Sfakianaki, Efrosyni; Sfakianakis, George N; Georgiou, Mike; Hsiao, Bernard
Renal scintigraphy is a powerful imaging method that provides both functional and anatomic information, which is particularly useful in the acute care setting. In our institution, for the past 2 decades, we have used a 25-minute renal diuretic protocol, technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) mercaptoacetyltriglycine with simultaneous intravenous injection of furosemide, for all ages and indications, including both native and transplant kidneys. As such, this protocol has been widely used in the workup of acutely ill patients. In this setting, there are common clinical entities which affect patients with native and transplant kidneys. In adult patients with native kidneys one of the most frequent reasons for emergency room visits is renal colic due to urolithiasis. Although unenhanced computed tomography is useful to assess the anatomy in cases of renal colic, it does not provide functional information. Time zero furosemide renal scintigraphy can do both and we have shown that it can effectively stratify patients with renal colic. To this end, 4 characteristic patterns of scintirenography have been identified, standardized, and consistently applied: no obstruction, partial obstruction (mild vs high grade), complete obstruction, and stunned (postdecompressed) kidney. With the extensive use of this protocol over the past 2 decades, a pattern of "regional parenchymal dysfunction" indicative of acute pyelonephritis has also been delineated. This information has proved to be useful for patients presenting with urinary tract infection and suspected pyelonephritis, as well as for patients who were referred for workup of renal colic but were found to have acute pyelonephritis instead. In instances of abdominal trauma, renal scintigraphy is uniquely suited to identify urine leaks. This is also true in cases of suspected leak following renal transplant or from other iatrogenic/postsurgical causes. Patients presenting with acute renal failure can be evaluated with renal scintigraphy. A
Bond, Penny; Goudie, Karen
Delirium is an acute medical emergency affecting about one in eight acute hospital inpatients. It is associated with poor outcomes, is more prevalent in older people and it is estimated that half of all patients receiving intensive care or surgery for a hip fracture will be affected. Despite its prevalence and impact, delirium is not reliably identified or well managed. Improving the identification and management of patients with delirium has been a focus for the national improving older people's acute care work programme in NHS Scotland. A delirium toolkit has been developed, which includes the 4AT rapid assessment test, information for patients and carers and a care bundle for managing delirium based on existing guidance. This toolkit has been tested and implemented by teams from a range of acute care settings to support improvements in the identification and immediate management of delirium.
Daly, Donnelle; Matzel, Stephen Chavez
A transdisciplinary team is an essential component of palliative and end-of-life care. This article will demonstrate how to develop a transdisciplinary approach to palliative care, incorporating nursing, social work, spiritual care, and pharmacy in an acute care setting. Objectives included: identifying transdisciplinary roles contributing to care in the acute care setting; defining the palliative care model and mission; identifying patient/family and institutional needs; and developing palliative care tools. Methods included a needs assessment and the development of assessment tools, an education program, community resources, and a patient satisfaction survey. After 1 year of implementation, the transdisciplinary palliative care team consisted of seven palliative care physicians, two social workers, two chaplains, a pharmacist, and End-of-Life Nursing Consortium (ELNEC) trained nurses. Palomar Health now has a palliative care service with a consistent process for transdisciplinary communication and intervention for adult critical care patients with advanced, chronic illness.
Provisional NQF (n=13) ANA (n=10) Death in low mortality DRG X Decubitus /pressure ulcer X X X Failure to rescue X X X Infection due to medical care X...overlap in these measure sets, with the exception of decubitus /pressure ulcer and failure to rescue. Caution should be taken since the measure intent...patient falls, pressure ulcers , and mortality, with increasing detail in measure specification.11 For example, nosocomial infections are broken down into
Payne, Sarah; Cole, Elaine
Many patients with minor burns present at emergency departments and urgent care centres, where their management is often undertaken by experienced nurses rather than experts in treating burns. This article describes a small study of the clinical decision making that underpins nurses' management of minor burns in these non-specialist settings. The results suggest that, due to a lack of relevant research, nurses base their decisions on previous experience or expert colleagues' opinions and advice rather than on the evidence.
Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Abazia, Daniel T
The authors review the historical use of medicinal cannabis and discuss the agent's pharmacology and pharmacokinetics, select evidence on medicinal uses, and the implications of evolving regulations on the acute care hospital setting.
Creating an environment in which patient's responsibility for self is fostered and nurses can practice professional and autonomous nursing practice is a challenge in today's hospitals. Innovative systems and structures need to be developed to assure quality of patient care and a high quality work environment. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center responded to the many demands of the mid-1980s, including increasing acuity of patients hospitalized, personnel shortages in nursing, physical therapy and other disciplines, and diminishing dollars available to the health care institution, through the creation of Self-Care Units. This article reviews how they came about, the way in which Self-Care Units function within the acute care setting and the management philosophy and structure which make them work. The experience at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center demonstrates that the potential exists to put control back at the bedside with the patient and the health care team working with the patient to achieve mutual goals. The focus of care has shifted from a "doing for" to a "working with" patients to identify interventions which promote active participation in hospitalization and a sense of self responsibility.
McCabe, Margaret; Patricia, Branowicki
Nurses commonly assess their patients for symptoms and intervene to ease any patient distress, yet children are seldom asked about feeling fatigued. The existing pediatric literature suggests that fatigue goes unrecognized and therefore untreated in children, particularly children experiencing stressful events, such as illness and/or hospitalization. In an effort to better understand the presence of the symptom in our environment we conducted a program specific point prevalence survey. Data were collected on nine inpatient and 11 outpatient units of a university affiliated tertiary care children's hospital. Overall, this sample reported higher levels of fatigue than published data from their healthy and chronically ill peers by total fatigue score and sub scores. This brief description of the symptom in our inpatient and ambulatory settings has provided information that will inform our nursing practice and drive future research.
Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.
Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to grow as rates of antimicrobial resistance rise and HAIs lead to increasing risks to patients and expanding health care costs. In this review, we summarize the history of the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control, common HAIs and the pathogens causing them, and the structure and role of a hospital epidemiology and infection control program. PMID:21233510
Kumar, Chandrika; Bensadon, Benjamin A.; Van Ness, Peter H.; Cooney, Leo M.
Most geriatric care is provided in non-hospital settings. Internal Medicine and Family Medicine residents should therefore learn about these different clinical sites and acuity levels of care. To help facilitate this learning, a geriatrics training curriculum for internal medicine residents was developed that focused on cognition, function, goals…
Abbott, P A; Quirolgico, S; Candidate, D; Manchand, R; Canfield, K; Adya, M
This paper is intended to give an overview of Knowledge Discovery in Large Datasets (KDD) and data mining applications in healthcare particularly as related to the Minimum Data Set, a resident assessment tool which is used in US long-term care facilities. The US Health Care Finance Administration, which mandates the use of this tool, has accumulated massive warehouses of MDS data. The pressure in healthcare to increase efficiency and effectiveness while improving patient outcomes requires that we find new ways to harness these vast resources. The intent of this preliminary study design paper is to discuss the development of an approach which utilizes the MDS, in conjunction with KDD and classification algorithms, in an attempt to predict admission from a long-term care facility to an acute care facility. The use of acute care services by long term care residents is a negative outcome, potentially avoidable, and expensive. The value of the MDS warehouse can be realized by the use of the stored data in ways that can improve patient outcomes and avoid the use of expensive acute care services. This study, when completed, will test whether the MDS warehouse can be used to describe patient outcomes and possibly be of predictive value.
Single-session groups are an effective method for providing mutual aid to patients and families experiencing crisis in acute care/emergency settings. This toolkit provides health care professionals with practical guidance in establishing, recruiting for, and facilitating single-session groups in hospital settings. A two-step literature search was conducted to identify all relevant articles. The literature was retrieved and reviewed for inclusion. The results of this review form the basis of the toolkit. A framework for establishing this type of group is explored. Challenges and strategies concerning recruitment are discussed. The practice skills relevant to facilitating time-limited groups are outlined.
Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G
Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology.
Kornhaber, Rachel; Walsh, Kenneth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim
Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reflect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. PMID:27789958
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
Relationships are central to enacting person-centred care of the older person with cognitive impairment. A fuller understanding of relationships and the role they play facilitating wellness and preserving personhood is critical if we are to unleash the productive potential of nursing research and person-centred care. In this article, we target the acute care setting because much of the work about relationships and older people with cognitive impairment has tended to focus on relationships in long-term care. The acute care setting is characterized by archetypal constraints which differentiate it from long-term care, in terms of acuity and haste, task-orientated work patterns and influence from "the rule of medicine," all of which can privilege particular types of relating. In this article, we drew on existing conceptualizations of relationships from theory and practice by tapping in to the intellectual resources provided by nurse researchers, the philosophy of Martin Buber and ANT scholars. This involved recounting two examples of dyadic and networked relationships which were re-interpreted using two complementary theoretical approaches to provide deeper and more comprehensive conceptualizations of these relationships. By re-presenting key tenets from the work of key scholars on the topic relationships, we hope to hasten socialization of these ideas into nursing into the acute care setting. First, by enabling nurses to reflect on how they might work toward cultivating relationships that are more salutogenic and consistent with the preservation of personhood. Second, by stimulating two distinct but related lines of research enquiry which focus on dyadic and networked relationships with the older person with cognitive impairment in the acute care setting. We also hope to reconcile the schism that has emerged in the literature between preferred approaches to care of the older person with cognitive impairment, that is person-centred care versus relationship-centred care
Adams, Rose; White, Barb; Beckett, Cynthia
Background Pain management remains a critical issue for hospitals and is receiving the attention of hospital accreditation organizations. The acute care setting of the hospital provides an excellent opportunity for the integration of massage therapy for pain management into the team-centered approach of patient care. Purpose and Setting This preliminary study evaluated the effect of the use of massage therapy on inpatient pain levels in the acute care setting. The study was conducted at Flagstaff Medical Center in Flagstaff, Arizona—a nonprofit community hospital serving a large rural area of northern Arizona. Method A convenience sample was used to identify research participants. Pain levels before and after massage therapy were recorded using a 0 – 10 visual analog scale. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for analysis of this descriptive study. Participants Hospital inpatients (n = 53) from medical, surgical, and obstetrics units participated in the current research by each receiving one or more massage therapy sessions averaging 30 minutes each. The number of sessions received depended on the length of the hospital stay. Result Before massage, the mean pain level recorded by the patients was 5.18 [standard deviation (SD): 2.01]. After massage, the mean pain level was 2.33 (SD: 2.10). The observed reduction in pain was statistically significant: paired samples t52 = 12.43, r = .67, d = 1.38, p < .001. Qualitative data illustrated improvement in all areas, with the most significant areas of impact reported being overall pain level, emotional well-being, relaxation, and ability to sleep. Conclusions This study shows that integration of massage therapy into the acute care setting creates overall positive results in the patient’s ability to deal with the challenging physical and psychological aspects of their health condition. The study demonstrated not only significant reduction in pain levels, but also the interrelatedness of pain, relaxation
O'Connell, Bev; Gardner, Anne; Takase, Miyuki; Hawkins, Mary T; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; Ski, Chantal; Josipovic, Patricia
Reality Orientation (RO) was developed as a strategy to assist people with dementia to improve their orientation and everyday function. Although its efficacy has been extensively studied in long-term care facilities, its effectiveness has rarely been examined in acute care settings. The aim of this review was to examine the studies cited in systematic reviews of RO to determine the potential clinical usefulness and the feasibility of using RO in acute care settings. Based on this information, the authors make recommendations for future research in this area. The feasibility of implementing RO in acute care poses challenges because of the short time a patient is in hospital and their ability to participate given their acute medical condition. Although the efficacy and feasibility of using RO in acute care settings have not been sufficiently examined, its potential to improve care should not be ignored. A comprehensive and rigorous study is necessary to investigate the usefulness of RO in the acute care setting and to help establish clinical guidelines for dementia care in the context of acute care nursing.
Televisitation is the virtual transportation of a patient's family to the bedside, regardless of the patient's location within an acute care setting. This innovation in the Telemedicine Program at Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre (TBRHSC) in Ontario, Canada, embraces the concept of patient- and family-centered care and has been identified as a leading practice by Accreditation Canada. The need to find creative ways to link patients to their family and friend supports hundreds of miles away was identified more than ten years ago. The important relationship between health outcomes and the psychosocial needs of patients and families has been recognized more recently. TBRHSC's patient- and family-centered model of care focuses on connecting patients with their families. First Nations renal patients with family in remote communities were some of the earliest users of videoconferencing technology for this purpose.
Cioffi, R N Jane
Communication with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) patients has been shown to be difficult. This study describes nurses' experiences of communicating with CLD patients in an acute care setting. A purposive sample of registered nurses and certified midwives (n=23) were interviewed. Main findings were: interpreters, bilingual health workers and combinations of different strategies were used to communicate with CLD patients; some nurses showed empathy, respect and a willingness to make an effort in the communication process with others showing an ethnocentric orientation. Main recommendations were: prioritising access to appropriate linguistic services, providing nurses with support from health care workers, e.g., bilingual health care workers who are able to provide more in-depth information, increasing nurses' understanding of legal issues within patient encounters, supporting nurses to translate their awareness of cultural diversity into acceptance of, appreciation for and commitment to CLD patients and their families.
Ewing, Gail; Farquhar, Morag; Booth, Sara
There has been a steady expansion of hospital-based palliative care in the United Kingdom but limited published research on health professionals' views of hospital multidisciplinary specialist palliative care services (SPCS). The aim of the study was to describe referrer (SPCS user) and provider (SPCS staff) perspectives on delivery of specialist palliative care in hospital. Interviews were conducted with referrers, including five junior doctors, 13 consultants, and six clinical nurse specialists, to investigate the reasons for referral, beneficial aspects, and barriers to use. Focus groups were conducted with providers, six medical and five nursing, to identify their perspective on delivering the specialist service in hospital. Discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using a framework analysis approach. The study found large areas of agreement between referrers and providers on what hospital palliative care teams should be providing for patients, that is, expertise in managing difficult symptoms and complex psychosocial problems, and this was being achieved locally. Access to the specialist team was also important: visibility on the wards, informal routes of access to advice and a timely response by specialists. However, discordance in views of providing palliative care was also identified; in particular, whether specialists should be providing generalist palliative care (such as basic psychological support) neglected by ward teams and implementation of specialist advice by referrers. Such perspectives on the interface of generalist and specialist provision provide insights into improving care for palliative patients in the acute hospital setting.
Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Damani, Anuja; Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann
Levofloxacin is a commonly prescribed antibiotic for managing chest and urinary tract infections in a palliative care setting. Incidence of Levofloxacin-associated anaphylaxis is rare and delirium secondary to Levofloxacin is a seldom occurrence with only few published case reports. It is an extremely rare occurrence to see this phenomenon in combination. Early identification and prompt intervention reduces both mortality and morbidity. A 17-year-old male with synovial sarcoma of right thigh with chest wall and lung metastasis and with no prior psychiatric morbidity presented to palliative medicine outpatient department with community-acquired pneumonia. He was initiated on intravenous (IV) Ceftriaxone and IV Levofloxacin. Post IV Levofloxacin patient developed anaphylaxis and acute delirium necessitating IV Hydrocortisone, IV Chlorpheneramine, Oxygen and IV Haloperidol. Early detection and prompt intervention helped in complete recovery. Patient was discharged to hospice for respite after 2 days of hospitalization and then discharged home. Acute palliative care approach facilitated management of two life-threatening medical complications in a palliative care setting improving both quality and length of life. PMID:25709191
Cheong, Chin Yee; Tan, Jane An Qi; Foong, Yi-Lin; Koh, Hui Mien; Chen, Denise Zhen Yue; Tan, Jessie Joon Chen; Ng, Chong Jin; Yap, Philip
Background/Aims The acute hospital ward can be unfamiliar and stressful for older patients with impaired cognition, rendering them prone to agitation and resistive to care. Extant literature shows that music therapy can enhance engagement and mood, thereby ameliorating agitated behaviours. This pilot study evaluates the impact of a creative music therapy (CMT) programme on mood and engagement in older patients with delirium and/or dementia (PtDD) in an acute care setting. We hypothesize that CMT improves engagement and pleasure in these patients. Methods Twenty-five PtDD (age 86.5 ± 5.7 years, MMSE 6/30 ± 5.4) were observed for 90 min (30 min before, 30 min during, and 30 min after music therapy) on 3 consecutive days: day 1 (control condition without music) and days 2 and 3 (with CMT). Music interventions included music improvisation such as spontaneous music making and playing familiar songs of patient's choice. The main outcome measures were mood and engagement assessed with the Menorah Park Engagement Scale (MPES) and Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS). Results Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a statistically significant positive change in constructive and passive engagement (Z = 3.383, p = 0.01) in MPES and pleasure and general alertness (Z = 3.188,p = 0.01) in OERS during CMT. The average pleasure ratings of days 2 and 3 were higher than those of day 1 (Z = 2.466, p = 0.014). Negative engagement (Z = 2.582, p = 0.01) and affect (Z = 2.004, p = 0.045) were both lower during CMT compared to no music. Conclusion These results suggest that CMT holds much promise to improve mood and engagement of PtDD in an acute hospital setting. CMT can also be scheduled into the patients' daily routines or incorporated into other areas of care to increase patient compliance and cooperation. PMID:27489560
Chen, Serene I; Fox, Erin R; Hall, M Kennedy; Ross, Joseph S; Bucholz, Emily M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Venkatesh, Arjun K
Early evidence suggests that provisions of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012 are associated with reductions in the total number of new national drug shortages. However, drugs frequently used in acute unscheduled care such as the care delivered in emergency departments may be increasingly affected by shortages. Our estimates, based on reported national drug shortages from 2001 to 2014 collected by the University of Utah's Drug Information Service, show that although the number of new annual shortages has decreased since the act's passage, half of all drug shortages in the study period involved acute care drugs. Shortages affecting acute care drugs became increasingly frequent and prolonged compared with non-acute care drugs (median duration of 242 versus 173 days, respectively). These results suggest that the drug supply for many acutely and critically ill patients in the United States remains vulnerable despite federal efforts.
The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to describe sleep characteristics of hospitalized older adults and the nighttime environmental noise and light they encountered. Study participants included patients in an acute care setting; actigraphy and light and sound meters were used to measure the variables. Mean sleep time was 215 minutes, and the average sleep efficiency was 44.72%. Nighttime sleep was fragmented into 5 to 38 intervals of 15 to 24 minutes, with frequent awakenings. Mean light levels were 6.14 lux, with peak intensities of 59.68 lux lasting 95 minutes each night. Mean sound levels were 52.87 dB(A). Sleep was markedly impaired in an environment of elevated light and sound levels. Understanding the role of noise and light in the sleep efficiency of ill older adults can help nurses identify sources of noise and light and initiate sleep improvement protocols.
Cowin, Leanne S
Poor collegial relations can cause communication breakdown, staff attrition and difficulties attracting new nursing staff. Underestimating the potential power of nursing team relationships means that opportunities to create better working environments and increase the quality of nursing care can be missed. Previous research on improving collegiality indicates that professionalism and work satisfaction increases and that staff attrition decreases. This study explores challenges, strengths and strategies used in nursing team communication in order to build collegial relationships. A qualitative approach was employed to gather nurses experiences and discussion of communication within their nursing teams and a constant comparison method was utilised for data analysis. A convenience sampling technique was employed to access both Registered Nurses and Enrolled Nurses to partake in six focus groups. Thirty mostly female nurses (ratio of 5:1) participated in the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of being a nurse currently working in acute care settings and the exclusion criteria included nursing staff currently working in closed specialty units (i.e. intensive care units). Results revealed three main themes: (1) externalisation and internalisation of nursing team communication breakdown, (2) the importance of collegiality for retention of nurses and (3) loss of respect, and civility across the healthcare workplace. A clear division between hierarchies of nurses was apparent in how nursing team communication was delivered and managed. Open, respectful and collegial communication is essential in today's dynamic and complex health environments. The nurses in this study highlighted how important nursing communication can be to work motivation and how leadership fosters teamwork.
Hubble, Rosemary; Trowbridge, Kelly; Hubbard, Claudia; Ahsens, Leslie; Ward-Smith, Peggy
The capability of effectively communicating is crucial when providing palliative care, especially when the patient is a child. Communication among healthcare professionals with the child and family members must be clear, concise, and consistent. Use of a communication tool provides documentation for conversations, treatment plans, and specific desires related to care. This paper describes communication theory, portrays the use of this theory to develop a communication tool, and illustrates the use of this tool by multidisciplinary members of a healthcare team to provide pediatric palliative care.
Sidani, Souraya; Reeves, Scott; Hurlock-Chorostecki, Christina; van Soeren, Mary; Fox, Mary; Collins, Laura
There is limited evidence of the extent to which Healthcare professionals implement patient-centered care (PCC) and of the factors influencing their PCC practices in acute care organizations. This study aimed to (1) examine the practices reported by health professionals (physicians, nurses, social workers, other healthcare providers) in relation to three PCC components (holistic, collaborative, and responsive care), and (2) explore the association of professionals' characteristics (gender, work experience) and a contextual factor (caseload), with the professionals' PCC practices. Data were obtained from a large scale cross-sectional study, conducted in 18 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Consenting professionals (n = 382) completed a self-report instrument assessing the three PCC components and responded to standard questions inquiring about their characteristics and workload. Small differences were found in the PCC practices across professional groups: (1) physicians reported higher levels of enacting the holistic care component; (2) physicians, other healthcare providers, and social workers reported implementing higher levels of the collaborative care component; and (3) physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers reported higher levels of providing responsive care. Caseload influenced holistic care practices. Interprofessional education and training strategies are needed to clarify and address professional differences in valuing and practicing PCC components. Clinical guidelines can be revised to enable professionals to engage patients in care-related decisions, customize patient care, and promote interprofessional collaboration in planning and implementing PCC. Additional research is warranted to determine the influence of professional, patient, and other contextual factors on professionals' PCC practices in acute care hospitals.
Dykes, Patricia C.; Benoit, Angela; Chang, Frank; Gallagher, Joan; Li, Qi; Spurr, Cindy; McGrath, E. Jan; Kilroy, Susan M.; Prater, Marita
The transition from paper to electronic documentation systems in acute care settings is often gradual and characterized by a period in which paper and electronic processes coexist. Intermediate technologies are needed to “bridge” the gap between paper and electronic systems as a means to improve work flow efficiency through data acquisition at the point of care in structured formats to inform decision support and facilitate reuse. The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of a study conducted on three acute care units at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA to evaluate the feasibility of digital pen and paper technology as a means to capture vital sign data in the context of acute care workflows and to make data available in a flow sheet in the electronic medical record. PMID:17238337
Villaseñor, Sally; Walker, Tara; Fetters, Lisa; McCoy, Maryanne
The study sought to determine the barriers to e-prescribing particular to the acute care setting, the educational and motivational needs of acute care providers, and the optimal process for incentive, education, and implementation of e-prescribing. A theoretically based survey instrument was adapted from previous work. Four domains were assessed: finesse, intent to use, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. The survey was offered to a group of acute care providers. The educational and motivational needs of acute care providers are different from those in primary care. Perceived barriers centered on uncertain pharmacy hours, unconfirmed transmittal, and accidental transmission to wrong pharmacy. Healthcare providers with more self-assessed knowledge of e-prescribing are more likely to use e-prescribing. Providers with fewer years in practice seem to have greater knowledge of e-prescribing. Providing education and exposure to e-prescribing has the potential to decrease perception of barriers and increase perceived usefulness for acute care providers. Software redesign may be needed to remove barriers associated with uncertain pharmacy hours, controlled substance prescribing, transmittal confirmation, and bidirectional communication needs, thereby improving motivation to e-prescribe.
Atlas, Steven J; Deyo, Richard A
Acute low back pain is a common reason for patient calls or visits to a primary care clinician. Despite a large differential diagnosis, the precise etiology is rarely identified, although musculoligamentous processes are usually suspected. For most patients, back symptoms are nonspecific, meaning that there is no evidence for radicular symptoms or underlying systemic disease. Because episodes of acute, nonspecific low back pain are usually self-limited, many patients treat themselves without contacting their primary care clinician. When patients do call or schedule a visit, evaluation and management by primary care clinicians is appropriate. The history and physical examination usually provide clues to the rare but potentially serious causes of low back pain, as well as to identify patients at risk for prolonged recovery. Diagnostic testing, including plain x-rays, is often unnecessary during the initial evaluation. For patients with acute, nonspecific low back pain, the primary emphasis of treatment should be conservative care, time, reassurance, and education. Current recommendations focus on activity as tolerated (though not active exercise while pain is severe) and minimal if any bed rest. Referral for physical treatments is most appropriate for patients whose symptoms are not improving over 2 to 4 weeks. Specialty referral should be considered for patients with a progressive neurologic deficit, failure of conservative therapy, or an uncertain or serious diagnosis. The prognosis for most patients is good, although recurrence is common. Thus, educating patients about the natural history of acute low back pain and how to prevent future episodes can help ensure reasonable expectations. PMID:11251764
Background Patient safety is a fundamental component of good quality health care. Checklists have been proposed as a method of improving patient safety. This systematic review, asked "In acute hospital settings, would the use of safety checklists applied by medical care teams, compared to not using checklists, improve patient safety?" Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials published in English before September 2009. Studies were selected and appraised by two reviewers independently in consultation with colleagues, using inclusion, exclusion and appraisal criteria established a priori. Results Nine cohort studies with historical controls studies from four hospital care settings were included-intensive care unit, emergency department, surgery, and acute care. The studies used a variety of designs of safety checklists, and implemented them in different ways, however most incorporated an educational component to teach the staff how to use the checklist. The studies assessed outcomes occurring a few weeks to a maximum of 12 months post-implementation, and these outcomes were diverse. The studies were generally of low to moderate quality and of low levels of evidence, with all but one of the studies containing a high risk of bias. The results of these studies suggest some improvements in patient safety arising from use of safety checklists, but these were not consistent across all studies or for all outcomes. Some studies showed no difference in outcomes between checklist use and standard care without a checklist. Due to the variations in setting, checklist design, educational training given, and outcomes measured, it was unfeasible to accurately summarise any trends across all studies. Conclusions The included studies suggest some benefits of using safety checklists to improve protocol adherence and patient safety, but due to the risk of bias in these studies, their results should be interpreted with
Smith, Christopher D; Robert, Stefanie
The use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs' or 'designer drugs') is increasing worldwide. Patients misusing such substances have been reported to experience severe or prolonged side effects requiring admission to acute or critical care wards. These complications can be life threatening if misdiagnosed or mismanaged. As physicians have traditionally had less involvement with the management of such patients compared with their colleagues in emergency departments an update in the management of such patients is indicated. Here we present a summary of the management of those novel substances with the potential for serious complications based on a review of current literature.
Link, Tamara L; Townsend, Mary L; Leung, Eugene; Kommu, Sekhar; Vega, Rhonda Y; Hendrix, Cristina C
Acute bronchitis is a predominantly viral illness and, according to clinical practice guidelines, should not be treated with antibiotics. Despite clear guidelines, acute bronchitis continues to be the most common acute respiratory illness for which antibiotics are incorrectly prescribed. Although the national benchmark for antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis is 0%, a preliminary record review before implementing the intervention at the project setting showed that 96% (N = 30) of adults with acute bronchitis in this setting were prescribed an antibiotic. This quality improvement project utilized a single-group, pre-post design. The setting for this project was a large urgent care network with numerous locations in central North Carolina. The purpose was to determine whether nurse practitioners and physician assistants, after participating in a multifaceted provider education session, would reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for healthy adults with acute uncomplicated bronchitis. Twenty providers attended 1 of 4 training sessions offered in October and November 2015. The face-to-face interactive training sessions focused on factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, current clinical practice guidelines, and patient communication skills. Retrospective medical record review of 217 pretraining and 335 posttraining encounters for acute bronchitis by 19 eligible participating providers demonstrated a 61.9% reduction in immediate antibiotic prescribing from 91.7% to 29.8%. Delayed prescribing, which accounted for a small percentage of the total prescriptions given, had a small but significant increase of 9.3% after training. Overall, this multifaceted, interactive provider training resulted in significant reductions in inappropriate prescriptions.
Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J
Although infection may be suggested by signs and symptoms such as fever, pain, general malaise, and abnormal laboratory results, imaging tests often are used to confirm its presence. Morphologic imaging tests identify structural alterations of tissues or organs that result from a combination of microbial invasion and the inflammatory response of the host. Functional imaging studies use minute quantities of radioactive material, which are taken up directly by cells, tissues, and organs, or are attached to substances that subsequently migrate to the region of interest. Bone scintigraphy is extremely sensitive and can be positive within 2 days after the onset of symptoms. With an accuracy of more than 90%, 3-phase bone scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in unviolated bone. In patients with acute renal failure, gallium imaging facilitates the differentiation of acute interstitial nephritis from acute tubular necrosis. Gallium imaging also is useful in the evaluation of pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many opportunistic infections affect the lungs, and a normal gallium scan of the chest excludes infection with a high degree of certainty, especially when the chest x-ray is negative. In the human immunodeficiency virus positive patient, lymph node uptake usually is associated with mycobacterial disease or lymphoma. Focal pulmonary parenchymal uptake suggests bacterial pneumonia. Diffuse pulmonary uptake suggests an opportunistic pneumonia. Gallium imaging provides useful information about other acute respiratory conditions, including radiation pneumonitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In vitro labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 and technetium-99m labeled leukocytes is useful in various acute care situations. The test facilitates the differentiation of normal postoperative changes from infection and is useful for diagnosing prosthetic vascular graft infection. In inflammatory bowel disease, labeled leukocyte
Background Improving palliative care management in acute hospital settings has been identified as a priority internationally. The aim of this study was to establish the proportion of inpatients within one acute hospital in New Zealand who meet prognostic criteria for palliative care need and explore key aspects of their management. Methods A prospective survey of adult hospital inpatients (n = 501) was undertaken. Case notes were examined for evidence that the patient might be in their last year of life according to Gold Standards Framework (GSF) prognostic indicator criteria. For patients who met GSF criteria, clinical and socio-demographic information were recorded. Results Ninety-nine inpatients met GSF criteria, representing 19.8% of the total census population. The patients’ average age was 70 years; 47% had a primary diagnosis of cancer. Two thirds had died within 6 months of their admission. Seventy-eight of the 99 cases demonstrated evidence that a palliative approach to care had been adopted; however documentation of discussion about goals of care was very limited and only one patient had evidence of an advance care plan. Conclusion One fifth of hospital inpatients met criteria for palliative care need, the majority of whom were aged >70 years. Whilst over three quarters were concluded to be receiving care in line with a palliative care approach, very little documented evidence of discussion with patients and families regarding end of life issues was evident. Future research needs to explore how best to support ‘generalist’ palliative care providers in initiating, and appropriately recording, such discussions. PMID:23537092
Fulmer, T; Ashley, J; Reilly, C
In conclusion, it is important to reiterate the interdependent nature of the functional health patterns as they relate to the geriatric patient in the acute care setting. Further, the combination of the primary nursing model with the functional health pattern approach that leads to subsequent nursing diagnoses provides a comprehensive care approach, which is so important for the elderly patient. As elders live longer, become frailer, and are subject to increasingly frequent hospitalizations, it will become more and more important to provide care in a manner that decreases fragmentation, increases individualization, and makes provisions for comprehensive and wholistic continuing care.
Reyniers, Thijs; Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim; Pasman, H Roeline; Deliens, Luc
While the focus of end-of-life care research and policy has predominantly been on 'death in a homelike environment', little is known about perceptions of the acute hospital setting as a place of final care or death. Using a qualitative design and constant comparative analysis, the perspectives of family physicians, nurses and family carers were explored. Participants generally perceived the acute hospital setting to be inadequate for terminally ill patients, although they indicated that in some circumstances it might be a 'safe haven'. This implies that a higher quality of end-of-life care provision in the acute hospital setting needs to be ensured, preferably by improving communication skills. At the same time alternatives to the acute hospital setting need to be developed or expanded.
Nace, David A; Archbald-Pannone, Laurie R; Ashraf, Muhammad S; Drinka, Paul J; Frentzel, Elizabeth; Gaur, Swati; Mahajan, Dheeraj; Mehr, David R; Mercer, William C; Sloane, Philip D; Jump, Robin L P
Efforts at preventing pneumococcal disease are a national health priority, particularly in older adults and especially in post-acute and long-term care settings The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all adults ≥65 years of age, as well as adults 18-64 years of age with specific risk factors, receive both the recently introduced polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against 13 pneumococcal serotypes as well as the polysaccharide vaccine against 23 pneumococcal serotypes. Nursing facility licensure regulations require facilities to assess the pneumococcal vaccination status of each resident, provide education regarding pneumococcal vaccination, and administer the appropriate pneumococcal vaccine when indicated. Sorting out the indications and timing for 13 pneumococcal serotypes and 23 pneumococcal serotypes administration is complex and presents a significant challenge to healthcare providers. Here, we discuss the importance of pneumococcal vaccination for older adults, detail AMDA-The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (The Society)'s recommendations for pneumococcal vaccination practice and procedures, and offer guidance to postacute and long-term care providers supporting the development and effective implementation of pneumococcal vaccine policies.
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
In this article, we sought reconciliation between the "body-as-representation" and the "body-as-experience," that is, how the body is represented in discourse and how the body of older people with cognitive impairment is experienced. We identified four contemporary "technologies" and gave examples of these to show how they influence how older people with cognitive impairment are often represented in acute care settings. We argued that these technologies may be mediated further by discourses of ageism and ableism which can potentiate either the repressive or productive tendencies of these technologies resulting in either positive or negative care experiences for the older person and/or their carer, including nurses. We then provided examples from research of embodied experiences of older people with dementia and of how nurses and other professionals utilized their inter-bodily experiences to inform acts of caring. The specificity and individuality of these experiences were more conducive to positive care experiences. We conclude the article by proposing that the act of caring is one way nurses seek to reconcile the "body-as-representation" with the "body-as-experience" to mitigate the repressive effects of negative ageism and ableism. The act of caring, we argue, is the essence of caring enacted through the provision of person-centred care which evokes nurses to respond appropriately to the older person's "otherness," their "variation of being" while enabling them to enact a continuation of themselves and their own version of normality.
Progressive Return to Activity Following Acute Concussion /Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Guidance for the Primary Care Manager in Deployed and Non...Following Acute Concussion /Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Guidance for the Primary Care Manager in Deployed and Non-deployed Settings (BRIEFING SLIDES) 5a...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Describe the role of this clinical recommendation and overall goal for recovery following concussion /mTBI Understand the
Hogan, Pamela; Moxham, Lorna; Dwyer, Trudy
It is paramount that there is an adequate nursing workforce supply for now and in the future, to achieve equitable and quality health outcomes and consumer access to healthcare, regardless of geographic location. Nursing forms the largest body of employees in the health care system, spanning all segments of care. A shortage of nurses, particularly in the acute care settings in hospitals, jeopardizes the provision of quality health care to consumers. This article provides a literature review of Australian State and Federal Government reports into nurse retention. All reports discuss staff turnover rates; the average age of nurses; enrolment numbers in nursing courses; workloads; nursing workforce shortfalls and the effect on the work environment; leadership and management styles; organizational culture; change management; the mobility of nursing qualifications both locally and internationally and the critical need to value nurses. Then why has the situation of nurse retention not improved? Possible reasons for the continued nurse shortage and the promise of strategic HRM in addressing nurse retention are discussed.
Orique, Sabrina B; Patty, Christopher M; Woods, Ellen
This study replicates previous research on the nature and causes of missed nursing care and adds an explanatory variable: unit-level nurse workload (patient turnover percentage). The study was conducted in California, which legally mandates nurse staffing ratios. Findings demonstrated no significant relationship between patient turnover and missed nursing care.
Büla, Christophe J; Wietlisbach, Vincent
The Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) was initially designed to assess cognition in long term care residents. Subsequently, the CPS has also been used among in-home, post-acute, and acute care populations even though CPS' clinimetric performance has not been studied in these settings. This study aimed to determine CPS agreement with the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and its predictive validity for institutionalization and death in a cohort (N=401) of elderly medical inpatients aged 75 years and over. Medical, physical and mental status were assessed upon admission. The same day, the patient's nurse completed the CPS by interview. Follow-up data were gathered from the central billing system (nursing home stay) and proxies (death). Cognitive impairment was present in 92 (23%) patients according to CPS (score >or= 2). Agreement with MMSE was moderate (kappa 0.52, P<.001). Analysis of discordant results suggested that cognitive impairment was overestimated by the CPS in dependent patients with comorbidities and depressive symptoms, and underestimated in older ones. During follow-up, subjects with abnormal CPS had increased risks of death (adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8, P=.035) and institutionalization (adjHR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.3, P=.006), independent of demographic, health and functional status. Interestingly, subjects with abnormal CPS were at increased risk of death only if they also had abnormal MMSE. The CPS predicted death and institutionalization during follow-up, but correlated moderately well with the MMSE. Combining CPS and MMSE provided additional predictive information, suggesting that domains other than cognition are assessed by professionals when using the CPS in elderly medical inpatients.
Giuliano, Christopher; Smalligan, Roger D; Mitchon, Greg; Chua, Matt
Patients with migraine headaches are commonly encountered by clinicians both in the clinic and in the emergency department. Migraines impose a significant financial burden on patients, caregivers, and society. Up to 49% of patients treated acutely for migraine headache will have a recurrence within 72 hours. Recurrence of migraines is dependent on a number of factors, including the choice of abortive agent, age, sex, and initial severity of the migraine. Dexamethasone has been proposed and studied as a medication that may decrease the frequency of such recurrences of migraine headaches in affected patients. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid that has been proposed to prevent recurrence of migraines through its prevention of neurogenic inflammation. Initial trials, with less-than-ideal methodology, showed large decreases in the number of patients experiencing recurrent migraines. Later randomized controlled trials revealed mixed results, with subsequent meta-analyses showing an overall benefit in the prevention of recurrence of migraines. These meta-analyses suggest that dexamethasone will prevent recurrence in about 10% of patients, although trials that used higher doses of dexamethasone and followed patients for ≥ 72 hours showed a larger benefit. Very few adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials following a single dose of dexamethasone. Given the benign side effect profile and wide tolerability to a single high dose of dexamethasone, it appears to be a safe and modestly effective addition to standard migraine abortive therapy for the prevention of migraine recurrence. Dexamethasone should not be used in patients with non-migraine headaches or contraindications to steroids. Further studies should help delineate if dexamethasone can be tailored to specific patient populations and hence enhance its therapeutic effectiveness.
Wyder, Marianne; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Crompton, David; McArthur, Leianne; Delaforce, Caroline; Dziopa, Fiona; Ramon, Shulamit; Powell, Elizabeth
Inpatient psychiatric care requires a balance between working with consumers' priorities and goals, managing expectations of the community, legal, professional and service responsibilities. In order to improve service delivery within acute mental health units, it is important to understand the constraints and facilitating factors for good care. We conducted a systematic narrative synthesis, where findings of qualitative studies are synthesised to generate new insights. 21 articles were identified. Our results show that personal qualities, professional skills as well as environmental factors all influence the ability to provide recovery focused care. Three overarching themes which either facilitated or hindered were identified. These included: (i) Complexity of the nursing role (clinical care; practical and emotional support: advocacy and education; enforcing aspects of the Mental Health Act. and, maintaining ward safety); (ii) Constraining factors (operational barriers; change in patient characteristic; and competing understandings of care); and (iii) Facilitating factors (ward factors; nursing tools; nurse characteristics; approach to people; approach to work and ability to self-care). We suggest that the therapeutic use of self is central to the provision of recovery oriented care. However person-centred practice can be fragile and fluid and a compassionate system of support is needed to enable an understanding of context and self. It is critical to have a work environment which fosters hope and optimism and is supportive of autonomy, ensures workload balance, and is safe.
Levy, Matthew E; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Wilton, Leo; Brewer, Russell A; Fields, Sheldon D; Criss, Vittoria; Magnus, Manya
Characterization of structural barriers that impede the receipt of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural barrier to engagement in care. Proportions of participants who had received HIV prevention services and general care services in different settings were compared using Fisher's exact test and correlates of service receipt were assessed using logistic regression. Among 75 BMSM, 60% had accessed a community-based clinic, 21% had accessed a primary care setting, and 36% had accessed an acute care setting in the last 6 months. Greater proportions of participants who had accessed community-based clinics received HIV prevention services during these visits (90%) compared to those who had accessed primary care (53%) and acute care (44%) settings (p = .005). Opportunities for BMSM to receive HIV prevention interventions differed by care setting. Having access to health care did not necessarily facilitate the uptake of HIV prevention interventions. Further investigation of the structurally rooted reasons why BMSM are often unable to access HIV prevention services is warranted.
Parker, Karen M; Harrington, Ann; Smith, Charlene M; Sellers, Kathleen F; Millenbach, Linda
Horizontal violence (HV) is prevalent in nursing. However, few strategies are identified to address this phenomenon that undermines communication and patient safety. Nurses at an acute care hospital implemented multiple interventions to address HV resulting in increased knowledge of hospital policies regarding HV, and significantly (p < .05) less HV prevalence than was reported by nurses in other organizations throughout New York State. With the aid and oversight of nursing professional development specialists, evidence-based interventions to address HV were developed including policies, behavioral performance reviews, and staff/manager educational programs.
Rushton, Carole; Edvardsson, David
Although a large body of literature exists propounding the importance of space in aged care and care of the older person with dementia, there is, however, only limited exploration of the 'acute care space' as a particular type of space with archetypal constraints that maybe unfavourable to older people with cognitive impairment and nurses wanting to provide care that is person-centred. In this article, we explore concepts of space and examine the implications of these for the delivery of care to older people who are cognitively impaired. Our exploration is grounded in theorisations of space offered by key geographers and phenomenologists, but also draws on how space has been constructed within the nursing literature that refers specifically to acute care. We argue that space, once created, can be created and that nursing has a significant role to play in the process of its recreation in the pursuit of care that is person-centred. We conclude by introducing an alternative logic of space aimed at promoting the creation of more salutogenic spaces that invokes a sense of sanctuary, safeness, and inclusion, all of which are essential if the care provided to the older person with cognitive impairment is apposite to their needs. The concept of 'person-centred space' helps to crystallize the relationship between space and person-centred care and implies more intentional manipulation of space that is more conducive to caring and healing. Significantly, it marks a return to Nightingale's wisdom, that is, to put the person in the best possible conditions for nature to act upon them.
Campbell, Jill L; Coyer, Fiona M; Osborne, Sonya R
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the prevalence of incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) in Australian acute care patients and to describe the products worn to manage incontinence, and those provided at the bedside for perineal skin care. Data on 376 inpatients were collected over 2 days at a major Australian teaching hospital. The mean age of the sample group was 62 years and 52% of the patients were male. The prevalence rate of incontinence was 24% (91/376). Urinary incontinence was significantly more prevalent in females (10%) than males (6%) (χ(2) = 4·458, df = 1, P = 0·035). IAD occurred in 10% (38/376) of the sample group, with 42% (38/91) of incontinent patients having IAD. Semi-formed and liquid stool were associated with IAD (χ(2) = 5·520, df = 1, P = 0·027). Clinical indication of fungal infection was present in 32% (12/38) of patients with IAD. Absorbent disposable briefs were the most common incontinence aids used (80%, 70/91), with soap/water and disposable washcloths being the clean-up products most commonly available (60%, 55/91) at the bedside. Further data are needed to validate this high prevalence. Studies that address prevention of IAD and the effectiveness of management strategies are also needed.
Corless, Inge B.
Examines topics related to delivery of terminal care services: ability of various hospice programs to survive financially, contributions of various models of hospice care, impact of Medicare legislation on hospice movement, demonstration of unique hospice intervention, integration of spiritual care into hospice, and role of hospice in care of…
Alhawassi, Tariq M; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata V; Pont, Lisa G
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important health issue. While prevalence and risk factors associated with ADRs in the general adult population have been well documented, much less is known about ADRs in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to review the published literature to estimate the prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting and identify factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR in the elderly. A systematic review of studies published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. Key search terms included: “adverse drug reactions”, “adverse effects”, “elderly patients and hospital admission”, “drug therapy”, “drug adverse effects”, “drug related”, “aged”, “older patients”, “geriatric”, “hospitalization”, and “emergency admissions”. For inclusion in the review, studies had to focus on ADRs in the elderly and had to include an explicit definition of what was considered an ADR and/or an explicit assessment of causality, and a clear description of the method used for ADR identification, and had to describe factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Fourteen hospital-based observational studies exploring ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting were eligible for inclusion in this review. The mean prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the studies included in this review was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1%–16.8%). The median prevalence of ADRs leading to hospitalization was 10.0% (95% CI: 7.2%–12.8%), while the prevalence of ADRs occurring during hospitalization was 11.5% (95% CI: 0%–27.7%). There was wide variation in the overall ADR prevalence, from 5.8% to 46.3%. Female sex, increased comorbid complexity, and increased number of medications were all significantly associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Retrospective studies and those relying on identification by the
Davis, Kimberly A; Rozycki, Grace S
At the center of the development of acute care surgery is the growing difficulty in caring for patients with acute surgical conditions. Care demands continue to grow in the face of an escalating crisis in emergency care access and the decreasing availability of surgeons to cover emergency calls. To compound this problem, there is an ever-growing shortage of general surgeons as technological advances have encouraged subspecialization. Developed by the leadership of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the specialty of acute care surgery offers a training model that would produce a new breed of specialist with expertise in trauma surgery, surgical critical care, and elective and emergency general surgery. This article highlights the evolution of the specialty in hope that these acute care surgeons, along with practicing general surgeons, will bring us closer to providing superb and timely care for patients with acute surgical conditions.
Razjouyan, Javad; Grewal, Gurtej Singh; Rishel, Cindy; Parthasarathy, Sairam; Mohler, Jane; Najafi, Bijan
Growing concern for falls in acute care settings could be addressed with objective evaluation of fall risk. The current proof-of-concept study evaluated the feasibility of using a chest-worn sensor during hospitalization to determine fall risk. Physical activity and heart rate variability (HRV) of 31 volunteers admitted to a 29-bed adult inpatient unit were recorded using a single chest-worn sensor. Sensor data during the first 24-hour recording were analyzed. Participants were stratified using the Hendrich II fall risk assessment into high and low fall risk groups. Univariate analysis revealed age, daytime activity, nighttime side lying posture, and HRV were significantly different between groups. Results suggest feasibility of wearable technology to consciously monitor physical activity, sleep postures, and HRV as potential markers of fall risk in the acute care setting. Further study is warranted to confirm the results and examine the efficacy of the proposed wearable technology to manage falls in hospitals. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(x), xx-xx.].
Atyeo, J; Sanderson, P M
The melodic alarm sound set for medical electrical equipment that was recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission's IEC 60601-1-8 standard has proven difficult for clinicians to learn and remember, especially clinicians with little prior formal music training. An alarm sound set proposed by Patterson and Edworthy in 1986 might improve performance for such participants. In this study, 31 critical and acute care nurses with less than one year of formal music training identified alarm sounds while they calculated drug dosages. Sixteen nurses used the IEC and 15 used the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set. The mean (SD) percentage of alarms correctly identified by nurses was 51.3 (25.6)% for the IEC alarm set and 72.1 (18.8)% for the Patterson-Edworthy alarms (p = 0.016). Nurses using the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sound set reported that it was easier to distinguish between alarm sounds than did nurses using the IEC alarm sound set (p = 0.015). Principles used to construct the Patterson-Edworthy alarm sounds should be adopted for future alarm sound sets.
Corbett, Dale; Finestone, Hillel M.; Hatcher, Simon; Lumsden, Jim; Momoli, Franco; Shamy, Michel C. F.; Stotts, Grant; Swartz, Richard H.; Yang, Christine
Background Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients’ access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke. Methods We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability. Results Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female) for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most “convenient”. Conclusions Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care. PMID:28002479
Taylor, Kris; Guy, Stuart; Stewart, Linda; Ayling, Mark; Miller, Graham; Anthony, Anne; Bajuk, Anne; Brun, Jo Le; Shearer, Dianne; Gregory, Rebecca; Thomas, Matthew
The process of risk assessment which should inform and help identify clinical needs is often seen as a tick box and task-focussed approach. While on the surface this provides a sense of security that forms have been completed, we often fail to communicate in a meaningful manner about the clinical needs identified, which would assist in supporting the care planning delivery processes. A clinical practice improvement (CPI) project implemented a care zoning framework as an evidenced-based process that provides pragmatic support to nurses who are required to continually assess, implement, and evaluate plans to address clinical need across three acute mental health inpatient settings. Risk descriptors informed by the New South Wales (NSW) Mental Health Assessment & Outcome Tools (MHAOT) criteria were developed and described in behavioural contexts in order to improve the project's reliability and translation. A pragmatic traffic light tool was used to share clinical information across three agreed care zones, red (high clinical need), amber (medium clinical need), and green (low clinical need). Additionally nurses were asked to utilise a shift review form in the context of supporting the recording of care zoning and promoting action-orientated note writing. The introduction of care zoning has enthused the nursing teams and the mental health service to adopt care zoning as a supervisory framework that increases their capacity to communicate clinical needs, share information, and gain invaluable support from one another in addressing clinical needs. This includes increased opportunities for staff to feel supported in asking for assistance in understanding and addressing complex clinical presentations.
nursing care workload. A patient classification system in use at one Naval Regional Medical Center was revised and tested at another naval facility. Indicators of patient dependence on nursing care were identified and four methods were used to determine indicator weights and patient classification. The results of each method were evaluated in comparison with consensus nursing judgment and determined to be essentially equivalent.
Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Klein, Deborah; Winkelman, Chris
As genomic health care becomes commonplace, nurses will be asked to provide genomic care in all health care settings including acute care and critical care. Three common cardiac conditions are reviewed, Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, to provide acute care and critical care nurses with an overview of these pathologies through the lens of genomics and relevant case studies. This information will help critical care nursing leaders become familiar with genetics related to common cardiac conditions and prepare acute care and critical care nurses for a new phase in patient diagnostics, with greater emphasis on early diagnosis and recognition of conditions before sudden cardiac death.
