Sfakianaki, Efrosyni; Sfakianakis, George N; Georgiou, Mike; Hsiao, Bernard
Renal scintigraphy is a powerful imaging method that provides both functional and anatomic information, which is particularly useful in the acute care setting. In our institution, for the past 2 decades, we have used a 25-minute renal diuretic protocol, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) mercaptoacetyltriglycine with simultaneous intravenous injection of furosemide, for all ages and indications, including both native and transplant kidneys. As such, this protocol has been widely used in the workup of acutely ill patients. In this setting, there are common clinical entities which affect patients with native and transplant kidneys. In adult patients with native kidneys one of the most frequent reasons for emergency room visits is renal colic due to urolithiasis. Although unenhanced computed tomography is useful to assess the anatomy in cases of renal colic, it does not provide functional information. Time zero furosemide renal scintigraphy can do both and we have shown that it can effectively stratify patients with renal colic. To this end, 4 characteristic patterns of scintirenography have been identified, standardized, and consistently applied: no obstruction, partial obstruction (mild vs high grade), complete obstruction, and stunned (postdecompressed) kidney. With the extensive use of this protocol over the past 2 decades, a pattern of "regional parenchymal dysfunction" indicative of acute pyelonephritis has also been delineated. This information has proved to be useful for patients presenting with urinary tract infection and suspected pyelonephritis, as well as for patients who were referred for workup of renal colic but were found to have acute pyelonephritis instead. In instances of abdominal trauma, renal scintigraphy is uniquely suited to identify urine leaks. This is also true in cases of suspected leak following renal transplant or from other iatrogenic/postsurgical causes. Patients presenting with acute renal failure can be evaluated with renal scintigraphy. A
Carty, A E; Day, S S
The Senior Care Unit was developed to meet the needs of hospitalized elderly patients. Nurses assumed leadership roles as members of an interdisciplinary care team that also included representatives from medical, social work, dietary, physical therapy, and pharmacy departments. This collaborative effort not only resulted in a more complete holistic plan of care for the patient, but also increased the nurses' and other team members' knowledge of each other's areas of expertise. This project demonstrated that it is feasible to introduce a comprehensive, interdisciplinary geriatric team coordinated by the nurses into an existing staff, resulting in quality care without increasing the length of stay or hospital costs.
Bond, Penny; Goudie, Karen
Delirium is an acute medical emergency affecting about one in eight acute hospital inpatients. It is associated with poor outcomes, is more prevalent in older people and it is estimated that half of all patients receiving intensive care or surgery for a hip fracture will be affected. Despite its prevalence and impact, delirium is not reliably identified or well managed. Improving the identification and management of patients with delirium has been a focus for the national improving older people's acute care work programme in NHS Scotland. A delirium toolkit has been developed, which includes the 4AT rapid assessment test, information for patients and carers and a care bundle for managing delirium based on existing guidance. This toolkit has been tested and implemented by teams from a range of acute care settings to support improvements in the identification and immediate management of delirium.
O'Malley, Donna M; Randell, Kimberly A; Dowd, M Denise
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact health across the life course. The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver ACEs, current adversity, and resilience in families seeking care in pediatric acute care settings. Study aims included identifying demographic characteristics, current adversities, and resilience measures associated with caregiver ACEs ≥4. A cross-sectional survey study design was used and a convenience sample (n = 470) recruited at emergency and urgent care settings of a large Midwest pediatric hospital system. Measures were self-reported. The original 10-item ACEs questionnaire measured caregiver past adversity. Current adversity was measured using the 10-item IHELP. The six-item Brief Resiliency Scale measured resilience, and WHO-5 Well-Being Index was used to measure depressive affect. Compared to participants with ACEs score of 0-3 participants with ACEs ≥4 were more likely to have multiple current adversities, increased risk of depression, and lower resilience. Caregivers using pediatric acute care settings carry a high burden of ACEs and current adversities. Caregiver ACEs are associated with current child experiences of adversity. Caregivers socioeconomic status and education level may not be an accurate indicator of a family's risks or needs. Pediatric acute care settings offer opportunities to access, intervene, and prevent childhood adversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Daly, Donnelle; Matzel, Stephen Chavez
A transdisciplinary team is an essential component of palliative and end-of-life care. This article will demonstrate how to develop a transdisciplinary approach to palliative care, incorporating nursing, social work, spiritual care, and pharmacy in an acute care setting. Objectives included: identifying transdisciplinary roles contributing to care in the acute care setting; defining the palliative care model and mission; identifying patient/family and institutional needs; and developing palliative care tools. Methods included a needs assessment and the development of assessment tools, an education program, community resources, and a patient satisfaction survey. After 1 year of implementation, the transdisciplinary palliative care team consisted of seven palliative care physicians, two social workers, two chaplains, a pharmacist, and End-of-Life Nursing Consortium (ELNEC) trained nurses. Palomar Health now has a palliative care service with a consistent process for transdisciplinary communication and intervention for adult critical care patients with advanced, chronic illness.
The impact of technology and resource constraints on acute care, the concept of a 'primary-care led National Health Service' (NHS), and the emphasis on developing community-based alternatives to institutional care have contributed to a reshaping of the respective roles of acute and home care services over the past 10-15 years in the United Kingdom. In England, recent reforms are allowing GP Fundholders, District Health Authorities representing a specific geographic area, and local government social services departments to purchase both acute and community-based care. In addition, new constraints on further expansion of institutional long-term care are encouraging the substitution of home care for the elderly needing long term care services. The result has been a dramatic increase in use of home care services. However, resource and supply constraints impede further home care expansion. Other forces within the NHS continue to foster unnecessary post-acute institutionalization. The successful decentralization of acute services from hospitals to home care requires an integrated program across the continuum of health and social services. In practice, no such concerted program exists.
Park, Myonghwa; Delaney, Connie; Maas, Meridean; Reed, David
Many older people with dementia are admitted to acute care settings suffering from comorbidities. These and their treatments can lead to confusion in these patients, adding to their existing cognitive deficits, and this may not be recognized by care staff. The care of such patients is complex and requires multidisciplinary team input. The purposes of the Nursing Minimum Data Set are to describe the nursing care of patients in a variety of settings and to establish comparability of nursing data across clinical populations, settings and time. This paper reports a study to describe the characteristics of hospitalized older patients with dementia and nursing diagnoses and nursing interventions for these patients, and to identify trends in the nursing care provided over a 3-year period using a Nursing Minimum Data Set from a community hospital in the United States of America. Secondary data analysis was conducted in 2000 on a large clinical discharge data set containing Nursing Minimum Data Set elements. The sample included 597 elders with dementia among a total of 7772 older patients who were discharged between 1996 and 1998. The most common comorbidity was hypertension (n = 123, 21%), followed by cardiac dysrhythmias (n = 80, 13%). The most frequent nursing diagnoses were altered health maintenance (n = 419, 84%), knowledge deficit (n = 357, 71%), potential for injury (n = 242, 48%), potential for infection (n = 230, 46%), pain (n = 184, 37%), impaired physical mobility (n = 169, 34%), and altered thought process (n = 144, 29%). The most frequent interventions were discharge planning (n = 340, 68%), surveillance safety (n = 195, 39%), fall prevention (n = 175, 35%), teaching: disease process (n = 166, 33%), learning facilitation (n = 148, 30%), and infection protection (n = 147, 29%). The results provide a description of nursing diagnoses and interventions for elders with dementia in an acute care setting using the Nursing Minimum Data Set framework. They identify the
We are good at reinventing the wheel in older people's nursing, where we often find ourselves struggling with the same practice issues regardless of care setting. Frequently, the starting point is to develop a local solution.
Gholizadeh, Leila; Yazdi, Khadijeh; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa
Poor nutritional status is common in older adult patients. The present study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to nutritional care of elderly patients in acute care settings. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews with 12 registered nurses, and analyzed using interpretive description methodology. Two core themes emerged from the analysis of data: (i) neglected care, with three subthemes of "support but also independence," "unsupportive environment" and "responsibility of the family;" and (ii) a humanitarian ethic, with two subthemes of "respect and dignity" and "humanitarian care." As an integral part of holistic care, elderly patient nutrition should be emphasised in health professional education, and promoted through managerial support, multidisciplinary collaborations, and implementation of appropriate monitoring and evaluation systems. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Payne, Sarah; Cole, Elaine
Many patients with minor burns present at emergency departments and urgent care centres, where their management is often undertaken by experienced nurses rather than experts in treating burns. This article describes a small study of the clinical decision making that underpins nurses' management of minor burns in these non-specialist settings. The results suggest that, due to a lack of relevant research, nurses base their decisions on previous experience or expert colleagues' opinions and advice rather than on the evidence.
Provisional NQF (n=13) ANA (n=10) Death in low mortality DRG X Decubitus /pressure ulcer X X X Failure to rescue X X X Infection due to medical care X...overlap in these measure sets, with the exception of decubitus /pressure ulcer and failure to rescue. Caution should be taken since the measure intent...patient falls, pressure ulcers , and mortality, with increasing detail in measure specification.11 For example, nosocomial infections are broken down into
Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Abazia, Daniel T
The authors review the historical use of medicinal cannabis and discuss the agent's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, select evidence on medicinal uses, and the implications of evolving regulations on the acute care hospital setting.
Creating an environment in which patient's responsibility for self is fostered and nurses can practice professional and autonomous nursing practice is a challenge in today's hospitals. Innovative systems and structures need to be developed to assure quality of patient care and a high quality work environment. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center responded to the many demands of the mid-1980s, including increasing acuity of patients hospitalized, personnel shortages in nursing, physical therapy and other disciplines, and diminishing dollars available to the health care institution, through the creation of Self-Care Units. This article reviews how they came about, the way in which Self-Care Units function within the acute care setting and the management philosophy and structure which make them work. The experience at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center demonstrates that the potential exists to put control back at the bedside with the patient and the health care team working with the patient to achieve mutual goals. The focus of care has shifted from a "doing for" to a "working with" patients to identify interventions which promote active participation in hospitalization and a sense of self responsibility.
McCabe, Margaret; Patricia, Branowicki
Nurses commonly assess their patients for symptoms and intervene to ease any patient distress, yet children are seldom asked about feeling fatigued. The existing pediatric literature suggests that fatigue goes unrecognized and therefore untreated in children, particularly children experiencing stressful events, such as illness and/or hospitalization. In an effort to better understand the presence of the symptom in our environment we conducted a program specific point prevalence survey. Data were collected on nine inpatient and 11 outpatient units of a university affiliated tertiary care children's hospital. Overall, this sample reported higher levels of fatigue than published data from their healthy and chronically ill peers by total fatigue score and sub scores. This brief description of the symptom in our inpatient and ambulatory settings has provided information that will inform our nursing practice and drive future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Christopher L; Broder, Joshua; Gunn, Martin L; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Cody, Dianna; Cullison, Kevin; Daniels, Brock; Gans, Bradley; Kennedy Hall, M; Gaines, Barbara A; Goldman, Sarah; Heil, John; Liu, Rachel; Marin, Jennifer R; Melnick, Edward R; Novelline, Robert A; Pare, Joseph; Repplinger, Michael D; Taylor, Richard A; Sodickson, Aaron D
Computed tomography (CT) scanning is an essential diagnostic tool and has revolutionized care of patients in the acute care setting. However, there is widespread agreement that overutilization of CT, where benefits do not exceed possible costs or harms, is occurring. The goal was to seek consensus in identifying and prioritizing research questions and themes that involve the comparative effectiveness of "traditional" CT use versus alternative diagnostic strategies in the acute care setting. A modified Delphi technique was used that included input from emergency physicians, emergency radiologists, medical physicists, and an industry expert to achieve this. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.
Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510
Roney, Linda; Sumpio, Catherine; Beauvais, Audrey M; O'Shea, Eileen R
A major safety initiative in acute care settings across the United States has been to transform hospitals into High Reliability Organizations. The initiative requires developing cognitive awareness, best practices, and infrastructure so that all healthcare providers including clinical faculty are accountable to deliver quality and safe care. To describe the experience of baccalaureate clinical nursing faculty concerning safety and near miss events, in acute care hospital settings. A mixed method approach was used to conduct the pilot study. Nurse faculty (n=18) completed study surveys from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to track patient safety concerns: Incidents; Near misses; or Unsafe conditions, during one academic semester, within 9 different acute care hospitals. Additionally, seven nurse faculty participated in end of the semester focus groups to discuss the semester long experience. Clinical faculty identified a total of 24 patient occurrences: 15 Incidents, 1 Near miss event, and 8 Unsafe conditions. Focus group participants (n=7) described benefits and challenges experienced by nursing clinical faculty and students in relation to the culture of safety in acute care hospital settings. Six themes resulted from the content analysis. Utilizing nursing clinical faculty and students may add significant value to promoting patient safety and the delivery of quality care, within acute care hospital settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cook, Katherine A; Mott, Sandra; Lawrence, Patricia; Jablonski, Julie; Grady, Mary Rose; Norton, Denise; Liner, Kimberly P; Cioffi, Jennifer; Hickey, Patricia; Reidy, Suzanne; Connor, Jean Anne
The aim of this study was to describe and understand behavior and coping strategies used by pediatric nurses caring for dying children on an inpatient acute care cardiology unit. Qualitative descriptive methods consisting of semistructured questions were presented to acute care nurses participating in focus groups. The nurses who participated in the focus groups had cared for an acutely ill child who died. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze data and organize results. The categories that emerged included the following: boundaries, memories, disconnecting, and labeling. Colleague support, institutional resources, and nurses' experience level were critical to the process of coping. Coping and grieving are facilitated by colleague and unit resources. Studies exploring job dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout from an inadequate grieving process are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Anita; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Edvardsson, David
To develop a theoretical understanding of the processes hindering person-centred care of older people with cognitive impairment in acute care settings. Although person-centred care with its holistic focus on the biopsychosocial needs of patients is commonly considered the gold standard care for older people with cognitive impairment, the extent to which care is person-centred can increase in acute care settings generally. Grounded theory inspired by Strauss and Corbin. The study used a grounded theory approach to generate and analyse data from a Swedish sample of acute care staff, patients and family members. The substantive theory postulates that staff risks 'falling behind' in meeting the needs of older patients with cognitive impairment if working without consensus about the care of these patients, if the organisation is disease-oriented and efficiency-driven, and if the environment is busy and inflexible. This facilitated 'falling behind' in relation to meeting the multifaceted needs of older patients with cognitive impairment and contributed to patient suffering, family exclusion and staff frustration. The theory highlights aspects of importance in the provision of person-centred care of older people with cognitive impairment in acute settings and suggests areas to consider in the development of caring environments in which the place, pace and space can meet the needs of the older person. The proposed substantive theory can be used to critically examine current ward practices and routines, and the extent to which these support or inhibit high-quality person-centred care for older patients with known or unknown cognitive impairments. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yevchak, Andrea; Steis, Melinda; Diehl, Theresa; Hill, Nikki; Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna
Background Delirium frequently occurs in hospitalised older adults leading to poor outcomes and frequent adverse events. Proper recognition and management of delirium by acute care nurses can minimise the effects of negative sequelae associated with delirium. Aim This pilot study used focus group methodology to: (i) describe acute care nurse’s experience and knowledge regarding assessment and management of delirium in hospitalised older adults; (ii) illustrate potential facilitators and barriers to non-drug management of delirium; and (iii) to explicate the use of non-drug interventions by acute care nurses to manage delirium in hospitalised older adults. Design Qualitative, pilot study. Methods A total of 16 nurse participants, working on medical, surgical and orthopaedic units from one acute care hospital participated in two focus groups. Results Main themes included the following: confusion is normal; our duty is to protect; and finding a balance. Nurses were able to identify non-pharmacological interventions for delirium and facilitators and barriers to using these in clinical practice. Conclusions Findings from this pilot study illustrate the need for regular assessment of cognitive status in hospitalised older adults and nursing staff education regarding the use of non-pharmacological management of delirium. Based on their experience, nurses have a wealth of ideas for managing delirium. Areas for future research and policy are also highlighted. Implications for practice More research is needed on how to improve delirium management by acute care nurses to increase the efficacy and use of non-pharmacological interventions in the management of delirium in hospitalised older adults. To translate these findings into practice, nursing care needs to be guided by evidence-based guidelines to implement non-pharmacological strategies in the acute care setting. PMID:22513181
Single-session groups are an effective method for providing mutual aid to patients and families experiencing crisis in acute care/emergency settings. This toolkit provides health care professionals with practical guidance in establishing, recruiting for, and facilitating single-session groups in hospital settings. A two-step literature search was conducted to identify all relevant articles. The literature was retrieved and reviewed for inclusion. The results of this review form the basis of the toolkit. A framework for establishing this type of group is explored. Challenges and strategies concerning recruitment are discussed. The practice skills relevant to facilitating time-limited groups are outlined.
Abbott, P A; Quirolgico, S; Candidate, D; Manchand, R; Canfield, K; Adya, M
This paper is intended to give an overview of Knowledge Discovery in Large Datasets (KDD) and data mining applications in healthcare particularly as related to the Minimum Data Set, a resident assessment tool which is used in US long-term care facilities. The US Health Care Finance Administration, which mandates the use of this tool, has accumulated massive warehouses of MDS data. The pressure in healthcare to increase efficiency and effectiveness while improving patient outcomes requires that we find new ways to harness these vast resources. The intent of this preliminary study design paper is to discuss the development of an approach which utilizes the MDS, in conjunction with KDD and classification algorithms, in an attempt to predict admission from a long-term care facility to an acute care facility. The use of acute care services by long term care residents is a negative outcome, potentially avoidable, and expensive. The value of the MDS warehouse can be realized by the use of the stored data in ways that can improve patient outcomes and avoid the use of expensive acute care services. This study, when completed, will test whether the MDS warehouse can be used to describe patient outcomes and possibly be of predictive value.
Kumar, Chandrika; Bensadon, Benjamin A.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Cooney, Leo M.
Most geriatric care is provided in non-hospital settings. Internal Medicine and Family Medicine residents should therefore learn about these different clinical sites and acuity levels of care. To help facilitate this learning, a geriatrics training curriculum for internal medicine residents was developed that focused on cognition, function, goals…
Background Delirium is a common and serious condition, which affects many of our older hospitalised patients. It is an indicator of severe underlying illness and requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment, associated with poor survival, functional outcomes with increased risk of institutionalisation following the delirium episode in the acute care setting. We describe a new model of delirium care in the acute care setting, titled Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU) where the important concepts of delirium prevention and management are integrated. We hypothesize that patients with delirium admitted to the GMU would have better clinical outcomes with less need for physical and psychotropic restraints compared to usual care. Methods/Design GMU models after the Delirium Room with adoption of core interventions from Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening bright light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythm and improve sleep in the elderly patients. The novelty of this approach lies in the amalgamation of these interventions in a multi-faceted approach in acute delirium management. GMU development thus consists of key considerations for room design and resource planning, program specific interventions and daily core interventions. Assessments undertaken include baseline demographics, comorbidity scoring, duration and severity of delirium, cognitive, functional measures at baseline, 6 months and 12 months later. Additionally we also analysed the pre and post-GMU implementation knowledge and attitude on delirium care among staff members in the geriatric wards (nurses, doctors) and undertook satisfaction surveys for caregivers of patients treated in GMU. Discussion This study protocol describes the conceptualization and implementation of a specialized unit for delirium management. We hypothesize that such a model of care will not only result in better clinical outcomes for the elderly patient with delirium compared to usual geriatric care, but also improved staff
Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G
Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology.
Langhan, Melissa L.; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C.; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G.
Objective Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practise. We elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. Methods A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within ten emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Results Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practise, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use, and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff, and user friendliness were facilitators. Conclusions This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721
Kornhaber, Rachel; Walsh, Kenneth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim
Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. PMID:27789958
McConnell, Karen J; Guzman, Oscar E; Pherwani, Nisha; Spencer, Dustin D; Van Cura, Jennifer D; Shea, Katherine M
To provide clinical and operational strategies to generate drug cost savings in the hospital setting. A search of the PubMed database was performed with no time limit through July 2016. All original prospective and retrospective studies, peer-reviewed guidelines, consensus statements, review articles, and accompanying references were evaluated for inclusion. Only articles published in the English language were included. Investigators reviewed 937 abstracts. The review of the literature showed that acute care hospitals are under increasing financial pressures, and the pharmacy is often responsible for opportunities to manage drug costs. The literature also indicated that cost-containment strategies in the acute care setting range from pharmacy-directed activities to initiatives requiring interdisciplinary collaboration and strategic planning. Hospital pharmacies should consider establishing an interdisciplinary team that is responsible for systematically reviewing drug cost implications and leading any initiatives that are deemed necessary. Acute care settings can use various operational and clinical strategies to lower their expenditures on high-cost drugs. Operational strategies include various activities that pharmacy staff implement related to contracting, purchasing, and inventory management. Clinical strategies utilize clinical pharmacists working with interdisciplinary teams to develop and maintain a formulary, implement established-use criteria for select drugs, use dose optimization, and implement other clinical tactics aimed at cost containment. After initiatives are implemented, assessing the outcomes of the initiatives is important to determine how successful they were at lowering costs safely and effectively. Acute care hospitals can use various operational and clinical strategies to lower overall drug costs. A systematic stepwise approach is recommended to ensure relevant drugs are regularly reviewed and addressed as needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy
Chau, Jennifer; Denomme, Jocelyn; Cott, Cheryl A.
ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the opportunities and challenges involved in providing clinical inter-professional education (IPE) to physical therapy (PT) students in the acute-care setting from the perspective of PT clinical instructors (CIs). Methods: Focus groups were conducted in four acute-care hospitals in Toronto. Participants were recruited using a purposive and convenience sampling approach in order to enhance our understanding of the perceptions of acute-care PT CIs. Eighteen full-time PT CIs with an average of 11 years in practice participated. A constant comparative process was employed to identify recurrent issues and themes within and between groups. Results: Three main themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) Clinical IPE happens when inter-professional collaboration (IPC) occurs; however, IPC differs according to setting, access to other professions, time, support, and structure. (2) IPE is a lifelong learning process that applies to both CIs and students. (3) Student preparedness is a prerequisite for clinical IPE. Conclusions: IPC is an integral part of clinical IPE that requires ongoing commitment and reflection by CIs to ensure that they are ready to instruct students who have some preparation in formal IPE. More knowledge about providing clinical IPE in a structured manner, through academic and health institutions, will allow CIs to become role models for future generations of PT students. PMID:22210981
Adams, Rose; White, Barb; Beckett, Cynthia
Background Pain management remains a critical issue for hospitals and is receiving the attention of hospital accreditation organizations. The acute care setting of the hospital provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of massage therapy for pain management into the team-centered approach of patient care. Purpose and Setting This preliminary study evaluated the effect of the use of massage therapy on inpatient pain levels in the acute care setting. The study was conducted at Flagstaff Medical Center in Flagstaff, Arizona—a nonprofit community hospital serving a large rural area of northern Arizona. Method A convenience sample was used to identify research participants. Pain levels before and after massage therapy were recorded using a 0 – 10 visual analog scale. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis of this descriptive study. Participants Hospital inpatients (n = 53) from medical, surgical, and obstetrics units participated in the current research by each receiving one or more massage therapy sessions averaging 30 minutes each. The number of sessions received depended on the length of the hospital stay. Result Before massage, the mean pain level recorded by the patients was 5.18 [standard deviation (SD): 2.01]. After massage, the mean pain level was 2.33 (SD: 2.10). The observed reduction in pain was statistically significant: paired samples t52 = 12.43, r = .67, d = 1.38, p < .001. Qualitative data illustrated improvement in all areas, with the most significant areas of impact reported being overall pain level, emotional well-being, relaxation, and ability to sleep. Conclusions This study shows that integration of massage therapy into the acute care setting creates overall positive results in the patient’s ability to deal with the challenging physical and psychological aspects of their health condition. The study demonstrated not only significant reduction in pain levels, but also the interrelatedness of pain, relaxation
O'Connell, Bev; Gardner, Anne; Takase, Miyuki; Hawkins, Mary T; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Ski, Chantal; Josipovic, Patricia
Reality Orientation (RO) was developed as a strategy to assist people with dementia to improve their orientation and everyday function. Although its efficacy has been extensively studied in long-term care facilities, its effectiveness has rarely been examined in acute care settings. The aim of this review was to examine the studies cited in systematic reviews of RO to determine the potential clinical usefulness and the feasibility of using RO in acute care settings. Based on this information, the authors make recommendations for future research in this area. The feasibility of implementing RO in acute care poses challenges because of the short time a patient is in hospital and their ability to participate given their acute medical condition. Although the efficacy and feasibility of using RO in acute care settings have not been sufficiently examined, its potential to improve care should not be ignored. A comprehensive and rigorous study is necessary to investigate the usefulness of RO in the acute care setting and to help establish clinical guidelines for dementia care in the context of acute care nursing.
O'Brien, Jane E; Dumas, Helene M; Haley, Stephen M; Peters, Christine Y
To generate consensus on the reasons why children with airway support transfer between acute and post-acute care; develop a minimum data set to transmit between care settings; and examine transfer reports to determine the frequency of data set content. Two consensus development meetings were conducted of acute and post-acute care professionals to identify reasons for transfer and develop the minimum data set. A content analysis was used to generate the frequency of inclusion of minimum data set elements in the narrative reports of 15 acute to post-acute and 15 post-acute to acute transfer summaries. The observed frequencies were compared with the expected frequencies (95%), as were frequencies between the two groups. Advanced diagnostic assessment and unexpected changes in medical, surgical and mental health conditions were the primary reasons for transfer from post-acute to acute care. For transfers in both directions, 20 of the 34 data elements were present in <75% of the cases and were statistically different than the pre-set 95% standard. No statistical difference in the occurrence of data elements between transfer directions existed. A minimum data set has the potential to reduce redundancy, improve safety and optimize care co-ordination between facilities for children with airway support.
Adams, Rose; White, Barb; Beckett, Cynthia
Pain management remains a critical issue for hospitals and is receiving the attention of hospital accreditation organizations. The acute care setting of the hospital provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of massage therapy for pain management into the team-centered approach of patient care. This preliminary study evaluated the effect of the use of massage therapy on inpatient pain levels in the acute care setting. The study was conducted at Flagstaff Medical Center in Flagstaff, Arizona-a nonprofit community hospital serving a large rural area of northern Arizona. A convenience sample was used to identify research participants. Pain levels before and after massage therapy were recorded using a 0 - 10 visual analog scale. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis of this descriptive study. Hospital inpatients (n = 53) from medical, surgical, and obstetrics units participated in the current research by each receiving one or more massage therapy sessions averaging 30 minutes each. The number of sessions received depended on the length of the hospital stay. Before massage, the mean pain level recorded by the patients was 5.18 [standard deviation (SD): 2.01]. After massage, the mean pain level was 2.33 (SD: 2.10). The observed reduction in pain was statistically significant: paired samples t(52) = 12.43, r = .67, d = 1.38, p < .001. Qualitative data illustrated improvement in all areas, with the most significant areas of impact reported being overall pain level, emotional well-being, relaxation, and ability to sleep. This study shows that integration of massage therapy into the acute care setting creates overall positive results in the patient's ability to deal with the challenging physical and psychological aspects of their health condition. The study demonstrated not only significant reduction in pain levels, but also the interrelatedness of pain, relaxation, sleep, emotions, recovery, and finally, the healing process.
Televisitation is the virtual transportation of a patient's family to the bedside, regardless of the patient's location within an acute care setting. This innovation in the Telemedicine Program at Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre (TBRHSC) in Ontario, Canada, embraces the concept of patient- and family-centered care and has been identified as a leading practice by Accreditation Canada. The need to find creative ways to link patients to their family and friend supports hundreds of miles away was identified more than ten years ago. The important relationship between health outcomes and the psychosocial needs of patients and families has been recognized more recently. TBRHSC's patient- and family-centered model of care focuses on connecting patients with their families. First Nations renal patients with family in remote communities were some of the earliest users of videoconferencing technology for this purpose.
Cioffi, R N Jane
Communication with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) patients has been shown to be difficult. This study describes nurses' experiences of communicating with CLD patients in an acute care setting. A purposive sample of registered nurses and certified midwives (n=23) were interviewed. Main findings were: interpreters, bilingual health workers and combinations of different strategies were used to communicate with CLD patients; some nurses showed empathy, respect and a willingness to make an effort in the communication process with others showing an ethnocentric orientation. Main recommendations were: prioritising access to appropriate linguistic services, providing nurses with support from health care workers, e.g., bilingual health care workers who are able to provide more in-depth information, increasing nurses' understanding of legal issues within patient encounters, supporting nurses to translate their awareness of cultural diversity into acceptance of, appreciation for and commitment to CLD patients and their families.
Ewing, Gail; Farquhar, Morag; Booth, Sara
There has been a steady expansion of hospital-based palliative care in the United Kingdom but limited published research on health professionals' views of hospital multidisciplinary specialist palliative care services (SPCS). The aim of the study was to describe referrer (SPCS user) and provider (SPCS staff) perspectives on delivery of specialist palliative care in hospital. Interviews were conducted with referrers, including five junior doctors, 13 consultants, and six clinical nurse specialists, to investigate the reasons for referral, beneficial aspects, and barriers to use. Focus groups were conducted with providers, six medical and five nursing, to identify their perspective on delivering the specialist service in hospital. Discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using a framework analysis approach. The study found large areas of agreement between referrers and providers on what hospital palliative care teams should be providing for patients, that is, expertise in managing difficult symptoms and complex psychosocial problems, and this was being achieved locally. Access to the specialist team was also important: visibility on the wards, informal routes of access to advice and a timely response by specialists. However, discordance in views of providing palliative care was also identified; in particular, whether specialists should be providing generalist palliative care (such as basic psychological support) neglected by ward teams and implementation of specialist advice by referrers. Such perspectives on the interface of generalist and specialist provision provide insights into improving care for palliative patients in the acute hospital setting.
Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Damani, Anuja; Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann
Levofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic for managing chest and urinary tract infections in a palliative care setting. Incidence of Levofloxacin-associated anaphylaxis is rare and delirium secondary to Levofloxacin is a seldom occurrence with only few published case reports. It is an extremely rare occurrence to see this phenomenon in combination. Early identification and prompt intervention reduces both mortality and morbidity. A 17-year-old male with synovial sarcoma of right thigh with chest wall and lung metastasis and with no prior psychiatric morbidity presented to palliative medicine outpatient department with community-acquired pneumonia. He was initiated on intravenous (IV) Ceftriaxone and IV Levofloxacin. Post IV Levofloxacin patient developed anaphylaxis and acute delirium necessitating IV Hydrocortisone, IV Chlorpheneramine, Oxygen and IV Haloperidol. Early detection and prompt intervention helped in complete recovery. Patient was discharged to hospice for respite after 2 days of hospitalization and then discharged home. Acute palliative care approach facilitated management of two life-threatening medical complications in a palliative care setting improving both quality and length of life. PMID:25709191
Cheong, Chin Yee; Tan, Jane An Qi; Foong, Yi-Lin; Koh, Hui Mien; Chen, Denise Zhen Yue; Tan, Jessie Joon Chen; Ng, Chong Jin; Yap, Philip
Background/Aims The acute hospital ward can be unfamiliar and stressful for older patients with impaired cognition, rendering them prone to agitation and resistive to care. Extant literature shows that music therapy can enhance engagement and mood, thereby ameliorating agitated behaviours. This pilot study evaluates the impact of a creative music therapy (CMT) programme on mood and engagement in older patients with delirium and/or dementia (PtDD) in an acute care setting. We hypothesize that CMT improves engagement and pleasure in these patients. Methods Twenty-five PtDD (age 86.5 ± 5.7 years, MMSE 6/30 ± 5.4) were observed for 90 min (30 min before, 30 min during, and 30 min after music therapy) on 3 consecutive days: day 1 (control condition without music) and days 2 and 3 (with CMT). Music interventions included music improvisation such as spontaneous music making and playing familiar songs of patient's choice. The main outcome measures were mood and engagement assessed with the Menorah Park Engagement Scale (MPES) and Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS). Results Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a statistically significant positive change in constructive and passive engagement (Z = 3.383, p = 0.01) in MPES and pleasure and general alertness (Z = 3.188,p = 0.01) in OERS during CMT. The average pleasure ratings of days 2 and 3 were higher than those of day 1 (Z = 2.466, p = 0.014). Negative engagement (Z = 2.582, p = 0.01) and affect (Z = 2.004, p = 0.045) were both lower during CMT compared to no music. Conclusion These results suggest that CMT holds much promise to improve mood and engagement of PtDD in an acute hospital setting. CMT can also be scheduled into the patients' daily routines or incorporated into other areas of care to increase patient compliance and cooperation. PMID:27489560
Schindler, Antonio; Vincon, Elena; Grosso, Elena; Miletto, Anna Maria; Di Rosa, Rosalba; Schindler, Oskar
A high incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) in acute-care settings has been reported; however, no data on its management are found in the literature. Here we report the experience with rehabilitative management of OD in a large Italian hospital. The characteristics of inpatients with OD during 2004 have been studied prospectively. For each patient, demographic data, the department referring the patient, the disease causing OD, and the presence of a communication disorder were registered. The swallowing level at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation were recorded. Of the 35,590 inpatients admitted to San Giovanni Battista Hospital of Turin during 2004, 222 of them were referred for the assessment and rehabilitation of OD. The inpatients with OD came from different departments and mainly had a neurologic disease. In 110 patients a communication disorder was present. The swallowing impairment was moderate to severe at the moment of referral, while on average patients were able to eat by mouth after swallowing therapy. Dysphagia rehabilitation in an acute care setting is requested from different departments because of its prevalence and severity; skilled specialists are needed for early assessment and the best management.
Bauer, J D; Isenring, E; Torma, J; Horsley, P; Martineau, J
Falls may result in injury, loss of independence and higher healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status of patients who had fallen in an acute care setting. Forty-nine patients who had experienced a fall while admitted at an Australian private hospital participated in the study (age: 71.2 (SD 14.1) years; 21 male: 28 female). Nutritional status was assessed using subjective global assessment. Protein and energy intake was determined by dietary history and analysed using Australian computerised food composition data. According to subjective global assessment, 27 patients were well nourished and 22 malnourished (21 moderately, one severely malnourished). Well nourished fallers had significantly higher BMI (mean difference 3.7 kg/m(2), CI: 1.2-6.2), dietary protein (mean difference 19.8 g, CI: 2.0-37.5) and energy intake (mean difference 1751 kJ, CI: 332-3170) compared to malnourished fallers. There was no difference in severity of falls based on nutritional status, weight or BMI. There was a high prevalence of malnutrition and poor intake in this sample of patients who had fallen in hospital. Nutrition assessment and intervention for patients who have fallen in the acute care setting should be considered.
Clarke, Christina M; Persaud, Drepaul David
Many contemporary acute care facilities lack safe and effective clinical handover practices resulting in patient transitions that are vulnerable to discontinuities in care, medical errors, and adverse patient safety events. This article is intended to supplement existing handover improvement literature by providing practical guidance for leaders and managers who are seeking to improve the safety and the effectiveness of clinical handovers in the acute care setting. A 4-stage change model has been applied to guide the application of strategies for handover improvement. Change management and quality improvement principles, as well as concepts drawn from safety science and high-reliability organizations, were applied to inform strategies. A model for handover improvement respecting handover complexity is presented. Strategies targeted to stages of change include the following: 1. Enhancing awareness of handover problems and opportunities with the support of strategic directions, accountability, end user involvement, and problem complexity recognition. 2. Identifying solutions by applying and adapting best practices in local contexts. 3. Implementing locally adapted best practices supported by communication, documentation, and training. 4. Institutionalizing practice changes through integration, monitoring, and active dissemination. Finally, continued evaluation at every stage is essential. Although gaps in handover process and function knowledge remain, efforts to improve handover safety and effectiveness are still possible. Continued evaluation is critical in building this understanding and to ensure that practice changes lead to improvements in patient safety, organizational effectiveness, and patient and provider satisfaction. Through handover knowledge building, fundamental changes in handover policies and practices may be possible.
Chen, Serene I; Fox, Erin R; Hall, M Kennedy; Ross, Joseph S; Bucholz, Emily M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Venkatesh, Arjun K
Early evidence suggests that provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012 are associated with reductions in the total number of new national drug shortages. However, drugs frequently used in acute unscheduled care such as the care delivered in emergency departments may be increasingly affected by shortages. Our estimates, based on reported national drug shortages from 2001 to 2014 collected by the University of Utah's Drug Information Service, show that although the number of new annual shortages has decreased since the act's passage, half of all drug shortages in the study period involved acute care drugs. Shortages affecting acute care drugs became increasingly frequent and prolonged compared with non-acute care drugs (median duration of 242 versus 173 days, respectively). These results suggest that the drug supply for many acutely and critically ill patients in the United States remains vulnerable despite federal efforts.
Huddleston, Penny; Gray, Jennifer
The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Healthy Work Environment Assessment Tool was developed as a simple screening tool to assess the characteristics of a healthy work environment (HWE) in critical care environments. The purposes of these 2 qualitative research studies are to explore the nurse leaders' and direct care nurses' perceptions of the meaning of a HWE, to describe the nurse leaders' and direct care nurses' perceptions of a HWE, and to define the characteristics of a HWE in acute care settings. Exploratory descriptive designs using focus groups and guided questions with tape-recorded interviews were used to define the characteristics of an HWE. The 6 original themes from AACN HWE standards and 2 new themes emerged as a result of the nurse leaders and direct care nurses defining the characteristics of a HWE, which included appropriate staffing, authentic leadership, effective decision making, meaningful recognition, skilled communication, true collaboration genuine teamwork, and physical and psychological safety. The qualitative statements from these 2 studies will be used in future studies to describe and develop HWE scales for nurse leaders and direct care nurses and to assess the psychometric properties of these new tools.
Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Brooker, Dawn; Casey, Dympna
Dementia is a global issue, with increasing prevalence rates impacting on health services internationally. People with dementia are frequently admitted to hospital, an environment that may not be suited to their needs. While many initiatives have been developed to improve their care in the acute setting, there is a lack of cohesive understanding of how staff experience and perceive the care they give to people with dementia in the acute setting. The aim of this qualitative synthesis was to explore health care staffs' experiences and perceptions of caring for people with dementia in the acute setting. Qualitative synthesis can bring together isolated findings in a meaningful way that can inform policy development. A screening process, using inclusion/exclusion criteria, identified qualitative studies that focused on health care staff caring for people with dementia in acute settings. Twelve reports of nine studies were included for synthesis. Data extraction was conducted on each report by two researchers. Framework synthesis was employed using VIPS framework, using Values, Individualised, Perspective and Social and psychological as concepts to guide synthesis. The VIPS framework has previously been used for exploring approaches to caring for people with dementia. Quality appraisal was conducted using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and NVivo facilitated sensitivity analysis to ensure confidence in the findings. Key themes, derived from VIPS, included a number of specific subthemes that examined: infrastructure and care pathways, person-centred approaches to care, how the person interacts with their environment and other patients, and family involvement in care decisions. The synthesis identified barriers to appropriate care for the person with dementia. These include ineffective pathways of care, unsuitable environments, inadequate resources and staffing levels and lack of emphasis on education and training for staff caring for people with dementia. This
May, Fiona C; Stocks, Nigel; Barton, Christopher
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been shown to increase 12-month abstinence rates by as much as 50% when compared with placebo; however, NRT seems to be underutilized in the acute cardiac setting. This study explores the attitudes and beliefs of healthcare professionals regarding the use of NRT in acute cardiac inpatients, in an effort to identify and expose barriers that may impede the use of this drug in the acute cardiac care environment. Framework analysis formed the methodological foundation of the study and provided the structure for analysis of data generated via qualitative, semistructured one-on-one interviews. A purposive sample of healthcare professionals practicing in the acute cardiac care setting informed the study. Although health care professionals expressed strong views regarding the benefits of implementing NRT as a smoking cessation intervention, barriers were identified that hinder its use. Financial implications, lack of knowledge and safety issues all contributed to the institutional justification for rejecting hospital-based NRT as a secondary prevention intervention in the acute cardiac setting. To proactively reduce the incidence of secondary cardiac events, education of healthcare professionals concerning tobacco addiction and available cessation treatments in the acute cardiac patient is paramount. Nicotine replacement products require further investigation to ascertain their safety and financial viability in the acute cardiac setting. Findings may support the implementation of NRT in the inpatient cardiac setting, and ultimately help curb the incidence of smoking-related mortality owing to secondary cardiac events.
The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to describe sleep characteristics of hospitalized older adults and the nighttime environmental noise and light they encountered. Study participants included patients in an acute care setting; actigraphy and light and sound meters were used to measure the variables. Mean sleep time was 215 minutes, and the average sleep efficiency was 44.72%. Nighttime sleep was fragmented into 5 to 38 intervals of 15 to 24 minutes, with frequent awakenings. Mean light levels were 6.14 lux, with peak intensities of 59.68 lux lasting 95 minutes each night. Mean sound levels were 52.87 dB(A). Sleep was markedly impaired in an environment of elevated light and sound levels. Understanding the role of noise and light in the sleep efficiency of ill older adults can help nurses identify sources of noise and light and initiate sleep improvement protocols.
Nilsson, Anita; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Edvardsson, David
Older people with cognitive impairment represent a large group of patients in acute care settings. Research show that these acute care environments can be unsafe and even unfriendly for frail older patients. Research and clinical experience show that being a nurse in acute/specialised medical facilities means to work in a high-speed, technologically complex and demanding environment. When caring for older patients with cognitive impairment, nurses' workload and responsibilities have been shown to increase. This is largely dependent on how easily it is to connect with and help patients understand what to do, and what is best for them. This study aimed to illuminate meanings of caring for older patients with cognitive impairment in acute care settings as experienced by nursing staff. A purposeful sample of thirteen nurses experienced in caring for older people with cognitive impairment in acute care settings participated in the study. Narrative interviews were conducted during autumn 2012 and interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. Caring for older, acutely ill cognitively impaired patients was found to be very complex. The meanings of caring for these older patients seemed to change depending on the nurses' perceptions of the patients and the gap between what they could do (real) and wanted to do (ideal) in providing care for them. The greater this gap was felt to be and the more care was perceived as meaningless, the more serious was the threat to nurses' personal-professional integrity which could be at risk, compromised or harmed. The comprehensive understanding indicates that being a nurse and having to care for older patients in acute care settings means providing nursing care in an environment that does not support possibilities to protect and develop nurses' personal-professional integrity. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Barlam, Tamar F; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Cabral, Howard J; Kazis, Lewis E
Background. Up to 40% of antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). We sought to define factors associated with antibiotic overprescribing of ARTIs to inform efforts to improve practice. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of ARTI visits between 2006 and 2010 from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Those surveys provide a representative sample of US visits to community-based physicians and to hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) and outpatient practices. Patient factors (age, sex, race, underlying lung disease, tobacco use, insurance), physician specialty, practice demographics (percentage poverty, median household income, percentage with a Bachelor's Degree, urban-rural status, geographic region), and care setting (ED, hospital, or community-based practice) were evaluated as predictors of antibiotic overprescribing for ARTIs. Results. Hospital and community-practice visits had more antibiotic overprescribing than ED visits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64 and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.12 and OR = 1.59 and 95% CI, 1.26-2.01, respectively). Care setting had significant interactions with geographic region and urban and rural location. The quartile with the lowest percentage of college-educated residents had significantly greater overprescribing (adjusted OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86) than the highest quartile. Current tobacco users were overprescribed more often than nonsmokers (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38-2.12). Patient age, insurance, and provider specialty were other significant predictors. Conclusions. Tobacco use and a lower grouped rate of college education were associated with overprescribing and may reflect poor health literacy. A focus on educating the patient may be an effective approach to stewardship.
Barlam, Tamar F.; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Cabral, Howard J.; Kazis, Lewis E.
Background. Up to 40% of antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). We sought to define factors associated with antibiotic overprescribing of ARTIs to inform efforts to improve practice. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of ARTI visits between 2006 and 2010 from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Those surveys provide a representative sample of US visits to community-based physicians and to hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) and outpatient practices. Patient factors (age, sex, race, underlying lung disease, tobacco use, insurance), physician specialty, practice demographics (percentage poverty, median household income, percentage with a Bachelor's Degree, urban-rural status, geographic region), and care setting (ED, hospital, or community-based practice) were evaluated as predictors of antibiotic overprescribing for ARTIs. Results. Hospital and community-practice visits had more antibiotic overprescribing than ED visits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64 and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–2.12 and OR = 1.59 and 95% CI, 1.26–2.01, respectively). Care setting had significant interactions with geographic region and urban and rural location. The quartile with the lowest percentage of college-educated residents had significantly greater overprescribing (adjusted OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86) than the highest quartile. Current tobacco users were overprescribed more often than nonsmokers (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38–2.12). Patient age, insurance, and provider specialty were other significant predictors. Conclusions. Tobacco use and a lower grouped rate of college education were associated with overprescribing and may reflect poor health literacy. A focus on educating the patient may be an effective approach to stewardship. PMID:27006968
del Portal, Daniel A; Healy, Megan E; Satz, Wayne A; McNamara, Robert M
Death from opioid abuse is a major public health issue. The death rate associated with opioid overdose nearly quadrupled from 1999 to 2008. Acute care settings are a major source of opioid prescriptions, often for minor conditions and chronic noncancer pain. Our aim was to determine whether a voluntary opioid prescribing guideline reduces the proportion of patients prescribed opioids for minor and chronic conditions. A retrospective chart review was performed on records of adult emergency department visits from January 2012 to July 2014 for dental, neck, back, or unspecified chronic pain, and the proportion of patients receiving opioid prescriptions at discharge was compared before and after the guideline. Attending emergency physicians were surveyed on their perceptions regarding the impact of the guideline on prescribing patterns, patient satisfaction, and physician-patient interactions. In our sample of 13,187 patient visits, there was a significant (p < 0.001) and sustained decrease in rates of opioid prescriptions for dental, neck, back, or unspecified chronic pain. The rate of opioid prescribing decreased from 52.7% before the guideline to 29.8% immediately after its introduction, and to 33.8% at an interval of 12 to 18 months later. The decrease in opioid prescriptions was observed in all of these diagnosis groups and in all age groups. All 31 eligible prescribing physicians completed a survey. The opioid prescribing guideline was supported by 100% of survey respondents. An opioid prescribing guideline significantly decreased the rates at which opioids were prescribed for minor and chronic complaints in an acute care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cowin, Leanne S
Poor collegial relations can cause communication breakdown, staff attrition and difficulties attracting new nursing staff. Underestimating the potential power of nursing team relationships means that opportunities to create better working environments and increase the quality of nursing care can be missed. Previous research on improving collegiality indicates that professionalism and work satisfaction increases and that staff attrition decreases. This study explores challenges, strengths and strategies used in nursing team communication in order to build collegial relationships. A qualitative approach was employed to gather nurses experiences and discussion of communication within their nursing teams and a constant comparison method was utilised for data analysis. A convenience sampling technique was employed to access both Registered Nurses and Enrolled Nurses to partake in six focus groups. Thirty mostly female nurses (ratio of 5:1) participated in the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of being a nurse currently working in acute care settings and the exclusion criteria included nursing staff currently working in closed specialty units (i.e. intensive care units). Results revealed three main themes: (1) externalisation and internalisation of nursing team communication breakdown, (2) the importance of collegiality for retention of nurses and (3) loss of respect, and civility across the healthcare workplace. A clear division between hierarchies of nurses was apparent in how nursing team communication was delivered and managed. Open, respectful and collegial communication is essential in today's dynamic and complex health environments. The nurses in this study highlighted how important nursing communication can be to work motivation and how leadership fosters teamwork.
Hubble, Rosemary; Trowbridge, Kelly; Hubbard, Claudia; Ahsens, Leslie; Ward-Smith, Peggy
The capability of effectively communicating is crucial when providing palliative care, especially when the patient is a child. Communication among healthcare professionals with the child and family members must be clear, concise, and consistent. Use of a communication tool provides documentation for conversations, treatment plans, and specific desires related to care. This paper describes communication theory, portrays the use of this theory to develop a communication tool, and illustrates the use of this tool by multidisciplinary members of a healthcare team to provide pediatric palliative care.
Freburger, Janet K; Li, Dongmei; Johnson, Anna M; Fraher, Erin P
To identify predictors of therapist use (any use, continuity of care, timing of care) in the acute care hospital and community (home or outpatient) for patients discharged home after stroke. Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims (2010-2013) linked to hospital-level and county-level data. Acute care hospital and community. Patients (N=23,413) who survived the first 30 days at home after being discharged from an acute care hospital after stroke. Not applicable. Physical and occupational therapist use in acute care and community settings; continuity of care across the inpatient and home or the inpatient and outpatient settings; and early therapist use in the home or outpatient setting. Multivariate logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify hospital-level, county-level, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with therapist use, continuity, and timing, controlling for clinical characteristics. Seventy-eight percent of patients received therapy in the acute care hospital, but only 40.8% received care in the first 30 days after discharge. Hospital nurse staffing was positively associated with inpatient and outpatient therapist use and continuity of care across settings. Primary care provider supply was associated with inpatient and outpatient therapist use, continuity of care, and early therapist care in the home and outpatient setting. Therapist supply was associated with continuity of care and early therapist use in the community. There was consistent evidence of sociodemographic disparities in therapist use. Therapist use after stroke varies in the community and for specific sociodemographic subgroups and may be underused. Inpatient nurse staffing levels and primary care provider supply were the most consistent predictors of therapist use, continuity of care, and early therapist use. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
Key commentators on person-centred care have described it as a "new ethic of care" which they link inextricably to notions of individual autonomy, action, change and improvement. Two key points are addressed in this article. The first is that few discussions about ethics and person-centred are underscored by any particular ethical theory. The second point is that despite the espoused benefits of person-centred care, delivery within the acute care setting remains largely aspirational. Choices nurses make about their practice tend to comply more often with prevailing norms than those championed by person-centred care. We draw on elements of work by moral philosopher Løgstrup and Foucault to provide insight into nurses' ethical conduct and ask why nurses would want to act otherwise, when what they think and do is viewed as normal, or think and act otherwise if doing so is seen within the organization as transgressive? To address these more specific questions, we discuss them in relation to the following constructs: the ethical demand, sovereign expressions of life and parrhêsia. We conclude by arguing that a ethical theoretical framework enables nurses to increase their perceptibility and appreciation of the ethical demand particularly those emanating from incommensurability between organizational norms and the norms invoked by person-centred care. We argue that nurses' responses to the ethical demand by way of parrhêsia can be an important feature of intra-organizational reflexivity and its transformation towards the delivery care that is more person-centred, particularly for older people with cognitive impairment. We conclude the article by highlighting the implications of this for nursing education and research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wagner, John J; Ingram, Todd N
The purpose of this article is to describe the process of developing a safe electric bed for a traditional acute care adult behavioral health inpatient unit. Many articles and studies exist related to creating a safe environment on acute care psychiatric units, but very few address the use of electric hospital beds. The process of adapting a traditional electric bed for inpatient use by the nursing management team of the Behavioral Health Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics is described, including specific safety features in the prototype bed. Policy changes during implementation and safety data after 12 months of bed use on the units are also presented. Results indicate that traditional electric hospital beds can be safely adapted for use on traditional acute care psychiatric units. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Sidani, Souraya; Reeves, Scott; Hurlock-Chorostecki, Christina; van Soeren, Mary; Fox, Mary; Collins, Laura
There is limited evidence of the extent to which Healthcare professionals implement patient-centered care (PCC) and of the factors influencing their PCC practices in acute care organizations. This study aimed to (1) examine the practices reported by health professionals (physicians, nurses, social workers, other healthcare providers) in relation to three PCC components (holistic, collaborative, and responsive care), and (2) explore the association of professionals' characteristics (gender, work experience) and a contextual factor (caseload), with the professionals' PCC practices. Data were obtained from a large scale cross-sectional study, conducted in 18 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Consenting professionals (n = 382) completed a self-report instrument assessing the three PCC components and responded to standard questions inquiring about their characteristics and workload. Small differences were found in the PCC practices across professional groups: (1) physicians reported higher levels of enacting the holistic care component; (2) physicians, other healthcare providers, and social workers reported implementing higher levels of the collaborative care component; and (3) physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers reported higher levels of providing responsive care. Caseload influenced holistic care practices. Interprofessional education and training strategies are needed to clarify and address professional differences in valuing and practicing PCC components. Clinical guidelines can be revised to enable professionals to engage patients in care-related decisions, customize patient care, and promote interprofessional collaboration in planning and implementing PCC. Additional research is warranted to determine the influence of professional, patient, and other contextual factors on professionals' PCC practices in acute care hospitals.
