1,660 notifications of new-onset atrial fibrillation and 1,590 notifications of prolonged QT. MayoExpert has become part of routine clinical and educational operations, and its care process models now define Mayo Clinic best practices. MayoExpert's infrastructure and content will continue to expand with improved templates and content organization, new care process models, additional notifications, better EMR integration, and improved support for credentialing activities. PMID:25374037

  11. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  12. Patients in acute care settings. Which health-care services are provided?

    PubMed

    Dugan, J; Mosel, L

    1992-07-01

    Studies have shown that early discharge planning, multidisciplinary care, and a focus on functional abilities for older adults do reduce acute care hospital readmissions. Of the 101 records reviewed of acute care admissions 75 years of age and older, 36 had no multidisciplinary service documented and 75 had no discharge planning documented within 48 hours of admission. Eleven functional activities were assessed and documented in one record with a range of 4 to 11 activities assessed in the remaining 100 documents. Identifying and filling gaps in care provided to this age group might provide substantial cost savings, improve care, and decrease complications. Advocacy, coordination of care, and greater knowledge may be keys to narrowing these service gaps. PMID:1629531

  13. Geriatric rehabilitation on an acute-care medical unit.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M F

    1984-09-01

    This study examined a geriatric rehabilitation pilot project on an acute-care medical unit. Over a 6-week period, using a 35-item geriatric rating scale and a mental assessment tool, changes in behaviours of 23 patients admitted to the geriatric rehabilitation module were compared to changes in behaviours of 10 elderly patients on a regular medical unit. The patients' demographic characteristics, their nursing and medical diagnoses, and discharge patterns were reviewed. Significant changes in behaviours of patients on the rehabilitation model included: increased ability to care for themselves, to maintain balance, and to communicate with others; decreased restlessness at night; decreased confusion; decreased incidence of incontinence; and improved social skills. The paper describes the geriatric rehabilitation programme and discusses implications for nursing of elderly patients in acute-care hospitals. PMID:6567647

  14. Charge Nurse Perspectives on Frontline Leadership in Acute Care Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Rose O.; Schwarzkopf, Ruth; Kiger, Anna J.

    2011-01-01

    A recently issued report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States on the Future of Nursing included a recommendation that nurses should receive leadership development at every level in order to transform the healthcare system. Charge nurses, at the frontline of patient care in acute care settings, are in key positions to lead this change. This paper presents findings from research conducted with nurses in the Tenet Health System. Charge nurses from ten facilities who attended a one-day work shop were surveyed to gain insight into the experience of being a frontline leader in today's acute care environment. The relationship of these findings to the IOM report and the implications for both the Tenet Health System and other healthcare organizations that are working to support nurses who assume these challenging roles are discussed. PMID:22191051

  15. Physician-Assisted Suicide and Other Forms of Euthanasia in Islamic Spiritual Care.

    PubMed

    Isgandarova, Nazila

    2015-12-01

    The muteness in the Qur'an about suicide due to intolerable pain and a firm opposition to suicide in the hadith literature formed a strong opinion among Muslims that neither repentance nor the suffering of the person can remove the sin of suicide or mercy 'killing' (al-qatl al-rahim), even if these acts are committed with the purpose of relieving suffering and pain. Some interpretations of the Islamic sources even give advantage to murderers as opposed to people who commit suicide because the murderers, at least, may have opportunity to repent for their sin. However, people who commit suicide are 'labeled' for losing faith in the afterlife without a chance to repent for their act. This paper claims that Islamic spiritual care can help people make decisions that may impact patients, family members, health care givers and the whole community by responding to questions such as 'What is the Islamic view on death?', 'What is the Islamic response to physician-assisted suicide and other forms of euthanasia?', 'What are the religious and moral underpinnings of these responses in Islam?' PMID:26631521

  16. Distancing sedation in end-of-life care from physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Soh, Tze Ling Gwendoline Beatrice; Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Sim, Shin Wei; Yee, Alethea Chung Peng

    2016-05-01

    Lipuma equates continuous sedation until death (CSD) to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia (PAS/E) based on the premise that iatrogenic unconsciousness negates social function and, thus, personhood, leaving a patient effectively 'dead'. Others have extrapolated upon this position further, to suggest that any use of sedation and/or opioids at the end of life would be analogous to CSD and thus tantamount to PAS/E. These posits sit diametrically opposite to standard end-of-life care practices. This paper will refute Lipuma's position and the posits borne from it. We first show that prevailing end-of-life care guidelines require proportional and monitored use of sedatives and/or opioids to attenuate fears that the use of such treatment could hasten death. These guidelines also classify CSD as a last resort treatment, employed only when symptoms prove intractable, and not amenable to all standard treatment options. Furthermore, CSD is applied only when deemed appropriate by a multidisciplinary palliative medicine team. We also show that empirical data based on local views of personhood will discount concerns that iatrogenic unconsciousness is tantamount to a loss of personhood and death. PMID:27211055

  17. Noncardiac chest pain--an Asia-Pacific survey on the views of primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ting Kin; Lim, Paul Wah Yonn; Wong, Benjamin C Y

    2007-11-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is common and has a significant impact on health care. Primary care physicians (PCPs)' attitudes, clinical approach, preference of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, and comfort in managing patients with NCCP in the Asia-Pacific region are not known. Consequently, we performed this survey in the Asia-Pacific region. The self-completed questionnaire was sent to PCPs in the Asia-Pacific region. A 28-item questionnaire contained questions on demographic information, characteristics of practice, preferences of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, treatment plans, and opinion on Helicobacter pylori and NCCP. A total of 108 (74%) PCPs returned the questionnaire. A mean of 18% of the patients were diagnosed with NCCP by PCPs in the past 6 months. Ninety-four percent of PCPs had treated NCCP patients in the last 6 months. Only 38% of the PCPs were comfortable in diagnosing NCCP but 85.2% believed that they should manage NCCP patients. PCPs in Malaysia and Philippines were more likely to refer patients to subspecialists. Fifty-seven and four-tenths percent of PCPs believed that H. pylori infection plays a role in the development of NCCP. The study demonstrates clearly that the understanding, diagnostic strategies, and treatment strategies of NCCP in the Asia-Pacific region are suboptimal and thus highlights the importance of educational and training programs tailored for PCPs in NCCP. PMID:17436083

  18. Corruption in healthcare and medicine: why should physicians and bioethicists care and what should they do?

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Corruption, an undeniable reality in the health sector, is arguably the most serious ethical crisis in medicine today. However, it remains poorly addressed in scholarly journals and by professional associations of physicians and bioethicists. This article provides an overview of the forms and dynamics of corruption in healthcare as well as its implications in health and medicine. Corruption traps millions of people in poverty, perpetuates the existing inequalities in income and health, drains the available resources undermines people's access to healthcare, increases the costs of patient care and, by setting up a vicious cycle, contributes to ill health and suffering. No public health programme can succeed in a setting in which scarce resources are siphoned off, depriving the disadvantaged and poor of essential healthcare. Quality care cannot be provided by a healthcare delivery system in which kickbacks and bribery are a part of life. The medical profession, historically considered a noble one, and the bioethics community cannot evade their moral responsibility in the face of this sordid reality. There is a need to engage in public discussions and take a stand - against unethical and corrupt practices in healthcare and medicine - for the sake of the individual's well-being as well as for social good. PMID:23912727

  19. Distancing sedation in end-of-life care from physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Tze Ling Gwendoline Beatrice; Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Sim, Shin Wei; Yee, Alethea Chung Peng

    2016-01-01

    Lipuma equates continuous sedation until death (CSD) to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia (PAS/E) based on the premise that iatrogenic unconsciousness negates social function and, thus, personhood, leaving a patient effectively ‘dead’. Others have extrapolated upon this position further, to suggest that any use of sedation and/or opioids at the end of life would be analogous to CSD and thus tantamount to PAS/E. These posits sit diametrically opposite to standard end-of-life care practices. This paper will refute Lipuma’s position and the posits borne from it. We first show that prevailing end-of-life care guidelines require proportional and monitored use of sedatives and/or opioids to attenuate fears that the use of such treatment could hasten death. These guidelines also classify CSD as a last resort treatment, employed only when symptoms prove intractable, and not amenable to all standard treatment options. Furthermore, CSD is applied only when deemed appropriate by a multidisciplinary palliative medicine team. We also show that empirical data based on local views of personhood will discount concerns that iatrogenic unconsciousness is tantamount to a loss of personhood and death. PMID:27211055

  20. Blueprint for Implementing New Processes in Acute Care: Rescuing Adult Patients With Intraosseous Access.

    PubMed

    Chreiman, Kristen M; Kim, Patrick K; Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Schweickert, William D

    2015-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) access initiative at an urban university adult level 1 trauma center began from the need for a more expeditious vascular access route to rescue patients in extremis. The goal of this project was a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving to increase access of IO catheters to rescue patients in all care areas. The initiative became a collaborative effort between nursing, physicians, and pharmacy to embark on an acute care endeavor to standardize IO access. This is a descriptive analysis of processes to effectively develop collaborative strategies to navigate hospital systems and successfully implement multilayered initiatives. Administration should empower nurse to advance their practice to include IO for patient rescue. Intraosseous access may expedite resuscitative efforts in patients in extremis who lack venous access or where additional venous access is required for life-saving therapies. Limiting IO dwell time may facilitate timely definitive venous access. Continued education and training by offering IO skill laboratory refreshers and annual e-learning didactic is optimal for maintaining proficiency and knowledge. More research opportunities exist to determine medication safety and efficacy in adult patients in the acute care setting. PMID:26352658

  1. Innovative use of tele-ICU in long-term acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mullen-Fortino, Margaret; Sites, Frank D; Soisson, Michael; Galen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Tele-intensive care units (ICUs) typically provide remote monitoring for ICUs of acute care, short-stay hospitals. As part of a joint venture project to establish a long-term acute level of care, Good Shepherd Penn Partners became the first facility to use tele-ICU technology in a nontraditional setting. Long-term acute care hospitals care for patients with complex medical problems. We describe describes the benefits and challenges of integrating a tele-ICU program into a long-term acute care setting and the impact this model of care has on patient care outcomes. PMID:22828067

  2. Healing Environments: Integrative Medicine and Palliative Care in Acute Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Estores, Irene M; Frye, Joyce

    2015-09-01

    Conventional medicine is excellent at saving lives; however, it has little to offer to address the physical, mental, and emotional distress associated with life-threatening or life-limiting disease. An integrative approach to palliative care in acute care settings can meet this need by creating healing environments that support patients, families, and health care professionals. Mindful use of language enhances the innate healing response, improves communication, and invites patients and families to participate in their care. Staff should be offered access to skills training to cultivate compassion and mindful practice to enhance both patient and self-care. PMID:26333757

  3. Community Physicians' Knowledge on Basic Health Care for Elderly Persons in Israel: Comparing Findings from 2006 to 1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubart, Emily; Segal, Refael; Mishiev, Ruth; Buchman, Ruth; Leibovitz, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Community physicians should be knowledgeable of basic geriatrics to cope with the challenges posed by the growing number of older patients and their complex needs. A survey of knowledge in basic health care for elderly persons, carried out by our team in 1996, revealed that it was insufficient. The authors repeated this survey in 2006, by using…

  4. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  5. The Changing Dynamics of Health Care: Physician Perceptions of Technology in Medical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Jerald D.