Roberts, Emmert; Dworzynski, Katharina; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Cowie, Martin R; McMurray, John J V; Mant, Jonathan
Objectives To determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of serum natriuretic peptide levels (B type natriuretic peptide, N terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), and mid-regional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP)) in people presenting with acute heart failure to acute care settings using thresholds recommended in the 2012 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for heart failure. Design Systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, database of abstracts of reviews of effects, NHS economic evaluation database, and Health Technology Assessment up to 28 January 2014, using combinations of subject headings and terms relating to heart failure and natriuretic peptides. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible studies evaluated one or more natriuretic peptides (B type natriuretic peptide, NTproBNP, or MRproANP) in the diagnosis of acute heart failure against an acceptable reference standard in consecutive or randomly selected adults in an acute care setting. Studies were excluded if they did not present sufficient data to extract or calculate true positives, false positives, false negatives, and true negatives, or report age independent natriuretic peptide thresholds. Studies not available in English were also excluded. Results 37 unique study cohorts described in 42 study reports were included, with a total of 48 test evaluations reporting 15 263 test results. At the lower recommended thresholds of 100 ng/L for B type natriuretic peptide and 300 ng/L for NTproBNP, the natriuretic peptides have sensitivities of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 0.96) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00) and negative predictive values of 0.94 (0.90 to 0.96) and 0.98 (0.89 to 1.0), respectively, for a diagnosis of acute heart failure. At the lower recommended threshold of 120 pmol/L, MRproANP has a sensitivity ranging from 0.95 (range 0
Magee, Michelle; Bardsley, Joan K; Wallia, Amisha; Smith, Kelly M
Scientific evidence is available to guide the how to of medications management when patients with diabetes are hospitalized or present to the Emergency Department. However, few clinical trials in the diabetes field have addressed the execution, coupled with established implementation effectiveness evaluation frameworks to help inform and assess implementation practices to support the transition in care. These deficiencies may be overcome by (1) applying the principles of implementation and delivery systems science; (2) engaging the principles of human factors (HF) throughout the design, development, and evaluation planning activities; and (3) utilizing mixed methods to design the intervention, workflow processes, and evaluate the intervention for sustainability within existing care delivery models. This article provides a discussion of implementation science and human factors science including an overview of commonly used frameworks which can be applied to structure design and implementation of sustainable and generalizable interventions.
Severe injuries such as intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are the most serious problem after falls in hospital, but they have not been considered in risk assessment scores for falls. We tried to determine the risk factors for ICH after falls in 20,320 inpatients (696,364 patient-days) aged from 40 to 90 years who were admitted to a tertiary-care university hospital. Possible risk factors including STRATIFY risk score for falls and FRAX™ risk score for fractures were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Fallers accounted for 3.2% of the patients, and 5.0% of the fallers suffered major injuries, including peripheral bone fracture (59.6%) and ICH (23.4%). In addition to STRATIFY, FRAX™ was significantly associated not only with bone fractures but also ICH. Concomitant use of risk score for falls and risk score for fractures might be useful for the prediction of major injuries such as ICH after falls. PMID:22980233
Marín, Alejandro; Medrano, María José; González, José; Pintado, Héctor; Compaired, Vicente; Bárcena, Mario; Fustero, María Victoria; Tisaire, Javier; Cucalón, José M; Martín, Aurelio; Boix, Raquel; Hernansanz, Francisco; Bueno, José
Background Ischaemic heart disease is a global priority of health-care policy, because of its social repercussions and its impact on the health-care system. Yet there is little information on coronary morbidity in Spain and on the effect of the principal risk factors on risk of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of coronary disease (incidence, mortality and its association with cardiovascular risk factors) using the information gathered by primary care practitioners on cardiovascular health of their population. Methods A prospective study was designed. Eight primary-care centres participated, each contributing to the constitution of the cohort with the entire population covered by the centre. A total of 6124 men and women aged over 25 years and free of cardiovascular disease agreed to participate and were thus enrolled and followed-up, with all fatal and non-fatal coronary disease episodes being registered during a 5-year period. Repeated measurements were collected on smoking, blood pressure, weight and height, serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins and fasting glucose. Rates were calculated for acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic heart disease. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and coronary disease-free survival were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Mean age at recruitment was 51.6 ± 15, with 24% of patients being over 65. At baseline, 74% of patients were overweight, serum cholesterol over 240 was present in 35% of patients, arterial hypertension in 37%, and basal glucose over 126 in 11%. Thirty-four percent of men and 13% of women were current smokers. During follow-up, 155 first episodes of coronary disease were detected, which yielded age-adjusted rates of 362 and 191 per 100,000 person-years in men and women respectively. Disease-free survival was associated with all risk factors in univariate analyses. After multivariate
Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.
This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.
Russell, J S
In the last few years, much medical-facility construction has been driven by what insurers want. Hospitals have built facilities for well-reimbursed procedures and closed money-losing ones. Health-maintenance organizations increasingly expect to hold down costs by making prepayment arrangements with doctors and their hospitals. President Clinton has pledged early action on health-care reform, which will likely change planners' priorities. Whether the nation goes to Clintonian "managed competition" or a Canadian-style nationwide single-payer system (the two most likely options), the projects on these pages reflect two large-scale trends that are likely to continue: the movement of more procedures from inpatient to outpatient facilities and the separation of treatment functions from ordinary office and administrative tasks so that the latter are not performed in the same high-cost buildings as technology-intensive procedures. Various schemes that make care more "patient-centered" have been tried and been shown to speed healing, even for outpatients, but such hard-to-quantify issues get short shrift in an era of knee-jerk cost containment. The challenge in tomorrow's healthcare universe--whatever it becomes--will be to keep these issues on the table.
Pelzl, Steffen; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Laux, Gunter
Objectives Antibiotic overprescribing in primary care has major impacts on the development of antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to provide insight in antibiotics prescriptions for patients suffering from cough, acute bronchitis or community acquired pneumonia in primary care. Methods Data from 2009 to 2013 of electronic health records of 12,880 patients in Germany were obtained from a research database. The prescription of antibiotics for acute lower respiratory tract infections was compared to the national S3 guideline cough from the German Society of General Practitioners and Family Medicine. Results Antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of consultations. General practitioners’ decision of whether or not to prescribe an antibiotic was congruent with the guideline in 52% of consultations and the antibiotic choice congruence was 51% of antibiotic prescriptions. Hence, a congruent prescribing decision and a prescription of recommendation was found in only 25% of antibiotic prescriptions. Split by diagnosis we found that around three quarters of antibiotics prescribed for cough (73%) and acute bronchitis (78%) were not congruent to the guidelines. In contrast to that around one quarter of antibiotics prescribed for community acquired pneumonia (28%) were not congruent to the guidelines. Conclusions Our results show that there is a big gap between guideline recommendation and actual prescribing, in the decision to prescribe and the choice of antibiotic agent. This gap could be closed by periodic quality circles on antibiotic prescribing for GPs. PMID:28350820
Background Estimates place the number of refugees in Nairobi over 100,000. The constant movement of refugees between countries of origin, refugee camps, and Nairobi poses risk of introduction and transmission of communicable diseases into Kenya. We assessed the care-seeking behavior of residents of Eastleigh, a neighborhood in Nairobi with urban refugees. Methods During July and August 2010, we conducted a Health Utilization Survey in Section II of Eastleigh. We used a multistage random cluster sampling design to identify households for interview. A standard questionnaire on the household demographics, water and sanitation was administered to household caretakers. Separate questionnaires were administered to household members who had one or more of the illnesses of interest. Results Of 785 households targeted for interview, data were obtained from 673 (85.7%) households with 3,005 residents. Of the surveyed respondents, 290 (9.7%) individuals reported acute respiratory illness (ARI) in the previous 12 months, 222 (7.4%) reported fever in the preceding 2 weeks, and 54 (1.8%) reported having diarrhea in the 30 days prior to the survey. Children <5 years old had the highest frequency of all the illnesses surveyed: 17.1% (95% CI 12.2-21.9) reported ARI, 10.0% (95% CI 6.2-13.8) reported fever, and 6.9% (3.8-10.0) reported diarrhea during the time periods specified for each syndrome. Twenty-nine [7.5% (95% CI 4.3-10.7)] hospitalizations were reported among all age groups of those who sought care. Among participants who reported ≥1 illness, 330 (77.0%) sought some form of health care; most (174 [59.8%]) sought health care services from private health care providers. Fifty-five (18.9%) participants seeking healthcare services visited a pharmacy. Few residents of Eastleigh (38 [13.1%]) sought care at government-run facilities, and 24 (8.2%) sought care from a relative, a religious leader, or a health volunteer. Of those who did not seek any health care services (99 [23
Valente, Carla; Soares, Márcio; Rocha, Eduardo; Cardoso, Lucio; Maccariello, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of platelet counts in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed in three tertiary-care hospitals. Platelet counts were obtained upon admission to the intensive care unit and during the first week of renal replacement therapy on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. The outcome of interest was the hospital mortality rate. With the aim of minimizing individual variation, we analyzed the relative platelet counts on days 3, 5, 7 and at the point of the largest variation during the first week of renal replacement therapy. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the prognostic value of the platelet counts. RESULTS: The study included 274 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 62%. The survivors had significantly higher platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit compared to the non-survivors [175.5×103/mm3 (108.5–259×103/mm3) vs. 148×103/mm3 (80−141×103/mm3)] and during the first week of renal replacement therapy. The relative platelet count reductions were significantly associated with a higher hospital mortality rate compared with the platelet count increases (70% vs. 44% at the nadir, respectively). A relative platelet count reduction >60% was significantly associated with a worse outcome (mortality rate = 82.6%). Relative platelet count variations and the percentage of reduction were independent risk factors of hospital mortality during the first week of renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: Platelet counts upon admission to the intensive care unit and at the beginning of renal replacement therapy as well as sequential platelet count evaluation have prognostic value in acute kidney injury patients requiring renal replacement therapy. PMID:23778497
Pines, Jesse M; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Zocchi, Mark S; Lazar, Danielle; Leedekerken, Jacob B; Margolis, Gregg S; Carr, Brendan G
We engaged in a 1-year process to develop a conceptual model representing an episode of acute, unscheduled care. Acute, unscheduled care includes acute illnesses (eg, nausea and vomiting), injuries, or exacerbations of chronic conditions (eg, worsening dyspnea in congestive heart failure) and is delivered in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and physicians' offices, as well as through telemedicine. We began with a literature search to define an acute episode of care and to identify existing conceptual models used in health care. In accordance with this information, we then drafted a preliminary conceptual model and collected stakeholder feedback, using online focus groups and concept mapping. Two technical expert panels reviewed the draft model, examined the stakeholder feedback, and discussed ways the model could be improved. After integrating the experts' comments, we solicited public comment on the model and made final revisions. The final conceptual model includes social and individual determinants of health that influence the incidence of acute illness and injury, factors that affect care-seeking decisions, specific delivery settings where acute care is provided, and outcomes and costs associated with the acute care system. We end with recommendations for how researchers, policymakers, payers, patients, and providers can use the model to identify and prioritize ways to improve acute care delivery.
Yeaman, Brian; Ko, Kelly J; Alvarez del Castillo, Rodolfo
Care transitions between settings are a well-known cause of medical errors. A key component of transition is information exchange, especially in long-term care (LTC). However, LTC is behind other settings in adoption of health information technologies (HIT). In this article, we provide some brief background information about care transitions in LTC and concerns related to technology. We describe a pilot project using HIT and secure messaging in LTC to facilitate electronic information exchange during care transitions. Five LTC facilities were included, all located within Oklahoma and serviced by the same regional health system. The study duration was 20 months. Both inpatient readmission and return emergency department (ED) visit rates were lower than baseline following implementation. We provide discussion of positive outcomes, lessons learned, and limitations. Finally, we offer implications for practice and research for implementation of HIT and information exchange across care settings that may contribute to reduction in readmission rates in acute care and ED settings.
Fessler, Henry E; Hess, Dean R
High-frequency ventilation is the application of mechanical ventilation with a respiratory rate > 100 breaths/min. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is the form of high-frequency ventilation most widely used in adult critical care. The principles of lung-protective ventilation have matured in parallel with the technology for HFOV. The 2 basic principles of lung-protective ventilation are the use of small tidal volume and maintenance of adequate alveolar recruitment. Research in animal models and humans demonstrate that HFOV can support gas exchange with much smaller tidal volume than can be achieved with conventional ventilation. HFOV also provides more effective lung recruitment than conventional mechanical ventilation. However, at present, evidence is lacking that survival in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome is improved by HFOV. Although HFOV may improve P(aO(2)) in some patients, this improvement is often transitory. Available evidence does not support that pulmonary inflammation is reduced with HFOV in adult acute respiratory distress syndrome. Heavy sedation and often paralysis are necessary. The promise of HFOV as a lung-protective ventilation strategy remains attractive, but additional clinical trials are needed to determine whether this approach is superior to lung-protective ventilation with conventional mechanical ventilation.
Mullen-Fortino, Margaret; Sites, Frank D; Soisson, Michael; Galen, Julie
Tele-intensive care units (ICUs) typically provide remote monitoring for ICUs of acute care, short-stay hospitals. As part of a joint venture project to establish a long-term acute level of care, Good Shepherd Penn Partners became the first facility to use tele-ICU technology in a nontraditional setting. Long-term acute care hospitals care for patients with complex medical problems. We describe describes the benefits and challenges of integrating a tele-ICU program into a long-term acute care setting and the impact this model of care has on patient care outcomes.
Rico, María; Martinez-Rodriguez, Laura; Larrosa-Campo, Davinia; Calleja, Sergio
Background Stroke mimics may account for up to 30% of all acute stroke consultations. However, in the emergency setting, accurate diagnosis is not always possible. Methods Case report and review of the literature. Results A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with acute aphasia and right hemiparesis. The National Institute of Health Stroke Score was 21, compatible with severe stroke, so she received thrombolysis. Laboratory testing demonstrated severe hypomagnesemia. She had been taking proton pump inhibitors for years and neuroimaging did not demonstrate signs of acute ischemic disease. After correcting the metabolic alterations with intravenous and oral supplemental magnesium, the patient was discharged asymptomatic. No further episodes have been registered to date. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia might cause acute neurological symptoms that could be confused with stroke. A careful history is essential for diagnosis but suspicion of stroke mimic should not prevent tPA administration. PMID:27354832
Dean, Marleah; Oetzel, John; Sklar, David P
Effective communication has been linked to better health outcomes, higher patient satisfaction, and treatment adherence. Communication in ambulatory care contexts is even more crucial, as providers typically do not know patients' medical histories or have established relationships, conversations are time constrained, interruptions are frequent, and the seriousness of patients' medical conditions may create additional tension during interactions. Yet, health communication often unduly emphasizes information exchange-the transmission and receipt of messages leading to a mutual understanding of a patient's condition, needs, and treatments. This approach does not take into account the importance of rapport building and contextual issues, and may ultimately limit the amount of information exchanged.The authors share the perspective of communication scientists to enrich the current approach to medical communication in ambulatory health care contexts, broadening the under standing of medical communication beyond information exchange to a more holistic, multilayered viewpoint, which includes rapport and contextual issues. The authors propose a socio-ecological model for understanding communication in acute ambulatory care. This model recognizes the relationship of individuals to their environment and emphasizes the importance of individual and contextual factors that influence patient-provider interactions. Its key elements include message exchange and individual, organizational, societal, and cultural factors. Using this model, and following the authors' recommendations, providers and medical educators can treat communication as a holistic process shaped by multiple layers. This is a step toward being able to negotiate conflicting demands, resolve tensions, and create encounters that lead to positive health outcomes.
Planning for patient discharge is an essential element of any admission to an acute setting, but may often be left until the patient is almost ready to leave hospital. This article emphasises why discharge planning is important and lists the essential principles that should be addressed to ensure that patients leave at an optimum time, feeling confident and safe to do so. Early assessment, early planning and co-ordination of all the teams involved in the patient's care are essential. Effective communication between the various teams and with the patient and their family or carer(s) is necessary. Patients should leave hospital with all the information, medications and equipment they require. Appropriate plans should have been developed and communicated to the receiving community or non-acute team. When patient discharge is effective, complications as a result of extended lengths of hospital stay are prevented, hospital beds are used efficiently and readmissions are reduced.
Roth, Sean M; Keyser, Gabrielle; Winfield, Michelle; McNeil, Julie; Simko, Leslie; Price, Karen; Moffa, Donald; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Peacock, W Frank; Katzan, Irene L
The Acute Care Team Educational Initiative (ACTEI) was developed as a quality improvement initiative for the recognition and initial management of time-sensitive medical conditions. For our first time-sensitive disease process, we focused on acute stroke [acute stroke initiative (ASI)]. As part of the larger ACTEI, the ASI included creating an ACT that responds to all suspected emergency department stroke patients. In this article, we describe the planning, process, and development of the ACTEI/ASI as well as how we created an acute response team for the diagnosis and management of suspected acute stroke.
Background Workarounds circumvent or temporarily ‘fix’ perceived workflow hindrances to meet a goal or to achieve it more readily. Behaviours fitting the definition of workarounds often include violations, deviations, problem solving, improvisations, procedural failures and shortcuts. Clinicians implement workarounds in response to the complexity of delivering patient care. One imperative to understand workarounds lies in their influence on patient safety. This paper assesses the peer reviewed empirical evidence available on the use, proliferation, conceptualisation, rationalisation and perceived impact of nurses’ use of workarounds in acute care settings. Methods A literature assessment was undertaken in 2011–2012. Snowballing technique, reference tracking, and a systematic search of twelve academic databases were conducted to identify peer reviewed published studies in acute care settings examining nurses’ workarounds. Selection criteria were applied across three phases. 58 studies were included in the final analysis and synthesis. Using an analytic frame, these studies were interrogated for: workarounds implemented in acute care settings by nurses; factors contributing to the development and proliferation of workarounds; the perceived impact of workarounds; and empirical evidence of nurses’ conceptualisation and rationalisation of workarounds. Results The majority of studies examining nurses’ workarounds have been published since 2008, predominantly in the United States. Studies conducted across a variety of acute care settings use diverse data collection methods. Nurses’ workarounds, primarily perceived negatively, are both individually and collectively enacted. Organisational, work process, patient-related, individual, social and professional factors contribute to the proliferation of workarounds. Group norms, local and organisational culture, ‘being competent’, and collegiality influence the implementation of workarounds. Conclusion
Feo, Rebecca; Kitson, Alison
Meeting patients' fundamental care needs is essential for optimal safety and recovery and positive experiences within any healthcare setting. There is growing international evidence, however, that these fundamentals are often poorly executed in acute care settings, resulting in patient safety threats, poorer and costly care outcomes, and dehumanising experiences for patients and families. Whilst care standards and policy initiatives are attempting to address these issues, their impact has been limited. This discussion paper explores, through a series of propositions, why fundamental care can be overlooked in sophisticated, high technology acute care settings. We argue that the central problem lies in the invisibility and subsequent devaluing of fundamental care. Such care is perceived to involve simple tasks that require little skill to execute and have minimal impact on patient outcomes. The propositions explore the potential origins of this prevailing perception, focusing upon the impact of the biomedical model, the consequences of managerial approaches that drive healthcare cultures, and the devaluing of fundamental care by nurses themselves. These multiple sources of invisibility and devaluing surrounding fundamental care have rendered the concept underdeveloped and misunderstood both conceptually and theoretically. Likewise, there remains minimal role clarification around who should be responsible for and deliver such care, and a dearth of empirical evidence and evidence-based metrics. In explicating these propositions, we argue that key to transforming the delivery of acute healthcare is a substantial shift in the conceptualisation of fundamental care. The propositions present a cogent argument that counters the prevailing perception that fundamental care is basic and does not require systematic investigation. We conclude by calling for the explicit valuing and embedding of fundamental care in healthcare education, research, practice and policy. Without this
Lee, Magdalene Hui Min; Pan, Darius Shaw Teng; Huang, Joyce Huixin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Chong, Joash Wen Chen; Goh, Ee Hui; Jiang, Lili; Leo, Yee Sin; Lee, Tau Hong; Wong, Chia Siong; Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Lim, Fong Seng; Poh, Adrian Zhongxian; Tham, Tat Yean; Wong, Wei Mon; Yu, Yue
We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) amongst adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at GP (general practitioner) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the aetiology of URTIs, role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use. Control arm patients were educated on influenza vaccinations. Both arms were compared on proportions prescribed antibiotics and patients' post-consultation views. 914 patients consulting 35 doctors from 24 clinics completed the study (457 in each arm). Demographics in both arms were similar. 19.1% were prescribed an antibiotic, but this varied from 0% to 70% for individual GPs. The intervention did not significantly reduce antibiotic prescriptions (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.83-1.73) except in patients of Indian ethnicity (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.93). Positive associations between the intervention and the view that antibiotics were not needed most of the time for URTIs (p=0.047) and on being worried about the side effects of antibiotics (p=0.018) were restricted to the Indian subgroup. GPs in limited liability partnerships or clinic chains prescribed less (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 - 0.92), while certain inappropriate patient responses were associated with receipt of antibiotics. Follow-up studies to investigate differences in responses to educational programs between ethnicities, and to explore GP-targeted interventions, are recommended.
Dummit, Laura A
Fee-for-service Medicare, in which a separate payment is made for each service, rewards health care providers for delivering more services, but not necessarily coordinating those services over time or across settings. To help address these concerns, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 requires Medicare to experiment with making a bundled payment for a hospitalization plus post-acute care, that is, the recuperative or rehabilitative care following a hospital discharge. This bundled payment approach is intended to promote more efficient care across the acute/post-acute episode because the entity that receives the payment has financial incentives to keep episode costs below the payment. Although the entity is expected to control costs through improved care coordination and efficiency, it could stint on care or avoid expensive patients instead. This issue brief focuses on the unique challenges posed by the inclusion of post-acute care services in a payment bundle and special considerations in implementing and evaluating the episode payment approach.
Castle, Bryan W; Shapiro, Susan E
Accountable Care Units are a disruptive innovation that has moved care on acute care units from a traditional silo model, in which each discipline works separately from all others, to one in which multiple disciplines work together with patients and their families to move patients safely through their hospital stay. This article describes the "what," "how," and "why" of the Accountable Care Units model as it has evolved in different locations across a single health system and includes the lessons learned as different units and hospitals continue working to implement the model in their complex care environments.
Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina
Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898
Horwitz, Rany J.; And Others
The University of Illinois' medical school has a third-year program of weekly role-playing exercises focusing on management of acute medical problems. Students are responsible for creating the cases, complete with scenarios and treatment teams, simulating them, and successfully treating or reaching an impasse. Little teacher preparation time is…
Background There are few validated measures of organizational context and none that we located are parsimonious and address modifiable characteristics of context. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was developed to meet this need. The instrument assesses 8 dimensions of context, which comprise 10 concepts. The purpose of this paper is to report evidence to further the validity argument for ACT. The specific objectives of this paper are to: (1) examine the extent to which the 10 ACT concepts discriminate between patient care units and (2) identify variables that significantly contribute to between-unit variation for each of the 10 concepts. Methods 859 professional nurses (844 valid responses) working in medical, surgical and critical care units of 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals completed the ACT. A random intercept, fixed effects hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) strategy was used to quantify and explain variance in the 10 ACT concepts to establish the ACT's ability to discriminate between units. We ran 40 models (a series of 4 models for each of the 10 concepts) in which we systematically assessed the unique contribution (i.e., error variance reduction) of different variables to between-unit variation. First, we constructed a null model in which we quantified the variance overall, in each of the concepts. Then we controlled for the contribution of individual level variables (Model 1). In Model 2, we assessed the contribution of practice specialty (medical, surgical, critical care) to variation since it was central to construction of the sampling frame for the study. Finally, we assessed the contribution of additional unit level variables (Model 3). Results The null model (unadjusted baseline HLM model) established that there was significant variation between units in each of the 10 ACT concepts (i.e., discrimination between units). When we controlled for individual characteristics, significant variation in the 10 concepts remained. Assessment of the contribution of
Vanhems, Philippe; Von Raesfeldt, Rosette; Ecochard, René; Voirin, Nicolas
The potential spread of nosocomial Ebola virus disease (EVD) in non-outbreak areas is not known. The objective was to use detailed contact data on patients and healthcare workers (HCW) to estimate emergence probability and secondary incident cases (SIC) of EVD after hospitalization of an index case with undetected EVD. Contact data were collected through RFID devices used by patients and HCW during hospital care. A “susceptible-exposed-infected” model was used. Emergence probability, ranged from 7% to 84%. A plateau around 84% was observed. Emergence probability was proportional to time exposed to the dry phase of patients with nonspecific symptoms. Nurses were at higher risk of nosocomial EVD than physicians with around 60% emergence probability in this subgroup. The risk of nosocomial EVD in non-outbreak areas might be substantial if no preventive measures are implemented when asymptomatic patients or those with mild symptoms are hospitalized. PMID:27827383
Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…
Marsden, Janet; Davies, Richard
Rationale and key points Eye care is an important aspect of the nursing management of patients who are critically ill. All patients in acute care settings with absent or compromised eye defence mechanisms are at risk of eye complications and ocular surface disease. This article aims to assist nurses to care for the eyes of patients in critical care settings to enable early detection and routine management of ophthalmic issues, thereby avoiding visual compromise on patient discharge from critical care settings. » Corneal exposure is reported to occur in many patients who are critically ill. » Incomplete eyelid closure and lack of lubrication are the main mechanisms that underlie the development of corneal damage in patients who are critically ill. » Unconscious, sedated and/or paralysed patients and those with a reduced Glasgow Coma Scale score depend on healthcare professionals to maintain their ocular surface to prevent complications such as corneal abrasion, infection and ulceration, perforations and blindness. » Meticulous nursing care is required to prevent ophthalmic complications that can result from corneal exposure in this patient group. Regular, evidence-based eye care should be part of routine nursing practice for patients who are critically ill. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article might change your practice? 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues in eye care of the unconscious patient?
Pressure ulcer prevention in the care home setting can be challenging and is often compromised by a lack of access to education and resources. There are measures that have been shown to consistently improve outcomes in pressure ulcer prevention including assessment of the patient and their individual risks, delivery of a consistent plan of care that meets patients' needs, and regular evaluation to identify shortfalls. In addition, there should be a robust approach to investigating events that lead to a person developing a pressure ulcer and that information should be used to improve future practice. Pressure ulcer prevention in care homes is achievable and nurses should all be aware of the necessary measures detailed in this article.
Sathe, Prachee M.; Patwa, Urvil D.
Pulmonary embolism, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are important sources of mortality and morbidity in intensive care unit (ICU). And every time D-dimer remains the the commonest investigation. Many times D-dimer is erroneously considered as a diagnostic test in above mentioned conditions. Its interpretation requires cautions. To circumvent this source of error it is necessary to understand D-dimer test and its significance in various disorder. This article review some basic details of D-dimer, condition associated with its increased level and some prognostic value in intracranial hemorrhage and gastrointestinal (GI) bleed. PMID:25337485
Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R
Successful implementation of an acute pain management service involves a team approach in which team members have clearly defined roles. Clinical protocols are designed to help address common problems and prevent errors. As the complexity of surgery and patients' diseases continues to increase, current knowledge of new analgesic medications, acute pain literature, and skills in regional anesthesia techniques is imperative. Emphasizing a multimodal approach can improve analgesia and decrease opioid-related side effects.
Elmore, James L.
Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings and the diagnostic difficulties encountered with dissociative disorders, such illness may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in primary care settings. We developed an intervention model that may be applicable to primary care settings or helpful to primary care physicians. Key points of the intervention are identification of dissociative symptoms, patient and family education, review of the origin of the symptoms as a method of coping with trauma, and supportive reinforcement of cognitive and relaxation skills during follow-up visits. Symptom recognition, Education of the family, Learning new skills, and Follow-up may be remembered by the mnemonic device SELF. We present several cases to illustrate dissociative symptoms and our intervention. Physicians and other professionals using the 4 steps and behavioral approaches will be able to better recognize and triage patients with dissociative symptoms. Behaviors previously thought to be secondary to psychosis or personality disorders may be seen in a new frame of reference, strengthening the therapeutic alliance while reducing distress and acting-out behaviors. PMID:15014580
Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William
Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023
Davidson, Patricia M; Introna, Kate; Cockburn, Jill; Daly, John; Dunford, Mary; Paull, Glenn; Dracup, Kathleen
Advances in the practice of medicine and nursing science have increased survival for patients with chronic cardiorespiratory disease. Parallel to this positive outcome is a societal expectation of longevity and cure of disease. Chronic disease and the inevitability of death creates a dilemma, more than ever before, for the health care professional, who is committed to the delivery of quality care to patients and their families. The appropriate time for broaching the issue of dying and determining when palliative care is required is problematic. Dilemmas occur with a perceived dissonance between acute and palliative care and difficulties in determining prognosis. Palliative care must be integrated within the health care continuum, rather than being a discrete entity at the end of life, in order to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Anecdotally, acute and critical care nurses experience frustration from the tensions that arise between acute and palliative care philosophies. Many clinicians are concerned that patients are denied a good death and yet the moment when care should be oriented toward palliation rather than aggressive management is usually unclear. Clearly this has implications for the type and quality of care that patients receive. This paper provides a review of the extant literature and identifies issues in the end of life care for patients with chronic cardiorespiratory diseases within acute and critical care environments. Issues for refinement of acute and critical care nursing practice and research priorities are identified to create a synergy between these philosophical perspectives.
Gaal, Peter; Stefka, Nóra; Nagy, Júlia
On the basis of documentary analysis and interviews with decision makers, this paper discusses the cost accounting methodologies used for price setting of inpatient services in the Hungarian health care system focusing on sector of acute inpatient care, which is financed through the Hungarian adaptation of Diagnosis Related Groups since 1993. Hungary has a quite sophisticated DRG system, which had a deep impact on the efficiency of the acute inpatient care sector. Nevertheless, the system requires continuous maintenance, where the cooperation of hospitals, as well as the minimisation of political influence are critical success factors.
Albeit the considerable progress that has been made both in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure (ARF) and in its treatment (continuous renal replacement therapies), the morbidity of this complex syndrome remains unacceptably high. The current review focuses on recent developments concerning the definition of ARF, new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of specific causes of ARF, dialysis treatment in the intensive care setting and provides an update on critical care issues relevant to the clinical nephrologist. PMID:21897760
Rochon, Andrea; Heale, Roberta; Hunt, Elena; Parent, Michele
The literature suggests that effective teamwork among patient care teams can positively impact work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived level of nursing teamwork by registered nurses, registered practical nurses, personal support workers and unit clerks working on patient care teams in one acute care hospital in northern Ontario, Canada, and to determine if a relationship exists between the staff scores on the Nursing Teamwork Survey (NTS) and participant perception of adequate staffing. Using a descriptive cross-sectional research design, 600 staff members were invited to complete the NTS and a 33% response rate was achieved (N=200). The participants from the critical care unit reported the highest scores on the NTS, whereas participants from the inpatient surgical (IPS) unit reported the lowest scores. Participants from the IPS unit also reported having less experience, being younger, having less satisfaction in their current position and having a higher intention to leave. A high rate of intention to leave in the next year was found among all participants. No statistically significant correlation was found between overall scores on the NTS and the perception of adequate staffing. Strategies to increase teamwork, such as staff education, among patient care teams may positively influence job satisfaction and patient care on patient care units.
Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; O'Hara-Aarons, Maureen; Hunt, Glenn E
How the principles of a recovery-oriented mental health service are incorporated in the day-to-day nursing practice of mental health nurses in inpatient settings is unclear. In this study, we interviewed 21 mental health nurses working in acute inpatient mental health units about a range of recovery-focused topics. Three overlapping themes were identified: (i) the perception of recovery; (ii) congruent humanistic approaches; and (iii) practical realities. Only four interviewees had some formal training about recovery. Most respondents recognize that positive attitudes, person-centred care, hope, education about mental illness, medication and side-effects, and the acknowledgement of individual recovery pathways are necessary to prevent readmission, and are central to a better life for people who live with a mental illness. This research supports the view that ideas and practices associated with the recovery movement have been adopted to some degree by nurses working at the acute end of the services continuum. However, most saw the recovery orientation as rhetoric rather than as an appropriately resourced, coordinated, and integrated program. These nurses, however, speak of much more detailed aspects of working with patients and being required to prepare them for the exigencies of living in the community post-discharge.
DeVore, Adam D; Allen, Larry A; Eapen, Zubin J
The management of acute heart failure is shifting toward treatment approaches outside of a traditional hospital setting. Many heart failure providers are now treating patients in less familiar health care settings, such as acute care clinics, emergency departments, and skilled nursing facilities. In this review we describe the current pressures driving change in the delivery of acute heart failure and summarize the evidence regarding treatments for acute heart failure outside of the inpatient setting. We also provide considerations for the design of future treatment strategies to be implemented in alternative care settings.
Schiele, Francois; Gale, Chris P; Bonnefoy, Eric; Capuano, Frederic; Claeys, Marc J; Danchin, Nicolas; Fox, Keith Aa; Huber, Kurt; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lettino, Maddalena; Quinn, Tom; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Bøtker, Hans E; Swahn, Eva; Timmis, Adam; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zeymer, Uwe; Bueno, Hector
Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.
Ekerstad, Niklas; Karlson, Björn W; Dahlin Ivanoff, Synneve; Landahl, Sten; Andersson, David; Heintz, Emelie; Husberg, Magnus; Alwin, Jenny
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute care of frail elderly patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) unit is superior to the care in a conventional acute medical care unit. Design This is a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled, one-center intervention study. Setting This study was conducted in a large county hospital in western Sweden. Participants The study included 408 frail elderly patients, aged ≥75 years, in need of acute in-hospital treatment. The patients were allocated to the intervention group (n=206) or control group (n=202). Mean age of the patients was 85.7 years, and 56% were female. Intervention This organizational form of care is characterized by a structured, systematic interdisciplinary CGA-based care at an acute elderly care unit. Measurements The primary outcome was the change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) 3 months after discharge from hospital, measured by the Health Utilities Index-3 (HUI-3). Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, rehospitalizations, and hospital care costs. Results After adjustment by regression analysis, patients in the intervention group were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months for the following dimensions: vision (odds ratio [OR] =0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.14–0.79), ambulation (OR =0.19, 95% CI =0.1–0.37), dexterity (OR =0.38, 95% CI =0.19–0.75), emotion (OR =0.43, 95% CI =0.22–0.84), cognition (OR = 0.076, 95% CI =0.033–0.18) and pain (OR =0.28, 95% CI =0.15–0.50). Treatment in a CGA unit was independently associated with lower 3-month mortality adjusted by Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR] =0.55, 95% CI =0.32–0.96), and the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of hospital care costs (P>0.05). Conclusion Patients in an acute CGA unit were less likely to present with decline in HRQoL after 3 months, and the care in a CGA unit was also independently associated with lower mortality
Schwartz-Cowley, Roberta; Stepanik, Mark J.
The Shock Trauma Center of the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems instituted a comprehensive speech-language pathology program to provide acute intervention for communicative disorders in a critical/intensive care environment. This article provides a profile of the Center, a review of communicative impairments, and examples…
Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan; Heintz, Jessica; Legrand, Susan B; Davis, Mellar P
Palliative care in advanced disease is complex. Knowledge and experience of symptom control and management of multiple complications are essential. An interdisciplinary team is also required to meet the medical and psychosocial needs in life-limiting illness. Acute care palliative medicine is a new concept in the spectrum of palliative care services. Acute care palliative medicine, integrated into a tertiary academic medical center, provides expert medical management and specialized care as part of the spectrum of acute medical care services to this challenging patient population. The authors describe a case series to provide a snapshot of a typical day in an acute care inpatient palliative medicine unit. The cases illustrate the sophisticated medical care involved for each individual and the important skill sets of the palliative medicine specialist required to provide high-quality acute medical care for the very ill.
There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)
Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G
The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; MacLehose, Richard F.; Hart, L. Gary; Beaver, Shelli K.; Every,Nathan; Chan,Leighton
Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers.…
Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko
Objective Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1–1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. Results In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. Conclusions The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted. PMID:25716983
Sorensen, Ros; Iedema, Rick
The care of people who die in hospitals is often suboptimal. Involving patients in decisions about their care is seen as one way to improve care outcomes. Federal and state government policymakers in Australia are promoting shared decision making in acute care hospitals as a means to improve the quality of end-of-life care. If policy is to be…
Brown, Kenneth H; Nyirandutiye, Daniele H; Jungjohann, Svenja
Approximately 11% of children worldwide suffer from moderate or severe acute malnutrition, which is defined as low weight for height or mid-upper arm circumference with respect to international standards, or the presence of bipedal edema. These children have a considerably increased risk of dying. Experience from the past two decades indicates that children with uncomplicated moderate or severe acute malnutrition can be managed successfully as outpatients, by use of appropriate treatment of infections and either lipid-based, ready-to-use therapeutic foods or appropriately formulated home diets, along with psychosocial care. Children's caregivers prefer community-based treatment, which is also less costly than inpatient care. Children with severe acute malnutrition and life-threatening complications require short-term inpatient care for treatment of infections, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic abnormalities. Initial dietary management relies on low-lactose, milk-based, liquid formulas but semi-solid or solid foods can be started as soon as appetite permits, after which children can be referred for ambulatory treatment. National programs for the community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) provide periodic anthropometric and clinical screening of young children, and referral of those who meet established criteria. This Review describes the main components of the treatment of young children with acute malnutrition in resource poor settings and some recent advances in CMAM programs.
Objective We seek to address gaps in knowledge and agreement around optimal frailty assessment in the acute medical care setting. Frailty is a common term describing older persons who are at increased risk of developing multimorbidity, disability, institutionalisation and death. Consensus has not been reached on the practical implementation of this concept to assess clinically and manage older persons in the acute care setting. Design Modified Delphi, via electronic questionnaire. Questions included ranking items that best recognise frailty, optimal timing, location and contextual elements of a successful tool. Intraclass correlation coefficients for overall levels of agreement, with consensus and stability tested by 2-way ANOVA with absolute agreement and Fisher's exact test. Participants A panel of national experts (academics, front-line clinicians and specialist charities) were invited to electronic correspondence. Results Variables reflecting accumulated deficit and high resource usage were perceived by participants as the most useful indicators of frailty in the acute care setting. The Acute Medical Unit and Care of the older Persons Ward were perceived as optimum settings for frailty assessment. ‘Clinically meaningful and relevant’, ‘simple (easy to use)’ and ‘accessible by multidisciplinary team’ were perceived as characteristics of a successful frailty assessment tool in the acute care setting. No agreement was reached on optimal timing, number of variables and organisational structures. Conclusions This study is a first step in developing consensus for a clinically relevant frailty assessment model for the acute care setting, providing content validation and illuminating contextual requirements. Testing on clinical data sets is a research priority. PMID:27742633
Cashen, Margaret S; Bradley, Victoria; Farrell, Ann; Murphy, Judy; Schleyer, Ruth; Sensmeier, Joyce; Dykes, Patricia C
A focus group using nursing informatics experts as informants was conducted to guide development of a survey to explore the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinary communication in acute care settings. Through analysis of focus group transcripts, five key themes emerged: information, communication, care coordination, interdisciplinary relationships, workflow, and practice effectiveness and efficiency. This served as the basis for development of a survey that will investigate perceptions of acute care providers across the United States regarding the impact of health information technology on the role of nurses and interdisciplinar communication in acute care settings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of survey development including analysis of transcripts, emergence of key themes, and the processes by which the themes will be employed to inform survey development.
Brown, Jeremy; Grudzen, Corita; Kyriacou, Demetrios N; Obermeyer, Ziad; Quest, Tammie; Rivera, Donna; Stone, Susan; Wright, Jason; Shelburne, Nonniekaye
To identify research priorities and appropriate resources and to establish the infrastructure required to address the emergency care of patients with cancer, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute and the Office of Emergency Care Research sponsored a one-day workshop, "Cancer and Emergency Medicine: Setting the Research Agenda," in March 2015 in Bethesda, MD. Participants included leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of oncology, emergency medicine, and palliative care, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health. Attendees were charged with identifying research opportunities and priorities to advance the understanding of the emergency care of cancer patients. Recommendations were made in 4 areas: the collection of epidemiologic data, care of the patient with febrile neutropenia, acute events such as dyspnea, and palliative care in the emergency department setting.
Kruse, Barbara G; Melhado, Lolita W; Convertine, Linda; Stecher, Jo
Providing quality care to the dying has become a primary concern in the United States. Eighty percent of deaths still occur in the hospital even though nurses report they do not think that good deaths are routinely possible within a hospital setting due to lack of appropriate education on end-of-life care. The aim of this pilot study was to test the best method for changing acute nurse's perceptions about end-of-life care. A 3-group experimental design tested the efficacy of a nurse-led hospice collaborative. Hypotheses were: (1) nurses who receive classroom instruction will have greater change in perceptions than the control group and (2) nurses who receive a combination of classroom and hospice experiences will demonstrate greater changes than the classroom or control group. No significant differences were found among the 3 groups. However, the intervention group showed increased guilt about not having enough time to spend with the dying.
Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.
Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486
Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O
Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training.
Acute care nurse practitioner roles have been introduced in many countries. The acute care nurse practitioner provides nursing and medical care to meet the complex needs of patients and their families using a holistic, health-centred approach. There are many pressures to adopt a performance framework and execute activities and tasks. Little time may be left to explore domains of advanced practice nursing and develop other forms of knowledge. The primary objective of praxis is to integrate theory, practice and art, and facilitate the recognition and valuing of different types of knowledge through reflection. With this framework, the acute care nurse practitioner assumes the role of clinician and researcher. Praxis can be used to develop the acute care nurse practitioner role as an advanced practice nursing role. A praxis framework permeates all aspects of the acute care nurse practitioner's practice. Praxis influences how relationships are structured with patients, families and colleagues in the work setting. Decision-makers at different levels need to recognize the contribution of praxis in the full development of the acute care nurse practitioner role. Different strategies can be used by educators to assist students and practitioners to develop a praxis framework.
Kivlin, Jude; Altemimi, Harith
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in King's Lynn, Norfolk is a 488 bed hospital providing services to approximately 331,000 people across 750 square miles. In 2012 a need was recognised for documentation (pathways) in a practical format to increase usage of national guidelines and facilitate adherence to best practice (gold standards of care) that could be easily version controlled, auditable and provide support in clinical decision-making by junior doctors. BMJ Action Sets fulfilled the brief with expert knowledge, version control and support, though they were deemed too lengthy and unworkable in fast paced settings like the medical assessment unit; they formed the base creation of concise care bundles (CCB). CCB were introduced for 21 clinical presentations and one procedure. Outcomes were fully audited and showed significant improvement in a range of measures, including an increase in completions of CHADVASC score in atrial fibrillation, antibiotics prescribed per protocol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Blatchford score recorded for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleed. PMID:26734437
McCarthy, Christopher J.; Hart, Sonia
This article provides an overview of the special issue on groups in health care settings and describes how each contribution addresses challenges and opportunities in the health care field for group work. Fundamental criteria for evaluating groups in such settings are applied to each contribution. Finally, trends and opportunities about the future…
Palese, Alvisa; Ambrosi, Elisa; Prosperi, Letizia; Guarnier, Annamaria; Barelli, Paolo; Zambiasi, Paola; Allegrini, Elisabetta; Bazoli, Letizia; Casson, Paola; Marin, Meri; Padovan, Marisa; Picogna, Michele; Taddia, Patrizia; Salmaso, Daniele; Chiari, Paolo; Marognolli, Oliva; Canzan, Federica; Gonella, Silvia; Saiani, Luisa
Missed nursing care (MNC), such as nursing care omitted or delayed, has not been measured in the Italian context where several cost containment interventions affect the care offered in medical units. The aim of the study is to identify the amount, type, and reasons for MNC in the Italian medical care setting and to explore the factors that affect the occurrence of MNC. A 3-month longitudinal survey was carried out followed by a cross-sectional study design in 12 north eastern acute medical units. A total of 314 nursing staff members were involved. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of MNC. Patient ambulation (91.4 %), turning the patient every 2 h (74.2 %), and right timing in administering medications (64.6 %) were the most perceived MNC. Among the most frequent reasons were the unexpected rise in patient volume or critical conditions (95.2 %), inadequate numbers of staff (94.9 %), and large numbers of admissions/discharges (93.3 %). The R (2) 33.2 % of the variance in MNC were explained by a full-time position (OR 4.743, 95 % CI 1.146-19.629), communication tensions between Registered Nurses and Nurses' Aides (OR 1.601, 95 % CI 1.020-2.515), the amount of experience in medical unit (OR 1.564, 95 % CI 1.021-2.397), and the amount of daily care offered by Nurses' Aides (1.039, 95 % CI 1.011-1.067). A substantial amount of basic and clinically relevant nursing interventions was perceived to be missed, and this may lead to an increase in negative outcomes for patients admitted to a medical unit. Appropriate standards of nursing care should be adopted urgently in medical units aiming to protect frail patients.
Shoulders, Bridget; Follett, Corrinne; Eason, Joyce
The complexity of patients in the critical and acute care settings requires that nurses be skilled in early recognition and management of rapid changes in patient condition. The interpretation and response to these events can greatly impact patient outcomes. Nurses caring for these complex patients are expected to use astute critical thinking in their decision making. The purposes of this article were to explore the concept of critical thinking and provide practical strategies to enhance critical thinking in the critical and acute care environment.
Amy, Chen; Zagorski, Brandon; Chan, Vincy; Parsons, Daria; Vander Laan, Rika; Colantonio, Angela
Alternate-level-of-care (ALC) days represent hospital beds that are taken up by patients who would more appropriately be cared for in other settings. ALC days have been found to be costly and may result in worse functional outcomes, reduced motor skills and longer lengths of stay in rehabilitation. This study examines the factors that are associated with acute care ALC days among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). We used the Discharge Abstract Database to identify patients with ABI using International Classification of Disease-10 codes. From fiscal years 2007/08 to 2009/10, 17.5% of patients with traumatic and 14% of patients with non-traumatic brain injury had at least one ALC day. Significant predictors include having a psychiatric co-morbidity, increasing age and length of stay in acute care. These findings can inform planning for care of people with ABI in a publicly funded healthcare system.
Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.
This book contains 58 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques for Diagnosing and Sizing of Myocardial Infarction; The Use of Serial Radionuclide Angiography for Monitoring Function during Acute Myocardial Infarction; Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction; and The Valve of Radionuclide Angiography for Risk Assessment of Patients following Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Seedat, Jaishika; Penn, Claire
Oral care is a crucial routine for patients with dysphagia that, when completed routinely, can prevent the development of aspiration pneumonia. There is no standardised protocol for oral care within government hospitals in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the outcome of an oral care protocol. Participants were patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia, with either stroke or traumatic brain injury as the underlying medical pathology, and nurses. All participants were recruited from one tertiary level government hospital in Gauteng, South Africa. 139 nurses participated in the study and received training on the oral care protocol. There were two groups of participants with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Group one (study group, n = 23) was recruited by consecutive sampling, received regular oral care and were not restricted from drinking water; however, all other liquids were restricted. Group two (comparison group, n = 23) was recruited via a retrospective record review, received inconsistent oral care and were placed on thickened liquids or liquid restricted diets. Results showed that a regimen of regular oral care and free water provision when combined with dysphagia intervention did prevent aspiration pneumonia in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The article highlights two key findings: that regular and routine oral care is manageable within an acute government hospital context and a strict routine of oral care can reduce aspiration pneumonia in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. An implication from these findings is confirmation that teamwork in acute care settings in developing contexts must be prioritised to improve dysphagia management and patient prognosis.
Dilwali, Prashant K
The responsibility of hospitals is changing. Those activities that were once confined within the walls of the medical facility have largely shifted outside them, yet the requirements for hospitals have only grown in scope. With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the development of accountable care organizations, financial incentives are focused on care coordination, and a hospital's responsibility now includes postdischarge outcomes. As a result, hospitals need to adjust their business model to accommodate their increased need to impact post-acute care settings. A home care service line can fulfill this role for hospitals, serving as an effective conduit to the postdischarge realm-serving as both a potential profit center and a risk mitigation offering. An alliance between home care agencies and hospitals can help improve clinical outcomes, provide the necessary care for communities, and establish a potentially profitable product line.
Asthma prevalence in low-to middle-income countries is at least the same or higher than in rich countries, but with increased severity. Lack of control in these settings is due to various factors such as low accessibility to effective medications, multiple and uncoordinated weak infrastructures of medical services for the management of chronic diseases such as asthma, poor compliance with prescribed therapy, lack of asthma education, and social and cultural factors. There is an urgent requirement for the implementation of better ways to treat asthma in underserved populations, enhancing the access to preventive medications and educational approaches with modern technological methods. PMID:23282401
Manito Lorite, N; Manzano Espinosa, L; Llorens Soriano, P; Masip Utset, J; Comín Colet, J; Formiga Pérez, F; Herrero Puente, P; Delgado Jiménez, J; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M; Jacob Rodríguez, J; López de Sá Areses, E; Pérez Calvo, J I; Martín-Sánchez, F J; Miró Andreu, Ò
The purpose of this consensus document was to reach an agreement among experts on the multidisciplinary care of patients with acute heart failure. Starting with a narrative review of the care provided to these patients and a critical analysis of the healthcare procedures, we identified potential shortcomings and improvements and formalised a document on recommendations for optimising the clinical and therapeutic approach for acute heart failure. This document was validated through an in-person group session guided using participatory techniques. The process resulted in a set of 36 recommendations formulated by experts of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine and the Spanish Society of Urgent and Emergency Care. The recommendations are designed to optimise the healthcare challenge presented by the care of patients with acute heart failure in the context of Spain's current National Health System.
Miller, Carla K; Bauman, Jennifer
Goal setting is a widely used behavior change tool in diabetes education and training. Prior research found specific relatively difficult but attainable goals set within a specific timeframe improved performance in sports and at the workplace. However, the impact of goal setting in diabetes self-care has not received extensive attention. This review examined the mechanisms underlying behavioral change according to goal setting theory and evaluated the impact of goal setting in diabetes intervention studies. Eight studies were identified, which incorporated goal setting as the primary strategy to promote behavioral change in individual, group-based, and primary care settings among patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in diabetes-related self-efficacy, dietary intake, physical activity, and A1c were observed in some but not all studies. More systematic research is needed to determine the conditions and behaviors for which goal setting is most effective. Initial recommendations for using goal setting in diabetes patient encounters are offered.
Kaltner, Melissa; Murtagh, Doug; Bennetts, Marguerite; Pighills, Alison; James, Julie; Scott, Annette
As demand for health services increases, attention has turned to the development of alternate models of service delivery that maximise efficiency. These include skill sharing models, in which cross-professional skills are delivered by appropriately trained professionals. The usage of skill sharing models is increasing in some professions, but little evidence on efficacy currently exists. This article reports on an intervention of the use of a transprofessional role, which involved delivery of services from a range of health providers, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, speech pathology, podiatry, social work, and psychology, by a trained professional, developed and trialled in the acute medical setting in Toowoomba Hospital, Queensland, Australia. A single-blind randomised controlled trial examined the clinical efficacy of this skill shared service. Participants were allocated at random to either standard care (n = 29) or the new model of care (n = 29) groups and compared on a range of patient and service provision outcome measures. Descriptive outcomes indicated that patients receiving the new model of care underwent more comprehensive and prompt assessments in the health domains included than those in standard care, and demonstrated more positive health and functional outcomes at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Given the paucity of research on skill sharing, this study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of skill shared roles in acute settings.
Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone
Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that researchers and policymakers focused on childhood obesity have paid insufficient attention to child care. Although child care settings can be a major force in shaping children's dietary intake, physical activity, and energy balance--and thus in combating the childhood obesity…
McCune, Renee L.