Dykes, Patricia C.; Benoit, Angela; Chang, Frank; Gallagher, Joan; Li, Qi; Spurr, Cindy; McGrath, E. Jan; Kilroy, Susan M.; Prater, Marita
The transition from paper to electronic documentation systems in acute care settings is often gradual and characterized by a period in which paper and electronic processes coexist. Intermediate technologies are needed to “bridge” the gap between paper and electronic systems as a means to improve work flow efficiency through data acquisition at the point of care in structured formats to inform decision support and facilitate reuse. The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a study conducted on three acute care units at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA to evaluate the feasibility of digital pen and paper technology as a means to capture vital sign data in the context of acute care workflows and to make data available in a flow sheet in the electronic medical record. PMID:17238337
Lavin, Mary Ann; Harper, Ellen; Barr, Nancy
The electronic health record (EHR) is a documentation tool that yields data useful in enhancing patient safety, evaluating care quality, maximizing efficiency, and measuring staffing needs. Although nurses applaud the EHR, they also indicate dissatisfaction with its design and cumbersome electronic processes. This article describes the views of nurses shared by members of the Nursing Practice Committee of the Missouri Nurses Association; it encourages nurses to share their EHR concerns with Information Technology (IT) staff and vendors and to take their place at the table when nursing-related IT decisions are made. In this article, we describe the experiential-reflective reasoning and action model used to understand staff nurses' perspectives, share committee reflections and recommendations for improving both documentation and documentation technology, and conclude by encouraging nurses to develop their documentation and informatics skills. Nursing issues include medication safety, documentation and standards of practice, and EHR efficiency. IT concerns include interoperability, vendors, innovation, nursing voice, education, and collaboration.
Green, Stuart A; Bell, Derek; Mays, Nicholas
Clinical guidelines offer an accessible synthesis of the best evidence of effectiveness of interventions, providing recommendations and standards for clinical practice. Many guidelines are relevant to the diagnosis and management of the acutely unwell patient during the first 24-48 h of admission. Care bundles are comprised of a small number of evidence-based interventions that when implemented together aim to achieve better outcomes than when implemented individually. Care bundles that are explicitly developed from guidelines to provide a set of related evidence-based actions have been shown to improve the care of many conditions in emergency, acute and critical care settings. This study aimed to review the implementation of two distinct care bundles in the acute medical setting and identify the factors that supported successful implementation. Two initiatives that had used a systematic approach to quality improvement to successfully implement care bundles within the acute medical setting were selected as case studies. Contemporaneous data generated during the initiatives included the review reports, review minutes and audio recordings of the review meetings at different time points. Data were subject to deductive analysis using three domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to identify factors that were important in the implementation of the care bundles. Several factors were identified that directly influenced the implementation of the care bundles. Firstly, the availability of resources to support initiatives, which included training to develop quality improvement skills within the team and building capacity within the organisation more generally. Secondly, the perceived sustainability of changes by stakeholders influenced the embedding new care processes into existing clinical systems, maximising their chance of being sustained. Thirdly, senior leadership support was seen as critical not just in supporting implementation but also in
Villaseñor, Sally; Walker, Tara; Fetters, Lisa; McCoy, Maryanne
The study sought to determine the barriers to e-prescribing particular to the acute care setting, the educational and motivational needs of acute care providers, and the optimal process for incentive, education, and implementation of e-prescribing. A theoretically based survey instrument was adapted from previous work. Four domains were assessed: finesse, intent to use, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The survey was offered to a group of acute care providers. The educational and motivational needs of acute care providers are different from those in primary care. Perceived barriers centered on uncertain pharmacy hours, unconfirmed transmittal, and accidental transmission to wrong pharmacy. Healthcare providers with more self-assessed knowledge of e-prescribing are more likely to use e-prescribing. Providers with fewer years in practice seem to have greater knowledge of e-prescribing. Providing education and exposure to e-prescribing has the potential to decrease perception of barriers and increase perceived usefulness for acute care providers. Software redesign may be needed to remove barriers associated with uncertain pharmacy hours, controlled substance prescribing, transmittal confirmation, and bidirectional communication needs, thereby improving motivation to e-prescribe.
This paper is a report of a study of fallers' mental status as one of the patient-related intrinsic risk factors for falls. Whether confusion is one of the most important risk factors associated with risk of falling in hospital settings is unclear. Literature reviews have not identified consistent evidence for effective preventive interventions for patients with mental status deficits. This retrospective research was conducted in six adult acute care units in a community hospital in the United States of America. The data source was the 1017 fall incidents occurring between 1 July 2005 and 30 April 2009. Descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. The presence of mental status deficits was identified as the dominant issue in 346 (34%) falls. The group of fallers with mental status deficits (32.1%, n = 111) seemed to have fewer toileting-related falls than those without mental status deficits (46.7%, n = 314). Fallers with mental status deficits tended to have more severe fall injuries than those without mental status deficits (chi(2) = 10.08, d.f. = 3, P = 0.018). Risk assessment and targeted surveillance should be used as part of falls prevention policy. Involving nursing staff and family members in assessing a patient's mental status may help to prevent falls caused by mental status deficits.
Brand, Caroline A; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wright, Olivia; Jones, Richard N; Morris, John N; Travers, Catherine M; Tropea, Joannne; Gray, Leonard C
Frail older people admitted to acute care hospitals are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including geriatric syndromes, although targeted care strategies can improve health outcomes for these patients. It is therefore important to assess inter-hospital variation in performance in order to plan and resource improvement programs. Clinical quality outcome indicators provide a mechanism for identifying variation in performance over time and between hospitals, however to date there has been no routine use of such indicators in acute care settings. A barrier to using quality indicators is lack of access to routinely collected clinical data. The interRAI Acute Care (AC) assessment system supports comprehensive geriatric assessment of older people within routine daily practice in hospital and includes process and outcome data pertaining to geriatric syndromes. This paper reports the study protocol for the development of aged care quality indicators for acute care hospitals. The study will be conducted in three phases: 1. Development of a preliminary inclusive set of quality indicators set based on a literature review and expert panel consultation, 2. A prospective field study including recruitment of 480 patients aged 70 years or older across 9 Australian hospitals. Each patient will be assessed on admission and discharge using the interRAI AC, and will undergo daily monitoring to observe outcomes. Medical records will be independently audited, and 3. Analysis and compilation of a definitive quality indicator set, including two anonymous voting rounds for quality indicator inclusion by the expert panel. The approach to quality indicators proposed in this protocol has four distinct advantages over previous efforts: the quality indicators focus on outcomes; they can be collected as part of a routinely applied clinical information and decision support system; the clinical data will be robust and will contribute to better understanding variations in hospital care of
Pynnonen, Melissa A; Lynn, Shana; Kern, Hayley E; Novis, Sarah J; Akkina, Sarah R; Keshavarzi, Nahid R; Davis, Matthew M
Our objectives were to characterize the quality of acute sinusitis care and to identify nonclinical factors associated with antibiotic use for acute sinusitis. We hypothesized that we would identify provider-level factors associated with antibiotic use. Retrospective cohort at a single academic institution. We developed and clinically annotated an administrative dataset of adult patients diagnosed with acute sinusitis between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006. We used identify factors associated with receipt of antibiotics. We find that 66.0% of patients with mild symptoms of short duration are given antibiotics, and that nonclinical factors, including the individual provider, the provider's specialty, and the presence of a medical trainee, significantly influence antibiotic use. Relative to internal medicine providers, family medicine providers use fewer antibiotics, and emergency medicine providers use more antibiotics for acute sinusitis. Antibiotics continue to be overused for patients with mild acute sinusitis of short duration. Nonclinical characteristics, including the individual provider, the provider's specialty, and the presence of a medical trainee, significantly influence use of antibiotics for acute sinusitis. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Pynnonen, Melissa A; Lynn, Shana; Kern, Hayley E; Novis, Sarah J; Akkina, Sarah R; Keshavarzi, Nahid R; Davis, Matthew M.
Objectives and Hypothesis Our objectives were to characterize the quality of acute sinusitis care and to identify non-clinical factors associated with antibiotic use for acute sinusitis. We hypothesized that we would identify provider level factors associated with antibiotic use. Study Design Retrospective cohort at a single academic institution. Methods We developed and clinically annotated an administrative dataset of adult patients diagnosed with acute sinusitis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2006. We used identify factors associated with receipt of antibiotics. Results We find that 66.0% of patients with mild symptoms of short duration are given antibiotics and that non-clinical factors, including the individual provider, the provider's specialty, and the presence of a medical trainee, significantly influence antibiotic use. Relative to internal medicine providers, family medicine providers use fewer antibiotics and emergency medicine providers use more antibiotics for acute sinusitis. Conclusions Antibiotics continue to be over used for patients with mild acute sinusitis of short duration. Non-clinical characteristics, including the individual provider, the provider's specialty, and the presence of a medical trainee significantly influence use of antibiotics for acute sinusitis. PMID:26010534
Atlas, Steven J; Deyo, Richard A
Acute low back pain is a common reason for patient calls or visits to a primary care clinician. Despite a large differential diagnosis, the precise etiology is rarely identified, although musculoligamentous processes are usually suspected. For most patients, back symptoms are nonspecific, meaning that there is no evidence for radicular symptoms or underlying systemic disease. Because episodes of acute, nonspecific low back pain are usually self-limited, many patients treat themselves without contacting their primary care clinician. When patients do call or schedule a visit, evaluation and management by primary care clinicians is appropriate. The history and physical examination usually provide clues to the rare but potentially serious causes of low back pain, as well as to identify patients at risk for prolonged recovery. Diagnostic testing, including plain x-rays, is often unnecessary during the initial evaluation. For patients with acute, nonspecific low back pain, the primary emphasis of treatment should be conservative care, time, reassurance, and education. Current recommendations focus on activity as tolerated (though not active exercise while pain is severe) and minimal if any bed rest. Referral for physical treatments is most appropriate for patients whose symptoms are not improving over 2 to 4 weeks. Specialty referral should be considered for patients with a progressive neurologic deficit, failure of conservative therapy, or an uncertain or serious diagnosis. The prognosis for most patients is good, although recurrence is common. Thus, educating patients about the natural history of acute low back pain and how to prevent future episodes can help ensure reasonable expectations. PMID:11251764
Johnson, Jill R; Rivard, Rachael L; Griffin, Kristen H; Kolste, Alison K; Joswiak, Denise; Kinney, Mary Ellen; Dusek, Jeffery A
To examine the use and effectiveness of essential oil therapeutic interventions on pain, nausea, and anxiety, when provided by nurses to patients in acute hospital settings across a large health system. This study expands upon the limited body of literature on aromatherapy use among inpatients. Retrospective, effectiveness study using data obtained from electronic health records. Ten Allina Health hospitals located in Minnesota and western Wisconsin. Nurse-delivered aromatherapy. Change in patient-reported pain, anxiety, and nausea, rated before and after receiving aromatherapy using a numeric rating scale (0-10). There were 10,262 hospital admissions during the study time frame in which nurse-delivered aromatherapy was part of patient care. The majority of admissions receiving aromatherapy were females (81.71%) and white (87.32%). Over 75% of all aromatherapy sessions were administered via inhalation. Lavender had the highest absolute frequency (49.5%) of use regardless of mode of administration, followed by ginger (21.2%), sweet marjoram (12.3%), mandarin (9.4%), and combination oils (7.6%). Sweet marjoram resulted in the largest single oil average pain change at -3.31 units (95% CI: -4.28, -2.33), while lavender and sweet marjoram had equivalent average anxiety changes at -2.73 units, and ginger had the largest single oil average change in nausea at -2.02 units (95% CI: -2.55, -1.49). Essential oils generally resulted in significant clinical improvements based on their intended use, although each oil also showed ancillary benefits for other symptoms. Future research should explore use of additional essential oils, modes of administration, and different patient populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fehnel, Corey R; Lee, Yoojin; Wendell, Linda C; Thompson, Bradford B; Potter, N Stevenson; Mor, Vincent
Reducing hospital readmissions is a key component of reforms for stroke care. Current readmission prediction models lack accuracy and are limited by data being from only acute hospitalizations. We hypothesized that patient-level factors from a nationwide post-acute care database would improve prediction modeling. Medicare inpatient claims for the year 2008 that used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify ischemic stroke patients older than age 65. Unique individuals were linked to comprehensive post-acute care assessments through use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Logistic regression was used to construct risk-adjusted readmission models. Covariates were derived from MDS variables. Among 39 178 patients directly admitted to nursing homes after hospitalization due to acute stroke, there were 29 338 (75%) with complete MDS assessments. Crude rates of readmission and death at 30 days were 8448 (21%) and 2791 (7%), respectively. Risk-adjusted models identified multiple independent predictors of all-cause 30-day readmission. Model performance of the readmission model using MDS data had a c-statistic of 0.65 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.66). Higher levels of social engagement, a marker of nursing home quality, were associated with progressively lower odds of readmission (odds ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.92). Individual clinical characteristics from the post-acute care setting resulted in only modest improvement in the c-statistic relative to previous models that used only Medicare Part A data. Individual-level characteristics do not sufficiently account for the risk of acute hospital readmission. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
Fehnel, Corey R; Lee, Yoojin; Wendell, Linda C; Thompson, Bradford B; Potter, N Stevenson; Mor, Vincent
Background Reducing hospital readmissions is a key component of reforms for stroke care. Current readmission prediction models lack accuracy and are limited by data being from only acute hospitalizations. We hypothesized that patient-level factors from a nationwide post–acute care database would improve prediction modeling. Methods and Results Medicare inpatient claims for the year 2008 that used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify ischemic stroke patients older than age 65. Unique individuals were linked to comprehensive post–acute care assessments through use of the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Logistic regression was used to construct risk-adjusted readmission models. Covariates were derived from MDS variables. Among 39 178 patients directly admitted to nursing homes after hospitalization due to acute stroke, there were 29 338 (75%) with complete MDS assessments. Crude rates of readmission and death at 30 days were 8448 (21%) and 2791 (7%), respectively. Risk-adjusted models identified multiple independent predictors of all-cause 30-day readmission. Model performance of the readmission model using MDS data had a c-statistic of 0.65 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.66). Higher levels of social engagement, a marker of nursing home quality, were associated with progressively lower odds of readmission (odds ratio 0.71, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.92). Conclusions Individual clinical characteristics from the post–acute care setting resulted in only modest improvement in the c-statistic relative to previous models that used only Medicare Part A data. Individual-level characteristics do not sufficiently account for the risk of acute hospital readmission. PMID:26396202
Frey, Rosemary; Gott, Merryn; Raphael, Deborah; O'Callaghan, Anne; Robinson, Jackie; Boyd, Michal; Laking, George; Manson, Leigh; Snow, Barry
Central to appropriate palliative care management in hospital settings is ensuring an adequately trained workforce. In order to achieve optimum palliative care delivery, it is first necessary to create a baseline understanding of the level of palliative care education and support needs among all clinical staff (not just palliative care specialists) within the acute hospital setting. The objectives of the study were to explore clinical staff: perceptions concerning the quality of palliative care delivery and support service accessibility, previous experience and education in palliative care delivery, perceptions of their own need for formal palliative care education, confidence in palliative care delivery and the impact of formal palliative care training on perceived confidence. A purposive sample of clinical staff members (598) in a 710-bed hospital were surveyed regarding their experiences of palliative care delivery and their education needs. On average, the clinical staff rated the quality of care provided to people who die in the hospital as 'good' (x̄=4.17, SD=0.91). Respondents also reported that 19.3% of their time was spent caring for end-of-life patients. However, only 19% of the 598 respondents reported having received formal palliative care training. In contrast, 73.7% answered that they would like formal training. Perceived confidence in palliative care delivery was significantly greater for those clinical staff with formal palliative care training. Formal training in palliative care increases clinical staff perceptions of confidence, which evidence suggests impacts on the quality of palliative care provided to patients. The results of the study should be used to shape the design and delivery of palliative care education programmes within the acute hospital setting to successfully meet the needs of all clinical staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The aim of this study was to explain the role of patient advocacy in the Advance Care Planning (ACP-ing) process. Nurses rate prolonging the dying process with inappropriate measures as their most disturbing ethical issue and protecting patients' rights to be of great concern (Johnston et al 2002). Paradoxically ethical codes assume nurses have the autonomy to uphold patients' health-care choices. Advance Directives (AD) designed to improve end-of-life care are poorly taken up and acute hospitals are generally not geared for the few they receive. The Respecting Patient Choices Program (RPCP) improves AD utilisation through providing a supportive framework for ACP-ing and primarily equipping nurses as RPC consultants. Assisting patients with this process requires attributes consistent with patient advocacy arising out of nursing's most basic tenet, the care of others. Likert Scales survey administered pre and six months post-intervention to pilot and control groups, with coinciding focus groups. Selected wards in an acute care public hospital in South Australia. Nurses on the palliative care, respiratory, renal and colo-rectal pilot wards and the haem-oncology, coronary care, cardiology and neurology/geriatric control wards. The RPCP during the 2004-2005 South Australian pilot of the (RPCP). The organisational endorsement of ACP-ing gave nurses the autonomy to be patient advocates with respect to end-of-life care, reconciling clinical practice to their code of ethics and easing distress about prolonging the dying process inappropriately. Statistically significant survey results in the post-intervention group showed nurses experienced: encouragement to ensure patients could make informed choices about their end-of-life treatment (84%); the ability to uphold these wishes in practice (73%); and job satisfaction from delivering appropriate end-of-life care (67%); compared to approximately half (42-55%) of respondents in the pre-intervention and control groups. Focus
Background Patient safety is a fundamental component of good quality health care. Checklists have been proposed as a method of improving patient safety. This systematic review, asked "In acute hospital settings, would the use of safety checklists applied by medical care teams, compared to not using checklists, improve patient safety?" Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials published in English before September 2009. Studies were selected and appraised by two reviewers independently in consultation with colleagues, using inclusion, exclusion and appraisal criteria established a priori. Results Nine cohort studies with historical controls studies from four hospital care settings were included-intensive care unit, emergency department, surgery, and acute care. The studies used a variety of designs of safety checklists, and implemented them in different ways, however most incorporated an educational component to teach the staff how to use the checklist. The studies assessed outcomes occurring a few weeks to a maximum of 12 months post-implementation, and these outcomes were diverse. The studies were generally of low to moderate quality and of low levels of evidence, with all but one of the studies containing a high risk of bias. The results of these studies suggest some improvements in patient safety arising from use of safety checklists, but these were not consistent across all studies or for all outcomes. Some studies showed no difference in outcomes between checklist use and standard care without a checklist. Due to the variations in setting, checklist design, educational training given, and outcomes measured, it was unfeasible to accurately summarise any trends across all studies. Conclusions The included studies suggest some benefits of using safety checklists to improve protocol adherence and patient safety, but due to the risk of bias in these studies, their results should be interpreted with
Richard-Denis, Andréane; Thompson, Cynthia; Bourassa-Moreau, Étienne; Parent, Stefan; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of acute care in specialized spinal cord injury (SCI) trauma centers on the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PU) upon arrival at a functional rehabilitation center after a traumatic SCI. This is a retrospective cohort study among 123 patients with traumatic SCI referred to intensive functional rehabilitation between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Group 1 (n = 90) was referred from a level 1 specialized SCI trauma center and group 2 (n = 33) was referred from seven trauma centers not specialized in SCI. The total prevalence of patients with PU at admission to functional rehabilitation was 33.3% (26.7% in group 1 and 51.5% in group 2, P = 0.017). There were also more patients with multiple PU in group 2 (24.2% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.0001). A binary logistic regression showed a significant relationship between the occurrence of PU and the type of acute care facility as well as the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale grade. Receiving acute care at the specialized SCI trauma center was associated with a decrease in the number of patients developing one and multiple PU. These results highlight the importance of specialized SCI trauma centers in acute care of patients with traumatic SCI in reducing PU at their admission to functional rehabilitation settings.
Roberts, C M; Ryland, I; Lowe, D; Kelly, Y; Bucknall, C E; Pearson, M G
Despite publication of several management guidelines for COPD, relatively little is known about standards of care in clinical practice. Data were collected on the management of 1400 cases of acute admission with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 38 UK hospitals to compare clinical practice against the recommended British Thoracic Society standards. Variation in the process of care between the different centres was analysed and a comparison of the management by respiratory specialists and nonrespiratory specialists made. There were large variations between centres for many of the variables studied. A forced expiratory volume in one second measurement was found in only 53% of cases. Of the investigations recommended in the acute management arterial blood gases were performed in 79% (interhospital range 40-100%) of admissions and oxygen was formally prescribed in only 64% (range 9-94%). Of those cases with acidosis and hypercapnia 35% had no further blood gas analysis and only 13% received ventilatory support. Long-term management was also deficient with 246 cases known to be severely hypoxic on admission yet two-thirds had no confirmation that oxygen levels had returned to levels above the requirements for long-term oxygen therapy. Only 30% of current smokers had cessation advice documented. To conclude, the median standards of care observed fell below those recommended by the guidelines. The lowest levels of performance were for patients not under the respiratory specialists, but specialists also have room for improvement. The substantial variation in the process of care between hospitals is strong evidence that it is possible for other centres with poorer performance to improve their levels of care.
Sacharok, C; Drew, J
As the population ages and becomes more frail, pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence within specific care settings are being evaluated through outcomes review. This article summarizes the process and outcomes of an ongoing prevalence study at a 300-bed acute care community hospital. All patients on the adult medical, surgical, and critical care units were examined regularly by the "Rear Admirals," a team comprising a skin care resource person and a nursing unit representative. The Total Quality Management model, characterized by the phrase "Plan-Do-Check-Act," was used to address barriers to quality care. Findings during that time prompted changes in policies, products, protocols, work assignments, and documentation tools. The outcomes achieved demonstrated the effectiveness of those strategies. After implementation of the Total Quality Management model at our Institution, the prevalence of patients with nosocomial pressure ulcers was reduced by 83%.
Smith, Christopher D; Robert, Stefanie
The use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs' or 'designer drugs') is increasing worldwide. Patients misusing such substances have been reported to experience severe or prolonged side effects requiring admission to acute or critical care wards. These complications can be life threatening if misdiagnosed or mismanaged. As physicians have traditionally had less involvement with the management of such patients compared with their colleagues in emergency departments an update in the management of such patients is indicated. Here we present a summary of the management of those novel substances with the potential for serious complications based on a review of current literature.
Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Pérez, Esperanza Zuriguel; Padrés, Núria Fabrellas; Samartino, Maribel Gonzalez; García, Marta Romero; Creus, Mònica Castellà; Batllori, Núria Vila; Calvo, Cristina Matud
This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of psychosocial aspects of basic nursing care, as e-charted by nurses, when using an interface terminology. An observational, multicentre study was conducted in acute wards. The main outcome measure was the frequency of use of the psychosocial interventions in the electronic nursing care plans, analysed over a 12 month retrospective review. Overall, 150,494 electronic care plans were studied. Most of the intervention concepts from the interface terminology were used by registered nurses to illustrate the psychosocial aspects of fundamentals of care in the electronic care plans. The results presented help to demonstrate that the interventions of this interface terminology may be useful to inform psychosocial aspects of basic and advanced nursing care. The identification of psychosocial elements of basic nursing care in the nursing documentation may lead to obtain a deeper understanding of those caring interventions nurses consider essential to represent nurse-patient interactions. The frequency of psychosocial interventions may contribute to delineate basic and advanced nursing care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Campbell, Bruce W
Government policies and community expectations in Australia continually lead to calls for healthcare change. These changes are often met with resistance from clinicians and managers. Making change happen requires consideration of the way policies, culture, context, shared vision and leadership can drive or impede change. This reflective case study critically investigates one change process; the evolution of a Sub-acute Ambulatory Care Services (SACS) program in an Australian regional hospital over a 3-year period. The new Community Rehabilitation Services (CRS) program evolved from a merger of Centre and Home Based Rehabilitation (CBR and HBR). Hospital amalgamations, closures and privatisation, and the Department of Health policy relating to SACS, ambulatory care and rehabilitation were some of the key elements explored in this paper.
Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy; Ni Leime, Aine; Larkin, Philip; Payne, Sheila; Froggatt, Katherine A; O'Shea, Eamon
The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholders and direct care managers' perspectives on the current provision of end-of-life care for older people in acute and long-stay care settings in Ireland and to construct a model of these. Although the literature reveals a number of factors that impact on end-of-life care, no study has examined staff perceptions concerning the provision of good end-of-life care for older people in an Irish context. Grounded theory was used. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data between 2007-2008. A purposive sample of 33 staff involved in the delivery of end-of-life care to older people working in six sites were selected. Factors that influence provision of end-of-life care in Ireland were identified. The core category was 'dying well'. The potential to 'die well' was influenced by three factors, namely philosophy, culture and organisation of care, knowing the person and physical environment and resources. People are living longer consequently acute and long-stay care setting will increasingly become places where older people die. This study identified the factors that influence the provision of good end-of-life care for older people. Mobilising resources to ensure that these factors are considered is crucial to ensuring that regardless of where older people die in Ireland, they will receive the highest standard of care that nurses can provide. Understanding the factors that influence the provision of end-of-life care in acute and long-stay facilities in Ireland can help health professionals give more focused support and ensure that influencing factors are addressed so that older people at end-of-life receive quality end-of-life care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Link, Tamara L; Townsend, Mary L; Leung, Eugene; Kommu, Sekhar; Vega, Rhonda Y; Hendrix, Cristina C
Acute bronchitis is a predominantly viral illness and, according to clinical practice guidelines, should not be treated with antibiotics. Despite clear guidelines, acute bronchitis continues to be the most common acute respiratory illness for which antibiotics are incorrectly prescribed. Although the national benchmark for antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis is 0%, a preliminary record review before implementing the intervention at the project setting showed that 96% (N = 30) of adults with acute bronchitis in this setting were prescribed an antibiotic. This quality improvement project utilized a single-group, pre-post design. The setting for this project was a large urgent care network with numerous locations in central North Carolina. The purpose was to determine whether nurse practitioners and physician assistants, after participating in a multifaceted provider education session, would reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for healthy adults with acute uncomplicated bronchitis. Twenty providers attended 1 of 4 training sessions offered in October and November 2015. The face-to-face interactive training sessions focused on factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, current clinical practice guidelines, and patient communication skills. Retrospective medical record review of 217 pretraining and 335 posttraining encounters for acute bronchitis by 19 eligible participating providers demonstrated a 61.9% reduction in immediate antibiotic prescribing from 91.7% to 29.8%. Delayed prescribing, which accounted for a small percentage of the total prescriptions given, had a small but significant increase of 9.3% after training. Overall, this multifaceted, interactive provider training resulted in significant reductions in inappropriate prescriptions.
Fulmer, T; Ashley, J; Reilly, C
In conclusion, it is important to reiterate the interdependent nature of the functional health patterns as they relate to the geriatric patient in the acute care setting. Further, the combination of the primary nursing model with the functional health pattern approach that leads to subsequent nursing diagnoses provides a comprehensive care approach, which is so important for the elderly patient. As elders live longer, become frailer, and are subject to increasingly frequent hospitalizations, it will become more and more important to provide care in a manner that decreases fragmentation, increases individualization, and makes provisions for comprehensive and wholistic continuing care.
Nothelle, Stephanie K; Sharma, Ritu; Oakes, Allison H; Jackson, Madeline; Segal, Jodi B
Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are widely used in institutionalized older adults, yet the key determinants that drive their use are incompletely characterized. We systematically searched published literature within MEDLINE and Embase from January 1998 to March 2017. We searched for studies conducted in the United States that described determinants of PIM use in adults ≥60 years of age in a nursing home or residential care facility, in the emergency department (ED), or in the hospital. Paired reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text articles, assessed quality, and extracted data. Among 30 included articles, 12 examined PIM use in the nursing home or residential care settings, 4 in the ED, 12 in acute care hospitals, and 2 across settings. The Beers criteria were most frequently used to identify PIM use, which ranged from 3.6% to 92.0%. Across all settings, the most common determinants of PIM use were medication burden and geographic region. In the nursing home, the most common additional determinants were younger age, and diagnoses of depression or diabetes. In both the ED and hospital, patients receiving care in the West, Midwest, and South, relative to the Northeast, were at greater risk of receiving a PIM. Very few studies examined clinician determinants of PIM use; geriatricians used fewer PIMs in the hospital than other clinicians. Among older adults, those who are on many medications are at increased risk for PIM use across multiple settings. We propose that careful testing of interventions that target modifiable determinants are indicated to assess their impact on PIM use. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lim, Eric; Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Karen
Consumer aggression is common in the acute mental health inpatient setting. Mental health nurses can utilize a range of interventions to prevent aggression or reduce its impact on the person and others who have witnessed the event. Incorporating recovery-focussed care into clinical practice is one intervention, as it fosters collaborative partnerships with consumers. It promotes their engagement in decisions about their care and encourages self-management of their presenting behaviours. It also allows the consumer to engage in their personal recovery as their mental health improve. Yet there is a paucity of literature on how nurses can utilize recovery-focussed care with consumers who are hospitalized and in the acute phase of their illness. In the present study, we report the findings of a scoping review of the literature to identify how recovery-focussed care can be utilized by nurses to reduce the risk of consumer aggression. Thirty-five papers met the inclusion criteria for review. Four components were identified as central to the use of recovery-focussed care with consumers at risk of becoming aggressive: (i) seeing the person and not just their presenting behaviour; (ii) interact, don't react; (iii) coproduction to achieve identified goals; and (iv) equipping the consumer as an active manager of their recovery. The components equip nurses with strategies to decrease the risk of aggression, while encouraging consumers to self-manage their challenging behaviours and embark on their personal recovery journey. Further research is required to evaluate the translation of these components clinically in the acute care setting. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Selby, Debbie; Seccaraccia, Dori; Huth, Jim; Kurrpa, Kristin; Fitch, Margaret
The goal of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' (HCPs') perception of their role in provision of spiritual care, in addition to attempting to identify a simple question(s) to help identify spiritual distress. Spirituality is well recognized as important to whole-person care, particularly in those with terminal illnesses. Understanding the role of front-line providers in the identification and management of spiritual distress, however, remains challenging. Twenty-one HCPs (eight physicians, seven nurses, six social workers) underwent qualitative semi-structured interviews exploring an understanding of spirituality/spiritual distress. HCPs were drawn from inpatient and outpatient settings in a tertiary care facility, and all had experience with patients with terminal illnesses. Interviews were subsequently coded and analyzed for dominant themes. Essentially all participants spoke of the high importance of spirituality and spiritual care, particularly for those facing end of life. However, the majority of HCPs had difficulty in formulating definitions/descriptions of spiritual care and spiritual distress, in marked contradistinction to the importance they ascribed to this aspect of holistic care. Almost universally provision of spiritual care was seen as critical, yet in the domain of chaplaincy/dedicated spiritual care providers. Reasons frequently cited for HCP's reluctance to provide such care themselves included time available, lack of training and expertise, and the sense that others could do a better job. Despite spirituality being highlighted as important to care, few HCPs felt able to provide this, raising questions around how such care can be encouraged and developed in busy acute care settings.
Jump, Robin L P; Gaur, Swati; Katz, Morgan J; Crnich, Christopher J; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Ashraf, Muhammad S; Frentzel, Elizabeth; Schweon, Steven J; Sloane, Philip; Nace, David
In response to a rising concern for multidrug resistance and Clostridium difficile infections, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services (CMS) will require all long-term care (LTC) facilities to establish an antibiotic stewardship program by November 2017. Thus far, limited evidence describes implementation of antibiotic stewardship in LTC facilities, mostly in academic- or hospital-affiliated settings. To support compliance with CMS requirements and aid facilities in establishing a stewardship program, the Infection Advisory Committee at AMDA-The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine, has developed an antibiotic stewardship policy template tailored to the LTC setting. The intent of this policy, which can be adapted by individual facilities, is to help LTC facilities implement an antibiotic stewardship policy that will meet or exceed CMS requirements. We also briefly discuss implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program in LTC settings, including a list of free resources to support those efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J
Although infection may be suggested by signs and symptoms such as fever, pain, general malaise, and abnormal laboratory results, imaging tests often are used to confirm its presence. Morphologic imaging tests identify structural alterations of tissues or organs that result from a combination of microbial invasion and the inflammatory response of the host. Functional imaging studies use minute quantities of radioactive material, which are taken up directly by cells, tissues, and organs, or are attached to substances that subsequently migrate to the region of interest. Bone scintigraphy is extremely sensitive and can be positive within 2 days after the onset of symptoms. With an accuracy of more than 90%, 3-phase bone scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in unviolated bone. In patients with acute renal failure, gallium imaging facilitates the differentiation of acute interstitial nephritis from acute tubular necrosis. Gallium imaging also is useful in the evaluation of pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many opportunistic infections affect the lungs, and a normal gallium scan of the chest excludes infection with a high degree of certainty, especially when the chest x-ray is negative. In the human immunodeficiency virus positive patient, lymph node uptake usually is associated with mycobacterial disease or lymphoma. Focal pulmonary parenchymal uptake suggests bacterial pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary uptake suggests an opportunistic pneumonia. Gallium imaging provides useful information about other acute respiratory conditions, including radiation pneumonitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In vitro labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 and technetium-99m labeled leukocytes is useful in various acute care situations. The test facilitates the differentiation of normal postoperative changes from infection and is useful for diagnosing prosthetic vascular graft infection. In inflammatory bowel disease, labeled leukocyte
Background In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a “good death” is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician’s ability to manage deaths well. Method A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Results Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Conclusions Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development. PMID:25147481
Trankle, Steven A
In Australia approximately 70% of all deaths are institutionalised but over 15% of deaths occur in intensive care settings where the ability to provide a "good death" is particularly inhibited. Yet, there is a growing trend for death and dying to be managed in the ICU and physicians are increasingly challenged to meet the new expectations of their specialty. This study examined the unexplored interface between specialised Australian palliative and intensive care and the factors influencing a physician's ability to manage deaths well. A qualitative investigation was focused on palliative and critical/acute settings. A thematic analysis was conducted on semi-structured in-depth interviews with 13 specialist physicians. Attention was given to eliciting meanings and experiences in Australian end-of-life care. Physicians negotiated multiple influences when managing dying patients and their families in the ICU. The way they understood and experienced end-of-life care practices was affected by cultural, institutional and professional considerations, and personal values and beliefs. Interpersonal and intrapsychic aspects highlighted the emotional and psychological relationship physicians have with patients and others. Many physicians were also unaware of what their cross-disciplinary colleagues could or could not do; poor professional recognition and collaboration, and ineffective care goal transition impaired their ability to assist good deaths. Experience was subject to the efficacy of physicians in negotiating complex bedside dynamics. Regardless of specialty, all physicians identified the problematic nature of providing expert palliation in critical and acute settings. Strategies for integrating specialised palliative and intensive care were offered with corresponding directions for future research and clinical development.
Ahmed, Shyfuddin; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ashique Haider; Khan, Md Alfazal; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Naheed, Aliya
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of global mortality. Among the CVDs, acute vascular events (AVE) mainly ischemic heart diseases and stroke are the largest contributors. To achieve 25% reduction in preventable deaths from CVDs by 2025, health systems need to be equipped with extended service coverage in order to provide person-centered care. The overall goal of this proposed study is to assess access to health care in-terms of service availability, care seeking patterns and barriers to access care after AVE in rural Bangladesh. We will consider myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke as acute vascular events. We will conduct a mixed methods study in rural Matlab, Bangladesh. This study will comprise of a) health facility survey, b) structured questionnaire interview and c) qualitative study. We will assess service availabilities by creating an inventory of public and private health facilities. Readiness of the facilities to deliver services for AVE will be assessed through a health facility survey using 'service availability and readiness assessment' (SARA) tools of the World Health Organization (WHO). We will interview survivors of AVE and caregivers (present and accompanied the person during the event) of person who died from AVE for exploring patterns of care seeking during an AVE. For exploring barriers to access care for AVE, we will conduct in-depth interview with survivors of AVE and caregivers of the person who died from AVE. We will also conduct key informant interviews with the service providers at primary health care (PHC) facilities and government high level officials at central health administration of Bangladesh. This study will provide a comprehensive picture of access to primary health care services during acute cardiovascular events as stroke & MI in rural context of Bangladesh. It will explore available service facilities in rural area for management, utilization of services and barriers to access care during an acute emergency
Background Improving palliative care management in acute hospital settings has been identified as a priority internationally. The aim of this study was to establish the proportion of inpatients within one acute hospital in New Zealand who meet prognostic criteria for palliative care need and explore key aspects of their management. Methods A prospective survey of adult hospital inpatients (n = 501) was undertaken. Case notes were examined for evidence that the patient might be in their last year of life according to Gold Standards Framework (GSF) prognostic indicator criteria. For patients who met GSF criteria, clinical and socio-demographic information were recorded. Results Ninety-nine inpatients met GSF criteria, representing 19.8% of the total census population. The patients’ average age was 70 years; 47% had a primary diagnosis of cancer. Two thirds had died within 6 months of their admission. Seventy-eight of the 99 cases demonstrated evidence that a palliative approach to care had been adopted; however documentation of discussion about goals of care was very limited and only one patient had evidence of an advance care plan. Conclusion One fifth of hospital inpatients met criteria for palliative care need, the majority of whom were aged >70 years. Whilst over three quarters were concluded to be receiving care in line with a palliative care approach, very little documented evidence of discussion with patients and families regarding end of life issues was evident. Future research needs to explore how best to support ‘generalist’ palliative care providers in initiating, and appropriately recording, such discussions. PMID:23537092
Thompson, C; McCaughan, D; Cullum, N; Sheldon, T A; Mulhall, A; Thompson, D R
The successful dissemination of the results of the National Health Service (NHS) research and development strategy and the development of evidence based approaches to health care rely on clinicians having access to the best available evidence; evidence fit for the purpose of reducing the uncertainties associated with clinical decisions. To reveal the accessibility of those sources of information actually used by nurses, as well as those which they say they use. Mixed method case site, using interview, observational, Q sort and documentary audit data in medical, surgical and coronary care units (CCUs) in three acute hospitals. Three perspectives on accessibility were identified: (a) the humanist--in which human sources of information were the most accessible; (b) local information for local needs--in which locally produced resources were seen as the most accessible and (c) moving towards technology--in which information technology begins to be seen as accessible. Nurses' experience in a clinical specialty is positively associated with a perception that human sources such as clinical nurse specialists, link nurses, doctors and experienced clinical colleagues are more accessible than text based sources. Clinical specialization is associated with different approaches to accessing research knowledge. Coronary care unit nurses were more likely to perceive local guidelines, protocols and on-line databases as more accessible than their counterparts in general medical and surgical wards. Only a third of text-based resources available to nurses on the wards had any explicit research base. These, and the remainder were out of date (mean age of textbooks 11 years), and authorship hard to ascertain. A strategy to increase the use of research evidence by nurses should harness the influence of clinical nurse specialists, link nurses and those engaged in practice development. These roles could act as 'conduits' through which research-based messages for practice, and information
Powell, Tom; Wigglesworth, Neil; Drey, Nick; Gould, Dinah
Little research has been completed to assess the numbers of infection prevention and control personnel employed or optimal size and composition of infection control teams. Acute national health hospital organizations in England were requested to provide information about the numbers of infection prevention and control personnel employed and weekly hours contributed by each occupational group under the United Kingdom's Freedom of Information legislation. The relationship between capacity of the infection prevention and control workforce, size of the inpatient population, and routinely collected surveillance data for health care-associated infection were explored. There were 137 (85%) National Health Service (NHS) hospital organizations that responded. The number of infection prevention and control nurses ranged from 1-16 per organization. A total of 46 (33.6%) reported that they received no clinical microbiology sessions, and for 11 (8%) input was inadequate. An antibiotic pharmacist was reported to be employed in 107 (78.1%) organizations. Few infection prevention and control teams reported receiving the following: 1. managerial support, 2. being represented on committees where decisions about resource allocation were made, or 3. assistance with administration. Despite the priority that infection prevention and control have received in the United Kingdom over the last 10 years, many infection prevention and control teams appear underresourced. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henschke, Nicholas; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Herbert, Robert D; Cumming, Robert G; Bleasel, Jane; York, John; Das, Anurina; McAuley, James H
To determine the prevalence of serious pathology in patients presenting to primary care settings with acute low back pain, and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of recommended "red flag" screening questions. An inception cohort of 1,172 consecutive patients receiving primary care for acute low back pain was recruited from primary care clinics in Sydney, Australia. At the initial consultation, clinicians recorded responses to 25 red flag questions and then provided an initial diagnosis. The reference standard was a 12-month followup supplemented with a specialist review of a random subsample of participants. There were 11 cases (0.9%) of serious pathology, including 8 cases of fracture. Despite the low prevalence of serious pathology, most patients (80.4%) had at least 1 red flag (median 2, interquartile range 1-3). Only 3 of the red flags for fracture recommended for use in clinical guidelines were informative: prolonged use of corticosteroids, age >70 years, and significant trauma. Clinicians identified 5 of the 11 cases of serious pathology at the initial consultation and made 6 false-positive diagnoses. The status of a diagnostic prediction rule containing 4 features (female sex, age >70 years, significant trauma, and prolonged use of corticosteroids) was moderately associated with the presence of fracture (the area under the curve for the rule score was 0.834 [95% confidence interval 0.654-1.014]; P = 0.001). In patients presenting to a primary care provider with back pain, previously undiagnosed serious pathology is rare. The most common serious pathology observed was vertebral fracture. Approximately half of the cases of serious pathology were identified at the initial consultation. Some red flags have very high false-positive rates, indicating that, when used in isolation, they have little diagnostic value in the primary care setting.
Huddleston, Penny; Gray, Jennifer
The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Healthy Work Environment Assessment tool (AACN HWEAT) was developed as a simple screening assessment for clinical units to quickly get individual feedback on the status of the nurses' work environments based on the AACN standards of a healthy work environment (HWE). Pilot studies were conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the tool after seeking permission from AACN and the Vital Smarts Company. The purposes of these research studies were to assess the psychometric properties of the AACN HWEAT and to measure the nurse leaders' and direct care nurses' perceptions of an HWE in an acute care setting. Nonexperimental descriptive survey designs were implemented with 3 convenience samples for a total sample of 321 nurse leaders and direct care nurses. Cronbach's αs of .97 for nurse leaders and .91 for direct care nurses demonstrated strong reliability or internal consistency of the tool. Face validity demonstrated 13 of 18 items placed in the correct category. The scale content validity index score was 96.63. Concurrent validity demonstrated that items were highly correlated, ranging from 0.42, with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.57 to 0.69, to 0.85, with 95% CI of 0.70-0.93, P < .05. Principal component analysis revealed 2 components for the tool. As a result of these findings, an opportunity was identified to develop additional tools to measure an HWE for nurses at all levels in acute care settings.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Rattray, Janice; Jones, Martyn; Macgillivray, Stephen
To present the findings of a structured literature review that aimed to identify the influences on the health, safety and welfare of adults with learning disabilities in acute hospitals. There is increasing evidence regarding the inadequacy of care for people with learning disabilities in acute care settings. However, few studies have specifically addressed their health, safety and welfare in such contexts. Four key electronic databases (Medline; PsycINFO; British Nursing Index and archive; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched for relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011. Publications assessed as meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved in full. Data were extracted regarding methods used; primary aims of the study being reported; and key findings. Of the 3505 papers identified in the initial search, eight met the inclusion criteria. Analysis revealed six areas of influence on the health, safety and welfare of adults with learning disabilities in acute hospitals: care provision (meeting health and personal needs); communication; staff attitudes; staff knowledge; supporters; and carers (valuing their role); physical environment. We represent these six areas diagrammatically, as concentric rings. These influence on health, safety and welfare form an inner (direct) layer and an outer (indirect) layer consisting of liaison services and education/training. This new conceptualisation of influences as being multi-layered assists in the identification of similarly multi-layered improvement strategies. Adults with learning disabilities can exert their own influence on health, safety and welfare and should be supported to make decisions about their own care. More broadly they should be involved with policy development, nurse education and research. This can be achieved through inclusive approaches, for example, inviting people with learning disabilities to input into nursing curricula or to engage in research as
Reyniers, Thijs; Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim; Pasman, H Roeline; Deliens, Luc
While the focus of end-of-life care research and policy has predominantly been on 'death in a homelike environment', little is known about perceptions of the acute hospital setting as a place of final care or death. Using a qualitative design and constant comparative analysis, the perspectives of family physicians, nurses and family carers were explored. Participants generally perceived the acute hospital setting to be inadequate for terminally ill patients, although they indicated that in some circumstances it might be a 'safe haven'. This implies that a higher quality of end-of-life care provision in the acute hospital setting needs to be ensured, preferably by improving communication skills. At the same time alternatives to the acute hospital setting need to be developed or expanded.
Chang, Yee Y; Carville, Keryln; Tay, Ai C
Skin tears appear to be a hidden and extensive problem despite an increased focus in the literature on skin tear epidemiology, prevention strategies and management modalities. Currently, there has been no report of skin tear epidemiology published in Singapore. The aim of the present study was to pilot the methodology by WoundWest at one of the tertairy hospitals in Singapore. The secondary objective was to determine the prevalence and current nursing management of skin tears within two selected acute medical wards in the hospital. A point prevalence survey was conducted within the two medical wards. Six registered nurses acted as the surveyors and underwent pre-survey education. Inter-rater reliability testing was conducted. Surveyors were paired and performed skin examinations on all available patients in the two wards. Data were collected on age, gender, skin tear anatomical locations, their Skin Tear Audit Research categories, dressings used on identified skin tears and related documentation. A total of 144 (98%) patients consented to skin inspections. Findings demonstrated a skin tear prevalence of 6·2%; all skin tears were found to be hospital-acquired and located on the extremities. Most (78%) were in the age range of 70-89 years. There was a dearth in nursing documentation of the skin tears identified and their management. The findings suggested that nurses were lacking in the knowledge of skin tears, and documentation, if available, was not consistent. There is an urgent clinical need for the implementation of a validated skin tear classification tool; standardised protocols for skin tear prevention and management; and a comprehensive skin tear educational programme for hospital care staff. Quarterly hospital-wide skin tear prevalence surveys are also needed to evaluate improvement strategies. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nace, David A; Archbald-Pannone, Laurie R; Ashraf, Muhammad S; Drinka, Paul J; Frentzel, Elizabeth; Gaur, Swati; Mahajan, Dheeraj; Mehr, David R; Mercer, William C; Sloane, Philip D; Jump, Robin L P
Efforts at preventing pneumococcal disease are a national health priority, particularly in older adults and especially in post-acute and long-term care settings The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all adults ≥65 years of age, as well as adults 18-64 years of age with specific risk factors, receive both the recently introduced polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against 13 pneumococcal serotypes as well as the polysaccharide vaccine against 23 pneumococcal serotypes. Nursing facility licensure regulations require facilities to assess the pneumococcal vaccination status of each resident, provide education regarding pneumococcal vaccination, and administer the appropriate pneumococcal vaccine when indicated. Sorting out the indications and timing for 13 pneumococcal serotypes and 23 pneumococcal serotypes administration is complex and presents a significant challenge to healthcare providers. Here, we discuss the importance of pneumococcal vaccination for older adults, detail AMDA-The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (The Society)'s recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination practice and procedures, and offer guidance to postacute and long-term care providers supporting the development and effective implementation of pneumococcal vaccine policies.
Wilson, Allyson; Hutchinson, Marie; Hurley, John
Trauma-informed care (TIC) is increasingly recognized as an approach to improving consumers' experience of, and outcomes from, mental health services. Deriving consensus on the definition, successful approaches, and consumer experiences of TIC is yet to be attained. In the present study, we sought to clarify the challenges experienced by mental health nurses in embedding TIC into acute inpatient settings within Australia. A systematic search of electronic databases was undertaken to identify primary research conducted on the topic of TIC. A narrative review and synthesis of the 11 manuscripts retained from the search was performed. The main findings from the review indicate that there are very few studies focussing on TIC in the Australian context of acute mental health care. The review demonstrates that TIC can support a positive organizational culture and improve consumer experiences of care. The present review highlights that there is an urgency for mental health nurses to identify their role in delivering and evaluating TIC, inclusive of undertaking training and clinical supervision, and to engage in systemic efforts to change service cultures. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
A specific set of assessment scales can underpin the management of distressing symptoms of patients requiring palliative care. A research assistant supported nurses working in a rural hospital setting during the introduction of these scales. A secondary analysis was conducted to further explore the qualitative data of a previously reported mixed-method study. In particular, the experiences of nurses working alongside a research assistant in the facilitation of using a new assessment form. Purposeful sampling was employed: participating nurses were invited to attend one of three focus group meetings. Data analysis revealed three main themes: a contact person, coach/mentor and extra help initiatives. Three to four subthemes corresponded with each main theme. Findings suggest nurses benefit from having someone to assist in learning about new documentation. Nurses respond positively to mentorship and practical guidance when integrating a new assessment form into routine evidence-based practice.
