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Sample records for acute carpal syndrome

  1. [Acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franke, J; Wenzel, W; Rehfuss, D; Keiner, H P; Manncke, K

    2008-05-01

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome (ACTS) is rare and is mostly the result of fractures of the distal radius or the carpal bones. This paper gives the first report of an ACTS following contusion of the wrist as the result of an extensive haematoma of the flexor tendon sheath, which did not appear until 50 hours after the injury was sustained but then developed rapidly. The patient suffers from Marfan syndrome. This disease is associated with pathologic changes to the major vessels, and especially the aorta, and of the smaller peripheral vessels. It is assumed that the haematoma arose from an aneurysm of such a small vessel. The treatment of choice in ACTS is emergency incision of the carpal tunnel.

  2. Acute Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Caused by Diffuse Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christina M; Lueck, Nathan E; Steyers, Curtis M

    2007-01-01

    A 46 year old male developed spontaneous acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the right wrist without any antecedent trauma. Surgical exploration revealed hemorrhage secondary to diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath as the underlying cause. PMID:17907439

  3. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Just a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ligament and bones ... from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel and causes the nerve to be compressed. Symptoms ...

  4. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the hand following a cat bite.

    PubMed

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Dabloun, Slim; Benzarti, Sofien; Khechimi, Myriam; Jenzeri, Abdesselem; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Cat bites at the hand are common situation in emergency departments. Neglected or poorly supported, these lesions sometimes lead to serious injuries that may compromise the function of the hand. Pasteurellamultocida is the most offending germ in these lesions, despite their sensitivity to antibiotics; it can sometimes lead to deep infections involving the skin, bones and joints. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is exceptional after cat bite. We report a case of a 56 Year old female presenting with an acute carpal tunnel syndrome associated with compartment syndrome of the right hand 6 days after a cat bite of her right thumb. The patient was treated by surgery to relieve the median nerve. Microbiology identified PasteurellaMultocida.

  5. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the hand following a cat bite

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Dabloun, Slim; Benzarti, Sofien; Khechimi, Myriam; Jenzeri, Abdesselem; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Cat bites at the hand are common situation in emergency departments. Neglected or poorly supported, these lesions sometimes lead to serious injuries that may compromise the function of the hand. Pasteurellamultocida is the most offending germ in these lesions, despite their sensitivity to antibiotics; it can sometimes lead to deep infections involving the skin, bones and joints. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is exceptional after cat bite. We report a case of a 56 Year old female presenting with an acute carpal tunnel syndrome associated with compartment syndrome of the right hand 6 days after a cat bite of her right thumb. The patient was treated by surgery to relieve the median nerve. Microbiology identified PasteurellaMultocida. PMID:26421101

  6. Carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chammas, M

    2014-04-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest entrapment neuropathy and is due to combined compression and traction on the median nerve at the wrist. It is often idiopathic. Although spontaneous resolution is possible, the usual natural evolution is slow progression. Diagnosis is mainly clinical depending on symptoms and provocative tests. An electromyogram is recommended preoperatively and in cases of work-related disease. Medical treatment is indicated early on or in cases with no deficit and consists of steroid injection in the canal or a night splint in neutral wrist position. Surgical treatment is by section of the flexor retinaculum and is indicated in resistance to medical treatment, in deficit or acute cases. Mini-invasive techniques such as endoscopic and mini-open approaches to carpal tunnel release with higher learning curves are justified by the shorter functional recovery time compared to classical surgery, but with identical long-term results. The choice depends on the surgeon's preference, patient information, stage of severity, etiology and availability of material. Results are satisfactory in 90% of cases. Nerve recovery depends on the stage of severity as well as general patient factors. Recovery of force takes about 2-3 months after the disappearance of 'pillar pain'. This operation has a benign reputation with a 0.2-0.5% reported neurovascular complication rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer keyboarding biomechanics and acute changes in median nerve indicative of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toosi, Kevin K; Hogaboom, Nathan S; Oyster, Michelle L; Boninger, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common and costly peripheral neuropathy. Occupations requiring repetitive, forceful motions of the hand and wrist may play a role in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. Computer keyboarding is one such task, and has been associated with upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorder development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether continuous keyboarding can cause acute changes in the median nerve and whether these changes correlate with wrist biomechanics during keyboarding. A convenience sample of 37 healthy individuals performed a 60-minute typing task. Ultrasound images were collected at baseline, after 30 and 60 min of typing, then after 30 min of rest. Kinematic data were collected during the typing task. Variables of interest were median nerve cross-sectional area, flattening ratio, and swelling ratio at the pisiform; subject characteristics (age, gender, BMI, wrist circumference, typing speed) and wrist joint angles. Cross-sectional area and swelling ratio increased after 30 and 60 min of typing, and then decreased to baseline after 30 min of rest. Peak ulnar deviation contributed to changes in cross-sectional area after 30 min of typing. Results from this study confirmed a typing task causes changes in the median nerve, and changes are influenced by level of ulnar deviation. Furthermore, changes in the median nerve are present until cessation of the activity. While it is unclear if these changes lead to long-term symptoms or nerve injury, their existence adds to the evidence of a possible link between carpal tunnel syndrome and keyboarding. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy resulting from compression of the median nerve as it passes through a narrow tunnel in the wrist on its way to the hand. The lack of precise objective and clinical tests, along with symptoms that are synonymous with other syndromes in the upper extremity, cause carpal tunnel syndrome to appear to be a rare entity in athletics. However, it should not be ruled out as a possible etiology of upper extremity paralysis in the athlete. More typically, carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy encountered in industry. Treatment may include rest and/or splinting of the involved wrist, ice application, galvanic stimulation, or iontophoresis to reduce inflammation, and then transition to heat modalities and therapeutic exercises for developing flexibility, strength, and endurance. In addition, an ergonomic assessment should be conducted, resulting in modifications to accommodate the carpal tunnel syndrome patient. ImagesFig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558255

  9. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... affected and will not perform normally during the test. Diagnostic ultrasonography and MRI have been used to help diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome and exclude other causes of hand and wrist symptoms. These technologies can identify swelling of the median nerve and ...

  10. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... affected and will not perform normally during the test. Diagnostic ultrasonography and MRI have been used to help diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome and exclude other causes of hand and wrist symptoms. These technologies can identify swelling of the median nerve and ...

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome is a collection of clinical symptoms and signs caused by compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. However, the severity of symptoms and signs does not often correlate well with the extent of nerve compression. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, and surgical treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 33 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: carpal tunnel release surgery (open and endoscopic), diuretics, local corticosteroids injection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), therapeutic ultrasound, and wrist splints.

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. However, the severity of symptoms and signs does not often correlate well with the extent of nerve damage. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, surgical treatments, and postoperative treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 53 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, carpal tunnel release surgery (open and endoscopic), diuretics, internal neurolysis, local and systemic corticosteroids, massage therapy, nerve and tendon gliding exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), pyridoxine, therapeutic ultrasound, and wrist splints. PMID:21718565

  13. "Phantom" carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braverman, D L; Root, B C

    1997-10-01

    Phantom sensation is ubiquitous among persons who have had amputation; however, if it develops into phantom pain, a thorough clinical investigation must ensue. We illustrate this with the case of a 49-year-old woman, 14 years after traumatic amputation of her left 2nd through 5th fingers, and 10 years after traumatic left transfemoral amputation. She had had phantom sensation in her absent fingers for years and developed progressive pain in her phantom fingers 3 months before presentation. Nerve conduction study revealed a high-normal distal motor latency of the left median nerve and a positive Bactrian test (sensitivity 87%). She was diagnosed with "phantom" carpal tunnel syndrome and treated with a resting wrist splint, decreased weight bearing on the left upper limb, and two corticosteroid carpal tunnel injections with marked improvement. Clinicians should recognize that phantom pain may be referred from a more proximal region and may be amenable to conservative management.

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aroori, Somaiah; Spence, Roy AJ

    2008-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most common peripheral neuropathies. It affects mainly middle aged women. In the majority of patients the exact cause and pathogenesis of CTS is unclear. Although several occupations have been linked to increased incidence and prevalence of CTS the evidence is not clear. Occupational CTS is uncommon and it is essential to exclude all other causes particularly the intrinsic factors such as obesity before attributing it to occupation. The risk of CTS is high in occupations involving exposure to high pressure, high force, repetitive work, and vibrating tools. The classic symptoms of CTS include nocturnal pain associated with tingling and numbness in the distribution of median nerve in the hand. There are several physical examination tests that will help in the diagnosis of CTS but none of these tests are diagnostic on their own. The gold standard test is nerve conduction studies. However, they are also associated with false positive and false negative results. The diagnosis of CTS should be based on history, physical examination and results of electrophysiological studies. The patient with mild symptoms of CTS can be managed with conservative treatment, particularly local injection of steroids. However, in moderate to severe cases, surgery is the only treatment that provides cure. The basic principle of surgery is to increase the volume of the carpal tunnel by dividing transverse carpal ligament to release the pressure on the median nerve. Apart from early recovery and return to work there is no significant difference in terms of early and late complications and long-term pain relief between endoscopic and open carpal tunnel surgery. PMID:18269111

  15. Pathophysiology of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aboonq, Moutasem S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common median nerve neuropathy, accounting for 90% of all neuropathies. Carpal tunnel syndrome presents in 3.8% of the general population, with a higher prevalence among women. There are several risk factors associated with CTS, including both medical and non medical factors. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the median nerve compression and traction are thought to be complex, and as yet are not fully understood. The present review aimed to provide an overview of the pathophysiology of median nerve neuropathy in the carpal tunnel, and subsequent development of CTS. PMID:25630774

  16. Raynaud's syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. G.; Dathan, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    We report three cases of Raynaud's syndrome with digital ischaemic ulceration, in association with carpal tunnel syndrome. In all cases, the aetiology of the Raynaud's syndrome was probably unrelated to the nerve compression. However, symptoms were worse on the side of the median nerve lesion in two patients and worse on the side with the most severe nerve dysfunction in the third; symptoms were relieved by carpal tunnel decompression in two patients. We suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome may exacerbate Raynaud's syndrome and should be considered particularly in patients with asymmetrical digital lesions. PMID:3983046

  17. Carpal tunnel syndrome and work.

    PubMed

    Newington, Lisa; Harris, E Clare; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome, and it frequently presents in working-aged adults. Its mild form causes 'nuisance' symptoms including dysaesthesia and nocturnal waking. At its most severe, CTS can significantly impair motor function and weaken pinch grip. This review discusses the anatomy of the carpal tunnel and the clinical presentation of the syndrome as well as the classification and diagnosis of the condition. CTS has a profile of well-established risk factors including individual factors and predisposing co-morbidities, which are briefly discussed. There is a growing body of evidence for an association between CTS and various occupational factors, which is also explored. Management of CTS, conservative and surgical, is described. Finally, the issue of safe return to work post carpal tunnel release surgery and the lack of evidence-based guidelines are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... carpal tunnel is caused by typing on a computer, using a mouse, or repeating movements while working, ... special devices, such as keyboards, different types of computer mouse, cushioned mouse pads, and keyboard drawers Having ...

  19. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the wrist. The carpal tunnel—a narrow, rigid passageway of ligament and bones at the base ... wrist is red, warm and swollen, applying cool packs can help. Over-the-counter drugs . In special ...

  20. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: A cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: A case report and comprehensive literature review

    PubMed Central

    Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Classen, Dale; Bruce, Garth; Kanthan, Rani

    2014-01-01

    A three-year-old boy was investigated for inexplicable incessant crying. On examination, his left wrist was mildly swollen (three to four months) and sensitive. Exploration and carpal tunnel decompression of the left wrist with incisional biopsy was performed for the presence of a fusiform swelling intimately associated with the median nerve. Histopathology revealed the presence of enlarged nerve bundles admixed with mature fat cells and diffuse fibroblastic proliferation. Three months later, he underwent urgent contralateral carpal tunnel decompression for a similar presentation. The final diagnosis was bilateral fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of the median nerves causing acute bilateral compression neuropathy. FLH of the median nerve is an extremely unusual cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a young child presenting with ‘incessant crying’. A comprehensive review of FLH including epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging, pathology, treatment and prognosis is discussed. PMID:25332651

  1. Is carpal tunnel syndrome present in acute stroke patients? An investigative study using clinical and imaging screening tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Loochtan, Aaron I; Dresser, Brian; Chang, Jianhong; Farjat, Alfredo E; Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D

    2017-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is known to develop post-stroke. Median nerve ultrasound (US) is an inexpensive, effective means of screening. In this prospective feasibility study, we compared the ability of the physical exam, the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and median nerve US to screen for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) within 72hours of stroke onset. We enrolled 24 consecutive patients. Using US, 19 (79%, p=0.0386) of the 24 patients screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 20 (83%, p=0.0042) on the nonparetic side. With clinical examination, only 11 out of 24 (46%) screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 8 (33%) on the nonparetic side. The BCTQ did not predict CTS. US can be an effective screening tool post-stroke. Further research is needed to determine specificity and efficacy compared to electrodiagnostic testing in this population.

  2. Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Michael Warren; Masear, Victoria; Chung, Kevin; Maupin, Kent; Andary, Michael; Amadio, Peter C.; Barth, Richard W.; Watters, William C.; Goldberg, Michael J.; Haralson, Robert H.; Turkelson, Charles M.; Wies, Janet L.

    2016-01-01

    This clinical practice guideline was created to improve patient care by outlining the appropriate information-gathering and decision-making processes involved in managing the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. The methods used to develop this clinical practice guideline were designed to combat bias, enhance transparency, and promote reproducibility. The guideline’s recommendations are as follows: The physician should obtain an accurate patient history. The physician should perform a physical examination of the patient that may include personal characteristics as well as performing a sensory examination, manual muscle testing of the upper extremity, and provocative and/or discriminatory tests for alternative diagnoses. The physician may obtain electrodiagnostic tests to differentiate among diagnoses. This may be done in the presence of thenar atrophy and/or persistent numbness. The physician should obtain electrodiagnostic tests when clinical and/or provocative tests are positive and surgical management is being considered. If the physician orders electrodiagnostic tests, the testing protocol should follow the American Academy of Neurology/American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine/American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation guidelines for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. In addition, the physician should not routinely evaluate patients suspected of having carpal tunnel syndrome with new technology, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and pressure-specified sensorimotor devices in the wrist and hand. This decision was based on an additional nonsystematic literature review following the face-to-face meeting of the work group. PMID:19474448

  3. Segmental carpal canal pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuo; Osamura, Naoki; Tomita, Katsuro

    2006-01-01

    To clarify which part of the median nerve is the most compressed and to compare carpal canal pressure with the latency of the sensory nerve potential and the duration of symptoms. Fifteen patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were studied using a pressure guidewire system to record canal pressure. The wire was introduced from the distal end of the carpal canal to 2 cm proximal to the distal wrist crease (DWC) and then retracted in 5-mm increments using an image intensifier to guide the progress. A nerve conduction study was performed, and all patients were asked how long the symptoms lasted. Carpal canal pressure was significantly higher 5 to 15 mm distal to the DWC. The most compressed point was 10 mm distal to the DWC, with a pressure of 44.9 +/- 26.4 mm Hg. The correlation coefficient between the highest canal pressure and the latency was 0.393 and between highest canal pressure and duration of symptoms was 0.402. Our study showed that the most compressed part of the median nerve in the carpal canal is 10 mm distal to the DWC. The carpal canal pressure was related to the latency and to the duration of symptoms.

  4. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Physical Therapy or Surgery?

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome causes pain, numbness, and weakness in the wrist and hand. Nearly 50% of all work-related injuries are linked to carpal tunnel syndrome, and people with this injury are more likely to miss work because of it. Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome can be treated with physical therapy or surgery. Although surgery may be considered when the symptoms are severe, more than a third of patients do not return to work within 8 weeks after an operation. Based on the potential side effects and risks of surgery, patients often ask if they might try physical therapy first. An article in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT assesses the effectiveness of therapy and surgery to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):162. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0503.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taşdelen, Neslihan; Gürses, Bengi; Kiliçkesmez, Özgür; Firat, Zeynep; Karlikaya, Geysu; Tercan, Mustafa; Uluğ, Aziz Müfit; Gürmen, Ahmet Nevzat

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and to obtain a quantitative parameter that may contribute to the diagnosis. The median nerves in 57 wrists of 38 patients diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome and 30 wrists of 24 normal subjects were prospectively evaluated with a 3T Philips scanner, using standard 8-channel SENSE head coil. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed using spin echo-echo planar imaging. For anatomical reference, a T1-weighted sequence was acquired. Fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements were done focally at the carpal tunnel level and from whole median nerve. In carpal tunnel syndrome patients, both focal carpal tunnel and whole nerve measurements demonstrated statistically significantly lower fractional anisotropy values than normal subjects (P < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was observed in apparent diffusion coefficient measurements. The cut-off value obtained by receiver operator characteristics analysis was 0.554 for focal carpal tunnel fractional anisotropy (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 80%) and 0.660 for whole nerve fractional anisotropy (sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 80%) measurement. Diffusion tensor imaging may contribute to the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome on the basis of fractional anisotropy measurements.