Patient health literacy skills are critical to effective healthcare communication and safe care delivery in primary care settings. Methods and strategies to identify patient health literacy (HL) capabilities and provider/staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding HL must be known before addressing provider/staff communication skills.…
This paper reports a retrospective study undertaken to determine if differences existed in obstetric outcome, contraceptive usage, and repeat pregnancy rates of teenage patients cared for in three different health care settings: the Rochester Adolescent Maternity Project (RAMP), a traditional obstetric clinic, and a neighborhood health center.…
Bober, Kenneth F.; And Others
A second-year clinical course composed of weekly observation sessions of interactions between patients and health care professionals in a variety of health care settings within a hospital is described. Weekly discussion sessions summarize the observations and introduce such topics as communication skills, patients' rights, patient relationships,…
Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.
There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…
Kelly, R. Patrick; Stoll, Shelley C.; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Janevic, Mary R.; Lara, Marielena; Ohadike, Yvonne U.; Persky, Victoria; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Uyeda, Kimberly; Malveaux, Floyd J.
Asthma affects 7.1 million children in the United States, disproportionately burdening African American and Latino children. Barriers to asthma control include insufficient patient education and fragmented care. Care coordination represents a compelling approach to improve quality of care and address disparities in asthma. The sites of The Merck Childhood Asthma Network Care Coordination Programs implemented different models of care coordination to suit specific settings—school district, clinic or health care system, and community—and organizational structures. A variety of qualitative data sources were analyzed to determine the role setting played in the manifestation of care coordination at each site. There were inherent strengths and challenges of implementing care coordination in each of the settings, and each site used unique strategies to deliver their programs. The relationship between the lead implementing unit and entities that provided (1) access to the priority population and (2) clinical services to program participants played a critical role in the structure of the programs. The level of support and infrastructure provided by these entities to the lead implementing unit influenced how participants were identified and how asthma care coordinators were integrated into the clinical care team. PMID:26232778
Smallwood, Nicholas; Dachsel, Martin; Matsa, Ramprasad; Tabiowo, Eugene; Walden, Andrew
Point of care ultrasound (POCU) is becoming increasingly popular as an extension to clinical examination techniques. Specific POCU training pathways have been developed in specialties such as Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine (CORE Emergency Ultrasound and Core UltraSound Intensive Care, for example), but until this time there has not been a curriculum for the acutely unwell medical patient outside of Critical Care. We describe the development of Focused Acute Medicine Ultrasound (FAMUS), a curriculum designed specifically for the Acute Physician to learn ultrasound techniques to aid in the management of the unwell adult patient. We detail both the outline of the curriculum and the process involved for a candidate to achieve FAMUS accreditation. It is anticipated this will appeal to both Acute Medical Unit (AMU) clinicians and general physicians who deal with the unwell or deteriorating medical or surgical patient. In time, the aspiration is for FAMUS to become a core part of the AIM curriculum.
Dubovsky, Amelia N; Kiefer, Meghan M
Borderline personality disorder is estimated to be present in approximately 6% of outpatient primary care settings. However, the time and energy spent on this population can greatly exceed what primary care doctors are able to spend. This article gives an overview of borderline personality disorder, including the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and comorbidities, as well as pharmacologic and most important behavioral management. It is our hope that, with improved understanding of the disorder and skills for managing this population, caring for patients with the disorder can be more satisfying and less taxing for both primary care doctors and their patients.
Landman, W A; Henley, L D
The new South African constitution commits the government to guarantee "basic health services" for every child under 18. Primary health care for pregnant women and children under six and elements of essential primary health care have received priority. At present, there is little analysis of the moral considerations involved in making choices about more advanced or costly health care which may, arguably, also be "basic". This paper illustrates some of the tensions in setting priorities for a just macro-allocation of children's health care, given the realities of need and scarce resources, and the commitment to equality of basic opportunities. PMID:9752631
Castles, Amy; Bailey, Carol; Gates, Bob; Sooben, Roja
It has been well documented that people with learning disabilities receive poor care in acute settings. Over the last few years, a number of learning disability liaison nurse services have developed in the United Kingdom as a response to this, but there has been a failure to systematically gather evidence as to their effectiveness. This article…
Randall, Carla E; Tate, Betty; Lougheed, Mary
Much has been written in the nursing literature about the intentions and desires of a transformatory movement in nursing education. However, dialogue and critique related to actual implementation of a curriculum revolution begun in the late 1980s are lacking. The acute care context of nursing practice holds particular challenges for faculty teaching in an emancipatory curriculum. How do faculty implement a philosophy of teaching-learning congruent with the curriculum revolution, in the context of an acute care setting that privileges empirical knowledge and values a behaviorist paradigm? In this article, we provide an example of one teaching approach grounded in an emancipatory ideology: critical questioning. We also discuss some of the tensions we associate with teaching-learning in an acute care context and our experiences of navigating these tensions.
Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wagner, Amy W; Russo, Joan; Love, Jeff; Zatzick, Douglas F
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions are efficacious in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but are challenging to implement in acute care and other non-specialty mental health settings. This investigation identified barriers impacting CBT delivery through a content analysis of interventionist chart notes from an acute care PTSD prevention trial. Only 8.5% of all intervention patients were able to complete CBT. Lack of engagement, clinical and logistical barriers had the greatest impact on CBT entry. Treatment preferences and stigma only prevented entry when more primary barriers resolved. Patients with prior diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were able to enter CBT after six months of sobriety. Based on the first trial, we developed a CBT readiness assessment tool. We implemented and evaluated the tool in a second early intervention trial. Lack of engagement emerged again as the primary impediment to CBT entry. Patients who were willing to enter CBT treatment but demonstrated high rates of past trauma or diagnosis of PTSD were also the least likely to engage in any PTSD treatment one month post-discharge. Findings support the need for additional investigations into engagement and alternative delivery strategies, including those which dismantle traditional office-based, multi-session CBT into stepped, deliverable components.
Best, Allyson M.; Dixon, Cinnamon A.; Kelton, W. David; Lindsell, Christopher J.
Objectives Crowding and limited resources have increased the strain on acute care facilities and emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. These problems are particularly prevalent in developing countries. Discrete event simulation (DES) is a computer-based tool that can be used to estimate how changes to complex healthcare delivery systems, such as EDs, will affect operational performance. Using this modality, our objective was to identify operational interventions that could potentially improve patient throughput of one acute care setting in a developing country. Methods We developed a simulation model of acute care at a district level hospital in Ghana to test the effects of resource-neutral (e.g. modified staff start times and roles) and resource-additional (e.g. increased staff) operational interventions on patient throughput. Previously captured, de-identified time-and-motion data from 487 acute care patients were used to develop and test the model. The primary outcome was the modeled effect of interventions on patient length of stay (LOS). Results The base-case (no change) scenario had a mean LOS of 292 minutes (95% CI 291, 293). In isolation, neither adding staffing, changing staff roles, nor varying shift times affected overall patient LOS. Specifically, adding two registration workers, history takers, and physicians resulted in a 23.8 (95% CI 22.3, 25.3) minute LOS decrease. However, when shift start-times were coordinated with patient arrival patterns, potential mean LOS was decreased by 96 minutes (95% CI 94, 98); and with the simultaneous combination of staff roles (Registration and History-taking) there was an overall mean LOS reduction of 152 minutes (95% CI 150, 154). Conclusions Resource-neutral interventions identified through DES modeling have the potential to improve acute care throughput in this Ghanaian municipal hospital. DES offers another approach to identifying potentially effective interventions to improve patient flow in emergency and acute
Lee, Todd A.; Valenstein, Marcia; Weiss, Kevin B.
Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) frequently have co-occurring depressive disorders and are often seen in multiple-care settings. Existing research does not assess the impact of care setting on delivery of evidence-based depression care for these patients. Objective To examine the prevalence of guideline-concordant depression treatment among these co-morbid patients, and to examine whether the likelihood of receiving guideline-concordant treatment differed by care setting. Design Retrospective cohort study. Patients A total of 5,517 veterans with COPD that experienced a new treatment episode for major depressive disorder. Measurements and Main Results Concordance with VA treatment guidelines for depression; multivariate analyses of the relationship between guideline-concordant depression treatment and care setting. More than two-thirds of the sample was over age 65 and 97% were male. Only 50.6% of patients had guideline-concordant antidepressant coverage (defined by the VA). Fewer than 17% of patients received guideline recommended follow-up (≥3 outpatient visits during the acute phase), and only 9.9% of the cohort received both guideline-concordant antidepressant coverage and follow-up visits. Being seen in a mental health clinic during the acute phase was associated with a 7-fold increase in the odds of receiving guideline-concordant care compared to primary care only. Patients seen in pulmonary care settings were also more likely to receive guideline-concordant care compared to primary care only. Conclusions Most VA patients with COPD and an acute depressive episode receive suboptimal depression management. Improvements in depression treatment may be particularly important for those patients seen exclusively in primary care settings. PMID:17687614
Santa Maria, Diane; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Derouin, Anne; Villarruel, Antonia
: Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. This article discusses the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine's goals and recommendations, which address adolescent sexual and reproductive health as both a health care and a human rights issue.
Kelly, Edward; Rogers, Selwyn O
The increasing need for skilled emergency surgical providers, coupled with decreasing experience in emergency surgery among trainees, has led to significant shortages in the availability of such surgeons. In response to this crisis, surgical leaders have developed a comprehensive curriculum and a set of professional standards to guide the training of a new specialist: the acute care surgeon. This article reviews the development and goals for Fellowship training of this new specialty.
Stellefson, Michael; Stopka, Christine
Introduction The Chronic Care Model (CCM) uses a systematic approach to restructuring medical care to create partnerships between health systems and communities. The objective of this study was to describe how researchers have applied CCM in US primary care settings to provide care for people who have diabetes and to describe outcomes of CCM implementation. Methods We conducted a literature review by using the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, CINAHL, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition and the following search terms: “chronic care model” (and) “diabet*.” We included articles published between January 1999 and October 2011. We summarized details on CCM application and health outcomes for 16 studies. Results The 16 studies included various study designs, including 9 randomized controlled trials, and settings, including academic-affiliated primary care practices and private practices. We found evidence that CCM approaches have been effective in managing diabetes in US primary care settings. Organizational leaders in health care systems initiated system-level reorganizations that improved the coordination of diabetes care. Disease registries and electronic medical records were used to establish patient-centered goals, monitor patient progress, and identify lapses in care. Primary care physicians (PCPs) were trained to deliver evidence-based care, and PCP office–based diabetes self-management education improved patient outcomes. Only 7 studies described strategies for addressing community resources and policies. Conclusion CCM is being used for diabetes care in US primary care settings, and positive outcomes have been reported. Future research on integration of CCM into primary care settings for diabetes management should measure diabetes process indicators, such as self-efficacy for disease management and clinical decision making. PMID:23428085
Jusela, Cheryl; Struble, Laura; Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Redman, Richard W; Ziemba, Rosemary A
. 2. Describe the significance of interprofessional collaboration in the delivery of quality health care. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The purpose of the current project was to (a) examine the type of information accompanying patients on transfer from acute care to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), (b) discuss how these findings meet existing standards, and (c) make recommendations to improve transfer of essential information. The study was a retrospective convenience sample chart audit in one SNF. All patients admitted from an acute care hospital to the SNF were examined. The audit checklist was developed based on recommendations by local and national standards. One hundred fifty-five charts were reviewed. Transferring of physician contact information was missing in 65% of charts. The following information was also missing from charts: medication lists (1%), steroid tapering instructions (42%), antiarrhythmic instructions (38%), duration/indication of anticoagulant medications (25%), and antibiotic medications (22%). Findings support the need for improved transitional care models and better communication of information between care settings. Recommendations include designating accountability and chart audits comparing timeliness, completeness, and accuracy. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(3), 19-28.].
Hall, Nicole; Hipple, Bethany; Friebely, Joan; Ossip, Deborah J; Winickoff, Jonathan P
OBJECTIVE: To discuss strategies for integrating evidence-based tobacco use screening, cessation assistance, and referral to outside services into visits with families in outpatient child health care settings. METHODS: Presentation of counseling scenarios used in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) training video and commentary. RESULTS: Demonstrated strategies include: eliciting information about interest and readiness to quit smoking, respectfully setting an agenda to discuss smoking, tailoring advice and education to the specific circumstances, keeping the dialogue open, prescribing cessation medication, helping the smoker set an action plan for cessation, enrolling the smoker in free telephone counseling through the state quitline, and working with family members to establish a completely smoke-free home and car. Video demonstrations of these techniques are available at www.ceasetobacco.org. CONCLUSION: Child health care clinicians have a unique opportunity to address family smoking and can be most effective by adapting evidence-based tobacco cessation counseling strategies for visits in the pediatric setting.
McSwain, S David; Marcin, James P
Telemedicine is by no means a new technology, given that audio-video telecommunication links have been utilized for the provision of medical services since the 1950s. Nonetheless, telemedicine is currently in a phase of rapid growth and evolution. The combination of increasingly affordable and powerful networking, computing, and communication technology, along with the continued nationwide crisis in health care access and costs, has created a "tipping point," whereby telemedicine has progressed from a novel means of practicing medicine to practical tool to help address our nation's health care needs. Telemedicine has also evolved beyond a means of providing care to remote communities to becoming a versatile tool in the delivery of health care in a variety of non-rural settings. Although no one can be everywhere at once, telemedicine allows us to be in more places at once than we've ever been before. The problems of disparities and access to care are even more evident in pediatrics, where subspecialists are fewer in number and more regionalized than adult providers. Numerous successful telemedicine programs across the country have demonstrated the impact that these technologies can have in pediatrics, with many more programs in development. As a versatile means of delivering care, telemedicine can be used at any point during the course of a health care encounter as not only a means of expanding our reach, but also as a means of increasing efficiency. Using telemedicine to provide consultations to community hospitals has been shown to improve quality of care, strengthen the referral base for the consulting facilities, facilitate cost savings, and improve the financial bottom line for both referring and consulting facilities. This review highlights some of the ways in which telemedicine is being used to facilitate timely and effective pediatric care in a variety of hospital settings.
Woo, Kevin Y; Sears, Kim; Almost, Joan; Wilson, Rosemary; Whitehead, Marlo; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G
This is a prospective cohort study using population-level administrative data to describe the scope of pressure ulcers in terms of its prevalence, incidence risk, associating factors and the extent to which best practices were applied across a spectrum of health care settings. The data for this study includes the information of Ontario residents who were admitted to acute care, home care, long term care or continuing care and whose health care data is contained in the resident assessment instrument-minimum data set (RAI-MDS) and the health outcomes for better information and care (HOBIC) database from 2010 to 2013. The analysis included 203 035 unique patients. The overall prevalence of pressure ulcers was approximately 13% and highest in the complex continuing care setting. Over 25% of pressure ulcers in long-term care developed one week after discharge from acute care hospitalisation. Individuals with cardiovascular disease, dementia, bed mobility problems, bowel incontinence, end-stage diseases, daily pain, weight loss and shortness of breath were more likely to develop pressure ulcers. While there were a number of evidence-based interventions implemented to treat pressure ulcers, only half of the patients received nutritional interventions.
Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna
Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.
McConnell, Eleanor S; Karel, Michele J
As the prevalence of Alzheimer disease and related dementias increases, dementia-related behavioral symptoms present growing threats to care quality and safety of older adults across care settings. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as agitation, aggression, and resistance to care occur in nearly all individuals over the course of their illness. In inpatient care settings, if not appropriately treated, BPSD can result in care complications, increased length of stay, dissatisfaction with care, and caregiver stress and injury. Although evidence-based, nonpharmacological approaches to treating BPSD exist, their implementation into acute care has been thwarted by limited nursing staff expertise in behavioral health, and a lack of consistent approaches to integrate behavioral health expertise into medically focused inpatient care settings. This article describes the core components of one evidence-based approach to integrating behavioral health expertise into dementia care. This approach, called STAR-VA, was implemented in Veterans' Health Administration community living centers (nursing homes). It has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the severity and frequency of BPSD, while improving staff knowledge and skills in caring for people with dementia. The potential for adapting this approach in acute care settings is discussed, along with key lessons learned regarding opportunities for nursing leadership to ensure consistent implementation and sustainability.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Satuito, James Cyril B.; Satumba, Miko Anne E.; Segui, Diego Rey A.; Serquina, Faith Evelyn C.; Serrano, Lawrence Jan P.; Sevilla, Madelyn D.
The use of traditional art in recreational therapies is unexplored. This paper, thus, attempts to surface the unique power of traditional Filipino arts (TFA) as synergizing lens in capturing the individual and the collective experiences of a select group of Filipino elderly in an institutionalized care setting relative to their feelings of…
Moos, Rudolf H.; Lemke, Sonne
The Physical and Architectural Features Checklist (PAF) measures physical resources of sheltered care settings in terms of nine derived dimensions. Data show that facilities which have more physical resources are seen as attractive by outside observers and pleasant by residents. Cost is not related to any PAF dimension. (Author)
Zweig, Richard A.; Siegel, Lawrence; Hahn, Steven; Kuslansky, Gail; Byrne, Kathy; Fyffe, Denise; Passman, Vicki; Stewart, Douglas; Hinrichsen, Gregory
Most older adults diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment in primary care settings that lack personnel skilled in geropsychological diagnosis and treatment. The Ferkauf Older Adult Program of Yeshiva University endeavors to bridge this gap by providing training in geriatric psychology, through coursework and diverse clinical practica,…
Mills, Rachel; Voora, Deepak; Peyser, Bruce; Haga, Susanne B
Pharmacogenetic testing refers to a type of genetic test to predict a patient’s likelihood to experience an adverse event or not respond to a given drug. Despite revision to several labels of commonly prescribed drugs regarding the impact of genetic variation, the use of this testing has been limited in many settings due to a number of factors. In the primary care setting, the limited office time as well as the limited knowledge and experience of primary care practitioners have likely attributed to the slow uptake of pharmacogenetic testing. This paper provides talking points for primary care physicians to discuss with patients when pharmacogenetic testing is warranted. As patients and physicians become more familiar and accepting of pharmacogenetic testing, it is anticipated that discussion time will be comparable to that of other clinical tests. PMID:24101877
Children represent the most vulnerable members of our global society, a truth that is magnified when they are physically wounded. In much of the developed world, society has responded by offering protection in the form of law, injury prevention guidelines, and effective trauma systems to provide care for the injured child. Much of our world, though, remains afflicted by poverty and a lack of protective measures. As the globe becomes smaller by way of ease of travel and technology, surgeons are increasingly able to meet these children where they live and in doing so offer their hands and voices to care and protect these young ones. This article is intended as an overview of current issues in pediatric trauma care in the developing world as well as to offer some tips for the volunteer surgeon who may be involved in the care of the injured child in a setting of limited resource availability.
Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Strang, Vicki; Mitchell, Agnes; Thompson, Elizabeth; Lantz, Helen; Balt, Linda; Lemermeyer, Gillian; Vass, Kelly
In this Canadian study, a participatory action research approach was used to examine the relationships between families of residents of traditional continuing care facilities and the health care team. The objectives were to (a) explore the formation and maintenance of family-staff relationships, with attention paid to the relational elements of engagement and mutual respect; (b) explore family and staff perspectives of environmental supports and constraints; and (c) identify practical ways to support and enhance these relationships. Results indicate that the resource-constrained context of continuing care has directly impacted family and staff relationships. The nature of these relationships are discussed using the themes of "Everybody Knows Your Name," "Loss and Laundry," "It's the Little Things That Count," and "The Chasm of Us Versus Them." Families' and staff's ideas of behaviors that support or undermine relationships are identified, as are concrete suggestions for improving family- staff relationships in traditional continuing care settings in Canada.
Deacon, M; Warne, T; McAndrew, S
This paper makes a case for the attractiveness of acute mental health inpatient nursing (acute nursing) and argues that an altered perception of this work is essential if we are to provide the most acutely mentally ill and vulnerable people with a stable and expert nursing workforce. The discussion draws on an ethnographic study conducted in an inner-city psychiatric unit in England and the advantages of this method for understanding nursing work are described. Within our findings, we set out two overarching themes: the contextual realities of the contemporary acute ward and features of attraction that encourage nurses to work in the acute care setting. The former includes nurses' responsibility for the total ward environment and the latter the 'comfort of closeness' and 'surviving and thriving in chaos and crisis'. In conclusion, we argue that despite the unpopularity of the acute inpatient mental health environment, the highly sophisticated skills employed by acute nurses actually ensure the promotion of health for the majority of service users.
Darvas, Katalin; Futó, Judit; Okrös, Ilona; Gondos, Tibor; Csomós, Akos; Kupcsulik, Péter
Acute pancreatitis is a dynamic, often progressive disease; 14-20% require intensive care in its severe form due to multiorgan dysfunction and/or failure. This review was created using systematic literature review of articles published on this subject in the last 5 years. The outcome of severe acute pancreatitis is determined by the inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction - the prognostic scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Glasgow Prognostic Index, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Scale, Ranson Scale) can be used to determine outcome. Clinical signs (age, coexisting diseases, confusion, obesity) and biochemistry values (serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatinine, urea, calcium) have important prognostic roles as well. Early organ failure increases the risk of late abdominal complications and mortality. Intensive care can provide appropriate multi-function patient monitoring which helps in early recognition of complications and appropriate target-controlled treatment. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis aims at reducing systemic inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction and, on the other side, at increasing the anti-inflammatory response. Oral starvation for 24-48 hours is effective in reducing the exocrine activity of the pancreas; the efficacy of protease inhibitors is questionable. Early intravascular volume resuscitation and stable haemodynamics improve microcirculation. Early oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation provide adequate oxygenation. Electrolyte and acid-base control can be as important as tight glucose control. Adequate pain relief can be achieved by thoracic epidural catheterization. Early enteral nutrition with immunonutrition should be used. There is evidence that affecting the coagulation cascade by activated protein C can play a role in reducing the inflammatory response. The complex therapy of acute pancreatitis includes appropriate
Spigolon, Dandara Novakowski; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral
This study aimed to develop an Essential Data Set for Nursing Care of Patients with Endometriosis (CDEEPE), represented by archetypes. An exploratory applied research with specialists' participation that was carried out at Heath Informatics Laboratory of PUCPR, between February and November of 2010. It was divided in two stages: CDEEPE construction and evaluation including Nursing Process phases and Basic Human Needs, and archetypes development based on this data set. CDEEPE was evaluated by doctors and nurses with 95.9% of consensus and containing 51 data items. The archetype "Perception of Organs and Senses" was created to represents this data set. This study allowed identifying important information for nursing practices contributing to computerization and application of nursing process during care. The CDEEPE was the basis for archetype creation, that will make possible structured, organized, efficient, interoperable, and semantics records.
Hernández-Fabà, Eva; Sanfeliu-Julià, Cristina
Since 2008, the Institut Catala de la Salut (ICS) introduced the nurses management plan for acute pathology, in primary care centres. In the implementation of this system of organization, the ICS introduced various diseases protocols with performance algorithms. To raise awareness of the the practice of acute pathology, we present a clinical case. An urgent consultation of a 30 year-old male, with fever, sore throat and cough, which was managed and resolved by a nurse. The aim of this new management plan is that nursing is the first health professional to take care of patient coming to primary care centre without a scheduled visit, to avoid saturating the general clinic or hospital emergencies. This new organisational system involves an increase in the responsibilities of nursing in the diagnosis and treatment of patients.
Ratzliff, Anna; Phillips, Kathryn E.; Sugarman, Jonathan R.; Unützer, Jürgen; Wagner, Edward H.
Behavioral health problems are common, yet most patients do not receive effective treatment in primary care settings. Despite availability of effective models for integrating behavioral health care in primary care settings, uptake has been slow. The Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide provides practical guidance for adapting and implementing effective integrated behavioral health care into patient-centered medical homes. The authors gathered input from stakeholders involved in behavioral health integration efforts: safety net providers, subject matter experts in primary care and behavioral health, a behavioral health patient and peer specialist, and state and national policy makers. Stakeholder input informed development of the Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide and the GROW Pathway Planning Worksheet. The Behavioral Health Integration Implementation Guide is model neutral and allows organizations to take meaningful steps toward providing integrated care that achieves access and accountability. PMID:26698163
Dalal, Anuj K; Schnipper, Jeffrey; Massaro, Anthony; Hanna, John; Mlaver, Eli; McNally, Kelly; Stade, Diana; Morrison, Constance; Bates, David W
Communication in acute care settings is fragmented and occurs asynchronously via a variety of electronic modalities. Providers are often not on the same page with regard to the plan of care. We designed and developed a secure, patient-centered "microblog" messaging platform that identifies care team members by synchronizing with the electronic health record, and directs providers to a single forum where they can communicate about the plan of care. The system was used for 35% of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit over a 6-month period. Major themes in messages included care coordination (49%), clinical summarization (29%), and care team collaboration (27%). Message transparency and persistence were seen as useful features by 83% and 62% of respondents, respectively. Availability of alternative messaging tools and variable use by non-unit providers were seen as main barriers to adoption by 83% and 62% of respondents, respectively. This approach has much potential to improve communication across settings once barriers are addressed.
De Luca, C; Valentino, M; Rimondi, M R; Branchini, M; Baleni, M Casadio; Barozzi, L
Diagnosis of acute lung disease is a daily challenge for radiologists working in acute-care areas. It is generally based on the results of chest radiography performed under technically unfavorable conditions. Computed tomography (CT) is undoubtedly more accurate in these cases, but it cannot always be performed on critically ill patients who need continuous care.The use of thoracic ultrasonography (US) has recently been proposed for the study of acute lung disease. It can be carried out rapidly at the bedside and does not require any particularly sophisticated equipment. This report analyzes our experience with chest sonography as a supplement to chest radiography in an Emergency Radiology Unit. We performed chest sonography - as an adjunct to chest radiography - on 168 patients with acute chest pathology. Static and dynamic US signs were analyzed in light of radiographic findings and, when possible, CT. The use of chest US improved the authors' ability to provide confident diagnoses of acute disease of the chest and lungs.
Enomoto, Yoshinori; Sudo, Yoshio; Sueta, Tomonori
Tricuspid insufficiency due to penetrating cardiac trauma is rare. Patients with tricuspid insufficiency due to trauma can tolerate this abnormality for months or even years. We report a case of a 66-year-old female with penetrating cardiac trauma on the right side of her heart that required tricuspid valve repair in an acute setting. She sustained cut and stab wounds on her bilateral forearms and in the neck and epigastric region. She had cardiac tamponade and developed pulseless electrical activity, which required emergency surgery. The right ventricle and superior vena cava were dissected approximately 5 cm and 2 cm, respectively. After these wounds had been repaired, the patient's inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass suggested rightsided heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed tricuspid insufficiency. Right atriotomy was performed, and a detailed examination revealed that the tricuspid valve septal leaflet was split in two. There was also an atrial septal injury that created a connection with the left atrium; these injuries were not detected from the right ventricular wound. After repair, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass with mild tricuspid insufficiency was achieved, and she recovered uneventfully. This case emphasized the importance of thoroughly investigating intracardiac injury and transesophageal echocardiography.
Barr, Lesley; Wynaden, Dianne; Heslop, Karen
Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package Social Sciences, Version 22.0. Practice differences between forensic and other acute mental health settings were identified related to the use of PRN medications to manage symptoms from nicotine, alcohol and other drug withdrawal. Differences related to the useage of comfort rooms and conducting comprehensive assessments of consumers' psychiatric symptoms were also detected. Qualitative findings highlighted the need for increased accountability for the prescribing and administration of PRN medications along with more nursing education/training to use alternative first line interventions. Nurses administering PRN medications should be vigilant regarding the indications for this practice to ensure they are facilitating the consumer's recovery by reducing the use of all forms of potentially restrictive practices in the hospital setting. The reasons for using PRN medications and PRN administration rates must be continually monitored to avoid practices such as high dose antipsychotics use and antipsychotic polypharmacy to ensure the efficacy of the consumers' management plans on their health care outcomes.
Enhancing the population impact of collaborative care interventions: Mixed method development and implementation of stepped care targeting posttraumatic stress disorder and related comorbidities after acute trauma
Zatzick, Douglas; Rivara, Frederick; Jurkovich, Gregory; Russo, Joan; Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wang, Jin; Wagner, Amy; Stephens, Kari; Dunn, Chris; Uehara, Edwina; Petrie, Megan; Engel, Charles; Davydow, Dimitri; Katon, Wayne
Objective To develop and implement a stepped collaborative care intervention targeting PTSD and related co-morbidities to enhance the population impact of early trauma-focused interventions. Method We describe the design and implementation of the Trauma Survivors Outcomes & Support Study (TSOS II). An interdisciplinary treatment development team was comprised of trauma surgical, clinical psychiatric and mental health services “change agents” who spanned the boundaries between front-line trauma center clinical care and acute care policy. Mixed method clinical epidemiologic and clinical ethnographic studies informed the development of PTSD screening and intervention procedures. Results Two-hundred and seven acutely injured trauma survivors with high early PTSD symptom levels were randomized into the study. The stepped collaborative care model integrated care management (i.e., posttraumatic concern elicitation and amelioration, motivational interviewing, and behavioral activation) with cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy targeting PTSD. The model was feasibly implemented by front-line acute care MSW and ARNP providers. Conclusions Stepped care protocols targeting PTSD may enhance the population impact of early interventions developed for survivors of individual and mass trauma by extending the reach of collaborative care interventions to acute care medical settings and other non-specialty posttraumatic contexts. PMID:21596205
Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Koester, Kimberly A.; Beane, Stephanie; Warren, Nancy; Beal, Jeffrey; Frank, Linda Rose
Objectives. We examined the efforts of the US network of AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) to increase HIV testing capacity across a variety of clinical settings. Methods. We used quantitative process data from 8 regional AETCs for July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009, and qualitative program descriptions to demonstrate how AETC education helped providers integrate HIV testing into routine clinical care with the goals of early diagnosis and treatment. Results. Compared with other AETC training, HIV testing training was longer and used a broader variety of strategies to educate more providers per training. During education, providers were able to understand their primary care responsibility to address public health concerns through HIV testing. Conclusions. AETC efforts illustrate how integration of the principles of primary care and public health can be promoted through professional training. PMID:22515867
Clark, Melinda B; Slayton, Rebecca L
Dental caries remains the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States. Caries is a largely preventable condition, and fluoride has proven effectiveness in the prevention of caries. The goals of this clinical report are to clarify the use of available fluoride modalities for caries prevention in the primary care setting and to assist pediatricians in using fluoride to achieve maximum protection against dental caries while minimizing the likelihood of enamel fluorosis.
The gap between rich and resource-poor countries has continued to grow as reproductive care providers integrate interventions to limit mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in a manner consistent with existing information. There are two major reasons for this difference: access to prophylactic antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for HIV-infected pregnant mothers and availability of alternative feeding for babies. In resource-poor settings, these options are beyond reach for the majority of the women. Infant and under-five mortality rates from other infections are high in these settings and breastfeeding remains the norm. Answering the question, What is an achievable standard of care in resource-poor settings? still remains a major challenge today. Dialogue has begun in most resource-poor settings to address the key elements in the package of interventions to reduce MTCT of HIV. These elements include the following: (1) overall prevention of HIV in mothers and fathers; (2) provision of good-quality voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) in antenatal clinics; (3) a comprehensive package of interventions during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery, including screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), family planning, and--where possible--ARVs; (4) provision of infant and maternal nutrition within the socioeconomic realities; (5) advocacy and program communication; and (6) other supportive measures, including community mobilization to address issues such as stigmatization of and violence against HIV-infected women. This paper discusses the challenges faced by most resource-poor settings in integrating some of these activities into reproductive care services.
Noureddine, Samar; Dumit, Nuhad Y; Saab, Mohammad
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore how patients who experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) decide to seek emergency care. Fifty patients with AMI were interviewed at two hospitals in Lebanon. The perspective of 22 witnesses of the attack was also sought about the cardiac event. The themes that transpired from the data were as follows: making sense of the symptoms, waiting to see what happens, deciding to come to the hospital, and the family influenced the decision to seek care. The witnesses of the cardiac event, mostly family members, supported the decision to seek emergency care. Deciding to seek emergency care for AMI is complex. Nurses must solicit their patients' perception of the cardiac event to provide them with tailored education and counseling about heart attack symptoms and how to respond to them in case they recur. Family members must be included in the education process.
Byatt, Nancy; Levin, Leonard L.; Ziedonis, Douglas; Moore Simas, Tiffany A.; Allison, Jeroan
Objective To examine a wide range of study designs and outcomes to estimate the extent to which interventions in outpatient perinatal care settings are associated with an increase in the uptake of depression care. Data Sources PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Scopus (EMBASE) were searched for studies published between 1999 and 2014 that evaluated mental health care use after screening for depression in perinatal care settings. Methods of Study Selection Inclusion criteria were: 1) English language; 2) pregnant and postpartum women who screened positive for depression; 3) exposure (validated depression screening in outpatient perinatal care setting); and, 4) outcome (mental health care use). Searches yielded 392 articles, 42 met criteria for full text review, and 17 met inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black scale. Tabulation, Integration, and Results Articles were independently reviewed by two abstractors and consensus reached. Study design, intervention components and mental health care use were defined and categorized. Seventeen articles representing a range of study designs, including one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and one cluster RCT, were included. The average quality rating was 61% (31.0-90.0%). When no intervention was in place, an average of 22% (13.8-33.0%) of women who screened positive for depression had at least one mental health visit. The average rate of mental health care use was associated with a doubling of this rate with patient engagement strategies (44%, 29.0-90.0%), on-site assessments (49%, 25.2-90.0%), and perinatal care provider training (54%, 1.0-90.0%). High rates of mental health care use (81%, 72.0-90.0%) was associated with implementation of additional interventions, including resource provision to women, perinatal care provider training, on-site assessment, and access to mental health consultation for perinatal care providers. Conclusion Screening alone was associated
Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Pineault, Raynald; Tousignant, Pierre
Abstract Objective To define a physician classification system based on practice settings and to analyze the service provision associated with those classifications. Design A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting Province of Quebec. Participants All GPs in Quebec in 2002 who had been practising for at least 2 years. Main outcome measures Practice setting variables were based on physician income in the different settings. Service provision was assessed using indicators related to continuity, comprehensiveness, accessibility, and productivity of services provided by the GPs. A multiple correspondence analysis with ascending hierarchical classification was conducted to construct the taxonomy of GPs based on their practice settings. Results Our study produced 7 practice setting models. Two were essentially single-practice models. The 5 others combined several settings. Service provision varied from one model to another. Continuity was greater in the private practice model, in which older GPs were predominant, while accessibility was greater in multi-institutional practice models, in which younger GPs were more active. Conclusion To ensure balance between continuity, accessibility, and comprehensiveness in primary care services provided by GPs, it is important to consider the service provision associated with different practice models. PMID:25316763
Mueller, Christian; Christ, Michael; Cowie, Martin; Cullen, Louise; Maisel, Alan S; Masip, Josep; Miro, Oscar; McMurray, John; Peacock, Frank W; Price, Susanna; DiSomma, Salvatore; Bueno, Hector; Zeymer, Uwe; Mebazaa, Alexandre
Acute heart failure (AHF) continues to have unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity. This position paper highlights the need for more intense interdisciplinary cooperation as one key element to overcome the challenges associated with fragmentation in the care of AHF patients. Additional aspects discussed include the importance of early diagnosis and treatment, options for initial treatment, referral bias as a potential cause for treatment preferences among experts, considerable uncertainty regarding patient disposition, the diagnosis of accompanying acute myocardial infarction, the need for antibiotic therapy, as well as assessment of intravascular volume status.
Green, Janette P; McNamee, Jennifer P; Kobel, Conrad; Seraji, Md Habibur R; Lawrence, Suanne J
Objective The aim of the present study was to develop a robust model that uses the concept of 'rehabilitation-sensitive' Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in predicting demand for rehabilitation and geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) care following acute in-patient episodes provided in Australian hospitals.Methods The model was developed using statistical analyses of national datasets, informed by a panel of expert clinicians and jurisdictional advice. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken using acute in-patient data, published national hospital statistics and data from the Australasian Rehabilitation Outcomes Centre.Results The predictive model comprises tables of probabilities that patients will require rehabilitation or GEM care after an acute episode, with columns defined by age group and rows defined by grouped Australian Refined (AR)-DRGs.Conclusions The existing concept of rehabilitation-sensitive DRGs was revised and extended. When applied to national data, the model provided a conservative estimate of 83% of the activity actually provided. An example demonstrates the application of the model for service planning.What is known about the topic? Health service planning is core business for jurisdictions and local areas. With populations ageing and an acknowledgement of the underservicing of subacute care, it is timely to find improved methods of estimating demand for this type of care. Traditionally, age-sex standardised utilisation rates for individual DRGs have been applied to Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) population projections to predict the future need for subacute services. Improved predictions became possible when some AR-DRGs were designated 'rehabilitation-sensitive'. This improved methodology has been used in several Australian jurisdictions.What does this paper add? This paper presents a new tool, or model, to predict demand for rehabilitation and GEM services based on in-patient acute activity. In this model, the methodology
Ltaief, Z; Ben-Hamouda, N; Suys, T; Daniel, R T; Rossetti, A O; Oddo, M
Management of neurocritical care patients is focused on the prevention and treatment of secondary brain injury, i.e. the number of pathophysiological intracerebral (edema, ischemia, energy dysfunction, seizures) and systemic (hyperthermia, disorders of glucose homeostasis) events that occur following the initial insult (stroke, hemorrhage, head trauma, brain anoxia) that may aggravate patient outcome. The current therapeutic paradigm is based on multimodal neuromonitoring, including invasive (intracranial pressure, brain oxygen, cerebral microdialysis) and non-invasive (transcranial doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, EEG) tools that allows targeted individualized management of acute coma in the early phase. The aim of this review is to describe the utility of multimodal neuromonitoring for the critical care management of acute coma.
Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane
The normative position in acute hospital care when a patient is seriously ill is to resuscitate and rescue. However, a number of UK and international reports have highlighted problems with the lack of timely recognition, treatment and referral of patients whose condition is deteriorating while being cared for on hospital wards. This article explores the social practice of rescue, and the structural and cultural influences that guide the categorisation and ordering of acutely ill patients in different hospital settings. We draw on Strauss et al.'s notion of the patient trajectory and link this with the impact of categorisation practices, thus extending insights beyond those gained from emergency department triage to care management processes further downstream on the hospital ward. Using ethnographic data collected from medical wards and maternity care settings in two UK inner city hospitals, we explore how differences in population, cultural norms, categorisation work and trajectories of clinical deterioration interlink and influence patient safety. An analysis of the variation in findings between care settings and patient groups enables us to consider socio-political influences and the specifics of how staff manage trade-offs linked to the enactment of core values such as safety and equity in practice.
Hall, Nicole; Hipple, Bethany; Friebely, Joan; Ossip, Deborah J.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.
Objective To discuss strategies for integrating evidence-based tobacco use screening, cessation assistance, and referral to outside services into visits with families in outpatient child health care settings. Methods Presentation of counseling scenarios used in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) training video and commentary. Results Demonstrated strategies include: eliciting information about interest and readiness to quit smoking, respectfully setting an agenda to discuss smoking, tailoring advice and education to the specific circumstances, keeping the dialogue open, prescribing cessation medication, helping the smoker set an action plan for cessation, enrolling the smoker in free telephone counseling through the state quitline, and working with family members to establish a completely smoke-free home and car. Video demonstrations of these techniques are available at www.ceasetobacco.org. Conclusion Child health care clinicians have a unique opportunity to address family smoking and can be most effective by adapting evidence-based tobacco cessation counseling strategies for visits in the pediatric setting. PMID:20448841
Connolly, V; Hamad, M; Scott, Y; Bramble, M
Acute Assessment Units (AAUs) have been developed to meet the demand for emergency care. Traditionally, AAUs have been an admission route to secondary care but the role is now evolving to assessment. AAUs are complex and have many interactions both in hospitals and the community. The effective functioning of an AAU requires excellent clinical leadership, appropriate facilities, timely access to diagnostics and input from the multi-disciplinary team. Increasingly, AAUs will have to develop services which are not dependent on using hospital beds. A variety of emergency medical presentations can, with the appropriate resources, be delivered in an out-patient setting.
Rowan, Leslie; Veenema, Tener Goodwin
Falls in acute care medical patients are a complex problem impacted by the constantly changing risk factors affecting this population. This integrative literature review analyzes current evidence to determine factors that continue to make falls a top patient safety problem within the medical unit microsystem. The goal of this review is to develop an evidence-based structure to guide process improvement and effective use of organization resources.
The nursing discipline is vital throughout patients' hospital progression. One of the most critical moments in the hospital stay is the postoperative period. Neurosurgical patients require a high level of nursing care and vigilance and additional postoperative monitoring in intensive care units designed specifically for this demographic. In the postoperative setting, patient care must be transferred from anesthesia to nursing in a manner that is continuous and safe. This article focuses on neurosurgical patients in the postoperative period, the assessment of these patients, and critical care nursing, with emphasis on common issues and interventions for this dynamic patient population.
... Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Changes and FY... Rehabilitation and Respiratory Care Services; Medicaid Program: Accreditation for Providers of Inpatient... ``Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...
Rowe, Stevie; Siegel, David; Benjamin, Daniel K.
Purpose Approximately 1 out of 6 children in the United States is obese. This has important implications for drug dosing and safety, as pharmacokinetic (PK) changes are known to occur in obesity due to altered body composition and physiology. Inappropriate drug dosing can limit therapeutic efficacy and increase drug-related toxicity for obese children. Few systematic reviews examining PK and drug dosing in obese children have been performed. Methods We identified 25 acute care drugs from the Strategic National Stockpile and Acute Care Supportive Drugs List and performed a systematic review for each drug in 3 study populations: obese children (2–18 years of age), normal weight children, and obese adults. For each study population, we first reviewed a drug’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) label, followed by a systematic literature review. From the literature, we extracted drug PK data, biochemical properties, and dosing information. We then reviewed data in 3 age subpopulations (2–7 years, 8–12 years, and 13–18 years) for obese and normal weight children and by route of drug administration (intramuscular, intravenous, by mouth, and inhaled). If sufficient PK data were not available by age/route of administration, a data gap was identified. Findings Only 2/25 acute care drugs (8%) contained dosing information on the FDA label for each obese children and adults compared with 22/25 (88%) for normal weight children. We found no sufficient PK data in the literature for any of the acute care drugs in obese children. Sufficient PK data were found for 7/25 acute care drugs (28%) in normal weight children and 3/25 (12%) in obese adults. Implications Insufficient information exists to guide dosing in obese children for any of the acute care drugs reviewed. This knowledge gap is alarming, given the known PK changes that occur in the setting of obesity. Future clinical trials examining the PK of acute care medications in obese children should be prioritized. PMID
Scott, N Ann; Moga, Carmen; Harstall, Christa
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain knowledge gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) in the primary care setting to prepare a scoping survey for identifying knowledge gaps in LBP management among Alberta’s primary care practitioners, and to identify potential barriers to implementing a multidisciplinary LBP guideline. METHODS: English language studies, published from 1996 to 2008, comparing the clinical practice patterns of primary care practitioners with guideline recommendations were identified by systematically searching literature databases, the websites of various health technology assessment agencies and libraries, and the Internet. Data were synthesized qualitatively. RESULTS: The literature search identified 14 relevant studies. Knowledge gaps were reported among various primary care practitioner groups in the assessment of red flags, use of diagnostic imaging, provision of advice regarding sick leave and continuing activity, administration of some medications (muscle relaxants, oral steroids and opioids) and recommendation of particular treatments (acupuncture, physiotherapy, spinal manipulation, traction, ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal mobilization). CONCLUSIONS: A know-do gap clearly exists among primary care practitioners with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of LBP. The information on know-do gaps will be used to construct a survey tool for unearthing the local knowledge gaps extant among Alberta’s primary care practitioners, and to develop a dissemination strategy for a locally produced multidisciplinary LBP guideline, with the aim of ensuring that the know-do gaps inherent within each primary practice discipline are specifically targeted. PMID:21165374
Zweig, Richard A; Siegel, Lawrence; Hahn, Steven; Kuslansky, Gail; Byrne, Kathy; Fyffe, Denise; Passman, Vicki; Stewart, Douglas; Hinrichsen, Gregory A
Most older adults diagnosed with a mental disorder receive treatment in primary care settings that lack personnel skilled in geropsychological diagnosis and treatment. The Ferkauf Older Adult Program of Yeshiva University endeavors to bridge this gap by providing training in geriatric psychology, through coursework and diverse clinical practica, to clinical psychology doctoral students within a large urban professional psychology program. In an innovative effort to provide the most disadvantaged elderly with comprehensive mental health treatment and maximize trainee exposure to an interdisciplinary treatment model, the program also pairs selected doctoral psychology trainees with medical residents to optimize integrated mental health service delivery for primary care elderly. The program has the following core objectives: (1) Infuse the mental health and aging knowledge base into the regular graduate curriculum; (2) Provide interdisciplinary training in geropsychological diagnostic and consultative services within an urban primary care setting; (3) Provide interdisciplinary training in the practice of psychological and neuropsychological evaluation of elderly; (4) Provide training in geropsychological psychotherapeutic intervention, including individual, couples/family, and brief/psycho-educational therapies with outpatient older adults. These objectives are achieved by pooling the resources of a graduate school of psychology, a local public hospital, and an academic medical center to achieve educational and clinical service goals.
Leigh, Andrew James; O'Hanlon, Katie; Sheldrick, Russell; Surr, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian
Person-centred care can improve the well-being of patients and is therefore a key driver in healthcare developments in the UK. The current study aims to investigate the complex relationship between cognitive impairment, dependency and well-being in people with a wide range of acquired brain and spinal injuries. Sixty-five participants, with varied acquired brain and spinal injuries, were selected by convenience sampling from six inpatient clinical neuroscience settings. Participants were observed using Dementia Care Mapping - Neurorehabilitation (DCM-NR) and categorised based on severity of cognitive impairment. A significant difference in the behaviours participants engaged in, their well-being and dependency was found between the severe cognitive impairment group and the mild, moderate or no cognitive impairment groups. Dependency and cognitive impairment accounted for 23.9% of the variance in well-ill-being scores and 17.2% of the variance in potential for positive engagement. The current study highlights the impact of severe cognitive impairment and dependency on the behaviours patients engaged in and their well-being. It also affirms the utility of DCM-NR in providing insights into patient experience. Consideration is given to developing DCM-NR as a process that may improve person-centred care in neuroscience settings.
Kollef, Marin H
Antibiotics are one of the most common therapies administered in the intensive care unit setting. In addition to treating infections, antibiotic use contributes to the emergence of resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and optimizing the administration of antimicrobial agents will help to improve patient outcomes while minimizing further pressures for resistance. This review will present several strategies aimed at achieving optimal use of antimicrobial agents. It is important to note that each intensive care unit should have a program in place which monitors antibiotic utilization and its effectiveness. Only in this way can the impact of interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use (e.g. antibiotic rotation, de-escalation therapy) be evaluated at the local level. PMID:11511331
Björkdahl, A; Palmstierna, T; Hansebo, G
Demanding conditions in acute psychiatric wards inhibit provision of safe, therapeutic care and leave nurses torn between humanistic ideals and the harsh reality of their daily work. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' caring approaches within this context. Data were collected from interviews with nurses working in acute psychiatric intensive care. Data were analysed using qualitative analysis, based on interpretive description. Results revealed a caring-approach continuum on which two approaches formed the main themes: the bulldozer and the ballet dancer. The bulldozer approach functioned as a shield of power that protected the ward from chaos. The ballet dancer approach functioned as a means of initiating relationships with patients. When examining the data from a theoretical perspective of caring and uncaring encounters in nursing, the ballet dancer approach was consistent with a caring approach, while the bulldozer approach was more complex and somewhat aligned with uncaring approaches. Conclusions drawn from the study are that although the bulldozer approach involves a risk for uncaring and harming actions, it also brings a potential for caring. This potential needs to be further explored and nurses should be encouraged to reflect on how they integrate paternalistic nursing styles with person-centred care.
Bennett, C; Mein, J; Beers, M; Harvey, B; Vemulpad, S; Chant, K; Dalton, C
From May to June 1999, 3,920 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo arrived in Australia as part of Operation Safe Haven. These people were evacuated from refugee camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Initial processing in Australia occurred at East Hills Reception Centre, and accommodation for the duration of stay was provided in eight Haven Centres in five States. The arrival of a large number of refugees in a short time frame is unprecedented in Australia. A health surveillance system was developed and critical health data were collected to assess health status and needs, plan care, monitor for potential outbreaks of communicable diseases, track service use, to meet international reporting requirements and document our response to this crisis. In this article the health surveillance system is evaluated and suggestions are offered for the formulation of specific guidelines necessary for health surveillance in acute settings.
Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Adekanmbi, Folasade
Acute renal failure (ARF) is encountered in neonatal care where it may be associated with significant morbidities. Pre-renal failure, which is due to impaired renal tissue perfusion, is the commonest type of ARF. It is amenable to treatment with excellent prognosis following prompt diagnosis and timely institution of appropriate intervention. Unfortunately, ARF in the newborn is usually asymptomatic and it is only suspected when a newborn infant has not been observed to pass urine over several hours or when serum Creatinine is observed to be elevated or rising. In resource-poor settings, it is often difficult to conduct detailed evaluation of suspected cases of newborn ARF due to lack of appropriate equipments and infrastructure. Similarly, therapeutic facilities are sparse and there is heavy reliance on conservative management of cases. Such difficulties encountered in the evaluation and management of newborns with ARF in most parts of the developing world, like Nigeria, where diagnostic and therapeutic facilities are limited are highlighted.
Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter
Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026
Schick, Michael; Grether-Jones, Kendra
We describe a case where a patient presented with acute angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) induced angioedema without signs or symptoms of upper airway edema beyond lip swelling. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) was used as an initial diagnostic test and identified left-sided subglottic upper airway edema that was immediately confirmed with indirect fiberoptic laryngoscopy. ACE-I induced angioedema and the historical use of ultrasound in evaluation of the upper airway is briefly discussed. To our knowledge, POCUS has not been used to identify acute upper airway edema in the emergency setting. Further investigation is needed to determine if POCUS is a sensitive and specific-enough tool for the identification and evaluation of acute upper airway edema. PMID:27833699
Teichman, Sam L; Maisel, Alan S; Storrow, Alan B
Acute heart failure is a common condition associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and cost. However, evidence-based data on treating heart failure in the acute setting are limited, and current individual treatment options have variable efficacy. The healthcare team must often individualize patient care in ways that may extend beyond available clinical guidelines. In this review, we address the question, "How do you do the best you can clinically with incomplete evidence and imperfect drugs?" Expert opinion is provided to supplement guideline-based recommendations and help address the typical challenges that are involved in the management of patients with acute heart failure. Specifically, we discuss 4 key areas that are important in the continuum of patient care: differential diagnosis and risk stratification; choice and implementation of initial therapy; assessment of the adequacy of therapy during hospitalization or observation; and considerations for discharge/transition of care. A case study is presented to highlight the decision-making process throughout each of these areas. Evidence is accumulating that should help guide patients and healthcare providers on a path to better quality of care.
Maisel, Alan S.; Storrow, Alan B.