    2012-01-01

    Political, economic, and safety concerns have militated for the adoption of electronic health records (EHR) by physicians in the United States, but current rates of adoption have failed to achieve the expected levels. This qualitative phenomenological study of practicing physicians reveals obstacles to adoption. Maintaining the physicians'…

  6. Chiropractic physicians: toward a select conceptual understanding of bureaucratic structures and functions in the health care institution

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Marcel; Kondellas, Bill; Hang, Lam; Fredericks, Janet; Ross, Michael WV

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to present select concepts and theories of bureaucratic structures and functions so that chiropractic physicians and other health care professionals can use them in their respective practices. The society-culture-personality model can be applied as an organizational instrument for assisting chiropractors in the diagnosis and treatment of their patients irrespective of locality. Discussion Society-culture-personality and social meaningful interaction are examined in relationship to the structural and functional aspects of bureaucracy within the health care institution of a society. Implicit in the examination of the health care bureaucratic structures and functions of a society is the focus that chiropractic physicians and chiropractic students learn how to integrate, synthesize, and actualize values and virtues such as empathy, integrity, excellence, diversity, compassion, caring, and understanding with a deep commitment to self-reflection. Conclusion It is essential that future and current chiropractic physicians be aware of the structural and functional aspects of an organization so that chiropractic and other health care professionals are able to deliver care that involves the ingredients of quality, affordability, availability, accessibility, and continuity for their patients. PMID:22693481

  7. Concise Care Bundles In Acute Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kivlin, Jude; Altemimi, Harith

    2015-01-01

    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in King's Lynn, Norfolk is a 488 bed hospital providing services to approximately 331,000 people across 750 square miles. In 2012 a need was recognised for documentation (pathways) in a practical format to increase usage of national guidelines and facilitate adherence to best practice (gold standards of care) that could be easily version controlled, auditable and provide support in clinical decision-making by junior doctors. BMJ Action Sets[1] fulfilled the brief with expert knowledge, version control and support, though they were deemed too lengthy and unworkable in fast paced settings like the medical assessment unit; they formed the base creation of concise care bundles (CCB). CCB were introduced for 21 clinical presentations and one procedure. Outcomes were fully audited and showed significant improvement in a range of measures, including an increase in completions of CHADVASC score in atrial fibrillation, antibiotics prescribed per protocol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Blatchford score recorded for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleed. PMID:26734437

  8. Canadian Rural/Remote Primary Care Physicians Perspectives on Child/Adolescent Mental Health Care Service Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Richard; Davidson, Brenda; Nadeau, Lucie; Callanan, Terrence S.; Fleisher, William; Hope-Ross, Lindsay; Espinet, Stacey; Spenser, Helen R.; Lipton, Harold; Srivastava, Amresh; Lazier, Lorraine; Doey, Tamison; Khalid-Khan, Sarosh; McKerlie, Ann; Stretch, Neal; Flynn, Roberta; Abidi, Sabina; St. John, Kimberly; Auclair, Genevieve; Liashko, Vitaly; Fotti, Sarah; Quinn, Declan; Steele, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary Care Physicians (PCP) play a key role in the recognition and management of child/adolescent mental health struggles. In rural and under-serviced areas of Canada, there is a gap between child/adolescent mental health needs and service provision. Methods: From a Canadian national needs assessment survey, PCPs’ narrative comments were examined using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Using the phenomenological method, individual comments were drawn upon to illustrate the themes that emerged. These themes were further analyzed using chi-square to identify significant differences in the frequency in which they were reported. Results: Out of 909 PCPs completing the survey, 39.38% (n = 358) wrote comments. Major themes that emerged were: 1) psychiatrist access, including issues such as long waiting lists, no child/adolescent psychiatrists available, no direct access to child/adolescent psychiatrists; 2) poor communication/continuity, need for more systemized/transparent referral processes, and need to rely on adult psychiatrists; and, 3) referral of patients to other mental health professionals such as paediatricians, psychologists, and social workers. Conclusions: Concerns that emerged across sites primarily revolved around lack of access to care and systems issues that interfere with effective service delivery. These concerns suggest potential opportunities for future improvement of service delivery. Implications: Although the survey only had one comment box located at the end, PCPs wrote their comments throughout the survey. Further research focusing on PCPs’ expressed written concerns may give further insight into child/adolescent mental health care service delivery systems. A comparative study targeting urban versus rural regions in Canada may provide further valuable insights. PMID:27047554

  9. Use of chest sonography in acute-care radiology☆

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, C.; Valentino, M.; Rimondi, M.R.; Branchini, M.; Baleni, M. Casadio; Barozzi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute lung disease is a daily challenge for radiologists working in acute-care areas. It is generally based on the results of chest radiography performed under technically unfavorable conditions. Computed tomography (CT) is undoubtedly more accurate in these cases, but it cannot always be performed on critically ill patients who need continuous care. The use of thoracic ultrasonography (US) has recently been proposed for the study of acute lung disease. It can be carried out rapidly at the bedside and does not require any particularly sophisticated equipment. This report analyzes our experience with chest sonography as a supplement to chest radiography in an Emergency Radiology Unit. We performed chest sonography – as an adjunct to chest radiography – on 168 patients with acute chest pathology. Static and dynamic US signs were analyzed in light of radiographic findings and, when possible, CT. The use of chest US improved the authors' ability to provide confident diagnoses of acute disease of the chest and lungs. PMID:23397048

  10. The care continuum in acromegaly: how patients, nurses, and physicians can collaborate for successful treatment experiences

    PubMed Central

    Plunkett, Cynthia; Barkan, Ariel L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with acromegaly (a condition of chronic growth hormone hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma) often require pharmacological treatment. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) such as pasireotide, lanreotide, and octreotide are frequently used as first-line medical therapy. As SSAs are delivered by regular subcutaneous or intramuscular injections, they can result in injection-related pain or anxiety and can be challenging to fit into patients’ lifestyles. When combined with the prolonged, debilitating psychological complications associated with acromegaly, these administration challenges can negatively impact compliance, adherence, and quality of life. Proactively managing patients’ expectations and providing appropriate, timely guidance are crucial for maximizing adherence, and ultimately, optimizing the treatment experience. As part of ongoing clinical research since 1997, our team at the University of Michigan has used SSAs to treat 30 patients with acromegaly. Based on our clinical experiences with multiple SSA administration regimens (long-acting intramuscular, long-acting deep subcutaneous, and twice-daily subcutaneous), we generated a dialog map that guides health care professionals through the many sensitive and complex patient communication issues surrounding this treatment process. Beginning with diagnosis, the dialog map includes discussion of treatment options, instruction on proper drug administration technique, and ensuring of appropriate follow-up care. At each step, we provide talking points that address the following: the patients’ clinical situation; their geographic, economic, and psychological concerns; and their inclination to communicate with clinicians. We have found that involving patients, nurses, and physicians as equal partners in the treatment process optimizes treatment initiation, adherence, and persistence in acromegaly. By encouraging collaboration across the care continuum, this dialog map can facilitate identification of the

  11. Recommended and prescribed symptomatic treatment for acute maxillary sinusitis in Finnish primary care.

    PubMed

    Pulkki, Johanna; Rautakorpi, Ulla-Maija; Huikko, Solja; Honkanen, Pekka; Klaukkas, Timo; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Palva, Erkki; Roine, Risto; Sarkkinen, Hannu; Huovinen, Pentti; Varonen, Helena

    2007-09-01

    We studied the use of symptomatic medication in the treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis (AMS) in primary care and whether this use is in accordance with national guidelines. The data was collected annually in the Antimicrobial Treatment Strategies (MIKSTRA) Program in 30 primary health care centres throughout Finland during one week in November in the years from 1998 to 2002. Physicians and nurses collected the data about the diagnoses, prescription-only medicines and over the counter medicines prescribed or recommended for all patients with an infection during the study weeks. The MIKSTRA data comprised of 23.002 first consultations for an infection: 2.448 patients were diagnosed as having AMS. Altogether, 41% of them received some symptomatic medicine. Antihistamines with or without sympathomimetics were the most commonly prescribed or recommended symptomatic medicines (23% of the patients). For comparison, systemic antibacterial agents were prescribed for 93% of the AMS patients. We conclude that Finnish physicians recommend or prescribe more symptomatic medication without proven efficacy for AMS than recommended by the national guidelines. Especially, the use of antihistamines with or without sympathomimetics, mostly the combination of acrivastine and pseudoephedrine, was common although antihistamines were recommended only for patients with allergy or nasal polyps. PMID:17956017

  12. Post–Acute Care Use and Hospital Readmission after Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tiffanie K.; Fuchs, Barry D.; Small, Dylan S.; Halpern, Scott D.; Hanish, Asaf; Umscheid, Craig A.; Baillie, Charles A.; Kerlin, Meeta Prasad; Gaieski, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: The epidemiology of post–acute care use and hospital readmission after sepsis remains largely unknown. Objectives: To examine the rate of post–acute care use and hospital readmission after sepsis and to examine risk factors and outcomes for hospital readmissions after sepsis. Methods: In an observational cohort study conducted in an academic health care system (2010–2012), we compared post–acute care use at discharge and hospital readmission after 3,620 sepsis hospitalizations with 108,958 nonsepsis hospitalizations. We used three validated, claims-based approaches to identify sepsis and severe sepsis. Measurements and Main Results: Post–acute care use at discharge was more likely after sepsis, driven by skilled care facility placement (35.4% after sepsis vs. 15.8%; P < 0.001), with the highest rate observed after severe sepsis. Readmission rates at 7, 30, and 90 days were higher postsepsis (P < 0.001). Compared with nonsepsis hospitalizations (15.6% readmitted within 30 d), the increased readmission risk was present regardless of sepsis severity (27.3% after sepsis and 26.0–26.2% after severe sepsis). After controlling for presepsis characteristics, the readmission risk was found to be 1.51 times greater (95% CI, 1.38–1.66) than nonsepsis hospitalizations. Readmissions after sepsis were more likely to result in death or transition to hospice care (6.1% vs. 13.3% after sepsis; P < 0.001). Independent risk factors associated with 30-day readmissions after sepsis hospitalizations included age, malignancy diagnosis, hospitalizations in the year prior to the index hospitalization, nonelective index admission type, one or more procedures during the index hospitalization, and low hemoglobin and high red cell distribution width at discharge. Conclusions: Post–acute care use and hospital readmissions were common after sepsis. The increased readmission risk after sepsis was observed regardless of sepsis severity and was associated with

  13. Most primary care physicians are aware of prescription drug monitoring programs, but many find the data difficult to access.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Turner, Lydia; Lucas, Eleanor; Hwang, Catherine; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-03-01

    State prescription drug monitoring programs are common tools intended to reduce prescription drug abuse and diversion, or the nonmedical use of a prescribed drug. The success of these programs depends largely upon physicians' awareness and use of them. We conducted a nationally representative mail survey of 1,000 practicing primary care physicians in 2014 to characterize their attitudes toward and awareness and use of prescription drug monitoring programs. A total of 420 eligible physicians (adjusted response rate: 58 percent) returned completed surveys. Among all physicians surveyed, 72 percent were aware of their state's prescription drug monitoring program, and 53 percent reported using one of the programs. We identified several barriers that may prevent greater use of the programs, including the time-consuming nature of information retrieval and the lack of an intuitive format for data provided by the programs. These results suggest that the majority of US primary care physicians are aware of and use prescription drug monitoring programs at least on occasion, although many did not access these programs routinely. To increase the use of the programs in clinical practice, states should consider implementing legal mandates, investing in prescriber education and outreach, and taking measures to enhance ease of access to and use of the programs. PMID:25732500

  14. [Quality of coding in acute inpatient care].

    PubMed

    Stausberg, J

    2007-08-01

    Routine data in the electronic patient record are frequently used for secondary purposes. Core elements of the electronic patient record are diagnoses and procedures, coded with the mandatory classifications. Despite the important role of routine data for reimbursement, quality management and health care statistics, there is currently no systematic analysis of coding quality in Germany. Respective concepts and investigations share the difficulty to decide what's right and what's wrong, being at the end of the long process of medical decision making. Therefore, a relevant amount of disagreement has to be accepted. In case of the principal diagnosis, this could be the fact in half of the patients. Plausibility of coding looks much better. After optimization time in hospitals, regular and complete coding can be expected. Whether coding matches reality, as a prerequisite for further use of the data in medicine and health politics, should be investigated in controlled trials in the future. PMID:17676418

  15. Improving Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; McWilliams, James; Horton, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Context Excessive alcohol consumption is the nation’s third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Objective: Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. Design: In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Results: Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%–12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%–44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%–15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Conclusion: Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes. PMID:24867561

  16. “I just keep my antennae out” - How Rural Primary Care Physicians Respond to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    PubMed Central

    McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S.; Weisman, Carol S.; Perry, Amanda N.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Chuang, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women in rural communities who are exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) have fewer resources when seeking help due to limited health services, poverty and social isolation. Rural primary care physicians may be key sources of care for IPV victims. OBJECTIVES To assess the opinions and practices of primary care physicians caring for rural women with regard to IPV identification, the scope and severity of IPV as a health problem, how PCPs respond to IPV in their practices, and barriers to optimized IPV care in their communities. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 internists, family practitioners, and obstetrician-gynecologists in rural central Pennsylvania. Interview transcripts were analyzed for major themes. RESULTS Most physicians did not practice routine screening for IPV due to competing time demands, lack of training, limited access to referral services as well as low confidence in their effectiveness, and concern that inquiry would harm the patient-doctor relationship. IPV was considered when patients presented with symptoms of mood, anxiety or somatic disorders. Responses to IPV included validation, danger assessment, safety planning, referral, and follow-up planning. Perceived barriers to rural women seeking help for IPV included traditional gender roles, lower education, economic dependence on the partner, low self-esteem, and patient reluctance to discuss IPV. To overcome barriers, physicians created a “safe sanctuary” to discuss IPV and suggested improved public health education and referral services. CONCLUSIONS Interventions to improve IPV-related care in rural communities should address barriers at multiple levels, including both physicians’ and patients’ comfort with discussing IPV. Provider training, community education, and improved access to referral services are key areas in which IPV-related care should be improved in rural communities. Our data support routine screening to better identify IPV and a