  6. Splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Page, Matthew J; Massy-Westropp, Nicola; O'Connor, Denise; Pitt, Veronica

    2012-07-11

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition where one of two main nerves in the wrist is compressed, which can lead to pain in the hand, wrist and sometimes arm, and numbness and tingling in the thumb, index and long finger. Splinting is usually offered to people with mild to moderate symptoms. However, the effectiveness and duration of the benefit of splinting for this condition remain unknown. To compare the effectiveness of splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (10 January 2011), CENTRAL, NHSEED and DARE (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), AMED (January 1985 to January 2012), and CINAHL Plus (January 1937 to January 2012), using no time limits. We searched the reference lists of all included trials and relevant reviews for further relevant studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing splinting with no treatment (or a placebo) or with other non-surgical treatments were eligible for inclusion. We also included studies comparing one splint type or regimen versus another. We excluded studies comparing splinting with surgical treatment. There were no language restrictions. We included all patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome unless they had undergone surgical release. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and performed data extraction. Two authors also independently performed the assessment of risk of bias. We calculated measures of effect as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported and statistical significance set at P < 0.05 for all outcome comparisons. The review included 19 studies randomising 1190 participants with carpal tunnel syndrome. Two studies compared splinting with no treatment, five

  7. Outcomes assessment in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J Douglas; Simmons, Barry P

    2002-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most prevalent compressive neuropathy, is exceedingly common. The incidence of this condition has been estimated to be as low as 0.1% to as high as 10%. Direct medical costs related to carpal tunnel syndrome exceed $1 billion per year, with over 200,000 surgical procedures performed annually. Additionally, untold millions of dollars are spent on as-of-yet unproven ergonomic aides in attempts to prevent the condition. a survey of nearly 30,000 workers affected by carpal tunnel syndrome were reported to have lost a median of 25 work days that further adds to the cost of this condition. After spending time in any busy hand surgeon's office, one would think that an epidemic of "carpal tunnel" has erupted.

  8. Physical Therapy as Good as Surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164278.html Physical Therapy as Good as Surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Study Conservative approach ... FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Surgery is a common approach to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. But, ...

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome - anatomical and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Iskra, Tomasz; Mizia, Ewa; Musial, Agata; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common and widely known of the entrapment neuropathies in which the body's peripheral nerves are compressed. Common symptoms of CTS involve the hand and result from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. In general, CTS develops when the tissues around the median nerve irritate or compress on the nerve along its course through the carpal tunnel, however often it is very difficult to determine cause of CTS. Proper treatment (conservative or surgical) usually can relieve the symptoms and restore normal use of the wrist and hand.

  10. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Wipperman, Jennifer; Goerl, Kyle

    2016-12-15

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity, is caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the carpal tunnel. Classically, patients with the condition experience pain and paresthesias in the distribution of the median nerve, which includes the palmar aspect of the thumb, index and middle fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Additional clues include positive physical examination findings, such as the flick sign, Phalen maneuver, and median nerve compression test. Although patients with typical symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome do not need additional testing, ultrasonography and electrodiagnostic studies are useful to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases and rule out other causes. If surgical decompression is planned, electrodiagnostic studies should be obtained to determine severity and surgical prognosis. Conservative treatment may be offered initially to patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome. Options include splinting, corticosteroids, physical therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, and yoga. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and vitamin B6 are not effective therapies. Local corticosteroid injection can provide relief for more than one month and delay the need for surgery at one year. Patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome or whose symptoms have not improved after four to six months of conservative therapy should be offered surgical decompression. Endoscopic and open techniques are equally effective, but patients return to work an average of one week earlier with endoscopic repair.

  11. Treatment of repetitive use carpal tunnel syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chadwick F.; Vangsness, C. Thomas; Anderson, Thomas; Good, Wayne

    1995-05-01

    In 1990, a randomized, double-blind study was initiated to evaluate the use of an eight-point conservative treatment program in carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 160 patients were delineated with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. These patients were then divided into two groups. Both groups were subjected to an ergonomically correct eight-point work modification program. A counterfeit low level laser therapy unit was utilized in Group A, while an actual low level laser therapy unit was utilized in Group B. The difference between Groups A and B was statistically significant in terms of return to work, conduction study improvement, and certain range of motion and strength studies.

  12. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in motorcyclists.

    PubMed

    Manes, Harvey R

    2012-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is prevalent in patients who have a repetitive motion, vibration, or pressure exerted on the wrist joint for an extended period of time. The prevalence of this condition in the general population is approximately 5%. Motorcyclists subject themselves to high levels of vibration from the road and use their wrists to control the motorcycle's brakes, gas intake, and gears via the handlebars. Under these conditions, the author hypothesized that an increased prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome would be observed in this population.

  13. Nonoccupational Risk Factors for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Daniel H; Katz, Jeffrey N; Bohn, Rhonda; Mogun, Helen; Avorn, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between selected nonoccupational risk factors and surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome. DESIGN Case-control study using an administrative database. PARTICIPANTS Enrollees of New Jersey Medicare or Medicaid programs during 1989 to 1991. MEASUREMENTS The outcome of interest was open or endoscopic carpal tunnel release. We examined the relation between carpal tunnel release and diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, inflammatory arthritis, hemodialysis, pregnancy, use of corticosteroids, and hormone replacement therapy. MAIN RESULTS In multivariate models, inflammatory arthritis was strongly associated with carpal tunnel release (odds ratio [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2, 3.8). However, corticosteroid use also appeared to be associated with a greater likelihood of undergoing carpal tunnel release, even in the absence of inflammatory arthritis (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2, 2.1). Diabetes had a weak but significant association with carpal tunnel release (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.2, 1.8), as did hypothyroidism (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1, 2.8), although patients with hyperthyroidism did not have any change in risk. Women who underwent carpal tunnel release were almost twice as likely to be users of estrogen replacement therapy as controls (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0, 3.2). CONCLUSIONS Although inflammatory arthritis is the most important nonoccupational risk factor for carpal tunnel release, these data substantiate the increase in risk associated with diabetes and untreated hypothyroidism. Further investigation in detailed clinical studies will be necessary to confirm whether changes in corticosteroid use and hormone replacement therapy offer additional means of risk reduction for this common condition. PMID:10337041

  14. Quantitative MRI analysis of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oge, Halil Kamil; Acu, Berat; Gucer, Tacettin; Yanik, Tugra; Savlarli, Safak; Firat, Mehmet Murat

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to try to find parametric ratios for the diagnosis and pathophysiology of carpal tunnel syndrome using MR. Dominant side wrist MRI examinations of 27 female carpal tunnel patients and 21 normal females were compared. The carpal tunnel contents area / carpal tunnel cross section area ratio was defined, analysed and discussed with the literature. Carpal tunnel contents / wrist area ratios of the carpal tunnel patients were measured and compared with the control group. This comparison revealed that the proportion of the contents of the carpal tunnel is increased in the carpal tunnel syndrome patients. Palmar bowing was found to be increased and median nerve cross section area was found to be increased at the proximal entrance of the carpal tunnel. As Phalen has postulated, the volume of the contents of the carpal tunnel were found to be increased in the carpal tunnel syndrome patients. Carpal tunnel cross section areas remained the same with the control group. This increase can be demonstrated by MRI imaging which can provide an evidence for the pathophysiology of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  15. Carpal arch and median nerve changes during radioulnar wrist compression in carpal tunnel syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Tamara L.; Evans, Peter J.; Seitz, William H.; Li, Zong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphological changes of the carpal arch and median nerve during the application of radiounlarly directed compressive force across the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Radioulnar compressive forces of 10 N and 20 N were applied at the distal level of the carpal tunnel in 10 female patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. Immediately prior to force application and after 3 minutes of application, ultrasound images of the distal carpal tunnel were obtained. It was found that applying force across the wrist decreased the carpal arch width (p < 0.001) and resulted in increased carpal arch height (p < 0.01), increased carpal arch curvature (p < 0.001), and increased radial distribution of the carpal arch area (p < 0.05). It was also shown that wrist compression reduced the flattening of the median nerve, as indicated by changes in the nerve’s circularity and flattening ratio (p < 0.001). Statement of clinical significance This study demonstrated that the carpal arch can be non-invasively augmented by applying compressive force across the wrist, and that this strategy may decompress the median nerve providing symptom relief to patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:26662276

  16. [Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome: 27 cases].

    PubMed

    Slimane, Neila Ben; Elleuch, Mohamed; Gharbi, Ezzedine; Babay, Habib; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2010-09-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent of tunnel syndromes in the field of the professional sphere. It is related to repetitive movements of flexion-extension of the wrist and fingers or to a support on the heel of the hands. To determine the posts in a risk and to specify the modalities of guaranteed reimbursement of professional carpal tunnel syndrome. A retrospective and descriptive study of 27 medical files of employees indemnified for professional carpal tunnel syndrome registered in the medical control services of the social security office in charge of medical insurance of Tunis and Sousse during a period of 10 years (1995-2004). There were 24 women and 3 men with the average age of 40 years all occupying posts in a risk. Their average time of service is 15 years. Tow-thirds of them work in the clothing and textile industry. The attack is bilateral in 13 cases. Nightly acroparaesthesia rules the clinical rate (44.44% of cases). Motor disorders are noted in the quarter of cases. The electromyogram had confirmed diagnosis in all of cases. The previous state study put in evidence the antecedent of carpal tunnel syndrome in 5 cases and diabetes in one case. Twenty-one patients had profit of permanent partial incapacity with a rate varying from 3 to 25%. Five had got a transfer of working place and one stayed in the same post with a half-time work. The professional origin of carpal tunnel syndrome must be called up in front of an activity in a risk. The reparation is done according to picture 82 of occupational diseases.

  17. Employees' Knowledge of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy-Goldston, Terrie M.

    A study examined employees' knowledge of the causes of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), its prevention, and their legal rights after being diagnosed with CTS. A 24-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 30 Chicago-area employees who had been afflicted with CTS. Of those surveyed, 99% considered their CTS injury related to their…

  18. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in ARL Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Joyce K.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 72 member libraries in the Association of Research Libraries revealed the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the measures taken to cope with it. Recommends implementing proactive ergonomics programs; soliciting staff input for solutions; providing report guidelines; using external help; stressing preventive measures and…

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome: role of occupation.

    PubMed

    Delgrosso, I; Boillat, M A

    1991-01-01

    A total of 21 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome in a regional hospital were analysed for their trade and serum alpha 1-antitrypsin phenotypes. The majority of these cases were women and mostly manual trades and professions were involved. Furthermore, heterozygous antitrypsin phenotypes were more frequent among the surgical cases than among the general Swiss population. In a second stage, the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in Switzerland was studied for 1 year from June 1988 through May 1989 using the sentinel system developed by the Federal Office of Public Health Administration. In all, 188 cases were found, most of whom were women, which was compatible with the frequency in other countries. A complementary questionnaire that was filled out by 65 cases and their matched controls showed that housewives and shop clerks were overrepresented among the patients. Likewise, exposure to vibrating tools and frequent extensions and/or flexions of the wrist were mentioned more often by the cases than by the controls. The present study confirms previous findings that women are at greater risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome especially in jobs requiring repetitive movements or operation of vibrating tools. A constitutional element in pathogenesis was suggested by observations that the mothers of the cases had often also been afflicted with carpal tunnel syndrome and that the frequency of distribution of antitrypsin phenotypes in patients differed from that in the general population.

  20. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in ARL Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Joyce K.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 72 member libraries in the Association of Research Libraries revealed the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the measures taken to cope with it. Recommends implementing proactive ergonomics programs; soliciting staff input for solutions; providing report guidelines; using external help; stressing preventive measures and…

  1. [Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome: a familial case].

    PubMed

    Caino, S; Dello Ruso, B; Fano, V; Obregón, M G

    2012-06-01

    Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome (TCC, OMIM #186570) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by fusion of the carpals, tarsals, and phalanges, with the short first metacarpals causing brachydactyly and humeroradial fusion. Mutations in the NOG gene have been reported in many families. We describe a family with carpal tarsal fusion seen at a Skeletal Dysplasia Clinic and look at the differential diagnoses.

  2. [Prevalence for clinically proved carpal tunnel syndrome is 4 percent].

    PubMed

    Atroshi, I; Gummesson, C; Johnsson, R; Ornstein, E; Ranstam, J; Rosén, I

    2000-04-05

    This article summarizes the results of a large-scale population-based study conducted to determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the Swedish general population. The study utilized a health questionnaires as well as clinical and electrophysiological examinations. Population prevalence rates of carpal tunnel syndrome, based on clinical diagnosis and electrophysiological criteria, were calculated. Obesity and specific work-related hand activities were shown to be risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. Carpal tunnel syndrome in occupational medicine practice.

    PubMed

    Bugajska, Joanna; Jedryka-Góral, Anna; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    Work-related overload syndromes are chiefly associated with the upper limbs, where carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) plays a leading role. This article analyses methods of diagnosing CTS, with special emphasis on those that can be used by physicians in early diagnosis of CTS in workers doing monotonous work. It also discusses occupational (e.g., assembly work, typing, playing instruments, packaging and work associated with the use of a hammer or pruning scissors) and extra-occupational factors (e.g., post-traumatic deformation of bone elements of the carpal tunnel, degenerative and inflammatory changes in tendon sheaths, connective tissue hypertrophy or formation of crystal deposits) leading to CTS; diagnostic methods (subjective symptoms, physical examination and manual provocative tests, vibration perception threshold, electrophysiological examination and imaging methods); and therapeutic and preventive management tools accessible in occupational medicine practice.

  4. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME IN CYCLISTS

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Daniel; Sassul, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: About a group of cyclists, professionals / amateurs, Mountain bike, road and triathlon; achieve a good diagnosis of the disease, with a good clinical examination and sectorized according EGM injury evoked potentials. Methods: Clinical examination and accurate test with different signs of pathology. EGM with evocative potential and conduction velocity. Results: After 25 track cyclists, 18 professionals, 22 male and 3 female; for 24 months. Through good clinical examination and EMG. We got that 70% had direct compression injuries Carpal tunnel for poor support on the handlebars. The rest were cervical praxis, by poor body position on the bike, taking cervico very steep angles / dorsal, during competitions or training for more than 2 hrs. Conclusion: A good prevention work with our teacher / cyclist in the position of deposrtista in ciclo simulador. Work in the gym, on tone and elongation of the upper limb. A good EGM, made with a specialist physiatrist. It leads to the correct diagnosis, leads to a good final treatment; which agreed that:* Cervical praxis, had good results with treatment Conservative / FST / vit.B12.* The Carpal tunnel own injuries, treatment was quirúrg. (Open surgery) with subsequent FST / vit..B12 with satisfactory return in time to sporting activity.

  5. Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Chronic Pain in Slaughterhouse Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Triple-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Markus D.; Jay, Kenneth; Colado, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Topical menthol gels are classified “topical analgesics” and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0–10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0.026 and P = 0.044, resp.). Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6) following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain. PMID:25298894

  6. Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Colado, Juan Carlos; Wang, Yuling; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    Topical menthol gels are classified "topical analgesics" and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0-10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0.026 and P = 0.044, resp.). Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by -1.2 (CI 95%: -1.7 to -0.6) following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain.

  7. Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Jens Erik Just; Peter, Peter Johannsen; Nielsen, Viggo Kamp; Mai, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with Down syndrome were examined clinically and electrophysiologically for occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome. Twenty-seven patients had normal findings, 13 had prolonged distal motor latency and reduced distal nerve conduction velocity, and 8 patients had one of these signs. Results show that prevalence of…

  8. Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Jens Erik Just; Peter, Peter Johannsen; Nielsen, Viggo Kamp; Mai, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with Down syndrome were examined clinically and electrophysiologically for occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome. Twenty-seven patients had normal findings, 13 had prolonged distal motor latency and reduced distal nerve conduction velocity, and 8 patients had one of these signs. Results show that prevalence of…

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome - an occupational hazard facing dentistry.

    PubMed

    Abichandani, Sagar; Shaikh, Saquib; Nadiger, Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    The authors wished to evaluate the comprehensive literature on carpal tunnel syndrome to discover work specific to carpal tunnel syndrome among dentists in order to determine whether there is any correlation with dentists having a higher prevalence of its occurrence. A review of dental literature involving carpal tunnel syndrome was undertaken. Details appearing in the literature before 1995 was reviewed in a comprehensive manner and the literature after 1995 were reviewed electronically. The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is higher in dental professionals involved in various aspects of dental specialties. Abnormal postures, including muscle imbalances, muscle necrosis, trigger points, hypomobile joints, nerve compression and spinal disk herniation or degeneration may result in serious detrimental physiological changes in the body. These changes often result in pain, injury or possible neuroskeletal disorders. Dentists have an increased risk of carpal tunnel syndrome and precautions and care should be exercised to prevent detrimental irreversible changes occurring. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

  11. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

  12. Screening for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Using Sonography

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Evans, Kevin D.; Li, Xiaobai; Freimer, Miriam; Sommerich, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The use of sonography in musculoskeletal research and clinical applications is increasing; however, measurement techniques for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome with sonography continue to be inconsistent. Novel methods of measurement using internal comparisons to identify swelling of the median nerve require investigation and comparison to currently used techniques. Methods The flattening ratio of the median nerve, bowing of the flexor retinaculum, and cross-sectional area of the median nerve were collected in the forearm, at the radio-carpal joint, and at the level of the pisiform in both symptomatic patients and asymptomatic control participants. Electrodiagnostic testing was completed in symptomatic patients as a diagnostic standard. Results Median nerve measurements were collected from 166 wrists of symptomatic and asymptomatic participants. The flattening ratio did not show any correlation to electrodiagnostic testing and was identical between both symptomatic and asymptomatic participants. Moderate to strong correlations were noted between electrodiagnostic testing results and sonographic measurements of the cross-sectional area at the pisiform, retinacular bowing, and both the ratio and change of the cross-sectional area between the forearm and pisiform. The area under the curve was large for all receiver operating characteristic curves for each measurement (0.759–0.899), and sensitivity was high (80.4%–82.4%). Conclusions Measurement of swelling through a ratio or absolute change had similar diagnostic accuracy as individual measurement of the cross-sectional area within the carpal tunnel. These measures may be useful for improving accuracy in more diverse clinical populations. Further refinement of protocols to identify the largest cross-sectional area within the carpal tunnel region and statistical methods to analyze clustered, multilevel outcome data are recommended to improve diagnostics. PMID:22124001

  13. Carpal tunnel syndrome induced by two types of calcium deposition.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, H; Hashizume, H; Inoue, H

    1997-12-01

    Two rare cases of carpal tunnel syndrome caused by calcification in the carpal tunnel are reported. One case involved a tumorous calcification consisting of basic calcium phosphate, and the other involved a diffuse calcification consisting of a mixture of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate. These cases suggest that the shape of carpal tunnel calcifications is influenced by the nature of calcifying substance itself, i.e., whether it is heterogenous or homogenous.