Acute heart failure is a common condition associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and cost. However, evidence-based data on treating heart failure in the acute setting are limited, and current individual treatment options have variable efficacy. The healthcare team must often individualize patient care in ways that may extend beyond available clinical guidelines. In this review, we address the question, “How do you do the best you can clinically with incomplete evidence and imperfect drugs?” Expert opinion is provided to supplement guideline-based recommendations and help address the typical challenges that are involved in the management of patients with acute heart failure. Specifically, we discuss 4 key areas that are important in the continuum of patient care: differential diagnosis and risk stratification; choice and implementation of initial therapy; assessment of the adequacy of therapy during hospitalization or observation; and considerations for discharge/transition of care. A case study is presented to highlight the decision-making process throughout each of these areas. Evidence is accumulating that should help guide patients and healthcare providers on a path to better quality of care. PMID:25679083
Sanger, Patrick; Hartzler, Andrea; Lober, William B; Evans, Heather L; Pratt, Wanda
Many current mobile health applications ("apps") and most previous research have been directed at management of chronic illnesses. However, little is known about patient preferences and design considerations for apps intended to help in a post-acute setting. Our team is developing an mHealth platform to engage patients in wound tracking to identify and manage surgical site infections (SSI) after hospital discharge. Post-discharge SSIs are a major source of morbidity and expense, and occur at a critical care transition when patients are physically and emotionally stressed. Through interviews with surgical patients who experienced SSI, we derived design considerations for such a post-acute care app. Key design qualities include: meeting basic accessibility, usability and security needs; encouraging patient-centeredness; facilitating better, more predictable communication; and supporting personalized management by providers. We illustrate our application of these guiding design considerations and propose a new framework for mHealth design based on illness duration and intensity.
This paper provides the results of the survey-2000 measuring technology transfer and, specifically, Internet usage. The purpose of the survey was to measure the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business-to-business and customers. These results are compared with responses to the same questions in survey-1997. Changes in response are noted and discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the third of three articles based upon the results of the survey-2000. Readers are referred to prior articles by the author, which discuss the survey design and provide a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals. (1) Thefirst article based upon the survey results discusses technology transfer, system design approaches, user involvement, and decision-making purposes. (2)
Yury, Craig A
The purpose of this case study was to examine the potential of using noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) to reduce the frequency of disruptive behaviors of three elderly persons in personal care home (PCH) settings. Assessment indicated that participants were engaging in the disruptive behaviors to obtain social attention from PCH staff. Social attention, up to 1 min of staff making eye contact with the participant and directing positive verbal statements toward the participant, was given on a fixed time interval (from morning through early evening) beginning every 20 min and fading to every 30 min. Results indicate that NCR reduced the frequency of the disruptive behaviors.
Jordans, Mark J D; Tol, Wietse A
Mental health in low- and middle income countries has received increasing attention. This attention has shifted focus, roughly moving from demonstrating the burden of mental health problems, to establishing an evidence base for interventions, to thinking about care delivery frameworks. This paper reviews these trends specifically for humanitarian settings and discusses lessons learned. Notably, that mental health assessments need to go beyond measuring the impact of traumatic events on circumscribed psychiatric disorders; that evidence for effectiveness of interventions is still too weak and its focus too limited; and that development of service delivery in the context of instable community and health systems should be an area of key priority.
Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo care (KC), has benefits for babies and parents, improving clinical outcomes, temperature control, breastfeeding rates and child-parent bonding; it reduces morbidity and mortality. Barriers to KC for neonates may include a lack of training for nurses, lack of time, maternal or child physical or mental ill health, and inappropriate settings. With education and helpful management, neonatal nurses can advocate for KC for all babies. Parents may need information and encouragement to begin with. Therefore, nurses can improve the experiences of their patients and, in the long run, free time to perform clinical procedures.
Easton, Tiffany; Milte, Rachel; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie
Long-term care for older people is provided in both residential and non-residential settings, with residential settings tending to cater for individuals with higher care needs. Evidence relating to the costs and effectiveness of different workforce structures and care processes is important to facilitate the future planning of residential aged care services to promote high quality care and to enhance the quality of life of individuals living in residential care. A systematic review conducted up to December 2015 identified 19 studies containing an economic component; seven included a complete economic evaluation and 12 contained a cost analysis only. Key findings include the potential to create cost savings from a societal perspective through enhanced staffing levels and quality improvement interventions within residential aged care facilities, while integrated care models, including the integration of health disciplines and the integration between residents and care staff, were shown to have limited cost-saving potential. Six of the 19 identified studies examined dementia-specific structures and processes, in which person-centred interventions demonstrated the potential to reduce agitation and improve residents' quality of life. Importantly, this review highlights methodological limitations in the existing evidence and an urgent need for future research to identify appropriate and meaningful outcome measures that can be used at a service planning level.
Günzel, F; Theiss, S; Knüppel, P; Halberstadt, S; Rose, G; Raith, M
Specialized stroke units offer optimal treatment of patients with an acute stroke. Unfortunately, their installation is limited by an acute lack of experienced neurologists and the small number of stroke patients in sparsely populated rural areas. This problem is increasingly being solved by the use of telemedicine, so that neurological expertise is made available to basic and regular care. It has been demonstrated by national and international pilot studies that solidly based and rapid decisions can be made by telemedicine regrading the use of thrombolysis, as the most important acute treatment, but also of other interventions. So far studies have only evaluated improvement in the quality of care achieved by networking, but not of any lasting effect on any economic benefit. Complementary to a medical evaluation, the qualitative economic assessment presented here of German and American concepts of telemetric care indicate no difference in efficacy between various ways of networking. Most noteworthy, when comparing two large American and German studies, is the difference in their priorities. While the American networks achieved targeted improvements in efficacy of care that go beyond the immediate wishes of the doctors involved, this was of only secondary importance in the German studies. Also, in contrast to several American networks, the German telemetry networks have not tended to be organized for future growth. In terms of economic benefits, decentralized organized networks offer a greater potential of efficacy than purely local ones. Furthermore, the integration of inducements into the design of business models is a fundamental factor for achieving successful and lasting existence, especially within a highly competitive market.
Weigl, Bernhard H; Neogi, Tina; McGuire, Helen
The emergence of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics specifically designed for low-resource settings coupled with the rapid increase in need for routine care of patients with chronic diseases should prompt reconsideration of how health care can be delivered most beneficially and cost-effectively in developing countries. Bolstering support for primary care to provide rapid and appropriate integrated acute and chronic care treatment may be a possible solution. POC diagnostics can empower local and primary care providers and enable them to make better clinical decisions. This article explores the opportunity for POC diagnostics to strengthen primary care and chronic disease diagnosis and management in a low-resource setting (LRS) to deliver appropriate, consistent, and integrated care. We analyze the requirements of resource-appropriate chronic disease care, the characteristics of POC diagnostics in LRS versus the developed world, the many roles of diagnostics in the care continuum in LRS, and the process and economics of developing LRS-compatible POC diagnostics.
Hammond, Flora M.; Horn, Susan D.; Smout, Randall J.; Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Ryser, David K.; Sommerfeld, Teri
Objective To investigate frequency, reasons, and factors associated with readmission to acute care (RTAC) during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Prospective observational cohort. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation. Participants 2,130 consecutive admissions for TBI rehabilitation. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) RTAC incidence, RTAC causes, rehabilitation length of stay (RLOS), and rehabilitation discharge location. Results 183 participants (9%) experienced RTAC for a total 210 episodes. 161 patients experienced 1 RTAC episode, 17 had 2, and 5 had 3. Mean days from rehabilitation admission to first RTAC was 22 days (SD 22). Mean duration in acute care during RTAC was 7 days (SD 8). 84 participants (46%) had >1 RTAC episode for medical reasons, 102 (56%) had >1 RTAC for surgical reasons, and RTAC reason was unknown for 6 (3%) participants. Most common surgical RTAC reasons were: neurosurgical (65%), pulmonary (9%), infection (5%), and orthopedic (5%); most common medical reasons were infection (26%), neurologic (23%), and cardiac (12%). Older age, history of coronary artery disease, history of congestive heart failure, acute care diagnosis of depression, craniotomy or craniectomy during acute care, and presence of dysphagia at rehabilitation admission predicted patients with RTAC. RTAC was less likely for patients with higher admission Functional Independence Measure Motor scores and education less than high school diploma. RTAC occurrence during rehabilitation was significantly associated with longer RLOS and smaller likelihood of discharge home. Conclusion(s) Approximately 9% of patients with TBI experience RTAC during inpatient rehabilitation for various medical and surgical reasons. This information may help inform interventions aimed at reducing interruptions in rehabilitation due to RTAC. RTACs were associated with longer RLOS and discharge to an institutional setting. PMID:26212405
Costin, Lela B.; And Others
This paper examines child day care needs and ways that federal and state approaches to day care standard setting and enforcement might be improved. Chapter I documents the magnitude of child day care needs, citing Department of Labor, Census, and other survey statistics on the numbers of children needing day care and the number of day care centers…
Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Griffiths, Ewen A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ulrych, Jan; Kluger, Yoram; Ben-Ishay, Ofir; Moore, Frederick A; Ivatury, Rao R; Coimbra, Raul; Peitzman, Andrew B; Leppaniemi, Ari; Fraga, Gustavo P; Maier, Ronald V; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kashuk, Jeffry; Sakakushev, Boris; Weber, Dieter G; Latifi, Rifat; Biffl, Walter; Bala, Miklosh; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Inaba, Kenji; Ordonez, Carlos A; Hecker, Andreas; Augustin, Goran; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Melo, Renato Bessa; Marwah, Sanjay; Zachariah, Sanoop K; Shelat, Vishal G; McFarlane, Michael; Rems, Miran; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Faro, Mario Paulo; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Negoi, Ionut; Cui, Yunfeng; Sato, Norio; Vereczkei, Andras; Bellanova, Giovanni; Birindelli, Arianna; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Kok, Kenneth Y; Gachabayov, Mahir; Gkiokas, Georgios; Bouliaris, Konstantinos; Çolak, Elif; Isik, Arda; Rios-Cruz, Daniel; Soto, Rodolfo; Moore, Ernest E
Acute left sided colonic diverticulitis is one of the most common clinical conditions encountered by surgeons in acute setting. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference on acute diverticulitis was held during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES in Jerusalem, Israel, on July 7th, 2015. During this consensus conference the guidelines for the management of acute left sided colonic diverticulitis in the emergency setting were presented and discussed. This document represents the executive summary of the final guidelines approved by the consensus conference.
Fife, Terry D; von Brevern, Michael
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common cause of vertigo characterized by brief episodes provoked by head movements. The first attack of BPPV usually occurs in bed or upon getting up. Because it often begins abruptly, it can be alarming and lead to emergency department evaluation. The episodes of spinning often last 10 to 20 seconds, but may occasionally last as long as 1 minute. There are several forms of BPPV. In nearly all cases, highly effective treatment can be offered to patients. This article reviews the current state of our understanding of this condition and its management.
Funderburk, Amy E
The most difficult time to retain staff nurses can be the first year after hire. Because of the high costs of recruitment and orientation, retention of these new employees is essential. Mentoring is a viable retention tool for the new employee and for existing experienced nurses. Mentoring also provides professional growth benefits that appeal to existing employees and increase their job enjoyment and satisfaction.
Schaper, Elizabeth; Padwa, Howard; Urada, Darren; Shoptaw, Steven
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expands health insurance coverage for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, underscoring the value of improving SUD service integration in primarily physical health care settings. It is not yet known to what degree specialized privacy regulations-Code of Federal Regulations Title 42, Part 2 (42 CFR Part 2), in particular-will affect access to or the utilization and delivery of SUD treatment in primary care. In addition to exploring the emerging benefits and barriers that specialized confidentiality regulations pose to treatment in early adopting integrated health care settings, this article introduces and explicates 42 CFR Part 2 to support provider and administrator implementation of SUD privacy regulations in integrated settings. The authors also argue that, although intended to protect patients with SUD, special SUD information protection may inadvertently reinforce stigma against patients by purporting the belief that SUD is different from other health problems and must be kept private. In turn, this stigma may inhibit the delivery of comprehensive integrated care.
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Dias, Sonia; Le Gall, Jean
This cross-sectional European study assessed self-reported HIV-related discrimination and its associated factors in health care settings. Socio-demographics, health status, support needs relating to sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and self-reported HIV-related discrimination were measured using an anonymous survey in a sample of 1549 people living with HIV from 14 countries. Thirty-two per cent of the participants had experienced HIV-related discrimination during the previous 3 years; almost half of them felt discriminated against by health care providers. For this type of discrimination, logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations with not being a migrant (OR: 2.0; IC 1.0-3.7; p<0.05), having been forced into sexual activities (OR: 1.6; IC 1.2-2.2; p<0.001), reporting lack of time to discuss SRH during service provision (OR: 1.7; IC 1.0-2.7; p<0.05), and insufficient openness among service providers to discuss SRH (OR: 2.0; IC 1.1-3.4; p<0.05). Other significant associations related to unmet support needs on safer sex practices (OR: 1.8; IC 1.0-3.2; p<0.05), partner communication about sexuality (OR: 2.0; IC 1.1-3.4; p<0.05), and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (OR: 1.7; IC 1.0-3.0; p<0.05). Female gender had a protective effect (OR: 0.2; IC 0.0-0.9; p<0.05). Being denied the opportunity to discuss SRH may translate in feelings of discrimination. Improving health care providers' communication skills, and fostering openness about SRH topics in HIV care could contribute to destigmatization of PLHIV.
Rojas Castro, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Dias, Sonia; Le Gall, Jean
Abstract This cross-sectional European study assessed self-reported HIV-related discrimination and its associated factors in health care settings. Socio-demographics, health status, support needs relating to sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and self-reported HIV-related discrimination were measured using an anonymous survey in a sample of 1549 people living with HIV from 14 countries. Thirty-two per cent of the participants had experienced HIV-related discrimination during the previous 3 years; almost half of them felt discriminated against by health care providers. For this type of discrimination, logistic regression analysis revealed significant associations with not being a migrant (OR: 2.0; IC 1.0–3.7; p<0.05), having been forced into sexual activities (OR: 1.6; IC 1.2–2.2; p<0.001), reporting lack of time to discuss SRH during service provision (OR: 1.7; IC 1.0–2.7; p<0.05), and insufficient openness among service providers to discuss SRH (OR: 2.0; IC 1.1–3.4; p<0.05). Other significant associations related to unmet support needs on safer sex practices (OR: 1.8; IC 1.0–3.2; p<0.05), partner communication about sexuality (OR: 2.0; IC 1.1–3.4; p<0.05), and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (OR: 1.7; IC 1.0–3.0; p<0.05). Female gender had a protective effect (OR: 0.2; IC 0.0–0.9; p<0.05). Being denied the opportunity to discuss SRH may translate in feelings of discrimination. Improving health care providers' communication skills, and fostering openness about SRH topics in HIV care could contribute to destigmatization of PLHIV. PMID:24568694
Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G
Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.
... 0938-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident... Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term...
Schoenman, Julie A.; Mueller, Curt D.
Under the Medicare post-acute-care (PAC) transfer policy, acute-care hospitals are reimbursed under a per-diem formula whenever beneficiaries are discharged from selected diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) to a skilled nursing facility, home health care, or a prospective payment system (PPS)-excluded facility. Total per-diem payments are below the…
Makanjuola, Jonathan K; Rintoul-Hoad, Sophie; Bultitude, Matthew
Ureteric colic is a common presentation to acute emergency services. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of acute ureteric colic is a non-contrast computer tomography of the kidneys ureters and bladder (CT KUB). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be used as first-line analgesia, with studies showing that there is no role for steroid or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. There is emerging evidence that a high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor. The drugs used to facilitate stone passage are known as medical expulsive therapy (MET). The most evaluated being alpha-blockers. The Spontaneous Urinary Stone Passage Enabled by Drugs (SUSPEND) trial was designed to evaluate the use of MET (tamsulosin and nifedipine). This trial showed that there was no difference with MET and placebo for the spontaneous passage of ureteric stones. There is an emerging role for the use of primary ureteroscopy in the management of non-infective ureteric stones.
Nate, Kent C.; Griffin, Kristen H.; Christianson, Jon B.; Dusek, Jeffery A.
Background. We describe the process and challenges of delivering integrative medicine (IM) at a large, acute care hospital, from the perspectives of IM practitioners. To date, minimal literature that addresses the delivery of IM care in an inpatient setting from this perspective exists. Methods. Fifteen IM practitioners were interviewed about their experience delivering IM services at Abbott Northwestern Hospital (ANW), a 630-bed tertiary care hospital. Themes were drawn from codes developed through analysis of the data. Results. Analysis of interview transcripts highlighted challenges of ensuring efficient use of IM practitioner resources across a large hospital, the IM practitioner role in affecting patient experiences, and the ways practitioners navigated differences in IM and conventional medicine cultures in an inpatient setting. Conclusions. IM practitioners favorably viewed their role in patient care, but this work existed within the context of challenges related to balancing supply and demand for services and to integrating an IM program into the established culture of a large hospital. Hospitals planning IM programs should carefully assess the supply and demand dynamics of offering IM in a hospital, advocate for the unique IM practitioner role in patient care, and actively support integration of conventional and complementary approaches. PMID:26693242
Pichichero, Michael E.; Casey, Janet R.; Almudevar, Anthony
Objective We sought to determine if use of more stringent diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media (AOM) than currently advocated by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), tympanocentesis and pathogen-specific antibiotic treatment (individualized care) would result in reducing the incidence of recurrent AOM and consequent tympanostomy tube surgery. Methods A 5 year longitudinal, prospective study in Rochester NY was conducted from July 2006 – July 2011 involving 254 individualized care children. When this individualized care group developed symptoms of AOM, strict diagnostic criteria were applied and a tympanocentesis was performed. Pathogen resistance to empiric high dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (80mg/kg of amoxicillin component) caused a change in antibiotic to an optimized choice. Legacy controls (n=208) were diagnosed with the same diagnostic criteria by the same physicians as the individualized care group and received the same empiric amoxicillin/clavulanate (80mg/kg of Amoxicillin component) but no tympanocentesis or change in antibiotic. Community control children (n=1020) were diagnosed according to current AAP guidelines and treated with high dose amoxicillin (80 mg/kg) without tympanocentesis as guideline recommended. Results 5.9% of children of the individualized care group compared to 14.4% of Legacy controls and 27.3% of community controls became otitis prone (OP), defined as 3 episodes of AOM within a 6-month time span or 4 AOM episodes within a 12-month time span (p<0.0001). 2.4% of the individualized care group compared to 6.3% of Legacy controls, and 14.8% of community controls received tympanostomy tubes (p<0.0001). Conclusions Individualized care of AOM significantly reduces the frequency of AOM and tympanostomy tube surgery. Use of strict diagnostic criteria for AOM and empiric antibiotic treatment using evidence-based knowledge of circulating otopathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile also produces improved outcomes
Martin, J B; Dahlstrom, G A; Johnston, C M
This article reports an evaluation of the impact of three administrative technologies--Admission Scheduling (AS) Systems, Outpatient Surgery (OPS) Programs, and Preadmission Testing (PAT) Programs--on the number of acute care beds required by a hospital. The evaluation mechanism reported here is called the ADTECH Computerized Planning Model. ADTECH uses parameters of each technology, identified from previous literature and discussions with health care professionals, to predict the changes in bed requirements resulting from implementation of these programs. Data from eight hospitals of various characteristics and sizes were run to test the ADTECH model. The results from these test runs indicate that the proper implementation of AS, OPS, and PAT can significantly influence a hospital's required bed complement. PMID:3988530
Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.
Uliel, Livnat; Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Holz, Andrew L; McConathy, Jonathan
Nuclear medicine imaging provides valuable functional information that complements information obtained with anatomic imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with specific acute clinical manifestations. Nuclear medicine studies are most often used in conjunction with other imaging modalities and as a problem-solving tool. Under certain circumstances a nuclear medicine study may be indicated as the first-line imaging modality, as in the case of renal scintigraphy for transplant dysfunction in the early postoperative period. Nuclear imaging may be preferred when a conventional first-line study is contraindicated or when it is important to minimize radiation exposure. The portability of nuclear imaging offers particular advantages for the evaluation of critically ill patients whose clinical condition is unstable and who cannot be safely transported out of the intensive care unit. The ability to visualize physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over relatively long time periods without adding to the patient's radiation exposure contributes to the high diagnostic sensitivity of several types of nuclear medicine studies. Viewing the acquired images in the cine mode adds to the value of these studies for diagnosing and characterizing dynamic abnormalities such as intermittent internal bleeding and bile or urine leakage. In this pictorial review, the spectrum of nuclear medicine studies commonly performed in the acute care setting is reviewed according to body systems and organs, with detailed descriptions of the indications, technical considerations, findings, and potential pitfalls of each type of study. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.332125098/-/DC1.
Bridges, Jackie; Nicholson, Caroline; Maben, Jill; Pope, Catherine; Flatley, Mary; Wilkinson, Charlotte; Meyer, Julienne; Tziggili, Maria
Aims To synthesize evidence and knowledge from published research about nurses' experiences of nurse-patient relationships with adult patients in general, acute inpatient hospital settings. Background While primary research on nurses' experiences has been reported, it has not been previously synthesized. Design Meta-ethnography. Data sources Published literature from Australia, Europe, and North America, written in English between January 1999–October 2009 was identified from databases: CINAHL, Medline, British Nursing Index and PsycINFO. Review methods Qualitative studies describing nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship in acute hospital settings were reviewed and synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. Results Sixteen primary studies (18 papers) were appraised as high quality and met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that while nurses aspire to develop therapeutic relationships with patients, the organizational setting at a unit level is strongly associated with nurses' capacity to build and sustain these relationships. The organizational conditions of critical care settings appear best suited to forming therapeutic relationships, while nurses working on general wards are more likely to report moral distress resulting from delivering unsatisfactory care. General ward nurses can then withdraw from attempting to emotionally engage with patients. Conclusion The findings of this meta-ethnography draw together the evidence from several qualitative studies and articulate how the organizational setting at a unit level can strongly influence nurses' capacity to build and sustain therapeutic relationships with patients. Service improvements need to focus on how to optimize the organizational conditions that support nurses in their relational work with patients. PMID:23163719
Yousuf, Tariq; Ziffra, Jeffrey; Iqbal, Hina; Said, Albara; Oyama, Joseph H.; Lerma, Edgar V.; Chadaga, Amar R.
Background: Acute renal infarction (ARI) is an uncommon and often overlooked diagnosis in patients presenting with acute kidney injury and abdominal pain. Case Reports: We present 2 cases of ARI in the setting of atrial fibrillation along with a review of medical literature pertaining to ARI. Conclusion: This article should aid clinicians in the diagnosis of ARI. PMID:27660583
Kurre, Paula A
The role of the nurse as care coordinator is important in all patient populations, including orthopaedic settings, and is essential in promoting safe patient care for the intellectually and developmentally disabled (I/DD) person living in the residential setting. Care coordination for this population is challenging. Most healthcare providers, as well as nurses, are not familiar with the residential group home setting or with the special needs of this population, especially when presented with orthopaedic challenges. These factors, as well as funding issues, make for a "perfect storm" for care coordination. Educating nurses can help open the door to communication, smoother transitions, and collaboration among care coordinators in all settings.
Mullen, P D; Mullen, L R
Asthma self-management education has the potential to improve the health and quality of life for children and to reduce use of acute care services. The preparation of parents and children to prevent asthma attacks and to ameliorate acute episodes when they do occur can best be accomplished with the support of medical care providers. This analysis addresses policy issues relevant to that acceptance: the degree of integration into medical practice that is desirable; the most hospitable clinical settings; and the incentives for providers, consumers, and payers that would result in appropriate supply and use of ASME:. The analysis commences with a discussion of the costs and benefits of making ASME a part of medical care. It then turns to a description of the trends that led to the current array of institutions, services, and incentives within the health care sector. Future changes in family context, financing, and other determinants of the use of medical services by children and youth are forecast. The framework for the analysis of incentives is diffusion of innovation. ASME is analyzed according to the attributes that generally facilitate the acceptance of a new procedure. In its current form and with current incentives, ASME is fairly complex and difficult to communicate, has little relative advantage, and is not necessarily compatible with the usual provider goals. The motivating factors for three interrelated groups-providers, consumers, and third-party payers-and leverage points for the application of incentives are identified. The latter include reimbursement, standards of practice, information generation and flow, insurance regulation, institutional development, and research funding. Important information to potential adopters includes the definition of the service, its optimal intensity and mix of providers, and its effects on net costs and quality of life.
Watson, Gabriella; Jallow, Bintou; Le Doare, Kirsty; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Anderson, Suzanne T
Poststreptococcal complications, such as acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD), are common in resource-limited settings, with RHD recognised as the most common cause of paediatric heart disease worldwide. Managing these conditions in resource-limited settings can be challenging. We review the investigation and treatment options for ARF and RHD and, most importantly, prevention methods in an African setting.
Pickkers, Peter; Ostermann, Marlies; Joannidis, Michael; Zarbock, Alexander; Hoste, Eric; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Prowle, John; Darmon, Michael; Bonventre, Joseph V; Forni, Lui; Bagshaw, Sean M; Schetz, Miet
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in the critically ill. Current standard of care mainly relies on identification of patients at risk, haemodynamic optimization, avoidance of nephrotoxicity and the use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in established AKI. The detection of early biomarkers of renal tissue damage is a recent development that allows amending the late and insensitive diagnosis with current AKI criteria. Increasing evidence suggests that the consequences of an episode of AKI extend long beyond the acute hospitalization. Citrate has been established as the anticoagulant of choice for continuous RRT. Conflicting results have been published on the optimal timing of RRT and on the renoprotective effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning. Recent research has contradicted that acute tubular necrosis is the common pathology in AKI, that septic AKI is due to global kidney hypoperfusion, that aggressive fluid therapy benefits the kidney, that vasopressor therapy harms the kidney and that high doses of RRT improve outcome. Remaining uncertainties include the impact of aetiology and clinical context on pathophysiology, therapy and prognosis, the clinical benefit of biomarker-driven interventions, the optimal mode of RRT to improve short- and long-term patient and kidney outcomes, the contribution of AKI to failure of other organs and the optimal approach for assessing and promoting renal recovery. Based on the established gaps in current knowledge the trials that must have priority in the coming 10 years are proposed together with the definition of appropriate clinical endpoints.
School nurses are in a unique position to provide care for students with special health care needs in the school setting. The incidence of chronic conditions and improved technology necessitate care of complex health care needs that had formerly been managed in inpatient settings. Delegation is a tool that may be used by registered nurses to allow…
Han, Angela; Conway, Laurie J; Moore, Christine; McCreight, Liz; Ragan, Kelsey; So, Jannice; Borgundvaag, Emily; Larocque, Mike; Coleman, Brenda L; McGeer, Allison
OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in multiple units of an acute-care hospital. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING The adult intensive care unit (ICU), medical and surgical step-down units, medical and surgical units, and the postpartum mother-baby unit (MBU) of an academic acute-care hospital during May-August 2013, May-July 2014, and June-August 2015. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS HHOs were recorded using direct observation in 1-hour intervals following Public Health Ontario guidelines. The frequency and distribution of HHOs per patient hour were determined for each unit according to time of day, indication, and profession. RESULTS In total, 3,422 HHOs were identified during 586 hours of observation. The mean numbers of HHOs per patient hour in the ICU were similar to those in the medical and surgical step-down units during the day and night, which were higher than the rates observed in medical and surgical units and the MBU. The rate of HHOs during the night significantly decreased compared with day (P92% of HHOs on medical and surgical units, compared to 67% of HHOs on the MBU. CONCLUSIONS Assessment of hand hygiene compliance using product utilization data requires knowledge of the appropriate opportunities for hand hygiene. We have provided a detailed characterization of these estimates across a wide range of inpatient settings as well as an examination of temporal variations in HHOs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:411-416.
Hogan, D B; Fox, R A
Attempts to prove the usefulness of geriatric consultation teams (GCT) in acute-care settings have been inconclusive. We have completed a prospective, controlled trial of a GCT in an acute-care setting, aiming our interventions at a specific subgroup of elderly patients. One hundred and thirty-two out of 352 (37.5%) patients met the inclusion criteria with 66 each being assigned to the intervention and the control groups. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Patients in the intervention group received follow-up after discharge from hospital by the geriatric service. We found that the intervention was associated with improved 6-month survival (p less than 0.01), improved Barthel Index at 1 year (p less than 0.01), and a trend towards decreased reliance on institutional care (hospital or nursing home) during the year of follow-up. The benefits occurred principally in patients who were discharged to a nursing home. Our findings support the utility of GCT and highlight the importance of focusing the intervention and providing follow-up after discharge from hospital.
Alexander, Gregory L; Alwan, Majd; Batshon, Lynne; Bloom, Shawn M; Brennan, Richard D; Derr, John F; Dougherty, Michelle; Gruhn, Peter; Kirby, Annessa; Manard, Barbara; Raiford, Robin; Serio, Ingrid Johnson
The LTPAC (Long Term Post Acute Care) Health Information Technology (HIT) Collaborative consists of an alliance of long-term services and post-acute care stakeholders. Members of the collaborative are actively promoting HIT innovations in long-term care settings because IT adoption for health care institutions in the United States has become a high priority. One method used to actively promote HIT is providing expert comments on important documents addressing HIT adoption. Recently, the Office of the National Coordinator for HIT released a draft of the Federal Health Information Technology Strategic Plan 2011-2015 for public comment. The following brief is intended to inform about recommendations and comments made by the Collaborative on the strategic plan.
Hodges, Helen F; Keeley, Ann C; Troyan, Patricia J
New nurses typically begin their practice in acute care settings in hospitals, where their work is characterized by time constraints, high safety risks for patients, and layers of complexity and difficult problems. Retention of experienced nurses is an issue central to patient safety. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the nature of professional resilience in new baccalaureate-prepared nurses in acute care settings and to extrapolate pedagogical strategies that can be developed to support resilience and career longevity. Findings revealed a common process of evolving resilience among participants. New nurses spend a significant amount of time learning their place in the social structure. With positive experiences, they begin to feel more competent with skills and relationships and become increasingly aware of discrepancies between their ideas of professional nursing and their actual experiences in the work setting. The risk of new nurses leaving their practice is constantly present during these struggles. Acceptable compromises yield a reconciliation of the current crisis, typically occurring long after formal precepting has ended. Personal growth is evident by the evolving clarity of professional identity, an edifying sense of purpose, and energy resources to move forward. For new nurses, professional resilience yields the capacity for self-protection, risk taking, and moving forward with reflective knowledge of self.
To improve the nursing care quality in acute care hospitals in Taiwan after the 2003 SARS epidemic, the Taipei City Government Department of Health has allocated about US dollars 6 million for nurse aides' salaries and costs for recruitment, training, and administration of this program. Yet, there have been no corresponding changes in payments for nursing services by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan such as increasing nurse fees for inpatient services. This article examines the roles of nurse aides and family members in providing acute patient care in Taiwan and discusses issues of nursing care quality as related to nurse staffing in acute care hospitals.
Doering, G T
The focus of the study was to prioritize six emergency medical service treatment factors in terms of their impact upon patient satisfaction in the prehospital setting. The six treatment areas analyzed were: EMS response time; medical care provided on scene; explanation of care by the provider; the provider's ability to reduce patient anxiety; the provider's ability to meet the patient's non-medical needs; and the level of courtesy/politeness shown by the EMS provider toward the patient. Telephone interviews were conducted with both patients and bystanders to obtain their perception of how well the system met their needs. The study analyzed how the six issues were rated and then evaluated the impact an individual's low score in a category had on that person's overall rating of the service provided. The overall satisfaction rating is not a calculated score, but an overall score specified by the respondent. The effect each issue had on the respondent's overall rating was determined by averaging the overall ratings for a category's low scorers, averaging the overall ratings for high scorers and then measuring the difference. Results of the study indicate that the factor with the greatest negative impact on patient satisfaction came from a perceived lack of crew courtesy and politeness. Respondents who indicated a fair to poor score in this category decreased their overall score by 60.2%. Ratings in other categories yielded the following results: When respondents rated the response time as fair to poor, their average overall rating showed an 18.4% decrease. When respondents rated the quality of medical care as fair to poor, their average overall rating showed a decrease of 22.6%. When the crew's ability to explain what was happening to the patient was rated as fair to poor, the average overall score dropped 33.6%. When the EMT's and medic's ability to reduce the patient's anxiety was rated fair to poor, average overall score declined by 32.6%. Finally, when the crew
Adamson, Wallace C; DeVries, Andrea R
Background Expansion of virtual health care—real-time video consultation with a physician via the Internet—will continue as use of mobile devices and patient demand for immediate, convenient access to care grow. Objective The objective of the study is to analyze the care provided and the cost of virtual visits over a 3-week episode compared with in-person visits to retail health clinics (RHC), urgent care centers (UCC), emergency departments (ED), or primary care physicians (PCP) for acute, nonurgent conditions. Methods A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of claims from a large commercial health insurer was performed to compare care and cost of patients receiving care via virtual visits for a condition of interest (sinusitis, upper respiratory infection, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, influenza, cough, dermatitis, digestive symptom, or ear pain) matched to those receiving care for similar conditions in other settings. An episode was defined as the index visit plus 3 weeks following. Patients were children and adults younger than 65 years of age without serious chronic conditions. Visits were classified according to the setting where the visit occurred. Care provided was assessed by follow-up outpatient visits, ED visits, or hospitalizations; laboratory tests or imaging performed; and antibiotic use after the initial visit. Episode costs included the cost of the initial visit, subsequent medical care, and pharmacy. Results A total of 59,945 visits were included in the analysis (4635 virtual visits and 55,310 nonvirtual visits). Virtual visit episodes had similar follow-up outpatient visit rates (28.09%) as PCP (28.10%, P=.99) and RHC visits (28.59%, P=.51). During the episode, lab rates for virtual visits (12.56%) were lower than in-person locations (RHC: 36.79%, P<.001; UCC: 39.01%, P<.001; ED: 53.15%, P<.001; PCP: 37.40%, P<.001), and imaging rates for virtual visits (6.62%) were typically lower than in-person locations
Broussard, Brenda S; Broussard, Anne B
Nurses are increasingly using mobile and other devices, such as cell phones, smartphones, tablets, bar-coding scanners, monitoring equipment and bedside computers, to communicate with members of the health care team and with patients. Communication accomplished with such devices includes direct verbal communication, text-messaging, emailing, obtaining patient care information and accessing medical records for order entry and for documenting nursing care. Problems that could occur with such communication methods include distraction, errors, de-personalized care, violation of confidentiality and transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Policies are needed to prevent inappropriate use of technological devices in patient care and to promote patient safety and quality care with their use.
Rohde, J E
Infections pose a nutritional stress on the growing child. No therapeutic goal is as important as the rapid recovery of preillness weight after acute infections. Successful convalescence, with supernormal growth rates, can be achieved with relatively brief periods of intensive refeeding, offsetting any tendency toward reduced immune defenses or other nutritionally determined susceptibilities to further infection. Since the mother is the only person who can effectively manage convalescent care, she must be given specific tasks with measurable targets in order to reliably oversee the child's rehabilitation. Not generally considered in the realm of preventive medicine, effective home-based convalencent care is the first crucial step in preventing the next round of illness. An approach to the widespread mobilization of mothers to monitor and sustain their children's growth is proposed in this paper. Rather than a passive recipient of health services, the mother becomes the basic health worker, providing diagnostic and therapeutic primary care for her child. Only the mother can break the malnutrition-infection cycle.
The Beth Israel Hospital Elder Assessment Team
Describes a hospital-based multidisciplinary team designed to assess and respond to cases of suspected abuse or neglect of elders from both institutional and community settings. Presence of the team has increased the hospital staff's awareness of elder abuse and neglect, as well as their willingness to refer suspected cases for further assessment.…
Project Kiddum functions in nine Mother and Child Health Care Centers in culturally deprived areas of Jerusalem. The project integrates a large scale infant intervention program into ongoing primary preventive mother and child health care. (Author/GC)
Thomson, Linda J M; Chatterjee, Helen J
The extent to which a museum object-handling intervention enhanced older adult well-being across three health care settings was examined. The program aimed to determine whether therapeutic benefits could be measured objectively using clinical scales. Facilitator-led, 30 to 40 min sessions handling and discussing museum objects were conducted in acute and elderly care (11 one-to-ones), residential (4 one-to-ones and 1 group of five), and psychiatric (4 groups of five) settings. Pre-post measures of psychological well-being (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule) and subjective wellness and happiness (Visual Analogue Scales) were compared. Positive affect and wellness increased significantly in acute and elderly and residential care though not psychiatric care whereas negative affect decreased and happiness increased in all settings. Examination of audio recordings revealed enhanced confidence, social interaction, and learning. The program allowed adults access to a museum activity who by virtue of age and ill health would not otherwise have engaged with museum objects.
Kotarba, Joseph A.
Addresses nontraditional health care issues by placing internship students in different health care agencies such as (1) workplace wellness programs; (2) centers for independent living for the physically handicapped; and (3) an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) intervention program. Examines new problems in health care and the importance…
Gupta, D.; And Others
Although elder abuse has received much attention in recent years, little is known about long-term care staff perceptions of active and passive abuse. Health care professionals (N=72) responsible for direct care of patients within a 275-bed skilled nursing facility completed questionnaires on elder abuse. Responses were from physicians (N=6),…
Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190
Digby, Geneviève C; Keenan, Sean P; Parker, Christopher M; Sinuff, Tasnim; Burns, Karen E; Mehta, Sangeeta; Ronco, Juan J; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Rose, Louise; Ayas, Najib T; Berthiaume, Luc R; D’Arsigny, Christine L; Stollery, Daniel E; Muscedere, John
BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe NIV practice variation in the acute setting. METHODS: A prospective observational study involving 11 Canadian tertiary care centres was performed. Data regarding NIV indication, mode and outcomes were collected for all adults (>16 years of age) treated with NIV for acute respiratory failure during a four-week period (between February and August 2011). Logistic regression with site as a random effect was used to examine the association between preselected predictors and mortality or intubation. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients (mean [± SD] 30±12 per centre) were included. The most common indications for NIV initiation were pulmonary edema (104 [31.5%]) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (99 [30.0%]). Significant differences in indications for NIV use across sites, specialty of ordering physician and location of NIV initiation were noted. Although intubation rates were not statistically different among sites (range 10.3% to 45.4%), mortality varied significantly (range 6.7% to 54.5%; P=0.006). In multivariate analysis, the most significant independent predictor of avoiding intubation was do-not-resuscitate status (OR 0.11 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.37]). CONCLUSION: Significant variability existed in NIV use and associated outcomes among Canadian tertiary care centres. Assignment of do-not-resuscitate status prevented intubation. PMID:26469155
Gates, Michael G; Mark, Barbara A
Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes.
Roark, G A; Tucker, S L
Military health care leaders must recognize the importance of satisfied consumers. As part of this recognition, the focus of military medicine must change from a coercive-power to a reward-power system. This change highlights the need for business practices such as marketing. Encouraging military health care administrators to learn and understand the applications of the marketing variables will enhance demand management and health care delivery for beneficiaries. This paper describes some applications of marketing variables, informs the military health care administrator about the process of marketing, and describes the utility of marketing in the current paradigm shift in military health care delivery.
Collins, Courtney E.; Pringle, Patricia L.; Santry, Heena P.
Background Patterns of adoption of acute care surgery (ACS) as a strategy for emergency general surgery (EGS) care are unknown. Methods We conducted a qualitative study comprising face-to-face interviews with senior surgeons responsible for ACS at 18 teaching hospitals chosen to ensure diversity of opinions and practice environment (three practice types [community, public/charity, university] in each of six geographic regions [Mid-Atlantic, Midwest, New England, Northeast, South, West]). Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). We applied the methods of investigator triangulation using an inductive approach to develop a final taxonomy of codes organized by themes related to respondents’ views on the future of ACS as a strategy for EGS. We applied our findings to a conceptual model on diffusion of innovation. Results We found a paradox between ACS viewed as a healthcare delivery innovation versus a rebranding of comprehensive general surgery. Optimism for the future of ACS due to increased desirability for trauma/critical care careers and improved outcomes for EGS was tempered by fear over lack of continuity, poor institutional resources and uncertainty regarding financial viability. Our analysis suggests that the implementation of ACS, whether a true healthcare delivery innovation or an innovative rebranding, fits into the Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Conclusions Despite concerns over resource allocation and the definition of the specialty, from the perspective of senior surgeons deeply entrenched in executing this care-delivery model, ACS represents the new face of general surgery that will likely continue to diffuse from these early adopters. PMID:25891673
Kapoor, Kapil; Gupta, Shalu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of malaria which has a very high mortality rate. A retrospective analysis of medical record data of children treated for malarial AKI in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was performed in order to evaluate the incidence, poor prognostic factors and outcome of AKI with malaria. Eighteen (48.6%) malarial patients had AKI (11 Plasmodium vivax positive, six P. falciparum positive and one mixed infection) with a male-to-female ratio of 1:2. The mean age was 75 ± 32 months (range, 1 month to 10 years). Oliguria was present in 61.1% and 55.5% required renal replacement therapy. Mortality was noted in 33.3% of patients and full recovery was achieved in 50% of patients. Oliguria, shock, central nervous system involvement, jaundice, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and acute respiratory distress syndrome emerged as bad prognostic factors in simple univariate analysis. Malaria patients with and without AKI differ significantly in terms of shock, ventilator requirement, mortality and length of PICU stay.
..., 2010 unless otherwise footnoted).'' c. Third column, the title, ``Table 4J.--Out-Migration Adjustment...) Out-Migration Adjustment for Acute Care Hospitals--FY 2010 (April 1, 2010 through September 30, 2010...: Table 4J--(Abbreviated) Out-Migration Adjustment for Acute Care Hospitals--FY 2010 (April 1,...
Walsh, Mary E.; Buchanan, Marla J.
A large body of research provides evidence of workplace injuries to those in the nursing profession. Research on workplace stress and burnout among medical professionals is also well known; however, the profession of acute care nursing has not been examined with regards to work-related stress. This qualitative study focused on acute care nurses'…
Chreiman, Kristen M; Kim, Patrick K; Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Schweickert, William D
The intraosseous (IO) access initiative at an urban university adult level 1 trauma center began from the need for a more expeditious vascular access route to rescue patients in extremis. The goal of this project was a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving to increase access of IO catheters to rescue patients in all care areas. The initiative became a collaborative effort between nursing, physicians, and pharmacy to embark on an acute care endeavor to standardize IO access. This is a descriptive analysis of processes to effectively develop collaborative strategies to navigate hospital systems and successfully implement multilayered initiatives. Administration should empower nurse to advance their practice to include IO for patient rescue. Intraosseous access may expedite resuscitative efforts in patients in extremis who lack venous access or where additional venous access is required for life-saving therapies. Limiting IO dwell time may facilitate timely definitive venous access. Continued education and training by offering IO skill laboratory refreshers and annual e-learning didactic is optimal for maintaining proficiency and knowledge. More research opportunities exist to determine medication safety and efficacy in adult patients in the acute care setting.
Piredda, M; Ghezzi, V; De Marinis, M G; Palese, A
Longitudinal three-time point study, addressing how neurological adult patient care dependency varies from the admission time to the 3rd day of acute hospitalization. Nursing care dependency was measured with the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) and a Latent Growth Modeling approach was used to analyse the CDS trend in 124 neurosurgical and stroke inpatients. Care dependence followed a decreasing linear trend. Results can help nurse-managers planning an appropriate amount of nursing care for acute neurological patients during their initial stage of hospitalization. Further studies are needed aimed at investigating the determinants of nursing care dependence during the entire in-hospital stay.
Sivaranjini, R; Jaisankar, TJ; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Kumari, Rashmi; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Malathi, M; Parija, SC; Habeebullah, S
Introduction: Vaginal discharge is one of the common reasons for gynecological consultation. Many of the causes of vaginitis have a disturbed vaginal microbial ecosystem associated with them. Effective treatment of vaginal discharge requires that the etiologic diagnosis be established and identifying the same offers a precious input to syndromic management and provides an additional strategy for human immunodeficiency virus prevention. The present study was thus carried out to determine the various causes of vaginal discharge in a tertiary care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 women presenting with vaginal discharge of age between 20 and 50 years, irrespective of marital status were included in this study and women who had used antibiotics or vaginal medication in the previous 14 days and pregnant women were excluded. Results: Of the 400 women with vaginal discharge studied, a diagnosis was established in 303 women. Infectious causes of vaginal discharge were observed in 207 (51.75%) women. Among them, bacterial vaginosis was the most common cause seen in 105 (26.25%) women. The other infections observed were candidiasis alone (61, 15.25%), trichomoniasis alone (12, 3%), mixed infections (22, 5.5%) and mucopurulent cervicitis (7 of the 130 cases looked for, 8.46%). Among the non-infectious causes, 72 (18%) women had physiological vaginal discharge and 13 (3.3%) women had cervical in situ cancers/carcinoma cervix. Conclusion: The pattern of infectious causes of vaginal discharge observed in our study was comparable with the other studies in India. Our study emphasizes the need for including Papanicolaou smear in the algorithm for evaluation of vaginal discharge, as it helps establish the etiology of vaginal discharge reliably and provides a valuable opportunity to screen for cervical malignancies. PMID:24470998
Choo, Janet; Johnston, Linda; Manias, Elizabeth
This study examined registered nurses' overall compliance with accepted medication administration procedures, and explored the distractions they faced during medication administration at two acute care hospitals in Singapore. A total of 140 registered nurses, 70 from each hospital, participated in the study. At both hospitals, nurses were distracted by personnel, such as physicians, radiographers, patients not under their care, and telephone calls, during medication rounds. Deviations from accepted medication procedures were observed. At one hospital, the use of a vest during medication administration alone was not effective in avoiding distractions during medication administration. Environmental factors and distractions can impact on the safe administration of medications, because they not only impair nurses' level of concentration, but also add to their work pressure. Attention should be placed on eliminating distractions through the use of appropriate strategies. Strategies that could be considered include the conduct of education sessions with health professionals and patients about the importance of not interrupting nurses while they are administering medications, and changes in work design.
Yoshida, Midori; Suzuki, Daisetsu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shirota, Mariko; Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Morita, Takeshi; Ono, Atsushi
In order to develop guidelines for setting acute reference doses (ARfDs) for pesticides in Japan, we conducted simulations of ARfD settings based on evaluation reports for 201 pesticides assessed by the Food Safety Commission (FSC) in Japan over the last 8 years. Our conceptual principles were based on the concepts written by Solecki et al. (2005) and were adapted for toxicological data required in Japan. Through this process, we were able to set the ARfDs for over 90% of the 201 pesticides tested. The studies that provided the rationale for ARfD setting were primarily reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, acute neurotoxicity studies, and pharmacology studies. For approximately 30% of the pesticides simulated in the present study, it was not necessary to establish ARfDs. Some of the simulated ARfDs resulting from their endpoints may be conservative estimates, because the evaluation reports were written for acceptable daily intake settings. Thus, it was sometimes difficult to distinguish acute toxic alerts from repeated toxicities. We were unable to set an ARfD for 14 pesticides because of insufficient data on acute toxicities. This could be improved by more complete recordkeeping. Furthermore, we categorized the 201 pesticides by mechanism of action or chemical structure. Our simulation indicates that the conceptual framework presented here can be used as a basis for the development of guidelines on ARfD settings for pesticides in Japan.
Sosinsky, Laura Stout; Kim, Se-Kang
Building on prior variable-oriented research which demonstrates the independence of the associations of child care quality, quantity, and type of setting with family factors and child outcomes, the current study identifies four profiles of child care dimensions from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Profiles accounted for…
Kossaify, Antoine; Garcia, Annie; Succar, Sami; Ibrahim, Antoine; Moussallem, Nicolas; Kossaify, Mikhael; Grollier, Gilles
Biomarkers in acute cardiac care are gaining increasing interest given their clinical benefits. This study is a review of the major conditions in acute cardiac care, with a focus on biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessment. Through a PubMed search, 110 relevant articles were selected. The most commonly used cardiac biomarkers (cardiac troponin, natriuretic peptides, and C-reactive protein) are presented first, followed by a description of variable acute cardiac conditions with their relevant biomarkers. In addition to the conventional use of natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponin, and C-reactive protein, other biomarkers are outlined in variable critical conditions that may be related to acute cardiac illness. These include ST2 and chromogranin A in acute dyspnea and acute heart failure, matrix metalloproteinase in acute chest pain, heart-type fatty acid binding protein in acute coronary syndrome, CD40 ligand and interleukin-6 in acute myocardial infarction, blood ammonia and lactate in cardiac arrest, as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha in atrial fibrillation. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the physiopathology of most cardiac diseases, whether acute or chronic. In summary, natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponin, C-reactive protein are currently the most relevant biomarkers in acute cardiac care. Point-of-care testing and multi-markers use are essential for prompt diagnostic approach and tailored strategic management. PMID:24046510
Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Goldstein, Richard; Singhal, Aneesh; DiVita, Margaret A.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Mix, Jacqueline; Purohit, Maulik; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C.
Objective Acute care readmission risk is an increasingly recognized problem that has garnered significant attention, yet the reasons for acute care readmission in the inpatient rehabilitation population are complex and likely multifactorial. Information on both medical comorbidities and functional status is routinely collected for stroke patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation. We sought to determine whether functional status is a more robust predictor of acute care readmissions in the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population compared with medical comorbidities using a large, administrative data set. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from the years 2002 to 2011 was performed examining stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A Basic Model for predicting acute care readmission risk based on age and functional status was compared with models incorporating functional status and medical comorbidities (Basic-Plus) or models including age and medical comorbidities alone (Age-Comorbidity). C-statistics were compared to evaluate model performance. Findings There were a total of 803,124 patients: 88,187 (11%) patients were transferred back to an acute hospital: 22,247 (2.8%) within 3 days, 43,481 (5.4%) within 7 days, and 85,431 (10.6%) within 30 days. The C-statistics for the Basic Model were 0.701, 0.672, and 0.682 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. As compared to the Basic Model, the best-performing Basic-Plus model was the Basic+Elixhauser model with C-statistics differences of +0.011, +0.011, and + 0.012, and the best-performing Age-Comorbidity model was the Age+Elixhauser model with C-statistic differences of -0.124, -0.098, and -0.098 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. Conclusions Readmission models for the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population based on functional status and age showed better predictive ability than models based on medical comorbidities. PMID
Kumar, Alok; Singh, Keerti; Krishnamurthy, Kandamaran; Nielson, Anders L.
Background: The major objectives of this study were to evaluate the existing primary health care service provisions in the public and private sector and utilization of the services, and to assess the existing manpower and material resources. Methods: Data were collected through interviews with the primary health care providers. Data were also collected from the records maintained at the polyclinics and the Ministry of Health Statistics. An analysis and discussion of all the available data was conducted to develop a comprehensive primary health care service utilization and resources inventory at the polyclinics. Similar data were collected from the primary care providers in the private sector. Results: In the public sector, there are 8 polyclinics that provide primary health care to the children. All the polyclinics have immunization services and curative acute care. Some of the polyclinics have a range of services, including dental care, eye care, and rehabilitative care services that common to both adults and children. In the private sector, primary health care is delivered through the 76 private office and of the individual physicians and 11 grouped private practices. All of the private offices and group practices have curative acute care for children and some of the offices have immunization services. Over all 87.5% of all the immunizations were done at the polyclinics. Over all 60.1% of acute care visits were to the private sector and 39.9% to the public sector. In the public sector, 59.5% were under 5 years children while 40.5% were 5 years or older. The corresponding figures in the private care settings were 80.9% and 11.9%. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the complimentary role of the public and the private sector in the primary health care of children in this country. While the private sector has a major role in the curative acute care of children, the public sector plays a pivotal role in the immunization services. PMID:26682029
Yeh, Vivian M.; Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.