  17. Hiring appropriate providers for different populations: acute care nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Haut, Cathy; Madden, Maureen

    2015-06-01

    Acute care nurse practitioners, prepared as providers for a variety of populations of patients, continue to make substantial contributions to health care. Evidence indicates shorter stays, higher satisfaction among patients, increased work efficiency, and higher quality outcomes when acute care nurse practitioners are part of unit- or service-based provider teams. The Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification, and Education outlines detailed guidelines for matching nurse practitioners' education with certification and practice by using a population-focused algorithm. Despite national support for the model, nurse practitioners and employers continue to struggle with finding the right fit. Nurse practitioners often use their interest and previous nursing experience to apply for an available position, and hospitals may not understand preparation or regulations related to matching the appropriate provider to the work environment. Evidence and regulatory guidelines indicate appropriate providers for population-focused positions. This article presents history and recommendations for hiring acute care nurse practitioners as providers for different populations of patients. PMID:26033108

  18. The adoption of the Reference Framework for diabetes care among primary care physicians in primary care settings: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Martin C S; Wang, Harry H X; Kwan, Mandy W M; Chan, Wai Man; Fan, Carmen K M; Liang, Miaoyin; Li, Shannon Ts; Fung, Franklin D H; Yeung, Ming Sze; Chan, David K L; Griffiths, Sian M

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been increasing both globally and locally. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are in a privileged position to provide first contact and continuing care for diabetic patients. A territory-wide Reference Framework for Diabetes Care for Adults has been released by the Hong Kong Primary Care Office in 2010, with the aim to further enhance evidence-based and high quality care for diabetes in the primary care setting through wide adoption of the Reference Framework.A valid questionnaire survey was conducted among PCPs to evaluate the levels of, and the factors associated with, their adoption of the Reference Framework.A total of 414 completed surveys were received with the response rate of 13.0%. The average adoption score was 3.29 (SD 0.51) out of 4. Approximately 70% of PCPs highly adopted the Reference Framework in their routine practice. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the PCPs perceptions on the inclusion of sufficient local information (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.748, 95%CI 1.597-14.115, P = 0.005) and reduction of professional autonomy of PCPs (aOR = 1.859, 95%CI 1.013-3.411, P = 0.045) were more likely to influence their adoption level of the Reference Framework for diabetes care in daily practices.The overall level of guideline adoption was found to be relatively high among PCPs for adult diabetes in primary care settings. The adoption barriers identified in this study should be addressed in the continuous updating of the Reference Framework. Strategies need to be considered to enhance the guideline adoption and implementation capacity. PMID:27495018

  19. Directly Observed Patient–Physician Discussions in Palliative and End-of-Life Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Reid, M. Carrington; Shengelia, Rouzi; Adelman, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To review studies that used direct observation (i.e., videotaping or audiotaping) methods in palliative/end-of-life care communication research. Design Descriptive thematic analysis. Setting : Multinational studies were conducted in both the outpatient and inpatient setting. Measurements Extensive bibliographic searches (January 1, 1998 to July 31, 2009) of English-language literature involving physician–patient (or physician–family) interactions were conducted and augmented by reviews of reference listings. Three investigators independently abstracted key information from each article. Results Of the 20 retained articles, most enrolled young-old participants (mean age, 60 years) who were white and had a cancer diagnosis. Patient/family participation rates ranged from 68% to 89% demonstrating feasibility of this approach when studying palliative/end-of-life care communication issues. Four common themes were identified: (1) physicians focus on medical/technical and avoid emotional/quality of life issues; (2) sensitive topics are perceived by physicians to take longer to discuss and often do take longer to discuss; (3) physicians dominate discussions; and (4) patient/family satisfaction is associated with supportive physician behaviors. Conclusions This study demonstrates that direct observation methods can be feasibly used when studying physician–patient/physician–family communication in palliative/end-of-life care, but few investigations have utilized this approach. This article highlights areas that need improvement, including physicians' ability to address patient/family emotional issues and provide what patients and families find most satisfying (participation and support). A particular focus on older patients and patients with end-stage or late-stage chronic (noncancer) illness, the adaptation/application of existing communication measurement tools to capture palliative care communication issues, and development of corresponding

  20. Experiences of the advanced nurse practitioner role in acute care.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Alison; Cooper, Joanne; Goldberg, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the service evaluation presented in this article was to explore the multidisciplinary team's (MDT) experiences and perception of the advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) role on an acute health care of the older person ward. A qualitative case study was carried out comprising semi-structured interviews with members of the MDT, exploring their experiences of the ANP role. An overarching theme of 'Is it a nurse? Is it a doctor? No, it's an ANP' emerged from the data, with three subthemes: the missing link; facilitating and leading holistic care; and safe, high quality care. The ANP role is valued by the MDT working with them and provides a unique skill set that has the potential to enhance care of older patients living with frailty. While there are challenges to its introduction, it is a role worth introducing to older people's wards. PMID:27125941

  1. Improving nutrition in older people in acute care.

    PubMed

    Best, Carolyn; Hitchings, Helen

    2015-07-22

    Older people have an increased risk of becoming malnourished when they are ill. Admission to hospital may affect their nutritional intake and nutritional status. Nutrition screening and implementation of nutrition care plans can help minimise the risk of malnutrition in acute care settings, if used effectively. The nutritional care provided to older inpatients should be timely, co-ordinated, reviewed regularly and communicated effectively between healthcare professionals and across shifts. This article explores what malnutrition means, why older people in hospital might be at risk of malnutrition and the effect hospital admission might have on nutrition and fluid intake. It makes suggestions for addressing these issues, encourages nurses to look at the nutritional care provided in their clinical area, to reflect on what they do well and consider what can be done to improve patients' experiences. PMID:26198529

  2. Pain management in the acute care setting: Update and debates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta M

    2016-02-01

    Pain management in the paediatric acute care setting is underutilised and can be improved. An awareness of the analgesic options available and their limitations is an important starting point. This article describes the evolving understanding of relevant pharmacogenomics and safety data of the various analgesic agents with a focus on agents available in Australia and New Zealand. It highlights the concerns with the use of codeine in children and discusses alternative oral opioids. Key features of oral, parenteral, inhaled and intranasal analgesic agents are discussed, as well as evidence supported use of sweet tasting solutions and non-pharmacological interventions. One of the biggest changes in acute care pain management has been the advent of intranasal fentanyl providing reliable potent analgesia without the need for intravenous access. The article will also address the issue of multimodal analgesia where a single agent is insufficient. PMID:27062626

  3. Unnecessary Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: Association With Care Setting and Patient Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Barlam, Tamar F.; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Cabral, Howard J.; Kazis, Lewis E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Up to 40% of antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). We sought to define factors associated with antibiotic overprescribing of ARTIs to inform efforts to improve practice. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of ARTI visits between 2006 and 2010 from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Those surveys provide a representative sample of US visits to community-based physicians and to hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) and outpatient practices. Patient factors (age, sex, race, underlying lung disease, tobacco use, insurance), physician specialty, practice demographics (percentage poverty, median household income, percentage with a Bachelor's Degree, urban-rural status, geographic region), and care setting (ED, hospital, or community-based practice) were evaluated as predictors of antibiotic overprescribing for ARTIs. Results. Hospital and community-practice visits had more antibiotic overprescribing than ED visits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64 and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–2.12 and OR = 1.59 and 95% CI, 1.26–2.01, respectively). Care setting had significant interactions with geographic region and urban and rural location. The quartile with the lowest percentage of college-educated residents had significantly greater overprescribing (adjusted OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86) than the highest quartile. Current tobacco users were overprescribed more often than nonsmokers (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38–2.12). Patient age, insurance, and provider specialty were other significant predictors. Conclusions. Tobacco use and a lower grouped rate of college education were associated with overprescribing and may reflect poor health literacy. A focus on educating the patient may be an effective approach to stewardship. PMID:27006968

  4. Management of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Intensive Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Andrew J; Altemeier, William A; Johnston, Christine; Gernsheimer, Terry; Becker, Pamela S

    2015-10-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are newly diagnosed or relapsed and those who are receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy are predisposed to conditions such as sepsis due to bacterial and fungal infections, coagulopathies, hemorrhage, metabolic abnormalities, and respiratory and renal failure. These conditions are common reasons for patients with AML to be managed in the intensive care unit (ICU). For patients with AML in the ICU, providers need to be aware of common problems and how to manage them. Understanding the pathophysiology of complications and the recent advances in risk stratification as well as newer therapy for AML are relevant to the critical care provider. PMID:24756309

  5. Analyzing staffing trade-offs on acute care hospital units.

    PubMed

    Berkow, Steven; Vonderhaar, Kate; Stewart, Jennifer; Virkstis, Katherine; Terry, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Given today's resource-limited environment, nurse leaders must make judicious staffing decisions to deliver safe, cost-effective care. Investing in 1 element of staffing often requires scaling back in another. A national cross section of acute care hospital unit leaders was surveyed regarding staffing resources, including nurse workload, education, specialty certification, experience, and level of support staff. The authors report findings from the survey and discuss the trade-offs observed among units regarding nurse-to-patient ratios and the proportion of baccalaureate-prepared nurses. PMID:25208268

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a survey of WV primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Stevens, I W; Lawrence, Z; Elitsur, Y

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated in the development of peptic ulcer disease in children. Although clinical protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of this infection in children are available, the implementation of those guidelines by primary physicians are insufficient. In this study, we surveyed the clinical practices of 409 primary physicians who practice in West Virginia and treat children with H. pylori infection. Results showed in contradiction with the recommendation, primary physicians are still using serology as the preferred diagnostic method for this disease. Most of the physicians treat this disease with a combination of two antibiotics and anti-acid medication (H2 blockers or PPI) for at least one week. We conclude that an increase in knowledge of those guidelines among primary physicians may improve physicians' compliance with H. pylori guidelines. PMID:11761653

  7. Using Simulation Technology to Teach Diabetes Care Management Skills to Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Sperl-Hillen, John; O’Connor, Patrick; Ekstrom, Heidi; Rush, William; Asche, Stephen; Fernandes, Omar; Appana, Deepika; Amundson, Gerald; Johnson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation is widely used to teach medical procedures. Our goal was to develop and implement an innovative virtual model to teach resident physicians the cognitive skills of type 1 and type 2 diabetes management. Methods A diabetes educational activity was developed consisting of (a) a curriculum using 18 explicit virtual cases, (b) a web-based interactive interface, (c) a simulation model to calculate physiologic outcomes of resident actions, and (d) a library of programmed feedback to critique and guide resident actions between virtual encounters. Primary care residents in 10 U.S. residency programs received the educational activity. Satisfaction and changes in knowledge and confidence in managing diabetes were analyzed with mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Pre- and post-education surveys were completed by 92/142 (65%) of residents. Likert scale (five-point) responses were favorably higher than neutral for general satisfaction (94%), recommending to colleagues (91%), training adequacy (91%), and navigation ease (92%). Finding time to complete cases was difficult for 50% of residents. Mean ratings of knowledge (on a five-point scale) posteducational activity improved by +0.5 (p < .01) for use of all available drug classes, +0.9 (p < .01) for how to start and adjust insulin, +0.8 (p < .01) for interpreting blood glucose values, +0.8 (p < .01) for individualizing treatment goals, and +0.7 (p < .01) for confidence in managing diabetes patients. Conclusions A virtual diabetes educational activity to teach cognitive skills to manage diabetes to primary care residents was successfully developed, implemented, and well liked. It significantly improved self-assessed knowledge and confidence in diabetes management. PMID:24124951

  8. Attitudes and knowledge of primary care physicians regarding prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kelly; Chang, Myron; Sun, Yilun; Miyake, Makito; Rosser, Charles J