  14. Suggested variations on standard carpal tunnel syndrome assessment tests.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Whitney

    2008-04-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a highly prevalent peripheral neuropathy and manual therapy practitioners are likely to have clients presenting with this condition. There are no definitive diagnostic procedures that have shown a high degree of accuracy in identifying carpal tunnel syndrome. In addition, manual therapy practitioners do not have access to high-tech diagnostic procedures and therefore rely on physical examination methods to identify peripheral neuropathies like carpal tunnel syndrome. Several special orthopedic testing procedures have shown value in predicting the presence of carpal tunnel syndrome. Combining these standard testing procedures with neurodynamic principles allows for modifications to these tests making them more sensitive in identifying median nerve compression neuropathy in the carpal tunnel.

  15. [Carpal tunnel syndrome among supermarket cashiers].

    PubMed

    Bonfiglioli, R; Venturi, S; Graziosi, F; Fiorentini, C; Mattioli, S

    2005-01-01

    We studied Carpal Tunnel Syndrome prevalence in part time and full time female supermarket cashiers and in a control group (female primary school teachers). Subjects underwent a clinical examination in which information about personal, physiological, pathological and occupational factors were collected by a physician with a questionnaire and a self-administered Katz's hand diagram. The study protocol included median nerve conduction studies (NCS) for each worker, performed bilaterally according to the palmar technique described by J. Kimura. Case definition of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome was based on the combination of typical symptoms (classic/probable or possible) and electrodiagnostic findings according to the Consensus Criteria for the Classification of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome published by Rempel et al. in 1998. Biomechanical risk for upper limb was assessed by a group of trained observer using videotape and scales of hand activity level (HAL) and normalized peak of force (PF) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): supermarket cashier job tasks resulted on the threshold limit value line, confirming high biomechanical risk factors for CTS. Both symptoms and case prevalence resulted higher in supermarket cashiers than in control group and in full time cashiers if compared with part time ones. This difference between groups of part-/full-time cashiers could be due to total hours of exposure during the week and/or to the amount of recovery time between work sessions. Further longitudinal study could give more information about the role of different biomechanical risk factors in the onset of cumulative trauma disorders of the upper limb.

  16. Osteopathic manipulative medicine for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siu, Gilbert; Jaffe, J Douglas; Rafique, Maryum; Weinik, Michael M

    2012-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 1 of the most common peripheral nerve entrapment disorders. Osteopathic manipulative medicine can be invaluable in diagnosing and managing CTS. Combined with a patient's history and a standard physical examination, an osteopathic structural examination can facilitate localizing the nerve entrapment, diagnosing CTS, and monitoring the disease process. Osteopathic manipulative treatment is noninvasive and can be used to supplement traditional CTS treatment methods. The authors also review the relevant anatomy involving CTS and the clinical efficacy of osteopathic manipulative medicine in the management of this disorder.

  17. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tunnel syndrome may have trouble typing on the computer or playing a video game. In fact, repetitive ... times as many women as men have CTS. Computer operators, assembly-line workers, and hair stylists are ...

  18. Muscle atrophy at diagnosis of carpal and cubital tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Paige; Zhao, Meijuan; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that patients with an initial diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome are more likely to present with muscle atrophy than patients with an initial diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. A list of patients presenting to the office of a single hand surgeon from January 2000 to June 2005 with an initial diagnosis of isolated, idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome or cubital tunnel syndrome was generated from billing records. The medical records of 58 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome and 370 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were reviewed for age, gender, diabetes, and presence of atrophy. Twenty-three of 58 patients with an initial diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome had atrophy compared with only 62 out 370 patients with an initial diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Multiple logistic regression revealed that age (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08) and diagnosis (cubital tunnel patients were more likely than carpal tunnel patients to present with atrophy; odds ratio, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.7-8.6) were factors significantly associated with atrophy at presentation. Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome present earlier in the course of their disease than patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. Patients with cubital tunnel syndrome are more likely to present with muscle atrophy, reflecting advanced nerve damage that may not respond to surgery.

  19. [Carpal tunnel syndrome. The contribution of ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M

    2014-11-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent mononeuropathy. Its incidence is huge and the ensuing community health problems are therefore the cause of much concern. Such a situation has made it necessary to develop a key point in the management of the illness, that is, to find flexible, sensitive, specific and cost-effective diagnostic procedures. Today tools of proven worth are now available, especially electrophysiology, and quite recently we also have ultrasonography. Both of these techniques allow us to confirm and characterise neuropathies due to entrapment and indeed a large number of papers dealing with ultrasound imaging have been published in the literature over the last few years. It therefore comes as no surprise that many renowned authors have acknowledged the usefulness of this technique. Here, we review the pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects of carpal tunnel syndrome, with greater emphasis on how ultrasonography has contributed to the morphological evaluation of the entrapped nerve. This method has proved itself to have significant advantages not only due to its being readily available, inexpensive, fast and painless, but also, and above all, because of its high capacity to detect neural and perineural alterations. A critical review of the literature supports this thesis and shows its incorporation into routine daily evaluation to be highly recommendable.

  20. Can Smartphone Use Bring on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166847.html Can Smartphone Use Bring on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome? Maybe, especially ... People who spend lots of time on their smartphones may be scrolling, tapping and swiping their way ...

  1. Median nerve (anatomical variations) and carpal tunel syndrome - revisited.

    PubMed

    Mizia, Ewa; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Depukat, Pawel; Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa; Pasternak, Artur; Mroz, Izabela; Bonczar, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome belongs to the most common causative factors of surgical interventions in the wrist region. Anatomy of carpal tunnel and median nerve is a subject of current revision. Authors paid attention to etiology of the syndrome based on review of literature and their own anatomical studies. They remind basic knowledge on the median nerve and indicate that only based on number of dissections a good orthopedic surgeon may acquire experience necessary to perform procedures in a most appropriate way.

  2. [Principal causes for recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alonso, M F; Abdala-Dergal, C

    2016-01-01

    The frequent causes of relapsing carpal tunnel syndrome were analyzed. Nine patients were followed-up from January 1st to December 31st, 2011. They underwent a physical exam and imaging tests. Pain was measured in all of them with the VAS, and the Brigham and Womens Hospital questionnaire was used to assess disability. Patients included seven females and two males; mean age was 52 years. Major causes for relapse included postoperative fibrosis with incomplete release in seven patients and incomplete release in two patients in whom minimally invasive approaches were used. Three of the nine patients had retractile scars. The main cause of relapse was postoperative fibrosis associated with the minima-lly invasive approach.

  3. Muscle Intrusion as a Potential Cause of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Newman, Jill C.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Mora, Dana C.; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine if there is an association between flexor digitorum and lumbrical muscle intrusion into the carpal tunnel and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods 513 manual laborers (1,026 wrists) were evaluated with ultrasound to determine if those with CTS had more muscle intrusion into the carpal tunnel than those without CTS. 190 of the participants without CTS at baseline (363 wrists) were followed over 1 year to determine if muscle intrusion at baseline predicted the development of CTS. Results Participants with CTS had more muscle within the carpal tunnel with the wrist in the neutral (P = 0.026) and flexed positions (P = 0.018) than those without CTS. Baseline muscle intrusion did not predict the development of CTS at 1 year. Conclusions Muscle intrusion into the carpal tunnel is associated with CTS, but muscle intrusion alone does not predict the development of CTS over the course of a year. PMID:24449488

  4. Muscle intrusion as a potential cause of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Walker, Francis O; Newman, Jill C; Arcury, Thomas A; Mora, Dana C; Haiying, Chen; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between flexor digitorum and lumbrical muscle intrusion into the carpal tunnel and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Five hundred thirteen manual laborers (1026 wrists) were evaluated with ultrasound to determine whether those with CTS had more muscle intrusion into the carpal tunnel than those without CTS. One hundred ninety of the participants without CTS at baseline (363 wrists) were followed over 1 year to determine whether muscle intrusion at baseline predicted the development of CTS. Participants with CTS had more muscle within the carpal tunnel with the wrist in the neutral (P=0.026) and flexed (P=0.018) positions than those without CTS. Baseline muscle intrusion did not predict development of CTS at 1 year. Muscle intrusion into the carpal tunnel is associated with CTS, but muscle intrusion alone does not predict the development of CTS over the course of a year. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Medical history of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Heidi; Posner, Martin A

    2002-05-01

    The anatomical configuration of the carpal tunnel is that of an inelastic channel. Consequently, any increase in its volume or alteration in shape will usually result in a significant increase in interstitial pressure. At a pressure threshold of 20 mm Hg to 30 mm Hg, epineurial blood flow is compromised. When that pressure is sustained, the symptoms and physical findings associated with CTS appear. Typically, patients present with intermittent pain and paresthesias in all or part of the median nerve distribution of their hand(s). As weeks and months pass, symptoms progressively increase in frequency and severity. Eventually, thenar muscle weakness develops that initially manifests itself as "fatigue," or "tiredness." The progressive increase in symptoms and physical findings, usually accompanied by a progressive deterioration in electrodiagnostic studies, facilitates the classification of the condition into early, intermediate, and advanced stages. The increase in interstitial pressure in the carpal tunnel is in the vast majority of cases idiopathic (spontaneous). It can also be caused by a myriad of other conditions that can be classified into three other categories: intrinsic factors that increase the volume of the tunnel (outside and inside the nerve), extrinsic factors that alter the contour of the tunnel, and repetitive/overuse conditions. In addition, there is another category of neuropathic factors that affect the nerve without increasing interstitial pressure. In rare situations CTS can present as an acute problem. Far less common than the chronic form of the condition, it can follow acute wrist trauma, rheumatologic disorders, hemorrhagic problems, vascular disorders affecting a patent median artery, and high pressure injection injuries. Prompt recognition is important, followed in most cases by urgent surgical decompression of the median nerve.

  6. Endoscopic release for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Georgoulas, Petros; Shrier, Ian; Salanti, Georgia; Scholten, Rob J P M

    2014-01-31

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy of the upper extremity. It is caused by increased pressure on the median nerve between the transverse carpal ligament and the carpal bones. Surgical treatment consists of the release of the nerve by cutting the transverse carpal ligament. This can be done either with an open approach or endoscopically. To assess the effectiveness and safety of the endoscopic techniques of carpal tunnel release compared to any other surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS. More specifically, to evaluate the relative impact of endoscopic techniques in relieving symptoms, producing functional recovery (return to work and return to daily activities) and reducing complication rates. This review fully incorporates the results of searches conducted up to 5 November 2012, when we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted trial authors. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials. We performed a preliminary screen of searches to November 2013 to identify any additional recent publications. We included any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) with any other surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Twenty-eight studies (2586 hands) were included. Twenty-three studies compared ECTR to standard open carpal tunnel release (OCTR), five studies compared ECTR with OCTR using a modified incision, and two studies used a three-arm design to compare ECTR, standard OCTR and modified OCTR.At short-term follow-up (three months or less), only one study provided data for overall improvement. We found no differences on the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) (scale zero to five) (five studies, standardised mean

  7. Carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Takaaki; Nakamura, Ryogo; Nakao, Etsuhiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We retrospectively reviewed 12 patients (3 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 72 years) who were surgically treated for carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease. All patients except 1 were incidentally diagnosed with Kienböck disease and had little or no wrist pain. Radiographic tests revealed advanced Kienböck disease in all patients. Intraoperative findings indicated that the site of maximum compression on the median nerve was located at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet in 11 patients, and the volar dislocated fragment of the lunate was located proximally adjacent to the floor of the carpal tunnel inlet. This disorder is most prevalent in elderly women, and even advanced Kienböck disease can present without wrist pain. Our findings suggest that palmar protrusion of the lunate may be the primary cause of carpal tunnel syndrome associated with Kienböck disease. PMID:27578910

  8. Intrasynovial lipoma causing trigger wrist and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinji; Kodama, Narihito; Matsusue, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Triggering of the flexor tendon at the wrist is rare. We report a case of intrasynovial lipoma that caused a trigger wrist. As far as we know it is unique in that the intrasynovial lipoma simultaneously caused carpal tunnel syndrome. The massive tenosynovitis and adhesion of flexors tendons after the locking of the intrasynovial lipoma may have resulted from inflammation caused by attrition within the carpal tunnel.

  9. Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome by coronal Z-type lengthening of the transverse carpal ligament.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Huang, Fei; Hou, Chunlin

    2011-11-01

    To compare the effects of coronal Z-type lengthening of transverse carpal ligament with conventional open approach for carpal tunnel syndrome. A double-blinded study was conducted from January 2005 to August 2008 on 68 patients with a mean age of 41 years (range 27-55 years) diagnosed as severe carpal tunnel syndrome. They were randomized into two groups(A and B). Patients in group A underwent coronal Z-type lengthening of transverse carpal ligament; and patients in group B had conventional open approach surgery. Postoperative evaluation was scheduled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery and incidence rate of bowstring of the flexor tendons, improvement of grip strength and ADL activities of daily living) score were recorded. Fifty-eight patients had been followed up successfully, 30 and 28 for group A and B respectively. The Scar Tissue Formation of the flexor tendons in group B was observed more than that in group A at 6 and 12 month after operation. Improvement of grip strength were observed in two groups, which was statistically different between 6 and 12 months after operation and no significant difference was seen between 1 and 3 months after operation. According to ADL, the satisfaction rates documented on form for patients were statistically different in the two groups at 6 and 12 months after operation and no difference was noted at 1 and 3 months after operation. Excellent improvement of function and satisfaction were achieved by Coronal Z-type reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum for severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Our method offers a more effective alternative method for conventional carpal tunnel open decompression surgery.

  10. Carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to an osteophyte of the trapezium.

    PubMed

    Mascitelli, Justin R; Halpern, Casey H; Dolinskas, Carol A; Zager, Eric L; Welch, William C

    2011-11-01

    We report a 42-year-old man with a rare carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) secondary to an osteophyte of the trapezium. The patient presented with a 3-year history of CTS, consisting of progressive pain and paresthesias in his right hand, positive Tinel and Phalen signs, and an electrodiagnostic study demonstrating median nerve compression at the wrist. The procedure was an open carpal tunnel release. Intraoperatively, a bony protuberance was found beneath the transverse carpal ligament (TCL), resulting in compression of the median nerve. The median nerve was decompressed and the patient's symptoms resolved postoperatively. Surgical pathology revealed bony fragments, and a postoperative CT scan was supportive of an osteophytic remnant protruding from the trapezium. Carpal bone osteophytes are rarely reported causes of CTS.

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome among grocery store workers.

    PubMed

    Osorio, A M; Ames, R G; Jones, J; Castorina, J; Rempel, D; Estrin, W; Thompson, D

    1994-02-01

    The California Department of Health Services evaluated carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a median nerve entrapment condition associated with forceful and repetitive wrist motion, among grocery store workers at a large California supermarket where a CTS cluster had been reported. Forceful and repetitive wrist motion was measured, in three exposure levels, through a job classification scheme based upon type of work tasks and average time per week spent performing these tasks. A medical questionnaire and measurements of median sensory nerve conduction were used to measure CTS. CTS prevalence was 23% based upon a sample of 56 participants drawn from a workforce of 69 employees. A relative risk of 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.6-26.4) for a history of CTS-like symptoms between the high and low exposure level groups held up after adjustment for the potential confounders of age, sex, alcohol consumption, and high-risk medical history. It was concluded that the basic principles of good ergonomic design should be used to prevent or diminish the risk of musculoskeletal injury in the workplace.

  12. The reliability of physical examination for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marx, R G; Hudak, P L; Bombardier, C; Graham, B; Goldsmith, C; Wright, J G

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of static and moving two-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, Tinel's test, manual motor testing of abductor pollicis brevis, vibration and Phalen's test in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Twelve patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome were examined in an outpatient setting. The interobserver reliability was satisfactory for all tests except for Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. Intraobserver reliability was also satisfactory for all tests. Static two point discrimination had higher reliability than moving two-point discrimination. Seven tests for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome were reliable in the hands of skilled health care professionals. Hand surgeons and hand therapists examined patients more reliably than occupational health workers.

  13. Review of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and a Proposed Scanning Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Ting; Williams, Lisa; Zak, Matthew J; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral compressive neuropathy. Ultrasonography (US) is an emerging technology that can be used in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Although the cross-sectional area is the most studied and validated measurement for carpal tunnel syndrome, there is no standardized neuromuscular US scanning protocol. We review the most studied neuromuscular US characteristics and protocols in the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome and propose a standardized protocol for evaluating carpal tunnel syndrome with neuromuscular US based on current literature. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Laser evoked potentials in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Libro, Giuseppe; Difruscolo, Olimpia; Sardaro, Michele; Serpino, Claudia; Calabrese, Rita; Vecchio, Eleonora; Livrea, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of Adelta fibers at the hand level in patients with clinical symptoms of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) using CO(2) laser evoked potentials (LEPs), in light of the intensity and distribution of sensory symptoms and pain. Thirty-four CTS outpatients (62 hands) were compared to 23 sex- and age-matched control subjects (46 hands). The periungueal skin of the first, second, third and fifth fingers, and the dorsum of the hands were stimulated in random order. The latency and amplitude of the N2, P2 and N1 components were evaluated with respect to the Nerve Conduction Study (NCS) data, clinical scales, pain intensity and glove-like symptoms distribution. The amplitude of the N2-P2 complex was significantly reduced in CTS hands compared to normal hands after stimulation of the second and third fingers, even in patients with mild nerve conduction impairment. No significant fifth finger LEP abnormalities were found in patients with glove-like distribution symptoms. The N2-P2 amplitude at the second and third fingers was positively correlated with the severity of sensory symptoms. The involvement of median nerve Adelta fibers in CTS seems to be an early phenomenon, which concurs with the impairment of large motor and sensory afferents and is linked to the severity of the disease. The finding of reduced sensory symptoms in patients with severe thin afferents damage, may suggest a slight expression of central sensitisation phenomena in the advanced stage of CTS syndrome.