Haidvogl, Max; Riley, David S; Heger, Marianne; Brien, Sara; Jong, Miek; Fischer, Michael; Lewith, George T; Jansen, Gerard; Thurneysen, André E
Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting. Methods The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (≤ 7 days) runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8), Germany (8), the Netherlands (7), Russia (6), Spain (6), Ukraine (4), United Kingdom (10) and the USA (8) and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy. Results Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H) and 720 conventional (C) treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; p = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing). In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients) similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; p = 0.0019). Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5%) and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22) in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34) in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic treatment both
Cossette, Benoit; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Forget, Amélie; Lemière, Catherine; Larivée, Pierre; Rey, Évelyne; Couturier, Marie; Rodrigue, Claudie; Blais, Lucie
Asthma exacerbations are common during pregnancy with a prevalence as high as 51.9% among women with severe asthma. To compare the treatment of asthma exacerbations in an acute-care setting during and outside of pregnancy. We formed a cohort of women who sought medical care for an asthma exacerbation at a teaching hospital during or in the year preceding pregnancy, between 1998 and 2008. An exacerbation was composed of one or more medical encounters in an acute-care setting (hospital-based outpatient clinic, emergency department, or during hospitalization). Data were retrieved from medical charts and health administrative databases. We compared the use of systemic corticosteroids (SCSs) during and outside of pregnancy with a Cox proportional hazards model. The cohort was formed of 39 women who had 40 exacerbations during and 39 exacerbations outside of pregnancy. Use of SCSs to treat exacerbations was less frequent (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84) during pregnancy. Moreover, upon the first medical encounter related to the exacerbation, SCSs, when administered, were given less frequently to women when pregnant than when non-pregnant (83% vs. 100%). The SCS prescription was filled at the community pharmacy 65% and 67% of the time when it was prescribed at discharge to women when pregnant than when non-pregnant, respectively. We observed a reduced and delayed use of SCSs for the treatment of asthma exacerbations in women when pregnant than when non-pregnant, with similar numbers of women in both conditions filling their SCSs prescription in pharmacies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Progressive Return to Activity Following Acute Concussion /Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guidance for the Primary Care Manager in Deployed and Non...Following Acute Concussion /Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Guidance for the Primary Care Manager in Deployed and Non-deployed Settings (BRIEFING SLIDES) 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Describe the role of this clinical recommendation and overall goal for recovery following concussion /mTBI Understand the
Hogan, Pamela; Moxham, Lorna; Dwyer, Trudy
It is paramount that there is an adequate nursing workforce supply for now and in the future, to achieve equitable and quality health outcomes and consumer access to healthcare, regardless of geographic location. Nursing forms the largest body of employees in the health care system, spanning all segments of care. A shortage of nurses, particularly in the acute care settings in hospitals, jeopardizes the provision of quality health care to consumers. This article provides a literature review of Australian State and Federal Government reports into nurse retention. All reports discuss staff turnover rates; the average age of nurses; enrolment numbers in nursing courses; workloads; nursing workforce shortfalls and the effect on the work environment; leadership and management styles; organizational culture; change management; the mobility of nursing qualifications both locally and internationally and the critical need to value nurses. Then why has the situation of nurse retention not improved? Possible reasons for the continued nurse shortage and the promise of strategic HRM in addressing nurse retention are discussed.
Dahlin, Andreas P; Purins, Karlis; Clausen, Fredrik; Chu, Jiangtao; Sedigh, Amir; Lorant, Tomas; Enblad, Per; Lewén, Anders; Hillered, Lars
There is growing interest in cerebral microdialysis (MD) for sampling of protein biomarkers in neurointensive care (NIC) patients. Published data point to inherent problems with this methodology including protein interaction and biofouling leading to unstable catheter performance. This study tested the in vivo performance of a refined MD method including catheter surface modification, for protein biomarker sampling in a clinically relevant porcine brain injury model. Seven pigs of both sexes (10-12 weeks old; 22.2-27.3 kg) were included. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure was recorded during the stepwise elevation of intracranial pressure by inflation of an epidural balloon catheter with saline (1 mL/20 min) until brain death. One naïve MD catheter and one surface modified with Pluronic F-127 (10 mm membrane, 100 kDa molecular weight cutoff MD catheter) were inserted into the right frontal cortex and perfused with mock CSF with 3% Dextran 500 at a flow rate of 1.0 μL/min and 20 min sample collection. Naïve catheters showed unstable fluid recovery, sensitive to ICP changes, which was significantly stabilized by surface modification. Three of seven naïve catheters failed to deliver a stable fluid recovery. MD levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glycerol and urea measured enzymatically showed an expected gradual ischemic and cellular distress response to the intervention without differences between naïve and surface modified catheters. The 17 most common proteins quantified by iTRAQ and nanoflow LC-MS/MS were used as biomarker models. These proteins showed a significantly more homogeneous response to the ICP intervention in surface modified compared to naïve MD catheters with improved extraction efficiency for most of the proteins. The refined MD method appears to improve the accuracy and precision of protein biomarker sampling in the NIC setting.
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
In this article, we sought reconciliation between the "body-as-representation" and the "body-as-experience," that is, how the body is represented in discourse and how the body of older people with cognitive impairment is experienced. We identified four contemporary "technologies" and gave examples of these to show how they influence how older people with cognitive impairment are often represented in acute care settings. We argued that these technologies may be mediated further by discourses of ageism and ableism which can potentiate either the repressive or productive tendencies of these technologies resulting in either positive or negative care experiences for the older person and/or their carer, including nurses. We then provided examples from research of embodied experiences of older people with dementia and of how nurses and other professionals utilized their inter-bodily experiences to inform acts of caring. The specificity and individuality of these experiences were more conducive to positive care experiences. We conclude the article by proposing that the act of caring is one way nurses seek to reconcile the "body-as-representation" with the "body-as-experience" to mitigate the repressive effects of negative ageism and ableism. The act of caring, we argue, is the essence of caring enacted through the provision of person-centred care which evokes nurses to respond appropriately to the older person's "otherness," their "variation of being" while enabling them to enact a continuation of themselves and their own version of normality.
Orique, Sabrina B; Patty, Christopher M; Woods, Ellen
This study replicates previous research on the nature and causes of missed nursing care and adds an explanatory variable: unit-level nurse workload (patient turnover percentage). The study was conducted in California, which legally mandates nurse staffing ratios. Findings demonstrated no significant relationship between patient turnover and missed nursing care.
Jenkins, Peggy; Welton, John
The objective of the study was to measure the variability of direct nursing cost for similar patients and to examine the characteristics of nurses assigned to different types of patients. There is no standard method for measuring direct nursing cost by patient. Deidentified data were collected from 3 databases for patients admitted from January 2010 through December 2012 on 1 medical/surgical unit in a large Magnet hospital. Direct nursing care time and costs were calculated from the nurse-patient assignment. Variability in nursing intensity (0.36-13 hours) and cost per patient day ($132-$1,455) was significant for similar patients. Higher cost nurses were not assigned sicker patients (F3, 3029 = 87.09, P < .001, R = 0.124). Mean (SD) nursing direct cost per day was $96.48 ($55.73). Standard measurement of nursing cost per patient could be benchmarked across hospitals and inform nursing administration care delivery decisions.
Bloomer, Melissa J; Endacott, Ruth; O'Connor, Margaret; Cross, Wendy
Changes in health care and an ageing population have meant that more people are dying in the acute hospital setting. While palliative care principles have resulted in quality care for the dying, many patients die in an acute care, still receiving aggressive/resuscitative care. The aims were to explore nurses' 'recognition of' and 'responsiveness to' dying patients and to understand the nurses' influence on end-of-life care. A qualitative approach was taken utilising non-participant observation to elicit rich data, followed by focus groups and individual semi-structured interviews for clarification. This study was conducted in two acute medical wards in one health service, identified as having the highest rates of death, once palliative care and critical care areas were excluded. Twenty-five nurses consented to participate, and 20 episodes of observation were conducted. Nurses took a passive role in recognising dying, providing active care until a medical officer's declaration of dying. Ward design, nurse allocation and nurses' attitude to death impacts patient care. End-of-life care in a single room can have negative consequences for the dying. Nurses demonstrated varying degrees of discomfort, indicating that they were underprepared for this role. When patients are terminally ill, acknowledgement of dying is essential in providing appropriate care. It should not be assumed that all nurses are adequately prepared to provide dying care. Further work is necessary to investigate how the attitudes of nurses towards caring for dying patients in the acute hospital setting may impact care of the dying patient.
Trueman, Gregg; Osuji, Joseph; El-Hussein, Mohamed Toufic
This article describes a unique learning project designed to address the praxis gap between baccalaureate nursing students' clinical learning and theoretic principles of collaborative practice on an acute medical-surgical unit in Canada. The study was framed by the active engagement model to provide second-year nursing students a nontraditional approach to develop their nursing practice. Clinical faculty partnered with medical-surgical nursing staff and eight baccalaureate nursing students to explore the experience of collaborative learning and stakeholders' anticipated learning outcomes while working in dyads. A modified phenomenological approach was used in understanding the experience of dyadic learning through reflective journals, course evaluation data, and a semistructured exit interview for analysis. Four themes were revealed based on students' reflection of their experience: work engagement, relational practice, autonomy, and empowerment. These themes underscore the strengths and opportunities associated with this nontraditional approach to clinical learning. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Trerise, B; Lemieux-Charles, L
The first reengineering project undertaken by the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre after adopting a philosophy of patient-focused care was the introduction of a new category of worker: the multi-skilled service assistant. This article describes the experiences of the first two cohorts of service assistants and assesses the changes made to the work itself and the integration of the new workers into the work environment. It concludes by sharing recommendations for introducing a new work role.
Büla, Christophe J; Wietlisbach, Vincent
The Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) was initially designed to assess cognition in long term care residents. Subsequently, the CPS has also been used among in-home, post-acute, and acute care populations even though CPS' clinimetric performance has not been studied in these settings. This study aimed to determine CPS agreement with the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and its predictive validity for institutionalization and death in a cohort (N=401) of elderly medical inpatients aged 75 years and over. Medical, physical and mental status were assessed upon admission. The same day, the patient's nurse completed the CPS by interview. Follow-up data were gathered from the central billing system (nursing home stay) and proxies (death). Cognitive impairment was present in 92 (23%) patients according to CPS (score >or= 2). Agreement with MMSE was moderate (kappa 0.52, P<.001). Analysis of discordant results suggested that cognitive impairment was overestimated by the CPS in dependent patients with comorbidities and depressive symptoms, and underestimated in older ones. During follow-up, subjects with abnormal CPS had increased risks of death (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8, P=.035) and institutionalization (adjHR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.3, P=.006), independent of demographic, health and functional status. Interestingly, subjects with abnormal CPS were at increased risk of death only if they also had abnormal MMSE. The CPS predicted death and institutionalization during follow-up, but correlated moderately well with the MMSE. Combining CPS and MMSE provided additional predictive information, suggesting that domains other than cognition are assessed by professionals when using the CPS in elderly medical inpatients.
Tropea, J; Slee, J; Holmes, A C N; Gorelik, A; Brand, C A
Despite delirium being common in older hospitalized people, little is known about its management. The aims of this study are (1) to describe the pharmacological management of delirium in an acute care setting as a baseline measure prior to the implementation of newly developed Australian guidelines; and (2) to determine what areas of delirium pharmacological management need to be targeted for future practical guideline implementation and quality improvement activities. A medical record audit was conducted using a structured audit form. All patients aged 65 years and over who were admitted to a general medical or orthopaedic unit of the Royal Melbourne Hospital between 1 March 2006 and 28 February 2007 and coded with delirium were included. Data on the use of antipsychotic medications for the management of delirium in relation to best practice recommendations were assessed. Overall 174 episodes of care were included in the analysis. Antipsychotic medications were used for the management of most patients with severe behavioral and or emotional disturbance associated with delirium. There was variation in the prescribing patterns of antipsychotic agents and the documentation of medication management plans. Less than a quarter of patients prescribed antipsychotic medication were started on a low dose and very few were reviewed on a regular basis. A wide range of practice is seen in the use of antipsychotic agents to manage older patients with severe symptoms associated with delirium. The findings highlight the need to implement evidence-based guideline recommendations with a focus on improving the consistency in the pharmacological management and documentation processes.
Based on synthesized evidence of transitional challenges facing international nurses and review of existing transition programs in the United States, this article outlines an evidence-based transition program specifically developed for all newly arrived international nurses. This employer-based transition program is designed to meet the unique needs of international nurses working in foreign health care environments. Implications for regulatory agencies, employers, and international nurses related to implementation of this proposed program are elaborated within national and international contexts of new developments relevant to international nurses. This article is predicated on the position that transition of newly arrived international nurses is a regulatory issue and predicts that transition program is likely to be required in the United States in the foreseeable future as is the case in both United Kingdom and Australia.
Giuliano, Christopher; Smalligan, Roger D; Mitchon, Greg; Chua, Matt
Patients with migraine headaches are commonly encountered by clinicians both in the clinic and in the emergency department. Migraines impose a significant financial burden on patients, caregivers, and society. Up to 49% of patients treated acutely for migraine headache will have a recurrence within 72 hours. Recurrence of migraines is dependent on a number of factors, including the choice of abortive agent, age, sex, and initial severity of the migraine. Dexamethasone has been proposed and studied as a medication that may decrease the frequency of such recurrences of migraine headaches in affected patients. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid that has been proposed to prevent recurrence of migraines through its prevention of neurogenic inflammation. Initial trials, with less-than-ideal methodology, showed large decreases in the number of patients experiencing recurrent migraines. Later randomized controlled trials revealed mixed results, with subsequent meta-analyses showing an overall benefit in the prevention of recurrence of migraines. These meta-analyses suggest that dexamethasone will prevent recurrence in about 10% of patients, although trials that used higher doses of dexamethasone and followed patients for ≥ 72 hours showed a larger benefit. Very few adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials following a single dose of dexamethasone. Given the benign side effect profile and wide tolerability to a single high dose of dexamethasone, it appears to be a safe and modestly effective addition to standard migraine abortive therapy for the prevention of migraine recurrence. Dexamethasone should not be used in patients with non-migraine headaches or contraindications to steroids. Further studies should help delineate if dexamethasone can be tailored to specific patient populations and hence enhance its therapeutic effectiveness.
Jayes, Mark; Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pamela
To explore approaches to the assessment of mental capacity within acute hospital and intermediate care settings in England. Two focus group interviews were conducted with multidisciplinary staff (n = 13) within a large hospital trust. Data were analysed using a Framework approach. Three main themes were identified: (i) the assessment process; (ii) staff experience of assessment; (iii) assessing capacity for patients with communication difficulties. Staff identified the main patient groups, patient decisions and professionals involved in capacity assessment. They described using both formal and informal approaches to assess capacity and specific methods to identify and support the needs of patients with communication difficulties during the assessment process. Most staff reported finding capacity assessment challenging, due to time pressures, a perceived lack of knowledge or skills and encountering practice that is not consistent with legal requirements. Staff stated a need for initiatives to facilitate and improve practice. These findings provide confirmatory evidence that mental capacity assessment is complex and challenging and that staff would benefit from additional support and resources to aid their practice. It provides new evidence about the methods used by staff to assess capacity, particularly for patients with communication difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation This study contributes to our understanding of how staff assess capacity in hospital and intermediate care settings. Mental capacity assessment is a complex activity and many staff reported finding it challenging. Patients with communication difficulties need additional support during capacity assessments but may not always receive this. Current practice needs to be improved and staff need support and resources to achieve this.
Dunn Lopez, Karen; Gephart, Sheila M; Raszewski, Rebecca; Sousa, Vanessa; Shehorn, Lauren E; Abraham, Joanna
To report on the state of the science of clinical decision support (CDS) for hospital bedside nurses. We performed an integrative review of qualitative and quantitative peer-reviewed original research studies using a structured search of PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Xplore Digital Library). We included articles that reported on CDS targeting bedside nurses and excluded in stages based on rules for titles, abstracts, and full articles. We extracted research design and methods, CDS purpose, electronic health record integration, usability, and process and patient outcomes. Our search yielded 3157 articles. After removing duplicates and applying exclusion rules, 28 articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were single-site, descriptive or qualitative (43%) or quasi-experimental (36%). There was only 1 randomized controlled trial. The purpose of most CDS was to support diagnostic decision-making (36%), guideline adherence (32%), medication management (29%), and situational awareness (25%). All the studies that included process outcomes (7) and usability outcomes (4) and also had analytic procedures to detect changes in outcomes demonstrated statistically significant improvements. Three of 4 studies that included patient outcomes and also had analytic procedures to detect change showed statistically significant improvements. No negative effects of CDS were found on process, usability, or patient outcomes. Clinical support systems targeting bedside nurses have positive effects on outcomes and hold promise for improving care quality; however, this research is lagging behind studies of CDS targeting medical decision-making in both volume and level of evidence.
Piredda, Michela; Ghezzi, Valerio; Fenizia, Elisa; Marchetti, Anna; Petitti, Tommasangelo; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Sili, Alessandro
To develop and psychometrically test the Italian-language Nurse Caring Behaviours Scale, a short measure of nurse caring behaviour as perceived by inpatients. Patient perceptions of nurses' caring behaviours are a predictor of care quality. Caring behaviours are culture-specific, but no measure of patient perceptions has previously been developed in Italy. Moreover, existing tools show unclear psychometric properties, are burdensome for respondents, or are not widely applicable. Instrument development and psychometric testing. Item generation included identifying and adapting items from existing measures of caring behaviours as perceived by patients. A pool of 28 items was evaluated for face validity. Content validity indexes were calculated for the resulting 15-item scale; acceptability and clarity were pilot tested with 50 patients. To assess construct validity, a sample of 2,001 consecutive adult patients admitted to a hospital in 2014 completed the scale and was split into two groups. Reliability was evaluated using nonlinear structural equation modelling coefficients. Measurement invariance was tested across subsamples. Item 15 loaded poorly in the exploratory factor analysis (n = 983) and was excluded from the final solution, positing a single latent variable with 14 indicators. This model fitted the data moderately. The confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1018) returned similar results. Internal consistency was excellent in both subsamples. Full scalar invariance was reached, and no significant latent mean differences were detected across subsamples. The new instrument shows reasonable psychometric properties and is a promising short and widely applicable measure of inpatient perceptions of nurse caring behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Opersteny, Esther; Anderson, Hanna; Bates, Jourdan; Davenport, Katie; Husby, Jennifer; Myking, Karissa; Oron, Assaf P
The purpose of the project was to compare the temporal artery thermometer (TAT) to the digital probe thermometer readings at axillary or oral sites, to determine the relative precision and sensitivity of the three methods of thermometry, to compare their readings to core temperature when feasible, and to survey patient and family thermometer preferences. A randomized crossover design in a 70-bed surgical unit over eight months. Two sets of temperature measurements were obtained for each patient: TAT, axillary, oral (depending on patient ability) and a bladder temperature representing core body temperature (when available). Each method was used twice on each patient, to examine within-method precision. Following measurement, patients or caregivers provided their thermometer preference. For younger/nonverbal patients, a professional observer recorded a disruption score. N=298 patients were enrolled RESULTS: TAT was more precise than oral and axillary thermometers (p<0.001 vs. axillary, p=0.001 vs. oral). TAT measurements were higher on average than axillary and oral, by 0.7°C and 0.6°C respectively (p<0.001). TAT's disruption score for younger patients was 0.6 points lower on average than axillary (p<0.001). 84% of patients and families who indicated a clear thermometry preference chose TAT. Only 3 patients had bladder-temperature devices, and therefore accuracy could not be analyzed. TAT is more precise, more fever sensitive, less disruptive to younger children, and more preferred by patients and families. TAT is an acceptable temperature measure that could be substituted for oral or axillary temperature in acute care pediatric settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wyder, Marianne; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Crompton, David; McArthur, Leianne; Delaforce, Caroline; Dziopa, Fiona; Ramon, Shulamit; Powell, Elizabeth
Inpatient psychiatric care requires a balance between working with consumers' priorities and goals, managing expectations of the community, legal, professional and service responsibilities. In order to improve service delivery within acute mental health units, it is important to understand the constraints and facilitating factors for good care. We conducted a systematic narrative synthesis, where findings of qualitative studies are synthesised to generate new insights. 21 articles were identified. Our results show that personal qualities, professional skills as well as environmental factors all influence the ability to provide recovery focused care. Three overarching themes which either facilitated or hindered were identified. These included: (i) Complexity of the nursing role (clinical care; practical and emotional support: advocacy and education; enforcing aspects of the Mental Health Act. and, maintaining ward safety); (ii) Constraining factors (operational barriers; change in patient characteristic; and competing understandings of care); and (iii) Facilitating factors (ward factors; nursing tools; nurse characteristics; approach to people; approach to work and ability to self-care). We suggest that the therapeutic use of self is central to the provision of recovery oriented care. However person-centred practice can be fragile and fluid and a compassionate system of support is needed to enable an understanding of context and self. It is critical to have a work environment which fosters hope and optimism and is supportive of autonomy, ensures workload balance, and is safe. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Venkatasalu, Munikumar Ramasamy; Clarke, Amanda; Atkinson, Joanne
To explore and critically examine stakeholders' views and perceptions concerning the nurse-led Palliative Care Discharge Service in an acute hospital setting and to inform sustainability, service development and future service configuration. The drive in policy and practice is to enable individuals to achieve their preferred place of care during their last days of life. However, most people in UK die in acute hospital settings against their wishes. To facilitate individuals' preferred place of care, a large acute hospital in northeast England implemented a pilot project to establish a nurse-led Macmillan Palliative Care Discharge Facilitator Service. A pluralistic evaluation design using qualitative methods was used to seek stakeholders' views and perceptions of this service. In total, 12 participants (five bereaved carers and seven health professionals) participated in the evaluation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bereaved carers who used this service for their relatives. A focus group and an individual interview were undertaken with health professionals who had used the service since its inception. Individual interviews were also conducted with the Discharge Facilitator and service manager. Analysis of all data was guided by Framework Analysis. Four key themes emerged relating to the role of the Discharge Facilitator Service: achieving preferred place of care; the Discharge Facilitator as the 'conduit' between hospital and community settings; delays in hospital discharge and stakeholders' perceptions of the way forward for the service. The Discharge Facilitator Service acted as a reliable resource and support for facilitating the fast-tracking of end-of-life patients to their preferred place of care. Future planning for hospital-based palliative care discharge facilitating services need to consider incorporating strategies that include: increased profile of the service, expansion of service provision and the Discharge Facilitator's earlier
Levy, Matthew E; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Wilton, Leo; Brewer, Russell A; Fields, Sheldon D; Criss, Vittoria; Magnus, Manya
Characterization of structural barriers that impede the receipt of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural barrier to engagement in care. Proportions of participants who had received HIV prevention services and general care services in different settings were compared using Fisher's exact test and correlates of service receipt were assessed using logistic regression. Among 75 BMSM, 60% had accessed a community-based clinic, 21% had accessed a primary care setting, and 36% had accessed an acute care setting in the last 6 months. Greater proportions of participants who had accessed community-based clinics received HIV prevention services during these visits (90%) compared to those who had accessed primary care (53%) and acute care (44%) settings (p = .005). Opportunities for BMSM to receive HIV prevention interventions differed by care setting. Having access to health care did not necessarily facilitate the uptake of HIV prevention interventions. Further investigation of the structurally rooted reasons why BMSM are often unable to access HIV prevention services is warranted.
Parker, Karen M; Harrington, Ann; Smith, Charlene M; Sellers, Kathleen F; Millenbach, Linda
Horizontal violence (HV) is prevalent in nursing. However, few strategies are identified to address this phenomenon that undermines communication and patient safety. Nurses at an acute care hospital implemented multiple interventions to address HV resulting in increased knowledge of hospital policies regarding HV, and significantly (p < .05) less HV prevalence than was reported by nurses in other organizations throughout New York State. With the aid and oversight of nursing professional development specialists, evidence-based interventions to address HV were developed including policies, behavioral performance reviews, and staff/manager educational programs.
McTigue, Toni; D'Andrea, Stephanie; Doyle-Munoz, Janet; Forrester, D Anthony
We sought to evaluate the knowledge base of acute care registered nurses (RNs) regarding skin tears and the efficacy of an online educational program designed to improve their knowledge of skin tears including (1) predisposing factors; (2) identification and assessment of skin tears using the Payne-Martin Classification System; and (3) preventive care, treatment, and documentation. This was a prospective quasi-experimental education intervention study. Four hundred sixteen acute care RNs from 2 affiliated hospitals participated in the study. They comprised approximately 20% of more than 2,000 nurses employed by Atlantic Health. These nurses worked in critical care, medical-surgical, and specialty units and varied in age, level of education, work experience, and years in nursing. A Web-based educational program was provided for over 4 months on our intranet service, which was available to all RN staff 24-hours-a-day, 7-days-a-week. The educational program was subdivided into 3 sections: (1) identification and assessment, (2) classification and differentiation, and (3) treatment. Nurses' knowledge of skin tears improved following the Web-based educational program. Following completion of the identification and assessment of skin tears section, participants were better able to identify and correctly assess skin tears (mean scores 99.1% vs 97.1%, P < .001). Participants also achieved greater knowledge of the differentiation between categories I, II, and III skin tears (mean scores 94.9% vs 83.4%, P < .001) and knowledge of treatment (mean score 93.7% vs 73.8%, P < .001). Our Web-based skin tear educational program was effective in improving nurses' knowledge regarding skin tear identification and assessment, classification and differentiation, and treatment.
Chan, S W; Chan, M F; Lee, S-Y; Henderson, A
Workplaces need to foster teaching and learning interactions so staff collaborate and learn from each other. Internationally, many countries provide support to graduates and experienced staff to foster engagement necessary for learning and quality care. Workplace attributes can differ across countries depending on managerial, contextual, social and policy issues. This study compared workplace attributes of two Australian hospitals with a Singaporean hospital. A representative sample of nurses in two acute care facilities in Australia (n = 203) and a comparable facility in Singapore (n = 154) during 2010 and 2011 responded to a survey requesting demographic data and responses about workplace attributes. Attributes were determined through validated tools that measure staff perception of support when facilitating others learning (Support Instrument for Nurses Facilitating the Learning of Others) and the clinical learning organizational culture (Clinical Learning Organizational Culture Survey). Results indicated Singaporean nurses rated perception of acknowledgement, workload management and teamwork support in facilitating learners in their hospital as significantly better than the Australian cohort despite similar provisions for support and development. There were no significant differences across the two sites in the clinical learning culture. Analysis across three health facilities only provides a snapshot. Targeting more facilities would assist in confirming the extent of reported trends. Findings indicate differences in nurses' perceptions of support when facilitating learners. Further exploration of Singaporean nurses' increased perceptions of support is worthy. Clinical learning organizational culture findings across Australian and Singaporean acute care facilities suggest common attributes within the nursing profession that transcend contextual factors, for example, a strong sense of task accomplishment. Nurses across both countries demonstrate
Ocampo, Wrechelle; Geransar, Rose; Clayden, Nancy; Jones, Jessica; de Grood, Jill; Joffe, Mark; Taylor, Geoffrey; Missaghi, Bayan; Pearce, Craig; Ghali, William; Conly, John
Ward closure is a method of controlling hospital-acquired infectious diseases outbreaks and is often coupled with other practices. However, the value and efficacy of ward closures remains uncertain. To understand the current practices and perceptions with respect to ward closure for hospital-acquired infectious disease outbreaks in acute care hospital settings across Canada. A Web-based environmental scan survey was developed by a team of infection prevention and control (IPC) experts and distributed to 235 IPC professionals at acute care sites across Canada. Data were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach of descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. A total of 110 completed responses showed that 70% of sites reported at least 1 outbreak during 2013, 44% of these sites reported the use of ward closure. Ward closure was considered an "appropriate," "sometimes appropriate," or "not appropriate" strategy to control outbreaks by 50%, 45%, and 5% of participants, respectively. System capacity issues and overall risk assessment were main factors influencing the decision to close hospital wards following an outbreak. Results suggest the use of ward closure for containment of hospital-acquired infectious disease outbreaks in Canadian acute care health settings is mixed, with outbreak control methods varying. The successful implementation of ward closure was dependent on overall support for the IPC team within hospital administration. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
Although a large body of literature exists propounding the importance of space in aged care and care of the older person with dementia, there is, however, only limited exploration of the 'acute care space' as a particular type of space with archetypal constraints that maybe unfavourable to older people with cognitive impairment and nurses wanting to provide care that is person-centred. In this article, we explore concepts of space and examine the implications of these for the delivery of care to older people who are cognitively impaired. Our exploration is grounded in theorisations of space offered by key geographers and phenomenologists, but also draws on how space has been constructed within the nursing literature that refers specifically to acute care. We argue that space, once created, can be created and that nursing has a significant role to play in the process of its recreation in the pursuit of care that is person-centred. We conclude by introducing an alternative logic of space aimed at promoting the creation of more salutogenic spaces that invokes a sense of sanctuary, safeness, and inclusion, all of which are essential if the care provided to the older person with cognitive impairment is apposite to their needs. The concept of 'person-centred space' helps to crystallize the relationship between space and person-centred care and implies more intentional manipulation of space that is more conducive to caring and healing. Significantly, it marks a return to Nightingale's wisdom, that is, to put the person in the best possible conditions for nature to act upon them. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Levy, Matthew E.; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Wilton, Leo; Brewer, Russell A.; Fields, Sheldon D.; Criss, Vittoria; Magnus, Manya
Characterization of structural barriers that impede the use of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention services and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural barrier to engagement in care. We recruited BMSM in the District of Columbia metropolitan area via incentivized peer referral to complete a computer-assisted self-interview on health care experiences. Proportions of participants who had received HIV prevention services and general care services in different settings were compared using Fisher’s exact test and correlates of service receipt were assessed using logistic regression. Among 75 BMSM with at least one barrier to care, 84% were <30 years old, 11% were HIV-positive, and 75% had health insurance. In the last six months, 60% had accessed a community-based clinic, 21% had accessed a primary care setting, and 36% had accessed an acute care setting. Greater proportions of participants who had accessed community-based clinics received HIV prevention services during these visits (90%) compared to those who had accessed primary care (53%) and acute care (44%) settings (p=0.005). Opportunities for BMSM to receive HIV prevention interventions differed by care setting. Having access to health care does not necessarily facilitate the uptake of HIV prevention interventions for BMSM. Further investigation of the structurally rooted reasons why BMSM are often unable to access HIV prevention services that would reduce racial disparities in HIV incidence is warranted. PMID:26643856
Constrained practice is routinely encountered by physical therapists and may limit the physical therapist's primary moral responsibility-which is to help the patient to become well again. Ethical practice under such conditions requires a certain moral character of the practitioner. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide an ethical analysis of a typical patient case of constrained clinical practice, (2) to discuss the moral implications of constrained clinical practice, and (3) to identify key moral principles and virtues fostering ethical physical therapist practice. The case represents a common scenario of discharge planning in acute care health facilities in the northeastern United States. An applied ethics approach was used for case analysis. The decision following analysis of the dilemma was to provide the needed care to the patient as required by compassion, professional ethical standards, and organizational mission. Constrained clinical practice creates a moral dilemma for physical therapists. Being responsive to the patient's needs moves the physical therapist's practice toward the professional ideal of helping vulnerable patients become well again. Meeting the patient's needs is a professional requirement of the physical therapist as moral agent. Acting otherwise requires an alternative position be ethically justified based on systematic analysis of a particular case. Skepticism of status quo practices is required to modify conventional individual, organizational, and societal practices toward meeting the patient's best interest.
Campbell, Jill L; Coyer, Fiona M; Osborne, Sonya R
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in Australian acute care patients and to describe the products worn to manage incontinence, and those provided at the bedside for perineal skin care. Data on 376 inpatients were collected over 2 days at a major Australian teaching hospital. The mean age of the sample group was 62 years and 52% of the patients were male. The prevalence rate of incontinence was 24% (91/376). Urinary incontinence was significantly more prevalent in females (10%) than males (6%) (χ(2) = 4·458, df = 1, P = 0·035). IAD occurred in 10% (38/376) of the sample group, with 42% (38/91) of incontinent patients having IAD. Semi-formed and liquid stool were associated with IAD (χ(2) = 5·520, df = 1, P = 0·027). Clinical indication of fungal infection was present in 32% (12/38) of patients with IAD. Absorbent disposable briefs were the most common incontinence aids used (80%, 70/91), with soap/water and disposable washcloths being the clean-up products most commonly available (60%, 55/91) at the bedside. Further data are needed to validate this high prevalence. Studies that address prevention of IAD and the effectiveness of management strategies are also needed.
Geary, Kathryn G; Croft, Ashley M
To evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a direct-access diagnostic tool for primary care physicians. Prospective, case-control study in a Royal Air Force setting. We obtained institutional review board approval and informed consent. Cases consisted of patients with acute knee injury and a physician-ordered MR scan. Controls were matched for gender, age, and knee injury and had MR investigation ordered by an orthopedic specialist. MR imaging cost $341 U.S. dollars per scan. Sixteen patients were enrolled, ages 17 to 44 years, and there were 48 controls. There was a significant intergroup difference for time to MR scan (p < 0.001), and no difference in time to specialist orthopedic assessment (p = 0.39). There was a significant intergroup difference (p < 0.001) in time to return to full fitness. Used as a primary care diagnostic tool and in settings where times to surgery are unacceptably long, direct-access MR imaging significantly decreases the amount of time to definitive treatment for military personnel with acute knee injuries. It may also improve clinical outcomes. MR imaging technology should be made more widely available in military primary care, including during mature combat missions.
Alhawassi, Tariq M; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata V; Pont, Lisa G
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important health issue. While prevalence and risk factors associated with ADRs in the general adult population have been well documented, much less is known about ADRs in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to review the published literature to estimate the prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting and identify factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR in the elderly. A systematic review of studies published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. Key search terms included: “adverse drug reactions”, “adverse effects”, “elderly patients and hospital admission”, “drug therapy”, “drug adverse effects”, “drug related”, “aged”, “older patients”, “geriatric”, “hospitalization”, and “emergency admissions”. For inclusion in the review, studies had to focus on ADRs in the elderly and had to include an explicit definition of what was considered an ADR and/or an explicit assessment of causality, and a clear description of the method used for ADR identification, and had to describe factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Fourteen hospital-based observational studies exploring ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting were eligible for inclusion in this review. The mean prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the studies included in this review was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1%–16.8%). The median prevalence of ADRs leading to hospitalization was 10.0% (95% CI: 7.2%–12.8%), while the prevalence of ADRs occurring during hospitalization was 11.5% (95% CI: 0%–27.7%). There was wide variation in the overall ADR prevalence, from 5.8% to 46.3%. Female sex, increased comorbid complexity, and increased number of medications were all significantly associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Retrospective studies and those relying on identification by the
Corless, Inge B.
Examines topics related to delivery of terminal care services: ability of various hospice programs to survive financially, contributions of various models of hospice care, impact of Medicare legislation on hospice movement, demonstration of unique hospice intervention, integration of spiritual care into hospice, and role of hospice in care of…
Balas, Michele C; Devlin, John W; Verceles, Avelino C; Morris, Peter; Ely, E Wesley
When robust clinical trials are lacking, clinicians are often forced to extrapolate safe and effective evidence-based interventions from one patient care setting to another. This article is about such an extrapolation from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting. Chronic critical illness is an emerging, disabling, costly, and yet relatively silent epidemic that is central to both of these settings. The number of chronically critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation is expected to reach unprecedented levels over the next decade. Despite the prevalence, numerous distressing symptoms, and exceptionally poor outcomes associated with chronic critical illness, to date there is very limited scientific evidence available to guide the care and management of this exceptionally vulnerable population, particularly in LTACHs. Recent studies conducted in the traditional ICU setting suggest interprofessional, multicomponent strategies aimed at effectively assessing, preventing, and managing pain, agitation, delirium, and weakness, such as the ABCDEF bundle, may play an important role in the recovery of the chronically critically ill. This article reviews what is known about the chronically critically ill, provide readers with some important historical perspectives on the ABCDEF bundle, and address some controversies and practical implications of adopting the ABCDEF bundle into the everyday care of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation in the LTACH setting. We believe developing new and better ways of addressing both the science and organizational aspects of managing the common and distressing symptoms associated with chronic critical illness and prolonged mechanical ventilation will ultimately improve the quality of life for the many patients and families admitted to LTACHs annually.
Razjouyan, Javad; Grewal, Gurtej Singh; Rishel, Cindy; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Mohler, Jane; Najafi, Bijan
Growing concern for falls in acute care settings could be addressed with objective evaluation of fall risk. The current proof-of-concept study evaluated the feasibility of using a chest-worn sensor during hospitalization to determine fall risk. Physical activity and heart rate variability (HRV) of 31 volunteers admitted to a 29-bed adult inpatient unit were recorded using a single chest-worn sensor. Sensor data during the first 24-hour recording were analyzed. Participants were stratified using the Hendrich II fall risk assessment into high and low fall risk groups. Univariate analysis revealed age, daytime activity, nighttime side lying posture, and HRV were significantly different between groups. Results suggest feasibility of wearable technology to consciously monitor physical activity, sleep postures, and HRV as potential markers of fall risk in the acute care setting. Further study is warranted to confirm the results and examine the efficacy of the proposed wearable technology to manage falls in hospitals. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(x), xx-xx.].
Atyeo, J; Sanderson, P M
The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to learn and remember, especially clinicians with little prior formal music training. An alarm sound set proposed by Patterson and Edworthy in 1986 might improve performance for such participants. In this study, 31 critical and acute care nurses with less than one year of formal music training identified alarm sounds while they calculated drug dosages. Sixteen nurses used the IEC and 15 used the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set. The mean (SD) percentage of alarms correctly identified by nurses was 51.3 (25.6)% for the IEC alarm set and 72.1 (18.8)% for the Patterson-Edworthy alarms (p = 0.016). Nurses using the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set reported that it was easier to distinguish between alarm sounds than did nurses using the IEC alarm sound set (p = 0.015). Principles used to construct the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sounds should be adopted for future alarm sound sets.
Holland, Chris; Bench, Suzanne; Brown, Kate; Bradley, Claire; Johnson, Lorna; Frisby, Jayne
This paper describes the development and implementation of an interprofessional (IP) module for pre-qualification medical, nursing and physiotherapy students. The module focuses on clinical care in the acute care setting, and is called Interprofessional Working in Acute Care (IWAC). The authors are acute-care practitioners and educators familiar with an environment where good interprofessional collaboration and communication are prerequisite for, and linked to, good patient outcomes. We believe that explicit opportunities to learn the skills of collaborative IP working are required. We developed a blended-learning 15-credit module that was vertically integrated into the existing curricula of the three programmes. It used several different types of learning: self-directed learning; in-practice teaching; clinical observation; simulation-based teaching (SBT); and collaborative peer-group working and student presentations. The contact teaching time had to be limited because of the constraints of three divergent timetables, and was dominated by SBT that featured four acute care scenarios. The scenarios were formulated so that they could not be managed without interprofessional collaboration. Each student was assigned to an IP group (comprising at least one student from each discipline) for the whole module. A common assessment included a collaborative presentation by each IP group where members were expected to discuss and reflect upon the role of a different professional within their group. This narrative account exhibits our development of teaching praxis in the story of teaching innovation, and highlights some of the challenges and opportunities within IP learning in undergraduate education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
Berger, Zackary; Flickinger, Tabor E; Pfoh, Elizabeth; Martinez, Kathryn A; Dy, Sydney M
Introduction Patient-centeredness is central to healthcare. Hospitals should address patients’ unique needs to improve safety and quality. Patient engagement in healthcare, which may help prevent adverse events, can be approached as an independent patient safety practice (PSP) or as part of a multifactorial PSP. Objectives This review examines how interventions encouraging this engagement have been implemented in controlled trials. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012 for English language studies in hospital settings with prospective controlled designs, addressing the effectiveness or implementation of patient/family engagement in PSPs. We separately reviewed interventions implemented as part of selected broader PSPs by way of example: hand hygiene, ventilator-associated pneumonia, rapid response systems and care transitions. Results Six articles met the inclusion criteria for effectiveness with a primary focus on patient engagement. We identified 12 studies implementing patient engagement as an aspect of selected broader PSPs. A number of studies relied on patients’ possible function as a reporter of error to healthcare workers and patients as a source of reminders regarding safety behaviours, while others relied on direct activation of patients or families. Definitions of patient and family engagement were lacking, as well as evidence regarding the types of patients who might feel comfortable engaging with providers, and in what contexts. Conclusions While patient engagement in safety is appealing, there is insufficient high-quality evidence informing real-world implementation. Further work should evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on patient and family engagement and clarify the added benefit of incorporating engagement in multifaceted approaches to improve patient safety endpoints. In addition, strategies to assess and overcome barriers to patients’ willingness to actively engage in their care should be
Berger, Zackary; Flickinger, Tabor E; Pfoh, Elizabeth; Martinez, Kathryn A; Dy, Sydney M
Patient-centeredness is central to healthcare. Hospitals should address patients' unique needs to improve safety and quality. Patient engagement in healthcare, which may help prevent adverse events, can be approached as an independent patient safety practice (PSP) or as part of a multifactorial PSP. This review examines how interventions encouraging this engagement have been implemented in controlled trials. We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012 for English language studies in hospital settings with prospective controlled designs, addressing the effectiveness or implementation of patient/family engagement in PSPs. We separately reviewed interventions implemented as part of selected broader PSPs by way of example: hand hygiene, ventilator-associated pneumonia, rapid response systems and care transitions. Six articles met the inclusion criteria for effectiveness with a primary focus on patient engagement. We identified 12 studies implementing patient engagement as an aspect of selected broader PSPs. A number of studies relied on patients' possible function as a reporter of error to healthcare workers and patients as a source of reminders regarding safety behaviours, while others relied on direct activation of patients or families. Definitions of patient and family engagement were lacking, as well as evidence regarding the types of patients who might feel comfortable engaging with providers, and in what contexts. While patient engagement in safety is appealing, there is insufficient high-quality evidence informing real-world implementation. Further work should evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on patient and family engagement and clarify the added benefit of incorporating engagement in multifaceted approaches to improve patient safety endpoints. In addition, strategies to assess and overcome barriers to patients' willingness to actively engage in their care should be investigated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Wiechula, Rick; Kitson, Alison; Marcoionni, Danni; Page, Tammy; Zeitz, Kathryn; Silverston, Heidi
This paper reports on a structured facilitation program where seven interdisciplinary teams conducted projects aimed at improving the care of the older person in the acute sector. Aims To develop and implement a structured intervention known as the Knowledge Translation (KT) Toolkit to improve the fundamentals of care for the older person in the acute care sector. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) frontline staff can be facilitated to use existing quality improvement tools and techniques and other resources (the KT Toolkit) in order to improve care of older people in the acute hospital setting; (ii) fundamental aspects of care for older people in the acute hospital setting can be improved through the introduction and use of specific evidence-based guidelines by frontline staff; and (iii) innovations can be introduced and improvements made to care within a 12-month cycle/timeframe with appropriate facilitation. Methods Using realistic evaluation methodology the impact of a structured facilitation program (the KT Toolkit) was assessed with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of how a range of tools, techniques and strategies may be used by clinicians to improve care. The intervention comprised three elements: the facilitation team recruited for specific knowledge, skills and expertise in KT, evidence-based practice and quality and safety; the facilitation, including a structured program of education, ongoing support and communication; and finally the components of the toolkit including elements already used within the study organisation. Results Small improvements in care were shown. The results for the individual projects varied from clarifying issues of concern and planning ongoing activities, to changing existing practices, to improving actual patient outcomes such as reducing functional decline. More importantly the study described how teams of clinicians can be facilitated using a structured program to conduct practice improvement activities
Corbett, Dale; Finestone, Hillel M.; Hatcher, Simon; Lumsden, Jim; Momoli, Franco; Shamy, Michel C. F.; Stotts, Grant; Swartz, Richard H.; Yang, Christine
Background Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients’ access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke. Methods We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability. Results Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female) for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most “convenient”. Conclusions Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care. PMID:28002479
Yagi, N; Paganini, E P
The emergence of dialytic support for patients with reversible renal failure was one of the most significant advances in critical care medicine. Supporting a patient with a failed organ till organ recovery has not had the same success with other organ failures. Despite the indispensable nature of the support, dialysis was intermittent at best, and carried its own morbidity. The emergence of a "continuous" dialysis delivery system, originally through an arteriovenous access and later through veno-venous methodology, began to simulate the continuity of the natural kidney, and lifted much of the fluid and drug restrictions imposed by the intermittent nature of standard dialytic therapies. Components of the system were next reviewed for improvement and biocompatability. Differences in patient outcome were documented with various component comparisons, and disparate patient tolerance of delivery modality was also clearly proven. The hemodynamic stability of continuous treatment created utilization to be focused on the more unstable, the more severely compromised patient group. In this context, comparative studies with intermittent delivery methods showed improved hemodynamic stability among patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT), but no clear difference in patient mortality. Patient characteristics and severity scoring have recently been undertaken to better describe the population, and attempts at dialysis dosing is currently being developed for ARF dialysis recipients. Early results seem to point toward a dialysis dose effect on mortality in certain groups of ICU acute renal failure patients. However, the dialytic process is only depurative and artificial. Plastic membrane bio-incompatibility, human physiological responses to foreign material exposure, either in the circuit material itself or introduced from therapy methodology, pose practical and theoretical problems. Recent advances in the field of bio-artificial technology have allowed
Davis, Kimberly A; Rozycki, Grace S
At the center of the development of acute care surgery is the growing difficulty in caring for patients with acute surgical conditions. Care demands continue to grow in the face of an escalating crisis in emergency care access and the decreasing availability of surgeons to cover emergency calls. To compound this problem, there is an ever-growing shortage of general surgeons as technological advances have encouraged subspecialization. Developed by the leadership of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the specialty of acute care surgery offers a training model that would produce a new breed of specialist with expertise in trauma surgery, surgical critical care, and elective and emergency general surgery. This article highlights the evolution of the specialty in hope that these acute care surgeons, along with practicing general surgeons, will bring us closer to providing superb and timely care for patients with acute surgical conditions.
Nassar, Nada; Helou, Nancy; Madi, Chantal
To assess the predictive value of two instruments (the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) and the Heindrich II Fall Risk Model (HFRM)] in a Middle Eastern country (Lebanon) and to evaluate the factors that are related to falls. A prospective observational cross-sectional design was used. Falls and fall-related injuries in the acute care settings contribute a substantial health and economic burden on patients and organisations. Preventing falls is a priority for most healthcare organisations. While the risk of falling cannot be eliminated, it can be significantly reduced through accurate assessment of patients' risk of falling. Data from 1815 inpatients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) in Lebanon were evaluated using two instruments to predict falls: the MFS and the HFRM. The incidence of falls was 2·7% in one year. The results indicate that while the instruments were significantly correlated, the HFRM was more sensitive in predicting falls than the MFS. The internal consistency of both scales was moderate, but inter-rater reliability was high. Patients using antiepileptic drugs and assistance devises had higher odds of falling. Although both instruments were easy to use in a Middle Eastern country, the HFRM rather than the MFS is recommended for inpatients in an acute care setting as it had higher sensitivity and specificity. It is recommended that while the HFRM had adequate sensitivity, it is not seamless, and as such, nurses should not rely entirely on it. Rather, nurses should use their expert clinical judgement, their ethical obligations and cultural considerations to implement a safer environment of care for the patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bloemen, Elizabeth M.; Rosen, Tony; Schiroo, Justina A. Cline; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R.; Stern, Michael E.; Mysliwiec, Regina; Flomenbaum, Neal E.; Lachs, Mark S.; Hargarten, Stephen
Background Photographing injuries in the acute setting allows for improved documentation as well as assessment by clinicians and others who have not personally examined a patient. This tool is important, particularly for telemedicine, tracking of wound healing, the evaluation of potential abuse, and injury research. Despite this, protocols to ensure standardization of photography in clinical practice, forensics, or research have not been published. In preparation for a study of injury patterns in elder abuse and geriatric falls, our goal was to develop and evaluate a protocol for standardized photography of injuries that may be broadly applied. Methods We conducted a literature review for techniques and standards in medical, forensic, and legal photography. We developed a novel protocol describing types of photographs and body positioning for eight body regions, including instructional diagrams. We revised it iteratively in consultation with experts in medical photography; forensics; and elder, child, and domestic abuse. The resulting protocol requires a minimum of four photos of each injury at multiple distances with and without a ruler/color guide. To evaluate the protocol’s efficacy, multiple research assistants without previous photography experience photographed injuries from a convenience sample of elderly patients presenting to a single large, urban, academic emergency department. A selection of these patients’ images were then evaluated in a blinded fashion by four nontreating emergency medicine physicians and the inter-rater reliability between these physicians was calculated. Results Among the 131 injuries, from 53 patients, photographed by 18 photographers using this protocol, photographs of 25 injuries (10 bruises, seven lacerations, and eight abrasions) were used to assess characterization of the injury. Physicians’ characterizations of the injuries were reliable for the size of the injury (κ = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77 to 1
Kotwani, Anita; Holloway, Kathleen
To obtain information on prescribing rates and choice of antibiotics for acute, uncomplicated respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in the community. Antibiotic use in acute, uncomplicated RTIs consisting of common cold/sore throat/cough for not more than five days was surveyed in the community (December 2007-November 2008) using patient exit interviews at public and private facilities from four localities in New Delhi. Data were collected from 10 public sector facilities and 20 private clinics over one year. The percentage of acute, uncomplicated RTIs patients receiving antibiotics in general and using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification and the Defined Daily Dose (ATS/DDD) were analysed. At public and private facilities, 45% (746/1646) and 57% (259/457) of acute, uncomplicated RTI patients were prescribed at least one antibiotic, respectively. The main antibiotic class calculated as percentage of total antibiotics DDDs/1000 prescribed to acute, uncomplicated RTI patients at private clinics was cephalosporins, J01DA (39%), followed by fluoroquinolones, J01MA (24%), penicillins, J01C (19%) and macrolides, J01FA (15%). Newer members from each class were prescribed; older antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole or tetracyclines were rarely prescribed. At public facilities, the main class of antibiotic prescribed was penicillins (31%), followed by macrolides (25%), fluoroquinolones (20%) and cephalosporins (10%). Study clearly shows overuse and inappropriate choice of antibiotics for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated RTIs which are mainly due to virus and do not require antibiotic treatment. Results of the study warrant interventional strategies to promote rational use of antibiotics to decrease the overgrowing threat of antibiotic resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
First-generation versus third-generation comprehensive geriatric assessment instruments in the acute hospital setting: a comparison of the Minimum Geriatric Screening Tools (MGST) and the interRAI Acute Care (interRAI AC).
Wellens, N I H; Deschodt, M; Flamaing, J; Moons, P; Boonen, S; Boman, X; Gosset, C; Petermans, J; Milisen, K
Comparison of the first-generation Minimum Geriatric Screening Tools (MGST) and the third-generation interRAI Acute Care (interRAI AC). Based on a qualitative multiphase exchange of expert opinion, published evidence was critically analyzed and translated into a consensus. Both methods are intended for a multi-domain geriatric assessment in acute hospital settings, but each with a different scope and goal. MGST contains a collection of single-domain, internationally validated instruments. Assessment is usually triggered by care givers' clinical impression based on geriatric expertise. A limited selection of domains is usually assessed only once, by disciplines with domain-specific expertise. Clinical use results in improvement to screen geriatric problems. InterRAI AC, tailored for acute settings, intends to screen a large number of geriatric domains. Based on systematic observational data, risk domains are triggered and clinical guidelines are suggested. Multiple observation periods outline the evolution of patients' functioning over stay in comparison to the premorbid situation. The method is appropriate for application on geriatric and non-geriatric wards, filling geriatric knowledge gaps. The interRAI Suite contains a common set of standardized items across settings, facilitating data transfer in transitional care. The third-generation interRAI AC has advantages compared to the first-generation MGST. A cascade system is proposed to integrate both, complementary methods in practice. The systematic interRAI AC assessment detects risk domains. Subsequently, clinical protocols suggest components of the MGST as additional assessment. This cascade approach unites the strength of exhaustive assessment of the interRAI AC with domain-specific tools of the MGST.
nursing care workload. A patient classification system in use at one Naval Regional Medical Center was revised and tested at another naval facility. Indicators of patient dependence on nursing care were identified and four methods were used to determine indicator weights and patient classification. The results of each method were evaluated in comparison with consensus nursing judgment and determined to be essentially equivalent.