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several prospective randomized prostate cancer screening studies have been reported. We report the results of a questionnaire administered to primary care physicians (PCPs) to determine their attitudes on prostate cancer screening and compared these results to those obtained when the same questionnaire was administered to a different large cohort of PCPs in 2006 prior to the reporting of these randomized studies. A 24-item questionnaire designed to assess prostate cancer knowledge and screening attitudes was administered to PCPs within central Florida and those PCPs attending a state conference. Completed surveys were returned and analyzed. All reported p values were two-sided, and those p values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Seven hundred and eighty PCPs received the study questionnaire, and 168 (22 %) PCPs returned the completed questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of responders stated that they recommend prostate cancer screening to >75 % of their patients over the age of 50 years, up from 47 % in 2006 (p < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of responders felt screening was effective. The overall mean score of the knowledge survey was 66 %, which was similar to the cohort from 2006. Knowledge scores were not associated with screening attitudes and behaviors. On multivariate analysis, practice setting and percentage of Medicaid patients in the practice were associated with attitude scores. Our current findings imply that despite the recent landmark studies published on prostate cancer screening, PCPs' screening attitudes have changed minimally over the past 5 years. PMID:23963724

  9. Globalization and health care: global justice and the role of physicians.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Rabee

    2014-02-01

    In today's globalized world, nations cannot be totally isolated from or indifferent to their neighbors, especially in regards to medicine and health. While globalization has brought prosperity to millions, disparities among nations and nationals are growing raising once again the question of justice. Similarly, while medicine has developed dramatically over the past few decades, health disparities at the global level are staggering. Seemingly, what our humanity could achieve in matters of scientific development is not justly distributed to benefit everyone. In this paper, it will be argued that a global theoretical agreement on principles of justice may prove unattainable; however, a grass-roots change is warranted to change the current situation. The UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights will be considered as a starting point to achieve this change through extracting the main values embedded in its principles. These values, namely, respecting human dignity and tending to human vulnerability with a hospitable attitude, should then be revived in medical practice. Medical education will be one possible venue to achieve that, especially through role models. Future physicians will then become the fervent advocates for a global and just distribution of health care. PMID:23749250

  10. Predicting the Adoption of Electronic Health Records by Physicians: When Will Health Care be Paperless?

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Eric W.; Menachemi, Nir; Phillips, M. Thad

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was threefold. First, we gathered and synthesized the historic literature regarding electronic health record (EHR) adoption rates among physicians in small practices (ten or fewer members). Next, we constructed models to project estimated future EHR adoption trends and timelines. We then determined the likelihood of achieving universal EHR adoption in the near future and articulate how barriers can be overcome in the small and solo practice medical environment. Design: This study used EHR adoption data from six previous surveys of small practices to estimate historic market penetration rates. Applying technology diffusion theory, three future adoption scenarios, optimistic, best estimate, and conservative, are empirically derived. Measurement: EHR adoption parameters, external and internal coefficients of influence, are estimated using Bass diffusion models. Results: All three EHR scenarios display the characteristic diffusion S curve that is indicative that the technology is likely to achieve significant market penetration, given enough time. Under current conditions, EHR adoption will reach its maximum market share in 2024 in the small practice setting. Conclusion: The promise of improved care quality and cost control has prompted a call for universal EHR adoption by 2014. The EHR products now available are unlikely to achieve full diffusion in a critical market segment within the time frame being targeted by policy makers. PMID:16221936

  11. Intensive care unit referring physician usage of PACS workstation functions based on disease categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.; Shile, Peter E.; Carey, Bruce; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Feingold, Eric R.

    1994-05-01

    As part of a study of the use of a PACS workstation compared to film in a Medical Intensive Care Unit, logs of workstation activity were maintained. The software for the workstation kept track of the type of user (i.e., intern, resident, fellow, or attending physician) and also of the workstation image manipulation functions used. The functions logged were: no operation, brightness/contrast adjustment, invert video, zoom, and high resolution display (this last function resulted in the display of the full 2 K X 2 K image rather than the usual subsampled 1 K X 1 K image. Associated data collection allows us to obtain the diagnostic category of the examination being viewed (e.g., location of tubes and lines, rule out: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion). The diagnostic categories and user type were then correlated with the use of workstation functions during viewing of images. In general, there was an inverse relationship between the level of training and the number of workstation uses. About two-thirds of the time, there was no image manipulation operation performed. Adjustment of brightness/contrast had the highest percentage of use overall, followed by zoom, video invert, and high resolution display.

  12. Redesigning nurse staffing plans for acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Niday, Patricia; Inman, Yolanda Otero; Smithgall, Lisa; Hilton, Shane; Grindstaff, Sharon; McInturff, Debbie

    2012-06-01

    Johnson City Medical Center's approach to maximizing staffing in nursing units, particularly in acute care settings, had four primary goals: Identify opportunities to maximize the effectiveness of nurse staffing based on a review of core staffing schedules. Reduce cost duplication and improve workflow. Decrease the use of contract labor (with the goal of eliminating the use of contract labor). Develop financial dashboards for staffing that could be used by nursing managers. PMID:22734326

  13. Utilization of Morning Report by Acute Care Surgery Teams: Results from a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Patricia L.; Collins, Courtney; Santry, Heena P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rigor of hand-offs is increasingly scrutinized in the era of shift-based patient care. Acute Care Surgery (ACS) embraced such a model of care; however, little is known about hand-offs in ACS programs. Methods We conducted 18 open-ended interviews with ACS leaders representing diverse geographic and practice settings. Two independent reviewers analyzed interviews using an inductive approach to elucidate themes regarding use of morning report (NVivo qualitative analysis software). Results 12/18 respondents reported a morning report but only 6/12 included attending-to-attending hand-offs. 1/12 incentivized attendings to participate, 2/12 included nursing staff, and 2/12 included physician extenders. Cited benefits of morning report were safe and effective information exchange (2/12), quality improvement (2/12), multidisciplinary discussion (1/12), and resident education (2/12). 3/12 respondents cited time commitment as the main limitation of morning report. Conclusions Morning report is under-utilized among ACS programs; however, if implemented strategically, it may improve patient care and resident education. PMID:24157348

  14. Outpatient care of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: Benefits, barriers, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Buckley, Sarah A; Walter, Roland B

    2016-06-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who receive intensive induction or re-induction chemotherapy with curative intent typically experience prolonged cytopenias upon completion of treatment. Due to concerns regarding infection and bleeding risk as well as significant transfusion and supportive care requirements, patients have historically remained in the hospital until blood count recovery-a period of approximately 30 days. The rising cost of AML care has prompted physicians to reconsider this practice, and a number of small studies have suggested the safety and feasibility of providing outpatient supportive care to patients following intensive AML (re-) induction therapy. Potential benefits include a significant reduction of healthcare costs, improvement in quality of life, and decreased risk of hospital-acquired infections. In this article, we will review the currently available literature regarding this practice and discuss questions to be addressed in future studies. In addition, we will consider some of the barriers that must be overcome by institutions interested in implementing an "early discharge" policy. While outpatient management of selected AML patients appears safe, careful planning is required in order to provide the necessary support, education and rapid management of serious complications that occur among this very vulnerable patient population. PMID:27101148

  15. Process and Outcome Measures among COPD Patients with a Hospitalization Cared for by an Advance Practice Provider or Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amitesh; Zhang, Wei; Kuo, YongFang; Sharma, Gulshan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the process and outcomes of care of COPD patients by Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) and primary care physicians. Methods We conducted a cross sectional retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with COPD who had at least one hospitalization in 2010. We examined the process measures of receipt of spirometry evaluation, influenza and pneumococcal vaccine, use of COPD medications, and referral to a pulmonary specialist visit. Outcome measures were emergency department (ER) visit, number of hospitalizations and 30-day readmission in 2010. Results A total of 7,257 Medicare beneficiaries with COPD were included. Of these, 1,999 and 5,258 received primary care from APPs and primary care physicians, respectively. Patients in the APP group were more likely to be white, younger, male, residing in non-metropolitan areas and have fewer comorbidities. In terms of process of care measures, APPs were more likely to prescribe short acting bronchodilators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.18, 95%Confidence Interval [CI] 1.05–1.32), oxygen therapy (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.12–1.40) and consult a pulmonary specialist (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.23–1.56), but less likely to give influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Patients receiving care from APPs had lower rates of ER visits for COPD (aOR = 0.84, 95%CI 0.71–0.98) and had a higher follow-up rate with pulmonary specialist within 30 days of hospitalization for COPD (aOR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.07–1.48) than those cared for by physicians. Conclusions Compared to patients cared for by physicians, patients cared for by APPs were more likely to receive short acting bronchodilator, oxygen therapy and been referred to pulmonologist, however they had lower rates of vaccination probably due to lower age group. Patients cared for by APPs were less like to visit an ER for COPD compared to patients care for by physicians, conversely there was no differences in hospitalization or readmission for COPD between MDs and

  16. Acute Myocardial Infarction Quality of Care: The Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Best, Lyle G.; Butt, Amir; Conroy, Britt; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Jolly, Stacey; Lee, Elisa T.; Silverman, Angela; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Welty, Thomas K.; Kedan, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the quality of care provided patients with acute myocardial infarction and compare with similar national and regional data. Design Case series. Setting The Strong Heart Study has extensive population-based data related to cardiovascular events among American Indians living in three rural regions of the United States. Participants Acute myocardial infarction cases (72) occurring between 1/1/2001 and 12/31/2006 were identified from a cohort of 4549 participants. Outcome measures The proportion of cases that were provided standard quality of care therapy, as defined by the Healthcare Financing Administration and other national organizations. Results The provision of quality services, such as administration of aspirin on admission and at discharge, reperfusion therapy within 24 hours, prescription of beta blocker medication at discharge, and smoking cessation counseling were found to be 94%, 91%, 92%, 86% and 71%, respectively. The unadjusted, 30 day mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion Despite considerable challenges posed by geographic isolation and small facilities, process measures of the quality of acute myocardial infarction care for participants in this American Indian cohort were comparable to that reported for Medicare beneficiaries nationally and within the resident states of this cohort. PMID:21942161

  17. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  18. The Impact of an Evidence-Based Medicine Educational Intervention on Primary Care Physicians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shachak, Aviv; Linn, Shai; Brezis, Mayer; Feder-Bubis, Paula; Reis, Shmuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Attitudes and barriers to implementing EBM have been examined extensively, but scant evidence exists regarding the impact of EBM teaching on primary care physicians’ point of care behavior. Objective Gaining insight into behavioral and attitudinal changes of facilitators and participants during a multifaceted EBM educational intervention. Design, setting, and participants A qualitative study on primary care physicians and facilitators from a large HMO selected from the intervention arm of a parallel controlled trial using purposeful sampling. We conducted focus groups with 13 facilitators and 17 physicians and semi-structured interviews with 10 facilitators and 11 physicians. Results Both facilitators and participants believed EBM enhanced the quality of their practice. The intervention affected attitudes and knowledge, but had little impact on physicians’ ability to utilize pre-appraised resources at the point of care. Using EBM resources during consultation was perceived to be a complex task and impractical in a busy setting. Conversely, a positive impact on using medication databases was noted. Medication databases were perceived as easy to use during consultations in which the benefits outweighed the barriers. The intervention prompted physicians to write down clinical questions more frequently and to search for answers at home. Conclusions This study underlines the need not only to enhance EBM skills, but also to improve the ease of use of EBM resources at the point of care. Tasks should be simplified by tailoring evidence-based information retrieval systems to the busy clinical schedule. Participants’ recommendations to establish an HMO decision support service should be considered. PMID:17356963

  19. The role of physicians and medical organizations in the development, analysis, and implementation of health care policy.