Hypnosis is a brief intervention ready for wider dissemination in medical contexts. Overall, hypnosis remains underused despite evidence supporting its beneficial clinical impact. This review will evaluate the evidence supporting hypnosis for dissemination using guidelines formulated by Glasgow and colleagues (1999). Five dissemination dimensions will be considered: Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM). Reach In medical settings, hypnosis is capable of helping a diverse range of individuals with a wide variety of problems. Efficacy There is evidence supporting the use of hypnosis for chronic pain, acute pain and emotional distress arising from medical procedures and conditions, cancer treatment-related side-effects and irritable bowel syndrome. Adoption Although hypnosis is currently not a part of mainstream clinical practices, evidence suggests that patients and healthcare providers are open to trying hypnosis, and may become more so when educated about what hypnosis can do. Implementation Hypnosis is a brief intervention capable of being administered effectively by healthcare providers. Maintenance Given the low resource needs of hypnosis, opportunities for reimbursement, and the ability of the intervention to potentially help medical settings reduce costs, the intervention has the qualities necessary to be integrated into routine care in a self-sustaining way in medical settings. In sum, hypnosis is a promising candidate for further dissemination. PMID:25267941
Mitchell, Lori A.; Strain, Laurel A.; Blandford, Audrey A.
This study employs a longitudinal design to examine rural-urban differences in home care service use over time, drawing on data from the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging (MSHA). Characteristics of community-dwelling, cognitively intact adults aged 65 years or older not receiving home care services in the province of Manitoba (n = 855) were…
Affronti, Melissa L.; Levison-Johnson, Jody
Residential programs for children and youth are increasingly implementing engagement strategies to promote family-centered and family-driven models of care (Leichtman, 2008). The practice of engagement is a fairly new area of research, especially in residential care. Driven by their goal to increase the use of state-of-the-art family engagement…
The purpose of this article is to explore the way preschool teachers teach reflective care in Japan. The article builds on a two-month ethnographic study conducted in Japanese kindergartens and nurseries among children aged 3-6 years. The data were analysed using concepts of age and gender. The results show that care in Japan, in contrast to…
Primer, M A
Quality specifications can be used as an information resource by purchasers of health care. The nature of service provision and nursing care can be positively influenced by the formalisation of standards and quality specifications. Auditing is essential in the ongoing evaluation of a quality system.
Ayranci, Unal; Yenilmez, Cinar; Balci, Yasemin; Kaptanoglu, Cem
This study sought to investigate the contributing factors to and frequency of violence against health care workers (HCWs) working in western Turkey. The population is composed of a random sample of 1,209 HCWs from 34 health care workplaces. Written questionnaires were given to HCWs at all sites, where staff were instructed to register all types of…
... are generally available through pharmacies, medical supply companies, health care providers and online. These containers are made of ... proper disposal methods for sharps used outside of health care settings visit this website or call (800) 643- ...
McElroy, Susan L.
Objective: The objective of this article is to present practical strategies for detecting and diagnosing bipolar disorder in the primary care setting and to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole treatment for bipolar disorder. Data Sources: A review of the literature from 1980 to 2007 was conducted from November 2006 through February 2007 using a MEDLINE search and the key words bipolar disorder, primary care, detection, diagnosis, and aripiprazole. Study Selection: A total of 100 articles that focused on the accurate detection and diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the evidence of the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder were selected. Data Synthesis: Patients with bipolar disorder often present to primary care physicians with depressive or mixed symptoms as opposed to purely hypomanic or manic symptoms. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is essential in order to provide timely and appropriate treatment. One treatment option available is aripiprazole, a partial agonist of dopamine (D)2 and D3 and serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2A receptor. Clinical trial data have shown aripiprazole to be effective in treating manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, both in the acute phase and over an extended period of treatment lasting from 6 months to 2 years. Conclusions: Accurate diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder are challenges increasingly faced by primary care physicians. Strategies geared toward detection, diagnosis, and management of bipolar I disorder and other bipolar spectrum disorders may improve the treatment outcome for patients. Aripiprazole may be considered as another first-line choice for the treatment of bipolar I disorder; however, its utility in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders is yet to be determined. PMID:19956463
Wellens, Nathalie I H; Milisen, Koen; Flamaing, Johan; Moons, Philip
The interRAI Acute Care is a comprehensive geriatric assessment tool that provides a holistic picture of complex and frail hospitalized older persons. It is designed to support holistic care planning and to transfer patient data across settings. Its usefulness in clinical decision making depends on the extent to which clinicians can rely on the patient data as accurate and meaningful indicators of patients functioning. But its multidimensional character implies challenges for clinimetric testing as some of the traditional analyses techniques cannot be unconditionally applied. The objective was to present an overview of methods to examine the reliability of the interRAI Acute Care. For each line of evidence, examples of hypotheses and research questions are listed.
This paper provides the results of the Survey-2000 measuring technology transfer for management information systems in health care. The relationships with systems approaches, user involvement, usersatisfaction, and decision-making were measured and are presented. The survey also measured the levels Internet and Intranet presents in acute care hospitals, which will be discussed in future articles. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business to business and customers. These results are compared, where appropriate, with results from survey 1997 and changes are discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the first of three articles based upon the results of the Srvey-2000. Readers are referred to a prior article by the author that discusses the survey design and provides a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals.
Resnick, Daniel K.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Groman, Rachel F.; Ghogawala, Zoher
Study Design Topic review Objective Describe value measurement in spine care and discuss the motivation for, methods for, and limitations of such measurement. Summary of Background Data Spinal disorders are common and are an important cause of pain and disability. Numerous complimentary and competing treatment strategies are used to treat spinal disorders and the costs of these treatments is substantial and continues to rise despite clear evidence of improved health status as a result of these expenditures. Methods The authors present the economic and legislative imperatives forcing the assessment of value in spine care. The definition of value in health care and methods to measure value specifically in spine care are presented. Limitations to the utility of value judgements and caveats to their use are presented. Results Examples of value calculations in spine care are presented and critiqued. Methods to improve and broaden the measurement of value across spine care are suggested and the role of prospective registries in measuring value is discussed. Conclusions Value can be measured in spine care through the use of appropriate economic measures and patient reported outcomes measures. Value must be interpreted in light of the perspective of the assessor, the duration of the assessment period, the degree of appropriate risk stratification, and the relative value of treatment alternatives. PMID:25299258
Shima, Razatul; Farizah, Mohd Hairi; Majid, Hazreen Abdul
Purpose The aim of this study was to explore patients’ experiences with their illnesses and the reasons which influenced them in not following hypertensive care recommendations (antihypertensive medication intake, physical activity, and diet changes) in primary health clinic settings. Patients and methods A qualitative methodology was applied. The data were gathered from in-depth interviews with 25 hypertensive patients attending follow-up in nine government primary health clinics in two districts (Hulu Langat and Klang) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results There was evidence of lack of patient self-empowerment and community support in Malaysian society. Most of the participants did not take their antihypertensive medication or change their physical activity and diet after diagnosis. There was an agreement between the patients and the health care professionals before starting the treatment recommendation, but there lacked further counseling and monitoring. Most of the reasons given for not taking antihypertensive medication, not doing physical activity and not following diet recommendations were due to side effects or fear of the side effects of antihypertensive medication, patients’ attitudes, lack of information from health care professionals and insufficient social support from their surrounding environment. We also observed the differences on these reasons for nonadherence among the three ethnic groups. Conclusion Health care professionals should move toward supporting adherence in the management of hypertensive patients by maintaining a dialogue. Patients need to be given time to enable them to overcome their inhibition of asking questions and to accept the recommendations. A self-management approach must be responsive to the needs of individuals, ethnicities, and communities. PMID:25484577
Veenstra, Christine M.; Epstein, Andrew J.; Liao, Kaijun; Morris, Arden M.; Pollack, Craig E.; Armstrong, Katrina A.
BACKGROUND The effect of care setting on value of colon cancer care is unknown. METHODS A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort study of 6544 patients aged ≥66 years with stage IV colon cancer (based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system) who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2005 was performed. All patients were followed through December 31, 2007. Using outpatient and carrier claims, patients were assigned to a treating hospital based on the hospital affiliation of the primary oncologist. Hospitals were classified academic or nonacademic using the SEER-Medicare National Cancer Institute Hospital File. RESULTS Of the 6544 patients, 1605 (25%) received care from providers affiliated with academic medical centers. The unadjusted median cancer-specific survival was 16.0 months at academic medical centers versus 13.9 months at nonacademic medical centers (P<.001). After adjustment, treatment at academic hospitals remained significantly associated with a reduced risk of death from cancer (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.82–0.93 [P<.001]). Adjusted mean 12-month Medicare spending was $8571 higher at academic medical centers (95% CI, $2340–$14,802; P =.007). The adjusted median cost was $1559 higher at academic medical centers; this difference was not found to be statistically significant (95% CI, −$5239 to $2122; P =.41). A small percentage of patients who received very expensive care skewed the difference in mean cost; the only statistically significant difference in adjusted costs in quantile regressions was at the 99.9th percentile of costs (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS Among Medicare beneficiaries with stage IV colon cancer, treatment by a provider affiliated with an academic medical center was associated with a 2 month improvement in overall survival. Except for patients in the 99.9th percentile of the cost distribution, costs at academic medical centers were not found to be significantly
Piquette, Dominique; Moulton, Carol-Anne; LeBlanc, Vicki R
Clinical supervisors fulfill a dual responsibility towards patient care and learning during clinical activities. Assuming such roles in today's clinical environments may be challenging. Acute care environments present unique learning opportunities for medical trainees, as well as specific challenges. The goal of this paper was to better understand the specific contexts in which overt teaching interactions occurred in acute care environments. We conducted a naturalistic observational study based on constructivist grounded theory methodology. Using participant observation, we collected data on the teaching interactions occurring between clinical supervisors and medical trainees during 74 acute care episodes in the critical care unit of two academic centers, in Toronto, Canada. Three themes contributed to a better understanding of the conditions in which overt teaching interactions among trainees and clinical supervisors occurred during acute care episodes: seizing emergent learning opportunities, coming up against challenging conditions, and creating learning momentum. Our findings illustrate how overt learning opportunities emerged from certain clinical situations and how clinical supervisors and trainees could purposefully modify unfavorable learning conditions. None of the acute care episodes encountered in the critical care environment represented ideal conditions for learning. Yet, clinical supervisors and trainees succeeded in engaging in overt teaching interactions during many episodes. The educational value of these overt teaching interactions should be further explored, as well as the impact of interventions aimed at increasing their use in acute care environments.
Addis, Michael E.; Hatgis, Christina; Cardemil, Esteban; Jacob, Karen; Krasnow, Aaron D.; Mansfield, Abigail
Eighty clients meeting criteria for panic disorder and receiving either panic control therapy (PCT; M. G. Craske, E. Meadows, & D. H. Barlow, 1994) or treatment as usual (TAU) in a managed care setting were assessed 1 and 2 years following acute treatment. PCT was provided by therapists with little or no previous exposure to cognitive-behavioral…
Silberstein, Stephen D
Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder that affects one in seven US citizens annually. The burden of migraine is substantial, both in economic terms and for individual patients and their close family members. Initial medical consultations for migraine are usually with a primary care physician (PCP), and it is predominantly managed in a primary care setting; therefore, PCPs need a thorough understanding of migraine and the treatment options. This review provides an overview of the prevalence, symptoms, burden, and diagnosis of migraine with a focus on adults. Important aspects of migraine management, such as medication overuse and chronic migraine, are highlighted and insight is provided into factors for consideration when prescribing acute/abortive treatment for migraine to ensure that individual patients receive optimal pharmaceutical management. The effects of associated symptoms, e.g. nausea/vomiting, on treatment efficacy are pertinent in migraine; however, many therapy options, including alternative delivery systems, are available, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment for an individual patient.
Holtkamp, Martin; Meierkord, Hartmut
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) comprises a group of syndromes that display a great diversity regarding response to anticonvulsants ranging from virtually self-limiting variants to entirely refractory forms. Therefore, treatment on intensive care units (ICUs) is required only for a selection of cases. The aetiology and clinical form of NCSE are strong predictors for the overall prognosis. Absence status epilepticus is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is rapidly terminated by low-dose of benzodiazepines. The management of complex partial status epilepticus is straightforward in patients with pre-existing epilepsy, but poses major problems if occurring in the context of acute brain lesions. Subtle status epilepticus represents the late stage of undertreated previous overt generalized convulsive status epilepticus and always requires aggressive ICU treatment. Within the intensive care setting, the diagnostic challenge may be seen in the difficulty in delineating nonepileptic conditions such as posthypoxic, metabolic or septic encephalopathies from NCSE. Although all important forms are considered, the focus of this review lies on clinical presentations and electroencephalogram features of comatose patients treated on ICUs and possible diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:21694817
Hang, Jo-Aine; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Burro, Bianca; Nobre, Debbie; Hill, Anne-Marie
Falls are a serious problem in residential aged care settings. The aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of surveying care staff regarding falls prevention, and describe care staff levels of knowledge and awareness of residents' risk of falls, knowledge about falls prevention, motivation and confidence to implement falls prevention strategies. A custom designed questionnaire was administered to care staff at one site of a large residential aged care organization in Australia. The survey response was 58.8%. Feedback from staff was used to inform the administration of the survey to the wider organization. Seven (29.2%) care staff reported they were unsure or thought residents were at low risk of falls. Only five (20.8%) care staff were able to suggest more than three preventive strategies. These preliminary findings suggest that education to change care staff behavior regarding falls prevention should target improving care staff knowledge and awareness of falls.
Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Colla, Carrie Hoverman; Escarce, José J
Objective To test how the implementation of new Medicare post-acute payment systems affected the use of inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and home health agencies. Data Sources Medicare acute hospital, IRF, and SNF claims; provider of services file; enrollment file; and Area Resource File data. Study Design We used multinomial logit models to measure realized access to post-acute care and to predict how access to alternative sites of care changed in response to prospective payment systems. Data Extraction Methods A file was constructed linking data for elderly Medicare patients discharged from acute care facilities between 1996 and 2003 with a diagnosis of hip fracture, stroke, or lower extremity joint replacement. Principal Findings Although the effects of the payment systems on the use of post-acute care varied, most reduced the use of the site of care they directly affected and boosted the use of alternative sites of care. Payment system changes do not appear to have differentially affected the severely ill. Conclusions Payment system incentives play a significant role in determining where Medicare beneficiaries receive their post-acute care. Changing these incentives results in shifting of patients between post-acute sites. PMID:19490159
On any given day a patient seen by the dental hygienist has the potential of experiencing a life-threatening medical emergency. All dental hygiene practitioners should be aware of potential risks that a patient may present, take steps to prevent life-threatening events from occurring, and plan for problems in advance of their happening. The primary goal of this course is to help dental hygienists carry out the ethical, moral, legal, and professional obligation owed any patient. The course will review the basics of medical emergencies, with particular emphasis on those that are most likely to occur in the dental office. Discussion will center on general aspects of prevention and preparation, and will focus on the recognition and emergency treatment of specific conditions. Vasodepressor syncope, orthostatic hypotension, acute adrenal insufficiency, hyperventilation, asthma, heart failure and acute pulmonary edema, cerebrovascular accident seizures, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and anaphylaxis will be emphasized.
...We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010......
Vukoja, Marija; Kashyap, Rahul; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Dong, Yue; Kilickaya, Oguz; Gajic, Ognjen
Processes to ensure world-wide best-practice for critical care delivery are likely to minimize preventable death, disability and costly complications for any healthcare system's sickest patients, but no large-scale efforts have so far been undertaken towards these goals. The advances in medical informatics and human factors engineering have provided possibility for novel and user-friendly clinical decision support tools that can be applied in a complex and busy hospital setting. To facilitate timely and accurate best-practice delivery in critically ill patients international group of intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and researchers developed a simple decision support tool: Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN). The tool has been refined and tested in high fidelity simulated clinical environment and has been shown to improve performance of clinical providers faced with simulated emergencies. The aim of this international educational intervention is to implement CERTAIN into clinical practice in hospital settings with variable resources (included those in low income countries) and evaluate the impact of the tool on the care processes and patient outcomes. To accomplish our aims, CERTAIN will be uniformly available on either mobile or fixed computing devices (as well as a backup paper version) and applied in a standardized manner in the ICUs of diverse hospitals. To ensure the effectiveness of the proposed intervention, access to CERTAIN is coupled with structured training of bedside ICU providers.
Mandrioli, Matteo; Inaba, Kenji; Piccinini, Alice; Biscardi, Andrea; Sartelli, Massimo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Catena, Fausto; Cirocchi, Roberto; Jovine, Elio; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone
The greatest advantages of laparoscopy when compared to open surgery include the faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, decreased postoperative pain, earlier return to work and resumption of normal daily activity as well as cosmetic benefits. Laparoscopy today is considered the gold standard of care in the treatment of cholecystitis and appendicitis worldwide. Laparoscopy has even been adopted in colorectal surgery with good results. The technological improvements in this surgical field along with the development of modern techniques and the acquisition of specific laparoscopic skills have allowed for its utilization in operations with fully intracorporeal anastomoses. Further progress in laparoscopy has included single-incision laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, laparoscopy for emergency surgery is still considered challenging and is usually not recommended due to the lack of adequate experience in this area. The technical difficulties of operating in the presence of diffuse peritonitis or large purulent collections and diffuse adhesions are also given as reasons. However, the potential advantages of laparoscopy, both in terms of diagnosis and therapy, are clear. Major advantages may be observed in cases with diffuse peritonitis secondary to perforated peptic ulcers, for example, where laparoscopy allows the confirmation of the diagnosis, the identification of the position of the ulcer and a laparoscopic repair with effective peritoneal washout. Laparoscopy has also revolutionized the approach to complicated diverticulitis even when intestinal perforation is present. Many other emergency conditions can be effectively managed laparoscopically, including trauma in select hemodynamically-stable patients. We have therefore reviewed the most recent scientific literature on advances in laparoscopy for acute care surgery and trauma in order to demonstrate the current indications and outcomes associated with a
Mandrioli, Matteo; Inaba, Kenji; Piccinini, Alice; Biscardi, Andrea; Sartelli, Massimo; Agresta, Ferdinando; Catena, Fausto; Cirocchi, Roberto; Jovine, Elio; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone
The greatest advantages of laparoscopy when compared to open surgery include the faster recovery times, shorter hospital stays, decreased postoperative pain, earlier return to work and resumption of normal daily activity as well as cosmetic benefits. Laparoscopy today is considered the gold standard of care in the treatment of cholecystitis and appendicitis worldwide. Laparoscopy has even been adopted in colorectal surgery with good results. The technological improvements in this surgical field along with the development of modern techniques and the acquisition of specific laparoscopic skills have allowed for its utilization in operations with fully intracorporeal anastomoses. Further progress in laparoscopy has included single-incision laparoscopic surgery and natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, laparoscopy for emergency surgery is still considered challenging and is usually not recommended due to the lack of adequate experience in this area. The technical difficulties of operating in the presence of diffuse peritonitis or large purulent collections and diffuse adhesions are also given as reasons. However, the potential advantages of laparoscopy, both in terms of diagnosis and therapy, are clear. Major advantages may be observed in cases with diffuse peritonitis secondary to perforated peptic ulcers, for example, where laparoscopy allows the confirmation of the diagnosis, the identification of the position of the ulcer and a laparoscopic repair with effective peritoneal washout. Laparoscopy has also revolutionized the approach to complicated diverticulitis even when intestinal perforation is present. Many other emergency conditions can be effectively managed laparoscopically, including trauma in select hemodynamically-stable patients. We have therefore reviewed the most recent scientific literature on advances in laparoscopy for acute care surgery and trauma in order to demonstrate the current indications and outcomes associated with a
Hoffses, Kathryn W; Ramirez, Lisa Y; Berdan, Louise; Tunick, Rachel; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Meadows, Tawnya J; Shaffer, Laura; Robins, Paul M; Sturm, Lynne; Stancin, Terry
OBJECTIVES : In the midst of large-scale changes across our nation's health care system, including the Affordable Care Act and Patient-Centered Medical Home initiatives, integrated primary care models afford important opportunities for those in the field of pediatric psychology. Despite the extensive and growing attention, this subspecialty has received in recent years, a comprehensive set of core professional competencies has not been established. METHODS : A subset of an Integrated Primary Care Special Interest Group used two well-established sets of core competencies in integrated primary care and pediatric psychology as a basis to develop a set of integrated pediatric primary care-specific behavioral anchors. CONCLUSIONS : The current manuscript describes these behavioral anchors and their development in the context of professional training as well as with regard to Triple Aim goals and securing psychology's role in integrated pediatric primary care settings.
Saravanakumar, K; Davies, L; Lewis, M; Cooper, G M
Our objective was to establish the utilisation and pattern of high dependency care in a tertiary referral obstetric unit. Data of pregnant or recently pregnant women admitted to the obstetric high dependency unit from 1984 to 2007 were included to evaluate the admission rate. Four years' information of an ongoing prospective audit was collated to identify the indications for admission, maternal monitoring, transfers to intensive care unit, and location of the baby. The overall high dependency unit admission rate is 2.67%, but increased to 5.01% in the most recent 4 years. Massive obstetric haemorrhage is now the most common reason for admission. Invasive monitoring was undertaken in 30% of women. Two-thirds of neonates (66.3%) stayed with their critically ill mothers in the high dependency unit. Transfer to the intensive care unit was needed in 1.4 per 1000 deliveries conducted. We conclude that obstetric high dependency care provides holistic care from midwives, obstetricians and anaesthetists while retaining the opportunity of early bonding with babies for critically ill mothers.
Bohannon, R W; Kloter, K; Cooper, J
This retrospective study of patients with stroke was performed to describe the patients' functional independence on admission to and discharge from physical therapy treatment, determine whether significant functional recovery occurred during the treatment period, and identify independent variables correlating with recovery and outcome at discharge. The Functional Independence Measurement (FIM) system was used to score performance in bed mobility, transfers, locomotion, and stairs. Outcome was indicated by the discharge FIM scores and discharge habitat. The 105 patients whose acute care records were reviewed demonstrated significant improvements between admission and discharge in all functions. Among the variables that correlated significantly with recovery were number of treatments and admission FIM scores. Age and number of treatments correlated significantly with discharge habitat. All FIM scores (admission and discharge) correlated significantly with discharge habitat. Results suggest that FIM scores can be used to document the functional status of patients with stroke in an acute care setting and that the scores have value as predictors of recovery and outcome.
Sanger, Patrick; Hartzler, Andrea; Lober, William B.; Evans, Heather L.; Pratt, Wanda
Many current mobile health applications (“apps”) and most previous research have been directed at management of chronic illnesses. However, little is known about patient preferences and design considerations for apps intended to help in a post-acute setting. Our team is developing an mHealth platform to engage patients in wound tracking to identify and manage surgical site infections (SSI) after hospital discharge. Post-discharge SSIs are a major source of morbidity and expense, and occur at a critical care transition when patients are physically and emotionally stressed. Through interviews with surgical patients who experienced SSI, we derived design considerations for such a post-acute care app. Key design qualities include: meeting basic accessibility, usability and security needs; encouraging patient-centeredness; facilitating better, more predictable communication; and supporting personalized management by providers. We illustrate our application of these guiding design considerations and propose a new framework for mHealth design based on illness duration and intensity. PMID:25954465
Drake, Gareth; de C Williams, Amanda C
The objective of this review was to examine the effects of nursing education interventions on clinical outcomes for acute pain management in hospital settings, relating interventions to health care behavior change theory. Three databases were searched for nursing education interventions from 2002 to 2015 in acute hospital settings with clinical outcomes reported. Methodological quality was rated as strong, moderate, or weak using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. The 12 eligible studies used varied didactic and interactive teaching methods. Several studies had weaknesses attributable to selection biases, uncontrolled confounders, and lack of blinding of outcome assessors. No studies made reference to behavior change theory in their design. Eight of the 12 studies investigated nursing documentation of pain assessment as the main outcome, with the majority reporting positive effects of education interventions on nursing pain assessment. Of the remaining studies, two reported mixed findings on patient self-report of pain scores as the key measure, one reported improvements in patient satisfaction with pain management after a nursing intervention, and one study found an increase in nurses' delivery of a relaxation treatment following an intervention. Improvements in design and evaluation of nursing education interventions are suggested, drawing on behavior change theory and emphasizing the relational, contextual, and emotionally demanding nature of nursing pain management in hospital settings.
Bickimer, David A.
Two motifs of the Prehensive Leadership Model (PLM) are applied to efforts to solve problems related to stepchild status and low morale that are typical of campus child care centers. The importance of the PLM distinction between general and special leadership is discussed. (SH)
Heidgerken, Amanda, D.; Geffken, Gary; Modi, Avani; Frakey, Laura
The current study extends research by Stone [Cross-disciplinary perspectives on autism? "Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 12", (1988) 615; A comparison of teacher and parent views of autism. "Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 18", (1988) 403] exploring the knowledge and beliefs about autism across multiple health care professions. One…
Decker, P J; Sullivan, E; Moore, R
Behavior modeling is one training method found effective in helping health care managers deal with their day-to-day management problems. This article defines and explains the five basic steps of behavior modeling training, suggests the workshop format as its most effective mode of instruction, and presents examples of successful use of the method.
Maslach, Christina; Pines, Ayala
Results of a study of personal job-stress factors among day care center personnel focus on impact of staff-child ratio, working hours, time out, staff meetings and program structure. Recommended institutional changes for prevention of staff "burn-out" involve reduction in amount of direct staff-child contact, development of social-professional…
Nickless, Lesley J
The increase in patient acuity in primary and secondary settings is continuing, with a corresponding increase in the need for technological competence in these areas. Evidence, however, both nationally and internationally, suggests that these expectations are not being met. This paper offers a review of the literature on acute care, with a specific focus on pre-registration nursing students and the development of acute care skills. Three themes are discussed: factors contributing to the acute care skills deficit, the knowledge and skills required to work in acute care and strategies used to support the acquisition of acute care skills. In response to the review, and based upon the evidence-based solutions identified, the clinical skills team at Bournemouth University designed and developed two teaching sessions, using simulation and role play to support the acquisition of acute care skills in pre-registration students. Student evaluations identify that their knowledge, competence and confidence in this area have increased following the teaching sessions, although caution remains regarding transferability of these skills into the practice environment.
Bush, Matthew L; Alexander, David; Noblitt, Bryce; Lester, Cathy; Shinn, Jennifer B
Diagnosis and intervention for infant hearing loss is often delayed in areas of healthcare disparity, such as rural Appalachia. Primary care providers play a key role in timely hearing healthcare. The purpose of this study was to assess the practice patterns of rural primary care providers (PCPs) regarding newborn hearing screening (NHS) and experiences with rural early hearing diagnosis and intervention programs in an area of known hearing healthcare disparity. Cross sectional questionnaire study. Appalachian PCP's in Kentucky were surveyed regarding practice patterns and experiences regarding the diagnosis and treatment of congenital hearing loss. 93 Appalachian primary care practitioners responded and 85% reported that NHS is valuable for pediatric health. Family practitioners were less likely to receive infant NHS results than pediatricians (54.5 versus 95.2%, p < 0.01). A knowledge gap was identified in the goal ages for diagnosis and treatment of congenital hearing loss. Pediatrician providers were more likely to utilize diagnostic testing compared with family practice providers (p < 0.001). Very rural practices (Beale code 7-9) were less likely to perform hearing evaluations in their practices compared with rural practices (Beale code 4-6) (p < 0.001). Family practitioners reported less confidence than pediatricians in counseling and directing care of children who fail newborn hearing screening. 46% felt inadequately prepared or completely unprepared to manage children who fail the NHS. Rural primary care providers face challenges in receiving communication regarding infant hearing screening and may lack confidence in directing and providing rural hearing healthcare for children.
Baglin, Carol Ann, Ed.; Bender, Michael, Ed.
Intended primarily for professionals teaching early childhood and infant intervention courses, this handbook presents an overview of child care as both a support to families and an economic necessity, meeting changing and dynamic needs. Child care settings and types of care are discussed, along with quality indicators, licensing, and provider…
Gill, Preetinder S; Kamath, Ashwini; Gill, Tejkaran S
Smartphone use in health care work settings presents both opportunities and challenges. The benefits could be severely undermined if abuse and overuse are not kept in check. This practice-focused research paper examines the current panorama of health software applications. Findings from existing research are consolidated to elucidate the level and effects of distraction in health care work settings due to smartphone use. A conceptual framework for crafting guidelines to regulate the use of smartphones in health care work settings is then presented. Finally, specific guidelines are delineated to assist in creating policies for the use of smartphones in a health care workplace. PMID:22969308
Portwood, Sharon G.; Boyd, A. Suzanne; Murdock, Tamera B.
Background: There is a need to examine behavioral and mental health outcomes for children in out-of-home care across settings. Objective: Using a participatory research approach, researchers and agency personnel aimed to implement a program of scientific outcomes research in residential care settings. Data were used to examine children's…
Nguyen, Nguyen-Lan D; Hunt, D Daniel; Scott, Craig S
A Vietnamese Depression Scale (VDS) was developed in 1982 in the United States and has been used as a screening tool for depression and as the basis for a standardized interview to assess depression in the Vietnamese refugee populations. In this current study, the VDS was used in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to assess depression in patients who were already diagnosed with depression by Vietnamese psychiatrists and in patients presenting at a local primary care clinic. Of the 177 primary care clinic patients, 8.4% met the criteria for clinical depression based on the VDS. Results indicate a higher risk for depression among married and/or less than high school educated individuals. Discrepancies were found between the depression diagnosis by Vietnamese psychiatrists and VDS screening results. Among the participants interviewed who met the VDS criteria for depression, culture-specific phrases such as "desperate," "going crazy," and "low spirited and bored" were highly associated with symptoms of depression.
Emmerson, A. M.
Water is used in vast quantities in health-care premises. Many aquatic microorganisms can survive and flourish in water with minimal nutrients and can be transferred to vulnerable hospital patients in direct (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, surface absorption) and indirect ways (e.g., by instruments and utensils). Many outbreaks of infection or pseudoinfection occur through lack of prevention measures and ignorance of the source and transmission of opportunistic pathogens. PMID:11294722
Bika, O H; Edozien, L C
Emergency obstetric care in the UK has been systematically developed over the years to high quality standards. More recently, advances have been made in the organisation and delivery of care for women presenting with acute gynaecological problems, but a lot remains to be done, and emergency gynaecology has a lot to learn from the evolution of its sister special interest area: acute obstetric care. This paper highlights areas such as consultant presence, risk management, patient flow pathways, out-of-hours care, clinical guidelines and protocols, education and training and facilities, where lessons from obstetrics are transferrable to emergency gynaecology.
Johnson, Jennifer Leigh; Beard, Joyce; Evans, Dena
Annually, over 80,000 refugees enter the United States as a result of political or religious persecution. Of these, approximately 35% to 40% are children and adolescents. Refugees are faced with challenges associated with living conditions, cultural and social norms, and socioeconomic status due to problems occurring in their homelands. These challenges include but are not limited to malnutrition, communicable disease, questionable immunization status, lack of formal education, sexual abuse, violence, torture, human trafficking, homelessness, poverty, and a lack of access to health care. Moreover, the psychological impact of relocation and the stress of acculturation may perpetuate many of these existing challenges, particularly for refugee youth, with limited or underdeveloped coping skills. School nurses are uniquely poised to support refugee youth in the transition process, improve overall health, and facilitate access to primary health services. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the unique refugee experience, examine the key health care needs of the population, and present school nurses with timely and relevant resources to assist in caring for refugee youth.
Faculty at Indiana University School of Medicine are set to launch a community paramedicine program aimed at preventing repeat hospital and ED visits for acute exacerbations of asthma in children. Under the program, all children who are treated in the hospital or ED for asthma will receive home visits by specially trained paramedics within a few days of discharge. Paramedics will conduct a comprehensive assessment and make referrals as necessary for followup care. Nearly 30% of children who have been hospitalized for asthma require readmission to the hospital not long after discharge, and as many as 25% of children who have been treated in the ED for asthma will return to the ED within 30 days for another asthma-related visit. The one-time home visits will be comprehensive, enabling EMS providers to initiate stop-gap measures so that if a child is starting to get sick, paramedics can make sure the appropriate medicines are started and that acute care needs are met. Developers will monitor 30-day, 90-day, and one-year readmission metrics among patients who have received home visits.They hope that resulting cost-savings will sustain the program beyond the initial period, which is being funded through a grant from the Department of Health and Human Services.
Dinardi, Graciela; Canevari, Cecilia; Torabi, Nahal
Chagas disease (CD) is a tropical parasitic disease largely underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic affecting marginalized rural populations. Argentina regularly reports acute cases of CD, mostly young individuals under 14 years old. There is a void of knowledge of health care seeking behavior in subjects experiencing a CD acute condition. Early treatment of the acute case is crucial to limit subsequent development of disease. The article explores how the health outcome of persons with acute CD may be conditioned by their health care seeking behavior. The study, with a qualitative approach, was carried out in rural areas of Santiago del Estero Province, a high risk endemic region for vector transmission of CD. Narratives of 25 in-depth interviews carried out in 2005 and 2006 are analyzed identifying patterns of health care seeking behavior followed by acute cases. Through the retrospective recall of paths for diagnoses, weaknesses of disease information, knowledge at the household level, and underperformance at the provincial health care system level are detected. The misdiagnoses were a major factor in delaying a health care response. The study results expose lost opportunities for the health care system to effectively record CD acute cases. PMID:27829843
Loader, S.; Caldwell, P.; Kozyra, A.; Levenkron, J. C.; Boehm, C. D.; Kazazian, H. H.; Rowley, P. T.
To determine the receptivity of prenatal care providers and their patients to carrier testing for cystic fibrosis (CF), we offered free carrier screening, followed by genetic counseling of carriers, to all prenatal care providers in Rochester, NY, for all their female patients of reproductive age, pregnant or not. Of 124 prenatal care providers, only 37 elected to participate, but many of these offered screening only to pregnant women. The acceptance rate among pregnant women was approximately 57%. The most common reasons for accepting screening were to obtain reassurance (50.7%) and to avoid having a child with CF (27.8 %). The most common reasons for declining screening were not intending to terminate a pregnancy for CF (32.4%) and believing that the chance of having a CF child was very low (32.2%). Compared with decliners, acceptors were more likely to have no children, regarded having a child with CF as more serious, believed themselves more susceptible to having such a child, knew more about CF, would be more likely to terminate a pregnancy if the fetus were shown to have CF, and more strongly supported offering CF screening to women of reproductive age. Of 4,879 women on whom results were obtained, 124 were found to be carriers. Of these 124 carriers, the partners of 106 were tested. Of the five at-risk couples, four requested prenatal diagnosis and one requested neonatal diagnosis. No woman found to be a carrier whose partner tested negative requested prenatal diagnosis. Except for the imperfect knowledge of those testing negative, none of the adverse outcomes predicted for CF carrier testing in the general population were observed in this study. Images p236-a p236-b p236-c PMID:8659530
Alzheimer's disease and most other causes of dementia are regressive by nature. As such one can expect patients with such types of mental impairment to gradually decline in function and ability to participate in day care activities. This paper attempts to show that with the right kind of orientation, staff can "tune into" the more advanced dementia patients, find the key to their personal needs, desires and remaining abilities and design a program that allows them not only to continue to participate in a social and therapeutic framework, but also to gain some meaningful human contact and quality of life despite their cognitive deterioration.
Burke, Robert E.; Whitfield, Emily A.; Hittle, David; Min, Sung-joon; Levy, Cari; Prochazka, Allan V.; Coleman, Eric A.; Schwartz, Robert; Ginde, Adit A.
Objectives Hospital discharges to post-acute care (PAC) facilities have increased rapidly. This increase may lead to more hospital readmissions from PAC facilities, which are common and poorly understood. We sought to determine the risk factors and timing for hospital readmission from PAC facilities and evaluate the impact of readmission on patient outcomes. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) from 2003–2009. Setting The MCBS is a nationally-representative survey of beneficiaries matched with claims data. Participants Community-dwelling beneficiaries who were hospitalized and discharged to a PAC facility for rehabilitation. Intervention/Exposure Potential readmission risk factors included patient demographics, health utilization, active medical conditions at time of PAC admission, and PAC characteristics. Measurements Hospital readmission during the PAC stay, return to community residence, and all-cause mortality. Results Of 3246 acute hospitalizations followed by PAC facility stays, 739 (22.8%) included at least 1 hospital readmission. The strongest risk factors for readmission included impaired functional status (HR 4.78, 95% CI 3.21–7.10), markers of increased acuity such as need for intravenous medications in PAC (1.63, 1.39–1.92), and for-profit PAC ownership (1.43, 1.21–1.69). Readmitted patients had a higher mortality rate at both 30 days (18.9 vs. 8.6%, p<0.001) and 100 days (39.9 vs. 14.5%, p<0.001) even after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and prior health care utilization (30 days: OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.60–2.54; 100 days: OR 3.79, 95% CI 3.13–4.59). Conclusions Hospital readmission from PAC facilities is common and associated with a high mortality rate. Readmission risk factors may signify inadequate transitional care processes or a mismatch between patient needs and PAC resources. PMID:26715357
Research suggests that the experience of being a lesbian or bisexual woman influences women's interactions with health care providers, and their perception of the quality of care. Limited research to date, however, has examined how ageing and sexuality mediates women's experiences of quality, when accessing health care in the community. To fill a gap in the literature, this study investigated older lesbian and bisexual women's perspectives on the meaning of quality of care in the context of receiving home care services. This was a qualitative single case study. Sixteen participants, aged 55-72 from Ontario, Canada, participated in semi-structured interviews between 2011 and 2012. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The interview data were analysed using iterative thematic analysis and guided by a feminist ethic of care perspective. Participants described quality of care in ways that were in line with a feminist ethic of care; that is, they wanted care providers to be responsive and attentive to their needs, to involve them in the caring process and to demonstrate respect and caring. Participants also indicated that providers' comfort with, and knowledge of, sexual diversity was important for enabling quality of care. These findings deepen our understanding of how to support quality of care for this population through changes to provider education and training, and health policy.
Danzl, Megan M; Hunter, Elizabeth G
Connecting the continuum of post-acute care stroke services may be important for easing patients' transition between settings and facilitating recovery and community reintegration. The use of outcome measures is suggested as one means of connecting the continuum. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to describe administrators' and physiotherapists' perceived value of an outcomes program across the post-acute care stroke continuum at a rehabilitation hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups with 18 participants. Three themes emerged on the value of the outcomes program: 1) enhanced communication; 2) supports clinical decision-making; and 3) value of objective data. These findings lend support for the use of standardized outcome measures by physiotherapists in stroke rehabilitation. Findings from this study may be useful for organizations and physiotherapists who wish to integrate outcome measures into practice.
Louh, Irene K; Greendyke, William G; Hermann, Emilia A; Davidson, Karina W; Falzon, Louise; Vawdrey, David K; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Calfee, David P; Furuya, E Yoko; Ting, Henry H
OBJECTIVE Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in acute-care hospitals is a priority for hospitals and clinicians. We performed a qualitative systematic review to update the evidence on interventions to prevent CDI published since 2009. DESIGN We searched Ovid, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, the ISI Web of Knowledge, and grey literature databases from January 1, 2009 to August 1, 2015. SETTING We included studies performed in acute-care hospitals. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS We included studies conducted on hospitalized patients that investigated the impact of specific interventions on CDI rates. INTERVENTIONS We used the QI-Minimum Quality Criteria Set (QI-MQCS) to assess the quality of included studies. Interventions were grouped thematically: environmental disinfection, antimicrobial stewardship, hand hygiene, chlorhexidine bathing, probiotics, bundled approaches, and others. A meta-analysis was performed when possible. RESULTS Of 3,236 articles screened, 261 met the criteria for full-text review and 46 studies were ultimately included. The average quality rating was 82% according to the QI-MQCS. The most effective interventions, resulting in a 45% to 85% reduction in CDI, included daily to twice daily disinfection of high-touch surfaces (including bed rails) and terminal cleaning of patient rooms with chlorine-based products. Bundled interventions and antimicrobial stewardship showed promise for reducing CDI rates. Chlorhexidine bathing and intensified hand-hygiene practices were not effective for reducing CDI rates. CONCLUSIONS Daily and terminal cleaning of patient rooms using chlorine-based products were most effective in reducing CDI rates in hospitals. Further studies are needed to identify the components of bundled interventions that reduce CDI rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:476-482.
Grassi, Luigi; Caruso, Rosangela; Sabato, Silvana; Massarenti, Sara; Nanni, Maria G; The UniFe Psychiatry Working Group Coauthors
Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this, the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g., life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes) and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g., psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life) which are possibly implicated not only in "classical" psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools [e.g., and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g., the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research)] represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.
Wade, Gail Holland; Herrman, Judy; McBeth-Snyder, Lisa
Preconception healthcare is a way to enhance positive pregnancy outcomes by encouraging women to engage in healthy lifestyles before they become pregnant. Because approximately 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, fetal development may be affected before a woman receives prenatal care. Young women are especially vulnerable to poor outcomes due to risky behaviors. Education about preconception health is not common practice. This article describes a peer education preconception health program for college women that provided a basis for an expanded program with larger, more diverse populations. Nursing students as peer educators presented the program to over 100 young women using the mnemonic REFRAMED PLUS to address eight preconception risk areas and reproductive life planning. Materials to augment the program, developed by peer educators, included a brochure on preconception health, a risk assessment tool, a DVD with stories of young women who experienced unplanned pregnancies, and a Reproductive Life Plan book. Peer educators administered a pretest, showed the DVD, guided discussions, assessed each woman's health risks and administered a posttest. The risk assessment revealed that young women have several preconception health risks. Following the preconception program, posttest scores indicated increased knowledge of preconception health. For preconception healthcare to be successful, preconception risk assessments, education and counseling must be addressed by nurses every time a young woman receives care. When possible, peer educators should be used to disseminate the message to all women of childbearing age.
Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hinchcliff, Reece; Moldovan, Max; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Introduction The Accreditation Collaborative for the Conduct of Research, Evaluation and Designated Investigations through Teamwork—Cost–Benefit Analysis (ACCREDIT-CBA (Acute)) study is designed to determine and make explicit the costs and benefits of Australian acute care accreditation and to determine the effectiveness of acute care accreditation in improving patient safety and quality of care. The cost–benefit analysis framework will be provided in the form of an interactive model for industry partners, health regulators and policy makers, accreditation agencies and acute care service providers. Methods and design The study will use a mixed-method approach to identify, quantify and monetise the costs and benefits of accreditation. Surveys, expert panels, focus groups, interviews and primary and secondary data analysis will be used in cross-sectional and case study designs. Ethics and dissemination The University of New South Wales Human Research Ethics Committee has approved this project (approval number HREC 10274). The results of the study will be reported via peer-reviewed publications, conferences and seminar resentations and will form part of a doctoral thesis. PMID:23396564
Novak, Philipp H; Ekins-Daukes, Suzie; Simpson, Colin R; Milne, Robert M; Helms, Peter; McLay, James S
Aims To investigate the extent of acute coprescribing in primary care to children on chronic antiepileptic therapy, which could give rise to potentially harmful drug–drug interactions. Design Acute coprescribing to children on chronic antiepileptic drug therapy in primary care was assessed in 178 324 children aged 0–17 years for the year 1 November 1999 to 31 October 2000. Computerized prescribing data were retrieved from 161 representative general practices in Scotland. Setting One hundred and sixty-one general practices throughout Scotland. Results During the study year 723 (0.41%) children chronically prescribed antiepileptic therapy were identified. Fourteen antiepileptic agents were prescribed, with carbamazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine accounting for 80% of the total. During the year children on chronic antiepileptic therapy were prescribed 4895 acute coprescriptions for 269 different medicines. The average number of acute coprescriptions for non-epileptic drug therapy were eight, 11, six, and six for the 0–1, 2–4, 5–11, and 12–17-year-olds, respectively. Of these acute coprescriptions 72 (1.5%) prescribed to 22 (3.0%) children were identified as a potential source of clinically serious interactions. The age-adjusted prevalence rates for potentially serious coprescribing were 86, 26, 22, and 33/1000 children chronically prescribed antiepileptic therapy in the 0–1, 2–4, 5–11, and 12–17-year-old age groups, respectively. The drugs most commonly coprescribed which could give rise to such interactions were antacids, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, theophylline and the low-dose oral contraceptive. For 10 (45.5%0 of the 20 children identified at risk of a potentially clinically serious adverse drug interaction, the acute coprescription was prescribed off label because of age or specific contraindication/warning. Conclusions In primary care, 3.0% of children on chronic antiepileptic therapy are coprescribed therapeutic agents, which could
Taunton, Roma Lee; Swagerty, Daniel L; Smith, Barbara; Lasseter, Joyce A; Lee, Robert H
This study was designed to describe the care-planning process used in nursing homes and identify links among care planning, care provided, and the Resident Assessment Instrument and Minimum Data Set (MDS). Study participants in three Midwestern nursing homes included residents and family members, MDS coordinators, direct care staff, administrators, directors of nursing, and medical directors. Data were collected via semi-structured interview, observation, and resident record audit. The care-planning process differed among the three facilities despite the common MDS system structure. Care planning and the MDS system were linked to the care provided to residents through documentation in residents' records, translation of the MDS care plan to the documents used for daily care, and ongoing communication through end-of-shift report and other venues.
Soares, Luiz Guilherme L; Japiassu, André M; Gomes, Lucia C; Pereira, Rogéria
Patients with complex palliative care needs can experience delayed discharge, which causes an inappropriate occupancy of hospital beds. Post-acute care facilities (PACFs) have emerged as an alternative discharge destination for some of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of admissions and characteristics of palliative care patients discharged from hospitals to a PACF. We conducted a retrospective analysis of PACF admissions between 2014 and 2016 that were linked to hospital discharge reports and electronic health records, to gather information about hospital-to-PACF transitions. In total, 205 consecutive patients were discharged from 6 different hospitals to our PACF. Palliative care patients were involved in 32% (n = 67) of these discharges. The most common conditions were terminal cancer (n = 42, 63%), advanced dementia (n = 17, 25%), and stroke (n = 5, 8%). During acute hospital stays, patients with cancer had significant shorter lengths of stay (13 vs 99 days, P = .004), a lower use of intensive care services (2% vs 64%, P < .001) and mechanical ventilation (2% vs 40%, P < .001), when compared to noncancer patients. Approximately one-third of discharges from hospitals to a PACF involved a heterogeneous group of patients in need of palliative care. Further studies are necessary to understand the trajectory of posthospitalized patients with life-limiting illnesses and what factors influence their decision to choose a PACF as a discharge destination and place of death. We advocate that palliative care should be integrated into the portfolio of post-acute services.
Stephens, Samuel A.
Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…
Modi, Payal; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Nasrin, Sabiha; Guy, Allysia; Rege, Soham; Noble, Vicki E.; Alam, Nur H.; Levine, Adam C.
Introduction Although dehydration from diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, existing methods of assessing dehydration status in children have limited accuracy. Objective To assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound measurement of the aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration in children. Methods A prospective cohort study of children under five years with acute diarrhea was conducted in the rehydration unit of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). Ultrasound measurements of aorta-to-IVC ratio and dehydrated weight were obtained on patient arrival. Percent weight change was monitored during rehydration to classify children as having “some dehydration” with weight change 3–9% or “severe dehydration” with weight change > 9%. Logistic regression analysis and Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the accuracy of aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration severity. Results 850 children were enrolled, of which 771 were included in the final analysis. Aorta to IVC ratio was a significant predictor of the percent dehydration in children with acute diarrhea, with each 1-point increase in the aorta to IVC ratio predicting a 1.1% increase in the percent dehydration of the child. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.60), sensitivity (67%), and specificity (49%), for predicting severe dehydration were all poor. Conclusions Point-of-care ultrasound of the aorta-to-IVC ratio was statistically associated with volume status, but was not accurate enough to be used as an independent screening tool for dehydration in children under five years presenting with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting. PMID:26766306
Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar
Background Trust in health care has been intensely researched in resource rich settings. Some studies in resource poor settings suggest that the dimensions and determinants of trust are likely to be different. Objectives This study was done as a qualitative exploration of the dimensions and determinants of trust in health care in Tamil Nadu, a state in south India to assess the differences from dimensions and determinants in resource rich settings. Methodology The participants included people belonging to marginalized communities with poor access to health care services and living in conditions of resource deprivation. A total of thirty five in depth interviews were conducted. The interviews were summarized and transcribed and data were analyzed following thematic analysis and grounded theory approach. Results The key dimensions of trust in health care identified during the interviews were perceived competence, assurance of treatment irrespective of ability to pay or at any time of the day, patients’ willingness to accept drawbacks in health care, loyalty to the physician and respect for the physician. Comfort with the physician and health facility, personal involvement of the doctor with the patient, behavior and approach of doctor, economic factors, and health awareness were identified as factors determining the levels of trust in health care. Conclusions The dimensions and determinants of trust in health care in resource poor settings are different from that in resource rich settings. There is a need to develop scales to measure trust in health care in resource poor settings using these specific dimensions and determinants. PMID:23874904
Montano, C Brendan; Rasgon, Natalie L; Herman, Barry K
Binge eating disorder (BED), now recognized as a distinct eating disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, is the most prevalent eating disorder. Although nearly half of individuals with BED are obese, BED also occurs in nonobese individuals. Despite the relatively high percentage of weight loss treatment-seeking individuals meeting BED criteria, primary care physicians may not be familiar with or have ever diagnosed BED. Many providers may also have difficulty distinguishing BED as a contributory factor in obesity. This review differentiates BED from other causes of obesity by describing how obese individuals with BED differ from obese individuals without BED and from nonobese individuals with BED in areas including psychopathology, behavior, genetics, physiology, quality of life and productivity. The ways in which health-care providers can identify individuals who may have BED are also highlighted so the proper course of treatment is pursued. Overall, obese individuals with BED demonstrate a number of key characteristics that differentiate them from obese individuals without eating disorders, including increased impulsivity in response to food stimuli with loss of control over eating, resulting in the consumption of more calories. They also experience significant guilt and other negative emotions following a meal. In addition, individuals with BED patients have more psychiatric comorbidity, display more psychopathology, exhibit longer binge durations, consume more meals as snacks during the day and have less dietary restraint compared with individuals with BED who are not obese. However, the differences between individuals with BED who are obese versus not obese are not as prominent. Taken together, the evidence appears to support the conclusion that BED is a unique and treatable neurobehavioral disorder associated with distinct behavioral and psychological profiles and distinct medical and functional outcomes, and that
Ho, Anita; Jameson, Kim; Pavlish, Carol
As healthcare delivery becomes increasingly interprofessional, it is imperative to identify opportunities for effective collaboration and coordination of care. Drawing on a Canadian qualitative study that adopted a constant comparative method based on the grounded theory approach, we report how healthcare providers' (HCPs) personal experiences and professional roles intersect with system factors in hindering or enhancing their ability to support patients and families in planning for end-of-life (EOL) care. We used a criterion-based sampling strategy and sought HCPs who had direct experience engaging patients and families in complex healthcare decisions on: (1) initiating, withholding, or withdrawing treatment; (2) care planning; and/or (3) discharge planning. Interviews sought to understand what HCPs perceived as individual, (inter)professional, and system factors that might hinder, promote, or enhance support for patients/families. We present four major intersecting themes from in-depth interviews with 28 HCPs across acute, long-term, and community care settings that represent three barriers and one facilitator: discomfort with death and dying, confusion about role responsibility, lack of coordinated care, and importance of interprofessional teamwork. Attending to system power hierarchy, we explore interprofessional strategies to support patients' and families' care experiences and promote team-based decision-making. We recommend an interprofessional team approach to facilitate EOL decision-making across care settings and before death becomes imminent. Increasing educational initiatives and developing tools that focus on interprofessional collaboration may help HCPs to understand each other's roles and perspectives, so that they can work together to provide a more coherent and coordinated approach to EOL decision-making.