Taylor, Kris; Guy, Stuart; Stewart, Linda; Ayling, Mark; Miller, Graham; Anthony, Anne; Bajuk, Anne; Brun, Jo Le; Shearer, Dianne; Gregory, Rebecca; Thomas, Matthew
The process of risk assessment which should inform and help identify clinical needs is often seen as a tick box and task-focussed approach. While on the surface this provides a sense of security that forms have been completed, we often fail to communicate in a meaningful manner about the clinical needs identified, which would assist in supporting the care planning delivery processes. A clinical practice improvement (CPI) project implemented a care zoning framework as an evidenced-based process that provides pragmatic support to nurses who are required to continually assess, implement, and evaluate plans to address clinical need across three acute mental health inpatient settings. Risk descriptors informed by the New South Wales (NSW) Mental Health Assessment & Outcome Tools (MHAOT) criteria were developed and described in behavioural contexts in order to improve the project's reliability and translation. A pragmatic traffic light tool was used to share clinical information across three agreed care zones, red (high clinical need), amber (medium clinical need), and green (low clinical need). Additionally nurses were asked to utilise a shift review form in the context of supporting the recording of care zoning and promoting action-orientated note writing. The introduction of care zoning has enthused the nursing teams and the mental health service to adopt care zoning as a supervisory framework that increases their capacity to communicate clinical needs, share information, and gain invaluable support from one another in addressing clinical needs. This includes increased opportunities for staff to feel supported in asking for assistance in understanding and addressing complex clinical presentations.
Clèries, Montse; Bosch, Anna; Vela, Emili; Bustins, Montse
To verify the usefulness of the minimum data set (MDS) for acute-care hospitals and emergency resources for the study of road traffic injuries and to describe the use of health resources in Catalonia (Spain). The study population consisted of patients treated in any kind of emergency service and patients admitted for acute hospitalization in Catalonia in 2013. A descriptive analysis was performed by age, gender, time and clinical variables. A total of 48,150 patients were treated in hospital emergency departments, 6,210 were attended in primary care, and 4,912 were admitted to hospital. There was a higher proportion of men (56.2%), mainly aged between 20 and 40 years. Men accounted for 54.9% of patients with minor injuries and 75.1% of those with severe injuries. Contusions are the most common injury (30.2%), followed by sprains (28.7%). Fractures mostly affected persons older than 64 years, internal injuries particularly affected men older than 64 years, and wounds mainly affected persons younger than 18 years and older than 64 years. In the adult population, the severity of the injuries increased with age, leading to longer length of stay and greater complexity. Hospital mortality was 0.2%. Fractures, internal injuries and wounds were more frequent in the group of very serious injuries, and sprains and contusions in the group of minor injuries. MDS records (acute hospitals and emergency resources) provide information that is complementary to other sources of information on traffic accidents, increasing the completeness of the data. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ektare, V; Khachatryan, A; Xue, M; Dunne, M; Johnson, K; Stephens, J
To estimate, from a US payer perspective, the cost offsets of treating gram positive acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI) with varied hospital length of stay (LOS) followed by outpatient care, as well as the cost implications of avoiding hospital admission. Economic drivers of care were estimated using a literature-based economic model incorporating inpatient and outpatient components. The model incorporated equal efficacy, adverse events (AE), resource use, and costs from literature. Costs of once- and twice-daily outpatient infusions to achieve a 14-day treatment were analyzed. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were adjusted to 2015 US$. Total non-drug medical cost for treatment of ABSSSI entirely in the outpatient setting to avoid hospital admission was the lowest among all scenarios and ranged from $4039-$4924. Total non-drug cost for ABSSSI treated in the inpatient setting ranged from $9813 (3 days LOS) to $18,014 (7 days LOS). Inpatient vs outpatient cost breakdown was: 3 days inpatient ($6657)/11 days outpatient ($3156-$3877); 7 days inpatient ($15,017)/7 days outpatient ($2495-$2997). Sensitivity analyses revealed a key outpatient cost driver to be peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) costs (average per patient cost of $873 for placement and $205 for complications). Drug and indirect costs were excluded and resource use was not differentiated by ABSSSI type. It was assumed that successful ABSSSI treatment takes up to 14 days per the product labels, and that once-daily and twice-daily antibiotics have equal efficacy. Shifting ABSSSI care to outpatient settings may result in medical cost savings greater than 53%. Typical outpatient scenarios represent 14-37% of total medical cost, with PICC accounting for 28-43% of the outpatient burden. The value of new ABSSSI therapies will be driven by eliminating the need for PICC line, reducing length of stay and the ability to completely avoid a hospital stay.
Usman, H. R.; Akhtar, S.; Rahbar, M. H.; Hamid, S.; Moattar, T.; Luby, S. P.
A case control study was conducted to identify the association of therapeutic injections with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 67 cases of acute HBV infection (IgM anti-HBc positive) and 247 controls (anti-HBc negative) from four hospitals of Karachi during July 2000-June 2001. Exposure to various risk factors during the period relevant to the incubation period of HBV was recorded both from cases and controls using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data showed that cases were more likely to have received one injection (OR = 4.0; 95 % CI 1.4, 11.1), or more than one injection (OR = 6.3; 95 % CI 3.2, 12.4) compared to controls. The estimated population attributable risk (PAR) for therapeutic injections was 53%. Also the cases compared to controls were more likely to have household size of seven or more (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 0.95, 3.9). This study showed that unsafe therapeutic injections appear to be the major risk factor for acute HBV infection and needs immediate focus from public health stand point. PMID:12729198
Roberts, Emmert; Dworzynski, Katharina; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Cowie, Martin R; McMurray, John J V; Mant, Jonathan
Objectives To determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of serum natriuretic peptide levels (B type natriuretic peptide, N terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), and mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP)) in people presenting with acute heart failure to acute care settings using thresholds recommended in the 2012 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for heart failure. Design Systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, database of abstracts of reviews of effects, NHS economic evaluation database, and Health Technology Assessment up to 28 January 2014, using combinations of subject headings and terms relating to heart failure and natriuretic peptides. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible studies evaluated one or more natriuretic peptides (B type natriuretic peptide, NTproBNP, or MRproANP) in the diagnosis of acute heart failure against an acceptable reference standard in consecutive or randomly selected adults in an acute care setting. Studies were excluded if they did not present sufficient data to extract or calculate true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives, or report age independent natriuretic peptide thresholds. Studies not available in English were also excluded. Results 37 unique study cohorts described in 42 study reports were included, with a total of 48 test evaluations reporting 15 263 test results. At the lower recommended thresholds of 100 ng/L for B type natriuretic peptide and 300 ng/L for NTproBNP, the natriuretic peptides have sensitivities of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 0.96) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00) and negative predictive values of 0.94 (0.90 to 0.96) and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.0), respectively, for a diagnosis of acute heart failure. At the lower recommended threshold of 120 pmol/L, MRproANP has a sensitivity ranging from 0.95 (range 0
The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting
Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of
The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting.
Devriendt, Els; Wellens, Nathalie I H; Flamaing, Johan; Declercq, Anja; Moons, Philip; Boonen, Steven; Milisen, Koen
The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons' medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients' data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients' condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of
Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Klein, Deborah; Winkelman, Chris
As genomic health care becomes commonplace, nurses will be asked to provide genomic care in all health care settings including acute care and critical care. Three common cardiac conditions are reviewed, Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, to provide acute care and critical care nurses with an overview of these pathologies through the lens of genomics and relevant case studies. This information will help critical care nursing leaders become familiar with genetics related to common cardiac conditions and prepare acute care and critical care nurses for a new phase in patient diagnostics, with greater emphasis on early diagnosis and recognition of conditions before sudden cardiac death.
Magee, Michelle; Bardsley, Joan K; Wallia, Amisha; Smith, Kelly M
Scientific evidence is available to guide the how to of medications management when patients with diabetes are hospitalized or present to the Emergency Department. However, few clinical trials in the diabetes field have addressed the execution, coupled with established implementation effectiveness evaluation frameworks to help inform and assess implementation practices to support the transition in care. These deficiencies may be overcome by (1) applying the principles of implementation and delivery systems science; (2) engaging the principles of human factors (HF) throughout the design, development, and evaluation planning activities; and (3) utilizing mixed methods to design the intervention, workflow processes, and evaluate the intervention for sustainability within existing care delivery models. This article provides a discussion of implementation science and human factors science including an overview of commonly used frameworks which can be applied to structure design and implementation of sustainable and generalizable interventions.
Creating opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and patient-centred care: how nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients use communication strategies when managing medications in an acute hospital setting.
Liu, Wei; Gerdtz, Marie; Manias, Elizabeth
This paper examines the communication strategies that nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients use when managing medications. Patient-centred medication management is best accomplished through interdisciplinary practice. Effective communication about managing medications between clinicians and patients has a direct influence on patient outcomes. There is a lack of research that adopts a multidisciplinary approach and involves critical in-depth analysis of medication interactions among nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients. A critical ethnographic approach with video reflexivity was adopted to capture communication strategies during medication activities in two general medical wards of an acute care hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A mixed ethnographic approach combining participant observations, field interviews, video recordings and video reflexive focus groups and interviews was employed. Seventy-six nurses, 31 doctors, 1 pharmacist and 27 patients gave written consent to participate in the study. Data analysis was informed by Fairclough's critical discourse analytic framework. Clinicians' use of communication strategies was demonstrated in their interpersonal, authoritative and instructive talk with patients. Doctors adopted the language discourse of normalisation to standardise patients' illness experiences. Nurses and pharmacists employed the language discourses of preparedness and scrutiny to ensure that patient safety was maintained. Patients took up the discourse of politeness to raise medication concerns and question treatment decisions made by doctors, in their attempts to challenge decision-making about their health care treatment. In addition, the video method revealed clinicians' extensive use of body language in communication processes for medication management. The use of communication strategies by nurses, doctors, pharmacists and patients created opportunities for improved interdisciplinary collaboration and patient-centred medication
Sees, Darcie L
This quantitative research study hypothesized that the numbers of restraint and seclusion incidents have decreased since the new regulations were imposed by the Health Care Financing Administration. The study sample contained 113 participants who had a documented restraint and/or seclusion episode on the restraint and seclusion logs. The literature shows that a decrease in seclusion and restraint use has been brought about by changes in policies, staff education, and patient education. Data analysis, using a hypothesis test for the difference between two population proportions, revealed that on average there were 2.44% fewer patients restrained or secluded after the new regulations were imposed.
Sinclair, Amber Hughes; Tolsma, Dennis
Particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in numerous studies that utilized data from emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and mortality records. This study is unique in its investigation of associations of air pollution measures, including components of PM, with health outcomes in an ambulatory-care setting. Visit data were collected from Kaiser Permanente, a not-for-profit health maintenance organization in the metropolitan Atlanta, GA, area. Kaiser Permanente collaborated on the Aerosol Research Inhalation Epidemiological Study (ARIES), which provided detailed information on the characteristics of air pollutants. The Kaiser Permanente study was a time-series investigation of the possible associations between daily levels of suspended PM, inorganic gases, and polar volatile organic compounds and ambulatory care acute visit rates during the 25-month period from August 1, 1998, to August 31, 2000. For this interim analysis, the a priori 0-2 days lagged moving average, as well as the 3-5 days and 6-8 days lagged moving averages, of air quality measures were investigated. Single-pollutant Poisson general linear modeling was used to model daily visit counts for asthma and upper and lower respiratory infections (URI and LRI) by selected air quality metrics, controlling for temporal trends and meteorological variables. Most of the statistically significant positive associations were for the 3-5 days lagged air quality metrics with child asthma and LRI.
Okoniewska, Barbara; Graham, Alecia; Gavrilova, Marina; Wah, Dannel; Gilgen, Jonathan; Coke, Jason; Burden, Jack; Nayyar, Shikha; Kaunda, Joseph; Yergens, Dean; Baylis, Barry
Real-time locating systems (RTLS) have the potential to enhance healthcare systems through the live tracking of assets, patients and staff. This study evaluated a commercially available RTLS system deployed in a clinical setting, with three objectives: (1) assessment of the location accuracy of the technology in a clinical setting; (2) assessment of the value of asset tracking to staff; and (3) assessment of threshold monitoring applications developed for patient tracking and inventory control. Simulated daily activities were monitored by RTLS and compared with direct research team observations. Staff surveys and interviews concerning the system's effectiveness and accuracy were also conducted and analyzed. The study showed only modest location accuracy, and mixed reactions in staff interviews. These findings reveal that the technology needs to be refined further for better specific location accuracy before full-scale implementation can be recommended. PMID:22298566
Severe injuries such as intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are the most serious problem after falls in hospital, but they have not been considered in risk assessment scores for falls. We tried to determine the risk factors for ICH after falls in 20,320 inpatients (696,364 patient-days) aged from 40 to 90 years who were admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital. Possible risk factors including STRATIFY risk score for falls and FRAX™ risk score for fractures were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Fallers accounted for 3.2% of the patients, and 5.0% of the fallers suffered major injuries, including peripheral bone fracture (59.6%) and ICH (23.4%). In addition to STRATIFY, FRAX™ was significantly associated not only with bone fractures but also ICH. Concomitant use of risk score for falls and risk score for fractures might be useful for the prediction of major injuries such as ICH after falls. PMID:22980233
Bruijns, Stevan R; Banner, Megan; Jacquet, Gabrielle A
Researchers from low- and middle-income countries have limited access to publishing and editing resources. This study describes a journal-initiated platform to improve publication quantity and quality in Sub-Saharan Africa emergency care research: Author Assist. This is a descriptive report of a quality improvement project of referrals to the African Journal of Emergency Medicine's (AfJEM's) Author Assist program between January 2011 and December 2015. After either pre- or post-peer review rejection, authors are matched to an experienced volunteer assistant to revise and resubmit their article in a process that blinds handling editors and reviewers, but not the editor in chief, to participation. Participant data were collected from an Author Assist coordination database and linked to Scopus (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and the journal's online submission platform. Of the 47 articles referred for Author Assist, 12 (26%) were originally rejected in the pre-peer review stage and 35 (74%) after peer review. Twenty-eight (60%) authors offered Author Assist enrolled. Of the 14 resubmissions during the study period, 12 (86%) were accepted for publication. For comparison, 37 of 40 regular revisions (93%) (without assistance) were accepted for publication during the same period. Author Assist reversed 1 in 4 rejection decisions through a process that unavoidably but minimally biases peer review. Of the few free publication-improvement services targeting researchers in low- and middle-income countries, AfJEM's Author Assist is the only journal-led initiative, and the only one specific to emergency medicine. To continue to refine the design of the program, we recommend further qualitative research exploring author decisions to pursue or forgo enrollment in Author Assist and research examining author and assistant experiences once enrolled. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marín, Alejandro; Medrano, María José; González, José; Pintado, Héctor; Compaired, Vicente; Bárcena, Mario; Fustero, María Victoria; Tisaire, Javier; Cucalón, José M; Martín, Aurelio; Boix, Raquel; Hernansanz, Francisco; Bueno, José
Background Ischaemic heart disease is a global priority of health-care policy, because of its social repercussions and its impact on the health-care system. Yet there is little information on coronary morbidity in Spain and on the effect of the principal risk factors on risk of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of coronary disease (incidence, mortality and its association with cardiovascular risk factors) using the information gathered by primary care practitioners on cardiovascular health of their population. Methods A prospective study was designed. Eight primary-care centres participated, each contributing to the constitution of the cohort with the entire population covered by the centre. A total of 6124 men and women aged over 25 years and free of cardiovascular disease agreed to participate and were thus enrolled and followed-up, with all fatal and non-fatal coronary disease episodes being registered during a 5-year period. Repeated measurements were collected on smoking, blood pressure, weight and height, serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins and fasting glucose. Rates were calculated for acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic heart disease. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and coronary disease-free survival were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Mean age at recruitment was 51.6 ± 15, with 24% of patients being over 65. At baseline, 74% of patients were overweight, serum cholesterol over 240 was present in 35% of patients, arterial hypertension in 37%, and basal glucose over 126 in 11%. Thirty-four percent of men and 13% of women were current smokers. During follow-up, 155 first episodes of coronary disease were detected, which yielded age-adjusted rates of 362 and 191 per 100,000 person-years in men and women respectively. Disease-free survival was associated with all risk factors in univariate analyses. After multivariate
Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Baron, Gabriel; Coriat, Fernand; Brin, Sylvie; Revel, Michel; Poiraudeau, Serge
Objective Mass-media campaigns have been known to modify the outcome of low back pain (LBP). We assessed the impact on outcome of standardized written information on LBP given to patients with acute LBP. Methods Design: A 3-month pragmatic, multicenter controlled trial with geographic stratification. Setting: Primary care practice in France. Participants: 2752 patients with acute LBP. Intervention: An advice book on LBP (the “back book”). Main outcome measures: The main outcome measure was persistence of LBP three months after baseline evaluation. Results 2337 (85%) patients were assessed at follow-up and 12.4% of participants reported persistent LBP. The absolute risk reduction of reporting persistent back pain in the intervention group was 3.6% lower than in the control group (10.5% vs. 14.1%; 95% confidence interval [−6.3% ; −1.0%]; p value adjusted for cluster effect = 0.01). Patients in the intervention group were more satisfied than those in the control group with the information they received about physical activities, when to consult their physician, and how to prevent a new episode of LBP. However, the number of patients who had taken sick leave was similar, as was the mean sick-leave duration, in both arms, and, among patients with persistent pain at follow-up, the intervention and control groups did not differ in disability or fear-avoidance beliefs. Conclusions The level of improvement of an information booklet is modest, but the cost and complexity of the intervention is minimal. Therefore, the implications and generalizability of this intervention are substantial. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00343057 PMID:17684553
Wimpenny, Peter; Kirkpatrick, Pamela
Levels of medication administration error have been reported as accounting for 38% of all adverse drug events and have been calculated as occurring in 3-8% of all administrations. The majority of these will occur as part of "routine" administration. To undertake a systematic review of roles and systems for preventing medication error during routine medication administration in hospital-based acute care settings and of perceptions of causes of error. Types of participants- Participants were nurses, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, medical and surgical staff and adult patients in hospital-based, acute care settings.Types of intervention/Phenomena of interest- Intervention related to administration systems and related to roles of those who administer medicines were considered. The perceptions of causes of error was the phenomena of interest.Types of outcomes- 1) Number of medication administration errors, and 2) Nurses and patients' perceptions of causes of medication errorTypes of studies- Quantitative studies of medication error rates for differing medication systems and roles of those administering medications. Qualitative and descriptive studies of perceived causes of errors. The review sought studies published in English from 1990 to December 2008. 23 databases, websites and search engines were searched. Critical appraisal tools from Joanna Briggs Institute were used. Two reviewers appraised studies independently. 35 studies out of 1004 identified papers were critically appraised. 19 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted using standardised extraction forms. It was not possible to undertake meta-analysis due to lack of studies in all categories and lack of similarity between studies. Quantitative results were combined in a narrative summary. Qualitative studies were synthesised accordingly using a meta-aggregative approach. Nurses perceptions of medication administration errors suggest that ineligible prescriptions and distractions
Huddleston, Penny; Mancini, Mary E; Gray, Jennifer
Survey items on the Healthy Work Environment Scales (HWES) for nurse leaders (NLs) and direct care nurses (DCNs) were developed using statements from 2 qualitative research studies conducted in a healthcare system. The purposes of 2 quantitative studies were to develop items on the HWES for NLs and DCNs, to assess the validity and reliability of these new tools, and to describe the NLs and DCNs perceptions of a healthy work environment (HWE) using nonexperimental descriptive designs. Each research study had 2 separate phases. In phase 1 of the studies, NLs and DCNs assigned each item to 1 of the 8 characteristics of an HWE to assess face validity. Content validity was determined by calculating the scale content validity and item content validity indices. Based on these results, the items were revised or deleted to obtain version 3 of both tools. In phase 2 of the studies, principal component analysis (PCA) assessed the validity of the tools, Cronbach's α served as the test for reliability, and the NLs and DCNs perceptions of an HWE were measured. Samples included 314 subjects for the HWES for NL study and 986 subjects for the HWES for DCN study. Principal component analysis for the HWES for NLs (version 3) revealed 40 items comprising 4 components, and PCA for the HWES for DCNs (version 3) revealed 39 items comprising 5 components. Internal consistencies of the tools were 0.974 and 0.957, respectively. Based on the findings of these studies, the tools demonstrated promising psychometric properties to measure a HWE in acute care settings.
Asiri, Samirah A; Rohrer, Wesley W; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Da'ar, Omar O; Ahmed, Anwar
commitment include TAL (P = 0.027), Laissez-faire Leadership (LFL (P = 0.012), and autonomy (P = 0.016). The linear combination of these predictors explained 20 % of the variability of the nurses' commitment. The study findings suggest that leadership styles and employee empowerment could play an instrumental role in promoting organizational commitment of nurses working in acute health care settings, at least in the Saudi Arabian context.
Ivy, D Dunbar
The prostacyclins-prostanoids were one of the first medications used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Three prostanoids have been developed to treat PAH: epoprostenol, treprostinil, and iloprost. In the acute setting, experience is growing, using the inhaled forms of these three medications. Inhalation may improve ventilation/perfusion matching, whereas in the intravenous form these medications may cause nonselective pulmonary vasodilation and may worsen ventilation/perfusion matching. Currently, there are no universal recommendations for dosing delivery of inhaled prostanoids to intubated patients in the intensive care unit setting.
Britton, Lauren; Rosenwax, Lorna; McNamara, Beverley
Increased accountability and growing fiscal limitations in global health care continue to challenge how occupational therapy practices are undertaken. Little is known about how these changes affect current practice in acute hospital settings. This article reviews the relevant literature to further understanding of occupational therapy practice in acute physical hospital settings. A scoping review of five electronic databases was completed using the keywords Occupational therapy, acute hospital settings/acute physical hospital settings, acute care setting/acute care hospital setting, general medicine/general medical wards, occupational therapy service provision/teaching hospitals/tertiary care hospitals. Criteria were applied to determine suitability for inclusion and the articles were analysed to uncover key themes. In total 34 publications were included in the review. Analysis of the publications revealed four themes: (1) Comparisons between the practice of novice and experienced occupational therapists in acute care (2) Occupational therapists and the discharge planning process (3) Role of occupation in the acute care setting and (4) Personal skills needed and organisation factors affecting acute care practice. The current literature has highlighted the challenges occupational therapists face in practicing within an acute setting. Findings from this review enhance understanding of how occupational therapy department managers and educators can best support staff that practise in acute hospital settings. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.
This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.
Hyrkas, Kristiina; Wiggins, Marjorie
To compare medication adherence and readmissions in patients who received usual care vs. patient-centred interventions. Medication adherence is a complex behaviour that may be improved with patient-centred strategies. A non-concurrent convenience sample of 303 hospitalised patients received either usual care (n = 98) or patient-centred interventions (n = 205). Intervention patients received teach-back and medication tools (n = 137) or motivational interviewing (n = 68). Data were collected at discharge (T1), at 48-72 hours (T2) and 30 days after discharge (T3). No significant differences were found in medication adherence, therapeutic alliance, patients' experience and readmissions between groups. Patients in the motivational interview group reported lower confidence with medication adherence at T1 (P = 0.01) and T2 (P = 0.00) than the patient-centred intervention group. Motivational interviewing was a significant predictor (β = -1.55, P = 0.01, OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06, 0.72) of fewer readmissions. Overall, patients reported very low levels of non-adherence and very high levels of confidence and importance of medication adherence. Medication adherence continues to be an important area for clinical inquiry. For those patients who lack confidence for medication adherence, comprehensive patient-centred strategies such as motivational interviewing may improve treatment outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kraus, Eva Maria; Pelzl, Steffen; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Laux, Gunter
Antibiotic overprescribing in primary care has major impacts on the development of antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to provide insight in antibiotics prescriptions for patients suffering from cough, acute bronchitis or community acquired pneumonia in primary care. Data from 2009 to 2013 of electronic health records of 12,880 patients in Germany were obtained from a research database. The prescription of antibiotics for acute lower respiratory tract infections was compared to the national S3 guideline cough from the German Society of General Practitioners and Family Medicine. Antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of consultations. General practitioners' decision of whether or not to prescribe an antibiotic was congruent with the guideline in 52% of consultations and the antibiotic choice congruence was 51% of antibiotic prescriptions. Hence, a congruent prescribing decision and a prescription of recommendation was found in only 25% of antibiotic prescriptions. Split by diagnosis we found that around three quarters of antibiotics prescribed for cough (73%) and acute bronchitis (78%) were not congruent to the guidelines. In contrast to that around one quarter of antibiotics prescribed for community acquired pneumonia (28%) were not congruent to the guidelines. Our results show that there is a big gap between guideline recommendation and actual prescribing, in the decision to prescribe and the choice of antibiotic agent. This gap could be closed by periodic quality circles on antibiotic prescribing for GPs.
Pelzl, Steffen; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Laux, Gunter
Objectives Antibiotic overprescribing in primary care has major impacts on the development of antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to provide insight in antibiotics prescriptions for patients suffering from cough, acute bronchitis or community acquired pneumonia in primary care. Methods Data from 2009 to 2013 of electronic health records of 12,880 patients in Germany were obtained from a research database. The prescription of antibiotics for acute lower respiratory tract infections was compared to the national S3 guideline cough from the German Society of General Practitioners and Family Medicine. Results Antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of consultations. General practitioners’ decision of whether or not to prescribe an antibiotic was congruent with the guideline in 52% of consultations and the antibiotic choice congruence was 51% of antibiotic prescriptions. Hence, a congruent prescribing decision and a prescription of recommendation was found in only 25% of antibiotic prescriptions. Split by diagnosis we found that around three quarters of antibiotics prescribed for cough (73%) and acute bronchitis (78%) were not congruent to the guidelines. In contrast to that around one quarter of antibiotics prescribed for community acquired pneumonia (28%) were not congruent to the guidelines. Conclusions Our results show that there is a big gap between guideline recommendation and actual prescribing, in the decision to prescribe and the choice of antibiotic agent. This gap could be closed by periodic quality circles on antibiotic prescribing for GPs. PMID:28350820
Smartphones and other mobile devices are having and will continue to have an impact on health care delivery in acute settings in Australia and overseas. Nurses, unlike physicians, have been slow to adopt these technologies and the reasons for this may relate to the status of both these professions within the hospital setting. To explore nurses' perspectives on iPhone use within an acute care unit. We examined their experiences and views on how this device may improve communication and decision-making processes at the point of care. Two focus group discussions, using a semistructured interview, were conducted over the trial period. The discussions focused on the nurses' experiences regarding ease of use, features, and capabilities of the device. The focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using semistructured interview questions as a guide. The positive findings indicated that the iPhones were accessible and portable at point of care with patients, enhanced communication in the workplace, particularly among the nurses, and that this technology would evolve and be embraced by all nurses in the future. The negatives were the small screen size when undertaking bedside education for the patient and the invasive nature of the device. Another issue was the perception of being viewed as unprofessional when using the device in real time with the patients and their family. The use of iPhones by nurses in acute care settings has the potential to enhance patient care, especially through more effective communication among nurses, and other health care professionals. To ensure that the benefits of this technology is woven into the everyday practice of the nurse, it is important that leaders in these organizations develop the agenda or policy to ensure that this occurs.
Background Smartphones and other mobile devices are having and will continue to have an impact on health care delivery in acute settings in Australia and overseas. Nurses, unlike physicians, have been slow to adopt these technologies and the reasons for this may relate to the status of both these professions within the hospital setting. Objective To explore nurses’ perspectives on iPhone use within an acute care unit. We examined their experiences and views on how this device may improve communication and decision-making processes at the point of care. Methods Two focus group discussions, using a semistructured interview, were conducted over the trial period. The discussions focused on the nurses’ experiences regarding ease of use, features, and capabilities of the device. The focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using semistructured interview questions as a guide. Results The positive findings indicated that the iPhones were accessible and portable at point of care with patients, enhanced communication in the workplace, particularly among the nurses, and that this technology would evolve and be embraced by all nurses in the future. The negatives were the small screen size when undertaking bedside education for the patient and the invasive nature of the device. Another issue was the perception of being viewed as unprofessional when using the device in real time with the patients and their family. Conclusions The use of iPhones by nurses in acute care settings has the potential to enhance patient care, especially through more effective communication among nurses, and other health care professionals. To ensure that the benefits of this technology is woven into the everyday practice of the nurse, it is important that leaders in these organizations develop the agenda or policy to ensure that this occurs. PMID:27246197
Background Estimates place the number of refugees in Nairobi over 100,000. The constant movement of refugees between countries of origin, refugee camps, and Nairobi poses risk of introduction and transmission of communicable diseases into Kenya. We assessed the care-seeking behavior of residents of Eastleigh, a neighborhood in Nairobi with urban refugees. Methods During July and August 2010, we conducted a Health Utilization Survey in Section II of Eastleigh. We used a multistage random cluster sampling design to identify households for interview. A standard questionnaire on the household demographics, water and sanitation was administered to household caretakers. Separate questionnaires were administered to household members who had one or more of the illnesses of interest. Results Of 785 households targeted for interview, data were obtained from 673 (85.7%) households with 3,005 residents. Of the surveyed respondents, 290 (9.7%) individuals reported acute respiratory illness (ARI) in the previous 12 months, 222 (7.4%) reported fever in the preceding 2 weeks, and 54 (1.8%) reported having diarrhea in the 30 days prior to the survey. Children <5 years old had the highest frequency of all the illnesses surveyed: 17.1% (95% CI 12.2-21.9) reported ARI, 10.0% (95% CI 6.2-13.8) reported fever, and 6.9% (3.8-10.0) reported diarrhea during the time periods specified for each syndrome. Twenty-nine [7.5% (95% CI 4.3-10.7)] hospitalizations were reported among all age groups of those who sought care. Among participants who reported ≥1 illness, 330 (77.0%) sought some form of health care; most (174 [59.8%]) sought health care services from private health care providers. Fifty-five (18.9%) participants seeking healthcare services visited a pharmacy. Few residents of Eastleigh (38 [13.1%]) sought care at government-run facilities, and 24 (8.2%) sought care from a relative, a religious leader, or a health volunteer. Of those who did not seek any health care services (99 [23
Mohamed, Abdinoor Haji; Dalal, Warren; Nyoka, Raymond; Burke, Heather; Ahmed, Jamal; Auko, Erick; Shihaji, Wilbert; Ndege, Irene; Breiman, Robert F; Eidex, Rachel B
Estimates place the number of refugees in Nairobi over 100,000. The constant movement of refugees between countries of origin, refugee camps, and Nairobi poses risk of introduction and transmission of communicable diseases into Kenya. We assessed the care-seeking behavior of residents of Eastleigh, a neighborhood in Nairobi with urban refugees. During July and August 2010, we conducted a Health Utilization Survey in Section II of Eastleigh. We used a multistage random cluster sampling design to identify households for interview. A standard questionnaire on the household demographics, water and sanitation was administered to household caretakers. Separate questionnaires were administered to household members who had one or more of the illnesses of interest. Of 785 households targeted for interview, data were obtained from 673 (85.7%) households with 3,005 residents. Of the surveyed respondents, 290 (9.7%) individuals reported acute respiratory illness (ARI) in the previous 12 months, 222 (7.4%) reported fever in the preceding 2 weeks, and 54 (1.8%) reported having diarrhea in the 30 days prior to the survey. Children <5 years old had the highest frequency of all the illnesses surveyed: 17.1% (95% CI 12.2-21.9) reported ARI, 10.0% (95% CI 6.2-13.8) reported fever, and 6.9% (3.8-10.0) reported diarrhea during the time periods specified for each syndrome. Twenty-nine [7.5% (95% CI 4.3-10.7)] hospitalizations were reported among all age groups of those who sought care. Among participants who reported ≥1 illness, 330 (77.0%) sought some form of health care; most (174 [59.8%]) sought health care services from private health care providers. Fifty-five (18.9%) participants seeking healthcare services visited a pharmacy. Few residents of Eastleigh (38 [13.1%]) sought care at government-run facilities, and 24 (8.2%) sought care from a relative, a religious leader, or a health volunteer. Of those who did not seek any health care services (99 [23.0%]), the primary reason was
Russell, J S
In the last few years, much medical-facility construction has been driven by what insurers want. Hospitals have built facilities for well-reimbursed procedures and closed money-losing ones. Health-maintenance organizations increasingly expect to hold down costs by making prepayment arrangements with doctors and their hospitals. President Clinton has pledged early action on health-care reform, which will likely change planners' priorities. Whether the nation goes to Clintonian "managed competition" or a Canadian-style nationwide single-payer system (the two most likely options), the projects on these pages reflect two large-scale trends that are likely to continue: the movement of more procedures from inpatient to outpatient facilities and the separation of treatment functions from ordinary office and administrative tasks so that the latter are not performed in the same high-cost buildings as technology-intensive procedures. Various schemes that make care more "patient-centered" have been tried and been shown to speed healing, even for outpatients, but such hard-to-quantify issues get short shrift in an era of knee-jerk cost containment. The challenge in tomorrow's healthcare universe--whatever it becomes--will be to keep these issues on the table.
Debono, Deborah S; Greenfield, David; Travaglia, Joanne F; Long, Janet C; Black, Deborah; Johnson, Julie; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Workarounds circumvent or temporarily 'fix' perceived workflow hindrances to meet a goal or to achieve it more readily. Behaviours fitting the definition of workarounds often include violations, deviations, problem solving, improvisations, procedural failures and shortcuts. Clinicians implement workarounds in response to the complexity of delivering patient care. One imperative to understand workarounds lies in their influence on patient safety. This paper assesses the peer reviewed empirical evidence available on the use, proliferation, conceptualisation, rationalisation and perceived impact of nurses' use of workarounds in acute care settings. A literature assessment was undertaken in 2011-2012. Snowballing technique, reference tracking, and a systematic search of twelve academic databases were conducted to identify peer reviewed published studies in acute care settings examining nurses' workarounds. Selection criteria were applied across three phases. 58 studies were included in the final analysis and synthesis. Using an analytic frame, these studies were interrogated for: workarounds implemented in acute care settings by nurses; factors contributing to the development and proliferation of workarounds; the perceived impact of workarounds; and empirical evidence of nurses' conceptualisation and rationalisation of workarounds. The majority of studies examining nurses' workarounds have been published since 2008, predominantly in the United States. Studies conducted across a variety of acute care settings use diverse data collection methods. Nurses' workarounds, primarily perceived negatively, are both individually and collectively enacted. Organisational, work process, patient-related, individual, social and professional factors contribute to the proliferation of workarounds. Group norms, local and organisational culture, 'being competent', and collegiality influence the implementation of workarounds. Workarounds enable, yet potentially compromise, the execution of
Valente, Carla; Soares, Márcio; Rocha, Eduardo; Cardoso, Lucio; Maccariello, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of platelet counts in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed in three tertiary-care hospitals. Platelet counts were obtained upon admission to the intensive care unit and during the first week of renal replacement therapy on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. The outcome of interest was the hospital mortality rate. With the aim of minimizing individual variation, we analyzed the relative platelet counts on days 3, 5, 7 and at the point of the largest variation during the first week of renal replacement therapy. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the prognostic value of the platelet counts. RESULTS: The study included 274 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 62%. The survivors had significantly higher platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit compared to the non-survivors [175.5×103/mm3 (108.5–259×103/mm3) vs. 148×103/mm3 (80−141×103/mm3)] and during the first week of renal replacement therapy. The relative platelet count reductions were significantly associated with a higher hospital mortality rate compared with the platelet count increases (70% vs. 44% at the nadir, respectively). A relative platelet count reduction >60% was significantly associated with a worse outcome (mortality rate = 82.6%). Relative platelet count variations and the percentage of reduction were independent risk factors of hospital mortality during the first week of renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: Platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit and at the beginning of renal replacement therapy as well as sequential platelet count evaluation have prognostic value in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. PMID:23778497
Stier-Jarmer, M; Liman, W; Stucki, G; Braun, J
Severe rheumatological systemic diseases demand high levels of diagnostic and therapeutic measures and differentiated and complex methods of care. In Germany, specialised rheumatologists and, if hospitalisation is indicated, specialised rheumatology hospitals or departments are responsible for the treatment of these patients. Early rehabilitation procedures, provided by a multidisciplinary therapeutic team, are an important component of the treatment concept in these facilities. Early rehabilitation is integrated into the patients acute medical treatment plan, with careful consideration of the patients current health problems and functional capabilities (body functions and structures, activities and participation as outlined in the ICF), thereby providing a comprehensive, integrated therapy strategy which has long been acknowledged as necessary for the successful treatment of rheumatoid patients. This article presents an analysis concerning the development, organisation, facilities and processes of the acute medical in-patient care for patients with rheumatological disorders in Germany. In total there are 4188 beds in 88 acute hospitals exclusively available for rheumatological in-patients in Germany at present. There is at least one facility specialised in rheumatology in every German federal state. The density of care in the German federal states varies between 131.8 beds per 1 million inhabitants in Bremen and 9 beds per 1 million inhabitants in Saxony. In most regions of Germany the acute in-patient care for patients with rheumatological disorders is provided by hospitals specialised in rheumatology. Rheumatological patients are treated in a variety of hospital departments. In the year 2000 only 47% of the inpatients with rheumatoid arthritis, 56% of those with ankylosing spondylitis and 28% of those with systemic lupus erythematosus were treated in a ward specialising in rheumatology. Rheumatoid arthritis, with a total share of nearly 30%, was the most
Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a
Fessler, Henry E; Hess, Dean R
High-frequency ventilation is the application of mechanical ventilation with a respiratory rate > 100 breaths/min. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is the form of high-frequency ventilation most widely used in adult critical care. The principles of lung-protective ventilation have matured in parallel with the technology for HFOV. The 2 basic principles of lung-protective ventilation are the use of small tidal volume and maintenance of adequate alveolar recruitment. Research in animal models and humans demonstrate that HFOV can support gas exchange with much smaller tidal volume than can be achieved with conventional ventilation. HFOV also provides more effective lung recruitment than conventional mechanical ventilation. However, at present, evidence is lacking that survival in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome is improved by HFOV. Although HFOV may improve P(aO(2)) in some patients, this improvement is often transitory. Available evidence does not support that pulmonary inflammation is reduced with HFOV in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome. Heavy sedation and often paralysis are necessary. The promise of HFOV as a lung-protective ventilation strategy remains attractive, but additional clinical trials are needed to determine whether this approach is superior to lung-protective ventilation with conventional mechanical ventilation.
Zibrik, Kelly J; MacLeod, Martha L P; Zimmer, Lela V
Professionalism is commonly discussed in nursing but little is known about how it is experienced in everyday nursing practice.This study examines rural nurses experiences of professionalism and articulates the nature of professionalism in rural acute-care settings. Interview data from 8 nurses in rural acute-care facilities in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada, were analyzed using an interpretive description approach.The findings indicate that professionalism among rural nurses is a dynamic, enduring phenomenon that exists in workplace and community contexts.To experience professionalism in rural nursing means being visible in the community while embracing reality in the workplace. Understanding professionalism in a rural context has significant implications in terms of affirming and identifying sources ofjob satisfaction among rural nurses and creating professional practice environments in rural areas.
Rico, María; Martinez-Rodriguez, Laura; Larrosa-Campo, Davinia; Calleja, Sergio
Background Stroke mimics may account for up to 30% of all acute stroke consultations. However, in the emergency setting, accurate diagnosis is not always possible. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with acute aphasia and right hemiparesis. The National Institute of Health Stroke Score was 21, compatible with severe stroke, so she received thrombolysis. Laboratory testing demonstrated severe hypomagnesemia. She had been taking proton pump inhibitors for years and neuroimaging did not demonstrate signs of acute ischemic disease. After correcting the metabolic alterations with intravenous and oral supplemental magnesium, the patient was discharged asymptomatic. No further episodes have been registered to date. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia might cause acute neurological symptoms that could be confused with stroke. A careful history is essential for diagnosis but suspicion of stroke mimic should not prevent tPA administration. PMID:27354832
Pines, Jesse M; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Zocchi, Mark S; Lazar, Danielle; Leedekerken, Jacob B; Margolis, Gregg S; Carr, Brendan G
We engaged in a 1-year process to develop a conceptual model representing an episode of acute, unscheduled care. Acute, unscheduled care includes acute illnesses (eg, nausea and vomiting), injuries, or exacerbations of chronic conditions (eg, worsening dyspnea in congestive heart failure) and is delivered in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and physicians' offices, as well as through telemedicine. We began with a literature search to define an acute episode of care and to identify existing conceptual models used in health care. In accordance with this information, we then drafted a preliminary conceptual model and collected stakeholder feedback, using online focus groups and concept mapping. Two technical expert panels reviewed the draft model, examined the stakeholder feedback, and discussed ways the model could be improved. After integrating the experts' comments, we solicited public comment on the model and made final revisions. The final conceptual model includes social and individual determinants of health that influence the incidence of acute illness and injury, factors that affect care-seeking decisions, specific delivery settings where acute care is provided, and outcomes and costs associated with the acute care system. We end with recommendations for how researchers, policymakers, payers, patients, and providers can use the model to identify and prioritize ways to improve acute care delivery.
Gomberg, S M
Changes in the health care system are stimulating trends in where and how nursing services are delivered. Nurse managers are responsible for the overall management of the nursing work unit and must be prepared to practice in settings other than acute care. Home care is a rapidly growing practice that emerges as patients are discharged from the hospital sooner with ongoing medical and nursing needs. The job responsibilities of a nurse manager remain similar across practice settings, including the transition from acute care to home care. A detailed checklist highlights specific similarities and differences in the nurse manager's role in acute care and home care settings. As the walls of the practice setting are taken down, nurse managers must build on current knowledge and creatively develop new skills to remain successful in ongoing job responsibilities.
The examination of both parents' and nurses' expectations and attitudes towards parental participation in the care of ill children in a community hospital, non-specialty setting was undertaken in this exploratory, qualitative research study within Australia. First, in this triangulated research study, 14 in-depth interviews with parents were carried out about their participation in the care of their ill children. Content analysis revealed that the four main themes were to do with parental factors including control, expectations, support and emotion; communication; the importance of being with your child; and the fact that mothers do the mothering and nurses do the nursing. Two focus group sessions were held with paediatric nursing staff. Content analysis confirmed real communication problems between nurses and parents. Implications that arose for nursing practice were for in-service workshops to improve communication between nurses and families as well as workshops to prepare students of university nursing programmes offering paediatric electives.
Yeaman, Brian; Ko, Kelly J; Alvarez del Castillo, Rodolfo
Care transitions between settings are a well-known cause of medical errors. A key component of transition is information exchange, especially in long-term care (LTC). However, LTC is behind other settings in adoption of health information technologies (HIT). In this article, we provide some brief background information about care transitions in LTC and concerns related to technology. We describe a pilot project using HIT and secure messaging in LTC to facilitate electronic information exchange during care transitions. Five LTC facilities were included, all located within Oklahoma and serviced by the same regional health system. The study duration was 20 months. Both inpatient readmission and return emergency department (ED) visit rates were lower than baseline following implementation. We provide discussion of positive outcomes, lessons learned, and limitations. Finally, we offer implications for practice and research for implementation of HIT and information exchange across care settings that may contribute to reduction in readmission rates in acute care and ED settings.
Mullen-Fortino, Margaret; Sites, Frank D; Soisson, Michael; Galen, Julie
Tele-intensive care units (ICUs) typically provide remote monitoring for ICUs of acute care, short-stay hospitals. As part of a joint venture project to establish a long-term acute level of care, Good Shepherd Penn Partners became the first facility to use tele-ICU technology in a nontraditional setting. Long-term acute care hospitals care for patients with complex medical problems. We describe describes the benefits and challenges of integrating a tele-ICU program into a long-term acute care setting and the impact this model of care has on patient care outcomes.
Shiozawa, Aki; Cloutier, Martin; Heroux, Julie; Guerin, Annie; Wu, Eric Q; Jackson, Robert
To describe real-world treatment patterns of patients receiving colchicine or other treatments during a gout-related emergency room or acute care facility (ER/ACF) visit. An online physician-administered questionnaire was used to collect chart data on 500 patients with a gout-related ER/ACF visit after 16 October 2009; 250 patients receiving colchicine (Colchicine Cohort) and 250 receiving NSAIDs, systemic corticosteroids, narcotics, allopurinol, febuxostat, pegloticase, probenecid, or sulfinpyrazone (Other Cohort). Patient characteristics and treatment received/prescribed during the ER/ACF visit (Period 1 [P1]), at discharge (P2), and at the first follow-up visit (P3) are reported. A total of 45 rheumatologists and 63 primary care physicians participated in the study. Patient mean age was 51 years and 74.8% were male. The most common treatments in the Other Cohort were NSAIDs (59.6%), systemic corticosteroids (45.2%), and narcotics (33.6%). The 500 patients contributed 307 distinct treatment patterns from P1 to P3. Of the 20.6% patients not prescribed a treatment in P2, 60.2% were restarted on a treatment in P3. Of the 78.6% treated patients in P2, 27.0% had a treatment adjustment (dose increase, treatment add-on, or initiation of a different gout-related treatment - not with a urate lowering therapy only) in P3; for 72.6% of these patients, physicians justified the treatment adjustment by inadequacy of the treatment for maintenance therapy, insufficient dosage, or inadequate response. In the Colchicine Cohort, 60.8% of patients were prescribed colchicine consistently from P1 to P3, while 26.8% and 17.7% of patients in the Other Cohort were prescribed consistently NSAIDs and systemic corticosteroids from P1 to P3, respectively. Specific nature of the acute gout-related symptoms or potential attack/flare during the ER/ACF visit was not recorded. Real-world clinical practice reveals a substantial number of distinct treatment patterns and frequent treatment
Kofke, W A; Rosen, K A; Barbaccia, J; Sinz, E; Cain, J
Simulation of crises has long been a component of training in the aviation and nuclear industries. This technology has been successfully transferred and adapted to acute care medicine and allied health care. In this article, we describe the capabilities and uses of human acute care simulation at West Virginia University Hospital.
Planning for patient discharge is an essential element of any admission to an acute setting, but may often be left until the patient is almost ready to leave hospital. This article emphasises why discharge planning is important and lists the essential principles that should be addressed to ensure that patients leave at an optimum time, feeling confident and safe to do so. Early assessment, early planning and co-ordination of all the teams involved in the patient's care are essential. Effective communication between the various teams and with the patient and their family or carer(s) is necessary. Patients should leave hospital with all the information, medications and equipment they require. Appropriate plans should have been developed and communicated to the receiving community or non-acute team. When patient discharge is effective, complications as a result of extended lengths of hospital stay are prevented, hospital beds are used efficiently and readmissions are reduced.
Background Workarounds circumvent or temporarily ‘fix’ perceived workflow hindrances to meet a goal or to achieve it more readily. Behaviours fitting the definition of workarounds often include violations, deviations, problem solving, improvisations, procedural failures and shortcuts. Clinicians implement workarounds in response to the complexity of delivering patient care. One imperative to understand workarounds lies in their influence on patient safety. This paper assesses the peer reviewed empirical evidence available on the use, proliferation, conceptualisation, rationalisation and perceived impact of nurses’ use of workarounds in acute care settings. Methods A literature assessment was undertaken in 2011–2012. Snowballing technique, reference tracking, and a systematic search of twelve academic databases were conducted to identify peer reviewed published studies in acute care settings examining nurses’ workarounds. Selection criteria were applied across three phases. 58 studies were included in the final analysis and synthesis. Using an analytic frame, these studies were interrogated for: workarounds implemented in acute care settings by nurses; factors contributing to the development and proliferation of workarounds; the perceived impact of workarounds; and empirical evidence of nurses’ conceptualisation and rationalisation of workarounds. Results The majority of studies examining nurses’ workarounds have been published since 2008, predominantly in the United States. Studies conducted across a variety of acute care settings use diverse data collection methods. Nurses’ workarounds, primarily perceived negatively, are both individually and collectively enacted. Organisational, work process, patient-related, individual, social and professional factors contribute to the proliferation of workarounds. Group norms, local and organisational culture, ‘being competent’, and collegiality influence the implementation of workarounds. Conclusion
Jacobi, Lena; Petzold, Thomas; Hanel, Andreas; Albrecht, Michael; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria; Schmitt, Jochen
Falls are a relevant issue of inpatient treatment. Epidemiological analysis concerning incidence, risk factors for falls and the quality of risk assessments are missing. In a routine data-based cross-sectional study all patients hospitalized in the University Hospital Dresden, Germany, during 2012 and 2013 were analyzed according to fall incidence and risk factors (items of Dresden fall risk assessment [Dresden-FRA], age, sex, severity of disease, and length of stay. Fall risk and associated risk factors were determined using descriptive methods and logistic regression models. In addition, the quality of the fall risk assessment was evaluated. The risk of falling during the observation period was 1.6 %. Differences exist between the medical disciplines (risk of falling 0.1 % to 9.8 %). The fall rate was 2.9/1,000 days of treatment. Higher age, longer inpatient stay, and a higher level of disease severity were significant predictors of falls. Less serious consequences of falls were more frequently documented (84 %) than consequences of falls requiring treatment (16 %). All nine items of the Dresden-FRA were significant risk factors. The sensitivity and specificity of the Dresden-FRA were 69.9 % and 71.4 %, respectively. Patients at an older age and with more severe disease have a higher risk of falling. The validated assessment of the individual risk of falling is an important tool of medical quality management and risk management. The present study can help to raise awareness about the quality of risk assessments, to further improve fall risk assessment, and to increase patient safety in acute care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Dean, Marleah; Oetzel, John; Sklar, David P
Effective communication has been linked to better health outcomes, higher patient satisfaction, and treatment adherence. Communication in ambulatory care contexts is even more crucial, as providers typically do not know patients' medical histories or have established relationships, conversations are time constrained, interruptions are frequent, and the seriousness of patients' medical conditions may create additional tension during interactions. Yet, health communication often unduly emphasizes information exchange-the transmission and receipt of messages leading to a mutual understanding of a patient's condition, needs, and treatments. This approach does not take into account the importance of rapport building and contextual issues, and may ultimately limit the amount of information exchanged.The authors share the perspective of communication scientists to enrich the current approach to medical communication in ambulatory health care contexts, broadening the under standing of medical communication beyond information exchange to a more holistic, multilayered viewpoint, which includes rapport and contextual issues. The authors propose a socio-ecological model for understanding communication in acute ambulatory care. This model recognizes the relationship of individuals to their environment and emphasizes the importance of individual and contextual factors that influence patient-provider interactions. Its key elements include message exchange and individual, organizational, societal, and cultural factors. Using this model, and following the authors' recommendations, providers and medical educators can treat communication as a holistic process shaped by multiple layers. This is a step toward being able to negotiate conflicting demands, resolve tensions, and create encounters that lead to positive health outcomes.
Blackwood, Bronagh; Marshall, John; Rose, Louise
Appropriate selection and definition of outcome measures are essential for clinical trials to be maximally informative. Core outcome sets (an agreed, standardized collection of outcomes measured and reported in all trials for a specific clinical area) were developed due to established inconsistencies in trial outcome selection. This review discusses the rationale for, and methods of, core outcome set development, as well as current initiatives in critical care. Recent systematic reviews of reported outcomes and measurement instruments relevant to the critically ill highlight inconsistencies in outcome selection, definition, and measurement, thus establishing the need for core outcome sets. Current critical care initiatives include development of core outcome sets for trials aimed at reducing mechanical ventilation duration; rehabilitation following critical illness; long-term outcomes in acute respiratory failure; and epidemic and pandemic studies of severe acute respiratory infection. Development and utilization of core outcome sets for studies relevant to the critically ill is in its infancy compared to other specialties. Notwithstanding, core outcome set development frameworks and guidelines are available, several sets are in various stages of development, and there is strong support from international investigator-led collaborations including the International Forum for Acute Care Trialists.