    PubMed

    Beyer, David C; Mohideen, Najeeb

    2008-07-01

    Health policy is developed in the United States through a complicated interplay of governmental and private agencies and businesses, physician organizations, and societies as well as a host of other private ventures. The end result is rarely precisely what any individual or group may desire as the consequences of any action are never entirely predictable. There are many pathways to influence policy development within this system, and many of these are influenced by physicians as individuals and through organized medical societies. Opportunities abound to constructively engage the system, and it is important that physicians operating within this system understand where and how they may influence policy development. Changes are made or considered on a daily basis that impact patient's access to care, implementation and access to technological and biological innovation, reporting requirements, insurance, physician's reimbursement, and so on. This article reviews the most important channels by which physician input is incorporated in the system. The role of specialty societies, general medical societies, Congress, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services are reviewed. The role of other players will also be addressed to show the many routes by which policy may evolve. Much of the discussion revolves around reimbursement because reimbursement often determines the availability and use of procedures and technology for our patients. PMID:18513628

  20. Not If, But When: Impact of a Driving and Dementia Awareness and Education Campaign for Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Paige; Hamilton, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Canadian physicians are responsible for assessing medical fitness to drive; however, national data indicate that physicians lack confidence in performing such assessments and face numerous barriers to addressing driving in patients with dementia. We report on the impact of a provincial Web-based resource (www.notifbutwhen.ca) regarding driving cessation in dementia aimed towards primary care physicians (PCPs). Methods A pre/post cross-sectional survey (n = 134 baseline and n = 113 follow-up) of English-speaking, Nova Scotian PCPs. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Pearson correlation, and multivariable logistic regression (controlling for sex, years of practice, and practice type) are reported. Results Most PCPs consider discussions regarding driving cessation to be routine part of dementia care; however, report multiple barriers to such discussions. Although the Web-based resource and awareness campaign were not associated with improvement in physician comfort in assessing driving risk in dementia, after completion of the campaign, fewer PCPs reported avoiding the topic of driving. Additionally, family resistance and lack of resources were less often reported as barriers. Conclusions Despite a lack of confidence, Nova Scotian PCPs routinely discuss driving cessation, and perform driving assessments for individuals with dementia. The Web-based resource and awareness campaign have shown moderate effectiveness in addressing specific barriers to assessment (e.g., caregiver resistance, lack of resources). Future efforts will address additional barriers, such as lack of comfort in decision-making. PMID:24883165

  1. 42 CFR 476.102 - Involvement of health care practitioners other than physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than a physician is made by a physician only after consultation with a peer of that practitioner... QIO has been unable to obtain a roster of peer practitioners available to perform review; or (2) The... as described in § 466.98(d). (c) Peer involvement in quality review studies. Practitioners must...

  2. 42 CFR 476.102 - Involvement of health care practitioners other than physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than a physician is made by a physician only after consultation with a peer of that practitioner... QIO has been unable to obtain a roster of peer practitioners available to perform review; or (2) The... as described in § 466.98(d). (c) Peer involvement in quality review studies. Practitioners must...

  3. DOD Health Care. Additional Efforts Needed To Verify Physicians' Qualifications. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) efforts to assure that its physicians are qualified to perform their assigned duties are discussed. Five sections include: introduction; additional actions needed to help assure that military physicians have proper qualifications; hospital credentialing and privileging systems needed to comply with DOD…

  4. Projected Image and Observed Behavior of Physicians in Terminal Cancer Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family, Gilla

    1993-01-01

    Reports on abandoned study examining potential benefits of psychotherapy to terminal cancer patients. Preliminary feasibility study found physicians' attitudes toward their dying patients as reformed and progressive. Interest shown by physicians did not translate into tangible research effort in spite of active pursuit by investigator over period…

  5. Identification of high-risk patients with acute coronary syndrome using point-of-care echocardiography in the ED.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Oron; Riguzzi, Christine; Nagdev, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Stratifying risk of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED) remains a frequent challenge. When ST-elevation criteria are absent, current recommendations rely upon insensitive and time-intensive methods such as the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzyme testing. Here, we report on a series of cases, where emergency physicians used a simplified model for identifying regional wall motion abnormalities by point-of-care echocardiography in patients presenting with chest pain to the ED. With the use of a simplified model described herein, high-risk patients with ACS were identified rapidly in a cohort usually difficult to risk stratify. PMID:24745875

  6. Satisfaction of physician assistants and other nonphysician providers in a managed care setting.

    PubMed

    Freeborn, D K; Hooker, R S

    1995-01-01

    Health maintenance organizations have employed physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other nonphysician providers for decades, yet there is little information on how satisfied these providers are with this form of practice. This paper examines how physician assistants evaluate their experience practicing in a large group model health maintenance organization and compares their attitudes and satisfaction levels with those of other nonphysician providers-nurse practitioners, optometrists, mental health therapists, and chemical dependency counselors. The data source is a 1992 survey of 5,000 nonphysician employees of a health maintenance organization. The survey instrument was a self-administrated questionnaire that included both structured and open-ended questions. The response rate averaged 88 percent for physician assistants and the other non-physician providers. Physician assistants expressed the most satisfaction with the amount of responsibility, support from coworkers, job security, working hours, supervision, and task variety. They were less satisfied with workload, control over the pace of work, and opportunities for advancement. Most physician assistants were also satisfied with pay and fringe benefits. Compared with other nonphysician providers, chemical dependency counselors expressed the highest levels of satisfaction across the various dimensions of work and optometrists the lowest. Nurse practitioners, chemical dependency counselors, and mental health professionals also tended to be satisfied with most aspects of practice in this setting. In a number of instances, they were more satisfied than the physician assistants. The findings are consistent with other studies that found health maintenance organizations to be favorable practice settings for physician assistants. The limits of physician assistant involvement and their role satisfaction and efficient use in HMOs are more likely to relate to physician attitudes and acceptance than to lack of

  7. Respect in the care of older patients in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Koskenniemi, Jaana; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suhonen, Riitta

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of older patients and their next of kin with regards to respect in the care given in an acute hospital. The data were collected using tape-recorded interviews (10 patients and 10 next of kin) and analysed via inductive content analysis. Based on the analysis, the concept of respect can be defined by the actions taken by nurses (polite behaviour, the patience to listen, reassurance, response to information needs, assistance in basic needs, provision of pain relief, response to wishes and time management) and next of kin (support, assistance and advocacy) and by factors related to the environment (appreciation of older people in society, management of health-care organizations, the nursing culture, the flow of information and patient placement). The information will be used to develop an instrument for assessing how well respect is maintained in the care of older patients. PMID:23131699

  8. [Telemedicine in acute stroke care--a health economics view].

    PubMed

    Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M

    2010-05-01

    Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market. PMID:20077382

  9. Reframing tobacco dependency management in acute care: A case study.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Annette S H; Guzman, Randolph; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V; Thurmeier, Rick; Fedorowicz, Anna; Fulmore, Kaitlin

    2016-08-01

    Effective tobacco dependence treatment within acute care tends to be inadequate. The purpose of the Utilizing best practices to Manage Acute care patients Tobacco Dependency (UMAT) was to implement and evaluate an evidence-based intervention to support healthcare staff to effectively manage nicotine withdrawal symptoms of acute surgical patients. Data collection for this one-year longitudinal case study included: relevant patient experiences and staff reported practice, medication usage, and chart review. Over the year each data source suggested changes in tobacco dependence treatment. Key changes in patient survey responses (N=55) included a decrease in daily smoking and cigarette cravings. Of patients who used nicotine replacement therapy, they reported an increase in symptom relief. Staff (N=45) were surveyed at baseline, mid-point and end of study. Reported rates of assessing smoking status did not change over the year, but assessment of withdrawal symptoms emerged as daily practice and questions about cessation diminished. Also delivery of nicotine replacement therapy products increased over the year. Chart reviews showed a shift in content from documenting smoking behavior to withdrawal symptoms and administration of nicotine replacements; also frequency of comments increased. In summary, the evidence-based intervention influenced unit norms and reframed the culture related to tobacco dependence treatment. PMID:27392584

  10. The role of the physician: Eugene Sanger and a standard of care at the Elmira prison camp.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The conduct of American military physicians in prisoner of war (POW) camps has been called into question by the abuse scandals at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo Bay. This essay explores the experiences of the first U.S. military physicians to confront POW patients in large numbers-events that occurred during the American Civil War. While POWs received sub-standard care in camps north and south, the war also saw the issuance of the first document to outline the rights of POWs. This ambivalence toward the proper care and treatment of the POW is evident in the career of Dr. Eugene Sanger, the first Union surgeon at the prison camp in Elmira, New York. Sanger demonstrated both concern about the sanitary condition of the camp and pride in the deaths of POWs as furthering the overall war aims. His cruelty attracted some censure, but Sanger never faced disciplinary action. He was honorably discharged and went on to become the Surgeon General of his home state. This article places his actions at Elmira in the context of medical ethics, Army orders, and Northern opinion in 1864, and it will argue that the lack of Federal response to Eugene Sanger's poor record while serving at the prison set a precedent for inferior medical care of POWs by American military physicians. PMID:17681973

  11. The Evidence in Support of Physicians and Health Care Providers as Physical Activity Role Models

    PubMed Central

    Lobelo, Felipe; de Quevedo, Isabel Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity constitutes the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) should play a key role in counseling and appropriately referring their patients to adopt physical activity (PA). Previous reports suggest that active HCPs are more likely to provide better, more credible, and motivating preventive counseling to their patients. This review summarizes the available evidence on the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their related PA counseling practices. Based on relevant studies, a snowball search strategy identified, out of 196 studies screened, a total of 47 pertinent articles published between 1979 and 2012. Of those, 23 described HCPs’ PA habits and/or their counseling practices and 24 analytic studies evaluated the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their PA counseling practices. The majority of studies came from the United States (n = 33), and 9 studies included nonphysicians (nurses, pharmacists, and other HCPs). PA levels were mostly self-reported, and counseling was typically assessed as self-reported frequency or perceived self-efficacy in clinical practice. Most (19 out of 24) analytic studies reported a significant positive association between HCPs’ PA habits and counseling frequency, with odds ratios ranging between 1.4 and 5.7 (P < .05), in 6 studies allowing direct comparison. This review found consistent evidence supporting the notion that physically active physicians and other HCPs are more likely to provide PA counseling to their patients and can indeed become powerful PA role models. This evidence appears sufficient to justify randomized trials to determine if adding interventions to promote PA among HCPs, also results in improvements in the frequency and quality of PA preventive counseling and referrals, delivered by HCPs, to patients in primary care settings. Future studies should also aim at objectively quantifying the effect of HCPs’ PA role-modeling and how it

  12. Social disparities in the use of colonoscopy by primary care physicians in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is unclear if all persons in Ontario have equal access to colonoscopy. This research was designed to describe long-term trends in the use of colonoscopy by primary care physicians (PCPs) in Ontario, and to determine whether PCP characteristics influence the use of colonoscopy. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective study of PCPs in Ontario between the years 1996-2005. Using administrative data we identified a screen-eligible group of patients aged 50-74 years in Ontario. These patients were linked to the PCP who provided the most continuous care to them during each year. We determined the use of any colonoscopy among these patients. We calculated the rate of colonoscopy for each PCP as the number of patients undergoing colonoscopies per 100 screen eligible patients. Negative binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with the rate of colonoscopy, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of patients within PCPs. Results Between 7,955 and 8,419 PCPs in Ontario per year (median age 43 years) had at least 10 eligible patients in their practices. The use of colonoscopy by PCPs increased sharply in Ontario during the study period, from a median rate of 1.51 [inter quartile range (IQR) 0.57-2.62] per 100 screen eligible patients in 1996 to 4.71 (IQR 2.70-7.53) in 2005. There was substantial variation between PCPs in their use of colonoscopy. PCPs who were Canadian medical graduates and with more years of experience were more likely to use colonoscopy after adjusting for their patient characteristics. PCPs were more likely to use colonoscopy if their patient populations were predominantly women, older, had more illnesses, and if their patients resided in less marginalized neighborhoods (lower unemployment, fewer immigrants, higher income, higher education, and higher English/French fluency). Conclusions There is substantial variation in the use of colonoscopy by PCPs, and this variation has increased as

  13. The Impact of Single-Payer Health Care on Physician Income in Canada, 1850–2005

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the average net income of Canadian physicians over 150 years to determine the impact of medicare. It also compares medical income in Canada to that in the United States. Sources include academic studies, government reports, Census data, taxation statistics, and surveys. The results show that Canadian doctors enjoyed a windfall in earnings during the early years of medicare and that, after a period of adjustment, medicare enhanced physician income. Except during the windfall boom, Canadian physicians have earned less than their American counterparts. Until at least 2005, however, the medical profession was the top-earning trade in Canada relative to all other professions. PMID:21566029