  15. Risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population.

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, D L; Vierkant, R A; DeStefano, F; Layde, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the individual, physical, and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. METHODS: Population based case-control study in Marshfield epidemiological study area in Wisconsin, USA. Cases were men and women aged 18-69 with newly diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 206 (83.1%) of 248 eligible). Controls were a random sample of residents of the study area who had no history of diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 211 (81.5%) of 259 eligible). Cases and controls were matched by age. Telephone interviews and reviews of medical records obtained height and weight, medical history, average daily hours of exposure to selected physical and organisational work factors, and self ratings on psychosocial work scales. RESULTS: In the final logistic regression model, five work and three non-work variables were associated with risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, after adjusting for age. For each one unit of increase in body mass index (kg/m2), risk increased 8% (odds ratio (OR) 1.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03 to 1.14). Having a previous musculoskeletal condition was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.03 to 6.23). People reporting the least influence at work had 2.86 times the risk (95% CI, 1.10 to 7.14) than those with the most influence at work. CONCLUSIONS: Carpal tunnel syndrome is a work related disease, although some important measures of occupational exposure, including keyboard use, were not risk factors in this general population study. The mechanism whereby a weight gain of about six pounds increases the risk of disease 8% requires explanation. PMID:9404321

  16. Spatio-temporal mapping cortical neuroplasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ruzich, Emily; Witzel, Thomas; Maeda, Yumi; Malatesta, Cristina; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Hämäläinen, Matti; Kettner, Norman; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging data demonstrate that carpal tunnel syndrome, a peripheral neuropathy, is accompanied by maladaptive central neuroplasticity. To further investigate this phenomenon, we collected magnetoencephalography data from 12 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 12 healthy control subjects undergoing somatosensory stimulation of the median nerve-innervated Digits 2 and 3, as well as Digit 5, which is innervated by the ulnar nerve. Nerve conduction velocity and psychophysical data were acquired to determine whether standard clinical measures correlated with brain response. In subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, but not healthy controls, sensory nerve conduction velocity for Digits 2 and 3 was slower than Digit 5. However, somatosensory M20 latencies for Digits 2 and 3 were significantly longer than those of Digit 5. The extent of the M20 delay for median nerve-innervated Digit 2 was positively correlated with decreasing nerve conduction velocity and increasing pain severity. Thus, slower peripheral nerve conduction in carpal tunnel syndrome corresponds to greater delays in the first somatosensory cortical response. Furthermore, spectral analysis demonstrated weaker post-stimulus beta event-related desynchronization and earlier and shorter event-related synchronization in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome. The extent of the decreased event-related desynchronization for median nerve-innervated digits was positively correlated with paraesthesia severity. We propose that ongoing paraesthesias in median nerve-innervated digits render their corresponding sensorimotor cortical areas ‘busy’, thus reducing their capacity to process external stimulation. Finally, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated a smaller cortical source separation for Digits 2 and 3 compared with healthy controls. This supports our hypothesis that ongoing paraesthesias promote blurring of median nerve-innervated digit representations through Hebbian plasticity mechanisms. In

  17. Effect of metabolic syndrome on the outcome of corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roh, Y H; Lee, B K; Baek, J R; Park, M H; Noh, J H; Gong, H S; Baek, G H

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse peripheral nerve impairment is common in metabolic syndrome: in patients with metabolic syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome this might affect the outcome of treatment by local corticosteroid injection. A total of 55 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and metabolic syndrome treated with corticosteroid injection (10 mg triamcinolone acetonide) were age and sex matched with 55 control patients without metabolic syndrome. Grip strength, perception of touch with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires were assessed at the baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. The two groups had similar pre-operative grip strength and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire symptom and function scores of the metabolic syndrome group were significantly greater than the control group at 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. Except for significantly greater grip strength at the 12-week follow-up in the control group, there were no significant differences in grip strength between the groups. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament sensory index for the control group was significantly greater than that of the metabolic syndrome group throughout the 24-week follow-up. After 24 weeks, five patients (13%) in the control group and 13 patients (27%) in the metabolic syndrome group had had carpal tunnel surgery. Patients with metabolic syndrome are at risk for poor functional outcome and failure of treatment after corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  18. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to tophaceous compression of the median nerves.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C Y; Yu, C L; Tsai, S T

    1996-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with long-term gouty arthritis developed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. At surgery a chalky substance, which showed negative birefringence on polarized microscopy, was found infiltrating around the intensely inflamed transverse carpal ligaments. In differential diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, tophaceous compression over the median nerve should be taken into consideration.

  19. Application of 3-dimensional ultrasonography in assessing carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Sung Bum; Kang, Chang Ho; Yoon, Joon Shik; Kwon, Hee Kyu; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Oh, Yu Whan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of 3D ultrasonography (3DUS) in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fifty patients with carpal tunnel syndrome confirmed by electromyography and 37 healthy control participants underwent 3DUS of the wrists. The mean times per participant for the 3DUS examination and review of the 3D volume set were recorded. The cross-sectional area at the proximal carpal tunnel and the maximum swelling point were measured. Data from patients and controls were compared for determination of statistical significance. The accuracy of the 3DUS diagnostic criteria for carpal tunnel syndrome was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis, and changes in the median nerve shape, including the maximum swelling point, were assessed by review of the 3D volume data. The mean times for examination of a participant and review in each wrist were 56 seconds and 5.7 minutes, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the mean cross-sectional areas of the median nerve between patients and controls. The mean cross-sectional areas ± SD were 16.7 ± 6.7 mm(2) in patients and 8.3 ± 1.9 mm(2) in controls. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, a cutoff value of greater than 10.5 mm(2) provided diagnostic sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 86%. In 42 of 73 wrists with carpal tunnel syndrome, the median nerve showed fusiform morphologic abnormalities and maximum swelling points. Our results show that 3DUS could markedly decrease scanning time, and measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area combined with morphologic analysis using 3DUS is a promising supplementary method for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  20. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to gouty tenosynovitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pledger, S R; Hirsch, B; Freiberg, R A

    1976-01-01

    A 30-year-old patient developed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to gouty tenosynovitis. Relief of symptoms followed removal of the tophaceous masses from the carpal tunnel. Surgical treatment is recommended whenever there is symptomatic median nerve compression.

  1. Lamb boning -- an occupational cause of carpal tunnel syndrome?

    PubMed

    Wyatt, M C; Gwynne-Jones, D P; Veale, G A

    2013-01-01

    Whether an occupation can cause carpal tunnel syndrome requiring carpal tunnel decompression (CTD) is contentious. We compared the demographics and incidence rates in lamb-freezing workers with the general population who had CTD. In the general population there were 1002 (63%) females and 583 (37%) males, mean age 48 years, and the rate of CTD was 1.36/1000 per annum. In lamb-freezing workers there were 225 males (mean age 38.4 years) and 60 females (mean age 44.6 years); most workers required CTD in their first three seasons. Compared with the general population, the incidence rate ratios in all freezing workers was 16.8; boners, 51.6; meat packers, 22.8; and slaughtermen, 5.4. All groups had a greater rate of CTD than the general population. This study suggests that carpal tunnel syndrome can be directly caused by an occupation.

  2. Carpal tunnel syndrome in railroad workers.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, James L; Chase, Peter M; Mast, Norman J; Reeves, Richard

    2002-02-01

    To determine, within a specific industry, if carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is associated with job classification or other personal risk factors. To determine if surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS is indicated on the basis of electrodiagnostic criteria. More than 2500 claimants who screened positive for CTS were subjected to a formal history, physical examination, and electrodiagnostic studies. A total of 900 subjects were randomly selected for this study. The presence of CTS was determined by a method of comparing median minus ulnar nerve distal latency differential (MUD). There was a statistically significant relationship between CTS and body mass index (P < 0.001), wrist index (P < 0.001), and age (P < 0.001). A total of 43.4% of the participants (391/900) and 38.6% of the wrists (694/1800) had either positive or borderline findings for CTS. There was no difference between the left and right hands. There was no association between job classification and the presence of CTS. Using MUD criteria, more than half of the participants presumed to have CTS did not meet the requirements for diagnosis. Applying the same MUD criteria to all surgical cases, the indication for surgery could not be determined in one-third of the cases (33%, 83/248). In the population claiming CTS caused by railroad occupations, there was a significant association between CTS and body mass index, age, and wrist index, but not job classification. More than half of the study group and one-third of the surgical subset had normal MUD data.

  3. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyewon; Jee, Sungju; Park, Soo Ho; Ahn, Seung-Chan; Im, Juneho; Sohn, Min Kyun

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US.

  4. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Methods Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Results Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US. PMID:28119835

  5. Gender differences in carpal tunnel relative cross-sectional area: a possible causative factor in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sassi, S A; Giddins, G

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has not established a consistent difference in hand size or carpal tunnel cross-sectional area between patients with and without carpal tunnel syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that there would be no difference in relative carpal tunnel sizes between men and women. We defined relative carpal tunnel size as the cross-sectional areas at the inlet (level of the pisiform) and outlet (level of the hook of the hamate) of the carpal tunnel divided by the length of the capitate (as a measure of hand size). We made the measurements on the magnetic resonance imaging scans of 50 men and 50 women taken for symptoms unrelated to carpal tunnel syndrome. The mean relative cross-sectional area was appreciably smaller in women than men (p < 0.05). This suggests that the carpal tunnel cross-sectional area relative to the size of the hand is constitutionally smaller in women than in men. This could in theory be a significant factor in patients developing carpal tunnel syndrome. V. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. [Carpal tunnel syndrome, amyloid tenosynovitis and periodic hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Clanet, M; Mansat, M; Durroux, R; Testut, M F; Guiraud, B; Rascol, A; Conte, J

    1981-01-01

    Since 1975, various entrapment neuropathies have been reported in patients undergoing periodic haemodialysis, the most frequent being the carpal tunnel syndrome. Ten patients on chronic haemodialysis developing 15 carpal tunnel syndromes (5 unilateral and 5 bilateral) are reported. Various causes for the renal failure were present and clinical signs of the carpal tunnel syndrome developed at a late stage. The arteriovenous fistula required for extrarenal epuration was antebrachial and of the laterolateral type, except in one case when it was lateroterminal. The carpal tunnel syndrome was always on the same side as the fistula, developing at a later stage on th contralateral side in the 5 cases of bilateral disorders. Lesions were severe, in 11 of the 15 cases. Some patients noted fluctuations in pain symptoms during haemodialysis, either improving or becoming worse. Gross pathological findings during operation (13 cases) were tenosynovitis with epineural hypervascularisation on the opposite side. In 9 cases, however, atypical hypertrophic tenosynovitis was observed. Histological examination in 12 cases demonstrated typical tenosynovitis in 3 patients, but granulomatous tenosynovitis with amyloid deposits was reported in 9 patients. Lesions were bilateral in 2 cases thus present, on the side opposite to the fistula. Ultrastructural study confirmed the amyloid nature of the deposits in 3 cases, the microfibrillary appearance (80 to 100 A) being characteristic of amyloid substance. This rare complication does not represent a common carpal tunnel syndrome, and three mechanisms may be involved in its induction : peripheral uraemic neuropathy, haemodynamic modifications resulting from the antebrachial arteriovenous shunt, and amyloid formation in the flexor synovial sheaths. In the latter case, the type of amyloid disease may be a primary systemic amyloidosis not previously detected, or an elective amyloid process localised to the tenosynovial and periarticular tissues.

  7. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Caused by Space Occupying Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho Jung; Yoon, Hong Ki; Hahn, Soo Bong; Kim, Sung Jae

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) due to space occupying lesions (SOL). Materials and Methods Eleven patients and 12 cases that underwent surgery for CTS due to SOL were studied retrospectively. We excluded SOL caused by bony lesions, such as malunion of distal radius fracture, volar lunate dislocation, etc. The average age was 51 years. There were 3 men and 8 women. Follow-up period was 12 to 40 months with an average of 18 months. The diagnosis of CTS was made clinically and electrophysiologically. In patients with swelling or tenderness on the area of wrist flexion creases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomogram (CT) were additionally taken as well as the carpal tunnel view. We performed conventional open transverse carpal ligament release and removal of SOL. Results The types of lesion confirmed by pathologic examination were; tuberculosis tenosynovitis in 3 cases, nonspecific tenosynovitis in 2 cases, and gout in one case. Other SOLs were tumorous condition in five cases, and abnormal palmaris longus hypertrophy in 1 case. Tumorous conditions were due to calcifying mass in 4 cases and ganglion in 1 case. Following surgery, all cases showed alleviation of symptom without recurrence or complications. Conclusion In cases with swelling or tenderness on the area of wrist flexion creases, it is important to obtain a carpal tunnel view, and MRI and/or CT should be supplemented in order to rule out SOLs around the carpal tunnel, if necessary. PMID:19430560

  8. Sonographic diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: a study in 200 hospital workers*

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Adham do Amaral e; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Sakuma, Alexandre Kaue; Barros, Wagner Haese

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a sample of 200 healthy hospital workers, establishing the respective epidemiological associations. Materials and Methods Two hundred individuals were submitted to wrist ultrasonography to measure the median nerve area. They were questioned and examined for epidemiological data, body mass index, carpal tunnel syndrome signs and symptoms, and submitted to the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire (BCTQ) to evaluate the carpal tunnel syndrome severity. A median nerve area ≥ 9 mm2 was considered to be diagnostic of carpal tunnel syndrome. Results Carpal tunnel syndrome was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 34% of the sample. It was observed the association of carpal tunnel syndrome with age (p < 0.0001), paresthesia (p < 0.0001), Tinel’s test (p < 0.0001), Phalen’s test (p < 0.0001), BCTQ score (p < 0.0001), and years of formal education (p < 0.0001). Years of formal education was the only variable identified as an independent risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.24). Conclusion The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a population of hospital workers was of 34%. The number of years of formal education was the only independent risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:26543279

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part I (anatomy, physiology, etiology and diagnosis).

    PubMed

    Chammas, Michel; Boretto, Jorge; Burmann, Lauren Marquardt; Ramos, Renato Matta; Dos Santos Neto, Francisco Carlos; Silva, Jefferson Braga

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is defined by compression of the median nerve in the wrist. It is the commonest of the compressive syndromes and its most frequent cause is idiopathic. Even though spontaneous regression is possible, the general rule is that the symptoms will worsen. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, from the symptoms and provocative tests. Electroneuromyographic examination may be recommended before the operation or in cases of occupational illnesses.

  10. Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Evaluation of the Depth of the Carpal Tunnel by Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Elsaman, Ahmed Mohammed Mahrous Yousif; Thabit, Mohamed Nasreldin; Radwan, Ahmed Roshdy Al-Agamy; Ohrndorf, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the work described here was to evaluate the depth of the carpal tunnel (DCT) in patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy volunteers by ultrasonography (US), through measurement of the distance from the flexor retinaculum to the surface of the capitate bone at the carpal tunnel outlet, and compare it with other ultrasonographic and electrophysiologic parameters in CTS. The study was conducted in 60 non-diabetic patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (unilateral n = 37, bilateral n = 23) evidenced by electrophysiologic diagnosis according to the criteria of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM). Furthermore, 40 hands from 20 healthy volunteers were examined. Median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA); flattening ratio (FR), the ratio of the length to the width of the median nerve; and DCT at the canal outlet were measured for all participants. The mean age was 35.6 ± 9.48 y. The female-to-male ratio was 47:13 in the CTS patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 95% for CSA, 75% and 60% for FR and 75% and 87.5% for DCT, respectively. Differences between patients and healthy controls were significant for all three parameters, greatest for DCT, followed by CSA and then FR. We conclude that DCT increased in CTS and this new parameter is comparable in sensitivity and specificity to CSA and FR. DCT increased independently of the cause of the CTS (decrease in size of canal or increase in contents). Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle release of the carpal tunnel for treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    McShane, John M; Slaff, Samantha; Gold, Judith E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel treatment procedure, sonographically guided percutaneous needle release of the carpal tunnel, for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome. Seventeen patients (89% female; mean age, 62 years; SD, 13.6 years) with a clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome who had undergone a sonographically guided percutaneous needle release of the carpal tunnel at least 6 months before follow-up evaluation were retrospectively reviewed. At the follow-up evaluation, to ascertain previous and current symptoms as well as functional impairment, the patients filled out a hand diagram and a questionnaire. In addition, medical records were reviewed, and patients were queried regarding complications such as infection or nerve damage. Median nerve sonographic measurements and a physical evaluation were performed on a subset of 13 patients who came to the office for evaluation. Postprocedure sonography showed that patients had a significantly smaller (P = .03) cross-sectional area of the median nerve compared to pretreatment values. In addition, patients had significantly fewer symptoms (P < .0001), less functional impairment (P = .0002), and an improved hand diagram score (P < .0001). Postprocedure patients had grip strength that was 12 lb below average (≈1 SD below) compared to grip strength norms. However, most patients (84.6%) had negative clinical diagnostic test results for carpal tunnel syndrome, and 86% said they were satisfied with the procedure. There were no procedure-related infections or nerve injuries. Of the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who agreed to participate in this study, most had favorable symptomatic and functional outcomes. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle release of the carpal tunnel may be an alternative option to traditional surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  12. Long-term trends in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gelfman, R; Melton, L J; Yawn, B P; Wollan, P C; Amadio, P C; Stevens, J C

    2009-01-06

    To assess temporal trends in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence, surgical treatment, and work-related lost time. Incident CTS and first-time carpal tunnel release among Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents were identified using the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project; 80% of a sample were confirmed by medical record review. Work-related CTS was identified from the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. Altogether, 10,069 Olmsted County residents were initially diagnosed with CTS in 1981-2005. Overall incidence (adjusted to the 2000 US population) was 491 and 258 per 100,000 person-years for women vs men (p < 0.0001) and 376 per 100,000 for both sexes combined. Adjusted annual rates increased from 258 per 100,000 in 1981-1985 to 424 in 2000-2005 (p < 0.0001). The average annual incidence of carpal tunnel release surgery was 109 per 100,000, while that for work-related CTS was 11 per 100,000. An increase in young, working-age individuals seeking medical attention for symptoms of less severe CTS in the early to mid-1980s was followed in the 1990s by an increasing incidence in elderly people. The incidence of medically diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) accelerated in the 1980s. The cause of the increase is unclear, but it corresponds to an epidemic of CTS cases resulting in lost work days that began in the mid-1980s and lasted through the mid-1990s. The elderly present with more severe disease and are more likely to have carpal tunnel surgery, which may have significant health policy implications given the aging population.