Roth, Sean M; Keyser, Gabrielle; Winfield, Michelle; McNeil, Julie; Simko, Leslie; Price, Karen; Moffa, Donald; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Peacock, W Frank; Katzan, Irene L
The Acute Care Team Educational Initiative (ACTEI) was developed as a quality improvement initiative for the recognition and initial management of time-sensitive medical conditions. For our first time-sensitive disease process, we focused on acute stroke [acute stroke initiative (ASI)]. As part of the larger ACTEI, the ASI included creating an ACT that responds to all suspected emergency department stroke patients. In this article, we describe the planning, process, and development of the ACTEI/ASI as well as how we created an acute response team for the diagnosis and management of suspected acute stroke.
Lee, Magdalene Hui Min; Pan, Darius Shaw Teng; Huang, Joyce Huixin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Chong, Joash Wen Chen; Goh, Ee Hui; Jiang, Lili; Leo, Yee Sin; Lee, Tau Hong; Wong, Chia Siong; Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Lim, Fong Seng; Poh, Adrian Zhongxian; Tham, Tat Yean; Wong, Wei Mon; Yu, Yue
We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) among adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at general practitioner (GP) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the etiology of URTIs, the role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use. Control arm patients were educated on influenza vaccinations. Both arms were compared regarding the proportions prescribed antibiotics and the patients' postconsultation views. A total of 914 patients consulting 35 doctors from 24 clinics completed the study (457 in each arm). The demographics of patients in both arms were similar, and 19.1% were prescribed an antibiotic, but this varied from 0% to 70% for individual GPs. The intervention did not significantly reduce antibiotic prescriptions (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.73) except in patients of Indian ethnicity (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09-0.93). Positive associations between the intervention and the view that antibiotics were not needed most of the time for URTIs (P = 0.047) and on being worried about the side effects of antibiotics (P = 0.018) were restricted to the Indian subgroup. GPs in limited liability partnerships or clinic chains prescribed less (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.92), while certain inappropriate patient responses were associated with the receipt of antibiotics. Follow-up studies to investigate differences in responses to educational programs between ethnicities and to explore GP-targeted interventions are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Lee et al.
Lee, Magdalene Hui Min; Pan, Darius Shaw Teng; Huang, Joyce Huixin; Chong, Joash Wen Chen; Goh, Ee Hui; Jiang, Lili; Leo, Yee Sin; Lee, Tau Hong; Wong, Chia Siong; Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Lim, Fong Seng; Poh, Adrian Zhongxian; Tham, Tat Yean; Wong, Wei Mon; Yu, Yue
ABSTRACT We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) among adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at general practitioner (GP) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the etiology of URTIs, the role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use. Control arm patients were educated on influenza vaccinations. Both arms were compared regarding the proportions prescribed antibiotics and the patients' postconsultation views. A total of 914 patients consulting 35 doctors from 24 clinics completed the study (457 in each arm). The demographics of patients in both arms were similar, and 19.1% were prescribed an antibiotic, but this varied from 0% to 70% for individual GPs. The intervention did not significantly reduce antibiotic prescriptions (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.73) except in patients of Indian ethnicity (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09–0.93). Positive associations between the intervention and the view that antibiotics were not needed most of the time for URTIs (P = 0.047) and on being worried about the side effects of antibiotics (P = 0.018) were restricted to the Indian subgroup. GPs in limited liability partnerships or clinic chains prescribed less (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.92), while certain inappropriate patient responses were associated with the receipt of antibiotics. Follow-up studies to investigate differences in responses to educational programs between ethnicities and to explore GP-targeted interventions are recommended. PMID:28193663
The European quality of care pathways (EQCP) study on the impact of care pathways on interprofessional teamwork in an acute hospital setting: study protocol: for a cluster randomised controlled trial and evaluation of implementation processes
Background Although care pathways are often said to promote teamwork, high-level evidence that supports this statement is lacking. Furthermore, knowledge on conditions and facilitators for successful pathway implementation is scarce. The objective of the European Quality of Care Pathway (EQCP) study is therefore to study the impact of care pathways on interprofessional teamwork and to build up understanding on the implementation process. Methods/design An international post-test-only cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (cRCT), combined with process evaluations, will be performed in Belgium, Ireland, Italy, and Portugal. Teams caring for proximal femur fracture (PFF) patients and patients hospitalized with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will be randomised into an intervention and control group. The intervention group will implement a care pathway for PFF or COPD containing three active components: a formative evaluation of the actual teams’ performance, a set of evidence-based key interventions, and a training in care pathway-development. The control group will provide usual care. A set of team input, process and output indicators will be used as effect measures. The main outcome indicator will be relational coordination. Next to these, process measures during and after pathway development will be used to evaluate the implementation processes. In total, 132 teams have agreed to participate, of which 68 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 64 to the control group. Based on power analysis, a sample of 475 team members per arm is required. To analyze results, multilevel analysis will be performed. Discussion Results from our study will enhance understanding on the active components of care pathways. Through this, preferred implementation strategies can be defined. Trail registration NCT01435538 PMID:22607698
rehabilitation. The rehabilitation team was the most accurate in determining ongoing medical stability, but at the cost of a longer acute stay. To avoid inpatients remaining in acute care in a state of 'terra nullius', clinical models which provide rehabilitation within acute care, and more efficient movement to a rehabilitation setting, is required. Utilization review could have a decision support role in the determination of medical stability. PMID:22040281
Richmond, T S; Thompson, H J; Sullivan-Marx, E M
Until the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, acute care nurse practitioners could not be directly reimbursed for inpatient services provided to Medicare patients. With the enactment of this legislation, acute care nurse practitioners may now be directly compensated for care provided. The historical and contextual issues that surround reimbursement for nursing and advanced practice nursing services are reviewed to serve as a foundation for understanding the current Medicare reimbursement regulations. The implications of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 for acute care nurse practitioners and their professional colleagues are critically examined. The language of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 and the subsequent rules and regulations issued by the Health Care Financing Administration are reviewed with specific focus on implications for acute care nurse practitioners. The opportunities for reimbursement for services provided by acute care nurse practitioners are more extensive than ever before. Acute care nurse practitioners and their physician colleagues will be wise to become fully conversant with the changes in Medicare reimbursement regulations.
Feo, Rebecca; Kitson, Alison
Meeting patients' fundamental care needs is essential for optimal safety and recovery and positive experiences within any healthcare setting. There is growing international evidence, however, that these fundamentals are often poorly executed in acute care settings, resulting in patient safety threats, poorer and costly care outcomes, and dehumanising experiences for patients and families. Whilst care standards and policy initiatives are attempting to address these issues, their impact has been limited. This discussion paper explores, through a series of propositions, why fundamental care can be overlooked in sophisticated, high technology acute care settings. We argue that the central problem lies in the invisibility and subsequent devaluing of fundamental care. Such care is perceived to involve simple tasks that require little skill to execute and have minimal impact on patient outcomes. The propositions explore the potential origins of this prevailing perception, focusing upon the impact of the biomedical model, the consequences of managerial approaches that drive healthcare cultures, and the devaluing of fundamental care by nurses themselves. These multiple sources of invisibility and devaluing surrounding fundamental care have rendered the concept underdeveloped and misunderstood both conceptually and theoretically. Likewise, there remains minimal role clarification around who should be responsible for and deliver such care, and a dearth of empirical evidence and evidence-based metrics. In explicating these propositions, we argue that key to transforming the delivery of acute healthcare is a substantial shift in the conceptualisation of fundamental care. The propositions present a cogent argument that counters the prevailing perception that fundamental care is basic and does not require systematic investigation. We conclude by calling for the explicit valuing and embedding of fundamental care in healthcare education, research, practice and policy. Without this
Hahn, Julie; Reilly, Patricia M; Buchanan, Teresa M
Creating a healing and healthy environment for patients, families, and staff is an ongoing challenge. As part of our hospital's Integrative Care Program, a Reiki Volunteer Program has helped to foster a caring and healing environment, providing a means for patients, family, and staff to reduce pain and anxiety and improve their ability to relax and be present. Because direct care providers manage multiple and competing needs at any given time, they may not be available to provide Reiki when it is needed. This program demonstrates that a volunteer-based program can successfully support nurses in meeting patient, family, and staff demand for Reiki services.
Hoffman, Leslie A; Guttendorf, Jane
Acute care nurse practitioners (ACNPs) are increasingly being employed as members of critical care teams, an outcome driven by increasing demand for intensive care services, a mandated reduction in house officer hours, and evidence supporting the ability of ACNPs to provide high-quality care as collaborative members of critical care teams. Integration of adult ACNPs into critical care teams is most likely to be successful when practitioners have appropriate training, supervision, and mentoring to facilitate their ability to practice efficiently and effectively. Accomplishing this goal requires understanding the educational preparation and skill set potential hires bring to the position as well as the development of an orientation program designed to integrate the practitioner into the critical care team. Pediatric ACNPs are also commonly employed in critical care settings; however, this commentary focuses on the adult ACNP role. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giegerich & Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.
This study, which is part of a review of the child care elements of local zoning ordinances conducted in 1986 for the Montgomery County Board in Silver Spring, Maryland, addresses planning and site planning issues that arise from the locating of child day care facilities in commercial settings. Principal purposes of the study were to: (1) analyze…
Shammas, Amer; Vali, Reza; Charron, Martin
Various radiopharmaceuticals are available for imaging pediatric patients in an acute care setting. This article focuses on the common applications used on a pediatric patient in acute care. To confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death, brain scintigraphy is considered accurate and has been favorably compared with other methods of detecting the presence or absence of cerebral blood flow. Ventilation-perfusion lung scans are easy and safe to perform with less radiation exposure than computed tomography pulmonary angiography and remain an appropriate procedure to perform on children with suspected pulmonary embolism as a first imaging test in a hemodynamically stable patient with no history of lung disease and normal chest radiograph. (99m)Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy (Meckel's scan) is the best noninvasive procedure to establish the diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa in Meckel's diverticulum. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is the most accurate diagnostic imaging modality for acute cholecystitis. (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy is the simplest, and the most reliable and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of focal or diffuse functional cortical damage. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of bone disorders such as osteomyelitis and fracture. Of recent, positron emission tomography imaging using (18)F-NaF has been introduced as an alternative to bone scintigraphy. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography has the potential to replace other imaging modalities, such as the evaluation of fever of unknown origin in pediatric patients, with better sensitivity and significantly less radiation exposure than gallium scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Grood, Jill; Wallace, Jean E; Friesen, Steven P; White, Deborah E; Gilmour, Janet G; Lemaire, Jane B
Quality medical care hinges on healthcare providers being able to communicate effectively and efficiently. In this study, we examine if healthcare providers' perceptions of the performance of a wireless communication device are consistent with what it is claimed the technology can offer, namely, improved patient safety and quality of care. We used a mixed-methods design where we collected data from a single medical unit. During the qualitative component of the study, we conducted face-to-face interviews to explore healthcare team members' perceptions of the impact of a wireless communication device on their day-to-day patient care activities. Three major improvements were identified from the interview data: more direct and effective communication, improved work efficiency, and enhanced continuity of patient care. The quantitative component consisted of a questionnaire constructed from the major themes extracted from the interviews. Many of the healthcare team members reported that the wireless communication device improved their communication and allowed them to complete their work more efficiently. In addition, the questionnaire findings suggest that both improved communication and work efficiency are correlated with perceptions of improved quality of patient care. Based on the results of this study, this wireless communication device does live up to its aims of enhancing communication, staff efficiency, and improving perceived patient safety.
Diehl, J-L; Peigne, V; Guérot, E; Faisy, C; Lecourt, L; Mercat, A
Helium is a low-density inert gas whose physical properties are very different from those of nitrogen and oxygen. Such properties could be clinically useful in the adult critical care setting, especially in patients with upper to more distal airway obstruction requiring moderate to intermediate levels of FiO2. However, despite decades of utilization and reporting, it is still difficult to give any firm clinical recommendation in this setting. Numerous case reports are available in the context of upper airway obstruction of different origins, but there is a lack of controlled studies for this indication. One study reported a helium-induced beneficial effect on surrogates of work of breathing after extubation in non-COPD patients, possibly in relation to laryngeal consequences of tracheal intubation. Physiological benefits of helium-oxygen breathing have been demonstrated in the context of acute severe asthma, but there is a lack of large controlled studies demonstrating an effect on pertinent clinical endpoints, except for a study reported only as an abstract, which mentioned a reduction in the intubation rate in helium-treated patients. Finally, there are a number of physiological studies in the context of COLD-COPD patients demonstrating a beneficial effect, mainly by a reduction in the resistive inspiratory work of breathing but also by a reduction in hyperinflation. Reduction of hypercapnia was mainly observed in spontaneously breathing and noninvasively ventilated helium-treated patients but not in intubated patients during controlled ventilation, suggesting that the decrease in PaCO2 was mainly in relation to a diminution in CO2 production, related to the diminution in work of breathing and not an improved alveolar ventilation. Moreover, there is little evidence that helium-oxygen could improve parameters of heterogeneity in such patients. Two RCTs were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the intubation rate in such setting, but they were likely underpowered
Rashid, Wan Edura Wan; Jusoff, Hj Kamaruzaman
This paper attempts to explore the concept of service quality in a health care setting. This paper probes the definition of service quality from technical and functional aspects for a better understanding on how consumers evaluate the quality of health care. It adopts the conceptual model of service quality frequently used by the most researchers in the health care sector. The paper also discusses several service quality dimensions and service quality problems in order to provide a more holistic conception of hospital service quality. The paper finds that service quality in health care is very complex as compared to other services because this sector highly involves risk. The paper adds a new perspective towards understanding how the concept of service quality is adopted in a health care setting.
Dummit, Laura A
Fee-for-service Medicare, in which a separate payment is made for each service, rewards health care providers for delivering more services, but not necessarily coordinating those services over time or across settings. To help address these concerns, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 requires Medicare to experiment with making a bundled payment for a hospitalization plus post-acute care, that is, the recuperative or rehabilitative care following a hospital discharge. This bundled payment approach is intended to promote more efficient care across the acute/post-acute episode because the entity that receives the payment has financial incentives to keep episode costs below the payment. Although the entity is expected to control costs through improved care coordination and efficiency, it could stint on care or avoid expensive patients instead. This issue brief focuses on the unique challenges posed by the inclusion of post-acute care services in a payment bundle and special considerations in implementing and evaluating the episode payment approach.
Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Devecsery, David Andrew; Anderson, Allison; Yin, Chang-Yi
This descriptive study was intended to measure the percentage of the time that patient beds were kept in high position in an adult acute inpatient surgical unit with medical overflow in a community hospital in Michigan, United States. The percentage of the time was calculated for morning, evening, and night shifts. The results showed that overall, occupied beds were in a high position 5.6% of the time: 5.40% in the day shift, 6.88% in the evening shift, and 4.38% in the night shift. It is recognized that this study was unable to differentiate whether those times patient beds being kept in a high position were appropriate for an elevated bed height (e.g., staff were working with the patient). Further research is warranted. Falls committees may conduct high-bed prevalence surveys in a regular basis as a proxy to monitor staff members' behaviors in keeping beds in a high position.
Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Prakash, Atul; Brehob, Mark; Devecsery, David Andrew; Anderson, Allison; Yin, Chang-Yi
This descriptive study was intended to measure the percentage of the time that patient beds were kept in high position in an adult acute inpatient surgical unit with medical overflow in a community hospital in Michigan, United States. The percentage of the time was calculated for morning, evening, and night shifts. The results showed that overall, occupied beds were in a high position 5.6% of the time: 5.40% in the day shift, 6.88% in the evening shift, and 4.38% in the night shift. It is recognized that this study was unable to differentiate whether those times patient beds being kept in a high position were appropriate for an elevated bed height (e.g., staff were working with the patient). Further research is warranted. Falls committees may conduct high-bed prevalence surveys in a regular basis as a proxy to monitor staff members’ behaviors in keeping beds in a high position. PMID:22800384
Gallison, Barry S; Xu, Yan; Jurgens, Corrine Y; Boyle, Suzanne M
The purpose of this study was to identify barriers in providing spiritual care to hospitalized patients. A convenience sample (N = 271) was recruited at an academic medical center in New York City for an exploratory, descriptive questionnaire. The Spiritual Care Practice (SCP) questionnaire assesses spiritual care practices and perceived barriers to spiritual care. The SCP determines the percentage that provides spiritual support and perceived barriers inhibiting spiritual care. The participation rate was 44.3% (N = 120). Most (61%) scored less than the ideal mean on the SCP. Although 96% (N = 114) believe addressing patients spiritual needs are within their role, nearly half (48%) report rarely participating in spiritual practices. The greatest perceived barriers were belief that patient's spirituality is private, insufficient time, difficulty distinguishing proselytizing from spiritual care, and difficulty meeting needs when spiritual beliefs were different from their own. Although nurses identify themselves as spiritual, results indicate spirituality assessments are inadequate. Addressing barriers will provide nurses opportunities to address spirituality. Education is warranted to improve nurses' awareness of the diversity of our society to better meet the spiritual needs of patients. Understanding these needs provide the nurse with opportunities to address spirituality and connect desires with actions to strengthen communication and the nurse-patient relationship.
Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Larson, Janet L
Patient call-light usage and nurse responsiveness to call lights are two intertwined concepts that could affect patients' safety during hospital stays. Little is known about the relationship between call-light usage and call-light response time. Consequently, this exploratory study examined the relationship between the patient-initiated call-light use rate and the nursing staff's average call-light response time in a Michigan community hospital. It used hospital archived data retrieved from the call-light tracking system for the period from February 2007 through June 2008. Curve estimation regression and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that the call-light response time was not affected by the total nursing hours or RN hours. The nurse call-light response time was longer when the patient call-light use rate was higher and the average length of stay was shorter. It is likely that a shorter length of stay contributes to the nursing care activity level on the unit because it is associated with a higher frequency of patient admissions/discharges and treatment per patient-day. This suggests that the nursing care activity level on the unit and number of call-light alarms could affect nurse call-light response time, independently of the number of nurses available to respond.
Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Larson, Janet L
Patient call-light usage and nurse responsiveness to call lights are two intertwined concepts that could affect patients' safety during hospital stays. Little is known about the relationship between call-light usage and call-light response time. Consequently, this exploratory study examined the relationship between the patient-initiated call-light use rate and the nursing staff's average call-light response time in a Michigan community hospital. It used hospital archived data retrieved from the call-light tracking system for the period from February 2007 through June 2008. Curve estimation regression and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that the call-light response time was not affected by the total nursing hours or RN hours. The nurse call-light response time was longer when the patient call-light use rate was higher and the average length of stay was shorter. It is likely that a shorter length of stay contributes to the nursing care activity level on the unit because it is associated with a higher frequency of patient admissions/discharges and treatment per patient-day. This suggests that the nursing care activity level on the unit and number of call-light alarms could affect nurse call-light response time, independently of the number of nurses available to respond.
Background There are few validated measures of organizational context and none that we located are parsimonious and address modifiable characteristics of context. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to meet this need. The instrument assesses 8 dimensions of context, which comprise 10 concepts. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence to further the validity argument for ACT. The specific objectives of this paper are to: (1) examine the extent to which the 10 ACT concepts discriminate between patient care units and (2) identify variables that significantly contribute to between-unit variation for each of the 10 concepts. Methods 859 professional nurses (844 valid responses) working in medical, surgical and critical care units of 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals completed the ACT. A random intercept, fixed effects hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) strategy was used to quantify and explain variance in the 10 ACT concepts to establish the ACT's ability to discriminate between units. We ran 40 models (a series of 4 models for each of the 10 concepts) in which we systematically assessed the unique contribution (i.e., error variance reduction) of different variables to between-unit variation. First, we constructed a null model in which we quantified the variance overall, in each of the concepts. Then we controlled for the contribution of individual level variables (Model 1). In Model 2, we assessed the contribution of practice specialty (medical, surgical, critical care) to variation since it was central to construction of the sampling frame for the study. Finally, we assessed the contribution of additional unit level variables (Model 3). Results The null model (unadjusted baseline HLM model) established that there was significant variation between units in each of the 10 ACT concepts (i.e., discrimination between units). When we controlled for individual characteristics, significant variation in the 10 concepts remained. Assessment of the contribution of
Vanhems, Philippe; Von Raesfeldt, Rosette; Ecochard, René; Voirin, Nicolas
The potential spread of nosocomial Ebola virus disease (EVD) in non-outbreak areas is not known. The objective was to use detailed contact data on patients and healthcare workers (HCW) to estimate emergence probability and secondary incident cases (SIC) of EVD after hospitalization of an index case with undetected EVD. Contact data were collected through RFID devices used by patients and HCW during hospital care. A “susceptible-exposed-infected” model was used. Emergence probability, ranged from 7% to 84%. A plateau around 84% was observed. Emergence probability was proportional to time exposed to the dry phase of patients with nonspecific symptoms. Nurses were at higher risk of nosocomial EVD than physicians with around 60% emergence probability in this subgroup. The risk of nosocomial EVD in non-outbreak areas might be substantial if no preventive measures are implemented when asymptomatic patients or those with mild symptoms are hospitalized. PMID:27827383
Navarro Soler, I M; Ignacio García, E; Masjuan Vallejo, J; Gállego Culleré, J; Mira Solves, J J
This study proposes a set of quality indicators for care outcomes in patients with acute cerebral infarction. These indicators are understandable and relevant from a clinical viewpoint, as well as being acceptable and feasible in terms of time required, ease of data capture, and interpretability. The method consisted of reaching consensus among doctors after having reviewed the literature on quality indicators in stroke. We then designed and conducted a field study to assess the understandability and feasibility of the set of indicators. Consensus yielded 8 structural indicators, 5 process indicators, and 12 result indicators. Additionally, standards of reference were established for each indicator. This set of indicators can be used to monitor the quality care for stroke patients, identify strengths, and potentially to identify areas needing improvement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R
Successful implementation of an acute pain management service involves a team approach in which team members have clearly defined roles. Clinical protocols are designed to help address common problems and prevent errors. As the complexity of surgery and patients' diseases continues to increase, current knowledge of new analgesic medications, acute pain literature, and skills in regional anesthesia techniques is imperative. Emphasizing a multimodal approach can improve analgesia and decrease opioid-related side effects.
Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina
Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898
Castle, Bryan W; Shapiro, Susan E
Accountable Care Units are a disruptive innovation that has moved care on acute care units from a traditional silo model, in which each discipline works separately from all others, to one in which multiple disciplines work together with patients and their families to move patients safely through their hospital stay. This article describes the "what," "how," and "why" of the Accountable Care Units model as it has evolved in different locations across a single health system and includes the lessons learned as different units and hospitals continue working to implement the model in their complex care environments.
Horwitz, Rany J.; And Others
The University of Illinois' medical school has a third-year program of weekly role-playing exercises focusing on management of acute medical problems. Students are responsible for creating the cases, complete with scenarios and treatment teams, simulating them, and successfully treating or reaching an impasse. Little teacher preparation time is…
Horwitz, Rany J.; And Others
The University of Illinois' medical school has a third-year program of weekly role-playing exercises focusing on management of acute medical problems. Students are responsible for creating the cases, complete with scenarios and treatment teams, simulating them, and successfully treating or reaching an impasse. Little teacher preparation time is…
Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…
Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…
Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Millstein, Susan G.
Reviews changing patterns of health and illness that have led to increased interest in the role of patient and provider behaviors, discussing the advantages of using health care settings as prevention sites. Presents examples of successful behaviorally-based prevention programs, offering evidence supporting their cost-effectiveness. Describes…
Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S
There is a recognizable standard of practice for infection control in veterinary medicine. Effort must be given to control and prevention of infectious disease transmission within a facility and among animal populations. In the critical care setting, patients typically have a high degree of systemic illness and immune compromise, are commonly subjected to invasive procedures and placement of indwelling devices, and frequently receive antimicrobials and gastric protectants. Every equine critical care unit is distinctive in its physical and operational features and the types of patients that are managed. Infection control programs must therefore be tailored to each facility's needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medicare spending on post-acute care provided by skilled nursing facility providers, home health providers, inpatient rehabilitation facility providers, and long-term care hospitals has grown rapidly in the past several years. The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission and others have noted several long-standing problems with the payment systems for post-acute care and have suggested refinements to Medicare's post-acute care payment systems that are intended to encourage the delivery of appropriate care in the right setting for a patient's condition. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 contained several provisions that affect the Medicare program's post-acute care payment systems and also includes broader payment reforms, such as bundled payment models. This issue brief describes Medicare's payment systems for post-acute care providers, evidence of problems that have been identified with the payment systems, and policies that have been proposed or enacted to remedy those problems.
Pearlmutter, D R; Locke, A; Bourdon, S; Gaffey, G; Tyrrell, R
Focus on the emotional responses and needs of critically ill patients has grown to encompass a focus on their families as well. Moos notes that the family as well as the patient faces a number of adaptive tasks in the crisis of serious illness. These include managing the hospital environment, keeping reasonable emotional balance, negotiating relationships with the treatment staff, preserving self-image, preserving a relationship with the patient, and preparing for an uncertain future. The complexity of these tasks and the coping skills needed to master them speaks to the role of the psychiatric clinical nurse specialist in the acute care setting. This article has highlighted some activities of psychiatric clinical nurse specialists working with families in the acute care setting. Included have been support groups, indirect models, contracting, professional families, VIP/VRP families, families in the intensive care setting, and families in transition from intensive care to floor care. All emphasize the importance and needs of the family as well as the patient during hospitalization in an acute care setting.
McDermott, M; Jacobs, T; Morgenstern, L
Most ischemic strokes are managed on the ward or on designated stroke units. A significant proportion of patients with ischemic stroke require more specialized care. Several studies have shown improved outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke when neurocritical care services are available. Features of acute ischemic stroke patients requiring intensive care unit-level care include airway or respiratory compromise; large cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere infarction with swelling; infarction with symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation; infarction complicated by seizures; and a large proportion of patients require close management of blood pressure after thrombolytics. In this chapter, we discuss aspects of acute ischemic stroke care that are of particular relevance to a neurointensivist, covering neuropathology, neurodiagnostics and imaging, blood pressure management, glycemic control, temperature management, and the selection and timing of antithrombotics. We also focus on the care of patients who have received intravenous thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy. Complex clinical decision making in decompressive hemicraniectomy for hemispheric infarction and urgent management of basilar artery thrombosis are specifically addressed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pressure ulcer prevention in the care home setting can be challenging and is often compromised by a lack of access to education and resources. There are measures that have been shown to consistently improve outcomes in pressure ulcer prevention including assessment of the patient and their individual risks, delivery of a consistent plan of care that meets patients' needs, and regular evaluation to identify shortfalls. In addition, there should be a robust approach to investigating events that lead to a person developing a pressure ulcer and that information should be used to improve future practice. Pressure ulcer prevention in care homes is achievable and nurses should all be aware of the necessary measures detailed in this article.
Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia
On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Hunt, Glenn E
How the principles of a recovery-oriented mental health service are incorporated in the day-to-day nursing practice of mental health nurses in inpatient settings is unclear. In this study, we interviewed 21 mental health nurses working in acute inpatient mental health units about a range of recovery-focused topics. Three overlapping themes were identified: (i) the perception of recovery; (ii) congruent humanistic approaches; and (iii) practical realities. Only four interviewees had some formal training about recovery. Most respondents recognize that positive attitudes, person-centred care, hope, education about mental illness, medication and side-effects, and the acknowledgement of individual recovery pathways are necessary to prevent readmission, and are central to a better life for people who live with a mental illness. This research supports the view that ideas and practices associated with the recovery movement have been adopted to some degree by nurses working at the acute end of the services continuum. However, most saw the recovery orientation as rhetoric rather than as an appropriately resourced, coordinated, and integrated program. These nurses, however, speak of much more detailed aspects of working with patients and being required to prepare them for the exigencies of living in the community post-discharge.
Hall, Ruth E.; Khan, Ferhana; Bayley, Mark T.; Asllani, Eriola; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D.; O'Callaghan, Christina; Silver, Frank L.; Kapral, Moira K.
Objective Despite widespread interest in many jurisdictions in monitoring and improving the quality of stroke care delivery, benchmarks for most stroke performance indicators have not been established. The objective of this study was to develop data-derived benchmarks for acute stroke quality indicators. Design Nine key acute stroke quality indicators were selected from the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Performance Measures Manual. Participants A population-based retrospective sample of patients discharged from 142 hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2008 and 31 March 2009 (N = 3191) was used to calculate hospital rates of performance and benchmarks. Intervention The Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC™) methodology was used to create benchmarks based on the performance of the upper 15% of patients in the top-performing hospitals. Main Outcome Measures Benchmarks were calculated for rates of neuroimaging, carotid imaging, stroke unit admission, dysphasia screening and administration of stroke-related medications. Results The following benchmarks were derived: neuroimaging within 24 h, 98%; admission to a stroke unit, 77%; thrombolysis among patients arriving within 2.5 h, 59%; carotid imaging, 93%; dysphagia screening, 88%; antithrombotic therapy, 98%; anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, 94%; antihypertensive therapy, 92% and lipid-lowering therapy, 77%. ABC™ acute stroke care benchmarks achieve or exceed the consensus-based targets required by Accreditation Canada, with the exception of dysphagia screening. Conclusions Benchmarks for nine hospital-based acute stroke care quality indicators have been established. These can be used in the development of standards for quality improvement initiatives. PMID:24141011
Fox, Mary T; Persaud, Malini; Maimets, Ilo; O'Brien, Kelly; Brooks, Dina; Tregunno, Deborah; Schraa, Ellen
Objectives To compare the effectiveness of acute geriatric unit care, based on all or part of the Acute Care for Elders (ACE) model and introduced in the acute phase of illness or injury, with that of usual care. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled and quasi-experimental trials with parallel comparison groups retrieved from multiple sources. Setting Acute care geriatric and nongeriatric hospital units. Participants Acutely ill or injured adults (N = 6,839) with an average age of 81. Interventions Acute geriatric unit care characterized by one or more ACE components: patient-centered care, frequent medical review, early rehabilitation, early discharge planning, prepared environment. Measurements Falls, pressure ulcers, delirium, functional decline at discharge from baseline 2-week prehospital and hospital admission statuses, length of hospital stay, discharge destination (home or nursing home), mortality, costs, and hospital readmissions. Results Acute geriatric unit care was associated with fewer falls (risk ratio (RR) = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29–0.88), less delirium (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61–0.88), less functional decline at discharge from baseline 2-week prehospital admission status (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.78–0.97), shorter length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference (WMD) = −0.61, 95% CI = −1.16 to −0.05), fewer discharges to a nursing home (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.99), lower costs (WMD = −$245.80, 95% CI = −$446.23 to −$45.38), and more discharges to home (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01–1.10). A nonsignificant trend toward fewer pressure ulcers was observed. No differences were found in functional decline between baseline hospital admission status and discharge, mortality, or hospital readmissions. Conclusion Acute geriatric unit care, based on all or part of the ACE model and introduced during the acute phase of older adults' illness or injury, improves patient- and system
Marsden, Janet; Davies, Richard
Rationale and key points Eye care is an important aspect of the nursing management of patients who are critically ill. All patients in acute care settings with absent or compromised eye defence mechanisms are at risk of eye complications and ocular surface disease. This article aims to assist nurses to care for the eyes of patients in critical care settings to enable early detection and routine management of ophthalmic issues, thereby avoiding visual compromise on patient discharge from critical care settings. » Corneal exposure is reported to occur in many patients who are critically ill. » Incomplete eyelid closure and lack of lubrication are the main mechanisms that underlie the development of corneal damage in patients who are critically ill. » Unconscious, sedated and/or paralysed patients and those with a reduced Glasgow Coma Scale score depend on healthcare professionals to maintain their ocular surface to prevent complications such as corneal abrasion, infection and ulceration, perforations and blindness. » Meticulous nursing care is required to prevent ophthalmic complications that can result from corneal exposure in this patient group. Regular, evidence-based eye care should be part of routine nursing practice for patients who are critically ill. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice? 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues in eye care of the unconscious patient?
Elmore, James L.
Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings and the diagnostic difficulties encountered with dissociative disorders, such illness may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in primary care settings. We developed an intervention model that may be applicable to primary care settings or helpful to primary care physicians. Key points of the intervention are identification of dissociative symptoms, patient and family education, review of the origin of the symptoms as a method of coping with trauma, and supportive reinforcement of cognitive and relaxation skills during follow-up visits. Symptom recognition, Education of the family, Learning new skills, and Follow-up may be remembered by the mnemonic device SELF. We present several cases to illustrate dissociative symptoms and our intervention. Physicians and other professionals using the 4 steps and behavioral approaches will be able to better recognize and triage patients with dissociative symptoms. Behaviors previously thought to be secondary to psychosis or personality disorders may be seen in a new frame of reference, strengthening the therapeutic alliance while reducing distress and acting-out behaviors. PMID:15014580
Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A
Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.
Sathe, Prachee M.; Patwa, Urvil D.
Pulmonary embolism, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are important sources of mortality and morbidity in intensive care unit (ICU). And every time D-dimer remains the the commonest investigation. Many times D-dimer is erroneously considered as a diagnostic test in above mentioned conditions. Its interpretation requires cautions. To circumvent this source of error it is necessary to understand D-dimer test and its significance in various disorder. This article review some basic details of D-dimer, condition associated with its increased level and some prognostic value in intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal (GI) bleed. PMID:25337485
Juhra, C; Vordemvenne, T; Hartensuer, R; Uckert, F; Raschke, M J
Each year, 20,000 people in Germany die because of a traffic accident. Altogether, yearly productivity loss caused by these injuries is estimated to be around 5 billion Euros. International and national studies revealed the trauma center level of the primary hospital as the major predictor for trauma related mortality. In 2006 the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU) called its members to form regionally based networks for the exchange of data among hospitals engaged in trauma care. In April 2008 the north-west region of Germany with 49 hospitals, three hospitals in the Netherlands, and local emergency services founded the "TraumaNetwork NorthWest (TNNW). The major goals of the TNNW are: 1) to shorten the time between accident and admission to the appropriate hospital, 2) to create effective means of communication, and 3) to implement common pre- and in-hospital standards for trauma care. Since the needed application software is not commercially available, a team of computer and medical specialists has been formed for its development. Once the software is in place, a pre- and post-analysis will be performed to study the consequences of the application on transportation time and injury-related mortality within the region. The project is recognized as a pilot project by the DGU and if it is successful is meant to be adapted across Germany.
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William
Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023
Kilpatrick, Kelley; Harbman, Patricia; Carter, Nancy; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Bourgeault, Ivy; DiCenso, Alba
The acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) role was developed in Canada in the late 1980s to offset rapidly increasing physician workloads in acute care settings and to address the lack of continuity of care for seriously ill patients and increased complexity of care delivery. These challenges provided an opportunity to develop an advanced practice nursing role to care for critically ill patients with the intent of improving continuity of care and patient outcomes. For this paper, we drew on the ACNP-related findings of a scoping review of the literature and key informant interviews conducted for a decision support synthesis on advanced practice nursing. The synthesis revealed that ACNPs are working in a range of clinical settings. While ACNPs are trained at the master's level, there is a gap in specialty education for ACNPs. Important barriers to the full integration of ACNP roles into the Canadian healthcare system include lack of full utilization of role components, limitations to scope of practice, inconsistent team acceptance and funding issues. Facilitators to ACNP role implementation include clear communication about the role, with messages tailored to the specific information needs of various stakeholder groups; supportive leadership of healthcare managers; and stable and predictable funding. The status of ACNP roles continues to evolve across Canada. Ongoing leadership and continuing research are required to enhance the integration of these roles into our healthcare system.
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Risk Assessment and Prophylaxis: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of the Facilitators and Barriers to Healthcare Worker Compliance with Clinical Practice Guidelines in the Acute Care Setting.
Gaston, Sherryl; White, Sarahlouise; Misan, Gary
Even though guidelines for venous thromboembolism risk assessment and prophylaxis are available, patients with identifiable risk factors admitted to acute hospitals are not receiving appropriate prophylaxis. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients is higher than that of people living in the community who have similar demographics. Knowledge of barriers to healthcare professional compliance with clinical practice guidelines and facilitators to improve compliance will aid appropriate use of venous thromboembolism clinical practice guidelines. The main objective of this review was to identify the barriers and facilitators to healthcare professional compliance with clinical practice guidelines for venous thromboembolism assessment and prophylaxis. Studies were considered for inclusion regardless of the designation of the healthcare professional involved in the acute care setting.The focus of the review was compliance with venous thromboembolism clinical practice guidelines and identified facilitators and barriers to clinical use of these guidelines.Any experimental, observational studies or qualitative research studies were considered for inclusion in this review.The outcomes of interest were compliance with venous thromboembolism guidelines and identified barriers and facilitators to compliance. A comprehensive, three-step search strategy was conducted for studies published from May 2003 to November 2011, aimed to identify both published and unpublished studies in the English language across six major databases. Retrieved papers were assessed by two independent reviewers prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Both quantitative and qualitative data were extracted from papers included in the review using standardized data tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Quantitative data was pooled using narrative summary due to heterogeneity in the ways in which data was
Albeit the considerable progress that has been made both in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure (ARF) and in its treatment (continuous renal replacement therapies), the morbidity of this complex syndrome remains unacceptably high. The current review focuses on recent developments concerning the definition of ARF, new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of specific causes of ARF, dialysis treatment in the intensive care setting and provides an update on critical care issues relevant to the clinical nephrologist. PMID:21897760
Davidson, Patricia M; Introna, Kate; Cockburn, Jill; Daly, John; Dunford, Mary; Paull, Glenn; Dracup, Kathleen
Advances in the practice of medicine and nursing science have increased survival for patients with chronic cardiorespiratory disease. Parallel to this positive outcome is a societal expectation of longevity and cure of disease. Chronic disease and the inevitability of death creates a dilemma, more than ever before, for the health care professional, who is committed to the delivery of quality care to patients and their families. The appropriate time for broaching the issue of dying and determining when palliative care is required is problematic. Dilemmas occur with a perceived dissonance between acute and palliative care and difficulties in determining prognosis. Palliative care must be integrated within the health care continuum, rather than being a discrete entity at the end of life, in order to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Anecdotally, acute and critical care nurses experience frustration from the tensions that arise between acute and palliative care philosophies. Many clinicians are concerned that patients are denied a good death and yet the moment when care should be oriented toward palliation rather than aggressive management is usually unclear. Clearly this has implications for the type and quality of care that patients receive. This paper provides a review of the extant literature and identifies issues in the end of life care for patients with chronic cardiorespiratory diseases within acute and critical care environments. Issues for refinement of acute and critical care nursing practice and research priorities are identified to create a synergy between these philosophical perspectives.
Samara, Juliane; Larkin, David; Chan, Choi Wan; Lopez, Violeta
Self-determination and patient choice of end-of-life care are emphasised in palliative care. Advance care planning (ACP) is an approach to enabling patients' choices. The use of ACP has not been extensively studied in our current context. Little is known about oncology care nurses' views and the barriers they face in the implementation of ACP. The aims of this study were to assess the uptake of ACP by health professionals and explore nurses' perceived barriers for implementing ACP. This study employed a pre- and post-implementation audit design using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (PACES) and Getting Research into Practice (GRIP) programs. An education programme on ACP was provided between pre-and post-implementation audits. Nurses and medical professionals (pre-audit, n = 32; post-audit, n = 30) working in oncology departments were invited to complete a questionnaire based on the audit criteria. A convenience sample of 25 nurses participated in the focus group interview. Interview data were analysed by content analysis. The post-audit results were lower than the pre-audit results with a range of decreased compliance from 1% for criterion 5 to 14% for criterion 6. Lack of time to implement ACP was the most frequently raised barrier by oncology nurses. The study findings were disappointing, but this first audit is significant to provide insights for future dissemination and implementation of ACP interventions. An ongoing mandatory professional development programme in ACP for healthcare staff is promising to promote the uptake of ACP in healthcare settings. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2013 The Joanna Briggs Institute.
DeVore, Adam D; Allen, Larry A; Eapen, Zubin J
The management of acute heart failure is shifting toward treatment approaches outside of a traditional hospital setting. Many heart failure providers are now treating patients in less familiar health care settings, such as acute care clinics, emergency departments, and skilled nursing facilities. In this review we describe the current pressures driving change in the delivery of acute heart failure and summarize the evidence regarding treatments for acute heart failure outside of the inpatient setting. We also provide considerations for the design of future treatment strategies to be implemented in alternative care settings.
Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G
The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.
Rochon, Andrea; Heale, Roberta; Hunt, Elena; Parent, Michele
The literature suggests that effective teamwork among patient care teams can positively impact work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived level of nursing teamwork by registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers and unit clerks working on patient care teams in one acute care hospital in northern Ontario, Canada, and to determine if a relationship exists between the staff scores on the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) and participant perception of adequate staffing. Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, 600 staff members were invited to complete the NTS and a 33% response rate was achieved (N=200). The participants from the critical care unit reported the highest scores on the NTS, whereas participants from the inpatient surgical (IPS) unit reported the lowest scores. Participants from the IPS unit also reported having less experience, being younger, having less satisfaction in their current position and having a higher intention to leave. A high rate of intention to leave in the next year was found among all participants. No statistically significant correlation was found between overall scores on the NTS and the perception of adequate staffing. Strategies to increase teamwork, such as staff education, among patient care teams may positively influence job satisfaction and patient care on patient care units.
Schwartz-Cowley, Roberta; Stepanik, Mark J.
The Shock Trauma Center of the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems instituted a comprehensive speech-language pathology program to provide acute intervention for communicative disorders in a critical/intensive care environment. This article provides a profile of the Center, a review of communicative impairments, and examples…
Reuter-Rice, Karin; Madden, Maureen A; Gutknecht, Sarah; Foerster, Adele
Practice research serves as the certification framework for validating advanced practice roles and updating national qualifying examinations. This national study describes the current practice of the acute care pediatric nurse practitioner (AC PNP) to inform an update of the Certified Pediatric Nurse Practitioner-Acute Care (CPNP-AC) examination content outline. A descriptive analysis was performed of the responses of 319 pediatric nurse practitioners, practicing in an acute care role, who completed a practice survey in 2014. Respondents were primarily White women with a mean age of 40 years; 75% had been formally educated as AC PNPs, compared with 48% in 2009. Regional practice was most heavily concentrated in the Southeast (28%) and Midwest (27%). Most respondents (81%) practiced in urban areas. Respondents reported spending 75% of practice time in inpatient settings. The most frequently cited areas of practice were critical care (36%), followed by emergency department (9%) and subspecialty practices. This third analysis of AC PNP practice 10 years after initiation of the CPNP-AC certification examination demonstrates changes in clinical practice and educational preparation. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Due to the aging population the number of vertebral fractures will increase in the next years. In the acute care setting the pain treatment of patients with acute vertebral fractures is highly important. Part of the acute pain treatment is the early rehabilitative intervention of the treating team consisting of physicians, nurses and physiotherapists. In the acute care setting mostly rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons and physical therapy physicians are the treating physicians. Individual physiotherapy and patient communication and instruction are most important in this acute care setting. Special techniques of mobilisation and positioning are instructed. The guidelines of pain therapy in elderly geriatric patients have to be observed. In the last decade opioid therapy is one of the cornerstones of pharmacotherapy. For posture training and stabilization individual corselets have to be adapted. The aim is to stabilize the vertebral column and to avoid further anterior or posterior compression of the vertebral body. In the secondary prevention novel therapy programs are discussed.
Lavigne, Mikael; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Straus, Sharon; Laupacis, Andreas
To identify the unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care that are most important to parents and clinicians, and to explore how questions from parents and clinicians may differ. Iterative mixed methods research priority setting process. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Parents of children aged 0-5 years enrolled in a research network in Toronto, and clinicians practising in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Informed by the James Lind Alliance's methodology, an online questionnaire collected unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from study participants. Similar submissions were combined and ranked. A consensus workshop attended by 28 parents and clinicians considered the most highly ranked submissions and used the nominal group technique to select the 10 most important unanswered research questions. Forty-two clinicians and 115 parents submitted 255 and 791 research questions, respectively, which were combined into 79 indicative questions. Most submissions were about nutrition, illness prevention, parenting and behaviour management. Parents were more likely to ask questions about screen time (49 parents vs 8 clinicians, p<0.05) and environmental toxins (18 parents vs 0 clinicians, p<0.05). The top 10 unanswered questions identified at the workshop related to mental health, parental stress, physical activity, obesity, childhood development, behaviour management and screen time. The top 10 most important unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from the perspective of parents and clinicians were identified. These research priorities may be important in advancing preventive healthcare for children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector
Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.
Solé-Casals, Montserrat; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Alsina-Ribas, Anna; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Oriol-Ruscalleda, Margarita; Subirana-Casacuberta, Mireia
To describe the profile of patients treated by a Continuity of Care Manager in an acute-care center during the first six months of its activity, as well as the profile of patients treated and the resource allocation. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with complex care needs requiring continuity of care liaison, and who were attended by the Continuity of Care Nurse during the period from October 2013 to March 2014. Patient characteristics, their social environment and healthcare resource allocation were registered and analyzed. A total of 1,034 cases of demand that corresponded to 907 patients (women 55.0%; age 80.57±10.1; chronic 47.8%) were analyzed, of whom 12.2% were readmitted. In the multivariate model, it was observed that the variables associated with readmission were polypharmacy (OR: 1.86; CI: 1.2-2.9) and fall history prior to admission (OR: 0.586; CI: 0.36-2-88). Patients treated by a Continuity of Care Nurse are over 80 years, with comorbidities, geriatric syndromes, complex care, and of life needs, to whom an alternative solution to hospitalization is provided, thus preventing readmissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients in an emergency department setting, suspected of acute coronary syndrome: optimal cut-off point, diagnostic value and future opportunities in primary care.
Willemsen, Robert T A; van Severen, Evie; Vandervoort, Pieter M; Grieten, Lars; Buntinx, Frank; Glatz, Jan F C; Dinant, Geert Jan
Most patients presenting chest complaints in primary care are referred to secondary care facilities, whereas only a few are diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim is to determine the optimal cut-off value for a point-of-care heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) test in patients presenting to the emergency department and to evaluate a possible future role of H-FABP in safely ruling out ACS in primary care. Serial plasma H-FABP (index test) and high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) (reference test) were determined in patients with any new-onset chest complaint. In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off value of H-FABP for ACS was determined. Predictive values of H-FABP for ACS were calculated. For 202 consecutive patients (prevalence ACS 59%), the ROC curve based on the results of the first H-FABP was equal to the ROC curve of hs-cTnT (AUC 0.79 versus 0.80). Using a cut-off value of 4.0 ng/ml for H-FABP, sensitivity for ACS of the H-FABP (hs-cTnT) tests was 73.9% (70.6%). Negative predictive value (NPV) of H-FABP for ACS in a population representative for primary care (incidence of ACS 22%) thus could reach 90.8%. In patients presenting chest pain, plasma H-FABP reaches the highest diagnostic value when a cut-off value of 4 ng/ml is used. Diagnostic values of an algorithm combining point-of-care H-FABP measurement and a score of signs and symptoms should be studied in primary care, to learn if such an algorithm could safely reduce referral rate by GPs.
Ekerstad, Niklas; Karlson, Björn W; Dahlin Ivanoff, Synneve; Landahl, Sten; Andersson, David; Heintz, Emelie; Husberg, Magnus; Alwin, Jenny
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. Design This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. Setting This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. Participants The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206) or control group (n=202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. Intervention This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. Measurements The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3). Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. Results After adjustment by regression analysis, patients in the intervention group were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months for the following dimensions: vision (odds ratio [OR] =0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.14–0.79), ambulation (OR =0.19, 95% CI =0.1–0.37), dexterity (OR =0.38, 95% CI =0.19–0.75), emotion (OR =0.43, 95% CI =0.22–0.84), cognition (OR = 0.076, 95% CI =0.033–0.18) and pain (OR =0.28, 95% CI =0.15–0.50). Treatment in a CGA unit was independently associated with lower 3-month mortality adjusted by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR] =0.55, 95% CI =0.32–0.96), and the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of hospital care costs (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients in an acute CGA unit were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months, and the care in a CGA unit was also independently associated with lower mortality
Best, Lyle G.; Butt, Amir; Conroy, Britt; Devereux, Richard B.; Galloway, James M.; Jolly, Stacey; Lee, Elisa T.; Silverman, Angela; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Welty, Thomas K.; Kedan, Ilan
Objectives Evaluate the quality of care provided patients with acute myocardial infarction and compare with similar national and regional data. Design Case series. Setting The Strong Heart Study has extensive population-based data related to cardiovascular events among American Indians living in three rural regions of the United States. Participants Acute myocardial infarction cases (72) occurring between 1/1/2001 and 12/31/2006 were identified from a cohort of 4549 participants. Outcome measures The proportion of cases that were provided standard quality of care therapy, as defined by the Healthcare Financing Administration and other national organizations. Results The provision of quality services, such as administration of aspirin on admission and at discharge, reperfusion therapy within 24 hours, prescription of beta blocker medication at discharge, and smoking cessation counseling were found to be 94%, 91%, 92%, 86% and 71%, respectively. The unadjusted, 30 day mortality rate was 17%. Conclusion Despite considerable challenges posed by geographic isolation and small facilities, process measures of the quality of acute myocardial infarction care for participants in this American Indian cohort were comparable to that reported for Medicare beneficiaries nationally and within the resident states of this cohort. PMID:21942161
There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)
Connolly, Josaleen; Milligan, Stuart; Stevens, Elaine; Jackson, Susan; Rooney, Kevin
To evaluate the effects of implementing an advance care planning process within pilot sites in North Ayrshire in 2010, focusing on people with palliative care needs. Data were collected from participants in advance care planning training using a questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and an audit of documentation was undertaken. Thirty nine questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 16%. Twenty four out of 25 (96%) participants rated the training as having improved their understanding of the advance care planning process. The general consensus in interviews was that advance care planning is a worthwhile process. Participants reported patients achieving their preferred place of end of life care and greater consultation regarding hospitalisation. Within the pilot sites, advance care planning training enhanced the ability of professionals to implement the advance care planning process and record the wishes of patients and residents.
Davis, Jenny; Morgans, Amee; Burgess, Stephen
Information management systems and processes have an impact on quality and safety of care in any setting and particularly in the complex care setting of aged care. Few studies have comprehensively examined information management in the Australian aged care setting. To (i) critically analyse and synthesize evidence related to information management in aged care, (ii) identify aged care data collection frameworks and (iii) identify factors impacting information management. An integrative review of Australian literature published between March 2008 and August 2014 and data collection frameworks concerning information management in aged care were carried out. There is limited research investigating the information-rich setting of aged care in Australia. Electronic systems featured strongly in the review. Existing research focuses on residential settings with community aged care largely absent. Information systems and processes in the setting of aged care in Australia are underdeveloped and poorly integrated. Data quality and access are more problematic within community aged care than residential care settings. The results of this review represent an argument for a national approach to information management in aged care to address multiple stakeholder information needs and more effectively support client care.
Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan; Heintz, Jessica; Legrand, Susan B; Davis, Mellar P
Palliative care in advanced disease is complex. Knowledge and experience of symptom control and management of multiple complications are essential. An interdisciplinary team is also required to meet the medical and psychosocial needs in life-limiting illness. Acute care palliative medicine is a new concept in the spectrum of palliative care services. Acute care palliative medicine, integrated into a tertiary academic medical center, provides expert medical management and specialized care as part of the spectrum of acute medical care services to this challenging patient population. The authors describe a case series to provide a snapshot of a typical day in an acute care inpatient palliative medicine unit. The cases illustrate the sophisticated medical care involved for each individual and the important skill sets of the palliative medicine specialist required to provide high-quality acute medical care for the very ill.