  14. Validating a decision tree for serious infection: diagnostic accuracy in acutely ill children in ambulatory care

    PubMed Central

    Verbakel, Jan Y; Lemiengre, Marieke B; De Burghgraeve, Tine; De Sutter, An; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bullens, Dominique M A; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann; Buntinx, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute infection is the most common presentation of children in primary care with only few having a serious infection (eg, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia). To avoid complications or death, early recognition and adequate referral are essential. Clinical prediction rules have the potential to improve diagnostic decision-making for rare but serious conditions. In this study, we aimed to validate a recently developed decision tree in a new but similar population. Design Diagnostic accuracy study validating a clinical prediction rule. Setting and participants Acutely ill children presenting to ambulatory care in Flanders, Belgium, consisting of general practice and paediatric assessment in outpatient clinics or the emergency department. Intervention Physicians were asked to score the decision tree in every child. Primary outcome measures The outcome of interest was hospital admission for at least 24 h with a serious infection within 5 days after initial presentation. We report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree in sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. Results In total, 8962 acute illness episodes were included, of which 283 lead to admission to hospital with a serious infection. Sensitivity of the decision tree was 100% (95% CI 71.5% to 100%) at a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI 82.3% to 84.9%) in the general practitioner setting with 17% of children testing positive. In the paediatric outpatient and emergency department setting, sensitivities were below 92%, with specificities below 44.8%. Conclusions In an independent validation cohort, this clinical prediction rule has shown to be extremely sensitive to identify children at risk of hospital admission for a serious infection in general practice, making it suitable for ruling out. Trial registration number NCT02024282. PMID:26254472

  15. Improving acute care through use of medical device data.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, R J

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Information Bus (MIB) is a data communications standard for bedside patient connected medical devices. It is formally titled IEEE 1073 Standard for Medical Device Communications. MIB defines a complete seven layer communications stack for devices in acute care settings. All of the design trade-offs in writing the standard were taken to optimize performance in acute care settings. The key clinician based constraints on network performance are: (1) the network must be able to withstand multiple daily reconfigurations due to patient movement and condition changes; (2) the network must be 'plug-and-play' to allow clinicians to set up the network by simply plugging in a connector, taking no other actions; (3) the network must allow for unambiguous associations of devices with specific patients. A network of this type will be used by clinicians, thus giving complete, accurate, real time data from patient connected devices. This capability leads to many possible improvements in patient care and hospital cost reduction. The possible uses for comprehensive automatic data capture are only limited by imagination and creativity of clinicians adapting to the new hospital business paradigm. PMID:9600414

  16. The Affordable Care Act and emergency care.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Mark; Asplin, Brent; Epstein, Stephen K; Kocher, Keith Eric; Pilgrim, Randy; Pines, Jesse; Rabin, Elaine Judith; Rathlev, Niels Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) will have far-reaching effects on the way health care is designed and delivered. Several elements of the ACA will directly affect both demand for ED care and expectations for its role in providing coordinated care. Hospitals will need to employ strategies to reduce ED crowding as the ACA expands insurance coverage. Discussions between EDs and primary care physicians about their respective roles providing acute unscheduled care would promote the goals of the ACA. PMID:25121814

  17. The Influence of Language Discordance Between Patient and Physician on Time-to-Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Joshua; Williams, Olajide; Marshall, Randolph S.; Yaghi, Shadi; Willey, Joshua Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reducing door-to-imaging (DIT) time is a major focus of acute stroke quality improvement initiatives to promote rapid thrombolysis. However, recent data suggest that the imaging-to-needle (ITN) time is a greater source of treatment delay. We hypothesized that language discordance between physician and patient would contribute to prolonged ITN time, as rapidly taking a history and confirming last known well require facile communication between physician and patient. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in our emergency department between July 2011 and December 2014. Baseline characteristics and relevant time intervals were compared between encounters where the treating neurologist and patient spoke the same language (concordant cases) and where they did not (discordant cases). Results: A total of 279 patients received tPA during the study period. English was the primary language for 51%, Spanish for 46%, and other languages for 3%; 59% of cases were classified as language concordant and 41% as discordant. We found no differences in median DIT (24 vs 25, P = .5), ITN time (33 vs 30, P = .3), or door-to-needle time (DTN; 58 vs 55, P = .1) between concordant and discordant groups. Similarly, among patients with the fastest and slowest ITN times, there were no differences. Conclusion: In a high-volume stroke center with a large proportion of Spanish speakers, language discordance was not associated with changes in DIT, ITN time, or DTN time. PMID:27366293

  18. Patient health information materials in waiting rooms of family physicians: do patients care?

    PubMed Central

    Moerenhout, Tania; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Schol, Sandrina; Vansintejan, Johan; Van De Vijver, Erwin; Devroey, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient health information materials (PHIMs), such as leaflets and posters are widely used by family physicians to reinforce or illustrate information, and to remind people of information received previously. This facilitates improved health-related knowledge and self-management by patients. Objective This study assesses the use of PHIMs by patient. It also addresses their perception of the quality and the impact of PHIMs on the interaction with their physician, along with changes in health-related knowledge and self-management. Methods Questionnaire survey among patients of family practices of one town in Belgium, assessing: (1) the extent to which patients read PHIMs in waiting rooms (leaflets and posters) and take them home, (2) the patients’ perception of the impact of PHIMs on interaction with their physician, their change in health-related knowledge and self-management, and (3) the patients judgment of the quality of PHIMs. Results We included 903 questionnaires taken from ten practices. Ninety-four percent of respondents stated they read PHIMs (leaflets), 45% took the leaflets home, and 78% indicated they understood the content of the leaflets. Nineteen percent of respondents reportedly discussed the content of the leaflets with their physician and 26% indicated that leaflets allowed them to ask fewer questions of their physician. Thirty-four percent indicated that leaflets had previously helped them to improve their health-related knowledge and self-management. Forty-two percent reportedly discussed the content of the leaflets with others. Patient characteristics are of significant influence on the perceived impact of PHIMS in physician interaction, health-related knowledge, and self-management. Conclusion This study suggests that patients value health information materials in the waiting rooms of family physicians and that they perceive such materials as being helpful in improving patient–physician interaction, health-related knowledge, and

  19. Preferences of diabetes patients and physicians: A feasibility study to identify the key indicators for appraisal of health care values

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG), support the inclusion of patients' preferences in health care decisions. In fact there are not many trials which include an assessment of patient's preferences. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that preferences of physicians and of patients can be assessed and that this information may be helpful for medical decision making. Method One of the established methods for assessment of preferences is the conjoint analysis. Conjoint analysis, in combination with a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), was used to collect data from 827 diabetes patients and 60 physicians, which describe the preferences expressed as levels of four factors in the management and outcome of the disease. The first factor described the main treatment effect (reduction of elevated HbA1c, improved well-being, absence of side effects, and no limitations of daily life). The second factor described the effect on the body weight (gain, no change, reduction). The third factor analyzed the mode of application (linked to meals or flexible application). The fourth factor addressed the type of product (original brand or generic product). Utility values were scaled and normalized in a way that the sum of utility points across all levels is equal to the number of attributes (factors) times 100. Results The preference weights confirm that the reduction of body weight is at least as important for patients - especially obese patients - and physicians as the reduction of an elevated HbA1c. Original products were preferred by patients while general practitioners preferred generic products. Conclusion Using the example of diabetes, the difference between patients' and physicians' preferences can be assessed. The use of a conjoint analysis in combination with CATI seems to be an effective approach for generation of data which are needed for policy and medical

  20. Prolonging life and delaying death: The role of physicians in the context of limited intensive care resources

    PubMed Central

    McDermid, Robert C; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2009-01-01

    Critical care is in an emerging crisis of conflict between what individuals expect and the economic burden society and government are prepared to provide. The goal of critical care support is to prevent suffering and premature death by intensive therapy of reversible illnesses within a reasonable timeframe. Recently, it has become apparent that early support in an intensive care environment can improve patient outcomes. However, life support technology has advanced, allowing physicians to prolong life (and postpone death) in circumstances that were not possible in the recent past. This has been recognized by not only the medical community, but also by society at large. One corollary may be that expectations for recovery from critical illness have also become extremely high. In addition, greater numbers of patients are dying in intensive care units after having receiving prolonged durations of life-sustaining therapy. Herein lies the emerging crisis – critical care therapy must be available in a timely fashion for those who require it urgently, yet its provision is largely dependent on a finite availability of both capital and human resources. Physicians are often placed in a troubling conflict of interest by pressures to use health resources prudently while also promoting the equitable and timely access to critical care therapy. In this commentary, these issues are broadly discussed from the perspective of the individual clinician as well as that of society as a whole. The intent is to generate dialogue on the dynamic between individual clinicians navigating the complexities of how and when to use critical care support in the context of end-of-life issues, the increasing demands placed on finite critical care capacity, and the reasonable expectations of society. PMID:19216749

  1. Physicians' psychosocial barriers to different modes of withdrawal of life support in critical care: A qualitative study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aita, Kaoruko; Kai, Ichiro

    2010-02-01

    Despite a number of guidelines issued in Anglo-American countries over the past few decades for forgoing treatment stating that there is no ethically relevant difference between withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments (LST), it is recognized that many healthcare professionals in Japan as well as some of their western counterparts do not agree with this statement. This research was conducted to investigate the barriers that prevent physicians from withdrawing specific LST in critical care settings, focusing mainly on the modes of withdrawal of LST, in what the authors believe was the first study of its kind anywhere in the world. In 2006-2007, in-depth, face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 35 physicians working at emergency and critical care facilities across Japan. We elicited their experiences, attitudes, and perceptions regarding withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and other LST. The process of data analysis followed the grounded theory approach. We found that the psychosocial resistance of physicians to withdrawal of artificial devices varied according to the modes of withdrawal, showing a strong resistance to withdrawal of mechanical ventilation that requires physicians to halt the treatment when continuation of its mechanical operation is possible. However, there was little resistance to the withdrawal of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and artificial liver support when their continuation was mechanically or physiologically impossible. The physicians shared a desire for a "soft landing" of the patient, that is, a slow and gradual death without drastic and immediate changes, which serves the psychosocial needs of the people surrounding the patient. For that purpose, vasopressors were often withheld and withdrawn. The findings suggest what the Japanese physicians avoid is not what they call a life-shortening act but an act that would not lead to a soft landing, or a slow death that looks 'natural' in the eyes of those

  2. Rural Implications of Medicare's Post-Acute-Care Transfer Payment Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenman, Julie A.; Mueller, Curt D.

    2005-01-01

    Under the Medicare post-acute-care (PAC) transfer policy, acute-care hospitals are reimbursed under a per-diem formula whenever beneficiaries are discharged from selected diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to a skilled nursing facility, home health care, or a prospective payment system (PPS)-excluded facility. Total per-diem payments are below the…

  3. Inflows of foreign-born physicians and their access to employment and work experiences in health care in Finland: qualitative and quantitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many developed countries, including Finland, health care authorities customarily consider the international mobility of physicians as a means for addressing the shortage of general practitioners (GPs). This study i) examined, based on register information, the numbers of foreign-born physicians migrating to Finland and their employment sector, ii) examined, based on qualitative interviews, the foreign-born GPs’ experiences of accessing employment and work in primary care in Finland, and iii) compared experiences based on a survey of the psychosocial work environment among foreign-born physicians working in different health sectors (primary care, hospitals and private sectors). Methods Three different data sets were used: registers, theme interviews among foreign-born GPs (n = 12), and a survey for all (n = 1,292; response rate 42%) foreign-born physicians living in Finland. Methods used in the analyses were qualitative content analysis, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression analysis. Results The number of foreign-born physicians has increased dramatically in Finland since the year 2000. In 2000, a total of 980 foreign-born physicians held a Finnish licence and lived in Finland, accounting for less than 4% of the total number of practising physicians. In 2009, their proportion of all physicians was 8%, and a total of 1,750 foreign-born practising physicians held a Finnish licence and lived in Finland. Non-EU/EEA physicians experienced the difficult licensing process as the main obstacle to accessing work as a physician. Most licensed foreign-born physicians worked in specialist care. Half of the foreign-born GPs could be classified as having an ‘active’ job profile (high job demands and high levels of job control combined) according to Karasek’s demand-control model. In qualitative interviews, work in the Finnish primary health centres was described as multifaceted and challenging, but also stressful. Conclusions Primary care may not

  4. Primary Care Physicians' Beliefs and Practices Regarding E-Cigarette Use by Patients Who Smoke: A Qualitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Brown, Richard; Elston Lafata, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We explored primary care physicians' (PCPs') beliefs and practices about e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional, semi-structured interviews with PCPs in 2014 were conducted and audio-recorded. Participants were 15 general internal and family medicine physicians practicing in two settings in Virginia, USA. Interview recordings were transcribed, and the content analyzed using the Constant Comparative Method to identify key themes regarding PCPs' reported current practices and beliefs. Five themes were identified: (1) existing clinic processes do not include mechanisms to screen for noncombustible tobacco products (such as e-cigarettes); (2) e-cigarette discussions are becoming commonplace with patients initiating the discussions and seeking physician guidance regarding e-cigarette use; (3) a lack of knowledge regarding the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes, yet a willingness to support their patients' desire to use e-cigarettes (4) believing e-cigarettes are a safer alternative to smoking combustible tobacco products; and (5) abandoning concerns regarding the potential harms of e-cigarettes in the context of highly addicted patients and those with extensive comorbidities. Despite acknowledging limited knowledge regarding e-cigarettes, findings suggest that some PCPs are currently recommending e-cigarettes to their patients for smoking cessation and relative harm reduction, often personalizing recommendations based on the patient's perceived addiction level and current health status. Physicians need to be informed about the evolving evidence regarding the risks and benefits of e-cigarettes. PMID:27128928