  13. Hirayama disease (monomelic amyotrophy) clinically confused for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ay, Halil

    2017-01-01

    Hirayama disease (HD) is a rare motor neuron disorder that involves a single upper extremity. It is clinically characterized by weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the hand and forearm. This article presents a 19-year-old woman who visited the orthopedics outpatient clinic with weakness and atrophy in her right hand and was clinically diagnosed with advanced stage carpal tunnel syndrome and scheduled for surgical intervention; she was later diagnosed with HD by an electrophysiological study. As a result, it has been found that a careful electrophysiological study and neurological examination can be used to diagnose HD. In this way, advanced stage carpal tunnel syndrome will be ruled out and patients will be spared from an unnecessary surgical operation.

  14. Patient education for carpal tunnel syndrome: analysis of readability.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lee, Bernard T

    2015-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association recommend a sixth grade reading level for patient-directed content. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the readability of the most commonly used resources for surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. A web search for "carpal tunnel surgery" was performed using an Internet search engine, and the 13 most popular sites were identified. Relevant, patient-directed articles immediately accessible from the main site were downloaded and formatted into plain text. A total of 102 articles were assessed for readability using ten established analyses: first overall, then by website for comparison. Patient information about carpal tunnel surgery had an overall average reading level of 13.1. Secondary analysis by website revealed a range of mean readability from 10.8 (high school sophomore level) to 15.3 (university junior level). All sites exceeded the recommended sixth grade reading level. Online patient resources for carpal tunnel surgery uniformly exceed the recommended reading level. These are too difficult to be understood by a large portion of American adults. A better understanding of readability may be useful in tailoring more appropriate resources for average patient literacy.

  15. Work-Related Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Gary M; Friedman, Andrew S

    2015-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, and its risk of occurrence in the presence of repetitive, forceful angular hand movements, or vibration, is common. It is critical to make the diagnosis based on appropriate clinical history and findings and with corroborating electrodiagnostic studies. Conservative management should be undertaken with the goal of maintaining employment; surgical decompression can be highly effective, particularly if undertaken early on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome: the case of a secretary].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Diop, S N; Hatim, B; Sow, M L

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of carpal tunnel syndrome which occurred in a office secretary, whose job task was mainly type writing. Occupational origin of this disease was stressed based on unilateral lesion, absence of personal and familial risk factors. Working conditions seem to explain the occurrence of symptoms. The recognition of occupational origin is important for physicians, because it eases the implementation of ergonomic sound measures which supply medical treatment. It also allows to take into account medico-legal aspects.

  17. Solitary osteochondroma of the distal radius: a rare cause of carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Franz, Torsten; Leclère, Franck Marie; Rees, Marcel Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy in the upper extremity. A rare case of carpal tunnel syndrome due to solitary osteochondroma arising from the metaphysis of the distal radius is presented. Preoperative diagnosis was suspected by physical examination and high-resolution sonography and confirmed by radiographs. Surgical treatment consisted of extended open carpal tunnel release and excision of the tumor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Is carpal tunnel syndrome an occupational disease? A review.

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej

    2013-05-27

    In many countries, including Poland, carpal tunnel syndrome is considered to be a disease of possible occupational etiology. This review presents information about work-related risk-factors which comprise the use of handheld vibrating machinery, forceful gripping of objects with hands, repetitive and frequent manual tasks and forced postures of the wrist (flexion/extension). However, the character of the job is only one of possible several factors leading to the development of the disease, as its etiology is multifactorial. Conditions to be taken into consideration when recognizing a case as occupational carpal tunnel syndrome were shown to include: coexistence of predisposing diseases (diabetes), constitutional factors (obesity), character, level and duration of the exposure to harmful stimuli during the workday as well as total duration of work upon exposure. Consideration of these circumstances provides adequate ground for recognizing a particular case as occupational. Nonetheless, even accepting the disease as occupational should be temporary, as surgical carpal tunnel release is an effective method of treatment and should allow the patient to return to previously performed work.

  19. Ultrasound findings of carpal tunnel syndrome in a Hunter syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Preston, David C

    2016-01-01

    Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II) is a rare genetic disorder. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common finding in these patients. We report the ultrasound findings in a 40-year-old Hunter syndrome patient with severe CTS. Marked abnormalities of the median nerve were present proximal to the carpal tunnel with an unusual area of increased echogenicity between enlarged fascicles separating the area of maximal enlargement and the normal median nerve proximally. This case demonstrated unique ultrasound findings in a Hunter syndrome with CTS. Ultrasound also localized the median nerve lesion in the setting of end-stage median neuropathy and nonlocalizing electrophysiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome in inherited neuropathies: A retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Panosyan, Francis B; Kirk, Callyn A; Marking, Devon; Reilly, Mary M; Scherer, Steven S; Shy, Michael E; Herrmann, David N

    2017-07-10

    This study evaluates carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptom severity, functional status, and outcome of CTS therapies in patients with inherited neuropathies. Validated questionnaires were used to compare symptom severity and functional status in patients with and without a diagnosis of CTS and a diagnosis of an inherited neuropathy. 309 patients with inherited neuropathies participated in this study. The CTS symptom severity score (SSS) was found to be the most useful tool in assessing CTS severity in patients with inherited neuropathy. Splint therapy and surgery were associated with significant improvement in carpal tunnel symptoms as measured through the SSS. This study provides insight into the assessment of CTS symptom severity and patient-reported outcomes to CTS therapy in individuals with inherited neuropathies. The SSS appears useful for evaluation of CTS symptoms and patient-reported outcomes following CTS interventions in individuals with inherited neuropathies. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surgical options for recalcitrant carpal tunnel syndrome with perineural fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua M; Jacoby, Sidney M; Osterman, A Lee

    2012-03-01

    Surgical release of the transverse carpal ligament for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is, in general, a very successful procedure. Some patients, however, fail this standard release and have persistent or recurrent symptoms. Such recalcitrance may relate to incomplete release but more often relates to perineural or intraneural fibrosis of the median nerve. While there is no good treatment for intraneural fibrosis, numerous procedures have evolved in an attempt to treat perineural fibrosis which restricts nerve gliding. These include procedures to isolate the nerve from scar as well as procedures to bring neovascularization to the median nerve. This review describes the various surgical treatment options for recalcitrant CTS as well as their reported outcomes.

  2. Effect of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on the Ulnar Nerve at the Wrist: Sonographic and Electrophysiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok; Yang, Seung Nam; Yoon, Joon Shik; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Won, Sun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ulnar nerve at the wrist by sonographic and electrophysiologic studies between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and control participants and to verify the effect of carpal tunnel syndrome of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. Forty-two hands of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 37 hands of control participants were examined. Electrophysiologic studies of the ulnar nerve were done in all participants. The cross-sectional areas of the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist were evaluated by sonography. Fifteen hands of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who underwent carpal tunnel release were also evaluated by sonography after the operation. The ulnar nerve cross-sectional area of the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (mean ± SD, 5.16 ± 1.04 mm(2)) was significantly larger than that of the controls (3.56 ± 0.52 mm(2); P < .0001). After release of the transverse carpal ligament, the cross-sectional area of the ulnar nerve was significantly smaller than the size measured prior to surgery (P < .0001). The cross-sectional area of the median nerve was significantly correlated with that of the ulnar nerve (P < .05). However, no statistically significant difference was found between the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and controls in ulnar nerve conduction. There were no statistically significant differences in nerve conduction study results or cross-sectional area of the ulnar nerve between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome with and without extramedian symptoms. The cross-sectional areas of the ulnar and median nerves at the wrist are increased in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Also, the cross-sectional area of the ulnar nerve is decreased after carpal tunnel release. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. The significance of ultrasonographic carpal tunnel outlet measurements in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Csillik, Anita; Bereczki, Dániel; Bora, László; Arányi, Zsuzsanna

    2016-12-01

    A retrospective study to investigate the utility of ultrasonographic carpal tunnel outlet measurements in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 118 hands of 87 patients with electrophysiologically confirmed CTS and 44 control hands of 23 subjects were assessed. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the median nerve were measured at the tunnel inlet, outlet, and forearm. Longitudinal diameters (LAPD) were measured at the inlet, proximal tunnel, distal tunnel, and outlet. CSA at the outlet (median: 18mm(2)) and its palm-to-forearm-ratio (median: 2.7) were significantly larger than CSA at the inlet (median: 15mm(2)) and its wrist-to-forearm-ratio (median: 2.2) (p<0.001). 27% of the hands showed enlargement only at the outlet versus 13% only at the inlet. LAPD jump was significantly greater, suggesting relief of higher pressure, at the outlet/distal tunnel versus inlet/proximal tunnel (p<0.001). Median nerve enlargement in CTS is greater at the tunnel outlet than at the inlet. We postulate that this is explained by the progressive increase of pressure within the tunnel from proximal to distal. The addition of CSA outlet measurements to inlet measurements increased CTS ultrasonographic diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy by 15% and 10%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  5. [Case-control study on transverse carpal ligament resection for the prevention of delayed carpal tunnel syndrome after distal radius fracture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-jie; Wang, Shi-gang; Miao, Shu-juan; Su, Xia

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the effects of open reduction by palm side for the distal radius fracture and T shape plate internal fixation with simultaneous anterior transverse carpal ligament resection for the prevention of delayed carpal tunnel syndrome after operation. From March 2000 to March 2007, 32 patients (8 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 46 to 66 years) with distal radius fracture were treated with open reduction by palm side and T shape plate internal fixation with simultaneous anterior transverse carpal ligament resection; while 30 patients (7 males and 23 females,ranging in age from 45 to 65 years) only with open reduction by palm side and T shape plate internal fixation. The incidences of delayed carpal tunnel syndrome between the two groups were compared. Among 32 patients treated with open reduction by palm side and T shape plate internal fixation with anterior transverse carpal ligament resection, 3 patients had delayed carpal tunnel syndrome; while in 30 patients treated with open reduction by palm side and T shape plate internal fixation, 10 patients had delayed carpal tunnel syndrome. There was significant statistically difference (P < 0.05%). Simultaneous anterior transverse carpal ligament resection can effectively prevent the delayed carpal tunnel syndrome occurrence for the distal radius fracture with open reduction by palm side.

  6. Evaluation of thenar muscles by MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dilokhuttakarn, Thitinut; Naito, Kiyohito; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Goto, Kenji; Iwase, Yoshiyuki; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the thenar muscles were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition, the correlations between thenar muscle changes, clinical findings and electrodiagnostic results from patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were investigated. The subjects were 13 patients (17 wrists) who were clinically diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. In all patients, a medical history was obtained and physical examination was performed, in addition to assessment using the Kapandji scoring system, visual analogue scale (VAS), quick-disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (Q-DASH) score, electrodiagnostic results of the median nerve, and MRI of the thenar muscles. Thenar muscle volume was not significantly correlated with clinical data or the electrodiagnostic results. The thenar muscle major axis was significantly correlated with grasp power (P<0.05) and the Kapandji score (P<0.05), while the thenar muscle minor axis was significantly correlated with abductor pollicis brevis distal motor latency (APB DML) (P<0.01). In addition, the thenar muscle minor axis/thenar muscle major axis ratio was significantly correlated with APB DML and Kanatani's stage. Notably, thenar muscle thinness was significantly correlated with the severity of electrodiagnostic changes, while the grasp power and Kapandji score were correlated with thenar muscle thickness. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that thenar muscle thinness was significantly correlated with the severity of electrodiagnostic changes; in addition, there was a significant correlation between the thenar muscle major axis and the grasp power or Kapandji score. Taken together, these results revealed that thenar muscle atrophy did not affect patient-based assessments, including VAS and Q-DASH, but reflected electrodiagnostic results, particularly DML and severity. The results of the present study suggest that thenar muscle atrophy can be used to estimate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:28962120

  7. Evaluation of thenar muscles by MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dilokhuttakarn, Thitinut; Naito, Kiyohito; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Goto, Kenji; Iwase, Yoshiyuki; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the thenar muscles were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in addition, the correlations between thenar muscle changes, clinical findings and electrodiagnostic results from patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were investigated. The subjects were 13 patients (17 wrists) who were clinically diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. In all patients, a medical history was obtained and physical examination was performed, in addition to assessment using the Kapandji scoring system, visual analogue scale (VAS), quick-disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (Q-DASH) score, electrodiagnostic results of the median nerve, and MRI of the thenar muscles. Thenar muscle volume was not significantly correlated with clinical data or the electrodiagnostic results. The thenar muscle major axis was significantly correlated with grasp power (P<0.05) and the Kapandji score (P<0.05), while the thenar muscle minor axis was significantly correlated with abductor pollicis brevis distal motor latency (APB DML) (P<0.01). In addition, the thenar muscle minor axis/thenar muscle major axis ratio was significantly correlated with APB DML and Kanatani's stage. Notably, thenar muscle thinness was significantly correlated with the severity of electrodiagnostic changes, while the grasp power and Kapandji score were correlated with thenar muscle thickness. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that thenar muscle thinness was significantly correlated with the severity of electrodiagnostic changes; in addition, there was a significant correlation between the thenar muscle major axis and the grasp power or Kapandji score. Taken together, these results revealed that thenar muscle atrophy did not affect patient-based assessments, including VAS and Q-DASH, but reflected electrodiagnostic results, particularly DML and severity. The results of the present study suggest that thenar muscle atrophy can be used to estimate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  8. Prospective, randomized evaluation of endoscopic versus open carpal tunnel release in bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome: an interim analysis.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Brett; Romanowsky, Diane; Hauck, Randy M

    2014-12-01

    Most randomized trials have shown similar results with endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) and open carpal tunnel release (OCTR); however, there are studies suggesting less postoperative pain, faster improvement in grip and pinch strength, and earlier return to work with the endoscopic technique. The goal of this study was to prospectively examine subjective and functional outcomes, satisfaction, and complications after both ECTR and OCTR in the opposite hands of the same patient, serving as their own control. This was a prospective, randomized study in which patients underwent surgery for bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The first carpal tunnel release was performed on the most symptomatic hand-determined by the patient. Operative approach was randomly assigned and, approximately 1 month later, the alternative technique was performed on the contralateral side. Demographic data were obtained, and functional outcomes were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively, including pain score, 2-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, thenar strength, and overall grip strength. The carpal tunnel syndrome-functional status score and carpal tunnel syndrome-symptom severity score were recorded before surgery and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Overall satisfaction with each technique was recorded at the conclusion of the study. Currently, 25 subjects have completed final visit testing. There were no differences in pain score, 2-point discrimination, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, thenar strength, or overall grip strength at any of the postoperative time points. Carpal tunnel syndrome-symptom severity score and carpal tunnel syndrome-functional status score were not significantly different between groups at any of the evaluations. Overall satisfaction, where patients recorded a number from 0 to 100, was significantly greater in the ECTR group (95.95 vs 91.60, P = 0.04). There were no complications with either technique. This

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome: primary care and occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lary, Olivier; Rébois, Arnaud; Mediouni, Zakia; Descatha, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) affects about 1% of working-aged people and is the commonest cause of hand pain in manual workers. CTS is a clinical diagnosis and does not warrant any further investigation in the presence of mild and suggestive CTS. Although the recommended non-surgical management is still a matter of debate, nocturnal splinting or steroid injection are recommended in most countries, with strong to moderate level of evidence for short-term efficacy. Patients with an uncertain diagnosis or severe symptoms, should undergo nerve conduction studies with referral to a hand specialist.

  10. Validation of a diagnostic sign in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pryse-Phillips, W E

    1984-01-01

    Of three signs in carpal tunnel syndrome, Phalen's, Tinel's and the Flick sign, the last of these was the most valid and reliable. The presence of a positive Flick sign predicted electrodiagnostic abnormality in 93% of cases and had a false positive rate of under 5% among other neural lesions in the arm. The key question consists of an enquiry as to what the patient does with the affected hand at times when symptoms are at their worst; a flicking movement of the wrist and fingers demonstrated by the patient constitutes a positive response. Images PMID:6470728

  11. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Review of the Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Khan, W.S; Goddard, N; Smitham, P

    2012-01-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) remains a puzzling and disabling condition present in 3.8% of the general population. CTS is the most well-known and frequent form of median nerve entrapment, and accounts for 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. This review aims to provide an overview of this common condition, with an emphasis on the pathophysiology involved in CTS. The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with CTS are discussed in this paper. Also, the various methods of diagnosis are explored; including nerve conduction studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22470412

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome: The role of occupational factors

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T

    2011-01-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a fairly common condition in working-aged people, sometimes caused by physical occupational activities, such as repeated and forceful movements of the hand and wrist or use of hand-held powered vibratory tools. Symptoms may be prevented or alleviated by primary control measures at work and some cases of disease are compensable. Following a general description of the disorder, its epidemiology, and some of the difficulties surrounding diagnosis, this review focuses on the role of occupational factors in causation of CTS and factors that can mitigate risk. Areas of uncertainty, debate and research interest are emphasised where relevant. PMID:21663847

  13. Description, reliability and validity of a novel method to measure carpal tunnel pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Michel W; Schmid, Annina B; Kubler, Paul A; Hodges, Paul W

    2012-12-01

    Elevated carpal tunnel pressure is an important pathomechanism in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Several invasive methods have been described for direct measurement of carpal tunnel pressure, but all have two important limitations. The pressure gauge requires sterilisation between uses, which makes time-efficient data collection logistically cumbersome, and more importantly, the reliability of carpal tunnel pressure measurements has not been evaluated for any of the methods in use. This technical note describes a new method to measure carpal tunnel pressure using inexpensive, disposable pressure sensors and reports the within and between session reliability of the pressure recordings in five different wrist positions and during typing and computer mouse operation. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC[3,1]) were calculated for recordings within one session for healthy participants (n = 7) and patients with CTS (n = 5), and for recordings between two sessions for patients with CTS (n = 5). Overall, the reliability was high. With the exception of two coefficients, the reliability of the recordings at different wrist angles varied from 0.63 to 0.99. Reliability for typing and mouse operation ranged from 0.86 to 0.99. The new method described in this report is inexpensive and reliable, and data collection can be applied more efficiently as off-site sterilisation of equipment is not required. These advances are likely to promote future research into carpal tunnel pressure, such as investigation of the therapeutic mechanisms of various conservative treatment modalities that are believed to reduce elevated carpal tunnel pressure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Brent S

    2008-01-01

    Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area. PMID:18426564

  15. Carpal tunnel syndrome due to lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of secondary carpal tunnel syndrome due to a lipofibromatous hamartoma of the median nerve. Excision of the fibrofatty tissue between the nerve fascicles without risking damage to the fascicles was impossible. The transverse carpal ligament was incised and an epineurotomy was performed. Within six months, the 25-year-old female patient's symptoms were much improved.