Cleveland, Jennifer L.; Bonito, Arthur J.; Corley, Tammy J.; Foster, Misty; Barker, Laurie; Brown, G. Gordon; Lenfestey, Nancy; Lux, Linda
Background and Overview The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings—2003. Methods In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. The response rate was 49 percent. The authors gathered data regarding dentists’ demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes toward infection control, sources of instruction regarding the guidelines and knowledge about the need to use sterile water for surgical procedures. Then they assessed the impact of those factors on the implementation of four recommendations: having an infection control coordinator, maintaining dental unit water quality, documenting percutaneous injuries and using safer medical devices, such as safer syringes and scalpels. The authors conducted bivariate analyses and proportional odds modeling. Results Responding dentists in 34 percent of practices had implemented none or one of the four recommendations, 40 percent had implemented two of the recommendations and 26 percent had implemented three or four of the recommendations. The likelihood of implementation was higher among dentists who acknowledged the importance of infection control, had practiced dentistry for less than 30 years, had received more continuing dental education credits in infection control, correctly identified more surgical procedures that require the use of sterile water, worked in larger practices and had at least three sources of instruction regarding the guidelines. Dentists with practices in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic or East South Central U.S. Census divisions were less likely to have complied. Conclusions Implementation of the four recommendations varied among U.S. dentists. Strategies targeted at raising awareness of the importance of infection control, increasing continuing education
Mion, Lorraine C.
The critical care setting is perhaps the last major health care setting in which physical restraint remains a common, and oftentimes unquestioned, practice. This is despite the numerous regulations and accrediting standards that have limited or even eliminated practitioners’ use of physical restraints in other health care settings. The decision to use physical restraint in the care of critically ill patients can be complex and is influenced by characteristics of the patient, the practitioner, and the environment. What do we know about physical restraint practice in critical care settings, and what steps must we take if we are, indeed, to become “restraint-free” environments? PMID:19064141
Brown, Kenneth H; Nyirandutiye, Daniele H; Jungjohann, Svenja
Approximately 11% of children worldwide suffer from moderate or severe acute malnutrition, which is defined as low weight for height or mid-upper arm circumference with respect to international standards, or the presence of bipedal edema. These children have a considerably increased risk of dying. Experience from the past two decades indicates that children with uncomplicated moderate or severe acute malnutrition can be managed successfully as outpatients, by use of appropriate treatment of infections and either lipid-based, ready-to-use therapeutic foods or appropriately formulated home diets, along with psychosocial care. Children's caregivers prefer community-based treatment, which is also less costly than inpatient care. Children with severe acute malnutrition and life-threatening complications require short-term inpatient care for treatment of infections, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic abnormalities. Initial dietary management relies on low-lactose, milk-based, liquid formulas but semi-solid or solid foods can be started as soon as appetite permits, after which children can be referred for ambulatory treatment. National programs for the community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) provide periodic anthropometric and clinical screening of young children, and referral of those who meet established criteria. This Review describes the main components of the treatment of young children with acute malnutrition in resource poor settings and some recent advances in CMAM programs.
Gardiner, Clare; Cobb, Mark; Gott, Merryn; Ingleton, Christine
the need for access to high-quality palliative care at the end of life is becoming of increasing public health concern. The majority of deaths in the UK occur in acute hospitals, and older people are particularly likely to die in this setting. However, little is known about the barriers to palliative care provision for older people within acute hospitals. to explore the perspectives of health professionals regarding barriers to optimal palliative care for older people in acute hospitals. fifty-eight health professionals participated in eight focus groups and four semi-structured interviews. participants identified various barriers to palliative care provision for older people, including attitudinal differences to the care of older people, a focus on curative treatments within hospitals and a lack of resources. Participants also reported differing understandings of whose responsibility it was to provide palliative care for older people, and uncertainly over the roles of specialist and generalist palliative care providers in acute hospitals. numerous barriers exist to the provision of high-quality palliative care for older people within acute hospital settings. Additional research is now required to further explore age-related issues contributing to poor access to palliative care.
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton
Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton
Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…
Colprim, Daniel; Casco, Mónica; Malumbres, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Ginés; Inzitari, Marco
The unplanned transfers (UT) from post-acute intermediate care facilities, are associated with adverse outcomes for patients, and a significant cost to the system. We present a practical protocol and the design of an intervention study aimed at reducing avoidable UT from a geriatric post-acute rehabilitation setting to acute care hospitals. A quasi-experimental non randomized study. The intervention consists in: 1) protocol for early detection of symptoms in order to conduct a pro-active management of decompensation; 2) an advanced care planning structured protocol for the acute decompensations. We will compare the intervention group with a parallel and a historical cohort for demographic, functional, cognitive, comorbidity and social variables. number of UT to acute care hospitals. This is a quasi-experimental study, focused on everyday care practice that intends to assess the impact of multi-disciplinary and multi-factorial intervention to reduce UT from a post-acute rehabilitation unit. We expect that the project results will be useful for future randomized and controlled studies. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
More and more people with dementia need acute care. However, a stay in the hospital involves severe risks for these patients: insufficient treatment, complications and a considerable emotional strain. A model project in Northrhine-Westfalia provides acute care hospitals with measures to improve the care of patients with dementia. This article presents the conceptual results of the project referring to three fields: discharge and networking, medical treatment and general ward setting. Finally, the article points out some implications of the rising number of old age patients on health politics and research.
Hernandez-Leveille, Marygrace; Bennett, Jasmiry D; Nelson, Nicole
This article presents an overview of the role of an acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) in an acute care setting caring for patients with cardiovascular issues. Discussion includes the evolution of the ACNP role, the consensus model for advanced practice registered nurse regulation, and a case study highlighting the role of the ACNP while caring for a hemodynamically unstable patient. The case study articulates the ACNP's role as liaison between the patient, family members, collaborating physicians, and nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Beth A; Anderson, Mary Ann
The purpose of this project was to explore how acute care nurses in a midwestern state rate the quality of their work life. A simple random sample of 1500 registered nurses was surveyed. Data were collected using Brooks' Quality of Nursing Worklife Survey (Brooks BA. Development of an Instrument to Measure Quality of Nursing Work Life [unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago; 2001). Findings suggested that nursing workload was too heavy, and there was not enough time todo the job well. This study revealed that there remain ongoing and fundamental work life concerns for staff nurses that the profession has neither addressed nor resolved in any meaningful, long-term way.
Griffith, Jane; Lyman, Jason A; Blackhall, Leslie J
Palliative care that provides specialized attention to pain and symptom management is important for patients with cancer. Palliative care aims to reduce pain and other symptoms through an interdisciplinary approach involving physicians, nurses, social workers, and other members of the healthcare team. Families are included in care planning. Patients and families benefit from the availability of palliative care services early in the disease process, particularly when symptoms impact quality of life. One way to implement early palliative interventions is the establishment of an ambulatory care clinic dedicated to palliative care. This article describes the experience of an outpatient palliative care clinic at a large teaching hospital by using case studies to highlight the benefits of ambulatory palliative care and concluding with recommendations for research.
Shirey, Maria R
This article provides a historical overview of nursing models of care for acute and critical care based on currently available literature. Models of care are defined and their advantages and disadvantages presented. The distinctive differences between care delivery models and professional practice models are explained. The historical overview of care delivery models provides a foundation for the introduction of best practice models that will shape the environment for acute and critical care in the future.
McClements, David; Probert, Chris
Ulcerative colitis affects approximately 146 000 people in the UK and is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease. The majority of patients will have uncomplicated disease, but around 1 in 10 patients will develop acute severe colitis. Despite modern medical management, colectomy rates of 27% and mortality rates of 1% are still reported. Good supportive care and intravenous corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment, but up to one-third of patents will not respond. The Travis criteria allow early recognition of those patients failing to improve by day 3, allowing timely planning of medical rescue therapy or surgery. Rescue therapy with either infliximab or ciclosporin appears equally efficacious. Patients naive to thiopurines seem to have better colectomy-free survival rates following rescue therapy than those previously exposed. We review the published evidence behind the conventional management of acute severe ulcerative colitis.
Bitterman, R; Hussein, K; Leibovici, L; Carmeli, Y; Paul, M
Antibiotic consumption is an easily quantifiable performance measure in hospitals and might be used for monitoring. We conducted a review of published studies and online surveillance reports reporting on antibiotic consumption in acute care hospitals between the years 1997 and 2013. A pooled estimate of antibiotic consumption was calculated using a random effects meta-analysis of rates with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed through subgroup analysis and metaregression. Eighty studies, comprising data from 3130 hospitals, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of hospital-wide consumption was 586 (95% confidence interval 540 to 632) defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 hospital days (HD) for all antibacterials. However, consumption rates were highly heterogeneous. Antibacterial consumption was highest in intensive care units, at 1563 DDD/1000 HD (95% confidence interval 1472 to 1653). Hospital-wide antibacterial consumption was higher in Western Europe and in medium-sized, private and university-affiliated hospitals. The methods of data collection were significantly associated with consumption rates, including data sources, dispensing vs. purchase vs. usage data, counting admission and discharge days and inclusion of low-consumption departments. Heterogeneity remained in all subgroup analyses. Major heterogeneity currently precludes defining acceptable antibiotic consumption ranges in acute care hospitals. Guidelines on antibiotic consumption reporting that will account for case mix and a minimal set of hospital characteristics recommending standardized methods for monitoring and reporting are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morrow, Jean; Hunt, Shelia; Rogan, Virginia; Cowie, Kathryn; Kopacz, Jan; Keeler, Colleen; Billick, Mary Beth; Kroh, Mary
The ICU at London Health Sciences Centre-University Hospital (LHSC-UH) is a 40-bed critical care unit that contains two separate supply rooms that carry all the essential materials necessary for patient care. However, considering the patient acuity in critical care, it is vital that this equipment is made more accessible for practitioners at the bedside. Therefore, nurse servers or bedside supply cabinets are present in each of the patient rooms. While these servers provide timely access to the supplies essential for nursing care, they are also a huge source of waste. When patients who are identified as having antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) are discharged, numerous unused items are discarded for infection control purposes. Project objectives were to curtail waste by minimizing stocked supplies at the bedside, exploring alternative stocking options and increasing awareness of this issue with practitioners. An interprofessional team was formed consisting of registered nurses, support service workers, environmental service workers, infection control practitioners and critical care leadership. A cost analysis of discarded supplies was undertaken, and results were communicated to all staff. Infection control practitioners developed guidelines specific to use of the nurse servers and linen supply areas. The stocking process and contents of the servers were reviewed; surplus was removed and relocated to a close central area outside patient rooms. Following agreement on new server contents, lists and photos were created and posted in each supply room. New stocking guidelines were phased in gradually and were adapted according to user feedback. Over a two-week period, a pilot cost analysis identified that supplies valued at $2,327.25 had been discarded from five bedsides. Future long-term cost savings will enable management to redirect such resources and therefore improve other essential care services in the ICU. Increasing awareness of wasteful stocking practices
Ronaldson, Susan; Hayes, Lillian; Aggar, Christina; Green, Jennifer; Carey, Michele
Identify and compare spiritual caring practice by palliative care and acute care registered nurses (RNs), determine any correlation between nurses' spiritual perspective and their spiritual caring, and to investigate perceived barriers to spiritual caring. Over the past decade there has been growing interest in spiritual caring in nursing. Professional nursing bodies have proposed spirituality and spiritual caring as an integral component of holistic nursing. Cross sectional study. Palliative care RNs (n = 42) from one community palliative care service and three hospices, and acute care RNs (n = 50) from three major acute care hospitals all in metropolitan Sydney, Australia completed a research questionnaire. Two validated tools and a demographic survey were used to collect data. These tools measured spiritual perspectives including saliency of personal spirituality, spiritual views and engagement in spiritually-related activities; and spiritual practice including assessment, interventions and barriers to spiritual caring. Data were collected over a six-month period and interpreted with both descriptive and analytical statistics. Significant differences were seen between the two RN groups. Palliative care RNs' spiritual caring practice was more advanced and their spiritual perspective stronger; this relationship was positive. Both RN groups identified 'insufficient time' as the most common barrier to spiritual caring practice; 'patient privacy' was also common for acute care RNs. Palliative care RNs' spiritual perspectives influenced their spiritual caring. These nurses were older and more career-advanced than the acute care RNs, which may explain the differences observed. Acute care RNs may benefit from additional support for their spiritual caring and to address perceived barriers. The development of nurses' spiritual perspective early in their preparation for practice, and the articulation and documentation of spiritual caring may enhance their spiritual caring
Moore, Lynne; Evans, David; Yanchar, Natalie L; Thakore, Jaimini; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Hameed, Sayed Morad; Simons, Richard; Kortbeek, John; Clément, Julien; Lauzier, François; Turgeon, Alexis F
Acute care injury outcomes vary substantially across Canadian provinces and trauma centres. Our aim was to develop Canadian benchmarks to monitor mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) for injury admissions. Benchmarks were derived using data from the Canadian National Trauma Registry on patients with major trauma admitted to any level I or II trauma centre in Canada and from the following patient subgroups: isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI), isolated thoracoabdominal injury, multisystem blunt injury, age 65 years or older. We assessed predictive validity using measures of discrimination and calibration, and performed sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of replacing analytically complex methods (multiple imputation, shrinkage estimates and flexible modelling) with simple models that can be implemented locally. The mortality risk adjustment model had excellent discrimination and calibration (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.886, Hosmer-Lemeshow 36). The LOS risk-adjustment model predicted 29% of the variation in LOS. Overall, observed:expected ratios of mortality and mean LOS generated by an analytically simple model correlated strongly with those generated by analytically complex models (r > 0.95, κ on outliers > 0.90). We propose Canadian benchmarks that can be used to monitor quality of care in Canadian trauma centres using Excel (see the appendices, available at canjsurg.ca). The program can be implemented using local trauma registries, providing that at least 100 patients are available for analysis.
Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko
Objective Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1–1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. Results In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. Conclusions The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted. PMID:25716983
Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko; Seto, Natsuko
Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1-1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted.
O'Brien, Jane E; Dumas, Helene M; Leslie, David
To describe characteristics and care outcomes in a pediatric post-acute rehabilitation hospital for infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Demographic and clinical data were combined for 43 infants accounting for 46 admissions over a two-year period with a diagnosis of NAS and a goal of weaning from treatment medications. Mean age at admission for the total sample was 21 days. One hundred percent of the infants were weaned from treatment medications at discharge and all infants were discharged to a home setting. Mean length of stay in post-acute care was 24 days (SD = 12.80; range = 4-70 days) while the mean cost of admissions was $27,904. Ninety-one percent had a public payer. Post-acute care clinical outcomes were excellent. Post-acute care for infants with NAS could be an effective way to free NICU beds and reduce hospital costs for this population of infants.
Objective We seek to address gaps in knowledge and agreement around optimal frailty assessment in the acute medical care setting. Frailty is a common term describing older persons who are at increased risk of developing multimorbidity, disability, institutionalisation and death. Consensus has not been reached on the practical implementation of this concept to assess clinically and manage older persons in the acute care setting. Design Modified Delphi, via electronic questionnaire. Questions included ranking items that best recognise frailty, optimal timing, location and contextual elements of a successful tool. Intraclass correlation coefficients for overall levels of agreement, with consensus and stability tested by 2-way ANOVA with absolute agreement and Fisher's exact test. Participants A panel of national experts (academics, front-line clinicians and specialist charities) were invited to electronic correspondence. Results Variables reflecting accumulated deficit and high resource usage were perceived by participants as the most useful indicators of frailty in the acute care setting. The Acute Medical Unit and Care of the older Persons Ward were perceived as optimum settings for frailty assessment. ‘Clinically meaningful and relevant’, ‘simple (easy to use)’ and ‘accessible by multidisciplinary team’ were perceived as characteristics of a successful frailty assessment tool in the acute care setting. No agreement was reached on optimal timing, number of variables and organisational structures. Conclusions This study is a first step in developing consensus for a clinically relevant frailty assessment model for the acute care setting, providing content validation and illuminating contextual requirements. Testing on clinical data sets is a research priority. PMID:27742633
Brown, Jeremy; Grudzen, Corita; Kyriacou, Demetrios N; Obermeyer, Ziad; Quest, Tammie; Rivera, Donna; Stone, Susan; Wright, Jason; Shelburne, Nonniekaye
To identify research priorities and appropriate resources and to establish the infrastructure required to address the emergency care of patients with cancer, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute and the Office of Emergency Care Research sponsored a one-day workshop, "Cancer and Emergency Medicine: Setting the Research Agenda," in March 2015 in Bethesda, MD. Participants included leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of oncology, emergency medicine, and palliative care, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health. Attendees were charged with identifying research opportunities and priorities to advance the understanding of the emergency care of cancer patients. Recommendations were made in 4 areas: the collection of epidemiologic data, care of the patient with febrile neutropenia, acute events such as dyspnea, and palliative care in the emergency department setting.
Silberman, Nicki J; Panzarella, Karen J; Melzer, Barbara A
The acute care setting requires a unique skill set for all health care providers, including Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students. This study explores high-fidelity human simulation (HFHS) training in a DPT education program to achieve learning objectives specific to preparation of DPT students for acute care clinical practice. Twenty-three DPT students participated in a HFHS acute care experience, provided feedback about the learning experience, and completed a survey regarding preparedness for clinical practice. Student feedback was interpreted to gain content validity of the learning experience, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey results. In this pilot study, students identified four learning objectives met during the simulation experience: interprofessional communication, preparation of the treatment environment, patient safety, and discharge planning. Following the experience, 91.5% of the students reported more confidence in interprofessional communication, and 67% were more knowledgeable in discharge disposition. All students agreed that simulations should be part of the curriculum, and 95.2% reported simulation valuable in preparation for clinical practice. As a result of HFHS training in the DPT program, students' educational objectives were met, and simulation was deemed valuable in integrating prior learning and providing an enhanced understanding of the acute care setting. The findings support continued investigation of the effectiveness of simulation to prepare DPT students for acute care clinical practice.
Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Pryor, Julie
To explore and discuss from recent literature the common factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting. Nursing dissatisfaction is linked to high rates of nurses leaving the profession, poor morale, poor patient outcomes and increased financial expenditure. Understanding factors that contribute to job satisfaction could increase nurse retention. A literature search from January 2004 to March 2009 was conducted using the keywords nursing, (dis)satisfaction, job (dis)satisfaction to identify factors contributing to satisfaction for nurses working in acute hospital settings. This review identified 44 factors in three clusters (intra-, inter- and extra-personal). Job satisfaction for nurses in acute hospitals can be influenced by a combination of any or all of these factors. Important factors included coping strategies, autonomy, co-worker interaction, direct patient care, organizational policies, resource adequacy and educational opportunities. Research suggests that job satisfaction is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. Collaboration between individual nurses, their managers and others is crucial to increase nursing satisfaction with their job. Recognition and regular reviewing by nurse managers of factors that contribute to job satisfaction for nurses working in acute care areas is pivotal to the retention of valued staff. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Honig, Alice S.
This speech presents observations, made on a trip in June 1976, of the aesthetic environments of children in China, Japan, and Hong Kong. Home, school and day care environments are compared in terms of living and play space, room decor, the presence of art and toys, dramatic play and performance, music, nature and outdoor appreciation, food and…
Cashen, Margaret S; Bradley, Victoria; Farrell, Ann; Murphy, Judy; Schleyer, Ruth; Sensmeier, Joyce; Dykes, Patricia C
A focus group using nursing informatics experts as informants was conducted to guide development of a survey to explore the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinary communication in acute care settings. Through analysis of focus group transcripts, five key themes emerged: information, communication, care coordination, interdisciplinary relationships, workflow, and practice effectiveness and efficiency. This served as the basis for development of a survey that will investigate perceptions of acute care providers across the United States regarding the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinar communication in acute care settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of survey development including analysis of transcripts, emergence of key themes, and the processes by which the themes will be employed to inform survey development.
Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.
Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486
Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O
Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training.
McCarthy, Christopher J.; Hart, Sonia
This article provides an overview of the special issue on groups in health care settings and describes how each contribution addresses challenges and opportunities in the health care field for group work. Fundamental criteria for evaluating groups in such settings are applied to each contribution. Finally, trends and opportunities about the future…
McCarthy, Christopher J.; Hart, Sonia
This article provides an overview of the special issue on groups in health care settings and describes how each contribution addresses challenges and opportunities in the health care field for group work. Fundamental criteria for evaluating groups in such settings are applied to each contribution. Finally, trends and opportunities about the future…
Acute care nurse practitioner roles have been introduced in many countries. The acute care nurse practitioner provides nursing and medical care to meet the complex needs of patients and their families using a holistic, health-centred approach. There are many pressures to adopt a performance framework and execute activities and tasks. Little time may be left to explore domains of advanced practice nursing and develop other forms of knowledge. The primary objective of praxis is to integrate theory, practice and art, and facilitate the recognition and valuing of different types of knowledge through reflection. With this framework, the acute care nurse practitioner assumes the role of clinician and researcher. Praxis can be used to develop the acute care nurse practitioner role as an advanced practice nursing role. A praxis framework permeates all aspects of the acute care nurse practitioner's practice. Praxis influences how relationships are structured with patients, families and colleagues in the work setting. Decision-makers at different levels need to recognize the contribution of praxis in the full development of the acute care nurse practitioner role. Different strategies can be used by educators to assist students and practitioners to develop a praxis framework.
Liego, Megan; Loomis, Jo; Van Leuven, Karen; Dragoo, Susan
The Value-Based Purchasing Program is forcing hospitals to improve outcomes and decrease costs. This has led to recognition of new care models to improve outcomes and reimbursement. One model is the application of an acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) into the hospital setting. Model success is dependent on proper implementation to create a synergistic relationship with the organization, ACNP, and patient to improve the quality of care and decrease costs for the hospital.
Breathlessness is a high-volume problem with 10% of adults experiencing the symptom daily placing a heavy burden on the health and wider economy. As it worsens, they enter the specialist and hospital-based symptom services where costs quickly escalate and people may find themselves in a place not of their choosing. For many, their care will be delivered by a disease or organ specialist and can find themselves passing between physicians without coordination for symptom support. General practitioners (GPs) will be familiar with this scenario and can often feel out of their depth. Recent advances in our thinking about breathlessness symptom management can offer opportunities and a sense of hope when the GP is faced with this situation. Original research, reviews and other findings over the last 12-18 months that pertain to the value that general practice and the wider primary care system can add, include opportunities to help people recognize they have a problem that can be treated. We present systems that support decisions made by primary healthcare professionals and an increasingly strong case that a solution is required in primary care for an ageing and frail population where breathlessness will be common. Primary care practitioners and leaders must start to realize the importance of recognizing and acting early in the life course of the person with breathlessness because its impact is enormous. They will need to work closely with public health colleagues and learn from specialists who have been doing this work usually with people near to the end of life translating the skills and knowledge further upstream to allow people to live well and remain near home and in their communities.
Kruse, Barbara G; Melhado, Lolita W; Convertine, Linda; Stecher, Jo
Providing quality care to the dying has become a primary concern in the United States. Eighty percent of deaths still occur in the hospital even though nurses report they do not think that good deaths are routinely possible within a hospital setting due to lack of appropriate education on end-of-life care. The aim of this pilot study was to test the best method for changing acute nurse's perceptions about end-of-life care. A 3-group experimental design tested the efficacy of a nurse-led hospice collaborative. Hypotheses were: (1) nurses who receive classroom instruction will have greater change in perceptions than the control group and (2) nurses who receive a combination of classroom and hospice experiences will demonstrate greater changes than the classroom or control group. No significant differences were found among the 3 groups. However, the intervention group showed increased guilt about not having enough time to spend with the dying.
El-Sayed, M M; Mohamed, S A; Jones, M H
Ultrasound, and in particular transvaginal sonography (TVS), plays an important role in the management of women with acute gynaecology conditions. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of two models of out-of-hours care for women in an acute gynaecology setting. In the ultrasound-based model, the on-call registrar with ultrasound experience managed such patients after performing pelvic ultrasound as a part of the initial assessment. On the other hand, in the traditional model of care the on-call registrar managed the patients without the use of ultrasound. The conclusion is that the use of ultrasound by the on-call registrars has significant cost implications through reduced hospital admissions. It leads to improved outcomes of such patients through timely diagnosis and treatment.
Kivlin, Jude; Altemimi, Harith
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in King's Lynn, Norfolk is a 488 bed hospital providing services to approximately 331,000 people across 750 square miles. In 2012 a need was recognised for documentation (pathways) in a practical format to increase usage of national guidelines and facilitate adherence to best practice (gold standards of care) that could be easily version controlled, auditable and provide support in clinical decision-making by junior doctors. BMJ Action Sets fulfilled the brief with expert knowledge, version control and support, though they were deemed too lengthy and unworkable in fast paced settings like the medical assessment unit; they formed the base creation of concise care bundles (CCB). CCB were introduced for 21 clinical presentations and one procedure. Outcomes were fully audited and showed significant improvement in a range of measures, including an increase in completions of CHADVASC score in atrial fibrillation, antibiotics prescribed per protocol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Blatchford score recorded for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleed. PMID:26734437
Sorensen, Ros; Iedema, Rick
The care of people who die in hospitals is often suboptimal. Involving patients in decisions about their care is seen as one way to improve care outcomes. Federal and state government policymakers in Australia are promoting shared decision making in acute care hospitals as a means to improve the quality of end-of-life care. If policy is to be…
Sorensen, Ros; Iedema, Rick
The care of people who die in hospitals is often suboptimal. Involving patients in decisions about their care is seen as one way to improve care outcomes. Federal and state government policymakers in Australia are promoting shared decision making in acute care hospitals as a means to improve the quality of end-of-life care. If policy is to be…
Ham, Jason J; Ordonez, Edgar; Wilkerson, R Gentry
The Emergency Department Observation Unit (EDOU) provides a viable alternative to inpatient admission for the management of many acute gastrointestinal conditions with additional opportunities of reducing resource utilization and reducing radiation exposure. Using available evidence-based criteria to determine appropriate patient selection, evaluation, and treatment provides higher-quality medical care and improved patient satisfaction. Discussions of factors involved in creating an EDOU capable of caring for acute gastrointestinal conditions and clinical protocol examples of acute appendicitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and acute pancreatitis provide a framework from which a successful EDOU can be built. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Leijen-Zeelenberg, Janneke E; van Raak, Arno J A; Duimel-Peeters, Inge G P; Kroese, Mariëlle E A L; Brink, Peter R G; Ruwaard, Dirk; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M
Accurate information transfer is an important element of continuity of care and patient safety. Despite the demonstrated urge for improvement of communication in acute care, there is a lack of data on improvements of communication. This study aims to describe the barriers to implementation of a redesign of the existing model for information transfer and feedback. A case study with six cases (i.e. acute care chains), using mixed methods was carried out in the Netherlands. The redesign was implemented in one acute care chain while the five other acute care chains served as control groups. Focus group interviews were held with members of the acute care chains and questionnaires were sent to care providers working in the acute care chains. Respondents reported three sets of barriers for implementation of the model: (a) existing routines for information transfer and feedback in organizations within the acute care chain; (b) barriers related to the implementation method and time period; and (c) the absence of a high 'sense of urgency' amongst providers in the acute care chain which would aid in improving the communication process. This study shows that organizational factors play an important role in the success or failure of redesigning a communication process. Organizational routines can hamper implementation of a redesign if it differs too much from the routines of care providers involved. Besides focussing on provider characteristics in the implementation of a redesigned process, specific attention should be paid to unlearning existing organizational routines.
Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.
This book contains 58 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques for Diagnosing and Sizing of Myocardial Infarction; The Use of Serial Radionuclide Angiography for Monitoring Function during Acute Myocardial Infarction; Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction; and The Valve of Radionuclide Angiography for Risk Assessment of Patients following Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Palese, Alvisa; Ambrosi, Elisa; Prosperi, Letizia; Guarnier, Annamaria; Barelli, Paolo; Zambiasi, Paola; Allegrini, Elisabetta; Bazoli, Letizia; Casson, Paola; Marin, Meri; Padovan, Marisa; Picogna, Michele; Taddia, Patrizia; Salmaso, Daniele; Chiari, Paolo; Marognolli, Oliva; Canzan, Federica; Gonella, Silvia; Saiani, Luisa
Missed nursing care (MNC), such as nursing care omitted or delayed, has not been measured in the Italian context where several cost containment interventions affect the care offered in medical units. The aim of the study is to identify the amount, type, and reasons for MNC in the Italian medical care setting and to explore the factors that affect the occurrence of MNC. A 3-month longitudinal survey was carried out followed by a cross-sectional study design in 12 north eastern acute medical units. A total of 314 nursing staff members were involved. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of MNC. Patient ambulation (91.4 %), turning the patient every 2 h (74.2 %), and right timing in administering medications (64.6 %) were the most perceived MNC. Among the most frequent reasons were the unexpected rise in patient volume or critical conditions (95.2 %), inadequate numbers of staff (94.9 %), and large numbers of admissions/discharges (93.3 %). The R (2) 33.2 % of the variance in MNC were explained by a full-time position (OR 4.743, 95 % CI 1.146-19.629), communication tensions between Registered Nurses and Nurses' Aides (OR 1.601, 95 % CI 1.020-2.515), the amount of experience in medical unit (OR 1.564, 95 % CI 1.021-2.397), and the amount of daily care offered by Nurses' Aides (1.039, 95 % CI 1.011-1.067). A substantial amount of basic and clinically relevant nursing interventions was perceived to be missed, and this may lead to an increase in negative outcomes for patients admitted to a medical unit. Appropriate standards of nursing care should be adopted urgently in medical units aiming to protect frail patients.
Shoulders, Bridget; Follett, Corrinne; Eason, Joyce
The complexity of patients in the critical and acute care settings requires that nurses be skilled in early recognition and management of rapid changes in patient condition. The interpretation and response to these events can greatly impact patient outcomes. Nurses caring for these complex patients are expected to use astute critical thinking in their decision making. The purposes of this article were to explore the concept of critical thinking and provide practical strategies to enhance critical thinking in the critical and acute care environment.
Allen, Diane E
An educational program for staff in an acute, involuntary inpatient setting has led to positive change by challenging the widely held belief that getting hurt is an expected part of the job in acute psychiatric care settings. The Staying Safe program encouraged staff to think differently about their roles and to explore alternative responses to patient behaviors. Cultural change takes time: Staff have requested that the program be repeated multiple times over the past 5 years, and key concepts have been incorporated into employee orientation and refresher programs. During that same time, staff have learned to call for help more often and to have a plan for such help before physically intervening with patients. The strategies described in this program have resulted in decreased number of assaults on staff, injuries from assaults, and lost work time from those injuries. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Huang, Hsiang; Barkil-Oteo, Andres
Job descriptions for psychiatrists will change significantly over the next decade, as psychiatrists will be called on to work as caseload consultants to the primary care team. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training-approved collaborative care curriculum on caseload consulting skills among psychiatry residents. In 2014, 46 psychiatry residents (5 postgraduate year 1s, 10 postgraduate year 2s, 22 postgraduate year 3s, and 9 postgraduate year 4s) from 5 academic psychiatry residency programs in the New England area were given the 2-hour pilot collaborative care curriculum. Participants were asked to complete an anonymous survey at both the beginning and the end of the workshop to rate their comfort level in aspects of collaborative care psychiatry (7 items from SBP4 psychiatry milestones) based on a Likert scale (1-not at all, 2-slightly, 3-moderately, and 4-extremely). Paired t-test was used to examine the difference between pretest and posttest results of residents participating in the workshop. The pretest mean score for the group was 2.9 (standard deviation = 0.44), whereas the posttest mean was 3.51 (standard deviation = 0.42), p < 0.0001. Only 15% (n = 7) of residents reported having some form of primary care or ambulatory specialty care consultation experience while in training. This brief collaborative care curriculum significantly improved resident confidence in milestone criteria related to population health and case-based consultations. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaltner, Melissa; Murtagh, Doug; Bennetts, Marguerite; Pighills, Alison; James, Julie; Scott, Annette
As demand for health services increases, attention has turned to the development of alternate models of service delivery that maximise efficiency. These include skill sharing models, in which cross-professional skills are delivered by appropriately trained professionals. The usage of skill sharing models is increasing in some professions, but little evidence on efficacy currently exists. This article reports on an intervention of the use of a transprofessional role, which involved delivery of services from a range of health providers, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, speech pathology, podiatry, social work, and psychology, by a trained professional, developed and trialled in the acute medical setting in Toowoomba Hospital, Queensland, Australia. A single-blind randomised controlled trial examined the clinical efficacy of this skill shared service. Participants were allocated at random to either standard care (n = 29) or the new model of care (n = 29) groups and compared on a range of patient and service provision outcome measures. Descriptive outcomes indicated that patients receiving the new model of care underwent more comprehensive and prompt assessments in the health domains included than those in standard care, and demonstrated more positive health and functional outcomes at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Given the paucity of research on skill sharing, this study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of skill shared roles in acute settings.
Seedat, Jaishika; Penn, Claire
Oral care is a crucial routine for patients with dysphagia that, when completed routinely, can prevent the development of aspiration pneumonia. There is no standardised protocol for oral care within government hospitals in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of an oral care protocol. Participants were patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, with either stroke or traumatic brain injury as the underlying medical pathology, and nurses. All participants were recruited from one tertiary level government hospital in Gauteng, South Africa. 139 nurses participated in the study and received training on the oral care protocol. There were two groups of participants with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Group one (study group, n = 23) was recruited by consecutive sampling, received regular oral care and were not restricted from drinking water; however, all other liquids were restricted. Group two (comparison group, n = 23) was recruited via a retrospective record review, received inconsistent oral care and were placed on thickened liquids or liquid restricted diets. Results showed that a regimen of regular oral care and free water provision when combined with dysphagia intervention did prevent aspiration pneumonia in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The article highlights two key findings: that regular and routine oral care is manageable within an acute government hospital context and a strict routine of oral care can reduce aspiration pneumonia in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. An implication from these findings is confirmation that teamwork in acute care settings in developing contexts must be prioritised to improve dysphagia management and patient prognosis.
Dobmeyer, Anne C
The rapid expansion of integrated behavioral health care in primary care medical settings introduces a number of ethical challenges faced by teams of health professionals from different disciplines. As military health care settings have increasingly implemented primary care behavioral health models of service delivery, distinct ethical dilemmas have emerged. This article examines two of these ethical issues, competence and multiple relationships, through presentation of clinical scenarios in military integrated primary care settings. Relevant professional ethical guidelines for psychologists, social workers, and physicians are examined. Recommendations for the ethical practice of primary care behavioral health, as well as suggestions for future development of professional ethical guidelines, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Amy, Chen; Zagorski, Brandon; Chan, Vincy; Parsons, Daria; Vander Laan, Rika; Colantonio, Angela
Alternate-level-of-care (ALC) days represent hospital beds that are taken up by patients who would more appropriately be cared for in other settings. ALC days have been found to be costly and may result in worse functional outcomes, reduced motor skills and longer lengths of stay in rehabilitation. This study examines the factors that are associated with acute care ALC days among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used the Discharge Abstract Database to identify patients with ABI using International Classification of Disease-10 codes. From fiscal years 2007/08 to 2009/10, 17.5% of patients with traumatic and 14% of patients with non-traumatic brain injury had at least one ALC day. Significant predictors include having a psychiatric co-morbidity, increasing age and length of stay in acute care. These findings can inform planning for care of people with ABI in a publicly funded healthcare system.
Amy, Chen; Zagorski, Brandon; Chan, Vincy; Parsons, Daria; Vander Laan, Rika; Colantonio, Angela
Alternate-level-of-care (ALC) days represent hospital beds that are taken up by patients who would more appropriately be cared for in other settings. ALC days have been found to be costly and may result in worse functional outcomes, reduced motor skills and longer lengths of stay in rehabilitation. This study examines the factors that are associated with acute care ALC days among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used the Discharge Abstract Database to identify patients with ABI using International Classification of Disease-10 codes. From fiscal years 2007/08 to 2009/10, 17.5% of patients with traumatic and 14% of patients with non-traumatic brain injury had at least one ALC day. Significant predictors include having a psychiatric co-morbidity, increasing age and length of stay in acute care. These findings can inform planning for care of people with ABI in a publicly funded healthcare system. PMID:23634162
Metsälä, Eija; Vaherkoski, Ulla
Medication safety is a part of quality of care and patient safety. Old age brings many challenges for safe use of medication. In order to improve the prerequisites of medication safety in acute care of the elderly, we systematically reviewed studies to find out what kind of medication errors happen in elderly acute care. Cinahl, Medline, Cochrane, JBI Connect+ databases and Finnish healthcare databases Medic and Ohtanen were used in the search. The search was performed using both MeSH terms and keywords by the option 'search all text'. The original keywords were pharmacy or drugs, medical error or deviation and their Finnish synonyms. These keywords were united to the terms elderly, nursing or acute care or intensive care. Studies published between 2001 and 2011 were chosen. Medication errors mentioned in the studies were associated with (i) nursing competence, (ii) prescription- and patient-related factors, (iii) medication work organisation and nursing process and (iv) safety culture. This paper presents several practical implications for improving medication safety in the acute care of the elderly. The grey literature was not included because the authors wanted to limit to the best-quality research. In some studies, elderly acute care was not their exact context or the elderly formed only a part of study population. This may have undermined some types of medication errors typical to elderly acute care. To improve the prerequisites of medication, safety in acute care of the elderly management of the medication process should be improved. Also, cooperation within the medical team in making the medical care plans and checking out the medication of the elderly people should be improved. This is an important topic of lifelong education for nurses and other healthcare staff as well. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Asthma prevalence in low-to middle-income countries is at least the same or higher than in rich countries, but with increased severity. Lack of control in these settings is due to various factors such as low accessibility to effective medications, multiple and uncoordinated weak infrastructures of medical services for the management of chronic diseases such as asthma, poor compliance with prescribed therapy, lack of asthma education, and social and cultural factors. There is an urgent requirement for the implementation of better ways to treat asthma in underserved populations, enhancing the access to preventive medications and educational approaches with modern technological methods. PMID:23282401
Miller, Carla K; Bauman, Jennifer
Goal setting is a widely used behavior change tool in diabetes education and training. Prior research found specific relatively difficult but attainable goals set within a specific timeframe improved performance in sports and at the workplace. However, the impact of goal setting in diabetes self-care has not received extensive attention. This review examined the mechanisms underlying behavioral change according to goal setting theory and evaluated the impact of goal setting in diabetes intervention studies. Eight studies were identified, which incorporated goal setting as the primary strategy to promote behavioral change in individual, group-based, and primary care settings among patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in diabetes-related self-efficacy, dietary intake, physical activity, and A1c were observed in some but not all studies. More systematic research is needed to determine the conditions and behaviors for which goal setting is most effective. Initial recommendations for using goal setting in diabetes patient encounters are offered.
The nutritional assessment is a key determinant in establishing risk for malnutrition and is also valuable in predicting outcomes in the critical care setting. Studies have demonstrated that nurses who are aware of the impact of nutrition and have operational aptitude can influence patient outcomes through early intervention. This intervention can result in shortened recovery time and decreased lengths of stay. Knowledge of nutrition's effect in the acute and critically ill patient is integral for nursing to predict and promote outcomes successfully in the critical care setting.
Punjabi, Chitra D; Perloff, Sarah R; Zuckerman, Jerry M
Patients with tuberculosis (TB) pose a risk to other patients and health care workers, and outbreaks in health care settings occur when appropriate infection control measures are not used. In this article, we discuss strategies to prevent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within health care settings. All health care facilities should have an operational TB infection control plan that emphasizes the use of a hierarchy of controls (administrative, environmental, and personal respiratory protection). We also discuss resources available to clinicians who work in the prevention and investigation of nosocomial transmission of M tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petty, Thomas L.; Bigelow, D. Boyd; Nett, Louise M.
An organized approach for the management of acute respiratory failure in an intensive general care unit utilizes a team of consultants including a general physician, a surgeon, respiratory care nurses, physical therapists and a blood gas technician. Because this team provides consultation and technical assistance in respiratory care and provides the equipment as well as the monitoring of care, this approach is suitable for any hospital interested in the management of acute respiratory emergencies. PMID:6083241
Missen, Karen; Sparkes, Louise; Porter, Joanne; Cooper, Simon; McConnell-Henry, Tracy
Health professionals work in teams in a variety of health care settings especially in medical emergency teams at times of crisis. However, Registered Nurses (RNs) rarely have the chance to partake in educational programs designed for teams of nurses to practice working together in life-threatening situations. Further RN's employed in rural setting have less opportunities for professional development than their city based counterparts. Simulated scenarios with a patient actor in a rural hospital have been utilised in this study to provide nurses with the opportunity to work as a team in the early recognition and management of patients with acute medical conditions. This discussion paper focuses on one aspect of a larger research project with the aim of describing the development of team based scenarios for a rural hospital setting, focusing on the detection and management of a deteriorating patient. Three team based scenarios, the related assessments and feedback techniques are all described. Team based simulation provides a unique opportunity to assist registered nurses in rural settings in re-skilling or maintaining their emergency management skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly, R Patrick; Stoll, Shelley C; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Janevic, Mary R; Lara, Marielena; Ohadike, Yvonne U; Persky, Victoria; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Uyeda, Kimberly; Malveaux, Floyd J
Asthma affects 7.1 million children in the United States, disproportionately burdening African American and Latino children. Barriers to asthma control include insufficient patient education and fragmented care. Care coordination represents a compelling approach to improve quality of care and address disparities in asthma. The sites of The Merck Childhood Asthma Network Care Coordination Programs implemented different models of care coordination to suit specific settings-school district, clinic or health care system, and community-and organizational structures. A variety of qualitative data sources were analyzed to determine the role setting played in the manifestation of care coordination at each site. There were inherent strengths and challenges of implementing care coordination in each of the settings, and each site used unique strategies to deliver their programs. The relationship between the lead implementing unit and entities that provided (1) access to the priority population and (2) clinical services to program participants played a critical role in the structure of the programs. The level of support and infrastructure provided by these entities to the lead implementing unit influenced how participants were identified and how asthma care coordinators were integrated into the clinical care team. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Manito Lorite, N; Manzano Espinosa, L; Llorens Soriano, P; Masip Utset, J; Comín Colet, J; Formiga Pérez, F; Herrero Puente, P; Delgado Jiménez, J; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M; Jacob Rodríguez, J; López de Sá Areses, E; Pérez Calvo, J I; Martín-Sánchez, F J; Miró Andreu, Ò
The purpose of this consensus document was to reach an agreement among experts on the multidisciplinary care of patients with acute heart failure. Starting with a narrative review of the care provided to these patients and a critical analysis of the healthcare procedures, we identified potential shortcomings and improvements and formalised a document on recommendations for optimising the clinical and therapeutic approach for acute heart failure. This document was validated through an in-person group session guided using participatory techniques. The process resulted in a set of 36 recommendations formulated by experts of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine and the Spanish Society of Urgent and Emergency Care. The recommendations are designed to optimise the healthcare challenge presented by the care of patients with acute heart failure in the context of Spain's current National Health System.
Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja
It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…
Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja
It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…
Taylor, Carol A.
The increasing age of the American population and the current emphasis on cost containment in health care make the 1980s an ideal time for building bridges to span the health care needs of elderly persons in acute care and long-term care. While hospitals often discharge patients to nursing homes as an intermediate step between hospitalization and…
Thompson, Genevieve; McClement, Susan; Daeninck, Paul
This paper reports the findings of a study that generated a conceptual model of the nursing behaviours and social processes inherent in the provision of quality end-of-life care from the perspective of nurses working in an acute care setting. The majority of research examining the issue of quality end-of-life care has focused on the perspectives of patients, family members and physicians. The perspective of nurses has generally received minimal research attention, with the exception of those working within palliative or critical care. The vast majority of hospitalized patients, however, continue to be cared for and die on medical units. To date, little research has been conducted examining definitions and determinants of quality end-of-life care from the perspective of nurses working in acute adult medical settings. Grounded theory method was used in this study of 10 nurses working on acute medical units at two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in central Canada. Data were collected during 2002 by interview and participant observation. The basic social problem uncovered in the data was that of nurses striving to provide high quality end-of-life care on an acute medical unit while being pulled in all directions. The unifying theme of 'Creating a haven for safe passage' integrated the major sub-processes into the key analytic model in this study. 'Creating a haven for safe passage' represents a continuum of behaviours and strategies, and includes the sub-processes of 'facilitating and maintain a lane change'; 'getting what's needed'; 'being there'; and 'manipulating the care environment'. The ability of nurses to provide quality end-of-life care on an acute medical unit is a complex process involving many factors related to the patient, family, healthcare providers and the context in which the provision of end-of-life care takes place.
Dilwali, Prashant K
The responsibility of hospitals is changing. Those activities that were once confined within the walls of the medical facility have largely shifted outside them, yet the requirements for hospitals have only grown in scope. With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the development of accountable care organizations, financial incentives are focused on care coordination, and a hospital's responsibility now includes postdischarge outcomes. As a result, hospitals need to adjust their business model to accommodate their increased need to impact post-acute care settings. A home care service line can fulfill this role for hospitals, serving as an effective conduit to the postdischarge realm-serving as both a potential profit center and a risk mitigation offering. An alliance between home care agencies and hospitals can help improve clinical outcomes, provide the necessary care for communities, and establish a potentially profitable product line.
Lan, Roy H; Kamath, Atul F
Understanding the socioeconomic factors that influence hospitalization and post-discharge metrics after joint replacement is important for identifying key areas of improvement in the delivery of orthopaedic care. An institutional administrative data set of 2869 patients from an academic arthroplasty referral center was analyzed to quantify the relationship between socioeconomic factors and post-acute rehabilitation care received, length of stay, and cost of care. The study used International Classification of Disease, ninth edition coding in order to identify cohorts of patients who received joint arthroplasty of the knee and hip between January 2007 and May 2015. The study found that females (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.46), minorities (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.78-2.51), and non-private insurance holders (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.94) were more likely to be assigned to institutional care after discharge. The study also found that minorities (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24-1.70) and non-private insurance holders (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.77) are more likely to exhibit longer length of stay. Mean charges were higher for males when compared to females ($80,010 vs $74,855; P < .001), as well as total costs ($19,910 vs $18,613; P = .001). Socioeconomic factors such as gender, race, and insurance status should be further explored with respect to healthcare policies seeking to influence quality of care and health outcomes.
Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.
There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…
This paper reports a retrospective study undertaken to determine if differences existed in obstetric outcome, contraceptive usage, and repeat pregnancy rates of teenage patients cared for in three different health care settings: the Rochester Adolescent Maternity Project (RAMP), a traditional obstetric clinic, and a neighborhood health center.…
Powers, James S
Health care professionals encounter elder abuse in the community and in medical offices, emergency rooms, hospitals, and long-term care facilities. Keen awareness of risk factors for elder abuse and the variety of presentations in different health settings helps promote detection, treatment, and prevention of elder abuse. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McCune, Renee L.
Patient health literacy skills are critical to effective healthcare communication and safe care delivery in primary care settings. Methods and strategies to identify patient health literacy (HL) capabilities and provider/staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding HL must be known before addressing provider/staff communication skills.…
Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone
Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that researchers and policymakers focused on childhood obesity have paid insufficient attention to child care. Although child care settings can be a major force in shaping children's dietary intake, physical activity, and energy balance--and thus in combating the childhood obesity…
Bober, Kenneth F.; And Others
A second-year clinical course composed of weekly observation sessions of interactions between patients and health care professionals in a variety of health care settings within a hospital is described. Weekly discussion sessions summarize the observations and introduce such topics as communication skills, patients' rights, patient relationships,…
McCune, Renee L.
Patient health literacy skills are critical to effective healthcare communication and safe care delivery in primary care settings. Methods and strategies to identify patient health literacy (HL) capabilities and provider/staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding HL must be known before addressing provider/staff communication skills.…
Lima, H A
The role of pharmacies that specialize in the treatment of specific chronic diseases in the alternate-site health care setting is discussed. The optimal use of medications through disease management programs can improve patient outcomes and lower overall health care costs. The increase in disease management programs has spawned the growth of disease-specific pharmacies in the home care and other alternate-site health care settings. These pharmacies usually operate from a single location or are regionalized operations that deliver pharmaceutical products to patients throughout the United States. The pharmacies employ clinicians who specialize in a particular disease. These clinicians conduct comprehensive patient education programs, drug-use review, and compliance monitoring. Disease management pharmacies focus on chronic, expensive diseases; costs related to inventory, equipment, and storage can be very high. Many disease management pharmacies are involved in preferred-distribution or closed-distribution arrangements with pharmaceutical manufacturers. Pharmacists involved in disease management programs routinely send compliance information about their patients to pharmaceutical companies, managed care organizations, or prescribing physicians. Disease management pharmacies act as advocates for patients with particular chronic diseases. Various foundations and patient advocacy and research groups have created their own disease management pharmacies. Disease management has also reached the community pharmacy practice setting. Pharmacies specializing in the treatment of specific chronic diseases in the alternate-site health care setting can improve health care and promote efficient use of health care dollars.
Lundqvist, Anita; Nilstun, Tore
Since the 1990s, numerous studies on the relationship between parents and their children have been reported on in the literature and implemented as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units. The purpose of this article is to understand the process of nurses' care for children in a paediatric setting by using Noddings's caring ethics theory. Noddings's theory is in part described from a theoretical perspective outlining the basic idea of the theory followed by a critique of her work. Important conceptions in her theory are natural caring (reception, relation, engrossment, motivational displacement, reciprocity) and ethical caring (physical self, ethical self, and ethical ideal). As a nurse one holds a duty of care to patients and, in exercising this duty, the nurse must be able to develop a relationship with the patient including giving the patient total authenticity in a 'feeling with' the patient. Noddings's theory is analysed and described in three examples from the paediatrics. In the first example, the nurse cared for the patient in natural caring while in the second situation, the nurse strived for the ethical caring of the patient. In the third example, the nurse rejected the impulse to care and deliberately turned her back to ethics and abandoned her ethical caring. According to the Noddings's theory, caring for the patient enables the nurse to obtain ethical insights from the specific type of nursing care which forms an important contribution to an overall increase of an ethical consciousness in the nurse.