Ahia, Chad L.; Blais, Christopher M.
Background Primary palliative care consists of the palliative care competencies required of all primary care clinicians. Included in these competencies is the ability to assist patients and their families in establishing appropriate goals of care. Goals of care help patients and their families understand the patient's illness and its trajectory and facilitate medical care decisions consistent with the patient's values and goals. General internists and family medicine physicians in primary care are central to getting patients to articulate their goals of care and to have these documented in the medical record. Case Report Here we present the case of a 71-year-old male patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, congestive heart failure, and newly diagnosed Alzheimer dementia to model pertinent end-of-life care communication and discuss practical tips on how to incorporate it into practice. Conclusion General internists and family medicine practitioners in primary care are central to eliciting patients' goals of care and achieving optimal end-of-life outcomes for their patients. PMID:25598737
Gordon, Robert M; Corcoran, John R; Bartley-Daniele, Patricia; Sklenar, Dennis; Sutton, Phyllis Roach; Cartwright, Frances
This paper will discuss the transition from multidisciplinary to interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team approaches to pain management at New York University Langone Medical Center - Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. A transdisciplinary team approach to pain management emphasizes mutual learning, training, and education, and the flexible exchange of discipline-specific roles. Clinicians are enabled to implement a unified, holistic, and integrated treatment plan with all members of the team responsible for the same patient-centered goals. The model promotes and empowers patient and family/support system goals within a cultural context. Topics of exploration include the descriptions of three team approaches to patient care, including their practical, philosophical, and historical basis, strengths and challenges, research support, and cultural diversity. Case vignettes will highlight the strengths and limitations of the transdisciplinary team approach to pain management throughout a broad and diverse continuum of care, including acute medical, palliative, and perioperative care and acute inpatient rehabilitation services.
National Academies Press, 2010
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing, at the IOM, seeks to transform nursing as part of larger efforts to reform the health care system. The first of the Initiative's three forums was held on October 19, 2009, and focused on safety, technology, and interdisciplinary collaboration in acute care. Appended are: (1)…
Piquette, Dominique; Moulton, Carol-Anne; LeBlanc, Vicki R.
Clinical supervisors fulfill a dual responsibility towards patient care and learning during clinical activities. Assuming such roles in today's clinical environments may be challenging. Acute care environments present unique learning opportunities for medical trainees, as well as specific challenges. The goal of this paper was to better understand…
Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Perpich, Denise
One in 4 Americans lives in a rural community and relies on rural hospitals and medical systems for emergent care of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI). The infrastructure and organization of AMI care in rural and urban Kansas hospitals was examined. Using a nominal group process, key elements within hospitals that might influence quality of AMI…
...We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine......
...-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific...
...-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific...
...; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers and for Ambulatory...
Shah, Manish N; Gillespie, Suzanne M; Wood, Nancy; Wasserman, Erin B; Nelson, Dallas L; Dozier, Ann; McConnochie, Kenneth M
Accessing timely acute medical care is a challenge for older adults. This article describes an innovative healthcare model that uses high-intensity telemedicine services to provide rapid acute care for older adults without requiring them to leave their senior living community (SLC) residences. This program, based in a primary care geriatrics practice that cares for SLC residents, is designed to offer acute care through telemedicine for complaints that are felt to need attention before the next available outpatient visit but not to require emergency department (ED) resources. This option gives residents access to care in their residence. Measures used to evaluate the program include successful completion of telemedicine visits, satisfaction of residents and caregivers with telemedicine care, and site of care that would have been recommended had telemedicine been unavailable. During the first 2 years of the program's operation, 281 of 301 requested telemedicine visits were completed successfully. Twelve residents were sent to an ED for care after the telemedicine visit. Ninety-four percent of residents reported being satisfied or very satisfied with telemedicine care. Had telemedicine not been available, residents would have been sent to an ED (48.1%) or urgent care center (27.0%) or been scheduled for an outpatient visit (24.4%). The project demonstrated that high-intensity telemedicine services for acute illnesses are feasible and acceptable and can provide definitive care without requiring ED or urgent care use. Continuation of the program will require evaluation demonstrating equal or better resident-level outcomes and the development of sustainable business models.
Ordúñez García, Pedro; Pérez Flores, Enrique; Hospedales, James
The recommendations from the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) were compared with those of a recent article by Aram V. Chobanian, Chairman of the JNC 7. The purpose was to identify the changes that this author proposed and determine how they might affect clinical work, as well as the health services and public health implications. The JNC 7 and the article in question coincide on all essential points, except that the article is more flexible when it comes to the use of diuretics at the start of treatment for high blood pressure. Chronic disease management should take place in health systems with primary care approach, where the epidemiology of such diseases and scientific advances in prevention offer an excellent opportunity for redesigning the health services and making them more effective. High blood pressure, as a public health problem, demands health interventions aimed not only at reducing harm but modifying its etiologic determinants. The challenge is to recognize that an integrated approach to clinical medicine, health services, and public health would offer an attractive opportunity to interrupt and prevent the continuous and costly vicious circle that managing high blood pressure and its complications implies.
Yoo, Roh-Eul; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sun-Won; Han, Moon Hee
This study aimed to explore the utility of arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted imaging (ASL-PWI) in patients with suspected seizures in acute settings. A total of 164 patients who underwent ASL-PWI for suspected seizures in acute settings (with final diagnoses of seizure [n = 129], poststroke seizure [n = 18], and seizure mimickers [n = 17]), were included in this retrospective study. Perfusion abnormality was analyzed for: (1) pattern, (2) multifocality, and (3) atypical distribution against vascular territories. Perfusion abnormality was detected in 39% (50/129) of the seizure patients, most (94%, 47/50) being the hyperperfusion pattern. Of the patients with perfusion abnormality, multifocality or hemispheric involvement and atypical distribution against vascular territory were revealed in 46% (23/50) and 98% (49/50), respectively. In addition, seizures showed characteristic features including hyperperfusion (with or without non-territorial distribution) on ASL-PWI, thus differentiating them from poststroke seizures or seizure mimickers. In patients in whom seizure focus could be localized on both EEG and ASL-PWI, the concordance rate was 77%. The present study demonstrates that ASL-PWI can provide information regarding cerebral perfusion status in patients with seizures in acute settings and has the potential to be used as a non-invasive imaging tool to identify the cerebral perfusion in patients with seizures. PMID:28291816
McWilliams, J Michael; Chernew, Michael E; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Landon, Bruce E
Objective To determine how the inclusion of post-acute evaluation and management (E&M) services as primary care affects assignment of Medicare beneficiaries to accountable care organizations (ACOs). Data Sources Medicare claims for a random 5 percent sample of 2009 Medicare beneficiaries linked to American Medical Association Group Practice data identifying provider groups sufficiently large to be eligible for ACO program participation. Study Design We calculated the fraction of community-dwelling beneficiaries whose assignment shifted, as a consequence of including post-acute E&M services, from the group providing their outpatient primary care to a different group providing their inpatient post-acute care. Principal Findings Assignment shifts occurred for 27.6 percent of 25,992 community-dwelling beneficiaries with at least one post-acute skilled nursing facility stay, and they were more common for those incurring higher Medicare spending. Those whose assignment shifted constituted only 1.3 percent of all community-dwelling beneficiaries cared for by large ACO-eligible organizations (n = 535,138), but they accounted for 8.4 percent of total Medicare spending for this population. Conclusions Under current Medicare assignment rules, ACOs may not be accountable for an influential group of post-acute patients, suggesting missed opportunities to improve care coordination and reduce inappropriate readmissions. PMID:23350910
Benzer, Justin K.; Beehler, Sarah; Miller, Christopher; Burgess, James F.; Sullivan, Jennifer L.; Mohr, David C.; Meterko, Mark; Cramer, Irene E.
Objective. There is limited theory regarding the real-world implementation of mental health care in the primary care setting: a type of organizational coordination intervention. The purpose of this study was to develop a theory to conceptualize the potential causes of barriers and facilitators to how local sites responded to this mandated intervention to achieve coordinated mental health care. Methods. Data from 65 primary care and mental health staff interviews across 16 sites were analyzed to identify how coordination was perceived one year after an organizational mandate to provide integrated mental health care in the primary care setting. Results. Standardized referral procedures and communication practices between primary care and mental health were influenced by the organizational factors of resources, training, and work design, as well as provider-experienced organizational boundaries between primary care and mental health, time pressures, and staff participation. Organizational factors and provider experiences were in turn influenced by leadership. Conclusions. Our emergent theory describes how leadership, organizational factors, and provider experiences affect the implementation of a mandated mental health coordination intervention. This framework provides a nuanced understanding of the potential barriers and facilitators to implementing interventions designed to improve coordination between professional groups. PMID:22900158
Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329
Chong, Mei Sian; Chan, Mark; Tay, Laura; Ding, Yew Yoong
system of care for rapidly “graying” nations with high rates of frail elderly hospital admissions, which can be easily transposed across acute care settings. PMID:24748778
Christovam, Barbara Pompeu; Porto, Isaura Setenta; de Oliveira, Denise Cristina
The objective of this study was to build and present a theoretical definition of the concept of nursing care management in hospital settings, based on specific literature. We chose to use Concept Analysis strategies for building concepts, the rules of Archeological Analysis for forming concepts, and Lexical Analysis as the theoretical-methodological framework. The operationalization of the strategies and rules for forming the concept permitted the construction of the concept of nursing care in hospital settings. The constructed concept presented, by its nature, the capacity to form a dialectic integration of the aspects relative to the knowing-doing of care and management. The theoretical definition of the concept of Nursing Care Management in Hospital Settings assigned meaning to the term, in the initial context of the construction of a theory of Nursing Care Management in Health Services.
Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cameli, Michela; Bolondi, Marisa; Landi, Giulia; Moretti, Valentina; Piemonte, Chiara; Pollutri, Gabriella
Objectives To evaluate paliperidone palmitate (PP) effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment. Methods We collected data of all patients (n = 50) affected by Schizophrenia Disorders, treated with PP for a 3 month minimum period in the outpatient setting of Mental Health Department in Modena, from 01/01/2014 to 31/01/2015. We evaluated reasons and modality for PP implementation, improvement in symptom and functioning scales, adverse effects, discontinuations and relapses. We statistically correlated socio-demographic and clinical variables of our sample with PP therapeutic variables. Results We registered an improvement in all scales, with a superior percentage in PANSS positive subscale. The mean PP dose in some patients was lower than official indications, although our sample was clinically severe. Illness relapses affected 60% and dropout 18% of patients. PP was well tolerated and in just a few cases adverse events required treatment interruption. The risk factors for discontinuation were represented by “lack of therapeutic compliance” (HR = 4.11, p < 0.0001) and “inefficacy” (HR = 1.67, p < 0.0001). Conclusions With limitations of observational design, this research highlights that PP was well tolerated and effective in improving both psychotic symptoms and functioning, but moderately effective in preventing relapse, probably due to clinical severity of our patients associated with extremely cautious and flexible PP prescriptions. PMID:27738372
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira
In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…
Bodenmann, Patrick; Wolff, Hans; Bischoff, Thomas; Herzig, Lilli; Warin, Philippe; Chatelard, Sophia; Burnand, Bernard; Vaucher, Paul; Favrat, Bernard; Panese Francesco; Jackson, Yves L; Vu, Francis; Guessous, Idris
Although the performance of the Swiss health system is high, one out of ten patients in general practitioner's (GP) office declares having foregone care in the previous twelve months for economic reasons. Reasons for foregoing care are several and include a lack of knowledge of existing social aids in getting health insurance, unavailability of GPs and long waiting lists for various types of care. Although long term knowledge of patients or a psychosocial history of deprivation or poverty may help identify individuals at risk of foregoing care, many may remain undetected. We propose then a few instruments to help GPs to identify, in a simple and structured approach, patients at risk of forgoing care for economic reasons; these patients are frequently deprived and sometimes poor.
Robinson, Jeffrey D; Heritage, John
In the more than 1 billion primary-care visits each year in the United States, the majority of patients bring more than one distinct concern, yet many leave with "unmet" concerns (i.e., ones not addressed during visits). Unmet concerns have potentially negative consequences for patients' health, and may pose utilization-based financial burdens to health care systems if patients return to deal with such concerns. One solution to the problem of unmet concerns is the communication skill known as up-front agenda setting, where physicians (after soliciting patients' chief concerns) continue to solicit patients' concerns to "exhaustion" with questions such as "Are there some other issues you'd like to address?" Although this skill is trainable and efficacious, it is not yet a panacea. This article uses conversation analysis to demonstrate that patients understand up-front agenda-setting questions in ways that hamper their effectiveness. Specifically, we demonstrate that up-front agenda-setting questions are understood as making relevant "new problems" (i.e., concerns that are either totally new or "new since last visit," and in need of diagnosis), and consequently bias answers away from "non-new problems" (i.e., issues related to previously diagnosed concerns, including much of chronic care). Suggestions are made for why this might be so, and for improving up-front agenda setting. Data are 144 videotapes of community-based, acute, primary-care, outpatient visits collected in the United States between adult patients and 20 family-practice physicians.
Darnell, Doyanne; Peterson, Roselyn; Berliner, Lucy; Stewart, Terri; Russo, Joan; Whiteside, Lauren; Zatzick, Douglas
Objective Rape is associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and related comorbidities. Most victims do not obtain treatment for these conditions. Acute care medical settings are well-positioned to link patients to services; however, difficulty engaging victims and low attendance at provided follow-up appointments is well documented. Identifying factors associated with follow-up can inform engagement and linkage strategies. Method Administrative, patient self-report, and provider observational data from Harborview Medical Center were combined for the analysis. Using logistic regression, we examined factors associated with follow-up health service utilization after seeking services for rape in the emergency department. Results Of the 521 diverse female (n=476) and male (n=45) rape victims, 28% attended the recommended medical/counseling follow-up appointment. In the final (adjusted) logistic regression model, having a developmental or other disability (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.21-0.77), having a current mental illness (OR=0.25, 95% CI=0.13-0.49), and being assaulted in public (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.28-0.87) were uniquely associated with reduced odds of attending the follow-up. Having a prior mental health condition (OR= 3.02 95% CI=1.86-4.91), a completed SANE examination (OR=2.97, 95% CI=1.84-4.81), and social support available to help cope with the assault (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.76-7.11) were associated with an increased odds of attending the follow-up. Conclusions Findings point to relevant characteristics ascertained at the acute care medical visit for rape that may be used to identify victims less likely to obtain posttraumatic medical and mental health services. Efforts to improve service linkage among these patients is warranted and may require alternative models to engage these patients to support posttraumatic recovery. PMID:26168030
Peterson, Roselyn; Russo, Joan; Darnell, Doyanne; Wang, Jin; Ingraham, Leah; Zatzick, Douglas
Objective Approximately 30 million Americans present to acute care medical settings annually after incurring traumatic injuries. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms are endemic among injury survivors. Our paper is a replication and extension of a previous report documenting a pattern of multiple traumatic life events across patients admitted to Level I trauma centers for an alcohol-related injury. Method This study is a secondary analysis of a nationwide 20-site randomized trial of an alcohol brief intervention with 660 traumatically injured inpatients. Pre-injury trauma history was assessed using the National Comorbidity Survey trauma history screen at the 6 month time point. Results Most common traumatic events experienced by our population of alcohol positive trauma survivors were having had someone close unexpectedly die, followed by having seen someone badly beaten or injured. Of particular note, there is high reported prevalence of rape/sexual assault, and childhood abuse and neglect among physically injured trauma survivors. Additional trauma histories are increasingly common among alcohol-positive patients admitted for a traumatic injury. Conclusions Due to the high rate of experienced multiple traumatic events among acutely injured inpatients, the trauma history screen could be productively integrated into screening and brief intervention procedures developed for acute care settings. PMID:26745689
US Department of Education, 2014
Providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings presents unique challenges for the administrators, teachers, and staff who are responsible for the education, rehabilitation, and welfare of youths committed to their care. The United States departments of Education (ED) and Justice (DOJ) recognize that while these…
McKinney, David D., Ed.; And Others
A feasibility study regarding the training and information needs of preschool and day care administrators, staff, and teachers regarding HIV/AIDS was conducted. This study also examined the issues associated with the presence of HIV-positive children in preschool and day care settings and the need for designing a program to help preschools and day…
Thompson, Edward H.
Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…
Hammer, Jeffrey S.; Lyons, John S.; Strain, James J.
This paper presents a flexible software system that is adaptable to a variety of information management uses across different psychosocial service departments in hospital settings. Initially developed for Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, the present system has now been adapted for a Social Work department and is being adapted to Hospice, Home Care, Patient Representative, and Pastoral Care departmental uses.
Drum, David; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Hess, Elaine
Changes in the health care arena and within the specialty of group work are contributing to the increased utilization of groups in health care settings. Psychoeducational, theme, and interpersonal therapy groups are highlighted for their contributions to treating challenging health conditions. An understanding of the evolution of these group…
Massey, Philip M.; Prelip, Michael; Calimlim, Brian M.; Quiter, Elaine S.; Glik, Deborah C.
The current emphasis on preventive health care and wellness services suggests that measures of skills and competencies needed to effectively navigate the health care system need to be better defined. We take an expanded perspective of health literacy and define it as a set of skills used to organize and apply health knowledge, attitudes and…
It is not only in families that young children are influenced to become members of their culture. Around the world and within individual countries, culture influences how care is provided to infants and toddlers in child care settings. In turn, infants and toddlers begin to learn how to act and think as members of their culture. From ways that…
Adams, Carolyn D.; Hinojosa, Sara; Armstrong, Kathleen; Takagishi, Jennifer; Dabrow, Sharon
This article discusses an innovative example of integrated care in which doctoral level school psychology interns and residents worked alongside pediatric residents and pediatricians in the primary care settings to jointly provide services to patients. School psychologists specializing in pediatric health are uniquely trained to recognize and…
Levy, Linda S.; Sexton, Patrick; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise
The purpose of this literature review is to compare both clinical instructor and student perceptions of helpful and hindering clinical instructor characteristics, behaviors and skills in athletic training and allied health care settings. Clinical education in athletic training is similar to that of other allied health care professions. Clinical…
Nocon, Robert S.; Lee, Sang Mee; Sharma, Ravi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Mukamel, Dana B.; Gao, Yue; White, Laura M.; Shi, Leiyu; Chin, Marshall H.; Laiteerapong, Neda; Huang, Elbert S.
Objectives To compare health care use and spending of Medicaid enrollees seen at federally qualified health centers versus non–health center settings in a context of significant growth. Methods Using fee-for-service Medicaid claims from 13 states in 2009, we compared patients receiving the majority of their primary care in federally qualified health centers with propensity score–matched comparison groups receiving primary care in other settings. Results We found that health center patients had lower use and spending than did non–health center patients across all services, with 22% fewer visits and 33% lower spending on specialty care and 25% fewer admissions and 27% lower spending on inpatient care. Total spending was 24% lower for health center patients. Conclusions Our analysis of 2009 Medicaid claims, which includes the largest sample of states and more recent data than do previous multistate claims studies, demonstrates that the health center program has provided a cost-efficient setting for primary care for Medicaid enrollees. PMID:27631748
Simon, Carl P; Percha, Bethany; Riolo, Rick; Foxman, Betsy
Health-care associated infections are a major problem in our society, accounting for tens of thousands of patient deaths and millions of dollars in wasted health care expenditures each year. Many of these infections are caused by bacteria that are transmitted from patient to patient either through direct contact or via the hands or clothing of health care workers. Because of the complexity of bacterial transmission routes in health care settings, computational approaches are essential, though often analytically intractable. Here we describe the construction and detailed analysis of a model for bacterial transmission in health care settings. Our model includes both colonization and disease stages for patients and health care workers, as well as an isolation ward and both patient-patient and patient-HCW-patient transmission pathways. We explicitly derive the basic reproductive ratio for this complex model, a nine-term expression that contains all nine ways with which a new colonization can occur. Using key parameters found in the medical literature, we use our model to gain insight into the relative importance of various bacterial transmission pathways within health care facilities, and to identify which forms of interventions are likely to prove most effective in hospitals and long-term care settings. We show that analytical and numerical approaches can complement each other as we seek to untangle the complex web of interactions that occur within a health care facility.
Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Imcheh, Fereshteh Bakhshi; Badri, Shirinsadat; Faghihi, Toktam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Mania
: Diagnostic tests and monitoring of height, weight, IGF-1 level and thyroid function was properly performed in this setting. However, a number of patients with ISS and Turner's syndrome were under-dosed. PMID:28331865
O'Ryan G, Miguel; Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Liat; O'Ryan-Soriano, Miguel A; Ashkenazi, Shai
Acute infectious gastroenteritis continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children below 5 years of age, with the majority of deaths concentrated in 35 'low income' countries. In these countries the under five years of age mortality rates reach 100 per 1000 live births, of which a significant proportion are associated with acute diarrhea. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella spp and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are the main pathogens causing disease in these settings, although other bacteria and parasites can cause moderate to severe disease in different regions and situations. Treatment of children in these setting should be focused on appropriate rehydration, early hospitalization of severely malnourished children, zinc supplementation, and in specific situations, antimicrobials should be considered. The rationale for antimicrobial use should be based on the potential benefits based on published literature and the opportunity for use. This review provides a pathogen-specific update on the potential benefits of antimicrobials and suggests an empirical management approach for children suffering an acute watery or bloody diarrhea in a resource-limited region.
Tees, Bob; Budd, Jennifer
The article describes how music has been integrated into spiritual and supportive care for palliative care patients at Brantford General Hospital (Ontario). Numerous case examples illustrate how a song or piece of music can play a vital role in the spiritual dimension of end of life care. The article expands the concept of the "living human document" by positing that a life story has an accompanying soundtrack: a musical memory and sensorial attunement that can be energized when music is offered at the bedside. The writers suggest that music provides an alternate spiritual language for patients whether or not they have a religious affiliation.
Hart, Ann Marie
Acute bronchitis is a common respiratory infection seen in primary care settings. This article examines the current evidence for diagnosis and management of acute bronchitis in adults and provides recommendations for primary care clinical practice.
Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S
Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death, disability, and lost productivity in adults, drains our society physically and economically. Once considered a male domain, hospital mortality attributed to CVD has become more prevalent among women. As a result of this trend, critical care nurses can expect to care for more women with CVD. The psychobiological model of CVD suggests that psychological factors, such as anxiety and depression, contribute to the development and progression of CVD. Anxiety and depression occur more often in women than in men and possibly could be explained by the fact that women report experiencing physical and sexual abuse at a much higher rate than do men. Women with a history of physical and sexual abuse report more anxiety and depression than do women without such a history. A possible means by which abuse may begin and continue within the lives of women is marginality. Marginality serves as a perspective for viewing women's health in terms of physical and psychological health outcomes. By understanding marginality and its impact on health outcomes, critical care nurses may recognize patients at risk for adverse CVD health outcomes while in their care. These patients present unique health care challenges in critical care.
Mapp, Fiona; Hutchinson, Jane; Estcourt, Claudia
HIV shared care is uncommon in the UK although shared care could be a beneficial model of care. We review the literature on HIV shared care to determine current practice and clinical, economic and patient satisfaction outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, NICE Evidence, Cochrane collaboration, Google and websites of the British HIV Association, Aidsmap, Public Health England, World Health Organization and Terrence Higgins Trust using relevant search terms in August 2014. Studies published after 2000, from healthcare settings comparable to the UK that described links between primary care and specialised HIV services were included and compared using principles of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme and Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance frameworks. Three of the nine included models reported clinical or patient satisfaction outcomes but data collection and analyses were inadequate. None reported economic outcomes although some provided financial costings. Facilitators of shared care included robust clinical protocols, training and timely communication. Few published examples of HIV shared care exist and quality of evidence is poor. There is no consistent association with improved clinical outcomes, cost effectiveness or acceptability. Models are context specific, driven by local need, although some generalisable features could inform novel service delivery. Further evaluative research is needed to determine optimal components of shared HIV care.
Specchia, Maria Lucia; Veneziano, Maria Assunta; Cadeddu, Chiara; Ferriero, Anna Maria; Capizzi, Silvio; Ricciardi, Walter
In the last few years, the need of public reporting of health outcomes has acquired a great importance. The public release of performance results could be a tool for improving health care quality and many attempts have been made in order to introduce public reporting programs within the health care context at different levels. It would be necessary to promote the introduction of a standardized set of outcome and performance measures in order to improve quality of health care services and to make health care providers aware of the importance of transparency and accountability.
Thomson, E M
In 1985, the ADHA, in response to the changing health care environment, identified six roles for the future of dental hygiene. The administrator/manager role, one of the six, is an expansion of dental hygiene skills to facilitate the provision of quality oral health care. Oral health care settings require personnel trained in management to accomplish practice-related goals and objectives. Dental hygiene is preparing individuals to assume managerial roles to fill this health care need. This paper discusses the skills and knowledge level required to assume managerial roles and strategies for marketing the dental hygienist as a manager.
Abstract Objective To explore the experiences and clinical challenges that nurses and nursing assistants face when providing high-quality diabetes-specific management and care for elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings. Design Focus-group interviews. Subjects and setting Sixteen health care professionals: 12 registered nurses and four nursing assistants from nursing homes (10), district nursing service (5), and a service unit (1) were recruited by municipal managers who had local knowledge and knew the workforce. All the participants were women aged 32–59 years with clinical experience ranging from 1.5 to 38 years. Results Content analysis revealed a discrepancy between the level of expertise which the participants described as important to delivering high-quality care and their capacity to deliver such care. The discrepancy was due to lack of availability and access to current information, limited ongoing support, lack of cohesion among health care professionals, and limited confidence and autonomy. Challenges to delivering high-quality care included complex, difficult patient situations and lack of confidence to make decisions founded on evidence-based guidelines. Conclusion Participants lacked confidence and autonomy to manage elderly people with diabetes in municipal care settings. Lack of information, support, and professional cohesion made the role challenging. PMID:24205973
Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Stone, Patricia W; Smaldone, Arlene
The expansion of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce in primary care is key to meeting the increased demand for care. Organizational climates in primary care settings affect NP professional practice and the quality of care. This study investigated organizational climate and its domains affecting NP professional practice in primary care settings. A qualitative descriptive design, with purposive sampling, was used to recruit 16 NPs practicing in primary care settings in Massachusetts. An interview guide was developed and pretested with two NPs and in 1 group interview with 7 NPs. Data collection took place in spring of 2011. Individual interviews lasted from 30-70 minutes, were audio recorded, and transcribed. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6.0 software by 3 researchers. Content analysis was applied. Three previously identified themes, NP-physician relations, independent practice and autonomy, and professional visibility, as well as two new themes, organizational support and resources and NP-administration relations emerged from the analyses. NPs reported collegial relations with physicians, challenges in establishing independent practice, suboptimal relationships with administration, and lack of support. NP contributions to patient care were invisible. Favorable organizational climates should be promoted to support the expanding of NP workforce in primary care and to optimize recruitment and retention efforts.
Sharkey, Alyssa B; Chopra, Mickey; Jackson, Debra; Winch, Peter J; Minkovitz, Cynthia S
Summary The purpose of this study was to examine care-seeking during fatal infant illnesses in under-resourced South African settings to inform potential strategies for reducing infant mortality. We interviewed 22 caregivers of deceased infants in a rural community and 28 in an urban township. We also interviewed seven local leaders and 12 health providers to ascertain opinions about factors contributing to infant death. Despite the availability of free public health services in these settings, many caregivers utilised multiple sources of care including allopathic, indigenous and home treatments. Urban caregivers reported up to eight points of care while rural caregivers reported up to four points of care. The specific pathways taken and combinations of care varied, but many caregivers used other types of care shortly after presenting at public services, indicating dissatisfaction with the care they received. Many infants died despite caregivers’ considerable efforts, pointing to critical deficiencies in the system of care serving these families. Initiatives that aim to improve assessment, management and referral practices by both allopathic and traditional providers (for example, through training and improved collaboration), and caregiver recognition of infant danger signs may reduce the high rate of infant death in these settings. PMID:22136954
Alonso de Leciñana-Cases, María; Gil-Núñez, Antonio; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio
Stroke is a neurological emergency. The early administration of specific treatment improves the prognosis of the patients. Emergency care systems with early warning for the hospital regarding patients who are candidates for this treatment (stroke code) increases the number of patients treated. Currently, reperfusion via thrombolysis for ischemic stroke and attention in stroke units are the bases of treatment. Healthcare professionals and health provision authorities need to work together to organize systems that ensure continuous quality care for the patients during the whole process of their disease. To implement this, there needs to be an appropriate analysis of the requirements and resources with the objective of their adjustment for efficient use. It is necessary to provide adequate information and continuous training for all professionals who are involved in stroke care, including primary care physicians, extrahospital emergency teams and all physicians involved in the care of stroke patients within the hospital. The neurologist has the function of coordinating the protocols of intrahospital care. These organizational plans should also take into account the process beyond the acute phase, to ensure the appropriate application of measures of secondary prevention, rehabilitation, and chronic care of the patients that remain in a dependent state. We describe here the stroke care program in the Community of Madrid (Spain).
Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Zambrana, Luis Enrique; Bucardo, Filemon; Hudgens, Michael G.; Weber, David J.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix
Nicaragua was the first developing nation to implement universal infant rotavirus immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). Initial studies of vaccine effectiveness in Nicaragua and other developing nations have focused on the prevention of hospitalizations and severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, rotavirus diarrhea is more commonly treated in the primary care setting, with only 1–3% of rotavirus cases receiving hospital care. We measured the prevalence of rotavirus infection in primary care clinics in León, Nicaragua, after introduction of the immunization program. In the post-vaccine period, 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.9–5.8) of children seeking care for diarrhea tested positive for rotavirus. A high diversity of rotavirus genotypes was encountered among the few positive samples. In conclusion, rotavirus was an uncommon cause of childhood diarrhea in this primary care setting after implementation of a rotavirus immunization program. PMID:22049057
People living with HIV (PLWH) continue to endure stigma and discrimination in the context of health care. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study designed to (a) describe stigmatizing and discriminatory practices in health care settings, and (b) explore both symbolic and structural stigma from the perspectives of PLWH. For the purpose of this qualitative study, 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. The data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. During analysis, three themes were identified, and relations between these themes were delineated to reflect the experiences of participants. The findings suggest that HIV-related stigma in health care settings is episodic in nature. The findings also suggest that HIV-related stigma is experienced through interactions with health care providers (symbolic stigma) and, finally, that it is applied systematically to manage risk in the context of health care (structural stigma).
Lysaght, Susan; Ersek, Mary
Although place of death has been routinely studied in end-of-life (EOL) care, more analysis on place of death within hospice is needed because of the recent, dramatic rise in the number of hospice patients dying in inpatient settings. Using a case study to illustrate the complexity of determinants of place of death within hospice, this article highlights important known factors and elucidate gaps for further research. Individual and system level factors, sociocultural meanings, caregiving and preferences are shown to have important implications. Additionally, the unique components of home hospice, inpatient hospice and transitions between these settings may have a fundamental role in the future of quality EOL care. Further research on determinants of hospice settings of care is essential to the care of older adults at the end of life. PMID:23853526
Apker, Julie; Propp, Kathleen M; Zabava Ford, Wendy S; Hofmeister, Nancee
This study explored how nurses communicate professionalism in interactions with members of their health care teams. Extant research show that effective team communication is a vital aspect of a positive nursing practice environment, a setting that has been linked to enhanced patient outcomes. Although communication principles are emphasized in nursing education as an important component of professional nursing practice, actual nurse interaction skills in team-based health care delivery remain understudied. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts with 50 participants at a large tertiary hospital revealed four communicative skill sets exemplified by nursing professionals: collaboration, credibility, compassion, and coordination. Study findings highlight specific communicative behaviors associated with each skill set that exemplify nurse professionalism to members of health care teams. Theoretical and pragmatic conclusions are drawn regarding the communicative responsibilities of professional nurses in health care teams. Specific interaction techniques that nurses could use in nurse-team communication are then offered for use in baccalaureate curriculum and organizational in-service education.
Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Fraser, William; Reyes, Hortensia; Reinharz, Daniel; Daftari, Ashi; Heinz, Cristina S; Roberts, James M
Background Preeclampsia is a complex disease in which several providers should interact continuously and in a coordinated manner to provide proper health care. However, standardizing criteria to treat patients with preeclampsia is problematical and severe flaws have been observed in the management of the disease. This paper describes a set of critical pathways (CPs) designed to provide uniform criteria for clinical decision-making at different levels of care of pregnant patients with preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Methods Clinicians and researchers from different countries participated in the construction of the CPs. The CPs were developed using the following steps: a) Definition of the conceptual framework; b) Identification of potential users: primary care physicians and maternal and child health nurses in ambulatory settings; ob/gyn and intensive care physicians in secondary and tertiary care levels. c) Structural development. Results The CPs address the following care processes: 1. Screening for preeclampsia, risk assessment and classification according to the level of risk. 2. Management of preeclampsia at primary care clinics. 3. Evaluation and management of preeclampsia at secondary and tertiary care hospitals: 4. Criteria for clinical decision-making between conservative management and expedited delivery of patients with severe preeclampsia. Conclusion Since preeclampsia continues to be one of the primary causes of maternal deaths and morbidity worldwide, the expected impact of these CPs is the contribution to improving health care quality in both developed and developing countries. The CPs are designed to be applied in a complex health care system, where different physicians and health providers at different levels of care should interact continuously and in a coordinated manner to provide care to all preeclamptic women. Although the CPs were developed using evidence-based criteria, they could require careful evaluation and remodelling according to
Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Fraser, William; Reyes, Hortensia; Reinharz, Daniel; Daftari, Ashi; Heinz, Cristina S; Roberts, James M
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a complex disease in which several providers should interact continuously and in a coordinated manner to provide proper health care. However, standardizing criteria to treat patients with preeclampsia is problematical and severe flaws have been observed in the management of the disease. This paper describes a set of critical pathways (CPs) designed to provide uniform criteria for clinical decision-making at different levels of care of pregnant patients with preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. METHODS: Clinicians and researchers from different countries participated in the construction of the CPs. The CPs were developed using the following steps: a) Definition of the conceptual framework; b) Identification of potential users: primary care physicians and maternal and child health nurses in ambulatory settings; ob/gyn and intensive care physicians in secondary and tertiary care levels. c) Structural development. RESULTS: The CPs address the following care processes: 1. Screening for preeclampsia, risk assessment and classification according to the level of risk. 2. Management of preeclampsia at primary care clinics. 3. Evaluation and management of preeclampsia at secondary and tertiary care hospitals: 4. Criteria for clinical decision-making between conservative management and expedited delivery of patients with severe preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Since preeclampsia continues to be one of the primary causes of maternal deaths and morbidity worldwide, the expected impact of these CPs is the contribution to improving health care quality in both developed and developing countries. The CPs are designed to be applied in a complex health care system, where different physicians and health providers at different levels of care should interact continuously and in a coordinated manner to provide care to all preeclamptic women. Although the CPs were developed using evidence-based criteria, they could require careful evaluation and remodelling according
Gillespie, David; Farewell, Daniel; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Butler, Christopher C; Coenen, Samuel; Francis, Nick A; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Verheij, Theo; Hood, Kerenza
Aim To investigate the determinants of adherence to amoxicillin in patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Materials and methods Three European data sets were used. Adherence data were collected using self-reported diaries. Candidate determinants included factors relating to patient, condition, therapy, health care system/provider, and the study in which the patient participated. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to investigate the determinants of initiation, implementation, and discontinuation of amoxicillin. Results Although initiation differed across samples, implementation and discontinuation were similar. Determinants of initiation were days waited before consulting, duration of prescription, and being in a country where a doctor-issued sick certificate is required for being off work for <7 days. Implementation was higher for older participants or those with abnormal auscultation. Implementation was lower for those prescribed longer courses of amoxicillin (≥8 days). Time from initiation to discontinuation was longer for longer prescriptions and shorter for those from countries where single-handed practices were widespread. Conclusion Nonadherence to amoxicillin was largely driven by noninitiation. Differing sets of determinants were found for initiation, implementation, and discontinuation. There is a need to further understand the reasons for these determinants, the impact of poor adherence to antibiotics on outcomes, and to develop interventions to improve antibiotic use when prescribed. PMID:28352162
For the first time across Australia, early education and care services are subject to a single, national set of regulations and standards governing the quality of provision. Concurrently, a set of outcomes for all children aged from birth to 5 years and a ranking system to make transparent the performance of programmes have been developed. This…
Since 2006, UK policy has identified a professionalisation agenda for staff working in early childhood education and care settings. This has included the development of graduate leaders with a specific purpose to lead improvements in these settings by leading change, and hence improving outcomes for children. This article reports on findings from…
Bennett, Pauleen C; Ong, Ben; Ponsford, Jennie
It is recognized that existing neuropsychological measures of executive dysfunction lack adequate sensitivity and selectivity. While attempts have been made to develop improved measures, these have not yet been of great value to those who need to accurately identify executive deficits in a clinical setting. Several behavioral rating scales have been developed for this reason, including the 20-item Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), which forms part of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) test battery. To investigate the ability of the DEX to identify executive dysfunction in an acute rehabilitation setting, the BADS was administered to 64 persons who had sustained traumatic brain injury. It was found to be almost as sensitive to executive dysfunction, as measured by the total score obtained on the BADS battery, as an extended 65-item version of the scale, when completed by either the occupational therapist or clinical neuropsychologist working with each patient. Family members and the patient themselves provided, as expected, less accurate information. Our results indicate that the DEX can be used with some confidence as a screening instrument to identify executive dysfunction in an acute rehabilitation setting, provided it is completed by professional personnel, trained to be sensitive to the cognitive and behavioral concomitants of this disorder.
Lewis-Byers, Kari; Thayer, Debra
Caring for the skin of patients with incontinence is an essential activity in long-term care. A prospective descriptive study to compare the effect of two skin care protocols on skin condition, pain, and caregiver time was conducted. Thirty-two (32) skilled nursing facility residents with incontinence participated in the 3-week study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard care regimen (soap and water cleansing after each incontinence episode, followed by application of a moisturizing lotion) or study care protocol (no-rinse skin cleanser after each episode and application of a barrier cream with durable properties after the first incontinence episode of each shift). Number and type of incontinence episodes, skin condition, pain, and caregiver time spent were assessed. Skin integrity was maintained in the majority of control (69%) and study group (72%) patients and improvement occurred in 8% of control and 17% of the study group (NS). Study protocol procedures took less time to complete than control procedures (a savings of 79 minutes/patient/day). A positive correlation between pain intensity and level of skin impairment was observed (r = 0.88). The results of this study suggest that at this facility, use of soap, water, and a moisturizer may be less effective and more time-consuming than using a no-rinse cleanser and a durable barrier product.
Hillered, Lars; Dahlin, Andreas P.; Clausen, Fredrik; Chu, Jiangtao; Bergquist, Jonas; Hjort, Klas; Enblad, Per; Lewén, Anders
Cerebral microdialysis (MD) was introduced as a neurochemical monitoring method in the early 1990s and is currently widely used for the sampling of low molecular weight molecules, signaling energy crisis, and cellular distress in the neurointensive care (NIC) setting. There is a growing interest in MD for harvesting of intracerebral protein biomarkers of secondary injury mechanisms in acute traumatic and neurovascular brain injury in the NIC community. The initial enthusiasm over the opportunity to sample protein biomarkers with high molecular weight cut-off MD catheters has dampened somewhat with the emerging realization of inherent methodological problems including protein–protein interaction, protein adhesion, and biofouling, causing an unstable in vivo performance (i.e., fluid recovery and extraction efficiency) of the MD catheter. This review will focus on the results of a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, within the Uppsala Berzelii Centre for Neurodiagnostics during the past several years, to study the features of the complex process of high molecular weight cut-off MD for protein biomarkers. This research has led to new methodology showing robust in vivo performance with optimized fluid recovery and improved extraction efficiency, allowing for more accurate biomarker monitoring. In combination with evolving analytical methodology allowing for multiplex biomarker analysis in ultra-small MD samples, a new opportunity opens up for high-resolution temporal mapping of secondary injury cascades, such as neuroinflammation and other cell injury reactions directly in the injured human brain. Such data may provide an important basis for improved characterization of complex injuries, e.g., traumatic and neurovascular brain injury, and help in defining targets and treatment windows for neuroprotective drug development. PMID:25520696
Teepe, Jolien; Broekhuizen, Berna D.L.; Loens, Katherine; Lammens, Christine; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Little, Paul; Butler, Chris C.; Coenen, Samuel; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Verheij, Theo J.M.
BACKGROUND: Bacterial testing of all patients who present with acute cough is not feasible in primary care. Furthermore, the extent to which easily obtainable clinical information predicts bacterial infection is unknown. We evaluated the diagnostic value of clinical examination and testing for C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for bacterial lower respiratory tract infection. METHODS: Through a European diagnostic study, we recruited 3104 adults with acute cough (≤ 28 days) in primary care settings. All of the patients underwent clinical examination, measurement of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in blood, and chest radiography. Bacterial infection was determined by conventional culture, polymerase chain reaction and serology, and positive results were defined by the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis or Legionella pneumophila. Using multivariable regression analysis, we examined the association of diagnostic variables with the presence of bacterial infection. RESULTS: Overall, 539 patients (17%) had bacterial lower respiratory tract infection, and 38 (1%) had bacterial pneumonia. The only item with diagnostic value for lower respiratory tract infection was discoloured sputum (area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–0.59). Adding C-reactive protein above 30 mg/L increased the area under the ROC curve to 0.62 (95% CI 0.59–0.65). For bacterial pneumonia, comorbidity, fever and crackles on auscultation had diagnostic value (area under ROC curve 0.68, 95% CI 0.58–0.77). Adding C-reactive protein above 30 mg/L increased the area under the ROC curve to 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.87). Procalcitonin did not add diagnostic information for any bacterial lower respiratory tract infection, including bacterial pneumonia. INTERPRETATION: In adults presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infection, signs, symptoms and C
Dutson-Mallory, Cate; And Others
This coursebook provides materials for a course to improve the oral communication skills of workers in health care settings. The course is designed to be delivered in eight sessions over a 4-week period. Stated objectives for the participants are as follows: feel more comfortable with communication in the hospital, avoid becoming defensive or…
Delivering dementia care differently—evaluating the differences and similarities between a specialist medical and mental health unit and standard acute care wards: a qualitative study of family carers’ perceptions of quality of care
Spencer, Karen; Foster, Pippa; Whittamore, Kathy H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Harwood, Rowan H
Objectives To examine in depth carers’ views and experiences of the delivery of patient care for people with dementia or delirium in an acute general hospital, in order to evaluate a specialist Medical and Mental Health Unit (MMHU) compared with standard hospital wards. This qualitative study complemented the quantitative findings of a randomised controlled trial. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with carers of patients with cognitive impairment admitted to hospital over a 4-month period. Setting A specialist MMHU was developed in an English National Health Service acute hospital aiming to deliver the best-practice care. Specialist mental health staff were integrated with the ward team. All staff received enhanced training in dementia, delirium and person-centred care. A programme of purposeful therapeutic and leisure activities was introduced. The ward environment was optimised to improve patient orientation and independence. A proactive and inclusive approach to family carers was encouraged. Participants 40 carers who had been recruited to a randomised controlled trial comparing the MMHU with standard wards. Results The main themes identified related closely to family carers’ met or unmet expectations and included activities and boredom, staff knowledge, dignity and fundamental care, the ward environment and communication between staff and carers. Carers from MMHU were aware of, and appreciated, improvements relating to activities, the ward environment and staff knowledge and skill in the appropriate management of dementia and delirium. However, communication and engagement of family carers were still perceived as insufficient. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the extent to which the MMHU succeeded in its goal of providing the best-practice care and improving carer experience, and where deficiencies remained. Neither setting was perceived as neither wholly good nor wholly bad; however, greater satisfaction (and less dissatisfaction
Douw, Karla; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Pedersen, Camilla Riis
In May 2012, one of Denmark's five health care regions mandated a reform of stroke care. The purpose of the reform was to save costs, while at the same time improving quality of care. It included (1) centralisation of acute stroke treatment at specialised hospitals, (2) a reduced length of hospital stay, and (3) a shift from inpatient rehabilitation programmes to community-based rehabilitation programmes. Patients would benefit from a more integrated care pathway between hospital and municipality, being supported by early discharge teams at hospitals. A formal policy tool, consisting of a health care agreement between the region and municipalities, was used to implement the changes. The implementation was carried out in a top-down manner by a committee, in which the hospital sector--organised by regions--was better represented than the primary care sector-organised by municipalities. The idea of centralisation of acute care was supported by all stakeholders, but municipalities opposed the hospital-based early discharge teams as they perceived this to be interfering with their core tasks. Municipalities would have liked more influence on the design of the reform. Preliminary data suggest good quality of acute care. Cost savings have been achieved in the region by means of closure of beds and a reduction of hospital length of stay. The realisation of the objective of achieving integrated rehabilitation care between hospitals and municipalities has been less successful. It is likely that greater involvement of municipalities in the design phase and better representation of health care professionals in all phases would have led to more successful implementation of the reform.
Marshall, Ernie; Krzyzanowska, Monika; Robinson, Bridget; Brown, Sean; Collinson, Fiona; Seligmann, Jennifer; Abbas, Afroze; Rees, Adrian; Swinson, Daniel; Neville-Webbe, Helen; Selby, Peter
Remarkable progress has been made over the past decade in cancer medicine. Personalized medicine, driven by biomarker predictive factors, novel biotherapy, novel imaging, and molecular targeted therapeutics, has improved outcomes. Cancer is becoming a chronic disease rather than a fatal disease for many patients. However, despite this progress, there is much work to do if patients are to receive continuous high-quality care in the appropriate place, at the appropriate time, and with the right specialized expert oversight. Unfortunately, the rapid expansion of therapeutic options has also generated an ever-increasing burden of emergency care and encroaches into end-of-life palliative care. Emergency presentation is a common consequence of cancer and of cancer treatment complications. It represents an important proportion of new presentations of previously undiagnosed malignancy. In the U.K. alone, 20%–25% of new cancer diagnoses are made following an initial presentation to the hospital emergency department, with a greater proportion in patients older than 70 years. This late presentation accounts for poor survival outcomes and is often associated with poor patient experience and poorly coordinated care. The recent development of acute oncology services in the U.K. aims to improve patient safety, quality of care, and the coordination of care for all patients with cancer who require emergency access to care, irrespective of the place of care and admission route. Furthermore, prompt management coordinated by expert teams and access to protocol-driven pathways have the potential to improve patient experience and drive efficiency when services are fully established. The challenge to leaders of acute oncology services is to develop bespoke models of care, appropriate to local services, but with an opportunity for acute oncology teams to engage cancer care strategies and influence cancer care and delivery in the future. This will aid the integration of highly
Holub, Karen; Camune, Barbara
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, although rare, is usually a third trimester of pregnancy occurrence that may be life threatening for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Often, the onset resembles gastroenteritis or cholecystitis and correct diagnosis is delayed. Because it can also present with preeclampsia and eclampsia, it may be mistakenly diagnosed as hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet syndrome. This article presents diagnostic differences between liver conditions that can complicate pregnancy and management strategies for treating and maintaining the well-being of pregnant women, fetuses, and infants who are affected by acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Early recognition and rapid intervention from antepartum diagnosis through delivery and the postpartum period are required by the nursing team and medical providers to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Mondragon, Sasha A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Burlingame, Gary M.
Objective: The authors compared symptom change trajectories and treatment outcome categories in children and adolescents receiving routine outpatient mental health services in a public community mental health system and a private managed care organization. Method: Archival longitudinal outcome data from parents completing the Youth Outcome…
Foster, Mandie Jane; Whitehead, Lisa; Maybee, Patricia; Cullens, Victoria
The delivery of family centered care (FCC) occurs within varied pediatric care settings with a belief that this model of care meets the psychosocial, emotional, and physical needs of the hospitalized child and family. The aim of this review was to explore the attitudes, experiences, and implementation of FCC from many studies and to facilitate a wider and more thorough understanding of this practice from a diverse sample of parents, hospitalized children, and their health care providers within a pediatric critical care setting. A metasynthesis is an integration of qualitative research findings based on a systematic review of the literature. Thirty original research articles focusing on family-centered care experiences from the hospitalized child's, parents', and health care providers' perception published between 1998 and 2011 met the criteria for the review. Nine syntheses from 17 themes emerged from the synthesis of the literature: Prehospital, Entry into the Hospital, Journeying Through Unknown Waters, Information, Relationships, The hospital Environment, The Possibility of Death, Religion and Spirituality, and The Journey Home. The individual cultures of the critical care units helped create and reinforce the context of parental needs where satisfaction with communication, information, and relationships were interconnecting factors that helped maintain the positive or negative experiences for the parent, hospitalized child, and/or health care providers.
Andersson, Sten-Ove; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Lundberg, Lars; Sjöström, Björn
Emergency medical care for seriously injured patients in war or warlike situations is highly important when it comes to soldiers' survival and morale. The Swedish Armed Forces sends nurses, who have limited experience of caring for injured personnel in the field, on a variety of international missions. The aim of this investigation was to identify the kind of criteria nurses rely on when assessing acute trauma and what factors are affecting the emergency care of injured soldiers. A phenomenographic research approach based on interviews was used. The database for the study consists of twelve nurses who served in Bosnia in 1994-1996. The criteria nurses rely on, when assessing acute trauma in emergency care, could be described in terms of domain-specific criteria such as a physiological, an anatomical, a causal and a holistic approach as well as contextual criteria such as being able to communicate, having a sense of belonging, the military environment, the conscript medical orderly and familiarity with health-caring activity. The present study shows that the specific contextual factors affecting emergency care in the field must also be practised before the nurse faces military emergency care situations. This calls for realistic exercises and training programs, where experience from civilian emergency care is interwoven with the knowledge specific to military medical care.