  16. Co-existing carpal tunnel syndrome in complex regional pain syndrome after hand trauma.

    PubMed

    Koh, S M; Moate, F; Grinsell, D

    2010-03-01

    This study highlights the benefits of carpal tunnel release (CTR) in four patients presenting with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) after hand surgery who also had carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) diagnosed clinically and by nerve conduction studies. Three of the patients underwent pre- and postoperative volumetric, circumference, grip strength and range of motion measurements. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) functional outcome measure and pain scores were also used. There was almost complete resolution of CRPS symptoms in all four patients, with notable reductions in oedema and improvements in grip strength and range of motion. There were also improvements in DASH outcome scores and pain scores after CTR.

  17. Pathokinematics of precision pinch movement associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Evans, Peter J; Seitz, William H; Li, Zong-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can adversely affect fine motor control of the hand. Precision pinch between the thumb and index finger requires coordinated movements of these digits for reliable task performance. We examined the impairment upon precision pinch function affected by CTS during digit movement and digit contact. Eleven CTS subjects and 11 able-bodied (ABL) controls donned markers for motion capture of the thumb and index finger during precision pinch movement (PPM). Subjects were instructed to repetitively execute the PPM task, and performance was assessed by range of movement, variability of the movement trajectory, and precision of digit contact. The CTS group demonstrated shorter path-length of digit endpoints and greater variability in inter-pad distance and most joint angles across the PPM movement. Subjects with CTS also showed lack of precision in contact points on the digit-pads and relative orientation of the digits at contact. Carpal tunnel syndrome impairs the ability to perform precision pinch across the movement and at digit-contact. The findings may serve to identify deficits in manual dexterity for functional evaluation of CTS.

  18. Pathokinematics of Precision Pinch Movement Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Evans, Peter J.; Seitz, William H.; Li, Zong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can adversely affect fine motor control of the hand. Precision pinch between the thumb and index finger requires coordinated movements of these digits for reliable task performance. This study examined the impairment upon precision pinch function affected by CTS during digit movement and digit contact. Methods Eleven CTS subjects and 11 able-bodied (ABL) controls donned markers for motion capture of the thumb and index finger during precision pinch movement (PPM). Subjects were instructed to repetitively execute the PPM task, and performance was assessed by range of movement, variability of the movement trajectory, and precision of digit contact. Results The CTS group demonstrated shorter path-length of digit endpoints and greater variability in inter-pad distance and most joint angles across the PPM movement. Subjects with CTS also showed lack of precision in contact points on the digit-pads and relative orientation of the digits at contact. Conclusions Carpal tunnel syndrome impairs the ability to perform precision pinch across the movement and at digit-contact. The findings may serve to identify deficits in manual dexterity for functional evaluation of CTS. PMID:24536036

  19. [Socio professional impact of surgical release of carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kraiem, Aouatef Mahfoudh; Hnia, Hajer; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed Adnène; Khalfallah, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    The objective was studying the socio-professional impact of release surgery for carpal tunnel syndrom (CTS). We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients operated for work-related CTS; data were collected in the Occupational Health Department at the University Hospital Tahar Sfar in Mahdia, Tunisia over a period of 8 years, from 1 January 2006 to December 2013. Data collection was performed using a survey form focusing on participants' socio-professional and medical characteristics and on their professional future. We used Karasek's questionnaire to study psychosocial constraints at work. The duration of a work stoppage following release surgery for CTS was significantly related to the existence of musculoskeletal disorders other than CTS, to a statement that the carpal tunnel syndrome was work related and to job seniority. As regards the professional future of operated employees, 50.7% remained in the same position, 15.3% were given customized workstation and 33.8% were offered a different position within the same company. The professional future of these employees was related to their occupational qualifications and to the type of sensory and/or motor impairment of median nerve detected during EMG test. A number of nonlesional factors determines the duration of the work stoppage, while the professional future of patients operated for CTS essentially depends on their professional qualifications and on EMG data. Certainly much broader studies would allow to refine these results.

  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome and manual work: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Violante, Francesco S; Armstrong, Thomas J; Fiorentini, Cristiana; Graziosi, Francesca; Risi, Alessandro; Venturi, Silvia; Curti, Stefania; Zanardi, Francesca; Cooke, Robin M T; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Mattioli, Stefano

    2007-11-01

    To assess risks associated with work-related biomechanical overloads in onset/course of carpal tunnel syndrome. Work-groups with job tasks spanning different biomechanical exposures were evaluated at baseline in terms of American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists hand-activity/peak force action limit and threshold limit values (TLV). Exposures of interest were "unacceptable" (hand-activity above TLV) and "borderline" (between action limit and TLV) overloads. Clinical/individual data were collected at baseline and 12 months. One-year incidence of "classic/possible" carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms as defined by consensus criteria was 7.3% (153 of 2092). "Unacceptable" overload was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of onset with respect to "acceptable" load. At ordered logistic regression analysis of symptom-status variations, increased risks were recorded for "unacceptable" and "borderline" overloads. Effectiveness of encouraging workplace adherence to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations deserves investigation as a possible key to wide-scale prevention.

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome severity staging using sonographic and clinical measures.

    PubMed

    Roll, Shawn C; Volz, Kevin R; Fahy, Christine M; Evans, Kevin D

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasonography may be valuable in staging carpal tunnel syndrome severity, especially by combining multiple measures. This study aimed to develop a preliminary severity staging model using multiple sonographic and clinical measures. Measures were obtained in 104 participants. Multiple categorization structures for each variable were correlated to diagnostic severity based on nerve conduction. Goodness-of-fit was evaluated for models using iterative combinations of highly correlated variables. Using the best-fit model, a preliminary scoring system was developed, and frequency of misclassification was calculated. The severity staging model with best fit (rho 0.90) included patient-reported symptoms, functional deficits, provocative testing, nerve cross-sectional area, and nerve longitudinal appearance. An 8-point scoring scale classified severity accurately for 79.8% of participants. This severity staging model is a novel approach to carpal tunnel syndrome evaluation. Including more sensitive measures of nerve vascularity, nerve excursion, or other emerging techniques may refine this preliminary model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Carpal tunnel syndrome severity staging using sonographic and clinical measures

    PubMed Central

    Roll, Shawn C.; Volz, Kevin R.; Fahy, Christine M.; Evans, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasonography may be valuable in staging carpal tunnel syndrome severity, especially by combining multiple measures. This study aimed to develop a preliminary severity staging model using multiple sonographic and clinical measures. Methods Measures were obtained in 104 participants. Multiple categorization structures for each variable were correlated to diagnostic severity based on nerve conduction. Goodness-of-fit was evaluated for models using iterative combinations of highly correlated variables. Using the best-fit model, a preliminary scoring system was developed, and frequency of misclassification was calculated. Results The severity staging model with best fit (Rho 0.90) included patient-reported symptoms, functional deficits, provocative testing, nerve cross-sectional area, and nerve longitudinal appearance. An 8-point scoring scale classified severity accurately for 79.8% of participants. Discussion This severity staging model is a novel approach to carpal tunnel syndrome evaluation. Including more sensitive measures of nerve vascularity, nerve excursion, or other emerging techniques may refine this preliminary model. PMID:25287477

  3. Does the ratio of the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas in the median nerve reflect carpal tunnel syndrome severity?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Rehemutula, Aierken; Peng, Feng; Yu, Cong; Wang, Tian-bin; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although ultrasound measurements have been used in previous studies on carpal tunnel syndrome to visualize injury to the median nerve, whether such ultrasound data can indicate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome remains controversial. The cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet and outlet can show swelling and compression of the nerve at the carpal. We hypothesized that the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet to outlet accurately reflects the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. To test this, high-resolution ultrasound with a linear array transducer at 5–17 MHz was used to assess 77 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The results showed that the cut-off point for the inlet-to-outlet ratio was 1.14. Significant differences in the inlet-to-outlet ratio were found among patients with mild, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.29 between mild and more severe (moderate and severe) carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 64.7% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.52 between the moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 80.0% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity. These results suggest that the inlet-to-outlet ratio reflected the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:26330845

  4. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sarcoidosis: A Case Report of a Rare Neurologic Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Sonambekar, Ajinkya; Gupta, Nikhil; Swadi, Akanksha; Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disease with myriad clinical manifestations. Neurologic involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon. Peripheral neuropathic presentations include mononeuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex, and generalized sensory, motor, autonomic, and sensorimotor polyneuropathies. Case Presentation We report a case of carpal tunnel syndrome caused by sarcoidosis in a 30-year-old woman. Other causes of carpal tunnel syndrome were ruled out. The patient responded well to the standard line of corticosteroid treatment and wrist splinting. Discussion Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by sarcoidosis is a rare presentation. The mechanism of neurologic involvement in sarcoidosis is not clear. PMID:27643973

  5. The Effect of Hand Dominance on Patient-Reported Outcomes of Carpal Tunnel Release in Patients with Bilateral Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qian Ying; Lai, Wei Hong; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-09-01

    There is a paucity of studies in published literature that examines the effect of hand dominance on the resolution of symptoms following a carpal tunnel release. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of hand dominance on the resolution of symptoms following surgical decompression in patients with severe and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome. Bilateral carpal tunnel release (total 90 open and 84 endoscopic) was performed on 87 patients (11 males, 76 females) presenting with bilateral severe or moderate carpal tunnel syndrome of equal severity. Patient-reported outcome of resolution of symptoms were recorded, with patients followed up until complete resolution of symptoms or last recorded consultation (mean follow-up duration 11.4 months, range 3.1 to 32.4 months). In patients with bilateral severe carpal tunnel syndrome, a larger proportion of non-dominant hand (75.4%) achieved complete resolution compared to dominant hand (72.1%), and did so at a statistically shorter time (mean: 52.3 days) than the dominant hand (mean: 81.0 days). However, there was no statistically significant difference between proportion of patients and time taken before complete resolution of symptoms between dominant and non-dominant hand in patients with bilateral moderate carpal tunnel syndrome. Symptoms in the non-dominant hand resolved faster after carpal tunnel release in patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome. We postulate that greater daily activity by the dominant hand compared to the non-dominant hand may be a contributing factor to its slower rate of symptoms resolution post-surgically in patients with bilateral severe carpal tunnel syndrome. This effect of hand dominance is not evident in post-surgical patients with moderate carpal tunnel syndrome.

  6. The electrodiagnostic approach to carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C

    2012-05-01

    CTS is a clinically defined syndrome; however, there is value added by an evidence-based electrodiagnostic approach to (1) efficiently confirm the diagnosis (particularly before invasive interventions), (2) to identify neurogenic mimickers or superimposed processes that may influence the response to treatment, and (3) to stratify the degree of neurogenic injury to help the clinician make management decisions in conjunction with the severity of the clinical symptoms. The literature on the electrodiagnostic diagnosis of CTS is reviewed and an evidence based diagnostic algorithm is proposed. Confounders to CTS electrodiagnostic diagnosis are discussed (crossovers, peripheral neuropathy, and recurrent symptoms after surgical release). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Batdorf, Niles J; Cantwell, Sean R; Moran, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    A retrospective review of a single institution's experience with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in children and adolescents was performed to evaluate management and outcomes in an effort to establish a treatment protocol. All patients diagnosed with idiopathic CTS from ages 1 to 16 years of age between 1983 and 2013 were reviewed. The results of diagnostic testing and efficacy of therapeutic interventions were analyzed. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was sent to all patients following medical or surgical management. A total of 20 patients with 31 involved wrists met criteria for entrance into the study. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.4 years. Orthosis fabrication was used as the initial treatment in 30 of 31 wrists and was successful in completely alleviating symptoms in 9 of 30 wrists. A steroid injection was performed in 11 of 31 wrists, completely relieving symptoms in 5 of 11 wrists. Carpal tunnel release was performed in 10 of 31 wrists. Following surgery, patients had complete relief of symptoms in 5 of 10 wrists and partial relief of symptoms in 5 of 10 wrists. Questionnaire response incidence was 55% (11 of 20), with an average long-term follow-up of 17.6 years. Eight questionnaire respondents continued to have mild to moderate symptoms while performing activities of daily living. Once metabolic, anatomical, and hereditary causes of pediatric CTS are ruled out, a reasonable treatment course should follow that of adults with orthosis fabrication, followed by injection, and then surgery for those that are refractory to nonsurgical treatment. Prognostic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Carpal tunnel syndrome--can it be a work related condition?

    PubMed

    Conolly, W Bruce; McKessar, John H

    2009-09-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most common hand conditions seen in clinical practice. Many in the workforce, both male and female, will develop carpal tunnel syndrome and many will claim that their workplace has caused their condition. This article seeks to guide the examining practitioner in answering the questions of patients and insurance companies as to whether a patient with the established diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome has an acceptable workers' compensation claim for treatment. Carpal tunnel syndrome is mostly constitutional and due to intrinsic factors such as genetics, body weight, and endocrine and rheumatoid disease. Extrinsic and work related factors such as forces applied to the wrist, and working in cold temperatures and with vibrating equipment will also be discussed.

  9. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong Hyun; Kim, Shi Nae; Han, Seung Min; Cheon, Kyeong Yeol; Han, Sang Won; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Baik, Jong Sam; Park, Jae Hyeon

    2013-10-01

    We measured the carotid intima-media thickness, a surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis, in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome compared to a control group to evaluate the risk of atherosclerotic disease. Between January 2011 and December 2011, female patients presenting to the outpatient neurology clinic for pain and paresthesia in the hands were screened for study enrollment. Patients 30 years or older were eligible for the study if they did not have a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. During the study period, 111 patients (58 in the carpal tunnel syndrome group and 53 in the control group) were enrolled, with a mean age of 56 years (range, 32-79 years). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics except maximum carotid intima-media thickness and body mass index. The maximum intima-media thickness was greater in the carpal tunnel syndrome group (mean ± SD, 1.05 ± 0.17 mm) than the control group (0.85 ± 0.22 mm; P < .0001). The body mass index was greater among the controls (P = .012). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that age (P < .0001), carpal tunnel syndrome (P < .0001), hypertension (P = .022), and systolic blood pressure (P = .034) were statistically significantly associated with increased intima-media thickness. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that hypertension (P = .033), systolic blood pressure (P = .022), age (P < .0001), and carpal tunnel syndrome (P < .0001) were significantly associated with increased intima-media thickness, with carpal tunnel syndrome being the most influential factor (β = 0.489). The maximum carotid intima-media thickness was significantly increased in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome compared to controls. Chronic inflammation beyond the traditional cardiovascular risk factors might be related to increased carotid intima-media thickness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

  10. Practical approach to electrodiagnosis of the carpal tunnel syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Keivan; Katirji, Bashar

    2015-01-01

    Despite being the most common entrapment neuropathy and the most common reason for referral to the electromyography (EMG) laboratory, the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) continues to be challenging due to a large number of electrodiagnostic (EDX) tests available. We present a flowchart and propose a practical approach to the diagnosis of CTS using the available literature and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) guidelines and the Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. PMID:25802819

  11. Current options for nonsurgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Hans; Colbert, Agatha; Frydl, Jennifer; Arnall, Elizabeth; Elliot, Molly; Carlson, Nels

    2010-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common of the entrapment neuropathies. Surgical decompression is commonly performed and has traditionally been considered the defnitive treatment for CTS. Conservative treatment options include physical therapy, bracing, steroid injections and alternative medicine. While CTS is often progressive, patients may get better without formal treatment. The resolution of symptoms is not necessarily related to the severity of the clinical findings and self-limited activity is common. The current literature suggests that bracing and corticosteroid injections may be useful in the nonsurgical treatment of CTS, although the benefits may be short term. There is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of other treatments, such as therapy, exercise, yoga, acupuncture, lasers and magnets, and further studies are needed. Surgery is recommended for progressive functional deficits and significant pain. PMID:20490348

  12. PROFILE OF PATIENTS ON SICK LEAVE WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Judson Welber Veríssimo; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Nascimento, Valdênia das Graças; de Paiva, Henver Ribeiro; Viecili, Leandro; Rocha, Murilo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) on sick leave admitted in a University Hospital. Methods: This is a transversal study conducted with patients admitted sequentially over 18 years of age, without distinction of gender and race in the period between September and November 2014. Patients answered a questionnaire and underwent physical examination carried out by the authors. Results: Twenty-five patients were admitted within three months, all females, the mean age was 50.24 years old (standard deviation 10,39) . Among the professions they performed, general and cleaning services were the most prevalent. Most patients featured obesity, followed by depression and systemic arterial hypertension. Approximately half of them were on sick leave. Sleep disorders were also a frequent complaint. Conclusion: CTS is a frequent cause of sick leave and it is related to obesity, dyslipidemia and depression. Level of Evidence IV, Series of Cases. PMID:26981030