Hatch, O G; Wofford, H; Willging, P R; Pomeroy, E
The White House Task Force on National Health Care Reform, headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, is expected to release its prescription for health care reform this month. From the outset, Clinton's mandate was clear: to provide universal coverage while reining in costs for delivering quality health care. Before President Clinton was even sworn into office, he had outlined the major principles that would shape the health reform debate. Global budgeting would establish limits on all health care expenditures, thereby containing health costs. Under a system of managed competition, employers would form health alliances for consumers to negotiate for cost-effective health care at the community level. So far, a basic approach to health care reform has emerged. A key element is universal coverage--with an emphasis on acute, preventive, and mental health care. Other likely pieces are employer-employee contributions to health care plans, laws that guarantee continued coverage if an individual changes jobs or becomes ill, and health insurance alliances that would help assure individual access to low-cost health care. What still is not clear is the extent to which long term care will be included in the basic benefits package. A confidential report circulated by the task force last month includes four options for long term care: incremental Medicaid reform; a new federal/state program to replace Medicaid; a social insurance program for home and community-based services; or full social insurance for long term care. Some work group members have identified an additional option: prefunded long term care insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Higgins, Isabel; van der Riet, Pamela; Sneesby, Ludmilla; Good, Phillip
To explore the perceptions of nurses regarding the provision and nonprovision of medical nutrition and hydration during the end stage of life when death is imminent in the acute care setting. When people are dying, they often experience a loss of appetite and desire for drinking which are natural processes at this time. The cessation of eating and drinking challenges both family members and clinical staff. This article builds on previous studies that describe the perceptions of medical doctors and palliative care nurses regarding medical nutrition and hydration during the end stage of life when death is imminent. Qualitative descriptive design. This study included three focus group meetings with ten nurses in an acute care setting in medical, oncology and haematology units. An interview schedule was used to guide the discussions. The main theme to emerge from this study was 'finding a comfort space/ambiguous spaces of unrest' that included four subthemes: (1) limited involvement in decision-making, (2) comfort vs. discomfort, (3) uncertainty and (4) the comfort of withdrawing treatment. Finding a comfort space captures the challenges nurses faced when speaking about the concerns of patients and family. In this space, there were ambiguities that created unease and unrest: a reluctance to talk about death; a reluctance to engage with the patient and the family. Acute care nurses need to be more cognisant of the palliative approach to care and become more engaged with decision-making during the end stage of life when death is imminent. Nurses in acute care settings need to be involved in decision-making and advocate for patients and family during the dying phase. Nurses in acute care need better understanding about the palliative approach to care and nutrition and hydration for people who are dying. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gowland, Emily; Ball, Karen Le; Bryant, Catherine; Birns, Jonathan
Acute care common stem acute medicine (ACCS AM) training was designed to develop competent multi-skilled acute physicians to manage patients with multimorbidity from 'door to discharge' in an era of increasing acute hospital admissions. Recent surveys by the Royal College of Physicians have suggested that acute medical specialties are proving less attractive to trainees. However, data on the career pathways taken by trainees completing core acute medical training has been lacking. Using London as a region with a 100% fill rate for its ACCS AM training programme, this study showed only 14% of trainees go on to higher specialty training in acute internal medicine and a further 10% to pursue higher medical specialty training with dual accreditation with internal medicine. 16% of trainees switched from ACCS AM to emergency medicine or anaesthetics during core ACCS training, and intensive care medicine proved to be the most popular career choice for ACCS AM trainees (21%). The ACCS AM training programme therefore does not appear to be providing what it was set out to do and this paper discusses the potential causes and effects. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.
Early, Barbara J; Huang, David T; Callaway, Clifton W; Zenati, Mazen; Angus, Derek C; Gunn, Scott R; Yealy, Donald M; Unikel, Daniel; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L
Clinical research will increasingly play a core role in the evolution and growth of acute care surgery program development across the country. What constitutes an efficient and effective clinical research infrastructure in the current fiscal and academic environment remains obscure. We sought to characterize the effects of implementation of a multidisciplinary acute care research organization (MACRO) at a busy tertiary referral university setting. In 2008, to minimize redundancy and cost as well as to maximize existing resources promoting acute care research, MACRO was created, unifying clinical research infrastructure among the Departments of Critical Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine, and Surgery. During the periods 2008 to 2012, we performed a retrospective analysis and determined volume of clinical studies, patient enrollment for both observational and interventional trials, and staff growth since MACRO's origination and characterized changes over time. From 2008 to 2011, the volume of patients enrolled in clinical studies, which MACRO facilitates has significantly increased more than 300%. The percentage of interventional/observational trials has remained stable during the same period (50-60%). Staff has increased from 6 coordinators to 10, with an additional 15 research associates allowing 24/7 service. With this significant growth, MACRO has become financially self-sufficient, and additional outside departments now seek MACRO's services. Appropriate organization of acute care clinical research infrastructure minimizes redundancy and can promote sustainable, efficient growth in the current academic environment. Further studies are required to determine if similar models can be successful at other acute care surgery programs.
Chi, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Lily; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Pei-Yu
Post-acute care (PAC) service is becoming increasingly important in Taiwan as a core focus of government policies that are designed to ensure continuity of care. In order to improve PAC nursing education and quality of care, the present study applies a modified Delphi method to identify the core competences of nurses who provide PAC services to acute stroke patients. We surveyed 18 experts in post-acute care and long-term care anonymously using a 29-question questionnaire in order to identify the essential professional skills that are required to perform PAC effectively. The results of this survey indicate that the core competences of PAC may be divided into two categories: Case Management and Care Management. Case Management includes Direct Care, Communication, Health Care Education, Nursing Consulting, and Family Assessment & Health Care. Care Management includes Interdisciplinary Teamwork, Patient Care Management, and Resource Integration. The importance and practicality of each item was evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. The experts required 2 rounds to reach a consensus about the importance and 3 rounds to determine the practicality of PAC core competences. This process highlighted the differing points of view that are held by professionals in the realms of nursing, medicine, and national health policy. The PAC in-job training program in its current form inadequately cul-tivates core competence in Care Management. The results of the present study may be used to inform the development of PAC nurse orientation training programs and continuing education courses.
Lach, Helen W; Leach, Kathy M; Butcher, Howard K
Physical restraints continue to be used in acute care settings, despite the challenges and calls to reduce this practice. The current guideline on restraint use is updated with evidence that includes critical care settings and issues related to restraint use in acute care units. Nurses play a significant role in the use of restraints. Factors such as nurse's knowledge and patient characteristics combined with the culture and resources in health care facilities influence the practice of physical restraint use. Nurses can identify patients at high risk for restraint use; assess the potential causes of unsafe behaviors; and target interventions in the areas of physiological, psychological, and environmental approaches to address those unsafe behaviors. Members of the interdisciplinary team can provide additional consultation, and institutions can provide resources and education and implement monitoring processes and quality improvement practices to help reduce the practice of physical restraint use. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 17-26.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Kelly, R. Patrick; Stoll, Shelley C.; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Janevic, Mary R.; Lara, Marielena; Ohadike, Yvonne U.; Persky, Victoria; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Uyeda, Kimberly; Malveaux, Floyd J.
Asthma affects 7.1 million children in the United States, disproportionately burdening African American and Latino children. Barriers to asthma control include insufficient patient education and fragmented care. Care coordination represents a compelling approach to improve quality of care and address disparities in asthma. The sites of The Merck Childhood Asthma Network Care Coordination Programs implemented different models of care coordination to suit specific settings—school district, clinic or health care system, and community—and organizational structures. A variety of qualitative data sources were analyzed to determine the role setting played in the manifestation of care coordination at each site. There were inherent strengths and challenges of implementing care coordination in each of the settings, and each site used unique strategies to deliver their programs. The relationship between the lead implementing unit and entities that provided (1) access to the priority population and (2) clinical services to program participants played a critical role in the structure of the programs. The level of support and infrastructure provided by these entities to the lead implementing unit influenced how participants were identified and how asthma care coordinators were integrated into the clinical care team. PMID:26232778
Fox, Jennifer; Windsor, Carol; Connell, Shirley; Yates, Patsy
The positioning and meaning of palliative care within the healthcare system lacks clarity which adds a level of complexity to the process of transition to palliative care. This study explores the transition to the palliative care process in the acute care context of metastatic melanoma. A theoretical framework drawing on interpretive and critical traditions informs this research. The pragmatism of symbolic interactionism and the critical theory of Habermas brought a broad orientation to the research. Integration of the theoretical framework and grounded-theory methods facilitated data generation and analysis of 29 interviews with patients, family carers, and healthcare professionals. The key analytical findings depict a scope of palliative care that was uncertain for users of the system and for those working within the system. Becoming "palliative" is not a defined event; nor is there unanimity around referral to a palliative care service. As such, ambiguity and tension contribute to the difficulties involved in negotiating the transition to palliative care. Our findings point to uncertainty around the scopes of practice in the transition to palliative care. The challenge in the transition process lies in achieving greater coherency of care within an increasingly specialized healthcare system. The findings may not only inform those within a metastatic melanoma context but may contribute more broadly to palliative practices within the acute care setting.
used to improve clinical practice, and the project was conducted over a five-month period, with the addition of a third audit cycle six months post completion of the implementation phase.Results were generated using the JBI-PACES module and were scrutinized by the project lead in conjunction with members of the project team. Results were discussed with key clinicians throughout the duration of the project. Baseline audit results provided the foundation for generating change and this data was then compared with the first follow-up audit to identify improvements in compliance with criteria. Again this data was compared with audits from six months post implementation to identify sustainability of the project. The results from the baseline audit highlighted that there was significant opportunity for improvement in all criteria audited. It was pleasing to report that in the first follow-up audit cycle, nearly all criteria showed an improvement in both medical and surgical fields. The greatest areas of improvement pertained to healthcare professionals receiving formal education (improvement of 46%), and patient and family education improved by 43%. To measure sustainability, a second follow-up audit was conducted using the same criteria and identified that strategies implemented had in fact been maintained, and the results were consistent with those from the first follow-up audit. The project used the pre- and post-audit strategy to translate evidence into practice, and not only demonstrated that implementation of evidence-based practice is possible in the acute setting but also showed improvement in the prevention of falls and harm from falls in that setting.
Maude, Shannon L.; Fitzgerald, Julie C.; Fisher, Brian T.; Li, Yimei; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Torp, Kari; Seif, Alix E.; Kavcic, Marko; Walker, Dana M.; Leckerman, Kateri H.; Kilbaugh, Todd J.; Rheingold, Susan R.; Sung, Lillian; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Thomas, Neal J.; Aplenc, Richard
Objective Children with acute myeloid leukemia are at risk for sepsis and organ failure. Outcomes associated with intensive care support have not been studied in a large pediatric acute myeloid leukemia population. Our objective was to determine hospital mortality of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients requiring intensive care. Design Retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized between 1999 and 2010. Use of intensive care was defined by utilization of specific procedures and resources. The primary endpoint was hospital mortality. Setting Forty-three children’s hospitals contributing data to the Pediatric Health Information System database. Patients Patients who are newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and who are 28 days through 18 years old (n = 1, 673) hospitalized any time from initial diagnosis through 9 months following diagnosis or until stem cell transplant. A reference cohort of all nononcology pediatric admissions using the same intensive care resources in the same time period (n = 242,192 admissions) was also studied. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results One-third of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (553 of 1,673) required intensive care during a hospitalization within 9 months of diagnosis. Among intensive care admissions, mortality was higher in the acute myeloid leukemia cohort compared with the nononcology cohort (18.6% vs 6.5%; odds ratio, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.64–3.94). However, when sepsis was present, mortality was not significantly different between cohorts (21.9% vs 19.5%; odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.89–1.53). Mortality was consistently higher for each type of organ failure in the acute myeloid leukemia cohort versus the nononcology cohort; however, mortality did not exceed 40% unless there were four or more organ failures in the admission. Mortality for admissions requiring intensive care decreased over time for both cohorts (23.7% in 1999–2003 vs 16.4% in 2004–2010 in the acute myeloid
Goodrich, David E.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Nord, Kristina M.; Bauer, Mark S.
Collaborative care models (CCMs) provide a pragmatic strategy to deliver integrated mental health and medical care for persons with mental health conditions served in primary care settings. CCMs are team-based intervention to enact system-level redesign by improving patient care through organizational leadership support, provider decision support, and clinical information systems as well as engaging patients in their care through self-management support and linkages to community resources. The model is also a cost-efficient strategy for primary care practices to improve outcomes for a range of mental health conditions across populations and settings. CCMs can help achieve integrated care aims under healthcare reform yet organizational and financial issues may affect adoption into routine primary care. Notably, successful implementation of CCMs in routine care will require alignment of financial incentives to support systems redesign investments, reimbursements for mental health providers, and adaptation across different practice settings and infrastructure to offer all CCM components. PMID:23881714
Smallwood, Nicholas; Dachsel, Martin; Matsa, Ramprasad; Tabiowo, Eugene; Walden, Andrew
Point of care ultrasound (POCU) is becoming increasingly popular as an extension to clinical examination techniques. Specific POCU training pathways have been developed in specialties such as Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine (CORE Emergency Ultrasound and Core UltraSound Intensive Care, for example), but until this time there has not been a curriculum for the acutely unwell medical patient outside of Critical Care. We describe the development of Focused Acute Medicine Ultrasound (FAMUS), a curriculum designed specifically for the Acute Physician to learn ultrasound techniques to aid in the management of the unwell adult patient. We detail both the outline of the curriculum and the process involved for a candidate to achieve FAMUS accreditation. It is anticipated this will appeal to both Acute Medical Unit (AMU) clinicians and general physicians who deal with the unwell or deteriorating medical or surgical patient. In time, the aspiration is for FAMUS to become a core part of the AIM curriculum.
Eggenberger, Eva; Heimerl, Katharina; Bennett, Michael I
Caring for and caring about people with dementia require specific communication skills. Healthcare professionals and family caregivers usually receive little training to enable them to meet the communicative needs of people with dementia. This review identifies existent interventions to enhance communication in dementia care in various care settings. We searched MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Gerolit, and Web of Science for scientific articles reporting interventions in both English and German. An intervention was defined as communication skills training by means of face-to-face interaction with the aim of improving basic communicative skills. Both professional and family caregivers were included. The effectiveness of such training was analyzed. Different types of training were defined. Didactic methods, training content, and additional organizational features were qualitatively examined. This review included 12 trials totaling 831 persons with dementia, 519 professional caregivers, and 162 family caregivers. Most studies were carried out in the USA, the UK, and Germany. Eight studies took place in nursing homes; four studies were located in a home-care setting. No studies could be found in an acute-care setting. We provide a list of basic communicative principles for good communication in dementia care. Didactic methods included lectures, hands-on training, group discussions, and role-play. This review shows that communication skills training in dementia care significantly improves the quality of life and wellbeing of people with dementia and increases positive interactions in various care settings. Communication skills training shows significant impact on professional and family caregivers' communication skills, competencies, and knowledge. Additional organizational features improve the sustainability of communication interventions.
Landman, W A; Henley, L D
The new South African constitution commits the government to guarantee "basic health services" for every child under 18. Primary health care for pregnant women and children under six and elements of essential primary health care have received priority. At present, there is little analysis of the moral considerations involved in making choices about more advanced or costly health care which may, arguably, also be "basic". This paper illustrates some of the tensions in setting priorities for a just macro-allocation of children's health care, given the realities of need and scarce resources, and the commitment to equality of basic opportunities. PMID:9752631
Dubovsky, Amelia N; Kiefer, Meghan M
Borderline personality disorder is estimated to be present in approximately 6% of outpatient primary care settings. However, the time and energy spent on this population can greatly exceed what primary care doctors are able to spend. This article gives an overview of borderline personality disorder, including the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and comorbidities, as well as pharmacologic and most important behavioral management. It is our hope that, with improved understanding of the disorder and skills for managing this population, caring for patients with the disorder can be more satisfying and less taxing for both primary care doctors and their patients.
Schuhmann, M; Rickels, E; Rosahl, S; Schneekloth, C; Samii, M
OBJECTIVE—Part of the daily routine in neurosurgery is the treatment of emergency room admissions, and acute cases from other departments or from outside hospitals. This acute care is not normally included in performance figures or budget management, nor analysed scientifically in respect of quantity and quality of care provided by neurosurgeons. METHOD—Over a 1 year period, all acute care cases managed by two neurosurgical on call teams in a large northern German city, were recorded prospectively on a day by day basis. A large database of 1819 entries was created and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS—The minimum incidence of patients requiring neurosurgical acute care was estimated to be 75-115/100 000 inhabitants/year. This corresponds to a mean of about 6/day. Only 30% of patients came directly via the emergency room. The fate of 70% of patients depended initially on the "neurosurgical qualification" of primary care doctors and here deficits existed. Although most intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhages were managed with the participation of neurosurgeons, they were not involved in the management of most mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries. Within 1 year the additional workload from acute care amounted to 1000 unplanned admissions, 900 acute imaging procedures, and almost 400 emergency operations. CONCLUSION—The current policy in public health, which includes cuts in resources, transport facilities, and manpower, is not compatible with the demonstrated extent of acute neurosurgical care. In addition to routine elective work, many extra admissions, evening or night time surgery, and imaging procedures have to be accomplished. An education programme for generalists is required to improve overall patient outcome. These conclusions hold special importance if health authorities wish to not only maintain present standards but aim to improve existing deficits. PMID:11459889
Rickels, E; Schuhmann, M U; Rosahl, S K
An important part of the daily routine in neurosurgery is the treatment of emergency room admissions, acute cases from other departments or from outside hospitals. This acute care is not normally included in performance figures or budget management nor analysed scientifically with respect to quantity and quality of care provided by neurosurgeons. Over a one-year period, all acute care cases managed by two neurosurgical on-call teams in Hannover (Northern Germany, 522 000 inhabitants) were recorded prospectively on a day-by-day basis. A large database of 1 819 entries was created and analysed using descriptive statistics. The minimum incidence of neurosurgical acute care cases was estimated to be 75-115/100 000 inhabitants/year. This corresponds to a mean of approximately 6 per day. The majority of patients was admitted after 5 p. m. and on weekends. Only 30 % of cases came directly via the emergency room. The fate of 70 % of patients depended initially on the "neurosurgical qualification" of primary care doctors and here deficits existed. Over one year the additional workload from acute care amounted to 1 000 unplanned admissions, 900 acute imaging procedures and almost 600 emergency operations. The current policy in public health which includes cuts in resources, transport facilities and manpower is not compatible with the demonstrated extent of acute neurosurgical care. In addition to routine elective work, a high number of extra admissions, evening or night-time surgery, and imaging procedures has to be carried out. These conclusions hold a special importance if health authorities wish to not just maintain present standards but to improve existing deficits.
Gilbert, Paul; Herzig, Karen; Thakar, Dhara; Viloria, Joyce; Bogetz, Alyssa; Danley, Dale W; Jackson, Rebecca; Gerbert, Barbara
We sought to understand how systemic factors might facilitate or impede providers' ability to screen for and intervene on prenatal behavioral risks. We convened eight focus groups of 60 prenatal care providers to explore methods for assessing and counseling pregnant women about tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use. Because practice setting was often mentioned as either an inducement or barrier to risk prevention, we conducted a re-analysis of focus group transcripts to examine systemic factors. Practice setting strongly influenced providers' behavior, and settings differed by continuity of care, availability of resources, and organized support for risk prevention. The most striking contrasts were found between private practice and a large HMO. Each setting had features that facilitated prevention counseling. Understanding such systemic factors could lead to improved risk prevention practices during pregnancy across all health care settings.
Edelman, P; Kuhn, D; Fulton, B R
Quality of life (QOL) for people with dementia has become a major focus over the past decade. Dementia care mapping (DCM) is an observational measure of quality of care given by staff in formal care settings, as well as a measure of QOL that has been used in many studies of people with dementia in residential care settings. However, the method itself has not been rigorously studied in a scientific manner. For this report, mapping data were collected for 166 persons with dementia in three types of care settings: special care facilities that are licensed nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and adult day centers. The relationships between DCM and several independent variables including cognitive status, functional status, care setting, depression, length of stay, and co-morbid illnesses were assessed. Both cognitive status and functional status were found to be associated with DCM scores. Moreover, DCM was sensitive in differentiating among persons with four levels of cognitive impairment. Implications for practice are discussed.
Randall, Carla E; Tate, Betty; Lougheed, Mary
Much has been written in the nursing literature about the intentions and desires of a transformatory movement in nursing education. However, dialogue and critique related to actual implementation of a curriculum revolution begun in the late 1980s are lacking. The acute care context of nursing practice holds particular challenges for faculty teaching in an emancipatory curriculum. How do faculty implement a philosophy of teaching-learning congruent with the curriculum revolution, in the context of an acute care setting that privileges empirical knowledge and values a behaviorist paradigm? In this article, we provide an example of one teaching approach grounded in an emancipatory ideology: critical questioning. We also discuss some of the tensions we associate with teaching-learning in an acute care context and our experiences of navigating these tensions.
Patel, Anisha I; Cabana, Michael D
Inappropriate intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and whole milk is associated with obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. As numerous children spend many hours in schools and child care, these settings provide a potential means for general pediatricians to reach children and their parents with interventions to encourage intake of guideline-recommended beverages. This review describes the beverages currently offered within child care facilities and schools and summarizes school and child care-based interventions and policies to encourage healthy beverage intake. The major sources of beverages available in schools and child care include beverages provided through federal programs, competitive beverages (e.g., beverages for purchase through vending machines), water from drinking fountains, and beverages brought into facilities. Policies governing the types of beverages available in schools and child care settings have increased, but still vary in scope and jurisdiction. Although there are no child care-based interventions that exclusively target beverage intake, there are examples of school-based interventions to encourage healthy beverage consumption. Although interventions and policies to encourage healthy beverage intake in schools and child care are increasing, there is a need for additional research, programs, and policies to guide beverage availability and intake in these settings.
Packham, Victoria; Hampshire, Peter
Demand for intensive care is growing. There are no contemporaneous consensus guidelines on which patients should be referred to intensive care. Prognostic scoring systems predict survival, but are of limited use for individual patients. Some groups of patients have historically been regarded as having a very high mortality after admission to intensive care, raising questions about the appropriateness of advanced organ support in these patients. We reviewed the existing literature on outcomes of patients admitted to intensive care with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis and haematological malignancies. We identified specific markers indicating a poor prognosis in each group, and also identified common risk factors predicting a high mortality across all groups. Multiple organ failure at the time of referral to intensive care predicts a very poor outcome. Physical factors indicating a limited functional capacity also predict high mortality, suggesting that frailty has a significant impact on intensive care outcome. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.
Hennerby, Cathy; Joyce, Pauline
This paper reports on the implementation of a competency assessment tool for registered general agency nurses working in an acute paediatric setting, using a change management framework. The increased number of registered general agency nurses working in an acute children's hospital alerted concerns around their competency in working with children. These concerns were initially raised via informal complaints about 'near misses', parental dissatisfaction, perceived competency weaknesses and rising cost associated with their use. [Young's (2009) Journal of Organisational Change, 22, 524-548] nine-stage change framework was used to guide the implementation of the competency assessment tool within a paediatric acute care setting. The ongoing success of the initiative, from a nurse manager's perspective, relies on structured communication with the agency provider before employing competent agency nurses. Sustainability of the change will depend on nurse managers' persistence in attending the concerns of those resisting the change while simultaneously supporting those championing the change. These key communication and supporting roles highlight the pivotal role held by nurse managers, as gate keepers, in safe-guarding children while in hospital. Leadership qualities of nurse managers will also be challenged in continuing to manage and drive the change where resistance might prevail. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zarshenas, Sareh; Tam, Laetitia; Colantonio, Angela; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Cullen, Nora
Many studies have assessed the predictors of morbidity/mortality of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in acute care. However, with the increasing rate of survival after TBI, more attention has been given to discharge destinations from acute care as an important measure of clinical priorities. This study describes the design of a systematic review compiling and synthesising studies on the prognostic factors of discharge settings from acute care in patients with TBI. This systematic review will be conducted on peer-reviewed studies using seven databases including Medline/Medline in-Process, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Supplemental PubMed. The reference list of selected articles and Google Scholar will also be reviewed to determine other relevant articles. This study will include all English language observational studies that focus on adult patients with TBI in acute care settings. The quality of articles will be assessed by the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. The results of this review will provide evidence that may guide healthcare providers in making more informed and timely discharge decisions to the next level of care for patient with TBI. Also, this study will provide valuable information to address the gaps in knowledge for future research. Trial registration number (PROSPERO) is CRD42016033046. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Patel, Radha V; Wright, Lauri; Hay, Brittany
Readmissions to hospitals from post-acute care (PAC) units within long-term care settings have been rapidly increasing over the past decade, and are drivers of increased healthcare costs. With an average of $11,000 per admission, there is a need for strategies to reduce 30-day preventable hospital readmission rates. In 2018, incentives and penalties will be instituted for long-term care facilities failing to meet all-cause, all-condition hospital readmission rate performance measures. An interprofessional team (IPT) developed and implemented a Transfer Triage Protocol used in conjunction with the INTERACT programme to enhance clinical decision-making and assess the potential to reduce the facility's 30-day preventable hospital readmission rates by 10% within 6 weeks of implementation. Results from quantitative analysis demonstrated an overall 35.2% reduction in the 30-day preventable hospital readmission rate. Qualitative analysis revealed the need for additional staff education, improved screening and communication upon admission and prior to hospital transfer, and the need for more IPT on-site availability. This pilot study demonstrates the benefits and implications for practice of an IPT to improve the quality of care within PAC and decrease 30-day preventable hospital readmissions.
Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wagner, Amy W; Russo, Joan; Love, Jeff; Zatzick, Douglas F
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions are efficacious in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but are challenging to implement in acute care and other non-specialty mental health settings. This investigation identified barriers impacting CBT delivery through a content analysis of interventionist chart notes from an acute care PTSD prevention trial. Only 8.5% of all intervention patients were able to complete CBT. Lack of engagement, clinical and logistical barriers had the greatest impact on CBT entry. Treatment preferences and stigma only prevented entry when more primary barriers resolved. Patients with prior diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were able to enter CBT after six months of sobriety. Based on the first trial, we developed a CBT readiness assessment tool. We implemented and evaluated the tool in a second early intervention trial. Lack of engagement emerged again as the primary impediment to CBT entry. Patients who were willing to enter CBT treatment but demonstrated high rates of past trauma or diagnosis of PTSD were also the least likely to engage in any PTSD treatment one month post-discharge. Findings support the need for additional investigations into engagement and alternative delivery strategies, including those which dismantle traditional office-based, multi-session CBT into stepped, deliverable components.
Snow, Richard; Granata, Jaymes; Ruhil, Anirudh V S; Vogel, Karen; McShane, Michael; Wasielewski, Ray
Health-care costs following acute hospital care have been identified as a major contributor to regional variation in Medicare spending. This study investigated the associations of preoperative physical therapy and post-acute care resource use and its effect on the total cost of care during primary hip or knee arthroplasty. Historical claims data were analyzed using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Limited Data Set files for Diagnosis Related Group 470. Analysis included descriptive statistics of patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, procedures, and post-acute care utilization patterns, which included skilled nursing facility, home health agency, or inpatient rehabilitation facility, during the ninety-day period after a surgical hospitalization. To evaluate the associations, we used bivariate and multivariate techniques focused on post-acute care use and total episode-of-care costs. The Limited Data Set provided 4733 index hip or knee replacement cases for analysis within the thirty-nine-county Medicare hospital referral cluster. Post-acute care utilization was a significant variable in the total cost of care for the ninety-day episode. Overall, 77.0% of patients used post-acute care services after surgery. Post-acute care utilization decreased if preoperative physical therapy was used, with only 54.2% of the preoperative physical therapy cohort using post-acute care services. However, 79.7% of the non-preoperative physical therapy cohort used post-acute care services. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, the use of preoperative physical therapy was associated with a significant 29% reduction in post-acute care use, including an $871 reduction of episode payment driven largely by a reduction in payments for skilled nursing facility ($1093), home health agency ($527), and inpatient rehabilitation ($172). The use of preoperative physical therapy was associated with a 29% decrease in the use of any post-acute care
Best, Allyson M.; Dixon, Cinnamon A.; Kelton, W. David; Lindsell, Christopher J.
Objectives Crowding and limited resources have increased the strain on acute care facilities and emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. These problems are particularly prevalent in developing countries. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a computer-based tool that can be used to estimate how changes to complex healthcare delivery systems, such as EDs, will affect operational performance. Using this modality, our objective was to identify operational interventions that could potentially improve patient throughput of one acute care setting in a developing country. Methods We developed a simulation model of acute care at a district level hospital in Ghana to test the effects of resource-neutral (e.g. modified staff start times and roles) and resource-additional (e.g. increased staff) operational interventions on patient throughput. Previously captured, de-identified time-and-motion data from 487 acute care patients were used to develop and test the model. The primary outcome was the modeled effect of interventions on patient length of stay (LOS). Results The base-case (no change) scenario had a mean LOS of 292 minutes (95% CI 291, 293). In isolation, neither adding staffing, changing staff roles, nor varying shift times affected overall patient LOS. Specifically, adding two registration workers, history takers, and physicians resulted in a 23.8 (95% CI 22.3, 25.3) minute LOS decrease. However, when shift start-times were coordinated with patient arrival patterns, potential mean LOS was decreased by 96 minutes (95% CI 94, 98); and with the simultaneous combination of staff roles (Registration and History-taking) there was an overall mean LOS reduction of 152 minutes (95% CI 150, 154). Conclusions Resource-neutral interventions identified through DES modeling have the potential to improve acute care throughput in this Ghanaian municipal hospital. DES offers another approach to identifying potentially effective interventions to improve patient flow in emergency and acute
Audet, M C
It has been well-documented that the clinical experience is one of the most anxiety-producing aspects of nursing education. When feelings of anxiety become severe, they present a clear threat to the student's success in the program. This article explores the role of "caring" in nursing education as a means of reducing student anxiety. Caring, described at length by Jean Watson, has become one of the most popular trends in the education of young nurses. When caring behaviors are demonstrated in a meaningful way by clinical instructors, the student may experience a sense of comfort and belonging, which may in turn be effective in reducing anxiety and enabling the student to successfully complete a clinical rotation. The aim of this article is to inspire nurses, not only those in the educational setting but in all settings and at all levels of their careers, to reconsider the effects and benefits of displaying a caring attitude.
Friedman, R; Kalant, N
Acute care hospitals in Quebec are required to reserve 10% of their beds for patients receiving long-term care while awaiting transfer to a long-term care facility. It is widely believed that this is inefficient because it is more costly to provide long-term care in an acute care hospital than in one dedicated to long-term care. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality and cost of long-term care in an acute care hospital and in a long-term care facility. A concurrent cross-sectional study was conducted of 101 patients at the acute care hospital and 102 patients at the long-term care hospital. The 2 groups were closely matched in terms of age, sex, nursing care requirements and major diagnoses. Several indicators were used to assess the quality of care: the number of medical specialist consultations, drugs, biochemical tests and radiographic examinations; the number of adverse events (reportable incidents, nosocomial infections and pressure ulcers); and anthropometric and biochemical indicators of nutritional status. Costs were determined for nursing personnel, drugs and biochemical tests. A longitudinal study was conducted of 45 patients who had been receiving long-term care at the acute care hospital for at least 5 months and were then transferred to the long-term care facility where they remained for at least 6 months. For each patient, the number of adverse events, the number of medical specialist consultations and the changes in activities of daily living status were assessed at the 2 institutions. In the concurrent study, no differences in the number of adverse events were observed; however, patients at the acute care hospital received more drugs (5.9 v. 4.7 for each patient, p < 0.01) and underwent more tests (299 v. 79 laboratory units/year for each patient, p < 0.001) and radiographic examinations (64 v. 46 per 1000 patient-weeks, p < 0.05). At both institutions, 36% of the patients showed anthropometric and biochemical evidence of protein
Friedman, R; Kalant, N
BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals in Quebec are required to reserve 10% of their beds for patients receiving long-term care while awaiting transfer to a long-term care facility. It is widely believed that this is inefficient because it is more costly to provide long-term care in an acute care hospital than in one dedicated to long-term care. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality and cost of long-term care in an acute care hospital and in a long-term care facility. METHODS: A concurrent cross-sectional study was conducted of 101 patients at the acute care hospital and 102 patients at the long-term care hospital. The 2 groups were closely matched in terms of age, sex, nursing care requirements and major diagnoses. Several indicators were used to assess the quality of care: the number of medical specialist consultations, drugs, biochemical tests and radiographic examinations; the number of adverse events (reportable incidents, nosocomial infections and pressure ulcers); and anthropometric and biochemical indicators of nutritional status. Costs were determined for nursing personnel, drugs and biochemical tests. A longitudinal study was conducted of 45 patients who had been receiving long-term care at the acute care hospital for at least 5 months and were then transferred to the long-term care facility where they remained for at least 6 months. For each patient, the number of adverse events, the number of medical specialist consultations and the changes in activities of daily living status were assessed at the 2 institutions. RESULTS: In the concurrent study, no differences in the number of adverse events were observed; however, patients at the acute care hospital received more drugs (5.9 v. 4.7 for each patient, p < 0.01) and underwent more tests (299 v. 79 laboratory units/year for each patient, p < 0.001) and radiographic examinations (64 v. 46 per 1000 patient-weeks, p < 0.05). At both institutions, 36% of the patients showed anthropometric and
Santa Maria, Diane; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia
: Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine's goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue.
Maria, Diane Santa; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia
Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine’s goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue. PMID:28030408
Lee, Todd A.; Valenstein, Marcia; Weiss, Kevin B.
Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) frequently have co-occurring depressive disorders and are often seen in multiple-care settings. Existing research does not assess the impact of care setting on delivery of evidence-based depression care for these patients. Objective To examine the prevalence of guideline-concordant depression treatment among these co-morbid patients, and to examine whether the likelihood of receiving guideline-concordant treatment differed by care setting. Design Retrospective cohort study. Patients A total of 5,517 veterans with COPD that experienced a new treatment episode for major depressive disorder. Measurements and Main Results Concordance with VA treatment guidelines for depression; multivariate analyses of the relationship between guideline-concordant depression treatment and care setting. More than two-thirds of the sample was over age 65 and 97% were male. Only 50.6% of patients had guideline-concordant antidepressant coverage (defined by the VA). Fewer than 17% of patients received guideline recommended follow-up (≥3 outpatient visits during the acute phase), and only 9.9% of the cohort received both guideline-concordant antidepressant coverage and follow-up visits. Being seen in a mental health clinic during the acute phase was associated with a 7-fold increase in the odds of receiving guideline-concordant care compared to primary care only. Patients seen in pulmonary care settings were also more likely to receive guideline-concordant care compared to primary care only. Conclusions Most VA patients with COPD and an acute depressive episode receive suboptimal depression management. Improvements in depression treatment may be particularly important for those patients seen exclusively in primary care settings. PMID:17687614
Stevenson, Kelly N; Jack, Susan M; O'Mara, Linda; LeGris, Jeannette
Nurses working in acute care psychiatry settings experience high rates of patient violence which influences outcomes for nurses and the organization. This qualitative study explored psychiatric nurses' experiences of patient violence in acute care inpatient psychiatric settings. An interpretive descriptive design guided this study that included 17 semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of 12 Canadian registered nurses who self-reported experiencing patient violence within acute care inpatient psychiatry. Thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques were used for analysis. A problem, needs and practice analysis was also used to structure overall data interpretation. Thirty three unique exposures to patient violence among the sample of nurses were analysed. Nurses reported experiencing physical, emotional and verbal violence. For many, patient violence was considered "part of the job." Nurses often struggled with role conflict between one's duty to care and one's duty to self when providing care following a critical incident involving violence. Issues of power, control and stigma also influenced nurse participant perceptions and their responses to patient violence. Nurses used a variety of strategies to maintain their personal safety and to prevent, and manage patient violence. Nurses endorsed the need for improved education, debriefing following an incident, and a supportive work environment to further prevent patient violence. Present findings have implications for reducing the barriers to reporting violent experiences and the creation of best practice guidelines to reduce patient violence in the workplace. Understanding the perspectives and experiences of nurses in acute inpatient psychiatry leads to greater understanding of the phenomenon of patient violence and may inform the development of interventions to prevent and to respond to patient violence, as well as support nurses working within the acute care setting.
Devane, Declan; Begley, Cecily M; Clarke, Mike; Horey, Dell; OBoyle, Colm
Comparing the relative effectiveness of interventions on specific outcomes across trials can be problematic due to differences in the choice and definitions of outcome measures used by researchers. We sought to identify a minimum set of outcome measures for evaluating models of maternity care from the perspective of key stakeholders. A 3-round, electronic Delphi survey design was used. Setting was multinational, comprising a range of key stakeholders. Participants consisted of a single heterogeneous panel of maternity service users, midwives, obstetricians, pediatricians/neonatologists, family physicians/general practitioners, policy-makers, service practitioners, and researchers of maternity care. Members of the panel self-assessed their expertise in evaluating models of maternity care. A total of 320 people from 28 countries expressed willingness to take part in this survey. Round 1 was completed by 218 (68.1%) participants, of whom 173 (79.4%) completed round 2 and 152 (87.9%) of these completed round 3. Fifty outcomes were identified, with both a mean value greater than the overall group mean for all outcomes combined (x=4.18) and rated 4 or more on a 5-point Likert-type scale for importance of inclusion in a minimum data set of outcome measures by at least 70 percent of respondents. Three outcomes were collapsed into a single outcome so that the final minimum set includes 48 outcomes. Given the inconsistencies in the choice of outcome measures routinely collected and reported in randomized evaluations of maternity care, it is hoped that use of the data set will increase the potential for national and international comparisons of models for maternity care. Although not intended to be prescriptive or to inhibit the collection of other outcomes, we hope that the core set will make it easier to assess the care of women and their babies during pregnancy and childbirth.
Jones, Tiffanie K; Fuchs, Barry D; Small, Dylan S; Halpern, Scott D; Hanish, Asaf; Umscheid, Craig A; Baillie, Charles A; Kerlin, Meeta Prasad; Gaieski, David F; Mikkelsen, Mark E
The epidemiology of post-acute care use and hospital readmission after sepsis remains largely unknown. To examine the rate of post-acute care use and hospital readmission after sepsis and to examine risk factors and outcomes for hospital readmissions after sepsis. In an observational cohort study conducted in an academic health care system (2010-2012), we compared post-acute care use at discharge and hospital readmission after 3,620 sepsis hospitalizations with 108,958 nonsepsis hospitalizations. We used three validated, claims-based approaches to identify sepsis and severe sepsis. Post-acute care use at discharge was more likely after sepsis, driven by skilled care facility placement (35.4% after sepsis vs. 15.8%; P < 0.001), with the highest rate observed after severe sepsis. Readmission rates at 7, 30, and 90 days were higher postsepsis (P < 0.001). Compared with nonsepsis hospitalizations (15.6% readmitted within 30 d), the increased readmission risk was present regardless of sepsis severity (27.3% after sepsis and 26.0-26.2% after severe sepsis). After controlling for presepsis characteristics, the readmission risk was found to be 1.51 times greater (95% CI, 1.38-1.66) than nonsepsis hospitalizations. Readmissions after sepsis were more likely to result in death or transition to hospice care (6.1% vs. 13.3% after sepsis; P < 0.001). Independent risk factors associated with 30-day readmissions after sepsis hospitalizations included age, malignancy diagnosis, hospitalizations in the year prior to the index hospitalization, nonelective index admission type, one or more procedures during the index hospitalization, and low hemoglobin and high red cell distribution width at discharge. Post-acute care use and hospital readmissions were common after sepsis. The increased readmission risk after sepsis was observed regardless of sepsis severity and was associated with adverse readmission outcomes.
Enomoto, Yoshinori; Sudo, Yoshio; Sueta, Tomonori
Tricuspid insufficiency due to penetrating cardiac trauma is rare. Patients with tricuspid insufficiency due to trauma can tolerate this abnormality for months or even years. We report a case of a 66-year-old female with penetrating cardiac trauma on the right side of her heart that required tricuspid valve repair in an acute setting. She sustained cut and stab wounds on her bilateral forearms and in the neck and epigastric region. She had cardiac tamponade and developed pulseless electrical activity, which required emergency surgery. The right ventricle and superior vena cava were dissected approximately 5 cm and 2 cm, respectively. After these wounds had been repaired, the patient's inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass suggested rightsided heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed tricuspid insufficiency. Right atriotomy was performed, and a detailed examination revealed that the tricuspid valve septal leaflet was split in two. There was also an atrial septal injury that created a connection with the left atrium; these injuries were not detected from the right ventricular wound. After repair, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass with mild tricuspid insufficiency was achieved, and she recovered uneventfully. This case emphasized the importance of thoroughly investigating intracardiac injury and transesophageal echocardiography.
Blegen, Mary A
The most visible threats to patient safety associated with nursing care occur on hospital inpatient units. Patient safety research is a new phenomenon, but it builds on the knowledge provided by quality-of-care research done previously. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the current state of the science in the area of nurse staffing and patient safety. The results of research studies published since the last round of reviews (1996-2005) are described by level of analysis, measures of nurse staffing and patient outcomes. Although research linking nurse staffing to the quality of patient care has increased markedly since 1996, the results of recent research projects do not yet provide a thorough and consistent foundation for producing solutions to the crisis in hospital nursing care. The inconsistencies are largely due to differing units of analysis (hospital, patient, care unit), variability in measures of nurse staffing, the variety of quality indicators chosen, the difficulty finding accurate measures of these indicators, and the difficulty creating risk-adjustment strategies for the indicators most sensitive to nursing care. Nursing administration and policy most urgently need research conducted with standardized data collected at the patient care unit level.
Capp, Roberta; Misky, Gregory J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Honigman, Benjamin; Logan, Heather; Hardy, Rose; Nguyen, Dong Q; Wiler, Jennifer L
Many high utilizers of the emergency department (ED) have public insurance, especially through Medicaid. We evaluated how participation in Bridges to Care (B2C)-an ED-initiated, multidisciplinary, community-based program-affected subsequent ED use, hospital admissions, and primary care use among publicly insured or Medicaid-eligible high ED utilizers. During the six months after the B2C intervention was completed, participants had significantly fewer ED visits (a reduction of 27.9 percent) and significantly more primary care visits (an increase of 114.0 percent), compared to patients in the control group. In a subanalysis of patients with mental health comorbidities, we found that recipients of B2C services had significantly fewer ED visits (a reduction of 29.7 percent) and hospitalizations (30.0 percent), and significantly more primary care visits (an increase of 123.2 percent), again compared to patients in the control group. The B2C program reduced acute care use and increased the number of primary care visits among high ED utilizers, including those with mental health comorbidities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Merchant, Amina I; Walters, Camila B; Valenzuela, Julie; McQueen, Kelly A; May, Addison K
Existing Acute Care Surgery (ACS) fellowships are positioned to develop well-trained surgeons with specific skills to facilitate improvements in care delivery in Global ACS. Many resident and fellowship programs offer clinical electives that expose trainees to operative experiences, exposing trainees to the needs in resource-challenged settings. However, most lack a focus on long-term development and research designed to enhance the country's local skills, capability, and capacity. The Global Acute Care Surgery (Global ACS) fellowship produces a surgeon who focuses on capacity building and systems development across the world. At Vanderbilt University, the current American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Acute Care Surgery (AAST-ACS) fellowship was adapted to create an academic Global Acute Care Surgery (Global ACS) fellowship. This fellowship specifically enhances fellowship trainee's skills in needs assessment and performing research to facilitate the development and implementation of trauma and acute care surgery systems in low- and middle income countries. This research will foster context-appropriate data, collected and based in low- and middle-income countries, to guide practice and policy. Two fellows have completed the Global ACS fellowship at Vanderbilt University. The fellowship requirements, clinical skills, project development and overall goals are outlined within the article. Challenges, funding, and mentorship must also be addressed to develop a comprehensive fellowship. A sample two-year timeline is provided to complete the fellowship track and meet the defined goals. A structured global acute care surgery fellowship enables fellows to reduce the surgical burden of disease and contribute to surgical systems development at both local and international levels by creating meaningful research and developing sustainable change in LMIC countries. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Kleinknecht-Dolf, Michael; Grand, Francis; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Müller, Marianne; Martin, Jacqueline S; Spirig, Rebecca
The aim of this pilot study was to develop an instrument for measuring complexity of nursing care in hospitalised acute care patients as well as to examine its comprehensibility, its feasibility, the effort required for data collection, and its inter-rater reliability as well as its face validity. This pilot study was designed as a descriptive, explorative cross-sectional survey with multiple measurements of the patient-related complexity of nursing care and a supplemental qualitative questionnaire conducted on six units of a Swiss university hospital. The instrument to assess complexity of nursing care was developed on the framework of Perrow and encompasses on three subscales a total of 15 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The study was reviewed and approved by the Cantonal Ethics Committee. In total, 866 assessments of complexity of nursing care were carried out on 234 patients. The variability of the results of the six units, from three different specialties, suggests that the sampling was suitable for capturing a wide spectrum of complexity. The results of the three subscales are consistent and the discussion of them with the participating units shows that they are also plausible. The verification of the inter-rater reliability has satisfactory to high intersubjective correlation of the values. There were also a few suggestions for improving comprehensibility as well as on how to support user application. The time expenditure for the assessment between 2 to 5 minutes per patient was accurately. With the newly developed questionnaire to measure the complexity of nursing care in acute care hospitals it seems to be possible to assess and to quantify the complexity of nursing care in various acute care hospital settings. Based on the findings and the feedback of the participating users, the questionnaire needs to be improved for large-scale application. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Helgeson, Heidi L; Peyerl, Colleen Kraft; Solheim-Witt, Marit
This pilot study explores whether clinician awareness of quantum physics principles could facilitate open communication between patients and providers. In the spirit of action research, this study was conceptualized with a holistic view of human health, using a mixed method design of grounded theory as an emergent method. Instrumentation includes surveys and a focus group discussion with twelve registered nurses working in an acute care hospital setting. Findings document that the preliminary core phenomenon, energy as information, influences communication in the healthcare environment. Key emergent themes include awareness, language, validation, open communication, strategies, coherence, incoherence and power. Research participants indicate that quantum physics principles provide a language and conceptual framework for improving their awareness of communication and interactions in the healthcare environment. Implications of this pilot study support the feasibility of future research and education on awareness of quantum physics principles in other clinical settings. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Nicole; Hipple, Bethany; Friebely, Joan; Ossip, Deborah J; Winickoff, Jonathan P
OBJECTIVE: To discuss strategies for integrating evidence-based tobacco use screening, cessation assistance, and referral to outside services into visits with families in outpatient child health care settings. METHODS: Presentation of counseling scenarios used in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) training video and commentary. RESULTS: Demonstrated strategies include: eliciting information about interest and readiness to quit smoking, respectfully setting an agenda to discuss smoking, tailoring advice and education to the specific circumstances, keeping the dialogue open, prescribing cessation medication, helping the smoker set an action plan for cessation, enrolling the smoker in free telephone counseling through the state quitline, and working with family members to establish a completely smoke-free home and car. Video demonstrations of these techniques are available at www.ceasetobacco.org. CONCLUSION: Child health care clinicians have a unique opportunity to address family smoking and can be most effective by adapting evidence-based tobacco cessation counseling strategies for visits in the pediatric setting.
Snipelisky, David; Carter, Kimberly; Sundsted, Karna; Burton, M Caroline
Preventive care is an important part of primary care medicine, yet much variation in its practice exists. The aim of this study is to assess physicians' perspectives of practicing preventive medicine and evaluate which topics are deemed most important. All primary care medicine providers at two separate academic medical centers (Mayo Clinic, MN and Mayo Clinic, FL) were surveyed via an E-mail questionnaire assessing physicians' perception of the role of preventive medicine during both acute/routine and yearly visits, physicians' perception of patients' response to preventive medicine topics, and which preventive medicine topics are commonly practiced. Of 445 providers meeting inclusion criteria, a total of 183 (41.1%) responded. Providers were more likely to engage patients in preventive medicine during yearly visits more so than acute visits (3.82 vs. 4.72, range 1-5 Likert Scale), yet providers were very likely to partake in such practices during both visits. Providers perceived that patients received the practice of preventive medicine very well (4.13 on 1-5 Likert Scale). No significant difference between provider practice and patient perception was noted between the two sites, although there was some variation based on clinical experience of the provider. Providers were found to most commonly practice topics recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Our study found a high predisposition to practicing preventive medicine. Providers seem to practice according to published evidence-based medicine recommendations.
Snipelisky, David; Carter, Kimberly; Sundsted, Karna; Burton, M. Caroline
Background: Preventive care is an important part of primary care medicine, yet much variation in its practice exists. The aim of this study is to assess physicians’ perspectives of practicing preventive medicine and evaluate which topics are deemed most important. Methods: All primary care medicine providers at two separate academic medical centers (Mayo Clinic, MN and Mayo Clinic, FL) were surveyed via an E-mail questionnaire assessing physicians’ perception of the role of preventive medicine during both acute/routine and yearly visits, physicians’ perception of patients’ response to preventive medicine topics, and which preventive medicine topics are commonly practiced. Results: Of 445 providers meeting inclusion criteria, a total of 183 (41.1%) responded. Providers were more likely to engage patients in preventive medicine during yearly visits more so than acute visits (3.82 vs. 4.72, range 1–5 Likert Scale), yet providers were very likely to partake in such practices during both visits. Providers perceived that patients received the practice of preventive medicine very well (4.13 on 1–5 Likert Scale). No significant difference between provider practice and patient perception was noted between the two sites, although there was some variation based on clinical experience of the provider. Providers were found to most commonly practice topics recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Conclusions: Our study found a high predisposition to practicing preventive medicine. Providers seem to practice according to published evidence-based medicine recommendations. PMID:26941906
Stellefson, Michael; Stopka, Christine
Introduction The Chronic Care Model (CCM) uses a systematic approach to restructuring medical care to create partnerships between health systems and communities. The objective of this study was to describe how researchers have applied CCM in US primary care settings to provide care for people who have diabetes and to describe outcomes of CCM implementation. Methods We conducted a literature review by using the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition and the following search terms: “chronic care model” (and) “diabet*.” We included articles published between January 1999 and October 2011. We summarized details on CCM application and health outcomes for 16 studies. Results The 16 studies included various study designs, including 9 randomized controlled trials, and settings, including academic-affiliated primary care practices and private practices. We found evidence that CCM approaches have been effective in managing diabetes in US primary care settings. Organizational leaders in health care systems initiated system-level reorganizations that improved the coordination of diabetes care. Disease registries and electronic medical records were used to establish patient-centered goals, monitor patient progress, and identify lapses in care. Primary care physicians (PCPs) were trained to deliver evidence-based care, and PCP office–based diabetes self-management education improved patient outcomes. Only 7 studies described strategies for addressing community resources and policies. Conclusion CCM is being used for diabetes care in US primary care settings, and positive outcomes have been reported. Future research on integration of CCM into primary care settings for diabetes management should measure diabetes process indicators, such as self-efficacy for disease management and clinical decision making. PMID:23428085
Barder, L; Slimmer, L; LeSage, J
This descriptive study investigated the relationship between both demographic characteristics and type of health care setting and elderly people's attributions for control, functional status, mood, type of helplessness, and perception of self-efficacy. Results of the study demonstrate that elderly people in long-term care settings are more vulnerable to experiencing learned helplessness and depression than elderly people in acute or rehabilitation settings. The findings indicate that the critical period for the development of learned helplessness and depression is for subjects with a length of stay of 7 weeks to 6 months. The study supports other research which concludes that depression in elderly people is better explained by the original learned helplessness theory rather than being related to attributions about the cause of loss of control.