  5. Impact of administrative technology on acute care bed need.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J B; Dahlstrom, G A; Johnston, C M

    1985-01-01

    This article reports an evaluation of the impact of three administrative technologies--Admission Scheduling (AS) Systems, Outpatient Surgery (OPS) Programs, and Preadmission Testing (PAT) Programs--on the number of acute care beds required by a hospital. The evaluation mechanism reported here is called the ADTECH Computerized Planning Model. ADTECH uses parameters of each technology, identified from previous literature and discussions with health care professionals, to predict the changes in bed requirements resulting from implementation of these programs. Data from eight hospitals of various characteristics and sizes were run to test the ADTECH model. The results from these test runs indicate that the proper implementation of AS, OPS, and PAT can significantly influence a hospital's required bed complement. PMID:3988530

  6. Decision support systems for robotic surgery and acute care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.

  7. Patient Preferences for Information on Post-Acute Care Services.

    PubMed

    Sefcik, Justine S; Nock, Rebecca H; Flores, Emilia J; Chase, Jo-Ana D; Bradway, Christine; Potashnik, Sheryl; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore what hospitalized patients would like to know about post-acute care (PAC) services to ultimately help them make an informed decision when offered PAC options. Thirty hospitalized adults 55 and older in a Northeastern U.S. academic medical center participated in a qualitative descriptive study with conventional content analysis as the analytical technique. Three themes emerged: (a) receiving practical information about the services, (b) understanding "how it relates to me," and (c) having opportunities to understand PAC options. Study findings inform clinicians what information should be included when discussing PAC options with older adults. Improving the quality of discharge planning discussions may better inform patient decision making and, as a result, increase the numbers of patients who accept a plan of care that supports recovery, meets their needs, and results in improved quality of life and fewer readmissions. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(4):175-182.]. PMID:26815304

  8. Knowledge of and attitudes to influenza in unvaccinated primary care physicians and nurses

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Angela; Godoy, Pere; Castilla, Jesús; María Mayoral, José; Soldevila, Núria; Torner, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Astray, Jenaro; Tamames, Sonia; García-Gutiérrez, Susana; González-Candelas, Fernando; Martín, Vicente; Díaz, José; Working Group, the CIBERESP; in Primary Health Care Workers, for the Survey on Influenza Vaccination

    2014-01-01

    Primary healthcare workers, especially nurses, are exposed to the vast majority of patients with influenza and play an important role in vaccinating patients. Healthcare workers’ misconceptions about influenza and influenza vaccination have been reported as possible factors associated with lack of vaccination. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of unvaccinated physicians and unvaccinated nurses in the 2011–2012 influenza season. We performed an anonymous web survey of Spanish primary healthcare workers in 2012. Information was collected on vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to the influenza vaccine. Multivariate analysis was performed using unconditional logistic regression. We included 461 unvaccinated physicians and 402 unvaccinated nurses. Compared with unvaccinated nurses, unvaccinated physicians had more frequently received seasonal influenza vaccination in the preceding seasons (aOR 1.58; 95% CI 1.11–2.25), and more frequently believed that vaccination of high risk individuals is effective in reducing complications (aOR 2.53; 95% CI 1.30–4.95) and that influenza can be a serious illness (aOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.17–2.32). In contrast, unvaccinated physicians were less concerned about infecting patients (aOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.40–0.96). Unvaccinated nurses had more misconceptions than physicians about influenza and the influenza vaccine and more doubts about the severity of annual influenza epidemics in patients with high risk conditions and the prevention of complications by means of the influenza vaccination. For unvaccinated physicians, strategies to improve vaccination coverage should stress the importance of physicians as a possible source of infection of their patients. The effectiveness of influenza vaccination of high risk persons should be emphasized in nurses. PMID:25424945

  9. Effect of a Triage-based E-mail System on Clinic Resource Use and Patient and Physician Satisfaction in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Steven J; Moyer, Cheryl A; Cox, Douglas T; Stern, David T

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES E-mail communication between patients and their providers has diffused slowly in clinical practice. To address concerns about the use of this technology, we performed a randomized controlled trial of a triage-based e-mail system in primary care. DESIGN AND PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Physicians in 2 university-affiliated primary care centers were randomized to a triage-based e-mail system promoted to their patients. E-mails from patients of intervention physicians were routed to a central account and parsed to the appropriate staff for response. Control group physicians and their patients did not have access to the system. We collected information on patient e-mail use, phone calls, and visit distribution by physician over the 10 months and performed physician and patient surveys to examine attitudes about communication. RESULTS E-mail volume was greater for intervention versus control physicians (46 weekly e-mails per 100 scheduled visits vs 9 in the control group at the study midpoint; P < .01) but there were no between-group differences in phone volume (67 weekly phone calls per 100 scheduled visits vs 55 in the control group; P = .45) or rates of patient no-shows (5% in both groups; P = .77). Intervention physicians reported more favorable attitudes toward electronic communication than did control physicians but there were no differences in attitudes toward patient or staff communication in general. There were few between-group differences in patient attitudes toward electronic communication or communication in general. CONCLUSIONS E-mail generated through a triage-based system did not appear to substitute for phone communication or to reduce visit no-shows in a primary care setting. Physicians' attitudes toward electronic communication were improved, but physicians' and patients' attitudes toward general communication did not change. Growth of e-mail communication in primary care settings may not improve the efficiency of clinical care. PMID:12950483

  10. Fly-By medical care: Conceptualizing the global and local social responsibilities of medical tourists and physician voluntourists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel abroad to receive health care. Voluntourism is a practice where physicians travel abroad to deliver health care. Both of these practices often entail travel from high income to low and middle income countries and both have been associated with possible negative impacts. In this paper, we explore the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists to identify commonalities and distinctions that can be used to develop a wider understanding of social responsibility in global health care practices. Discussion Social responsibility is a responsibility to promote the welfare of the communities to which one belongs or with which one interacts. Physicians stress their social responsibility to care for the welfare of their patients and their domestic communities. When physicians choose to travel to another county to provide medical care, this social responsibility is expanded to this new community. Patients too have a social responsibility to use their community's health resources efficiently and to promote the health of their community. When these patients choose to go abroad to receive medical care, this social responsibility applies to the new community as well. While voluntourists and medical tourists both see the scope of their social responsibilities expand by engaging in these global practices, the social responsibilities of physician voluntourists are much better defined than those of medical tourists. Guidelines for engaging in ethical voluntourism and training for voluntourists still need better development, but medical tourism as a practice should follow the lead of voluntourism by developing clearer norms for ethical medical tourism. Summary Much can be learned by examining the social responsibilities of medical tourists and voluntourists when they engage in global health practices. While each group needs better guidance for engaging in responsible forms of these practices

  11. [Guidelines for the early diagnosis of lung cancer for primary care physicians].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious/medical and social problem. It belongs to the most common cancers. In the past decades, lung cancer has steadily held a leading place in the structure of cancer morbidity and mortality in our country and in the majority of European countries. Cigarette smoking remains to be the major if not only risk factor for lung cancer. Many attempts were previously made to set up systems for the early (timely) lung cancerdetection in risk groups through cytological and radiological examinations. Prophylactic fluorography and X-ray study have long been an important screening procedure in Russia and foreign countries. Recently this procedure has transformed into digital lung radiography. However, there have been no conclusive proofs for its efficiency in the early detection of lung cancer for a few decades. In the past decade, large-scale prospective randomized trials of low-dose computed tomography (CT) have been performed to screen lung cancer. These have shown that this technology can potentially reduce mortality from this disease. This encouraging result has caused a substantial change in the tactics of examining people at high risk for lung cancer. CT has fully replaced linear tomography and all others special X-ray procedures in the verified diagnosis of lung cancer. The indications for pre-examination CT have been considerably expanded in patients with X-ray detected pathology. The tactics for estimating the small lung tissue foci found at CT has been changed. Availability of CT, clear clinical indications for the study, and observance of the standard procedure have become important elements of the entire system for the early identification of lung cancer. These clinical recommendations largely deal just with organizational and methodological issues. The authors hope that the recommendations will serve as a guide for primary care physicians (therapists, pulmonologists,and radiologists) in the early diagnosis of lung cancer and in the optimization

  12. Evaluations of care by adults following a denial of an advertisement-related prescription drug request: the role of expectations, symptom severity, and physician communication style.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mansi B; Bentley, John P; McCaffrey, David J

    2006-02-01

    As patients continue to take a more active role in their health care, an understanding of patient requests of health care providers, including what happens when requests are not fulfilled, is becoming more important. Although its merits have been debated, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs generates patient requests. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of physician communication style, respondents' expectations of receiving a requested prescription, and perceived symptom severity on respondents' evaluations of care following a physician denial of a prescription drug request stimulated by direct-to-consumer advertising. A 2 x 2 x 2, between-subjects experimental design was used. The respondents were made up of employees of the University of Mississippi. Physician communication style, respondents' expectations, and respondents' perceived symptom severity were manipulated using vignettes. Respondents' post-visit evaluations of care were assessed by measuring trust in the physician, visit-based satisfaction with the physician, and commitment toward the physician. Factorial analysis of variance procedures for a three-way design were used to test the hypotheses and assess the research questions. Manipulation checks suggested that the independent variables were appropriately manipulated. No significant first-order or second-order interactions were noted in any of the analyses. Post-visit evaluations of care were significantly associated with physician communication style (a partnership response led to better evaluations of care). There were no significant effects of either prior expectation of request fulfillment or perceived symptom severity. However, non-significant trends in mean scores suggested a potential role of these variables in the evaluation process following request denial. The manner in which a physician communicates with an individual is an important determinant of the evaluation of care following the denial of a request

  13. [Acute glaucine syndrome in the physician's practice: the clinical picture and potential danger].

    PubMed

    Rovinskiĭ, V I

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a clinical symptom complex which appears in some patients as a central nervous system side-effect of conventional doses of glaucine, a non-narcotic antitussive preparation, used in outpatients; the symptom complex is described by the author as acute glaucine syndrome (AGS). Clinical manifestations of AGS are the following: 1) very prominent fatigue, which occurs acutely after taking a conventional dose of glaucine and making any kind of professional activity impossible at the moment; 2) very prominent sleepiness, which occurs acutely together with fatigue and is always combined with it; 3) unusual clear but somewhat estranged perception of the environment: the patient sees and understands everything and is oriented well enough, but cannot take a clear and adequate action, 4) full recovery of the impaired functions after the drug is discontinued; 5) AGS recurrence after the drug is taken again. The hallucination-like effect of glaucine, described earlier by the author of this article, which is manifested by bright and colorful visual images, may be considered a facultative AGS component. The author stresses a potential danger of AGS development in persons who control moving mechanisms or vehicles and adduces some clinical observations. PMID:17243616

  14. "Must do CPR??": strategies to cope with the new College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario policy on end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Hawryluck, Laura; Oczkowski, Simon J W; Handelman, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario recently released a new policy, Planning for and Providing Quality End-of-Life Care. The revised policy is more accurate in its consideration of the legal framework in which physicians practice and more reflective of ethical issues that arise in end-of-life (EOL) care. It also recognizes valid instances for not offering cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Nevertheless, the policy poses a significant ethical and legal dilemma-i.e., if disputes over EOL care arise, then physicians must provide CPR even when resuscitation would fall outside this medical standard of care. While the policy applies in Ontario, it is likely to influence other physician colleges across Canada as they review their standards of practice. This paper explores the rationale for the mandated CPR, clarifies the policy's impact on the medical standard of care, and discusses strategies to improve EOL care within the policy. These strategies include understanding the help-hurt line, changing the language used when discussing cardiac arrest, clarifying care plans during the perioperative period, engaging the intensive care unit team early in goals-of-care discussions, mentoring hospital staff to improve skills in goals-of-care discussions, avoiding use of the "slow code", and continuing to advocate for quality EOL care and a more responsive legal adjudication process. PMID:27126679

  15. Strategic alliance between the infectious diseases specialist and intensive care unit physician for change in antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Curcio, D; Belloni, R