Goldstein, Judah; McVey, Jennifer; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy
Caring for older adults is a major function of emergency medical services (EMS). Traditional EMS systems were designed to treat single acute conditions; this approach contrasts with best practices for the care of frail older adults. Care might be improved by the early identification of those who are frail and at highest risk for adverse outcomes. Paramedics are well positioned to play an important role via a more thorough evaluation of frailty (or vulnerability). These findings may inform both pre-hospital and subsequent emergency department (ED) based decisions. Innovative programs involving EMS, the ED, and primary care could reduce the workload on EDs while improving patient access to care, and ultimately patient outcomes. Some frail older adults will benefit from the resources and specialized knowledge provided by the ED, while others may be better helped in alternative ways, usually in coordination with primary care. Discerning between these groups is a challenge worthy of further inquiry. In either case, care should be timely, with a focus on identifying emergent or acute care needs, frailty evaluation, mobility assessments, identifying appropriate goals for treatment, promoting functional independence, and striving to have the patient return to their usual place of residence if this can be done safely. Paramedics are uniquely positioned to play a larger role in the care of our aging population. Improving paramedic education as it pertains to geriatrics is a critical next step.
Junker, M H; Danuser, B; Monn, C; Koller, T
The objective of this study was to provide a basis for effectively protecting nonsmokers from acute sensory impacts and for preventing deterioration of indoor air quality caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) emissions. With an olfactory experiment we determined odor detection thresholds (OT) of sidestream ETS (sETS), and with a full-body exposure experiment we investigated sensory symptoms at very low sETS exposure concentrations. OT concentrations for sETS are three and more orders of magnitude lower than ETS concentrations measured in field settings and correspond to a fresh air dilution volume of > 19,000 m(3) per cigarette, over 100 times more than had previously been suggested for acceptable indoor air conditions. Eye and nasal irritations were observed at one order of magnitude lower sETS concentrations than previously reported, corresponding to a fresh air dilution volume of > 3,000 m(3) per cigarette. These findings have great practical implications for defining indoor air quality standards in indoor compartments where ETS emissions occur. Our study strongly supports the implementation and control of smoking policies such as segregating smoking areas from areas where smoking is not permitted or instituting smoking bans in public buildings. PMID:11675270
Background Healthcare systems are challenged by a demand that exceeds available resources. One policy to meet this challenge is task substitution-transferring tasks to other professions and settings. Our study aimed to explore stakeholders’ perceived feasibility of transferring hospital-based monitoring of stable glaucoma patients to primary care optometrists. Methods A case study was undertaken in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital (REH) using semi-structured interviews and document reviews. They were inductively analysed using three implementation related theoretical perspectives: sociological theories on professionalism, management theories, and applied political analysis. Results Currently it is not feasible to use primary care optometrists as substitutes for optometrists and ophthalmic technicians working in a hospital-based glaucoma follow-up unit (GFU). Respondents’ narratives revealed that: the glaucoma specialists’ sense of urgency for task substitution outside the hospital diminished after establishing a GFU that satisfied their professionalization needs; the return on investments were unclear; and reluctant key stakeholders with strong power positions blocked implementation. The window of opportunity that existed for task substitution in person and setting in 1999 closed with the institutionalization of the GFU. Conclusions Transferring the monitoring of stable glaucoma patients to primary care optometrists in Rotterdam did not seem feasible. The main reasons were the lack of agreement on professional boundaries and work domains, the institutionalization of the GFU in the REH, and the absence of an appropriate reimbursement system. Policy makers considering substituting tasks to other professionals should carefully think about the implementation process, especially in a two-step implementation process (substitution in person and in setting) such as this case. Involving the substituting professionals early on to ensure all stakeholders see the change as a
Stelmokas, Julija; Gabel, Nicolette; Flaherty, Jennifer M.; Rayson, Katherine; Tran, Kathileen; Anderson, Jason R.; Bieliauskas, Linas A.
Misdiagnosis and under-detection of delirium may occur in many medical settings. This is important to address as delirium clearly increases risk of morbidity and mortality in such settings. This study assessed whether Veterans who screened positive on a delirium severity measure (Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale; MDAS) differed from those with and without corresponding medical documentation of delirium in terms of cognitive functioning, psychiatric/medical history, and medication use. A medical record review of 266 inpatients at a VA post-acute rehabilitation unit found that 10.9% were identified as delirious according to the MDAS and/or medical records. Of the Veterans who screened positive on the MDAS (N = 19), 68.4% went undetected by medical screening. Undetected cases had a higher number of comorbid medical conditions as measured by the Age-Adjusted Charlson Index (AACI) scores (median = 9, SD = 3.15; U = 5.5, p = .003) than medically documented cases. For Veterans with a score of 7 or greater on the AACI, the general relative risk for delirium was 4.46. Delirium is frequently under-detected in a post-acute rehabilitation unit, particularly for Veterans with high comorbid illness. The relative risk of delirium is up to 4.46 for those with high medical burden, suggesting the need for more comprehensive delirium screening in these patients. PMID:27902744
Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W
The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.
Palfrey, J S; Haynie, M; Porter, S; Bierle, T; Cooperman, P; Lowcock, J
The increasing number of children assisted by medical technology in the U.S. has led to a need for systematic planning for the children's care in community settings such as schools. Project School Care in Massachusetts provides consultation to school systems as schools respond to the challenge of integrating children assisted by medical technology into educational settings. The model of practice described includes the step-wise planning process and the ensuing training, enrollment, and monitoring procedures. Implications are explored with particular emphasis on upgrading of skills at all medical and educational levels. More input from school health personnel in administrative decision-making around enrollment of children with special health care needs is recommended. For these children, a health care plan should be incorporated into their Individualized Education Plans and into their school records.
Lee, Jin Yong; Eun, Sang Jun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jo, Min-Woo
Objective This study aimed to identify private clinics that have a potential to perform the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in a primary care setting in Korea where private specialists are dominant. Methods The 2013 National Patient Sample claim data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea was used. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of private clinics, and patient and utilization characteristics of 27,797 private clinics. External validation of clusters was performed by assessing the association among clusters and outcomes of care provided by private clinics. Stability of clusters was cross-validated using discriminant analysis. Results The result classified more than a half of private clinics into a potential PCP cluster. These were private clinics with specialties considered to be those of primary care physicians and were more likely to be located in non-metropolitan areas than specialized PCPs were. Compared to specialized PCPs, they had a higher percentage of pediatric and geriatric patients, patients with greater disease severity, a higher percentage of patients with complex comorbidities or with simple or minor disease groups, a higher number of patients and visits, and the same or higher quality of primary care. The most important factor in explaining variations between PCP clusters was the number of simple or minor disease groups per patient. Conclusion This study identified potential PCPs and suggested the identifying criteria for PCPs. It will provide useful information for formulation of a primary care strengthening policy to policy makers in Korea as well as other countries with similar specialist-dominant primary care settings. PMID:27560181
Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane
The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of
Background The use of procedural sedation outside the operating theatre has increased in hospital settings and has gained popularity among non-anesthesiologists. Sedative agents used for procedural pain, although effective, also pose significant risks to the patient if used incorrectly. There is currently no universally accepted program of education for practitioners using or introducing procedural sedation into their practice. There is emerging literature identifying structured procedural sedation programs (PSPs) as a method of ensuring a standardized level of competency among staff and reducing risks to the patient. We hypothesize that programs of education for healthcare professionals using procedural sedation outside the operating theatre are beneficial in improving patient care, safety, practitioner competence and reducing adverse event rates. Methods/Design Electronic databases will be systematically searched for studies (randomized and non-randomized) examining the effectiveness of structured PSPs from 1966 to present. Database searches will be supplemented by contact with experts, reference and citation checking, and a grey literature search. No language restriction will be imposed. Screening of titles and abstracts, and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers. All disagreements will be resolved by discussion with an independent third party. Data analysis will be completed adhering to procedures outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. If the data allows, a meta-analysis will be performed. Discussion This review will cohere evidence on the effectiveness of structured PSPs on sedation events and patient outcomes within the hospital and other acute care settings. In addition, it will examine key components identified within a PSP associated with patient safety and improved patient outcomes. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013003851 PMID:24083519
Del Mar, Chris
Sore throat and acute sinusitis are not straightforward diagnoses. Trying to guess the responsible pathogen may not be the best approach. Being guided by empirical evidence may be more useful. It suggests some, but very few, benefits for antibiotics. This has to be balanced with some, but few, harms from antibiotics, including diarrhoea, rash and thrush. Prescribers should also be aware of the risk of antibiotic resistance for the individual, as well as for the population as a whole. GPs should explain the evidence for the benefits and the harms of antibiotics to patients within a shared decision-making framework.
Innovations adopted through organizational change initiatives are often not sustained leading to diminished quality, productivity, and consumer satisfaction. Research explaining variance in the use of adopted innovations in health care settings is sparse, suggesting the need for a theoretical model to guide research and practice. In this article, we describe the development of a hybrid conjoint decision theoretic model designed to predict the sustainability of organizational change in health care settings. An initial test of the model’s predictive validity using expert scored hypothetic profiles resulted in an r-squared value of .77. The test of this model offers a theoretical base for future research on the sustainability of change in health care settings. PMID:22262947
DeCoster, Vaughn; Ehlman, Katie; Conners, Carolyn
Medicare spending is expected to increase by 79% between the years 2010 and 2020, caused, in-part, by hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge. This study identified factors contributing to hospital readmissions in a midwest heath service area (HSA), using Coleman's Transition Care Model as the theoretical framework. The researchers…
Hagvall, Monica; Ehnfors, Margareta; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
Parents of children with medical complexity have described being responsible for providing advanced care for the child. When the child is acutely ill, they must rely on the health-care services during short or long periods of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to describe parental experiences of caring for their child with medical complexity during hospitalization for acute deterioration, specifically focussing on parental needs and their experiences of the attitudes of staff. Data were gathered through individual interviews and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The care period can be interpreted as a balancing act between acting as a caregiver and being in need of care. The parents needed skilled staff who could relieve them of medical responsibility, but they wanted to be involved in the care and in the decisions taken. They needed support, including relief, in order to meet their own needs and to be able to take care of their children. It was important that the child was treated with respect in order for the parent to trust the staff. An approach where staff view parents and children as a single unit, as recipients of care, would probably make the situation easier for these parents and children.
Beane, Stephanie N.; Culyba, Rebecca J.; DeMayo, Michael; Armstrong, Wendy
Amid increased attention to the cost of health care, health information technology, and specialization and fragmentation in medicine, the medical home has achieved recognition as a model for more effective and efficient health care. Little data are available on recently funded HIV medical home demonstration projects, and no research richly describes existing medical home characteristics, implementation challenges, and impact on outcomes in longstanding HIV outpatient settings. The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWP) provides federal funding for primary and specialty care for people living with HIV. Although RWP clinics developed independently of the medical home model, existing data indirectly support that, with emphasis on primary, comprehensive, and patient-centered care, RWP clinics operate as medical homes. This study explores the development, definition, and implementation of medical home characteristics by RWP-funded providers in order to better understand how it fits with broader debates about medical homes and health care reform. PMID:24560357
Marouf, Fatma E; Esplin, Bryn S
For the past few decades, there has been intense debate in bioethics about the standard of care that should be provided in clinical trials conducted in developing countries. Some interpret the Declaration of Helsinki to mean that control groups should receive the best intervention available worldwide, while others interpret this and other international guidelines to mean the best local standard of care. Questions of justice are particularly relevant where limited resources mean that the local standard of care is no care at all. Introducing human rights law into this complex and longstanding debate adds a new and important perspective. Through non-derogable rights, including the core obligations of the right to health, human rights law can help set a minimum standard of care.
Weed, Elizabeth D
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is considered one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Primary care providers are in the unique position of providing comprehensive care-routine care, well child visits, immunizations, and other healthcare needs-to a majority of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. As such, primary care providers are pivotal in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of this population. This article will address special treatment considerations to aid in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the primary care setting, including substance use disorders and diversion, cardiac issues and stimulant medication, medication holidays and follow-up monitoring. The database of PubMed was searched using keywords that included attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children, prevalence, medication holidays, safety, cardiovascular, cardiac, blood pressure, substance use, diversion, adverse drug reactions; inclusion dates were January 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015.
Rosenstein, Alan H
Disruptive behaviors can have a significant negative impact on staff relationships, communication flow, task responsibility, and team collaboration, all of which can adversely impact patient outcomes of care. Addressing disruptive behaviors in a positive manner by emphasizing the benefits of mutual understanding, shared goals and priorities, and adherence to accepted standards of care will enhance communication flow and improve the process and outcomes of care. This is particularly relevant in the obstetrics setting, where care is delivered over a continuum of time, with multiple different members of the health care team playing a vital role as the patient progresses from labor to delivery. Critical strategies for success include having strong organizational commitment and leadership support, raising provider insight and awareness, implementing appropriate policies and procedures, providing appropriate educational and training programs, and facilitating action-oriented interventional support.
Tiholova, Mayda; Gopala, Kusuma; Berberova, Magda; Strokova-Stoilova, Margarita; Tafalla, Monica
Background Rotavirus (RV) causes a high proportion of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among children under the age of five years old. This surveillance study was undertaken to study the incidence and severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in primary care settings in Bulgaria over a one-year period. Methods In this prospective, observational study of AGE cases in children under five years of age presenting in the primary care setting over a one year period, stool samples were collected and tested for RV using a rapid visual immunochromatographic test kit. After the first visit, parents monitored their child for about two weeks and reported the symptoms experienced by the child during the follow-up period to the physician in a follow-up phone call. The percentage of RVGE cases among AGE was calculated and the severity of AGE (according to the 20-point Vesikari scale) was assessed by the physician based on the symptoms reported by the parents. The seasonality of RVGE was also studied. Results The proportion of RVGE among the 624 AGE cases examined was 25.5%. Severe AGE was experienced by 81.8% RV-positive and 54.6% RV-negative children (p-value <0.001) and a third of all severe AGE cases occurred in RV-positive patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants of hospitalization indicated that severity of disease and RV-positivity were the statistically significant variables explaining hospitalization of AGE cases; even controlling for severity, RV-positive patients were more often hospitalized than RV-negative ones. RVGE cases occurred throughout the year, with peaks during August and September. Conclusion Our study emphasizes that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under five presenting in primary care settings in Bulgaria and a disproportionately high proportion of severe AGE cases may be attributed to RV infections. Trial registration number NCT01733849 PMID:27622162
Polo, Isabel; And Others
A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…
Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Yamagami, Hiroshi
The current status of and prospects for acute stroke care in Asia in the situation where both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapies have been recognized as established strategies for acute stroke are reviewed. Of 15 million people annually having stroke worldwide, ≈9 million are Asians. The burdens of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are severe in Asia. The unique features of stroke in Asia include susceptibility to intracranial atherosclerosis, high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage, effects of dietary and lifestyle habits, and several disorders with genetic causes. These features affect acute stroke care, such as the dosage of alteplase for thrombolysis and consideration of bleeding complications during antithrombotic therapy. Acute endovascular thrombectomy, as well as intravenous thrombolysis, is relatively prevalent in East Asia, but most of the other Asian countries need to develop their human resources and fundamental medical infrastructure for stroke care. A limitation of endovascular therapy in East Asia is the high prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis that can cause recanalization failure and require additional angioplasty or permanent stent insertion although intracranial stenting is not an established strategy. Multinational collaboration on stroke research among Asian countries is infrequent. Asians should collaborate to perform their own thrombolytic and endovascular trials and seek the optimal strategy for stroke care specific to Asia.
Oberengadin Hospital in Samedan is faced with particular challenges, as the highest-elevation acute-care hospital in Europe (1750 m = 5,740 ft above sea level). The factors responsible for this are elevation-related and meteorological/climatic influences, as well as seasonal variations in Südbünden's demographic structure due to tourism.
Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Kwong-Lo, Rosalie S. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Wong, Joe S.
In this study, the authors examined fear related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among 2 samples of hospital staff in Hong Kong. Sample 1 included health care workers (n = 82) and was assessed during the peak of the SARS epidemic. Sample 2 included hospital staff who recovered from SARS (n = 97). The results show that participants in…
Garrison, Laurel E; Shaw, Kristin M S; McCollum, Jeffrey T; Dexter, Carol; Vagnone, Paula M Snippes; Thompson, Jamie H; Giambrone, Gregory; White, Benjamin; Thomas, Stepy; Carpenter, L Rand; Nichols, Megin; Parker, Erin; Petit, Susan; Hicks, Lauri A; Langley, Gayle E
We surveyed 399 US acute care hospitals regarding availability of on-site Legionella testing; 300 (75.2%) did not offer Legionella testing on site. Availability varied according to hospital size and geographic location. On-site access to testing may improve detection of Legionnaires disease and inform patient management and prevention efforts.
Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G
Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine.
The development of infection control strategies at acute-care hospitals has contributed to an overall decline in the number of healthcare-associated infections (HAI’s) in the United States, especially those caused by contaminated equipment used in surgical procedures and co...
Yost, David A
The clinical assessment of an acutely intoxicated patient should be performed with meticulous care and include repetitive examinations to properly determine the patient's condition. Multiple factors, such as trauma and concomitant use of other drugs, can confuse the diagnostic picture and affect the choice of therapy. In this article, Dr Yost reviews the diagnostic considerations, appropriate treatment, and clinic discharge for the intoxicated patient.
Li, Hong; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.
After inpatient hospitalization, many elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are discharged home and receive post-acute home care from informal (family) caregivers and formal service providers. Hospital readmission rates are high among elderly patients with CHF, and it is thought that use of informal and formal services may reduce…
... Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and Fiscal Year 2011 Final Wage Indices...), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice contains the final fiscal year (FY) 2011 wage indices and... the expiration date for certain geographic reclassifications and special exception wage...
Jones, R D; Jampani, H B; Newman, J L; Lee, A S
Triclosan is a widely accepted antimicrobial ingredient because of its safety and antimicrobial efficacy. Triclosan is a unique antimicrobial well suited for use in the health care industry in which mildness is a necessity to protect the health care worker during repeated use and antimicrobial activity is a necessity to protect public health. Triclosan has demonstrated immediate, persistent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial effectiveness and utility in clinical health care settings. This review highlights the utility and effectiveness of a 1% triclosan formulation for use in high-risk, high-frequency handwashing.
Ngoh, Hui Lee Sharon; Ng, Mark Chung Wai
Primary care practitioners play an important role in administering and advocating vaccinations against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases and ensuring herd immunity in our population. This is a follow-up article to an earlier one which dealt with the principles of vaccine scheduling and administration. This article describes several false contraindications to vaccination that a primary care practitioner may encounter, including pregnancy, current breastfeeding, history of febrile seizures, and having immunosuppressed or pregnant household contacts. We aimed to provide a guide for safe and timely vaccine administration in the primary care setting.
Blanchard, May Hsieh; Kriebs, Jan M
When building an integrated practice, the ability of each team member to work comfortably with other professionals is key. Midwives need to understand departmental expectations for participation in resident/student education, be willing to provide midwifery care in a high-acuity setting with limited opportunities for low-intervention care, and understand expectations for clinical leadership. Physicians need to build on the group expectation of mutual respect and best use of each group member. Confusion about midwifery and physician roles in maternity care still exists.
Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos H; Patel, Tejal; Lee, Linda
Pharmacists have developed innovative practices in various settings as singular providers or as members of multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary teams. Examples include pharmacists practicing in heart failure, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia clinics. There is a paucity of literature describing pharmacists in interdisciplinary memory clinics and specifically pharmacists practicing in interdisciplinary, primary care-based memory clinics. New practice models should be disseminated to guide others in the development of similar models given the complexity of this population. Patients with dementia are more difficult to manage because of cognitive impairment, behavioral and psychological symptoms, the common presence of multiple comorbidities, and related polypharmacy and caregiver issues. These challenges require expertise in neurodegenerative disorders and geriatrics. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of clinical pharmacists providing care to patients with cognitive complaints in a primary care-based, interdisciplinary memory clinic, with a focus on how the pharmacist practices and is integrated in this collaborative care setting. Patients are assessed using an interdisciplinary approach, with team consensus for assessment and planning of care. Pharmacists' activities include assessment of (1) appropriateness of medications based on frailty, (2) medications that can impair cognition and/or function, (3) medication adherence and management skills, and (4) vascular risk factor control. Pharmacists provide education regarding medications and diseases, ensure appropriate transitions in care, and conduct home visits. Pharmacist participation in this clinic represents a novel opportunity to advance pharmacy practice in primary care, interdisciplinary models. Work is ongoing to describe outcomes attributable to pharmacist participation in this clinic.
Qadeer, Aayesha; Akhtar, Aftab; Ain, Qurat Ul; Saadat, Shoab; Mansoor, Salman; Ishtiaq, Wasib; Ilyas, Abid; Khan, Ali Y; Ajam, Yousaf
Objective: To determine the frequency of micro-organisms causing sepsis as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of microorganisms isolated in a medical intensive care unit. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 802 patients from a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan over a one-year period from August 2015 to August 2016. Specimens collected were from blood, urine, endotracheal secretions, catheter tips, tissue, pus swabs, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and pleural fluid. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiological methods, and antibiotic sensitivity/resistance was performed using the disk diffusion technique, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Data was collected using a critical care unit electronic database and data analysis was done by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). Results: Gram-negative bacteria were more frequent as compared to gram-positive bacteria. Most common bacterial isolates were Acinetobacter (15.3%), Escherichia coli (15.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.2%), whereas Enterococcus (7%) and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (6.2%) were the two most common gram-positive bacteria. For Acinetobacter, colistin was the most effective antibiotic (3% resistance). For E.coli, colistin (0%), tigecycline (0%), amikacin (7%), and carbapenems (10%) showed low resistance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed low resistance to colistin (7%). For Klebsiella pneumoniae, low resistance was seen for tigecycline (0%) and minocycline (16%). Overall, ICU mortality was 31.3%, including miscellaneous cases. Conclusion: Gram-negative infections, especially by multidrug-resistant organisms, are on the rise in ICUs. Empirical antibiotics should be used according to the local
Bähler, Caroline; Signorell, Andri; Reich, Oliver
Background Many efforts are undertaken in Switzerland to enable older and/or chronically ill patients to stay home longer at the end-of-life. One of the consequences might be an increased need for hospitalisations at the end-of-life, which goes along with burdensome transitions for patients and higher health care costs for the society. Aim We aimed to examine the health care utilisation in the last six months of life, including transitions between health care settings, in a Swiss adult population. Methods The study population consisted of 11'310 decedents of 2014 who were insured at the Helsana Group, the leading health insurance in Switzerland. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the health care utilisation by age group, taking into account individual and regional factors. Zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of transitions. Results Mean age was 78.1 in men and 83.8 in women. In the last six months of life, 94.7% of the decedents had at least one consultation; 61.6% were hospitalised at least once, with a mean length of stay of 28.3 days; and nursing home stays were seen in 47.4% of the decedents. Over the same time period, 64.5% were transferred at least once, and 12.9% experienced at least one burdensome transition. Main predictors for transitions were age, sex and chronic conditions. A high density of home care nurses was associated with a decrease, whereas a high density of ambulatory care physicians was associated with an increase in the number of transitions. Conclusions Health care utilisation was high in the last six months of life and a considerable number of decedents were being transferred. Advance care planning might prevent patients from numerous and particularly from burdensome transitions. PMID:27598939
Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.
Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058
Background Evidence-based quality improvement models for depression have not been fully implemented in routine primary care settings. To date, few studies have examined the organizational factors associated with depression management in real-world primary care practice. To successfully implement quality improvement models for depression, there must be a better understanding of the relevant organizational structure and processes of the primary care setting. The objective of this study is to describe these organizational features of routine primary care practice, and the organization of depression care, using survey questions derived from an evidence-based framework. Methods We used this framework to implement a survey of 27 practices comprised of 49 unique offices within a large primary care practice network in western Pennsylvania. Survey questions addressed practice structure (e.g., human resources, leadership, information technology (IT) infrastructure, and external incentives) and process features (e.g., staff performance, degree of integrated depression care, and IT performance). Results The results of our survey demonstrated substantial variation across the practice network of organizational factors pertinent to implementation of evidence-based depression management. Notably, quality improvement capability and IT infrastructure were widespread, but specific application to depression care differed between practices, as did coordination and communication tasks surrounding depression treatment. Conclusions The primary care practices in the network that we surveyed are at differing stages in their organization and implementation of evidence-based depression management. Practical surveys such as this may serve to better direct implementation of these quality improvement strategies for depression by improving understanding of the organizational barriers and facilitators that exist within both practices and practice networks. In addition, survey information can
Beck, Esther-Ruth; McIlfatrick, Sonja; Hasson, Felicity; Leavey, Gerry
This paper provides an overview of the evidence on the perspective of health care professionals (HCPs) in relation to advance care planning (ACP) for people with dementia, residing in long-term care settings. A narrative approach was adopted to provide a comprehensive synthesis of previously published literature in the area. A systematic literature search identified 14 papers for inclusion. Following review of the studies four themes were identified for discussion; Early integration and planning for palliative care in dementia; HCPs ethical and moral concerns regarding ACP; Communication challenges when interacting with the person with dementia and their families and HCPs need for education and training. Despite evidence, that HCPs recognise the potential benefits of ACP, they struggle with its implementation in this setting. Greater understanding of dementia and the concept of ACP is required to improve consistency in practice. Synthesising the existing evidence will allow for further understanding of the key issues, potentially resulting in improved implementation in practice.
Background In Switzerland the extent to which patients with chronic illnesses receive care congruent with the Chronic Care Model (CCM) is unknown. Methods According to guidelines we translated the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) into German (G-ACIC). We tested the instrument in different primary care settings and compared subscales with the original testing. Results Difficulties encountered during the translation process consisted in the difference of health care settings in Switzerland and USA. However initial testing showed the G-ACIC to be a suitable instrument. The average ACIC subscale scores in Swiss managed care (MC)-, group (GP)- and single handed practices (SP) were higher for MC practices than for group- and single handed practices: Organization of the healthcare delivery system: MC mean (m) = 6.80 (SD 1.55), GP m = 5.42 (SD 0.99), SP m = 4.60 (SD 2.07); community linkages: MC m = 4.19 (SD 1.47), GP m = 4.83 (SD 1.81), SP m = 3.10 (SD 2.12); self-management support: MC m = 4.96 (SD 1.13), GP m = 4.73 (SD 1.40), SP m = 4.43 (SD 1.34); decision support: MC m = 4.75 (SD 1.06); GP m = 4.20 (SD 0.87), SP m = 3.25 (SD 1.59); delivery system design: MC m = 5.98 (SD 1.61), GP m = 5.05 (SD 2.05), SP m = 3.86 (SD 1.51) and clinical information systems: MC m = 4.34 (SD = 2.49), GP m = 2.06 (SD 1.35), SP m = 3.20 (SD 1.57). Conclusions The G-ACIC is applicable and useful for comparing different health care settings in German speaking countries. Managed care organizations seem to implement the different components of the CCM in a greater extend than group and single handed practices. However, much room exists for further improvement. PMID:20979632
Akbar, Umer; Eilers, Amanda; Thompson-Avila, Amanda; Malaty, Irene A.; Okun, Michael S.
Objective. (1) To evaluate the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a home visit program for persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a rural setting. (2) To have movement disorders fellows coordinate and manage health care delivery. Background. The University of Florida, Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration established Operation House Call to serve patients with PD who could not otherwise afford to travel to an expert center or to pay for medical care. PD is known to lead to significant disability, frequent hospitalization, early nursing home placement, and morbidity. Methods. This was designed as a quality improvement project. Movement disorders fellows travelled to the home(s) of underserved PD patients and coordinated their clinical care. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was confirmed using standardized criteria, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was performed and best treatment practices were delivered. Results. All seven patients have been followed up longitudinally every 3 to 6 months in the home setting, and they remain functional and independent. None of the patients have been hospitalized for PD related complications. Each patient has a new updatable electronic medical record. All Operation House Call cases are presented during video rounds for the interdisciplinary PD team to make recommendations for care (neurology, neurosurgery, neuropsychology, psychiatry, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and social work). One Operation House Call patient has successfully received deep brain stimulation (DBS). Conclusion. This program is a pilot program that has demonstrated that it is possible to provide person-centered care in the home setting for PD patients. This program could provide a proof of concept for the construction of a larger visiting physician or nurse program. PMID:26078912
Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Monari, Erin H; Eilers, Amanda; Thompson-Avila, Amanda; Hwynn, Nelson H; Sriram, Ashok; Haq, Ihtsham; Hardwick, Angela; Malaty, Irene A; Okun, Michael S
Objective. (1) To evaluate the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a home visit program for persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a rural setting. (2) To have movement disorders fellows coordinate and manage health care delivery. Background. The University of Florida, Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration established Operation House Call to serve patients with PD who could not otherwise afford to travel to an expert center or to pay for medical care. PD is known to lead to significant disability, frequent hospitalization, early nursing home placement, and morbidity. Methods. This was designed as a quality improvement project. Movement disorders fellows travelled to the home(s) of underserved PD patients and coordinated their clinical care. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was confirmed using standardized criteria, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was performed and best treatment practices were delivered. Results. All seven patients have been followed up longitudinally every 3 to 6 months in the home setting, and they remain functional and independent. None of the patients have been hospitalized for PD related complications. Each patient has a new updatable electronic medical record. All Operation House Call cases are presented during video rounds for the interdisciplinary PD team to make recommendations for care (neurology, neurosurgery, neuropsychology, psychiatry, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and social work). One Operation House Call patient has successfully received deep brain stimulation (DBS). Conclusion. This program is a pilot program that has demonstrated that it is possible to provide person-centered care in the home setting for PD patients. This program could provide a proof of concept for the construction of a larger visiting physician or nurse program.
Miller, Elizabeth B.
Data from the Head Start Impact Study (N = 1,141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort (N = 825) were used to describe child care enrollment decisions among Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learner (DLL) families. In particular, logistic regression models tested which child, family, and institutional characteristics predicted enrollment in early care and education (ECE) settings that used Spanish for instruction versus enrollment in settings that did not use Spanish. Results showed that whether the child’s first language was exclusively Spanish and whether other DLL families previously attended the ECE arrangement strongly predicted whether that child enrolled. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed. PMID:26900255
As more nurses move from the acute care setting to long-term-care and home health care, different practice issues arise. To maximize liability protection, nurses must understand the legal issues unique to each delivery system.
Stevens, Kathleen R; Engh, Eileen P; Tubbs-Cooley, Heather; Conley, Deborah Marks; Cupit, Tammy; D'Errico, Ellen; DiNapoli, Pam; Fischer, Joleen Lynn; Freed, Ruth; Kotzer, Anne Marie; Lindgren, Carolyn L; Marino, Marie Ann; Mestas, Lisa; Perdue, Jessica; Powers, Rebekah; Radovich, Patricia; Rice, Karen; Riley, Linda P; Rosenfeld, Peri; Roussel, Linda; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A; Searle-Leach, Linda; Shonka, Nicole M; Smith, Vicki L; Sweatt, Laura; Townsend-Gervis, Mary; Wathen, Ellen; Withycombe, Janice S
Frontline nurses encounter operational failures (OFs), or breakdowns in system processes, that hinder care, erode quality, and threaten patient safety. Previous research has relied on external observers to identify OFs; nurses have been passive participants in the identification of system failures that impede their ability to deliver safe and effective care. To better understand frontline nurses' direct experiences with OFs in hospitals, we conducted a multi-site study within a national research network to describe the rate and categories of OFs detected by nurses as they provided direct patient care. Data were collected by 774 nurses working in 67 adult and pediatric medical-surgical units in 23 hospitals. Nurses systematically recorded data about OFs encountered during 10 work shifts over a 20-day period. In total, nurses reported 27,298 OFs over 4,497 shifts, a rate of 6.07 OFs per shift. The highest rate of failures occurred in the category of Equipment/Supplies, and the lowest rate occurred in the category of Physical Unit/Layout. No differences in OF rate were detected based on hospital size, teaching status, or unit type. Given the scale of this study, we conclude that OFs are frequent and varied across system processes, and that organizations may readily obtain crucial information about OFs from frontline nurses. Nurses' detection of OFs could provide organizations with rich, real-time information about system operations to improve organizational reliability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Williams, S J; Calnan, M
This paper describes the results of the first-stage of a study carried out in the spring of 1988 in the South East of England. The study looked at general and specific aspects of consumer satisfaction with general practitioner services, general dental care services and hospital in-patients care. It also examined which specific consumer criteria were the key predictors of overall satisfaction within each of these particular medical care settings. A related aim was to assess the degree of congruence or divergence of consumer criteria across these differing medical care settings. The evidence suggests that whilst general levels of consumer satisfaction are high (i.e. 83-97%), questions of a more detailed and specific nature revealed greater levels of expressed dissatisfaction (e.g. 38% of the sample felt that they could not discuss personal problems with their GP, 51% felt their dentist was not easy to reach at weekends/holidays, whilst 35% felt hospital doctors did not give sufficient information). Whilst different areas of dissatisfaction were found in each specific medical care setting examined, what was particularly striking was the degree of convergence of the key predictors of overall consumer satisfaction across the medical care settings. That is to say, our findings clearly suggest that issues concerning 'professional competence', together with the nature and quality of the patient-professional relationship, are the key predictors of overall consumer satisfaction with general practice, dental and hospital care [e.g. GP giving sufficient information correlated 0.64 (P less than 0.001) with overall GP satisfaction scores; competent dentist 0.52 (P less than 0.001) with overall dental satisfaction scores; and full confidence in hospital doctors 0.49 (P less than 0.001) with overall hospital satisfaction scores]. The theoretical importance and policy implications of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent NHS reforms, are discussed.
Barker, Anna Lucia; Kamar, Jeannette; Tyndall, Tamara Jane; White, Lyn; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Klopfer, Nicole; Weller, Carolina
Pressure ulcers are a common but preventable problem in hospitals. Implementation of best practice guideline recommendations can prevent ulcers from occurring. This 9-year cohort study reports prevalence data from point prevalence surveys during the observation period, and three practice metrics to assess implementation of best practice guideline recommendations: (i) nurse compliance with use of a validated pressure ulcer risk assessment and intervention checklist; (ii) accuracy of risk assessment scoring in usual-care nurses and experienced injury prevention nurses; and (iii) use of pressure ulcer prevention strategies. The prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers decreased following implementation of an evidence-based prevention programme from 12·6% (2 years preprogramme implementation) to 2·6% (6 years postprogramme implementation) (P < 0·001). Audits between 2003 and 2011 of 4368 patient medical records identified compliance with pressure ulcer prevention documentation according to best practice guidelines was high (>84%). A sample of 270 patients formed the sample for the study of risk assessment scoring accuracy and use of prevention strategies. It was found usual-care nurses under-estimated patients' risk of pressure ulcer development and under-utilised prevention strategies compared with experienced injury prevention nurses. Despite a significant reduction in prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and high documentation compliance, use of prevention strategies could further be improved to achieve better patient outcomes. Barriers to the use of prevention strategies by nurses in the acute hospital setting require further examination. This study provides important insights into the knowledge translation of pressure ulcer prevention best practice guideline recommendations at The Northern Hospital.
Introduction Although conventional multiport laparoscopic appendicectomy (CMLA) is preferred for managing acute appendicitis, the recently developed transumbilical laparoscopic approach is rapidly gaining popularity. However, its wide dissemination seems restricted by technical/technological issues. In this regard, a newly developed method of single site multiport umbilical laparoscopic appendicectomy (SMULA) was compared prospectively with CMLA to assess the former’s efficacy and the technical advantages in acute scenarios. Methods Overall, 430 patients were studied: 212 in the SMULA group and 218 in the CMLA group. The same surgeon performed all the procedures using routine laparoscopic instruments. The SMULA technique entailed three ports inserted directly at the umbilical mound through three distinct strategically placed mini-incisions without raising the umbilical flap. The CMLA involved the traditional three-port technique. Results Both groups were comparable in terms of demographic criteria, indications for surgery, intraoperative blood loss, time to ambulation, length of hospital stay and umbilical morbidity. Although the mean operative time was marginally longer in the SMULA group (43.35 minutes, standard deviation [SD]: 21.16 minutes) than in the CMLA group (42.28 minutes, SD: 21.41 minutes), this did not reach statistical significance. Conversely, the mean pain scores on day 0 and the cosmetic outcomes differed significantly and favoured the SMULA technique. None of the patients developed port site hernias over the follow-up period (mean 2.9 years). Conclusions The favourable outcomes for the SMULA technique are likely to be due to the three small segregated incisions at one place and better trocar ergonomics. The SMULA technique is safe in an acute setting and may be considered of value among the options for transumbilical appendicectomy. PMID:25198978
Donaldson, Nancy; Shapiro, Susan
California is the first state to enact legislation mandating minimum nurse-to-patient ratios at all times in acute care hospitals. This synthesis examines 12 studies of the impact of California's ratios on patient care cost, quality, and outcomes in acute care hospitals. A key finding from this synthesis is that the implementation of minimum nurse-to-patient ratios reduced the number of patients per licensed nurse and increased the number of worked nursing hours per patient day in hospitals. Another finding is that there were no significant impacts of these improved staffing measures on measures of nursing quality and patient safety indicators across hospitals. A critical observation may be that adverse outcomes did not increase despite the increasing patient severity reflected in case mix index. We cautiously posit that this finding may actually suggest an impact of ratios in preventing adverse events in the presence of increased patient risk.
Urban, Ann-Marie; Wagner, Joan I
Hospitals are situated within historical and socio-political contexts; these influence the provision of patient care and the work of registered nurses (RNs). Since the early 1990s, restructuring and the increasing pressure to save money and improve efficiency have plagued acute care hospitals. These changes have affected both the work environment and the work of nurses. After recognizing this impact, healthcare leaders have dedicated many efforts to improving the work environment in hospitals. Admirable in their intent, these initiatives have made little change for RNs and their work environment, and thus, an opportunity exists for other efforts. Research indicates that spirit at work (SAW) not only improves the work environment but also strengthens the nurse's power to improve patient outcomes and contribute to a high-quality workplace. In this paper, we present findings from our research that suggest SAW be considered an important component in improving the work environment in acute care hospitals.
Hageman, Jeffrey C; Hazim, Carmen; Wilson, Katie; Malpiedi, Paul; Gupta, Neil; Bennett, Sarah; Kolwaite, Amy; Tumpey, Abbigail; Brinsley-Rainisch, Kristin; Christensen, Bryan; Gould, Carolyn; Fisher, Angela; Jhung, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas; Moran, Kerri; Delaney, Lisa; Dowell, Chad; Bell, Michael; Srinivasan, Arjun; Schaefer, Melissa; Fagan, Ryan; Adrien, Nedghie; Chea, Nora; Park, Benjamin J
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa underscores the need for health care infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to be implemented properly and consistently to interrupt transmission of pathogens in health care settings to patients and health care workers. Training and assessing IPC practices in general health care facilities not designated as Ebola treatment units or centers became a priority for CDC as the number of Ebola virus transmissions among health care workers in West Africa began to affect the West African health care system and increasingly more persons became infected. CDC and partners developed policies, procedures, and training materials tailored to the affected countries. Safety training courses were also provided to U.S. health care workers intending to work with Ebola patients in West Africa. As the Ebola epidemic continued in West Africa, the possibility that patients with Ebola could be identified and treated in the United States became more realistic. In response, CDC, other federal components (e.g., Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response) and public health partners focused on health care worker training and preparedness for U.S. health care facilities. CDC used the input from these partners to develop guidelines on IPC for hospitalized patients with known or suspected Ebola, which was updated based on feedback from partners who provided care for Ebola patients in the United States. Strengthening and sustaining IPC helps health care systems be better prepared to prevent and respond to current and future infectious disease threats.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).
Nair, Shoba; Tarey, SD; Barathi, B; Mary, Thiophin Regina; Mathew, Lovely; Daniel, Sudha Pauline
Background: Palliative care in low and middle-income countries is a new discipline, responding to a greater patient need, than in high-income countries. By its very nature, palliative as a specialty has to network with other specialties to provide quality care to patients. For any medical discipline to grow as a specialty, it should be well established in the teaching medical institutions of that country. Data show that palliative care is more likely to establish and grow in an academic health care institution. It is a necessity that multiple networking strategies are adopted to reach this goal. Objectives: (1) To describe a strategic approach to palliative care service development and integration into clinical academic setting. (2) To present the change in metrics to evaluate progress. Design and Setting: This is a descriptive study wherein, the different strategies that are adopted by the Department of Palliative Medicine for networking in an academic health care institution and outside the institution are scrutinized. Measurement: The impact of this networking was assessed, one, at the level of academics and the other, at the level of service. The number of people who attended various training programs conducted by the department and the number of patients who availed palliative care service over the years were assessed. Results: Ten different strategies were identified that helped with networking of palliative care in the institution. During this time, the referrals to the department increased both for malignant diseases (52–395) and nonmalignant diseases (5–353) from 2000 to 2013. The academic sessions conducted by the department for undergraduates also saw an increase in the number of hours from 6 to 12, apart from the increase in a number of courses conducted by the department for doctors and nurses. Conclusion: Networking is an essential strategy for the establishment of a relatively new medical discipline like palliative care in a developing and
van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Drion, Iefke; Kleefstra, Nanne; Groenier, Klaas H; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van der Meer, Klaas; Bilo, Henk J G
Objective The Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study was initiated in 1998 to investigate the effects of shared care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Netherlands, and to reduce the number of diabetes-related complications. Benchmarking the performance of diabetes care was and is an important aspect of this study. We aimed to investigate trends in diabetes care, within the ZODIAC study for a wide variety of quality indicators during a long follow-up period (1998–2008), with special interest for different age groups. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Primary care, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Participants Patients with T2DM. Methods A dataset of quality measures was collected annually during the patient's visit to the practice nurse or general practitioner. Linear time trends from 1998 to 2008 were estimated using linear mixed models in which we adjusted for age and gender. Age was included in the model as a categorical variable: for each follow-up year all participants were categorised into the categories <60, 60–75 and >75 years. Differences in trends between the age categories were investigated by adding an interaction term to the model. Results The number of patients who were reported to participate increased in the period 1998–2008 from 1622 to 27 438. All quality indicators improved in this study, except for body mass index. The prevalence albuminuria decreased in an 11-year-period from 42% to 21%. No relevant differences between the trends for the three age categories were observed. During all years of follow-up, mean blood pressure and body mass index were the lowest and highest, respectively, in the group of patients <60 years (data not shown). Conclusions Quality of diabetes care within the Dutch ZODIAC study, a shared care project, has considerably improved in the period 1998–2008. There were no relevant differences between trends across various age categories
Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Vaulont, Sophie
The anemia of chronic disease (also called anemia of inflammation) is an acquired disorder of iron homeostasis associated with infection, malignancy, organ failure, trauma, or other causes of inflammation. It is now widely accepted that induction of hepcidin expression in response to inflammation might explain the characteristic hypoferremia associated with this condition. To determine the role of hepcidin in acute inflammation and the regulation of its receptor, the iron exporter, ferroportin, wild-type, heterozygote and hepcidin knockout mice (Hepc-/-) were challenged with sublethal doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Six hours after injection, ferroportin mRNA and protein levels were assessed in the duodenum and the spleen and plasma iron was determined. Our results demonstrate that hepcidin is crucial, though not the sole mediator of LPS-mediated acute hypoferremia, and also that hepcidin major contribution relies on decreased ferroportin protein levels found in the spleen. Furthermore, we establish that LPS-mediated repression of the membrane iron transporter DMT1 and oxidoreductase Dcytb in the duodenum is independent of hepcidin. Finally, our results in the hepc+/- mice indicate that elevated hepcidin gene expression is not a prerequisite for the setting of hypoferremia during early inflammatory response, and they highlight the intimate crosstalk between inflammatory and iron-responsive pathways for the control of hepcidin.
Albright, Karen C; Schott, Todd C; Boland, Debbie F; George, Leslie; Boland, Kevin P; Wohlford-Wessels, Mary Pat; Finnerty, Edward P; Jacoby, Michael R K
Prior studies have suggested that stroke care is more fragmented in rural or neurologically underserved areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of diagnostic and treatment services for acute stroke care in Iowa and to identify factors influencing care. Each of the 118 facilities in Iowa with emergency departments was surveyed by telephone. This survey consisted of 10 questions, focusing on the existence of pre-hospital and emergency room acute stroke protocols and the availability of essential personnel and diagnostic and treatment modalities essential for acute stroke care. Of the 118 hospitals with emergency departments, 109 (92.4%) had CT available. Within the subset having CT capabilities, 89.9% (98/109) had intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV t-PA) available. Of those facilities with both CT and IV t-PA, 46% (45/98) had around-the-clock in-house physician coverage. Further, 31% (14/45) of sites with CT, t-PA, and an in-house physician had a radiology technician on site. Only 12% (14/118) of centers could offer all essential components. Despite 88% of Iowa hospitals not providing all of these components, only 31% of these hospitals reported protocols for stabilization and immediate transfer of acute stroke patients. These findings indicate that the development of a stroke system is still in its infancy in Iowa. Collaborative efforts are needed to address barriers in rural Iowa and to assist facilities in providing the best possible care. Creativity will be paramount in establishing a functional statewide system to ensure optimum care for all Iowans.
Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Bartmess-LeVasseur, Elizabeth; Acree, Mike; Pressman, Alice; Goldberg, Harley; Hecht, Frederick M; Carey, Tim; Avins, Andrew L
Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective to assess the prognosis of patients presenting with acute low back pain (LBP) in a primary care setting in the U.S. Summary of Background Data Practice guidelines for acute LBP based on return-to-work outcomes underestimate the development of chronic pain in the primary care setting. Due to differences in inclusion criteria, chronic pain definitions and national health systems, prognostic cohort studies have reported a wide range of results limiting interpretation and generalization. Current data from carefully designed prognostic studies of acute LBP are lacking for the U.S. primary care system. Methods Members of a large health service organization were enrolled after seeking medical care for acute LBP, with or without sciatica, of up to 30 days duration, with no prior episode in the past 12 months and no history of spine surgery. We conducted phone interviews at baseline, six months and two years. Based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, a combination of global perceived recovery with pain intensity was used as primary outcome for chronic pain. Recurrence and multiple secondary outcomes were assessed to allow for comparison with other studies. Results 605 patients had an average pain intensity of 5.6 (numeric rating scale 0–10) and disability of 15.8 (Roland Morris scale 0–24). Eight percent had declared sick leave between pain onset and baseline interview. 13% of 521 patients (86% follow-up) suffered from chronic pain at six months and 19% of 443 patients at 2 years. At six months, 54% had experienced at least one LBP recurrence, and 47% in the subsequent 18 months. Conclusion The prognosis of strictly-defined acute LBP, with or without sciatica, is less favorable than commonly stated in practice guidelines based on failure to return to work. Broad initiatives to develop new means for the primary and secondary prevention of recurrent and chronic LBP are urgently needed. PMID:22504516
Bar-Sela, Gil; Bentur, Netta; Schultz, Michael; Corn, Benjamin W
Faced with a serious, incurable illness, disability, and other symptoms, both physical and mental, some patients find themselves wondering about the meaning of their Lives. They need the help of a professional who can perceive their mental turmoil and identify their spiritual needs, and who knows how to help them find meaning in their uncertain state. Spiritual care providers are professionals whose role it is to provide patients with support in their hour of need, to help them preserve their identity in life-threatening situations, and to help them re-endow their world with meaning, employing a special language and set of tools that enable patients to get in touch with their spiritual resources and internal powers of healing. Spiritual care providers serve on the medical staff in Western countries. In the United States, some 2,600 are employed in general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, long-term care facilities, and palliative care units. Approximately ten years ago, the profession began developing in Israel. Today, dozens of spiritual care providers are now working in the healthcare system. There is a spiritual care network with 21 member organizations. Although the profession is laying down roots in the healthcare system in this country, it is still in its infancy and has to contend with substantial barriers and challenges, including professional recognition, creating positions, and identifying sources of funding for positions. The profession still has much room to grow as it is further incorporated into the healthcare system and continues undergoing adaptation to the Israeli cultural setting.
Thompson, S C
An increase in the number of preschool children cared for within groups in child care centres has been associated with increasing numbers of women in the workforce. Children at this age are at high risk for gastrointestinal diseases caused by a large number of enteric pathogens, and the risk is increased by the greater potential for person-to-person transmission within group care. This report considers the pathogens that may cause diarrhoeal illness in children, with particular reference to those that have been reported in formal day care settings. The major risk factors for transmission of these agents and a high rate of diarrhoeal illness in the child care setting include attendance of non-toilet-trained children, staff combining nappy changing and food preparation duties, large enrollment, low staff-to-child ratio, and poor hygiene and child handling practices. Investigations undertaken during an outbreak of diarrhoea have frequently used limited diagnostic testing, often suitable for identifying only bacterial and protozoal agents. Such limited investigations have tended to incriminate agents that have prolonged carriage and are easily identifiable in standard microbiology laboratories. Finding a pathogen in these circumstances needs to be interpreted with caution. Prevention and control measures include training and education in good personal hygiene, emphasis on the need for frequent handwashing, separation of change areas from food handling and eating areas, routine cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces and personal items, and exclusion of any child or child care worker with diarrhoea.
Goh, A; Mok, Q
AIMS—To determine the extent of futile care provided to critically ill children admitted to a paediatric intensive care setting. METHODS—Prospective evaluation of consecutive admissions to a 20 bedded multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit of a North London teaching hospital over a nine month period. Three previously defined criteria for futility were used: (1) imminent demise futility (those with a mortality risk greater than 90% using the Paediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM II) score); (2) lethal condition futility (those with conditions incompatible with long term survival); and (3) qualitative futility (those with unacceptable quality of life and high morbidity). RESULTS—A total of 662 children accounting for 3409 patient bed days were studied. Thirty four patients fulfilled at least one of the criteria for futility, and used a total of 104 bed days (3%). Only 33 (0.9%) bed days were used by patients with mortality risk greater than 90%, 60 (1.8%) by patients with poor long term prognosis, and 16 (0.5%) by those with poor quality of life. Nineteen of 34 patients died; withdrawal of treatment was the mode of death in 15 (79%). CONCLUSIONS—Cost containment initiatives focusing on futility in the paediatric intensive care unit setting are unlikely to be successful as only relatively small amounts of resources were used in providing futile care. Paediatricians are recognising futility early and may have taken ethically appropriate measures to limit care that is futile. PMID:11207181
Dotson, Kurtis; Dallman, Michael; Bowman, C Michael; Titus, M Olivia
Since the 1970s, when inhaled anticholinergic agents were first introduced as adjunct therapies for the immediate treatment of pediatric asthma exacerbations, several trials have shown varying degrees of benefit from their use as bronchodilators in combination with inhaled short-acting beta-adrenergic agonists and systemic corticosteroids. Although other anticholinergics exist, ipratropium bromide (IB) specifically has emerged as the overwhelming choice of pulmonologists and emergency physicians because of its limited systemic absorption from the lungs when given as an inhaled preparation. However, although the varying trials, predominantly in the emergency department setting, have typically shown a trend toward improved outcomes, none has set forth clear dosing protocol recommendations for use by practicing physicians. It is our goal in this review of the available literature on the use of IB, as an adjunct to inhaled short-acting beta-adrenergic agonists, to summarize practical, evidence-based recommendations for use in the pediatric emergency department setting for acute asthma exacerbations. We also hope to better delineate the most effective dosing regimen in those patients who might benefit most from the addition of IB and to explore proposed additional benefits it may have as a modulator of cholinergic-induced effects from high-dose beta-agonist therapy and viral triggers.