  13. Ultrasound for carpal tunnel syndrome screening in manual laborers.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Walker, Francis O; Blocker, Jill N; Schulz, Mark R; Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J; Quandt, Sara A

    2013-07-01

    Manual laborers are at increased risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and a combination of history, physical examination, and nerve conduction studies is often used to screen for CTS in this population. Neuromuscular ultrasound may be a better screening tool, because it is painless. In this study we compare the accuracy of nerve conduction studies and ultrasound for CTS screening. Five hundred thirteen manual laborers were screened prospectively for CTS using nerve conduction studies and neuromuscular ultrasound, and the accuracy of the 2 techniques was compared using the Katz hand diagram as the diagnostic standard. The ROC curves for the 2 techniques were not significantly different (P = 0.542), indicating that the approaches had similar diagnostic accuracy. Neuromuscular ultrasound is a painless technique that has diagnostic accuracy similar to nerve conduction studies and can be used to screen large populations at risk for CTS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome following an electrical injury in a child

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sambandam; Findlay, Alice Rima; Anand, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is very rare in children and has been reported very infrequently in the literature. We present an unusual case of CTS in a 14-year-old girl who developed this following an accidental electrical shock. As far as we are aware, this is the first case report of CTS in a child following electrical injury. This rare complication of electrical injury can easily be disregarded or misdiagnosed as neuropraxia, and this can delay appropriate treatment, as evidenced by this case. We propose that CTS should be considered when instigating initial medical care after an electrical injury, and that a referral to a hand surgeon should not be delayed, as these children need urgent surgical intervention to preserve hand function. PMID:25733087

  15. [Ultrasonography as a tool in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    do Amaral e Castro, Adham; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Sakuma, Alexandre Kaue; Barros, Wagner Haese

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the value of ultrasonography (US) in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Two hundred patients (400 hands) were submitted to wrist US to measure median nerve area (MNA), questioning on paresthesia and pain in the median nerve territory, Tinel and Phalen maneuvers. An MNA > 9 mm(2) was considered diagnostic of CTS. Measurement of MNA by US was > 9 mm(2) in 27% of the hands. A good association with pain (p < 0.0001), paresthesia (p < 0.0001), Tinel test (p < 0.0001) and Phalen test (p < 0.0001) was found. According to the clinical criteria for classification of CTS from American Academy of Neurology the MNA by US had 64.8% of sensibility and 77.0% of specificity in this sample. Measurement of MNA by US performs well and can be used as first option for the investigation of patients with CTS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in an Adolescent With Obesity.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Kathleen M; Greathouse, David G

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is typically found in adults and may be associated with a variety of metabolic conditions including obesity. Obesity is a growing problem among today's youth, and adult diseases often associated with obesity are now being found in a younger population. This case study describes a young adolescent girl with obesity and CTS. A history and examination were completed before electrophysiologic testing, and the patient had no evidence of any contributory pathology. There was electrophysiologic evidence of bilateral median nerve compromise at the wrist. The patient's diagnosis of CTS may be obesity related. Management of patients with obesity and CTS should also include education about weight management in addition to traditional interventions. This may be even more important for a child or adolescent with obesity and CTS.

  17. Quality of Care for Work-Associated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nuckols, Teryl; Conlon, Craig; Robbins, Michael; Dworsky, Michael; Lai, Julie; Roth, Carol P; Levitan, Barbara; Seabury, Seth; Seelam, Rachana; Asch, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of care provided to individuals with workers' compensation claims related to Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and identify patient characteristics associated with receiving better care. We recruited subjects with new claims for CTS from 30 occupational clinics affiliated with Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We applied 45 process-oriented quality measures to 477 subjects' medical records, and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with quality. Overall, 81.6% of care adhered to recommended standards. Certain tasks related to assessing and managing activity were underused. Patients with classic/probable Katz diagrams, positive electrodiagnostic tests, and higher incomes received better care. However, age, sex, and race/ethnicity were not associated with quality. Care processes for work-associated CTS frequently adhered to quality measures. Clinical factors were more strongly associated with quality than demographic and socioeconomic ones.

  18. Variability of precision pinch movements caused by carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, Sebastian; Tang, Jie; Kaufmann, Robert A; Goitz, Robert J; Windolf, Joachim; Li, Zong-Ming

    2008-09-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) impairs the performance of fine motor tasks of the hand, leading to clumsiness. Precision pinch by the thumb and index finger is a frequent task that requires the fine control of each digit as well as the coordination of the 2 digits. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of precision pinch movements impaired by CTS. Sixteen CTS subjects and 16 gender- and age-matched control subjects were instructed to repetitively perform the precision pinch movement with the thumb and index finger. A marker-based motion analysis method was used to obtain the kinematic data of the thumb and index finger during the precision pinch movements. Pinch performance was quantified by the variability of tip positions, joint angles, and tip distance at the pinch closures in the repeated movements. The CTS subjects performed the precision pinch movements less consistently compared with performance of the control subjects. The inconsistency was demonstrated by the increased variability of the tip positions of the 2 digits and the joint angles of the index finger. However, the variability of thumb joint angles was not significantly different between the 2 groups. The tip-to-tip distance, an indicator of thumb and index finger coordination, was relatively reproducible for both groups. Still, the CTS subjects showed a 50% greater variability of the tip distance compared with that of the control subjects. Carpal tunnel syndrome impairs the performance of precision pinch movement as indicated by the increased variability. The results correlate with the observed clumsiness or lack of dexterity for patients with CTS.

  19. Electrodiagnostic Testing and Treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Canada.

    PubMed

    Li Pi Shan, Rodney; Nicolle, Michael; Chan, Ming; Ashworth, Nigel; White, Chris; Winston, Paul; Dukelow, Sean

    2016-01-01

    1) Assess which electrodiagnostic studies Canadian clinicians use to aid in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 2) Assess whether Canadian clinicians follow the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine/American Academy of Neurology/American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in CTS. 3) Assess how Canadian clinicians manage CTS once a diagnosis has been established. In this prospective observational study, an electronic survey was sent to all members of the Canadian Neuromuscular Group (CNMG) and the Canadian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (CAPM&R) Neuromuscular Special Interest Group. Questions addressed which electrodiagnostic tests were being routinely used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Management recommendations for CTS was also explored. Of the 70 individuals who completed the survey, fourteen different nerve conduction study techniques were reported. Overall, 36/70 (51%) of participants followed the AANEM/AAN/AAPM&R Practice Parameter. The standard followed by the fewest of our respondents with 64% compliance (45/70) was the use of a standard distance of 13 to 14 cm with respect to the median sensory nerve conduction study. Regarding management, 99% would recommend splinting in the case of mild CTS. In moderate CTS, splinting was recommended by 91% of clinicians and 68% would also consider referral for surgery. In severe CTS, most recommended surgery (93%). There is considerable variability in terms of which electrodiagnostic tests Canadian clinicians perform for CTS. Canadian clinicians are encouraged to adhere to the AANEM/AAN/AAPM&R Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in CTS.

  20. Postures of upper extremity correlated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chia-Liang; Liao, Chu-Yung; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2017-03-30

    Non-medical hospital staff members are in frequent contact with patients and therefore are required to perform a wide variety of repetitive and high-frequency activities. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between upper extremity activity and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among non-medical hospital staff members. Carpal tunnel syndrome in 144 non-medical hospital staff members was diagnosed using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), a physician's diagnosis, physical examination (Tinel's signs and Phalen test) and a nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test. In addition, an ergonomic assessment was performed and a video camera was used to record the physical activities at work. The prevalence rate of CTS was highest for the NMQ (51.9%), followed by physician's diagnosis (49.5% for the right hand, 29.9% for the left hand), physical examination (54.7%), and nerve conduction test (motor nerve 27.5% and 25%, sensory nerve 21.7% and 15%, for right and left hands, respectively). Based on logistic regression models for the NMQ and physician's diagnoses, there was a dose-dependently higher risk of CTS with the upper extremity index among participants, but this was non-significant based on the physical examination and nerve conduction tests. Nerve conduction velocity is the gold standard in diagnosis of CTS, but use of NMQ and physician's diagnosis may overestimate the incidence of CTS in workers who have been engaging in repetitive stress activities for a relatively short time. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2):281-290.

  1. Concurrent medical disease in work-related carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atcheson, S G; Ward, J R; Lowe, W

    1998-07-27

    Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) now accounts for more than 41% of all repetitive motion disorders in the United States. Carpal tunnel syndrome is also associated with obesity and many different medical diseases. Two hundred ninety-seven patients medically certified with a work-related upper extremity industrial illness underwent a systematic search for concurrent medical diseases. Diagnoses of CTS were made using 4 separate case definitions. One hundred nine separate atraumatic illnesses (mainly hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and various arthropathies) capable of causing arm pain or CTS were diagnosed in a third of all patients. Using record reviews and patient histories alone, 68% of these conditions would have been missed. One hundred ninety-eight patients had been diagnosed as having CTS 420 times in more than 1000 office visits, but diagnostic laboratory studies were ordered only 25 times. Every case definition of CTS was significantly associated with a related medical condition. Two definitions yielded more than 41% prevalence of concurrent disease (odds ratio, > or = 2.36; P < or = .004), and up to two thirds of these patients had either a medical disease or were obese (odds ratio, > or = 3.15; P < or = .001). Two cohorts totaling 114 patients (38%) working for companies employing nearly 19,000 people included all CTS claims filed during 2 evaluation periods. They did not differ from the other patients with CTS with respect to age, concurrent disease, or obesity. Routine patient histories and record reviews are inadequate for proper evaluation of work-related CTS. Unrecognized medical diseases capable of causing CTS are common. Studies asserting an association between occupational hand usage and CTS are of questionable validity unless they prospectively account for confounding disease and obesity.

  2. Severity scoring in carpal tunnel syndrome helps predict the value of conservative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ollivere, B J; Logan, K; Ellahee, N; Miller-Jones, J C A; Wood, M; Nairn, D S

    2009-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to assess the outcome of conservative treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome and to establish the predictive value of preoperative Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire scores. Sixty-seven patients with 101 symptomatic hands underwent an evidence-based education and conservative therapy regime prior to surgery. All patients were scored using the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire at presentation and at 3 months. Fifty-eight of 67 patients completed both assessments providing a complete assessment of 89 symptomatic hands. The mean Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire scores improved significantly from 2.45 to 2.12 and throughout the duration of the study 73% of patients improved with conservative treatment and 14% did not require surgery. Severity scoring at presentation was predictive of outcome with conservative therapy. This work suggests that the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire can be used to identify patients who are likely to respond to conservative treatment.

  3. [Clinical auxiliary diagnosis value of high frequency ultrasonographic measurements of the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments in carpal tunnel syndrome patients].

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Chen, F M; Wang, L; Zhang, P X; Jiang, X R

    2016-04-18

    To evaluate the meaning and value of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, 48 patients (unilateral hand) with CTS were analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Open carpal tunnel release procedure was performed in the 48 CTS patients, and the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone measured using vernier caliper under direct vision. The accuracy of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments was evaluated using high-frequency ultrasound. high-frequency ultrasound measurement of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone and pisiform bone, and determination of the diagnostic threshold measurement index using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity and specificity were performed and the correlation between the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments and nerve conduction study (NCS) analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments in the CTS patients were (0.42±0.08) cm (high-frequency ultrasound) and (0.41±0.06) cm (operation) at hamate hook bone, and there was no significant difference between the two ways (t=0.672, P>0.05). The optimal cut-off value of the transverse carpal ligaments at hamate hook bone was 0.385 cm, the sensitivity 0.775, and the specificity 0.788. The optimal cut-off value of the transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was 0.315 cm, the sensitivity 0.950, and the specificity 1.000. The transverse carpal ligaments thickness and wrist-index finger sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV), wrist-middle finger SCV showed a negative correlation. High frequency ultrasound measurements of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments is a valuable method for the diagnosis of CTS.

  4. Does ultrasonography contribute significantly to the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome?

    PubMed

    Zyluk, A; Walaszek, I; Szlosser, Z

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated ultrasonography as a valuable tool for confirming the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. The objective of this study was to investigate sonographic parameters of the median nerve in patients diagnosed clinically with carpal tunnel syndrome. 185 wrists in 185 patients, 149 women (81%) and 36 men (19%), with a mean age of 59 years, with the clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome were examined sonographically. We measured cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the forearm and at the carpal tunnel inlet, as well as the height (a-p dimension) of the nerve at the tunnel inlet and in the narrowest site in the carpal tunnel. Moreover, in all patients the severity of the disease was assessed by the Levine questionnaire. A significant variability of sonographic data characterizing the median nerve was found: the mean CSA at the tunnel inlet was 17.6 mm2 (range: 7-36) and height of the nerve at the tunnel inlet was a mean of 2.7 mm (range: 1.3-4.5). No correlation was found between sonographic data and severity of the syndrome as expressed by the Levine scores. Sonography of the median nerve contributes little to the diagnosis of a clinically relevant carpal tunnel syndrome and its routine use is not justified. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Characteristics of the electrophysiological activity of muscles attached to the transverse carpal ligament in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Gen; Aoki, Takafumi; Ito, Hiromoto

    2011-01-01

    The main cause of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) remains unknown. Stiffness of the subcutaneous area of the volar aspect of the carpal tunnel is present in many patients and suggests that the stiffness of muscles attached to the transverse carpal ligament is increased. We performed an electrophysiological study to investigate muscle activities and to clarify whether the stiffness of muscles attached to the transverse carpal ligament is involved in the pathogenesis of CTS. The subjects of this study included 16 patients with early CTS showing no motor dysfunction. Both thenar muscles (opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis) and hypothenar muscles (opponens digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis) were investigated. Surface electrodes were placed on each muscle, and maximum voluntary contractions with the thumb and little finger in opposition were maintained for 3 seconds in all patients and in 7 control subjects. Electromyographs were subjected to fast Fourier transform analysis, and the root mean square (RMS) and the mean power frequency (MPF) were determined for each muscle. The RMS of the opponens pollicis was significantly less in hands affected by CTS (292.8 µV) than in healthy hands (405.9 µV). The RMS did not differ between affected hands and healthy hands for the other 2 thenar muscles but did differ significantly for the hypothenar muscles. The MPF did not differ between affected hands and healthy hands for any muscle. The results show that electrophysiological differences are present among muscles innervated by the median nerve and that hypothenar muscles originally unrelated to median nerve dysfunction are also affected in early CTS. These results suggest that modulation of muscles attached to the transverse carpal ligament is involved in the pathogenesis of CTS.

  6. Impact of carpal tunnel syndrome on the expectant woman's life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is known to be a common complication during pregnancy especially during the third trimester. Aim This article focuses on its impact to the third trimester pregnant mothers with CTS. Methods Third trimester pregnant mothers with no other known risk factors for CTS, were interviewed and examined for a clinical diagnosis of CTS. The severity of CTS was assessed by means of symptoms severity and functionality using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Results Out of 333 third trimester pregnant mothers, 82 (24.6%) were clinically diagnosed with CTS. Malay race was found to have significant correlation with the diagnosis of CTS (p = 0.024) and are two times more likely to get CTS during pregnancy (OR = 2.26) compare to the non-Malays. Bilateral CTS was two times higher (n = 58, 63.4%) than unilateral cases (n = 30, 36.6%), however no significant correlation between the two was found with severity (p = 0.284) or functional (p = 0.906). The commonest complaint was numbness/tingling during day time (n = 63, 76.8%). Majority of the CTS cases were mild (n = 66, 80.5%) and approximately one third (n = 28, 34.1%) had affected hand functions. All symptoms related to pain was found to have significant correlation with severity (p = 0.00, OR = 12.23) and function (p = 0.005, OR = 5.01), whereas numbness and tingling does not (Severity, p = 0.843, function, p = 0.632). Conclusion This study shows that even though CTS in third trimester pregnancy is prevalent, generally it would be mild. However, function can still be affected especially if patients complain of pain. PMID:22283968

  7. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Bertrand; Hanouz, Nathalie; Vielpeau, Claude; Marcelli, Christian

    2011-10-01

    To assess the feasibility of ultrasound-guided surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome. We first studied the ultrasound and anatomic findings in 30 cadaver wrists to determine the best surgical approach and the best plane for releasing the flexor retinaculum. We then used 104 cadaver wrists to assess the feasibility of our technique by performing the surgical procedure then extensively dissecting each wrist and hand. Our evaluation criteria were full release of the transverse carpal ligament and absence of injury to the vessels, nerves, and tendons. The transverse carpal ligament was fully released in all 104 forearms. Full release required a single pass in 61 forearms, two passes in 27 forearms, and three passes in 16 forearms. No injuries to adjacent structures were identified. Our cadaver study supports the feasibility of percutaneous surgery under ultrasound-guidance for carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of carpal tunnel syndrome between digital and paper textbook users in elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Seomun, GyeongAe; Pyun, Sung-Bom; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Jung; Noh, Wonjung

    2016-03-09

    There are advantages to using digital textbooks, but also health concerns yet to be evaluated. This study examines the use of digital textbooks' effects on carpal tunnel, considered one of the potential health risks in students using digital textbooks. Data were obtained from 43 elementary school students in the sixth grade, selected from two groups who had used digital and paper textbooks, respectively. To assess carpal tunnel function, this study performed median motor nerve and median sensory nerve conduction studies. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups, indicating that there were no functional differences related to carpal tunnel syndrome between the groups. Usage of digital textbook is expanding nationwide in the Republic of Korea. There is no short-term risk of carpal tunnel syndrome in this population of elementary school students.