    2005-02-01

    There is a general consensus that antimicrobial use in intensive care units (ICU) is greater than that in general wards. By implementing a strategy of systematic infectious disease consultations in agreement with the ICU chief, we have modified the antibiotic prescription habits of the ICU physician. A reduction was observed in the use of selected antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins, vancomycin, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam), with a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay for ICU patients and lower antibiotic costs without negative impact on patient mortality. Leadership by the infectious diseases consultant in combination with commitment by ICU physicians is a simple and effective method to change antibiotic prescription habits in the ICU. PMID:15828447

  16. Tele-ECG and 24-hour physician support over telephone for rural doctors can help early treatment of acute myocardial infarction in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Vivek, Chauhan; Vikrant, Kanwar

    2016-04-01

    We observed that many patients of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were reaching our hospital out of the 12 hour window period for thrombolysis. This led to poor patient outcomes. There were multiple reasons for the delay, prominent among them was lack of diagnostic facilities in the rural health care centers. We therefore planned a Tele-Electrocardiography (Tele-ECG) based pilot project in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh in India, which was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research. The intention was to reduce the pre-hospital delay in AMI by enabling the rural doctors of Kangra using Tele-ECG facility and a 24-hour physician support to manage patients of AMI. We did a baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) assessment study of the doctors in our intervention centers to understand their needs. The data obtained through the KAP study was an eye opener for us and justifies the need for a Tele-ECG facility for rural doctors in India. PMID:26187625

  17. Inequalities in care in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shabnam; Simms, Alexander; Batin, Phillip; Kurian, John; Gale, Chris P

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the single largest cause of death in developed countries. Guidelines exist for the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet despite these, significant inequalities exist in the care of these patients. The elderly, deprived socioeconomic groups, females and non-caucasians are the patient populations where practice tends to deviate more frequently from the evidence base. Elderly patients often had higher mortality rates after having an AMI compared to younger patients. They also tended to present with symptoms that were not entirely consistent with an AMI, thus partially contributing to the inequalities in care that is seen between younger and older patients. Furthermore the lack of guidelines in the elderly age group presenting with AMI can often make decision making challenging and may account for the discrepancies in care that are prevalent between younger and older patients. Other patients such as those from a lower socioeconomic group, i.e., low income and less than high school education often had poorer health and reduced life expectancy compared to patients from a higher socioeconomic group after an AMI. Lower socioeconomic status was also seen to be contributing to racial and geographical variation is the care in AMI patients. Females with an AMI were treated less aggressively and had poorer outcomes when compared to males. However even when females were treated in the same way they continued to have higher in hospital mortality which suggests that gender may well account for differences in outcomes. The purpose of this review is to identify the inequalities in care for patients who present with an AMI and explore potential reasons for why these occur. Greater attention to the management and a better understanding of the root causes of these inequalities in care may help to reduce morbidity and mortality rates associated with AMI. PMID:26730295

  18. Impact of Thromboprophylaxis across the US Acute Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A.; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K.; Cohen, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be reduced by appropriate use of anticoagulant prophylaxis. VTE prophylaxis does, however, remain substantially underused, particularly among acutely ill medical inpatients. We sought to evaluate the clinical and economic impact of increasing use of American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP)-recommended VTE prophylaxis among medical inpatients from a US healthcare system perspective. Methods and Findings In this retrospective database cost-effectiveness evaluation, a decision-tree model was developed to estimate deaths within 30 days of admission and outcomes attributable to VTE that might have been averted by use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated using “no prophylaxis” as the comparator. Data from the ENDORSE US medical inpatients and the US nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) were used to estimate the annual number of eligible inpatients who failed to receive ACCP-recommended VTE prophylaxis. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that VTE-prevention strategies would reduce deaths by 0.5% and 0.3%, comparing LMWH and UFH strategies with no prophylaxis, translating into savings of $50,637 and $25,714, respectively, per death averted. The ENDORSE findings indicated that 51.1% of US medical inpatients were at ACCP-defined VTE risk, 47.5% of whom received ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. By extrapolating these findings to the NIS and applying cost-effectives analysis results, the full implementation of ACCP guidelines would reduce number of deaths (by 15,875 if using LMWH or 10,201 if using UFH), and was extrapolated to calculate the cost reduction of $803M for LMWH and $262M for UFH. Conclusions Efforts to improve VTE prophylaxis use in acutely ill inpatients are warranted due to the potential for reducing VTE-attributable deaths, with net cost savings to healthcare systems. PMID:25816146

  19. Optimizing the technological and informational relationship of the health care process and of the communication between physician and patient– Factors that have an impact on the process of diagnosis from the physician's and the patient's perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Purcarea, VL; Petrescu, DG; Gheorghe, IR; Petrescu, CM

    2011-01-01

    Objective: the optimization of a diagnosis process and fluency in the Health Care sector in Romania. A key to discover this complex process was to determine a correlation between the physicians and the use of information technology, on one side and the patients' perspective on the other. Hypothesis: Integrating information technology in a physician's activity will lead to lower costs and less time spent while diagnosing patients. Using the electronic medical records and introducing a unified database with the patients' medical histories will make the process of diagnosis easier. Methods: We studied the diagnosis from the point of view of 304 patients in a public hospital and 320 physicians working there. Results: We believed that time and accessibility to different physicians makes the diagnosis process a burden for a patient and implicitly lead to dissatisfaction with health care services. We supposed that the burden of diagnosis for physicians comes from the lack of Internet connection and computer usage knowledge. We have found out that most physicians know how to use the computer at an intermediate level and have access to Internet, online journals and databases and do not use emails to a higher extent to communicate to other specialists, but do not rely entirely on the electronic medical records. Most physicians think that it is not technology, which stands in the way of proper and fast diagnosis but the financing and the paper work from the Romanian health system. Solutions that might be taken into account to entirely motivate physicians to use electronic medical records are: Adjustments can be made to the computer software interface in order to make the design more consistent (to eliminate the paper forms) and user friendly.Physicians can be provided with more training and knowledge. PMID:21776307

  20. Routine programs of health care systems as an opportunity toward communication skills training for family physicians: A randomized field trial

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ahmad Reza; Motamedi, Narges; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Background: To have high-quality primary health care services, an adequate doctor–patient communication is necessary. Because of time restrictions and limited budget in health system, an effective, feasible, and continuous training approach is important. The aim of this study is to assess the appropriateness of a communication skills training program simultaneously with routine programs of health care system. Materials and Methods: It was a randomized field trial in two health network settings during 2013. Twenty-eight family physicians through simple random sampling and 140 patients through convenience sampling participated as intervention and control group. The physicians in the intervention group (n = 14) attended six educational sessions, simultaneous organization meeting, with case discussion and peer education method. In both the groups, physicians completed communication skills knowledge and attitude questionnaires, and patients completed patient satisfaction of medical interview questionnaire at baseline, immediately after intervention, and four months postintervention. Physicians and health network administrators (stakeholders), completed a set of program evaluation forms. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Use of routine program as a strategy of training was rated by stakeholders highly on “feasibility” (80.5%), “acceptability” (93.5%), “educational content and method appropriateness” (80.75%), and “ability to integrating in the health system programs” (approximate 60%). Significant improvements were found in physicians’ knowledge (P < 0.001), attitude (P < 0.001), and patients’ satisfaction (P = 0.002) in intervention group. Conclusions: Communication skills training program, simultaneous organization meeting was successfully implemented and well received by stakeholders, without considering extra time and manpower. Therefore it can be

  1. Task shifting in Mozambique: cross-sectional evaluation of non-physician clinicians' performance in HIV/AIDS care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many resource-constrained countries now train non-physician clinicians in HIV/AIDS care, a strategy known as 'task-shifting.' There is as yet no evidence-based international standard for training these cadres. In 2007, the Mozambican Ministry of Health (MOH) conducted a nationwide evaluation of the quality of care delivered by non-physician clinicians (técnicos de medicina, or TMs), after a two-week in-service training course emphasizing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Forty-four randomly selected TMs were directly observed by expert clinicians as they cared for HIV-infected patients in their usual worksites. Observed clinical performance was compared to national norms as taught in the course. Results In 127 directly observed patient encounters, TMs assigned the correct WHO clinical stage in 37.6%, and correctly managed co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in 71.6% and ART in 75.5% (adjusted estimates). Correct management of all 5 main aspects of patient care (staging, co-trimoxazole, ART, opportunistic infections, and adverse drug reactions) was observed in 10.6% of encounters. The observed clinical errors were heterogeneous. Common errors included assignment of clinical stage before completing the relevant patient evaluation, and initiation or continuation of co-trimoxazole or ART without indications or when contraindicated. Conclusions In Mozambique, the in-service ART training was suspended. MOH subsequently revised the TMs' scope of work in HIV/AIDS care, defined new clinical guidelines, and initiated a nationwide re-training and clinical mentoring program for these health professionals. Further research is required to define clinically effective methods of health-worker training to support HIV/AIDS care in Mozambique and similarly resource-constrained environments. PMID:20939909

  2. Role of the acute care nurse in managing patients with heart failure using evidence-based care.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sara; Hice, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Acute heart failure is a major US public health problem, accounting for more than 1 million hospitalizations each year. As part of the health care team, nurses play an important role in the evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department with acute decompensated heart failure. Once acute decompensation is controlled, nurses also play a critical role in preparing patients for hospital discharge and educating patients and caregivers about strategies to improve long-term outcomes and prevent future decompensation and rehospitalization. Nurses' assessment skills and comprehensive knowledge of acute and chronic heart failure are important to optimize patient care and improve outcomes from initial emergency department presentation through discharge and follow-up. This review presents an overview of current heart failure guidelines, with the goal of providing acute care cardiac nurses with information that will allow them to better use their knowledge of heart failure to facilitate diagnosis, management, and education of patients with acute heart failure. PMID:25185764

  3. Electronic Medical Record-Based Predictive Model for Acute Kidney Injury in an Acute Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Laszczyńska, Olga; Severo, Milton; Azevedo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are at risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Lack of specific treatment has meant that efforts have focused on early diagnosis and timely treatment. Advanced algorithms for clinical assistance including AKI prediction models have potential to provide accurate risk estimates. In this project, we aim to provide a clinical decision supporting system (CDSS) based on a self-learning predictive model for AKI in patients of an acute care hospital. Data of all in-patient episodes in adults admitted will be analysed using "data mining" techniques to build a prediction model. The subsequent machine-learning process including two algorithms for data stream and concept drift will refine the predictive ability of the model. Simulation studies on the model will be used to quantify the expected impact of several scenarios of change in factors that influence AKI incidence. The proposed dynamic CDSS will apply to future in-hospital AKI surveillance in clinical practice. PMID:27577501

  4. Acute coronary syndrome and decompression illness: a challenge for the diving physician.

    PubMed

    Brauzzi, Marco; Andreozzi, Fabio; De Fina, Laura; Tanasi, Paolo; Falini, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    Decompression illness (DCI) is a syndrome with diverse clinical manifestations but in which cardiac symptoms are rare. In the presence of cardiac symptoms, the necessity to rule out an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) which requires prompt treatment may result in delay to appropriate recompression treatment. We describe three cases with cardiologic symptoms referred to our centre by the Emergency Department (ED) of our facility. The first was a 48-year-old woman who lost consciousness during a dive and required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The final diagnosis was acute myocardial infarction and the patient did not undergo recompression treatment. The second case was that of a 27-year-old man who complained of tachycardia, dyspnoea and vertigo soon after a dive. He was referred by helicopter ambulance and in the ED was diagnosed with new-onset atrial fibrillation. Recompression resulted in disappearance of his vertigo, and sinus rhythm was restored pharmacologically. The third case was a 43-year-old man, with a history of coronary artery disease, who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting three years previously. After a repetitive dive without adequate decompression, he complained of crushing retrosternal pain and numbness in the upper left arm. All cardiovascular examinations were negative and the patient was recompressed, with resolution of his symptoms. Features to consider in arriving at the correct differential diagnosis in divers presenting with cardiac symptoms are discussed in the light of these three illustrative cases. PMID:24510330

  5. 42 CFR 476.102 - Involvement of health care practitioners other than physicians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is made by a physician only after consultation with a peer of that practitioner. Initial denial... obtain a roster of peer practitioners available to perform review; or (2) The practitioners are precluded....98(d). (c) Peer involvement in quality review studies. Practitioners must be involved in the...

  6. 77 FR 27671 - Medicaid Program; Payments for Services Furnished by Certain Primary Care Physicians and Charges...