Schnelle, John F.; Bates-Jensen, Barbara M.; Levy-Storms, Lene; Grbic, Valena; Yoshii, June; Cadogan, Mary; Simmons, Sandra F.
Purpose: This study investigated whether the use of restraining devices and related measures of care quality are different in nursing homes that score in the upper and lower quartiles on the Minimum Data Set (MDS) "prevalence of restraint" quality indicator, which assesses daily use of restraining devices when residents are out of bed. Design and…
Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.
Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…
Viele, Elizabeth; Hertel, Victoria
This manual presents detailed instructions for delivering health care services to students with special health needs within the school setting. Individual chapters address the following areas: dressing; vital signs; height and weight; fluids/nourishment; medications; oxygen and use of the respirator/ventilator; suctioning; respiratory therapy;…
Oelke, Nelly; Wilhelm, Amanda; Jackson, Karen
The role of nurses in primary care is poorly understood and many are not working to their full scope of practice. Building on previous research, this knowledge translation (KT) project's aim was to facilitate nurses' capacity to optimise their practice in these settings. A Summit engaging Alberta stakeholders in a deliberative discussion was the…
Kampfe, Charlene M.
This paper describes the types of attitudes and behaviors that might be destructive to an individual's sense of self-worth, and suggests that counselors in long-term care settings face the challenge of changing these. One strategy for counteracting potential dehumanization, offering in-service training to all levels of staff and administrators, is…
Registered nurses (RNs) who make the move from a patient-care service setting to an academic teaching environment often go through a transition phase in their first semesters of teaching that is difficult and traumatic. RNs that go on to higher academic degrees often do so in order to teach in schools of nursing. However, graduate work in nursing…
Schryer, Catherine; McDougall, Allan; Tait, Glendon R.; Lingard, Lorelei
This article investigates an emerging practice in palliative care: dignity therapy. Dignity therapy is a psychotherapeutic intervention that its proponents assert has clinically significant positive impacts on dying patients. Dignity therapy consists of a physician asking a patient a set of questions about his or her life and returning to the…
Daddario, Rosemarie; Anhalt, Karla; Barton, Lyle E.
This study investigated the effectiveness of implementing Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior (DRO) at the classwide level to decrease the disruptive behavior of seven typically developing preschool-aged children in a child care setting. After baseline data were collected, a whole interval DRO reinforcement schedule using edible rewards…
Kemper, Peter; Heier, Brigitt; Barry, Teta; Brannon, Diane; Angelelli, Joe; Vasey, Joe; Anderson-Knott, Mindy
Purpose: The study's goals were to understand what changes in management practices would most improve the jobs of frontline workers from the perspective of workers themselves and to analyze differences across settings. Design and Methods: The baseline survey of direct care workers (N = 3,468) conducted as part of the National Study of the Better…
Gear, Sabra; Bobzien, Jonna; Judge, Sharon; Raver, Sharon A.
Adults with intellectual disabilities face difficulty seeking employment in the community workforce. Using a single-subject design, this study examined the utility of role playing and self-management strategies to enhance work performance by promoting the social skills of a young woman with Down syndrome working in a community child care setting.…
Wu, Shinyi; Duan, Naihua; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Kravitz, Richard L; Owen, Richard R; Sullivan, J Greer; Wu, Albert W; Di Capua, Paul; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton
Integrating two distinct and complementary paradigms, science and engineering, may produce more effective outcomes for the implementation of evidence-based practices in health care settings. Science formalizes and tests innovations, whereas engineering customizes and optimizes how the innovation is applied tailoring to accommodate local conditions. Together they may accelerate the creation of an evidence-based healthcare system that works effectively in specific health care settings. We give examples of applying engineering methods for better quality, more efficient, and safer implementation of clinical practices, medical devices, and health services systems. A specific example was applying systems engineering design that orchestrated people, process, data, decision-making, and communication through a technology application to implement evidence-based depression care among low-income patients with diabetes. We recommend that leading journals recognize the fundamental role of engineering in implementation research, to improve understanding of design elements that create a better fit between program elements and local context.
Background. Thrombolytic therapy (rt-PA) is approved for ischemic stroke presenting within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset. The rate of utilization of rt-PA is not well described in developing countries. Objectives. Our study examined patient characteristics and outcomes in addition to barriers to rt-PA utilization in a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods. A retrospective chart review of all adult patients admitted to the emergency department during a one-year period (June 1st, 2009, to June 1st, 2010) with a final discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke was completed. Descriptive analysis was done followed by a comparison of two groups (IV rt-PA and no IV rt-PA). Results. During the study period, 87 patients met the inclusion criteria and thus were included in the study. The mean age was found to be 71.9 years (SD = 11.8). Most patients arrived by private transport (85.1%). Weakness and loss of speech were the most common presenting signs (56.3%). Thirty-three patients (37.9%) presented within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Nine patients (10.3%, 95% CI (5.5–18.5)) received rt-PA. The two groups (rt-PA versus non rt-PA) had similar outcomes (mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, modified Rankin scale scores, and residual deficit at hospital discharge). Conclusion. In our setting, rt-PA utilization was higher than expected. Delayed presentation was the main barrier to rt-PA administration. Public education regarding stroke is needed to decrease time from symptoms onset to ED presentation and potentially improve outcomes further. PMID:25140255
Pearson, M G; Ryland, I; Harrison, B D
OBJECTIVE--To ascertain the standard of care for hospital management of acute severe asthma in adults. DESIGN--Questionnaire based retrospective multicentre survey of case records. SETTING--36 hospitals (12 teaching and 24 district general hospitals) across England, Wales, and Scotland. PATIENTS--All patients admitted with acute severe asthma between 1 August and 30 September 1990 immediately before publication of national guidelines for asthma management. MAIN MEASURES--Main recommendations of guidelines for hospital management of acute severe asthma as performed by respiratory and non-respiratory physicians. RESULTS--766 patients (median age 41 (range 16-94) years) were studied; 465 (63%) were female and 448 (61%) had had previous admissions for asthma. Deficiencies were evident for each aspect of care studied, and respiratory physicians performed better than non-respiratory physicians. 429 (56%) patients had had their treatment increased in the two weeks preceding the admission but only 237 (31%) were prescribed oral steroids. Initially 661/766 (86%) patients had peak expiratory flow measured and recorded but only 534 (70%) ever had arterial blood gas tensions assessed. 65 (8%) patients received no steroid treatment in the first 24 hours after admission. Variability of peak expiratory flow was measured before discharge in 597/759 (78%) patients, of whom 334 (56%) achieved good control (variability < 25%). 47 (6%) patients were discharged without oral or inhaled steroids; 182/743 (24%) had no planned outpatient follow up and 114 failed to attend, leaving 447 (60%) seen in clinic within two months. Only 57/629 (8%) patients were recorded as having a written management plan. CONCLUSIONS--The hospital management of a significant minority of patients deviates from recommended national standards and some deviations are potentially serious. Overall, respiratory physicians provide significantly better care than non-respiratory physicians. PMID:10142032
Blackstone, Sarah W; Pressman, Harvey
Delivering quality health care requires effective communication between health care providers and their patients. In this article, we call on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) practitioners to offer their knowledge and skills in support of a broader range of patients who confront communication challenges in health care settings. We also provide ideas and examples about ways to prepare people with complex communication needs for the inevitable medical encounters that they will face. We argue that AAC practitioners, educators, and researchers have a unique role to play, important expertise to share, and an extraordinary opportunity to advance the profession, while positively affecting patient outcomes across the health care continuum for a large number of people.
Snell, Anita J; Briscoe, Don; Dickson, Graham
Health care delivery must be transformed to manage spiraling costs and preserve quality care. Transforming complex health systems will require the engagement of physicians as leaders in their health care settings, in both formal and informal roles. In this article we explore the experience of physician leader engagement and identify factors operating at the individual, team, and organizational levels related to increased or decreased physician leader engagement. Using an inductive approach, our analysis of the transcribed interviews yielded a rich understanding of what motivates physicians to be engaged as leaders, how they experience engagement, the role of the physician leader, how physicians understand other physicians' engagement, what encourages and discourages their engagement efforts, and the role that education and training has in physician engagement. We conclude by offering strategies that physicians, health care organizations, and educational institutions can implement to increase the engagement of physician leaders.
Price, O; Baker, J A
Poor practice associated with pro re nata (PRN) prescriptions in mental health is known to be common and can increase the risk of serious and potentially fatal side effects. A contributing factor to poor practice is the lack of a clear chain of accountability between the decision to prescribe and administer PRN prescriptions. To address this problem, a patient group direction (PGD) for acute behavioural disturbance (lorazepam 0.5-2 mg) and staff training materials were developed. The intention was to replace PRN prescriptions with the PGD in two mental health trusts. One of the potential benefits of this would be the removal of the contribution of PRN to high and combined dose antipsychotic prescriptions. This proposal, however, was met with significant resistance in both trusts and did not replace PRN as a result. A series of interviews and focus groups were conducted with 16 RMNs working in the two trusts, to explore the reasons why the PGD was met with resistance. Senior nurses perceived resistance to be associated with anxieties over increased responsibility for decision making. Junior nurses reported concerns regarding the medicalization of the nursing role, the paperwork associated with the PGD and the training approach used. Future efforts to implement PGDs in mental health settings must carefully consider the methods for engaging effectively with participating organizations, in terms of managing change and completing the necessary groundwork for successful implementation.
Hodgkinson, Stacy; Godoy, Leandra; Beers, Lee Savio; Lewin, Amy
Poverty is a common experience for many children and families in the United States. Children <18 years old are disproportionately affected by poverty, making up 33% of all people in poverty. Living in a poor or low-income household has been linked to poor health and increased risk for mental health problems in both children and adults that can persist across the life span. Despite their high need for mental health services, children and families living in poverty are least likely to be connected with high-quality mental health care. Pediatric primary care providers are in a unique position to take a leading role in addressing disparities in access to mental health care, because many low-income families come to them first to address mental health concerns. In this report, we discuss the impact of poverty on mental health, barriers to care, and integrated behavioral health care models that show promise in improving access and outcomes for children and families residing in the contexts of poverty. We also offer practice recommendations, relevant to providers in the primary care setting, that can help improve access to mental health care in this population.
Lee, Sook Y; Chaudhury, Habib; Hung, Lillian
This study explored staff perceptions of the role of physical environment in dementia care facilities in affecting resident's behaviors and staff care practice. We conducted focus groups with staff (n = 15) in two purposely selected care facilities in Vancouver, Canada. Focus group participants included nurses, care aides, recreation staff, administrative staff, and family. Data analysis revealed two themes: (a) a supportive physical environment contributes positively to both quality of staff care interaction and residents' quality of life and (b) an unsupportive physical environment contributes negatively to residents' quality of life and thereby makes the work of staff more challenging. The staff participants collectively viewed that comfort, familiarity, and an organized space were important therapeutic resources for supporting the well-being of residents. Certain behaviors of residents were influenced by poor environmental factors, including stimulation overload, safety risks, wayfinding challenge, and rushed care This study demonstrates the complex interrelationships among the dementia care setting's physical environment, staff experiences, and residents' quality of life.
Bittner, Edward A.; Shank, Erik; Woodson, Lee; Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra
Care of burn-injured patients requires knowledge of the pathophysiologic changes affecting virtually all organs from the onset of injury until wounds are healed. Massive airway and/or lung edema can occur rapidly and unpredictably after burn and/or inhalation injury. Hemodynamics in the early phase of severe burn injury are characterized by a reduction in cardiac output, increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Approximately 2–5 days after major burn injury, a hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic state develops. Electrical burns result in morbidity much higher than expected based on burn size alone. Formulae for fluid resuscitation should serve only as guideline; fluids should be titrated to physiologic end points. Burn injury is associated basal and procedural pain requiring higher than normal opioid and sedative doses. Operating room concerns for the burn-injured patient include airway abnormalities, impaired lung function, vascular access, deceptively large and rapid blood loss, hypothermia and altered pharmacology. PMID:25485468
Sintonen, Sanna; Pehkonen, Aini
The effect of social surroundings has been noted as an important component of the well-being of elderly people. A strong social network and strong and steady relationships are necessary for coping when illness or functional limitations occur in later life. Vulnerability can affect well-being and functioning particularly when sudden life changes occur. The objective of this study was to analyse how the determinants of social well-being affect individual acute care needs when sudden life changes occur. Empirical evidence was collected using a cross-sectional mail survey in Finland in January 2011 among individuals aged 55-79 years. The age-stratified random sample covered 3000 individuals, and the eventual response rate was 56% (1680). Complete responses were received from 1282 respondents (42.7%). The study focuses on the compactness of social networks, social disability, the stability of social relationships and the fear of loneliness as well as how these factors influence acute care needs. The measurement was based on a latent factor structure, and the key concepts were measured using two ordinal items. The results of the structural model suggest that the need for care is directly affected by social disability and the fear of loneliness. In addition, social disability is a determinant of the fear of loneliness and therefore plays an important role if sudden life changes occur. The compactness of social networks decreases social disability and partly diminishes the fear of loneliness and therefore has an indirect effect on the need for care. The stability of social relationships was influenced by the social networks and disability, but was an insignificant predictor of care needs. To conclude, social networks and well-being can decrease care needs, and supportive actions should be targeted to avoid loneliness and social isolation so that the informal network could be applied as an aspect of care-giving when acute life changes occur.
Ngako, Kgalabi J; Van Rensburg, Elsie S J; Mataboge, Sanah M L
Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs) presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch's method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs.
Hirshon, Jon Mark; Hansoti, Bhakti; Hauswald, Mark; Sethuraman, Kinjal; Kerr, Nancy Louise; Scordino, David; Biros, Michelle H
The 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference focused on global health and emergency care research. One conference breakout session discussed research ethics and developed a research agenda concerning global acute care research ethics. This article represents the proceedings from that session, particularly focusing on ethical issues related to protecting human subjects while conducting acute care research. Protecting human research subjects from unnecessary risk is an important component of conducting ethical research, regardless of the research site. There are widely accepted ethical principles related to human subjects research; however, the interpretation of these principles requires specific local knowledge and expertise to ensure that research is conducted ethically within the societal and cultural norms. There is an obligation to conduct research ethically while recognizing the roles and responsibilities of all participants. This article discusses the complexities of determining and applying socially and culturally appropriate ethical principles during the conduct of global acute care research. Using case studies, it focuses both on the procedural components of ethical research conducted outside of "Western" culture and on basic ethical principles that are applicable to all human subjects research. This article also proposes specific research topics to stimulate future thought and the study of ethics in these complex circumstances.
Canally, Culum; Doherty, Sean; Doran, Diane M; Goubran, Rafik A
The growing need to gain efficiencies within a home care setting has prompted home care practitioners to focus on health informatics to address the needs of an aging clientele. The remote and heterogeneous nature of the home care environment necessitates the use of non-intrusive client monitoring and a portable, point-of-care graphical user interface. Using a grounded theory approach, this article examines the simulated use of a graphical user interface by practitioners in a home care setting to explore the salient features of monitoring the activity of home care clients. The results demonstrate the need for simple, interactive displays that can provide large amounts of geographical and temporal data relating to patient activity. Additional emerging themes from interviews indicate that home care professionals would use a graphical user interface of this type for patient education and goal setting as well as to assist in the decision-making process of home care practitioners.
Carpenter, Joan G
Although palliative care consultation teams are common in U.S. hospitals, follow up and outcomes of consultations for frail older adults discharged to nursing facilities are unclear. To summarize and critique research on the care of patients discharged to nursing facilities following a hospital-based palliative care consult, a systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, Ageline, and PsycINFO was conducted in February 2016. Data from the articles (N = 12) were abstracted and analyzed. The results of 12 articles reflecting research conducted in five countries are presented in narrative form. Two studies focused on nurse perceptions only, three described patient/family/caregiver experiences and needs, and seven described patient-focused outcomes. Collectively, these articles demonstrate that disruption in palliative care service on hospital discharge and nursing facility admission may result in high symptom burden, poor communication, and inadequate coordination of care. High mortality was also noted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(1):25-34.].
Payne, Susan MC; DiGiuseppe, David L; Tilahun, Negussie
Research Objectives To describe the use of post-acute home care (PAHC) and total Medicaid expenditures among hospitalized nonelderly adult Medicaid eligibles and to test whether health services utilization rates or total Medicaid expenditures were lower among Medicaid eligibles who used PAHC compared to those who did not. Study Population 5,299 Medicaid patients aged 18–64 discharged in 1992–1996 from 29 hospitals in the Cleveland Health Quality Choice (CHQC) project. Data Sources Linked Ohio Medicaid claims and CHQC medical record abstract data. Data Extraction One stay per patient was randomly selected. Design Observational study. To control for treatment selection bias, we developed a model predicting the probability (propensity) a patient would be referred to PAHC, as a proxy for the patient's need for PAHC. We matched 430 patients who used Medicaid-covered PAHC (“USE”) to patients who did not (“NO USE”) by their propensity scores. Study outcomes were inpatient re-admission rates and days of stay (DOS), nursing home admission rates and DOS, and mean total Medicaid expenditures 90 and 180 days after discharge. Principal Findings Of 3,788 medical patients, 12.1 percent were referred to PAHC; 64 percent of those referred used PAHC. Of 1,511 surgical patients, 10.9 percent were referred; 99 percent of those referred used PAHC. In 430 pairs of patients matched by propensity score, mean total Medicaid expenditures within 90 days after discharge were $7,649 in the USE group and $5,761 in the NO USE group. Total Medicaid expenditures were significantly higher in the USE group compared to the NO USE group for medical patients after 180 days (p<.05) and surgical patients after 90 and 180 days (p<.001). There were no significant differences for any other outcome. Sensitivity analysis indicates the results may be influenced by unmeasured variables, most likely functional status and/or care-giver support. Conclusions Thirty-six percent of the medical patients
Trauma-informed care is an emerging value that is seen as fundamental to effective and contemporary mental health nursing practice. Trauma-informed care, like recovery, leaves mental health nurses struggling to translate these values into day-to-day nursing practice. Many are confused about what individual actions they can take to support these values. To date, the most clearly articulated policy to emerge from the trauma-informed care movement in Australia has been the agreement to reduce, and wherever possible, eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint. Confronted with the constant churn of admissions and readmissions of clients with challenging behaviours, and seemingly intractable mental illness, the elimination of seclusion and restraint is seen to be utopian by many mental health nurses in inpatient settings. Is trauma-informed care solely about eliminating seclusion and restraint, or are there other tangible practices nurses could utilize to effect better health outcomes for mental health clients, especially those with significant abuse histories? This article summarizes the findings from the literature from 2000-2011 in identifying those practices and clinical activities that have been implemented to effect trauma-informed care in inpatient mental health settings.
Ajay, Vamadevan S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Diabetes has emerged as a major public health concern in developing nations. Health systems in most developing countries are yet to integrate effective prevention and control programs for diabetes into routine health care services. Given the inadequate human resources and underfunctioning health systems, we need novel and innovative approaches to combat diabetes in developing-country settings. In this regard, the tremendous advances in telecommunication technology, particularly cell phones, can be harnessed to improve diabetes care. Cell phones could serve as a tool for collecting information on surveillance, service delivery, evidence-based care, management, and supply systems pertaining to diabetes from primary care settings in addition to providing health messages as part of diabetes education. As a screening/diagnostic tool for diabetes, cell phones can aid the health workers in undertaking screening and diagnostic and follow-up care for diabetes in the community. Cell phones are also capable of acting as a vehicle for continuing medical education; a decision support system for evidence-based management; and a tool for patient education, self-management, and compliance. However, for widespread use, we need robust evaluations of cell phone applications in existing practices and appropriate interventions in diabetes.
Holst, Lone; Lundgren, Maren; Olsen, Lutte; Ishøy, Torben
Working in a hospice and being able to focus on individualized, specialized end-of-life care is a privilege for the hospice staff member. However, it also presents the hospice staff with unique challenges. This descriptive study is based upon two cases from an end-of-life care setting in Denmark, where dysfunctional family dynamics presented added challenges to the staff members in their efforts to provide optimal palliative care. The hospice triad--the patient, the staff member and the family member--forms the basis for communication and intervention in a hospice. Higher expectations and demands of younger, more well-informed patients and family members challenge hospice staff in terms of information and communication when planning for care. The inherent risk factors of working with patients in the terminal phase of life become a focal point in the prevention of the development of compassion fatigue among staff members. A series of coping strategies to more optimally manage dysfunctional families in a setting where time is of the essence are then presented in an effort to empower the hospice team, to prevent splitting among staff members, and to improve quality of care.
Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Tzamaloukas, Antonios; Rubin, Robert L
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are common and confront society with serious medical, social, and financial burdens imposed by their debilitating nature. Many autoimmune diseases are associated with a particular set of autoantibodies, which have emerged as highly useful to define and classify disease, predict flares, or monitor efficacy of therapy. However, current practice for monitoring autoantibodies is protracted, labor-intensive, and expensive. This review provides an overview on the value of point-of-care (POC) biosensor technology in the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Real-time measurement of autoantibodies will clearly benefit the rheumatology practice in emergency and urgent care settings, where definitive diagnosis is essential for initiation of correct critical care therapy. Immediate serological information in clinic will provide considerable value for long-term patient care and an opportunity for an instant, result-deduced therapeutic action, avoiding delays and improving compliance, especially in field-based and remote areas. We describe the particular autoantibodies that are useful disease and activity markers and would, therefore, be attractive to POC applications. Already existing biosensors and platforms that show promise for autoantibody testing are summarized and comparatively evaluated. As POC assessment is gaining momentum in several areas of patient care, we propose that rheumatology is poised to benefit from this innovative and affordable technology.
Istiono, Wahyudi; Claramita, Mora; Ekawati, Fitriana Murriya; Gayatri, Aghnaa; Sutomo, Adi Heru; Kusnanto, Hari; Graber, Mark Alan
Background: Southeast Asian countries with better-skilled primary care physicians have been shown to have better health outcomes. However, in Indonesia, there has been a large number of inappropriate referrals, leading to suboptimal health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the reasons underlying the unnecessary referrals as related to Indonesian physicians’ standard of abilities. Materials and Methods: This was a multiple-case study that explored physicians’ self-evaluation of their abilities. Self-evaluation questionnaires were constructed from the Indonesian Standards of Physicians Competences of 2006-2012 (ISPC), which is a list of 155 diseases. This study was undertaken in three cities, three towns, and one “border-less developed” area during 2011-2014. The study involved 184 physicians in those seven districts. Data were collected using one-on-one, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), and clinical observations. Results: This study found that primary care physicians in Indonesia felt that they were competent to handle less than one-third of “typical” primary care cases. The reasons were limited understanding of person-centered care principles and limited patient care services to diagnosis and treatment of common biomedical problems. Additionally, physical facilities in primary care settings are lacking. Discussions and Conclusions: Strengthening primary health care in Indonesia requires upscaling doctors’ abilities in managing health problems through more structured graduate education in family medicine, which emphasizes the bio-psycho-socio-cultural background of persons; secondly, standardizing primary care facilities to support physicians’ performance is critical. Finally, a strong national health policy that recognizes the essential role of primary care physicians in health outcomes is an urgent need. PMID:26985415
Spath, M; Buttlar, L
The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should
Smallwood, Megan; Pant Pai, Nitika
The diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) plays a unique role in preventing the spread of HIV and ending the epidemic. Acutely infected individuals are thought to contribute substantially to forward transmissions of HIV; however, diagnosing AHI in resource-limited settings has proven to be a challenge. While fourth generation antigen-antibody combination assays have been successful in high-resource settings, rapid point of care (POC) versions of these assays have yet to demonstrate high sensitivity to detect AHI. Newer RNA/DNA based POC technologies are being validated, but the challenge to understand the additional value of these devices depends on the quality of study evaluations, in particular choice of study designs and case mix of included populations. In this commentary, we aimed to review the quality of studies evaluating a new fourth generation rapid test for detecting AHI, to identify general methodological limitations and biases in diagnostic accuracy studies, and to recommend strategies for avoiding them in future evaluations. The new studies that were evaluated continued to report the same weaknesses and biases that were seen in previous evaluations of fourth generation rapid tests. We recommend that investigators design future studies carefully, keeping in mind how diagnostic performance may be influenced by prevalence, population, patient case mixes, and reference standards. Care must be taken to avoid biases specific to diagnostic accuracy studies (spectrum, verification, incorporation and reference standard biases). To improve on quality, reporting checklists and guidelines such as Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) and Standards for Reporting Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) should be reviewed prior to conducting studies.
Smallwood, Megan; Pant Pai, Nitika
The diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) plays a unique role in preventing the spread of HIV and ending the epidemic. Acutely infected individuals are thought to contribute substantially to forward transmissions of HIV; however, diagnosing AHI in resource-limited settings has proven to be a challenge. While fourth generation antigen-antibody combination assays have been successful in high-resource settings, rapid point of care (POC) versions of these assays have yet to demonstrate high sensitivity to detect AHI. Newer RNA/DNA based POC technologies are being validated, but the challenge to understand the additional value of these devices depends on the quality of study evaluations, in particular choice of study designs and case mix of included populations. In this commentary, we aimed to review the quality of studies evaluating a new fourth generation rapid test for detecting AHI, to identify general methodological limitations and biases in diagnostic accuracy studies, and to recommend strategies for avoiding them in future evaluations. The new studies that were evaluated continued to report the same weaknesses and biases that were seen in previous evaluations of fourth generation rapid tests. We recommend that investigators design future studies carefully, keeping in mind how diagnostic performance may be influenced by prevalence, population, patient case mixes, and reference standards. Care must be taken to avoid biases specific to diagnostic accuracy studies (spectrum, verification, incorporation and reference standard biases). To improve on quality, reporting checklists and guidelines such as Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) and Standards for Reporting Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) should be reviewed prior to conducting studies. PMID:28273857
Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; San Sebastiån, Miguel; Byskov, Jens; Olsen, Øystein E; Shayo, Elizabeth; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin
Priority-setting has become one of the biggest challenges faced by health decision-makers worldwide. Fairness is a key goal of priority-setting and Accountability for Reasonableness has emerged as a guiding framework for fair priority-setting. This paper describes the processes of setting health care priorities in Mbarali district, Tanzania, and evaluates the descriptions against Accountability for Reasonableness. Key informant interviews were conducted with district health managers, local government officials and other stakeholders using a semi-structured interview guide. Relevant documents were also gathered and group priority-setting in the district was observed. The results indicate that, while Tanzania has a decentralized public health care system, the reality of the district level priority-setting process was that it was not nearly as participatory as the official guidelines suggest it should have been. Priority-setting usually occurred in the context of budget cycles and the process was driven by historical allocation. Stakeholders' involvement in the process was minimal. Decisions (but not the reasoning behind them) were publicized through circulars and notice boards, but there were no formal mechanisms in place to ensure that this information reached the public. There were neither formal mechanisms for challenging decisions nor an adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that decisions were made in a fair and equitable manner. Therefore, priority-setting in Mbarali district did not satisfy all four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; namely relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. This paper aims to make two important contributions to this problematic situation. First, it provides empirical analysis of priority-setting at the district level in the contexts of low-income countries. Second, it provides guidance to decision-makers on how to improve fairness, legitimacy, and sustainability of the priority-setting process.
Oduncu, Fuat S
Germany has just started a public debate on priority-setting, rationing and cost-effectiveness due to the cost explosion within the German health care system. To date, the costs for German health care run at 11,6% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP, 278,3 billion €) that represents a significant increase from the 5,9 % levels present in 1970. In response, the German Parliament has enacted several major and minor legal reforms over the last three decades for the sake of cost containment and maintaining stability of the health care system. The Statutory Health Insurance--SHI (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung--GKV) is based on the fundamental principle of solidarity and provides an ethical and legal framework for implementing equity, comprehensiveness and setting the principles and rules for financing and providing health care services and benefits. Within the SHI system, several major actors can be identified: the Federal Ministry of Health, the 16 state ministries of health, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), the physicians (with their associations) and the hospitals (with their organizations) on the provider side, and the sickness funds with their associations on the purchasers' side. This article reviews the structure and complexities of the German health care system with its major players and participants. The focus will be put on relevant ethical, legal and economic aspects for prioritization, rationalization, rationing and cost-effectiveness of medical benefits and services. In conclusion, this article pleads for open discussion on the challenging subject of priority-setting instead of accepting the implicit and non-transparent rationing of medical services that currently occurs at many different levels within the health care system, as it stands today.
Wilson, Donna M.; Thomas, Roger; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Hewitt, Jessica A.; Jane, Osei-Waree; Sandra, Robertson
Few studies have focused on the care setting transitions that occur in the last year of life. A three part mixed-methods study was conducted to gain an understanding of the number and implications or impact of care setting transitions in the last year of life for rural Canadians. Provincial health services utilization data, national online survey data, and local qualitative interview data were analyzed to gain general and specific information for consideration. Rural Albertans had significantly more healthcare setting transitions than urbanites in the last year of life (M=4.2 vs 3.3). Online family respondents reported 8 moves on average occurred for family members in the last year of life. These moves were most often identified (65%) on a likert-type scale as “very difficult,” with the free text information revealing these trips were often emotionally painful for themselves and physically painful for their ill family member. Eleven informants were then interviewed until data saturation, with constant-comparative data analysis conducted for a more in-depth understanding of rural transitions. Moving from place to place for needed care in the last year of life was identified as common and concerning for rural people and their families, with three data themes developing: (a) needed care in the last year of life is scattered across many places, (b) travelling is very difficult for terminally-ill persons and their caregivers, and (c) local rural services are minimal. These findings indicate planning is needed to avoid unnecessary end-of-life care setting transitions and to make needed moves for essential services in the last year of life less costly, stressful, and socially disruptive for rural people and their families. PMID:22980372
Faxelid, E; Ahlberg, B M; Maimbolwa, M; Krantz, I
The aim of this paper is to analyse obstacles to optimal STD care in an urban setting in Zambia. Eight-two health professionals answered a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. More than 50% were not satisfied with their working conditions, due to heavy workload, lack of equipment/drugs, poor salary, and lack of continuing education. Negative opinions about STD patients were common. Treatment and preventive activities were considered important but most respondents found patient compliance poor--especially for partner notification. To improve the quality of STD care, training in STD management should be combined with improved working conditions.
Hall, Daleasha; Shirey, Mary A; Waggoner, David C
Hospice of Sacred Heart, an agency of PeaceHealth Oregon, experienced a dramatic increase in its census beginning in 2007. The spiritual care team noticed the number of referrals was decreasing while the census was increasing. A quality improvement initiative was conducted, including a staff survey, an education program about spirituality and the role of chaplains on interdisciplinary teams in the hospice setting, and an audit of the chaplain's daily allocation of time. These actions resulted in an increase in the use of spiritual care services by patients and staff and the addition of two full-time, benefited chaplain positions.
Moseley, Charles B; Shen, Jay J; Ginn, Gregory O
Hospitals provide diversity activities for a number of reasons. The authors examined community demand, resource availability, managed care, institutional pressure, and external orientation related variables that were associated with acute care hospital diversity plans and translation services. The authors used multiple logistic regression to analyze the data for 478 hospitals in the 2006 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) dataset that had available data on the racial and ethnic status of their discharges. We also used 2004 and 2006 American Hospital Association (AHA) data to measure the two dependent diversity variables and the other independent variables. We found that resource, managed care, and external orientation variables were associated with having a diversity plan and that resource, managed care, institutional, and external orientation variables were associated with providing translation services. The authors concluded that more evidence for diversity's impact, additional resources, and more institutional pressure may be needed to motivate more hospitals to provide diversity planning and translation services.
Anders, Robert L; Olson, Tom; Bader, Julia
The relationship between quality of care and patient satisfaction has been documented. The specific research aim related to this study is to determine if differences exist among Caucasians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders who are hospitalized for an acute mental illness with regard to their perceived satisfaction with the care. The results of the overall study have been reported elsewhere. The sample was composed of 138 patients, of whom 34.7% were Caucasian, 31.2% Pacific Islanders, and 34.8% Asians. Within 24 hours of discharge, patients completed the Perceptions of Care instrument. Caucasians were over-represented in our sample in comparison to their percentage in the general population of Hawaii. These patients were significantly more satisfied (p = .04) with their care than the other ethnic groups. No single variable was found to specifically indicate why they were more satisfied than Pacific Islanders and Asians.
Gibson, Jennifer L; Martin, Douglas K; Singer, Peter A
Background Hospitals and regional health authorities must set priorities in the face of resource constraints. Decision-makers seek practical ways to set priorities fairly in strategic planning, but find limited guidance from the literature. Very little has been reported from the perspective of Board members and senior managers about what criteria, processes and parameters of success they would use to set priorities fairly. Discussion We facilitated workshops for board members and senior leadership at three health care organizations to assist them in developing a strategy for fair priority setting. Workshop participants identified 8 priority setting criteria, 10 key priority setting process elements, and 6 parameters of success that they would use to set priorities in their organizations. Decision-makers in other organizations can draw lessons from these findings to enhance the fairness of their priority setting decision-making. Summary Lessons learned in three workshops fill an important gap in the literature about what criteria, processes, and parameters of success Board members and senior managers would use to set priorities fairly. PMID:15355544
El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan
Research is an integral part of evidence-based practice in the emergency department and critical care unit that improves patient management. It is important to understand the need and major obstacles for conducting research in emergency settings. Herein, we review the literature for the obligations, ethics and major implications of emergency research and the associated limiting factors influencing research activities in critical care and emergency settings. We reviewed research engines such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for the last two decades using the key words "emergency department", "critical care", "research", "consent", and "ethics" as the search terms. Research within emergency settings is slow or non-existent due to time and financial constraints as well as the lack of a research tradition. There are several barriers to conducting research studies in emergency situations such as who, what, when, and how to obtain patient consent. The emergency environment is highly pressurized, emotional, and overburdened. The time taken for research is a particular risk that could delay the desired immediate interventions. Ethical issues abound, particularly relating to informed consent. Research in emergency settings is still in its infancy. Thus, there is a strong need for extensive research in the emergency setting through community awareness, resource management, ethics, collaborations, capacity building, and the development of a research interest for the improvement of patient care and outcomes. We need to establish a well-structured plan to assess and track the decision-making capacity, consider a multistep enrolment and consent strategy, and develop an integrated approach for recruitment into studies.
Zechner, P M; Seibel, A; Aichinger, G; Steigerwald, M; Dorr, K; Scheiermann, P; Schellhaas, S; Cuca, C; Breitkreutz, R
The development of modern critical care lung ultrasound is based on the classical representation of anatomical structures and the need for the assessment of specific sonography artefacts and phenomena. The air and fluid content of the lungs is interpreted using few typical artefacts and phenomena, with which the most important differential diagnoses can be made. According to a recent international consensus conference these include lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, lung point, reverberation artefacts, subpleural consolidations and intrapleural fluid collections. An increased number of B-lines is an unspecific sign for an increased quantity of fluid in the lungs resembling interstitial syndromes, for example in the case of cardiogenic pulmonary edema or lung contusion. In the diagnosis of interstitial syndromes lung ultrasound provides higher diagnostic accuracy (95%) than auscultation (55%) and chest radiography (72%). Diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary embolism can be achieved at the bedside by evaluating subpleural lung consolidations. Detection of lung sliding can help to detect asymmetrical ventilation and allows the exclusion of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound-based diagnosis of pneumothorax is superior to supine anterior chest radiography: for ultrasound the sensitivity is 92-100% and the specificity 91-100%. For the diagnosis of pneumothorax a simple algorithm was therefore designed: in the presence of lung sliding, lung pulse or B-lines, pneumothorax can be ruled out, in contrast a positive lung point is a highly specific sign of the presence of pneumothorax. Furthermore, lung ultrasound allows not only diagnosis of pleural effusion with significantly higher sensitivity than chest x-ray but also visual control in ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis.
Li, Hong; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K
After inpatient hospitalization, many elderly patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are discharged home and receive post-acute home care from informal (family) caregivers and formal service providers. Hospital readmission rates are high among elderly patients with CHF, and it is thought that use of informal and formal services may reduce hospital readmission during the post-acute period. Using proportional Cox regression analysis, the authors examined the independent and joint effects of post-acute informal and formal services on hospital readmission. No evidence of service impact was found. Rather, hospital readmission was associated with a longer length of CHF history and noncompliance with medication regimes. Research, policy, and practice implications are discussed.
Pine, Alexander B; Lee, Eun-Ju; Sekeres, Mikkael; Steensma, David P; Zelterman, Daniel; Prebet, Thomas; DeZern, Amy; Komrokji, Rami; Litzow, Mark; Luger, Selina; Stone, Richard; Erba, Harry P; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Lee, Alfred I; Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Barbarotta, Lisa; Kasberg, Stephanie; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Gore, Steven D; Zeidan, Amer M
Background Transfusion of blood products is a key component of the supportive management in patients with acute leukemia (AL). However high-quality trial evidence and clinical outcome data to support specific transfusion goals for blood products for patients with AL remain limited leading to diverse transfusion practices. The primary objective of this study was to determine the spectrum of transfusion patterns in a variety of care settings among providers who treat AL patients. Study design and Methods A 31-question survey queried providers caring for AL patients about the existence of institutional guidelines for transfusion of blood products, transfusion triggers for hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLTs), and fibrinogen in various settings including inpatient, outpatient, and before procedures. Results We analyzed 130 responses and identified divergent transfusion Hb goals in hospitalized and ambulatory patients, fibrinogen goals for cryoprecipitate transfusions, and variation in practice for use of certain PLTs and red blood cell products. The least variable transfusion patterns were reported for PLT goals in thrombocytopenia and in the setting of invasive procedures such as bone marrow biopsy and lumbar punctures. Conclusions This survey confirmed wide variations in blood product transfusion practices across several clinical scenarios in patients with AL. The findings emphasized the need for large prospective randomized trials to develop standardized evidence-based guidelines for blood product transfusions in patients with AL with the goal of limiting unnecessary transfusions without compromising outcomes. PMID:27878822
Chuang, Alice; Munz, Stephanie M.; Dabiri, Darya
Prenatal oral health extends beyond the oral cavity, impacting the general well-being of the pregnant patient and her fetus. This case report follows a 19-year-old pregnant female presenting with acute liver failure secondary to acetaminophen overdose for management of dental pain following extensive dental procedures. Through the course of her illness, the patient suffered adverse outcomes including fetal demise, acute kidney injury, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and septic shock before eventual death from multiple organ failure. In managing the pregnant patient, healthcare providers, including physicians and dentists, must recognize and optimize the interconnected relationships shared by the health disciplines. An interdisciplinary approach of collaborative and coordinated care, the timing, sequence, and treatment for the pregnant patient can be improved and thereby maximize overall quality of health. Continued efforts toward integrating oral health into general healthcare education through interprofessional education and practice are necessary to enhance the quality of care that will benefit all patients. PMID:27847654
Anderson, Deverick J.; Podgorny, Kelly; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Greene, Linda; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Saiman, Lisa; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Maragakis, Lisa L.; Kaye, Keith S.
PURPOSE Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,”1 published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.2 PMID:24799638
Lee, Sarah K Y; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chuang, Alice; Munz, Stephanie M; Dabiri, Darya
Prenatal oral health extends beyond the oral cavity, impacting the general well-being of the pregnant patient and her fetus. This case report follows a 19-year-old pregnant female presenting with acute liver failure secondary to acetaminophen overdose for management of dental pain following extensive dental procedures. Through the course of her illness, the patient suffered adverse outcomes including fetal demise, acute kidney injury, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and septic shock before eventual death from multiple organ failure. In managing the pregnant patient, healthcare providers, including physicians and dentists, must recognize and optimize the interconnected relationships shared by the health disciplines. An interdisciplinary approach of collaborative and coordinated care, the timing, sequence, and treatment for the pregnant patient can be improved and thereby maximize overall quality of health. Continued efforts toward integrating oral health into general healthcare education through interprofessional education and practice are necessary to enhance the quality of care that will benefit all patients.
Fotiadou, Elpida; Malliarou, Maria; Zetta, Stella; Gouva, Mary; Kotrotsiou, Evaggelia
Introduction-Aim: The concept of nursing care in learning disability community settings has not been investigated in Greece. The aim of this paper is to investigate how nurses working in learning disability community settings perceive the meaning of nursing care. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 nurses and nursing assistants working in a social care hospice. Participants were asked to answer questions about socio- demographic characteristics of the sample and fill in a questionnaire of care (GR-NDI-24), the “Job-Communication-Satisfaction-Importance” (JCSI) questionnaire and the altruism scale of Ahmed and Jackson. The data analysis was realized with statistical methods of descriptive and inductive statistics. The analysis was made with the use of SPSS (version 19). Results: The majority of the sample was women (78%). The majority of participants were married (66 %), DE graduates (66%) without postgraduate studies (96.7%). The mean age of respondents was 36.98±6.70 years. On the scales of caring and altruism, the mean values were 40.89±15.87 and 28.12±4.16 respectively. Very or fully satisfied with his work was 72% of the sample. The scope of work emerges as the most important factor influencing job satisfaction. The wages and working conditions (73% and 40% respectively) are the parameters of work which gathers the most dissatisfaction, while the salary is emerging as the most important parameter, the improvement of which would provide the highest satisfaction. Marginally statistically significant difference was observed in the range between TE graduates (d=40) and those of the DE grade (d=37), p=0.053. No statistically significant differences were observed in relation to other working and demographic characteristics (p>0.05). Greater care importance was associated with greater job satisfaction (p<0.01), while the latter was associated with high levels of altruism (p<0.05). Conclusion: The scope of work provides high satisfaction to nurses
Bowblis, John R; McHone, Heather S
For the affluent elderly, continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs) have become a popular option for long term care and other health care needs related to aging. While CCRCs have experienced significant growth over the last few decades, very little is known about the quality of care CCRCs provide. This paper is the first to rigorously study CCRCs on a national scale and the only study that focuses on nursing home quality. Using a national sample from 2005, we determine if the quality of post-acute care provided by CCRC nursing homes is superior to traditional nursing homes. To mimic randomization of patients, instrumental variables analysis is used with relative distance as an exclusion restriction to handle the endogeneity of the type of facility where care is provided. After adjusting for endogeniety, we find that CCRC nursing homes provide post-acute care quality that is similar or lower to traditional nursing homes, depending on the quality measure.
Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel
Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided
Roscigno, Cecelia I.
Objective A child’s severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a family crisis requiring extensive cultural, informational, psychological, and environmental support. Nurses need to understand parents’ expectations of caring in early acute care so they can tailor their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors appropriately to accommodate the family’s needs. Methods In a previous qualitative study of 42 parents or caregivers from 37 families of children with moderate to severe TBI, parents of children with severe TBI (n = 25) described their appraisals of nurse caring and uncaring behaviors in early acute care. Swanson’s theory of caring was used to categorize parents’ descriptions in order to inform nursing early acute care practices and family-centered care. Results Caring nurse encounters included: (a) involving parents in the care of their child and reflecting on all socio-cultural factors shaping family resources and responses (knowing); (b) respecting that family grief can be co-mingled with resilience, and that parents are typically competent to be involved in decision-making (maintaining belief); (d) actively listening and engaging parents in order to fully understand family values and needs (being with); (e) decreasing parents’ workload to get information, emotional support, and providing a safe cultural, psychological, and physical environment for the family (doing for), and; (f) providing anticipatory guidance to navigate the early acute care system and giving assistance to learn and adjust to their situation (enabling). Conclusion Application of Swanson’s caring theory is prescriptive in helping individual nurses and early acute care systems to meet important family needs following children’s severe TBI. PMID:26871242
Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Acree, Michael; Pressman, Alice; Carey, Tim; Goldberg, Harley; Hecht, Frederick; Avins, Andrew L
Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective to establish outcome measures for recovery and chronic pain for studies with patients that present with recent-onset acute low back pain in primary care Summary of Background Data Among back pain researchers, no consensus exists about outcome definitions or how to identify primary-care patients as not-recovered from an episode of low back pain. Cut points for outcome scales have mostly been arbitrarily chosen. Theoretical models for establishing minimal important change (MIC) values in studies of patients with low back pain have been proposed and need to be applied to real data. Methods In a sample of 521 patients which presented with acute low back pain (<4 weeks) in primary care clinics and were followed for 6 months, scores for pain and disability were compared with ratings on a global perceived effect scale. Using multiple potential “gold standards” as anchors (reference standards), the receiver operating characteristics method was used to determine optimal cut points for different ways of defining non-recovery from acute low back pain. Results MIC values and upper limits for pain and disability scores as well as minimal important percent changes are presented for five different definitions of recovery. A previously suggested 30% change from baseline scores does not accurately discriminate between recovered and not recovered patients in patients presenting with acute low back pain in primary care. Conclusions Outcome definitions that combine ratings from perceived recovery scales with pain and disability measures provide the highest accuracy in discriminating recovered from non-recovered patients. PMID:21311400
Magazine, Rahul; Rao, Shobitha; Chogtu, Bharti; Venkateswaran, Ramkumar; Shahul, Hameed Aboobackar; Goneppanavar, Umesh
Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in critically ill patients. Its etiological spectrum in India is expected to be different from that seen in western countries due to the high prevalence of tropical infections. Aim: To study the epidemiological profile of ARDS patients. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 150 out of the 169 ARDS patients diagnosed during 2010–2012. Data collected included the clinical features and severity scoring parameters. Results: The mean age of the study population was 42.92 ± 13.91 years. The causes of ARDS included pneumonia (n = 35, 23.3%), scrub typhus (n = 33, 22%), leptospirosis (n = 11, 7.3%), malaria (n = 6, 4%), influenza (H1N1) (n = 10, 6.7%), pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 2, 1.3%), dengue (n = 1, 0.7%), abdominal sepsis (n = 16, 10.7%), skin infection (n = 3, 2%), unknown cause of sepsis (n = 18, 12%), and nonseptic causes (n = 15, 10%). A total of 77 (51.3%) patients survived, 66 (44%) expired, and 7 (4.7%) were discharged against medical advice (AMA). Preexisting comorbidities (46) were present in 13 survivors, 19 nonsurvivors, and four discharged AMA. History of surgery prior to the onset of ARDS was present in one survivor, 13 nonsurvivors, and one discharge AMA. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, APACHE III, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores in survivors were 9.06 ± 4.3, 49.22 ± 14, and 6.43 ± 2.5 and in nonsurvivors 21.11 ± 7, 86.45 ± 23.5, and 10.6 ± 10, respectively. Conclusion: The most common cause of ARDS in our study was pneumonia, but a large percentage of cases were due to the tropical infections. Preexisting comorbidity, surgery prior to the onset of ARDS, higher severity scores, and organ failure scores were more frequently observed among nonsurvivors than survivors. PMID:28144059
Wygant, Carmella; Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common, distressing, yet rarely discussed topic in palliative care. The long-term effects of CSA can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, particularly at the end of life. In this article, we aim to initiate a discussion regarding the need to address CSA in the palliative care setting, using the example of an advanced cancer patient and her caregiver sister who revealed their common past. Specifically, we will be discussing 1) the comorbidities, psychological distress, and family distress associated with CSA, 2) its impact on health care delivery, 3) an approach to initiating conversations regarding CSA, and 4) various management strategies. Successful management of CSA necessitates an interprofessional team approach and may help to improve the quality of life of patients and their families.
Ajja, Rahma; Beets, Michael W.; Chandler, Jessica; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Ward, Dianne S.
Background There is a growing interest in evaluating the physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) policy and practice environment characteristics in settings frequented by youth (≤18 years). Objective This review evaluates the measurement properties of audit tools designed to assess PA and HE policy and practice environmental characteristics in settings that care for youth (e.g., childcare, school, afterschool, summer camp). Method Three electronic databases, reference lists, educational department and national health organizations’ web pages were searched between January 1980 and February 2014 to identify tools assessing PA and/or HE policy and practice environments in settings that care for youth (≤18 years). Results Sixty-five audit tools were identified of which 53 individual tools met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-three tools assessed both the PA and HE domains, 6 assessed PA domain and 14 assessed HE domain solely. The majority of the tools were self-assessment tools (n=40), and were developed to assess the PA and/or HE environment in school settings (n=33), childcare (n=12), and afterschool programs (n=4). Four tools assessed the community at-large and had sections for assessing preschool, school and/or afterschool settings within the tool. The majority of audit tools lacked validity and/or reliability data (n=42). Inter-rater reliability and construct validity were the most frequently reported reliability (n= 7) and validity types (n=5). Conclusions Limited attention has been given to establishing the reliability and validity of audit tools for settings that care for youth. Future efforts should be directed towards establishing a strong measurement foundation for these important environmental audit tools. PMID:25964078
Willig, James H.; Krawitz, Marc; Panjamapirom, Anantachai; Ray, Midge N.; Nevin, Christa R.; English, Thomas M.; Cohen, Mark P.; Berner, Eta S.
In primary care settings, follow-up regarding the outcome of acute outpatient visits is largely absent. We sought to develop an automated interactive voice response system (IVRS) for patient follow-up with feedback to providers capable of interfacing with multiple pre-existing electronic medical records (EMRs). A system was designed to extract data from EMRs, integrate with the IVRS, call patients for follow-up, and provide a feedback report to providers. Challenges during the development process were analyzed and summarized. The components of the technological solution and details of its implementation are reported. Lessons learned include: (1) Modular utilization of system components is often needed to adapt to specific clinic workflow and patient population needs (2) Understanding the local telephony environment greatly impacts development and is critical to success, and (3) Ample time for development of the IVRS questionnaire (mapping all branching paths) and speech recognition tuning (sensitivity, use of barge-in tuning, use of “known voice”) is needed. With proper attention to design and development, modular follow-up and feedback systems can be integrated into existing EMR systems providing the benefits of IVRS follow-up to patients and providers across diverse practice settings. PMID:23340825
Landwehr, Claudia; Klinnert, Dorothea
Most developed democracies have faced the challenge of priority setting in health care by setting up specialized agencies to take decisions on which medical services to include in public health baskets. Under the influence of Daniels and Sabin's seminal work on the topic, agencies increasingly aim to fulfil criteria of procedural justice, such as accountability and transparency. We assume, however, that the institutional design of agencies also and necessarily reflects substantial value judgments on the respective weight of distributive principles such as efficiency, need and equality. The public acceptance of prioritization decisions, and eventually of the health care system at large, will ultimately depend not only on considerations of procedural fairness, but also on the congruence between a society's values and its institutions. We study social values, institutions and decisions in three countries (France, Germany and the United Kingdom) in order to assess such congruence and formulate expectations on its effects.