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Jackson, Debra; Hunt, Glenn E
Frequently, research and conference papers explore difficult or problematic areas of practice that can inadvertently render daily nursing accomplishments invisible and create the perception of a discipline in crisis. In this qualitative study, we explore the views of registered nurses about achievements in the workplace and good nursing work in an acute inpatient mental health setting in Sydney, Australia. Mental health nurses were asked a series of questions about their experiences and understanding of what constitutes good nursing work as well as their sense of optimism about their work. A total of 40 structured face-to-face interviews were completed. Among the responses to questions about achievements and good nursing practice, five broad themes were identified: i) teamwork; (ii) interpersonal interactions with patients; (iii) providing practical and holistic support to patients; (iv) patients' mental health improvements; and (v) optimism-pessimism continuum. Findings contribute to a discussion of good nursing work in acute mental health settings, as well as self-perceptions of optimism and hopefulness, which are important contributors to positive, supportive health-care settings and patient recovery. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Chew, Brendan Wk; Tiew, Lay Hwa; Creedy, Debra K
To investigate acute care nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care and relationships with nurses' personal and professional characteristics. Spirituality and spiritual care are often neglected or absent in daily nursing practice. Nurses' perceptions of spirituality can be influenced by personal, professional and social factors and affect the provision of spiritual care. A cross-sectional, exploratory, nonexperimental design was used. All nursing staff (n = 1008) from a large acute care hospital in Singapore were invited to participate. Participants completed a demographic form and the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale. Completed surveys were received from 767 staff yielding a response rate of 76%. Descriptive statistics and General Linear Modelling were used to analyse data. Acute care nurses reported positive perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Religion, area of clinical practice and view of self as spiritual were associated with nurses' reported perspectives of spirituality and spiritual care. Nurses working in this acute care hospital in Singapore reported positive perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Respondents tended to equate religion with spirituality and were often unclear about what constituted spiritual care. They reported a sense of readiness to apply an interprofessional approach to spiritual care. However, positive perceptions of spirituality may not necessarily translate into practice. Spiritual care can improve health outcomes. Nurses' understanding of spirituality is essential for best practice. Interprofessional collaboration with clinicians, administrators, educators, chaplains, clergy and spiritual leaders can contribute to the development of practice guidelines and foster spiritual care by nurses. Further research is needed on the practical applications of spiritual care in nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McSwain, S David; Marcin, James P
Telemedicine is by no means a new technology, given that audio-video telecommunication links have been utilized for the provision of medical services since the 1950s. Nonetheless, telemedicine is currently in a phase of rapid growth and evolution. The combination of increasingly affordable and powerful networking, computing, and communication technology, along with the continued nationwide crisis in health care access and costs, has created a "tipping point," whereby telemedicine has progressed from a novel means of practicing medicine to practical tool to help address our nation's health care needs. Telemedicine has also evolved beyond a means of providing care to remote communities to becoming a versatile tool in the delivery of health care in a variety of non-rural settings. Although no one can be everywhere at once, telemedicine allows us to be in more places at once than we've ever been before. The problems of disparities and access to care are even more evident in pediatrics, where subspecialists are fewer in number and more regionalized than adult providers. Numerous successful telemedicine programs across the country have demonstrated the impact that these technologies can have in pediatrics, with many more programs in development. As a versatile means of delivering care, telemedicine can be used at any point during the course of a health care encounter as not only a means of expanding our reach, but also as a means of increasing efficiency. Using telemedicine to provide consultations to community hospitals has been shown to improve quality of care, strengthen the referral base for the consulting facilities, facilitate cost savings, and improve the financial bottom line for both referring and consulting facilities. This review highlights some of the ways in which telemedicine is being used to facilitate timely and effective pediatric care in a variety of hospital settings.
Robinson, L; Stacy, R
BACKGROUND. Previous studies have demonstrated deficiencies in palliative care in the community. One method of translating the results of research into clinical practice, in order to produce more effective health care, is the development of clinical guidelines. Setting standards for such care has been performed by care teams in both hospital and hospice settings but not in primary care. AIM. This study set out to develop guidelines for primary care teams to follow in the provision of palliative care in the community using facilitated case discussions with the members of such teams, as a form of internal audit. METHOD. Five practices were randomly chosen from the family health services authority medical list. Meetings between the facilitators and primary care teams were held over a period of one year. The teams were asked to describe good aspects of care, areas of concern and suggestions to improve these, in recent cases of patient deaths. RESULTS. In total 56 cases were discussed. All practices felt that cohesive teamwork, coordinated management, early involvement of nursing staff and the identification of a key worker were essential for good terminal care. Concerns arose in clinical and administrative areas but the majority were linked to poor communication, either between patient and professionals within the primary care team or between primary and secondary care. All the positive aspects of care, concerns and suggestions were collated by the facilitators into guidelines for teams to refer to from the initial diagnosis of a terminal illness through to the patient's death and care of the relatives afterwards. CONCLUSION. Developing multidisciplinary as opposed to medical guidelines for palliative care allows primary health care teams to create standards that are acceptable to them and stimulates individuals within the teams to accept responsibility for initiating the change necessary for more effective care. The process of facilitating teams to discuss their work
The literature on attitudes of health workers toward the elderly suggests three variables as contributing to the elderly patient's perception of helplessness in the health care setting. First, the health worker may age-stereotype the elderly person as dependent, low in competence, and unlikely to respond to treatment. Secondly, the disparity in…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.
The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…
Zweig, Richard A.; Siegel, Lawrence; Hahn, Steven; Kuslansky, Gail; Byrne, Kathy; Fyffe, Denise; Passman, Vicki; Stewart, Douglas; Hinrichsen, Gregory
Most older adults diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment in primary care settings that lack personnel skilled in geropsychological diagnosis and treatment. The Ferkauf Older Adult Program of Yeshiva University endeavors to bridge this gap by providing training in geriatric psychology, through coursework and diverse clinical practica,…
Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne
The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)
de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.
The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…
Zweig, Richard A.; Siegel, Lawrence; Hahn, Steven; Kuslansky, Gail; Byrne, Kathy; Fyffe, Denise; Passman, Vicki; Stewart, Douglas; Hinrichsen, Gregory
Most older adults diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment in primary care settings that lack personnel skilled in geropsychological diagnosis and treatment. The Ferkauf Older Adult Program of Yeshiva University endeavors to bridge this gap by providing training in geriatric psychology, through coursework and diverse clinical practica,…
Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M
The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.
Mills, Rachel; Voora, Deepak; Peyser, Bruce; Haga, Susanne B
Pharmacogenetic testing refers to a type of genetic test to predict a patient’s likelihood to experience an adverse event or not respond to a given drug. Despite revision to several labels of commonly prescribed drugs regarding the impact of genetic variation, the use of this testing has been limited in many settings due to a number of factors. In the primary care setting, the limited office time as well as the limited knowledge and experience of primary care practitioners have likely attributed to the slow uptake of pharmacogenetic testing. This paper provides talking points for primary care physicians to discuss with patients when pharmacogenetic testing is warranted. As patients and physicians become more familiar and accepting of pharmacogenetic testing, it is anticipated that discussion time will be comparable to that of other clinical tests. PMID:24101877
Woo, Kevin Y; Sears, Kim; Almost, Joan; Wilson, Rosemary; Whitehead, Marlo; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G
This is a prospective cohort study using population-level administrative data to describe the scope of pressure ulcers in terms of its prevalence, incidence risk, associating factors and the extent to which best practices were applied across a spectrum of health care settings. The data for this study includes the information of Ontario residents who were admitted to acute care, home care, long term care or continuing care and whose health care data is contained in the resident assessment instrument-minimum data set (RAI-MDS) and the health outcomes for better information and care (HOBIC) database from 2010 to 2013. The analysis included 203 035 unique patients. The overall prevalence of pressure ulcers was approximately 13% and highest in the complex continuing care setting. Over 25% of pressure ulcers in long-term care developed one week after discharge from acute care hospitalisation. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, dementia, bed mobility problems, bowel incontinence, end-stage diseases, daily pain, weight loss and shortness of breath were more likely to develop pressure ulcers. While there were a number of evidence-based interventions implemented to treat pressure ulcers, only half of the patients received nutritional interventions.
How to apply for reimbursement for ACNP services should be a carefully considered decision.It can be a complicated process and should be well understood before embarking on the“billing experience.” The ACNP can expect that this course of action may be challenging,but if successful, the NP can further pursue the quantification of patient outcomes that can enhance the NP role in the acute and critical care environment.
Shay, Patrick D; Mick, Stephen S
The anticipated changes resulting from the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act-including the proposed adoption of bundled payment systems and the promotion of accountable care organizations-have generated considerable controversy as U.S. healthcare industry observers debate whether such changes will motivate vertical integration activity. Using examples of accountable care organizations and bundled payment systems in the American post-acute healthcare sector, this article applies economic and sociological perspectives from organization theory to predict that as acute care organizations vary in the degree to which they experience environmental uncertainty, asset specificity, and network embeddedness, their motivation to integrate post-acute care services will also vary, resulting in a spectrum of integrative behavior.
Jusela, Cheryl; Struble, Laura; Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Redman, Richard W; Ziemba, Rosemary A
. 2. Describe the significance of interprofessional collaboration in the delivery of quality health care. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The purpose of the current project was to (a) examine the type of information accompanying patients on transfer from acute care to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), (b) discuss how these findings meet existing standards, and (c) make recommendations to improve transfer of essential information. The study was a retrospective convenience sample chart audit in one SNF. All patients admitted from an acute care hospital to the SNF were examined. The audit checklist was developed based on recommendations by local and national standards. One hundred fifty-five charts were reviewed. Transferring of physician contact information was missing in 65% of charts. The following information was also missing from charts: medication lists (1%), steroid tapering instructions (42%), antiarrhythmic instructions (38%), duration/indication of anticoagulant medications (25%), and antibiotic medications (22%). Findings support the need for improved transitional care models and better communication of information between care settings. Recommendations include designating accountability and chart audits comparing timeliness, completeness, and accuracy. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(3), 19-28.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Fernandez, Leonor; Irby, David M.; Harleman, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Alicia
Clinical teachers often observe interactions that may contribute to health care disparities, yet may hesitate to teach about them. A pedagogical model could help faculty structure teaching about health care disparities in the clinical setting, but to our knowledge, none have been adapted for this purpose. In this paper, we adapt an established model, Time-Effective Strategies for Teaching (TEST), to the teaching of health care disparities. We use several case scenarios to illustrate the core components of the model: diagnose the learner, teach rapidly to the learner’s need, and provide feedback. The TEST model is straightforward, easy to use, and enables the incorporation of teaching about health care disparities into routine clinical teaching. PMID:20352501
Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Strang, Vicki; Mitchell, Agnes; Thompson, Elizabeth; Lantz, Helen; Balt, Linda; Lemermeyer, Gillian; Vass, Kelly
In this Canadian study, a participatory action research approach was used to examine the relationships between families of residents of traditional continuing care facilities and the health care team. The objectives were to (a) explore the formation and maintenance of family-staff relationships, with attention paid to the relational elements of engagement and mutual respect; (b) explore family and staff perspectives of environmental supports and constraints; and (c) identify practical ways to support and enhance these relationships. Results indicate that the resource-constrained context of continuing care has directly impacted family and staff relationships. The nature of these relationships are discussed using the themes of "Everybody Knows Your Name," "Loss and Laundry," "It's the Little Things That Count," and "The Chasm of Us Versus Them." Families' and staff's ideas of behaviors that support or undermine relationships are identified, as are concrete suggestions for improving family- staff relationships in traditional continuing care settings in Canada.
Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability.
Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna
Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.
Deacon, M; Warne, T; McAndrew, S
This paper makes a case for the attractiveness of acute mental health inpatient nursing (acute nursing) and argues that an altered perception of this work is essential if we are to provide the most acutely mentally ill and vulnerable people with a stable and expert nursing workforce. The discussion draws on an ethnographic study conducted in an inner-city psychiatric unit in England and the advantages of this method for understanding nursing work are described. Within our findings, we set out two overarching themes: the contextual realities of the contemporary acute ward and features of attraction that encourage nurses to work in the acute care setting. The former includes nurses' responsibility for the total ward environment and the latter the 'comfort of closeness' and 'surviving and thriving in chaos and crisis'. In conclusion, we argue that despite the unpopularity of the acute inpatient mental health environment, the highly sophisticated skills employed by acute nurses actually ensure the promotion of health for the majority of service users.
Spigolon, Dandara Novakowski; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral
This study aimed to develop an Essential Data Set for Nursing Care of Patients with Endometriosis (CDEEPE), represented by archetypes. An exploratory applied research with specialists' participation that was carried out at Heath Informatics Laboratory of PUCPR, between February and November of 2010. It was divided in two stages: CDEEPE construction and evaluation including Nursing Process phases and Basic Human Needs, and archetypes development based on this data set. CDEEPE was evaluated by doctors and nurses with 95.9% of consensus and containing 51 data items. The archetype "Perception of Organs and Senses" was created to represents this data set. This study allowed identifying important information for nursing practices contributing to computerization and application of nursing process during care. The CDEEPE was the basis for archetype creation, that will make possible structured, organized, efficient, interoperable, and semantics records.
van der Roest, Henriëtte; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja
Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy), meso-level (care organisations) and micro-level (clients) are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe. PMID:28435423
Eddy, Kylie; Jordan, Zoe; Stephenson, Matthew
Teamwork is seen as an important element of patient care in acute hospital settings. The complexity of the journey of care for patients highlights the need for health professionals to collaborate and communicate clearly with each other. Health organizations in western countries are committed to improving patient safety through education of staff and teamwork education programs have been integral to this focus. There are no current systematic reviews of the experience of health professionals who participate in teamwork education in acute hospital settings. The objective of this systematic review was to search for the best available evidence on the experiences of health professionals who participate in teamwork education in acute hospital settings. This review considered studies reporting on experiences of registered health professionals who work in acute hospitals. This included medical, nursing and midwifery and allied health professionals. The focus of the meta-synthesis was the experiences and reflections of health professionals who were involved in teamwork education in acute hospital settings. The geographical context for this review was acute hospitals in rural or metropolitan settings in Australia and overseas countries. The review focused on the experiences of health professionals who work in acute hospitals and participated in teamwork education programs. This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research.In the absence of research studies, other text such as opinion papers, discussion papers and reports were considered. Studies published in English and from 1990 to 2013 were included in this review. The literature search for relevant papers occurred between 13 September and 26 October 2013. A three-step search strategy was utilized in this review. The databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, Embase and Scopus. The
Roberts, Pamela; Boldy, Duncan; Robertson, Jeanette
Clinical pathways are widely regarded as providing valuable knowledge about specific types of patients and their care, as well as providing direct guidance in clinical practice. In Australia, the use of care pathways has occurred with seemingly minimal professional nursing debate as to their benefits in practice. Comments supporting the introduction of pathways into clinical practice have focused on assistance to decision making, facilitation of clinical judgements about care, assistance in improving practice and utility as educational tools, particularly for new staff, new graduates and casual employees. A survey of 259 nurses working in an acute paediatric setting sought to gain their views about pathways of care with regard to satisfaction with use, content of pathway, ability to use in practice, effect on practice and commitment to use. While the most positive findings to emerge from the research indicated that nurses liked clinical pathways because they saved time and reduced documentation requirements, issues were also raised about the need for a broader, more inclusive development process for pathways, and an improved education program for staff use. The implications to arise from these findings are important for senior staff and educators who are responsible for staff orientation programs and ongoing staff development as well as for those responsible for the development and implementation of clinical pathways into practice.
Baba, Mika; Maeda, Isseki; Morita, Tatsuya; Hisanaga, Takayuki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Iwashita, Tomoyuki; Kaneishi, Keisuke; Kawagoe, Shohei; Kuriyama, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Takashi; Mori, Ichiro; Nakajima, Nobuhisa; Nishi, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Hiroki; Shimoyama, Satofumi; Shinjo, Takuya; Shirayama, Hiroto; Yamada, Takeshi; Ono, Shigeki; Ozawa, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tsuneto, Satoru
Accurate prognostic information in palliative care settings is needed for patients to make decisions and set goals and priorities. The Prognosis Palliative Care Study (PiPS) predictor models were presented in 2011, but have not yet been fully validated by other research teams. The primary aim of this study is to examine the accuracy and to validate the modified PiPS (using physician-proxy ratings of mental status instead of patient interviews) in three palliative care settings, namely palliative care units, hospital-based palliative care teams, and home-based palliative care services. This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted in 58 palliative care services including 16 palliative care units, 19 hospital-based palliative care teams, and 23 home-based palliative care services in Japan from September 2012 through April 2014. A total of 2426 subjects were recruited. For reasons including lack of followup and missing variables (primarily blood examination data), we obtained analyzable data from 2212 and 1257 patients for the modified PiPS-A and PiPS-B, respectively. In all palliative care settings, both the modified PiPS-A and PiPS-B identified three risk groups with different survival rates (P<0.001). The absolute agreement ranged from 56% to 60% in the PiPS-A model and 60% to 62% in the PiPS-B model. The modified PiPS was successfully validated and can be useful in palliative care units, hospital-based palliative care teams, and home-based palliative care services. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sales, Anne E; Ersek, Mary; Intrator, Orna K; Levy, Cari; Carpenter, Joan G; Hogikyan, Robert; Kales, Helen C; Landis-Lewis, Zach; Olsan, Tobie; Miller, Susan C; Montagnini, Marcos; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Reder, Sheri
The program "Implementing Goals of Care Conversations with Veterans in VA LTC Settings" is proposed in partnership with the US Veterans Health Administration (VA) National Center for Ethics in Health Care and the Geriatrics and Extended Care Program Offices, together with the VA Office of Nursing Services. The three projects in this program are designed to support a new system-wide mandate requiring providers to conduct and systematically record conversations with veterans about their preferences for care, particularly life-sustaining treatments. These treatments include cardiac resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and other forms of life support. However, veteran preferences for care go beyond whether or not they receive life-sustaining treatments to include issues such as whether or not they want to be hospitalized if they are acutely ill, and what kinds of comfort care they would like to receive. Three projects, all focused on improving the provision of veteran-centered care, are proposed. The projects will be conducted in Community Living Centers (VA-owned nursing homes) and VA Home-Based Primary Care programs in five regional networks in the Veterans Health Administration. In all the projects, we will use data from context and barrier and facilitator assessments to design feedback reports for staff to help them understand how well they are meeting the requirement to have conversations with veterans about their preferences and to document them appropriately. We will also use learning collaboratives-meetings in which staff teams come together and problem-solve issues they encounter in how to get veterans' preferences expressed and documented, and acted on-to support action planning to improve performance. We will use data over time to track implementation success, measured as the proportions of veterans in Community Living Centers (CLCs) and Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) who have a documented goals of care conversation soon after admission. We will work with
McConnell, Eleanor S; Karel, Michele J
As the prevalence of Alzheimer disease and related dementias increases, dementia-related behavioral symptoms present growing threats to care quality and safety of older adults across care settings. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as agitation, aggression, and resistance to care occur in nearly all individuals over the course of their illness. In inpatient care settings, if not appropriately treated, BPSD can result in care complications, increased length of stay, dissatisfaction with care, and caregiver stress and injury. Although evidence-based, nonpharmacological approaches to treating BPSD exist, their implementation into acute care has been thwarted by limited nursing staff expertise in behavioral health, and a lack of consistent approaches to integrate behavioral health expertise into medically focused inpatient care settings. This article describes the core components of one evidence-based approach to integrating behavioral health expertise into dementia care. This approach, called STAR-VA, was implemented in Veterans' Health Administration community living centers (nursing homes). It has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the severity and frequency of BPSD, while improving staff knowledge and skills in caring for people with dementia. The potential for adapting this approach in acute care settings is discussed, along with key lessons learned regarding opportunities for nursing leadership to ensure consistent implementation and sustainability.
Fuss, E P; Israel, E; Baruch, N; Roghmann, M C
In 1992 and 1993, the Maryland Hospital Association and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted 2 surveys of tuberculosis prevention practices in Maryland hospitals that showed poor compliance with the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for preventing transmission of tuberculosis in health care facilities. The objective of this study was to assess compliance in 1997 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines in Maryland acute care hospitals. A written questionnaire with 3 components-Infection Control, Employee Health, and Microbiology Laboratory-was mailed to 56 Maryland acute care hospitals. Seventy-three percent of the surveys were returned. One hundred percent of responding hospitals with tuberculosis isolation rooms reported negative pressure ventilation, 6 air exchanges per hour, and air exhausted to the outside or through high-efficiency particulate air filters. One hundred percent of the responding hospitals reported providing National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-approved respiratory protection for health care workers; this compared with 24% in 1992 (P <.01). One hundred percent of the responding hospitals reported performing at least annual tuberculin skin testing; this compared with 50% in 1992 (P <. 01). The survey results demonstrate excellent compliance with the 1994 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for tuberculosis control in Maryland acute care hospitals, even in those facilities determined to be at minimal to low risk for tuberculosis exposure. The proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations are unlikely to further reduce the risk of tuberculosis exposure to health care workers in Maryland acute care hospitals.
Hill, Kate M; Walwyn, Rebecca E A; Camidge, Diana C; Meads, David M; Murray, Jenni Y; Reynolds, Greg; Farrin, Amanda J; House, Allan O
Lifestyle and behaviour change are important factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and reduction of premature mortality. Public health initiatives have focused on opportunities for healthcare staff to deliver lifestyle advice routinely in primary and secondary care but there is no consistent approach to onward referrals and the rate of uptake of advice remains low. We do not know if advice is more effective in supporting behaviour change when a systematic approach is taken that includes identification of barriers to change, directing patients toward services, referral to services, and feedback on outcome. This is a single-centre, randomized, unblinded feasibility trial in an acute hospital setting which aims to assess the feasibility of a definitive trial and provide proof of concept for the systematic delivery of individualized lifestyle advice in patients managed through an acute cardiology in-patient service.Patients will be recruited before discharge and randomized to two groups. A control group will receive the usual lifestyle assessment and referral, while an intervention group will receive the usual assessment plus the new individualized lifestyle assessment and referral. The new assessment will inform assignment of each patient to one of three categories based on personal barriers to change. Patients may be referred to a formal lifestyle-change programme, through the 'Leeds Let's Change' website, or they may be guided in self-management, using goal setting, or they may be assigned to a 'deferment' category, for reassessment at follow-up. These latter patients will be given a contact card for the 'Leeds Let's Change' service. Lifestyle change is an important mechanism for improving health and wellbeing across the population but there are widely acknowledged difficulties in addressing lifestyle factors with patients and supporting behaviour change. A systematic approach to assessment would facilitate audit and provide an indicator of the quality
Darvas, Katalin; Futó, Judit; Okrös, Ilona; Gondos, Tibor; Csomós, Akos; Kupcsulik, Péter
Acute pancreatitis is a dynamic, often progressive disease; 14-20% require intensive care in its severe form due to multiorgan dysfunction and/or failure. This review was created using systematic literature review of articles published on this subject in the last 5 years. The outcome of severe acute pancreatitis is determined by the inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction - the prognostic scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Glasgow Prognostic Index, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Scale, Ranson Scale) can be used to determine outcome. Clinical signs (age, coexisting diseases, confusion, obesity) and biochemistry values (serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatinine, urea, calcium) have important prognostic roles as well. Early organ failure increases the risk of late abdominal complications and mortality. Intensive care can provide appropriate multi-function patient monitoring which helps in early recognition of complications and appropriate target-controlled treatment. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis aims at reducing systemic inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction and, on the other side, at increasing the anti-inflammatory response. Oral starvation for 24-48 hours is effective in reducing the exocrine activity of the pancreas; the efficacy of protease inhibitors is questionable. Early intravascular volume resuscitation and stable haemodynamics improve microcirculation. Early oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation provide adequate oxygenation. Electrolyte and acid-base control can be as important as tight glucose control. Adequate pain relief can be achieved by thoracic epidural catheterization. Early enteral nutrition with immunonutrition should be used. There is evidence that affecting the coagulation cascade by activated protein C can play a role in reducing the inflammatory response. The complex therapy of acute pancreatitis includes appropriate
Betz, Marian E; Jones, Jacqueline; Genco, Emma; Carr, David B; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Haukoos, Jason S; Lowenstein, Steven R; Schwartz, Robert
Widespread screening of older drivers, with in-depth evaluation only of those who screen positive ("tiered assessment"), might efficiently balance driver safety and mobility. To inform program development, we sought to examine the perspectives of older drivers and clinicians on the concept of tiered assessment in primary care settings. Iterative focus groups and interviews with 33 community-dwelling current drivers aged ≥65 years and 8 primary care providers. We used inductive and deductive theme analysis to explore driver and clinician perspectives and to identify barriers and facilitators to establishing a tiered older driver assessment program in primary care settings. Four dominant themes emerged. Two themes addressed the overall concept: (a) support for the concept of tiered older driver assessment and (b) concerns about the consequences of older driver assessment and how these could affect program viability. Two themes addressed screening: (c) tension inherent in using a generalized approach to the highly individualized issue of driving and (d) logistical considerations for screening in primary care settings. Standardized older driver screening and referral might improve clinician-driver communication, but screening should occur in a context that includes personalized mobility counseling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
de Boer, Dolf; Hofstede, Jolien M; de Veer, Anke J E; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Francke, Anneke L
Dying in the preferred setting is an indicator of good palliative care quality. Most people prefer to die at home. But does the quality of care as perceived by their relatives vary depending on the care setting that is the place of death? The aim is to compare (from the relatives perspective) whether there are perceived differences in the quality of palliative care between the settings in which people die. Multivariate linear regression analyses have been carried out using an existing dataset containing information collected using the relatives' version of the Consumer Quality Index (CQ-index) Palliative Care. The dataset includes 1368 relatives of patients with a wide variety of conditions who died in various locations: at home, in hospital, in residential care for the elderly, a hospice, palliative care unit or in another institution (e.g. institutions for people with intellectual disabilities or mental healthcare institutions). The relatives were the first contacts (family members or other people close to the patient) and they received the survey between 6 weeks and 6 months after the bereavement. Based on the raw data, differences between locations in terms of the perceived quality of care initially appeared inconsistent. The multivariate regression analyses however showed that relatives of people who died at home were generally the most positive about the palliative care that the patient and they themselves received when the patient was dying. The care provided by hospices also received a relatively good rating. In hospitals and in residential settings for care of the elderly, the care was rated less highly by the relatives. The quality of palliative care as experienced from the relatives' perspective is highest when the patient dies at home or in a hospice. This is an argument for letting people die at home, if they so wish, as far as possible and feasible.
Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane
The normative position in acute hospital care when a patient is seriously ill is to resuscitate and rescue. However, a number of UK and international reports have highlighted problems with the lack of timely recognition, treatment and referral of patients whose condition is deteriorating while being cared for on hospital wards. This article explores the social practice of rescue, and the structural and cultural influences that guide the categorisation and ordering of acutely ill patients in different hospital settings. We draw on Strauss et al.'s notion of the patient trajectory and link this with the impact of categorisation practices, thus extending insights beyond those gained from emergency department triage to care management processes further downstream on the hospital ward. Using ethnographic data collected from medical wards and maternity care settings in two UK inner city hospitals, we explore how differences in population, cultural norms, categorisation work and trajectories of clinical deterioration interlink and influence patient safety. An analysis of the variation in findings between care settings and patient groups enables us to consider socio-political influences and the specifics of how staff manage trade-offs linked to the enactment of core values such as safety and equity in practice.
Xue, Ying; Tuttle, Jane
Nurse practitioners are increasingly being integrated into primary care delivery to help meet the growing demand for primary care. It is therefore important to understand nurse practitioners' productivity in primary care practice. We examined nurse practitioners' clinical productivity in regard to number of patients seen per week, whether they had a patient panel, and patient panel size. We further investigated practice characteristics associated with their clinical productivity. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. The sample included full-time primary care nurse practitioners in ambulatory settings. Multivariable survey regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between practice characteristics and nurse practitioners' clinical productivity. Primary care nurse practitioners in ambulatory settings saw an average of 80 patients per week (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79-82), and 64% of them had their own patient panel. The average patient panel size was 567 (95% CI: 522-612). Nurse practitioners who had their own patient panel spent a similar percent of time on patient care and documentation as those who did not. However, those with a patient panel were more likely to provide a range of clinical services to most patients. Nurse practitioners' clinical productivity was associated with several modifiable practice characteristics such as practice autonomy and billing and payment policies. The estimated number of patients seen in a typical week by nurse practitioners is comparable to that by primary care physicians reported in the literature. However, they had a significantly smaller patient panel. Nurse practitioners' clinical productivity can be further improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coco, Andrew S; Cohen, Donna; Horst, Michael A; Gambler, Angela S
Background Medical liability concerns centered around maternity care have widespread public health implications, as restrictions in physician scope of practice may threaten quality of and access to care in the current climate. The purpose of this study was to examine national trends in prenatal care settings based on medical liability climate. Methods Analysis of prenatal visits in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1997 to 2004 (N = 21,454). To assess changes in rates of prenatal visits over time, we used the linear trend test. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was developed to determine characteristics associated with visits made to hospital outpatient departments. Results In regions of the country with high medical liability (N = 11,673), the relative number, or proportion, of all prenatal visits occurring in hospital outpatient departments increased from 11.8% in 1997–1998 to 19.4% in 2003–2004 (p < .001 for trend); the trend for complicated obstetrical visits (N = 3,275) was more pronounced, where the proportion of prenatal visits occurring in hospital outpatient departments almost doubled from 22.7% in 1997–1998 to 41.6% in 2003–2004 (p = .004 for trend). This increase did not occur in regions of the country with low medical liability (N = 9,781) where the proportion of visits occurring in hospital outpatient departments decreased from 13.3% in 1997–1998 to 9.0% in 2003–2004. Conclusion There has been a shift in prenatal care from obstetrician's offices to safety net settings in regions of the country with high medical liability. These findings provide strong indirect evidence that the medical liability crisis is affecting patterns of obstetric practice and ultimately patient access to care. PMID:19624840
Haseeb, Abdul; Winit-Watjana, Win; Bakhsh, Abdul-Rahman R; Elrggal, Mahmoud E; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Mously, Alaa A; Gadibalban, Asmaa Z; Al-Ibraheem, Bashayir F; Almubark, Rasha A; Ekram, Rawan A; Khan, Tahir Mehmood
Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led educational intervention to reduce the use of high-risk abbreviations (HRAs) by healthcare professionals. Design Quasi-experimental study consisting of a single group before-and-after study design. Setting A public emergency hospital in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Participants 660 (preintervention) and then 498 (postintervention) handwritten physician orders, medication administration records (MRAs) and pharmacy dispensing sheets of 482 and 388 patients, respectively, from emergency wards, inpatient settings and the pharmacy department were reviewed. Intervention The intervention consisted of a series of interactive lectures delivered by an experienced clinical pharmacist to all hospital staff members and dissemination of educational tools (flash cards, printed list of HRAs, awareness posters) designed in line with the recommendations of the Institute for Safe Medical Practices and the US Food and Drug Administration. The duration of intervention was from April to May 2011. Main outcome Reduction in the incidence of HRAs use from the preintervention to postintervention study period. Findings The five most common abbreviations recorded prior to the interventions were ‘IJ for injection’ (28.6%), ‘SC for subcutaneous’ (17.4%), drug name and dose running together (9.7%), ‘OD for once daily’ (5.8%) and ‘D/C for discharge’ (4.3%). The incidence of the use of HRAs was highest in discharge prescriptions and dispensing records (72.7%) followed by prescriptions from in-patient wards (47.3%). After the intervention, the overall incidence of HRA was significantly reduced by 52% (ie, 53.6% vs 25.5%; p=0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of HRAs across all three settings: the pharmacy department (72.7% vs 39.3%), inpatient settings (47.3% vs 23.3%) and emergency wards (40.9% vs 10.7%). Conclusions Pharmacist-led educational interventions can significantly
Hernández-Fabà, Eva; Sanfeliu-Julià, Cristina
Since 2008, the Institut Catala de la Salut (ICS) introduced the nurses management plan for acute pathology, in primary care centres. In the implementation of this system of organization, the ICS introduced various diseases protocols with performance algorithms. To raise awareness of the the practice of acute pathology, we present a clinical case. An urgent consultation of a 30 year-old male, with fever, sore throat and cough, which was managed and resolved by a nurse. The aim of this new management plan is that nursing is the first health professional to take care of patient coming to primary care centre without a scheduled visit, to avoid saturating the general clinic or hospital emergencies. This new organisational system involves an increase in the responsibilities of nursing in the diagnosis and treatment of patients.
Ratzliff, Anna; Phillips, Kathryn E.; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Unützer, Jürgen; Wagner, Edward H.
Behavioral health problems are common, yet most patients do not receive effective treatment in primary care settings. Despite availability of effective models for integrating behavioral health care in primary care settings, uptake has been slow. The Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide provides practical guidance for adapting and implementing effective integrated behavioral health care into patient-centered medical homes. The authors gathered input from stakeholders involved in behavioral health integration efforts: safety net providers, subject matter experts in primary care and behavioral health, a behavioral health patient and peer specialist, and state and national policy makers. Stakeholder input informed development of the Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide and the GROW Pathway Planning Worksheet. The Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide is model neutral and allows organizations to take meaningful steps toward providing integrated care that achieves access and accountability. PMID:26698163
Moyle, Wendy; Borbasi, Sally; Wallis, Marianne; Olorenshaw, Rachel; Gracia, Natalie
This Australian study explored management for older people with dementia in an acute hospital setting. As the population ages, increasing numbers of older people with dementia are placed into an acute care hospital to manage a condition other than dementia. These people require special care that takes into account the unique needs of confused older people. Current nursing and medical literature provides some direction in relation to best practice management; however, few studies have examined this management from the perspective of hospital staff. A descriptive qualitative approach was used. Data were collected using semi-structured audio-taped interviews with a cross section of thirteen staff that worked in acute medical or surgical wards in a large South East Queensland, Australia Hospital. Analysis of data revealed five subthemes with the overarching theme being paradoxical care, in that an inconsistent approach to care emphasised safety at the expense of well-being and dignity. A risk management approach was used rather than one that incorporated injury prevention as one facet of an overall strategy. Using untrained staff to sit and observe people with dementia as a risk management strategy does not encourage an evidence-based approach. Staff education and environmental resources may improve the current situation so that people with dementia receive care that takes into account their individual needs and human dignity. Nurses can assist older people with dementia by encouraging evidence-based care practices to become the part of hospital policy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Radwin, Laurel E; Castonguay, Denise; Keenan, Carolyn B; Hermann, Cherice
For many patients, high-quality, patient-centered, and cost-effective health care requires coordination among multiple clinicians and settings. Ensuring optimal care coordination requires a clear understanding of how clinician activities and continuity during transitions affect patient-centeredness and quality outcomes. This article describes an expanded theoretical framework to better understand care coordination. The framework provides clear articulation of concepts. Examples are provided of ways to measure the concepts.
McGilton, Katherine S.; Guruge, Sepali; Librado, Ruby; Bloch, Lois; Boscart, Veronique
Research on the relationships between health care aides (HCAs) and families of clients has been situated mainly in long-term care settings and includes scant findings about the perceptions of HCAs. Based on the findings of a larger qualitative study using a grounded theory approach, this paper addresses the topic of HCA-family relationships in…
De Luca, C; Valentino, M; Rimondi, M R; Branchini, M; Baleni, M Casadio; Barozzi, L
Diagnosis of acute lung disease is a daily challenge for radiologists working in acute-care areas. It is generally based on the results of chest radiography performed under technically unfavorable conditions. Computed tomography (CT) is undoubtedly more accurate in these cases, but it cannot always be performed on critically ill patients who need continuous care.The use of thoracic ultrasonography (US) has recently been proposed for the study of acute lung disease. It can be carried out rapidly at the bedside and does not require any particularly sophisticated equipment. This report analyzes our experience with chest sonography as a supplement to chest radiography in an Emergency Radiology Unit. We performed chest sonography - as an adjunct to chest radiography - on 168 patients with acute chest pathology. Static and dynamic US signs were analyzed in light of radiographic findings and, when possible, CT. The use of chest US improved the authors' ability to provide confident diagnoses of acute disease of the chest and lungs.
Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Koester, Kimberly A.; Beane, Stephanie; Warren, Nancy; Beal, Jeffrey; Frank, Linda Rose
Objectives. We examined the efforts of the US network of AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) to increase HIV testing capacity across a variety of clinical settings. Methods. We used quantitative process data from 8 regional AETCs for July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009, and qualitative program descriptions to demonstrate how AETC education helped providers integrate HIV testing into routine clinical care with the goals of early diagnosis and treatment. Results. Compared with other AETC training, HIV testing training was longer and used a broader variety of strategies to educate more providers per training. During education, providers were able to understand their primary care responsibility to address public health concerns through HIV testing. Conclusions. AETC efforts illustrate how integration of the principles of primary care and public health can be promoted through professional training. PMID:22515867
Baldwin, Susie B; Eisenman, David P; Sayles, Jennifer N; Ryan, Gery; Chuang, Kenneth S
An estimated 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States each year from all over the world, and are forced into hard labor or commercial sex work. Despite their invisibility, some victims are known to have received medical care while under traffickers' control. Our project aimed to characterize trafficking victims' encounters in US health care settings. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews with six Key Informants who work closely with trafficking victims (Phase I) and 12 female trafficking survivors (Phase II). All survivors were recruited through the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking, an NGO in Los Angeles, and all were trafficked into Los Angeles. Interviews were conducted in English and six other languages, with the assistance of professional interpreters. Using a framework analysis approach that focused on victims' encounters in health care settings, we assessed interview transcript content and coded for themes. We used an exploratory pile-sorting technique to aggregate similar ideas and identify overarching domains. The survivors came from 10 countries. Eight had experienced domestic servitude, three had survived sex trafficking, and one had experienced both. Half the survivors reported that they had visited a physician while in their traffickers' control, and another worked in a health care facility. All Key Informants described other victims who had received medical care. For domestic servants, medical visits were triggered by injury and respiratory or systemic illness, while sex trafficking victims were seen by health professionals for sexually transmitted infections and abortion. Trafficking victims were prevented from disclosing their status to health care providers by fear, shame, language barriers, and limited interaction with medical personnel, among other obstacles. This exploration of survivors' experiences in health care settings supports anecdotal reports that US health care providers may unwittingly encounter
Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter
Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026
Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Adekanmbi, Folasade
Acute renal failure (ARF) is encountered in neonatal care where it may be associated with significant morbidities. Pre-renal failure, which is due to impaired renal tissue perfusion, is the commonest type of ARF. It is amenable to treatment with excellent prognosis following prompt diagnosis and timely institution of appropriate intervention. Unfortunately, ARF in the newborn is usually asymptomatic and it is only suspected when a newborn infant has not been observed to pass urine over several hours or when serum Creatinine is observed to be elevated or rising. In resource-poor settings, it is often difficult to conduct detailed evaluation of suspected cases of newborn ARF due to lack of appropriate equipments and infrastructure. Similarly, therapeutic facilities are sparse and there is heavy reliance on conservative management of cases. Such difficulties encountered in the evaluation and management of newborns with ARF in most parts of the developing world, like Nigeria, where diagnostic and therapeutic facilities are limited are highlighted.
Bennett, C; Mein, J; Beers, M; Harvey, B; Vemulpad, S; Chant, K; Dalton, C
From May to June 1999, 3,920 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo arrived in Australia as part of Operation Safe Haven. These people were evacuated from refugee camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Initial processing in Australia occurred at East Hills Reception Centre, and accommodation for the duration of stay was provided in eight Haven Centres in five States. The arrival of a large number of refugees in a short time frame is unprecedented in Australia. A health surveillance system was developed and critical health data were collected to assess health status and needs, plan care, monitor for potential outbreaks of communicable diseases, track service use, to meet international reporting requirements and document our response to this crisis. In this article the health surveillance system is evaluated and suggestions are offered for the formulation of specific guidelines necessary for health surveillance in acute settings.
Clark, Melinda B; Slayton, Rebecca L
Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States. Caries is a largely preventable condition, and fluoride has proven effectiveness in the prevention of caries. The goals of this clinical report are to clarify the use of available fluoride modalities for caries prevention in the primary care setting and to assist pediatricians in using fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while minimizing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis.
Dalal, Anuj K; Schnipper, Jeffrey; Massaro, Anthony; Hanna, John; Mlaver, Eli; McNally, Kelly; Stade, Diana; Morrison, Constance; Bates, David W
Communication in acute care settings is fragmented and occurs asynchronously via a variety of electronic modalities. Providers are often not on the same page with regard to the plan of care. We designed and developed a secure, patient-centered "microblog" messaging platform that identifies care team members by synchronizing with the electronic health record, and directs providers to a single forum where they can communicate about the plan of care. The system was used for 35% of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit over a 6-month period. Major themes in messages included care coordination (49%), clinical summarization (29%), and care team collaboration (27%). Message transparency and persistence were seen as useful features by 83% and 62% of respondents, respectively. Availability of alternative messaging tools and variable use by non-unit providers were seen as main barriers to adoption by 83% and 62% of respondents, respectively. This approach has much potential to improve communication across settings once barriers are addressed.
Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Hu, Hsou Mei; Yin, Chang-Yi; Johnson, Daniel
This exploratory study used 4 publicly available large data sets to determine whether significant correlations exist between patients' perceptions of their acute care hospital experience and hospital-acquired injurious fall rates at their hospitals in the states of California, Florida, and New York in 2007. The results showed that the higher the inpatient satisfaction levels with the responsiveness of hospital staff and cleanliness and quietness of the hospital environment, the lower were the injurious fall rates.
Impact of a multi-faceted training intervention on the improvement of hand hygiene and gloving practices in four healthcare settings including nursing homes, acute-care geriatric wards and physical rehabilitation units.
Eveillard, Matthieu; Raymond, Françoise; Guilloteau, Véronique; Pradelle, Marie-Thérèse; Kempf, Marie; Zilli-Dewaele, Marina; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Brunel, Patrick
To assess the impact of a multi-faceted training program on the compliance with hand hygiene and gloving practices. Hand hygiene is considered as the cornerstone of the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Several studies have enhanced the poor effectiveness of training programs in improving hand hygiene compliance. A before-after evaluation study. The study was conducted in four healthcare settings before and after an intervention program which included the performance feedback of the first evaluation phase, three six-h training sessions, the assessment of hand hygiene performance with teaching boxes and the organisation of one full-day session devoted to institutional communication around hand hygiene in each setting. Hand hygiene compliance and quality of hand rubbing were evaluated. Hand hygiene opportunities were differentiated into extra-series opportunities (before or after a single contact and before the first contact or after the last contact of a series of consecutive contacts) and intra-series opportunities (from the opportunity following the first contact to the opportunity preceding the last in the same series). Overall, 969 contacts corresponding to 1,470 hand hygiene opportunities (760 during the first phase and 710 during the second) were observed. A significant improvement of observed practices was recorded for the hand hygiene compliance in intra-series opportunities (39·0% vs. 19·0%; p < 10(-5) ), the proportion of gloves worn if indicated (71·4% vs. 52·0%; p < 0·001) and the quality of hand rubbing (85·0% vs. 71·9%; p < 10(-5) ). Some of the performances measured for both hand hygiene and gloving practices were improved. We plan to extend this investigation by performing a qualitative study with experts in behavioural sciences to try improving practices for which adherence was still weak after the training program such as hand hygiene in intra-series opportunities. This study underscored the usefulness of implementing
Mohr, David C; Benzer, Justin K; Young, Gary J
Primary care providers are increasingly under pressure to do more with fewer resources. We examined the effect of workload on patients' experiences of quality of care, measured through approximately 44,000 patient experience surveys in a sample of 222 primary care clinics in the Veterans Health Administration. We tested the extent to which relational climate, a measure of teamwork, moderated the relationship between workload and patient ratings of quality of care. Our outcome measures included patient complaints, time spent with provider, and overall visit quality. Workload was negatively associated with patients' quality of care ratings and relational climate moderated the relation between workload and quality of care ratings. Patients seen in clinics with higher workload and greater relational climate reported better care compared with patients in clinics with higher workload but lower relational climate. Findings highlight the importance of relational climate as an important teamwork factor when managing and developing clinic policies, practices, and procedures in resource-constrained settings.
Ronis, Sarah D; McConnochie, Kenneth M; Wang, Hongyue; Wood, Nancy E
Children with care for acute illness available through the Health-e-Access telemedicine model at childcare and schools were previously found to have 22% less emergency department (ED) use than counterparts without this service, but they also had 24% greater acute care use overall. We assessed the hypothesis that increased utilization reflected improved access among impoverished inner-city children to a level experienced by more affluent suburban children. This observational study compared utilization among children without and with telemedicine access, beginning in 1993, ending in 2007, and based on 84,287 child-months of billing claims-based observation. Health-e-Access Telemedicine was initiated in stepwise manner over 187 study-months among 74 access sites (childcare, schools, community centers), beginning in month 105. Children dwelled in inner city, rest-of-city Rochester, NY, or in surrounding suburbs. Rate of total acute care visits (office, ED, telemedicine) was measured as visits per 100 child-years. Observed utilization rates were adjusted in multivariate analysis for age, sex, insurance type, and season of year. When both suburban and inner-city children lacked telemedicine access, overall acute illness visits were 75% greater among suburban than inner-city children (suburban:inner-city rate ratio 1.75, p < 0.0001). After telemedicine became available to inner-city children, their overall acute visits approximated those of suburban children (suburban:inner-city rate ratio 0.80, p = 0.07), whereas acute visits among suburban children remained at least (worst-case comparison) 56% greater than inner-city children without telemedicine (rate ratio 1.56, p < 0.0001). At baseline, overall acute illness utilization of suburban children exceeded that of inner-city children. Overall utilization for inner-city children increased with telemedicine to that of suburban children at baseline. Without telemedicine, however, inner-city use remained
Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre
Abstract Objective To define a physician classification system based on practice settings and to analyze the service provision associated with those classifications. Design A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting Province of Quebec. Participants All GPs in Quebec in 2002 who had been practising for at least 2 years. Main outcome measures Practice setting variables were based on physician income in the different settings. Service provision was assessed using indicators related to continuity, comprehensiveness, accessibility, and productivity of services provided by the GPs. A multiple correspondence analysis with ascending hierarchical classification was conducted to construct the taxonomy of GPs based on their practice settings. Results Our study produced 7 practice setting models. Two were essentially single-practice models. The 5 others combined several settings. Service provision varied from one model to another. Continuity was greater in the private practice model, in which older GPs were predominant, while accessibility was greater in multi-institutional practice models, in which younger GPs were more active. Conclusion To ensure balance between continuity, accessibility, and comprehensiveness in primary care services provided by GPs, it is important to consider the service provision associated with different practice models. PMID:25316763
McDonnell, Ann; Goodwin, Emma; Kennedy, Fiona; Hawley, Kay; Gerrish, Kate; Smith, Christine
To evaluate the impact of implementing Advanced Nurse Practitioner roles on patients, staff members and organizational outcomes in an acute hospital. The worldwide development of advanced practice roles in nursing has been influenced by increasing demands and costs of health care. A key issue in the UK has been the reduction in hours junior doctors can work. While there is evidence these roles can have a positive impact in a variety of clinical specialties, little is known about the impact advanced nurses substituting for junior doctors can have on patients, staff members and organizational outcomes in general hospital care settings. Collective case study. A collective case study in a district general hospital in England was undertaken in 2011-2012. Interviews with strategic stakeholders (n = 13) were followed by three individual case studies. Each case study represented the clinical area in which the roles had been introduced: medicine, surgery and orthopaedics and included interviews (n = 32) and non-participant observation of practice. The ANPs had a positive impact on patient experience, outcomes and safety. They improved staff knowledge, skills and competence and enhanced quality of working life, distribution of workload and team-working. ANPs contributed to the achievement of organizational priorities and targets and development of policy. ANPs undertaking duties traditionally performed by junior doctors in acute hospital settings can have a positive impact on a range of indicators relating to patients, staff members and organizational outcomes which are highly relevant to nursing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; Mcwilliams, James; Horton, Terry
Excessive alcohol consumption is the nation's third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%-12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%-44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%-15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes.
The gap between rich and resource-poor countries has continued to grow as reproductive care providers integrate interventions to limit mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in a manner consistent with existing information. There are two major reasons for this difference: access to prophylactic antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for HIV-infected pregnant mothers and availability of alternative feeding for babies. In resource-poor settings, these options are beyond reach for the majority of the women. Infant and under-five mortality rates from other infections are high in these settings and breastfeeding remains the norm. Answering the question, What is an achievable standard of care in resource-poor settings? still remains a major challenge today. Dialogue has begun in most resource-poor settings to address the key elements in the package of interventions to reduce MTCT of HIV. These elements include the following: (1) overall prevention of HIV in mothers and fathers; (2) provision of good-quality voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) in antenatal clinics; (3) a comprehensive package of interventions during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery, including screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), family planning, and--where possible--ARVs; (4) provision of infant and maternal nutrition within the socioeconomic realities; (5) advocacy and program communication; and (6) other supportive measures, including community mobilization to address issues such as stigmatization of and violence against HIV-infected women. This paper discusses the challenges faced by most resource-poor settings in integrating some of these activities into reproductive care services.
Smith, Susan M; Schroeder, Knut; Fahey, Tom
Acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a common symptom. Non-prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are frequently recommended as a first-line treatment, but there is little evidence as to whether these drugs are effective. To assess the effects of oral OTC cough preparations for acute cough in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2012 Issue 3 which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to March week 1 2012), EMBASE (January 1974 to March 2012), CINAHL (January 2010 to March 2012), LILACS (January 2010 to March 2012), Web of Science (January 2010 to March 2012) and the UK Department of Health National Research Register (March 2010). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral OTC cough preparations with placebo in children and adults suffering from acute cough in ambulatory settings. We considered all cough outcomes and secondary outcomes of interest were adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened potentially relevant citations, extracted data and assessed study quality. We performed quantitative analysis where appropriate. Twenty-six trials (18 in adults, eight in children) involving 4037 people (3421 adults and 616 children) were included.In the adult studies six trials compared antitussives with placebo and had variable results. Two trials compared the expectorant guaifenesin with placebo; one indicated significant benefit whereas the other did not. One trial found that a mucolytic reduced cough frequency and symptom scores. Two studies examined antihistamine-decongestant combinations and found conflicting results. Four studies compared other combinations of drugs with placebo and indicated some benefit in reducing cough symptoms. Three trials found antihistamines were no more effective than placebo in relieving cough symptoms.In the children studies antitussives (two studies), antihistamines (two
Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Griffiths, Ewen A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ulrych, Jan; Kluger, Yoram; Ben-Ishay, Ofir; Moore, Frederick A; Ivatury, Rao R; Coimbra, Raul; Peitzman, Andrew B; Leppaniemi, Ari; Fraga, Gustavo P; Maier, Ronald V; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kashuk, Jeffry; Sakakushev, Boris; Weber, Dieter G; Latifi, Rifat; Biffl, Walter; Bala, Miklosh; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Inaba, Kenji; Ordonez, Carlos A; Hecker, Andreas; Augustin, Goran; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Melo, Renato Bessa; Marwah, Sanjay; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Shelat, Vishal G; McFarlane, Michael; Rems, Miran; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Faro, Mario Paulo; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Negoi, Ionut; Cui, Yunfeng; Sato, Norio; Vereczkei, Andras; Bellanova, Giovanni; Birindelli, Arianna; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kok, Kenneth Y; Gachabayov, Mahir; Gkiokas, Georgios; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Çolak, Elif; Isik, Arda; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Soto, Rodolfo; Moore, Ernest E
Acute left sided colonic diverticulitis is one of the most common clinical conditions encountered by surgeons in acute setting. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference on acute diverticulitis was held during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES in Jerusalem, Israel, on July 7th, 2015. During this consensus conference the guidelines for the management of acute left sided colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting were presented and discussed. This document represents the executive summary of the final guidelines approved by the consensus conference.
Hall, Nicole; Hipple, Bethany; Friebely, Joan; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.
Objective To discuss strategies for integrating evidence-based tobacco use screening, cessation assistance, and referral to outside services into visits with families in outpatient child health care settings. Methods Presentation of counseling scenarios used in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) training video and commentary. Results Demonstrated strategies include: eliciting information about interest and readiness to quit smoking, respectfully setting an agenda to discuss smoking, tailoring advice and education to the specific circumstances, keeping the dialogue open, prescribing cessation medication, helping the smoker set an action plan for cessation, enrolling the smoker in free telephone counseling through the state quitline, and working with family members to establish a completely smoke-free home and car. Video demonstrations of these techniques are available at www.ceasetobacco.org. Conclusion Child health care clinicians have a unique opportunity to address family smoking and can be most effective by adapting evidence-based tobacco cessation counseling strategies for visits in the pediatric setting. PMID:20448841