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome – Part II (treatment)☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Chammas, Michel; Boretto, Jorge; Burmann, Lauren Marquardt; Ramos, Renato Matta; Neto, Francisco Santos; Silva, Jefferson Braga

    2014-01-01

    The treatments for non-deficit forms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are corticoid infiltration and/or a nighttime immobilization brace. Surgical treatment, which includes sectioning the retinaculum of the flexors (retinaculotomy), is indicated in cases of resistance to conservative treatment in deficit forms or, more frequently, in acute forms. In minimally invasive techniques (endoscopy and mini-open), and even though the learning curve is longer, it seems that functional recovery occurs earlier than in the classical surgery, but with identical long-term results. The choice depends on the surgeon, patient, severity, etiology and availability of material. The results are satisfactory in close to 90% of the cases. Recovery of strength requires four to six months after regression of the pain of pillar pain type. This surgery has the reputation of being benign and has a complication rate of 0.2–0.5%. PMID:26229842

  10. Frequency of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Sadaf; Javed, Muhammad Athar; Kasuri, Muhammad Naeem

    2016-05-01

    To determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Case-series. Department of Neurology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2012. Seventy-five (64 females and 11 males) patients with clinically diagnosed and electrodiagnostically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome were inducted. Their waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were recorded. Patients were categorized having metabolic syndrome according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, if any 3 were present out of hypertension, elevated fasting triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated fasting blood glucose, and elevated waist circumference. Mean age of the patients was 42.04 ±9.31 years, mean waist circumference was 95.32 ±9.03 cm, mean systolic blood pressure was 134.13 ±13.72 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure was 89.13 ±8.83 mmHg, mean fasting blood glucose was 94.35 ±21.81 mg/dl, mean fasting triglycerides was 177.48 ±48.69 mg/dl, and mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol was 41.95 ±11.17 mg/dl. Metabolic syndrome was found in 54 (72%) patients including 9 (16.7%) males and 45 (83.3%) females. Out of 75 patients, 54 (72%) had elevated waist circumference, 52 (69.3%) had elevated blood pressure, 19 (25.3%) had elevated fasting blood glucose, 53 (70.6%) had elevated fasting triglycerides and 54 (72%) had reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Highest frequency of metabolic syndrome was found in age range of 40 - 49 years in both genders. Metabolic syndrome is frequently found in the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

  11. Work practices and histopathological changes in the tenosynovium in carpal tunnel syndrome in men.

    PubMed

    Pickering, S A W; Stevens, A; Davis, T R C

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess whether the fibrous thickening of the carpal tunnel tenosynovium is influenced by working practices. We did this by investigating 50 men (58 hands) with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, who were undergoing carpal tunnel decompression. Occupational history, including vibration tool exposure, and presence of callosities and/or ingrained dirt on hands was recorded at the time of surgery. The flexor tenosynovium was biopsied, and assessed histologically by an observer blinded to occupational history. Occupational group, age, weight and smoking showed no significant association with fibrous tenosynovial thickening. There was also no significant association between fibrous tenosynovial thickening and the presence of hand callosities/in-grained dirt or regular use of vibration tools. Thus no association was found between heavy occupational hand usage and the development of fibrous tenosynovial thickening around tendons within the carpal tunnel.

  12. Palmar cutaneous nerve conduction in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uluc, Kayihan; Aktas, Ilknur; Sunter, Gulin; Kahraman Koytak, Pinar; Akyuz, Gulseren; İsak, Baris; Tanridag, Tulin; Us, Onder

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBm) conduction in patients with clinically diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), to compare PCBm conduction with that of the median and ulnar nerves, and to determine the PCBm conduction abnormality rate in patients with CTS. The study included 99 hands of 60 patients with clinical CTS and 38 hands of 38 healthy controls. Sensory nerve conduction study (NCS) was performed on the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and PCBm, and onset latency, conduction velocity and amplitude were recorded. Additionally, differences in latency and velocity between the median nerve and PCBm, and the difference in latency between the median and ulnar nerves were calculated. In all, 56% of the patients with CTS had abnormal PCBm conduction. Additionally, in 7 of 8 hands with abnormal sensation--both in the thenar eminence and abnormal sensory distribution along the main branch--NCS of the PCBm was also abnormal. The PCBm is not ideal as a comparator nerve for the neurophysiological diagnosis of CTS. The frequency of PCBm abnormality in CTS patients may be related to the concomitant damage in both of these nerves. Additionally, the present findings may help explain, at least in part, why patients with CTS often exhibit sensory involvement beyond the classical median nerve sensory borders.

  13. Motor Examination in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Neral, Mithun; Imbriglia, Joseph E; Carlson, Lois; Wollstein, Ronit

    2017-08-01

    The relative importance and use of motor evaluation to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is not clear. Because the ulnar nerve is not affected in CTS, we evaluated comparing the strength of the median-nerve innervated muscles to the ulnar innervated muscles in the same patient, through manual muscle testing (MMT) and a handheld dynamometer. Our purpose was to evaluate whether this method, which takes into account patient-dependent factors that would affect both groups of muscles equally, can provide better assessment of CTS. A retrospective case-control review of MMT and dynamometer-measured strength for CTS was performed. The study was performed retrospectively but prior to surgery or other treatment. There were 28 cases (CTS) and 14 controls (without CTS). Positive nerve conduction tests defined cases. MMT of the thenar musculature was found to be unreliable as a test for CTS. Comparisons to ulnar nerve innervated muscle strength did not improve sensitivity or specificity of the MMT examination. Use of the dynamometer improved sensitivity and specificity of motor testing in CTS over MMT. Motor evaluation is important for the diagnosis of CTS, but further study is warranted, specifically to define the method of motor evaluation and delineate the subgroup of patients (predominantly thenar motor presentation) that would benefit most from motor testing and motor-focused treatment.

  14. Hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the magnitude of the association between hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Eighteen studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of the studies that did not control their estimates for any confounder showed an association between a thyroid disease (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) and CTS (N = 9,573, effect size [ES] = 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.68) and between hypothyroidism and CTS (N = 64,531, ES = 2.15 [95% CI, 1.64-2.83]). When a meta-analysis limited to the studies that controlled their estimates for some potential confounders, the association between a thyroid disease and CTS disappeared (N = 4,799, ES = 1.17 [95% CI, 0.71-1.92], I(2) = 0%), and the effect size for hypothyroidism largely attenuated (N = 71,133, ES = 1.44 [95% CI, 1.27-1.63], I(2) = 0%). Moreover, there was evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis found only a modest association between hypothyroidism and CTS. Confounding and publication bias may still account for part of the remaining excess risk.

  15. Carpal tunnel syndrome in male visual display terminal (VDT) workers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Lin, Ching-Hua; Liang, Huey-Wen

    2007-01-01

    The association between working at a video display terminal (VDT) and development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is not well-established. The study surveyed the prevalence of CTS symptoms, explored the risk factors and evaluated the clinical application of hand diagrams, physical tests and electrodiagnosis among male VDT workers. A cross-sectional study was performed in an information and communication technology company. Three-forty questionnaires were completed and 82 volunteers participated in the physical examination and nerve conduction study. The personal and occupational risk factors for CTS were analyzed. The prevalence of CTS symptoms was 3.8% among 340 subjects, while prolonged median motor distal latency (>4.2 msec) was disclosed in 3.7% of a subgroup receiving examination. Classic/probable CTS symptoms was associated with high body mass index (>28 kg/m(2), odds ratio = 4.1, P = 0.029) and moderate job seniority (3-5 years, odds ratio = 4.6, P = 0.023). Prolonged median motor distal latency was associated with older age (>35 years old). We did not observe correlation between CTS symptoms, abnormal NCS, positive Tinel's sign or Phalen's test. The prevalence of CTS symptoms was not high among the group of male VDT workers studied. Job seniority, but not specific tasks, was associated with CTS symptoms. More reliable and valid methods to quantify the ergonomic exposure are needed to establish the association of VDT tasks and CTS. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Handheld Electrical Impedance Myography Probe for Assessing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Chen, Lingfen; Zhu, Yu; Wei, Qingquan; Liu, Wenwen; Tian, Dong; Yu, Yude

    2017-03-30

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a novel, noninvasive, and painless technique for quantitatively assessing muscle health as well as disease status and progression. The preparatory work for commercial adhesive electrodes used in previous EIM measurements is tedious, as the electrodes need to be cut, repeatedly applied, and removed. Moreover, the electrode distances need to be measured many times. To overcome these problems, we developed a convenient and practical handheld EIM probe for assessing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the small hand muscles. To reduce the electrode-skin contact impedance (ESCI), the micropillared and microholed stainless steel electrodes (SSEs) contained in the probe were fabricated using a laser processing technique. When covered with saline, these electrodes showed lower ESCIs than a smooth SSE and Ag/AgCl electrode. The probe was shown to have excellent test-retest reproducibility in both healthy subjects and CTS patients, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.975. The reactance and phase values of the abductor pollicis brevis (affected muscle) for CTS patients were consistently lower than those for healthy subjects, with a 50-kHz difference of 37.1% (p < 0.001) and 31.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. Further, no significant differences were detected in the case of the abductor digiti minimi (unaffected muscle). These results indicate that EIM has considerable potential for CTS assessment and hence merits further investigation.

  17. Importance of Recognizing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome for Neurosurgeons: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Masatoshi; Kanda, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Uneda, Atsuhito; Hirashita, Koji; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2017-02-02

    Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common complaint, reflecting entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. CTS produces symptoms similar to those of other conditions, such as cervical spondylosis or ischemic or neoplastic intracranial disease. Because of these overlaps, patients with CTS are often referred to a neurosurgeon. Surgical treatment of CTS was started recently in our department. Through this experience, we realized that neurosurgeons should have an increased awareness of this condition so they can knowledgeably assess patients with a differential diagnosis that includes CTS and cervical spinal and cerebral disease. We conducted a literature review to gain the information needed to summarize current knowledge on the clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of CTS. Because the optimal diagnostic criteria for this disease are still undetermined, its diagnosis is based on the patient's history and physical examination, which should be confirmed by nerve conduction studies and imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography. Treatment methods include observation, medication, splinting, steroid injections, and surgical intervention. Understanding the clinical features and pathogenesis of CTS, as well as the therapeutic options available to treat it, is important for neurosurgeons if they are to provide the correct management of patients with this disease.

  18. Comparative analysis between minimal access versus traditional accesses in carpal tunnel syndrome: a perspective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Mauro; Fino, Pasquale; Sorvillo, Valentina; Parisi, Paola; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2014-02-01

    Carpal tunnel decompression with division of the transverse carpal ligament has been a highly successful procedure for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The standard longitudinal incision technique, with a long curvilinear incision, has been the optimal treatment procedure for surgical decompression of the median nerve, for many surgeons. The aim of this study was to compare the traditional open carpal tunnel release (TOCTR) technique with the minimal-access carpal tunnel release (MACTR) technique for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), presenting our experience. A total of 120 patients eligible for carpal tunnel decompression were recruited into the study. The patients were randomised for treatment allocation, at a 1:1 ratio, resulting in 60 patients in group A, treated by standard TOCTR, and 60 patients in group B, treated by MACTR. To evaluate patients' outcomes we used the Boston Carpal Tunnel (BCT) questionnaire; the formed scar was evaluated according to the Vancouver scale and short- and long-term complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-squared test and analysis of variance (ANOVA); Excel was the program used. In our series, there was no complication related to the surgical intervention of any injury to nerve, artery or tendon structures. In each section of the BCT questionnaire, patients in group B had significantly better results than patients in group A at both 6 and 12 months' follow-up (p < 0.001). For the Vancouver scar scale, there was a significant difference between two groups' scores; group B patients had significant improvements compared with group A patients. In our perspective randomised study, MACTR showed statistically significant improvement compared to TOCTR. The patient tolerance is reasonably high and the procedure is compatible with the current minimal invasive trend in surgery. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Effectiveness of low-level laser on carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Ma, Xin-Long; Tian, Peng; Huang, Yuting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been applied in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for an extended period of time without definitive consensus on its effectiveness. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser in the treatment of mild to moderate CTS using a Cochrane systematic review. Methods: We conducted electronic searches of PubMed (1966–2015.10), Medline (1966–2015.10), Embase (1980–2015.10), and ScienceDirect (1985–2015.10), using the terms “carpal tunnel syndrome” and “laser” according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually to identify studies that might have been missed in the database search. Only randomized clinical trials were included, and the quality assessments were performed according to the Cochrane systematic review method. The data extraction and analyses from the included studies were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the continuous outcomes. Results: Seven randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria; there were 270 wrists in the laser group and 261 wrists in the control group. High heterogeneity existed when the analysis was conducted. Hand grip (at 12 weeks) was stronger in the LLLT group than in the control group (MD = 2.04; 95% CI: 0.08–3.99; P = 0.04; I2 = 62%), and there was better improvement in the visual analog scale (VAS) (at 12 weeks) in the LLLT group (MD = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.84–1.11; P < 0.01; I2 = 0%). The sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) (at 12 weeks) was better in the LLLT group (MD = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.44–1.73; P = 0.001; I2 = 0%). However, 1 included study was weighted at >95% in the calculation of these 3 parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the other parameters between the 2 groups. Conclusion

  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed using ultrasound as a first-line exam by the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Lange, J

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates the diagnostic value of ultrasound as a first-line exam in carpal tunnel syndrome. In 16 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 32 matched controls, evaluation of the median nerve was performed by the cross-sectional area at wrist level and wrist-forearm ratio. This study found statistically significant differences between patients and controls by both methods, and both showed high specificity and positive predictive values. Optimal cut-off values were identified at a 14 mm(2) cross-sectional area and a 1.6 wrist-forearm ratio. This study implies that ultrasound evaluation of the median nerve is a valuable tool as a first-line diagnostic test used by the surgeon for examination of patients with presumed carpal tunnel syndrome. Owing to the high positive predictive value of ultrasound, the need for referral to nerve conduction study may be limited.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page Dixon ME, Armstrong P, Stevens DB, Bamshad M. Identical mutations in NOG can ... 5):349-53. Citation on PubMed Drawbert JP, Stevens DB, Cadle RG, Hall BD. Tarsal and carpal ...

  2. Carpal tunnel syndrome, syndrome of partial thenar atrophy, and W. Russell Brain: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Boskovski, Marko T; Thomson, J Grant

    2014-09-01

    This article presents the history of the discovery of compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel without an identifiable cause as a distinct clinical entity. By analyzing primary sources, we show that, at the beginning of the twentieth century, physicians described patients with paresthesias and numbness in the hands, most prominent at night, accompanied by bilateral symmetrical atrophy along the radial side of thenar eminence. At the time, the 2 most influential hypotheses regarding etiology were, first, compression of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a cervical or first rib, and second, compression of the thenar branch of the median nerve as it passes beneath the anterior annular ligament of the wrist. The condition was named syndrome of partial thenar atrophy and was considered a distinct clinical entity. In 1946, after extensive analysis, neurologist Walter Russell Brain concluded that both sensory and motor symptoms of the syndrome were caused by "compression neuritis" of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. At his suggestion, surgeon Arthur Dickson Wright performed decompression of the nerve by "an incision of the carpal ligament," with excellent results. Brain presented this work at the Royal Society of Medicine in London in 1946 and published his landmark paper in Lancet the following year. In so doing, he established the basis for the disease we know today as idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Unfortunately, in 1947, Brain did not realize that another "condition" with the same clinical picture but without atrophy of the thenar muscles, known as acroparesthesia at the time, was actually the same disease as syndrome of partial thenar atrophy, but of lesser severity. As a result of Brain's influence, 7 other papers were published by 1950. Between 1946 and 1950, there were at least 10 papers that presented, in total, 31 patients (26 women) who exhibited symptoms of compression of the median nerve without an identifiable cause and underwent

  3. Reliability Assessment of Various Sonographic Techniques for Evaluating Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Junck, Anthony D; Escobedo, Eva M; Lipa, Bethany M; Cronan, Michael; Anthonisen, Colleen; Poltavskiy, Eduard; Bang, Heejung; Han, Jay J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives-The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of sonographic measurements of the median nerve cross-sectional area in individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy control participants.Methods-The median nerve cross-sectional area was evaluated by sonography in 18 participants with carpal tunnel syndrome (18 upper extremities) and 9 control participants (18 upper extremities) at 2 visits 1 week apart. Two examiners, both blinded to the presence or absence of carpal tunnel syndrome, captured independent sonograms of the median nerve at the levels of the carpal tunnel inlet, pronator quadratus, and mid-forearm. The cross-sectional area was later measured by each examiner independently. Each also traced images that were captured by the other examiner.Results-Both the intra- and inter-rater reliability rates were highest for images taken at the carpal tunnel inlet (radiologist, r = 0.86; sonographer, r = 0.87; inter-rater, r = 0.95; all P < .0001), whereas they was lowest for the pronator quadratus (r = 0.49, 0.29, and 0.72, respectively; all P < .0001). At the mid-forearm, the intra-rater reliability was lower for both the radiologist and sonographer, whereas the inter-rater reliability was relatively high (r = 0.54, 0.55, and 0.81; all P < .0001). Tracing of captured images by different examiners showed high concordance for the median cross-sectional area at the carpal tunnel inlet (r = 0.96-0.98; P < .0001).Conclusions-The highest intra- and inter-rater reliability was found at the carpal tunnel inlet. The results also demonstrate that tracing of the median nerve cross-sectional area from captured images by different examiners does not contribute significantly to measurement variability. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Similar effectiveness of the open versus endoscopic technique for carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gümüştaş, Seyit Ali; Ekmekçi, Burcu; Tosun, Haci Bayram; Orak, Mehmet Müfit; Bekler, Halil İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    This prospective randomized study aims at evaluating the electrophysiological results of endoscopic and open carpal ligament release in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Included in the study were 41 patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome (21 hands in the endoscopic group and 20 hands in the open group). The Boston questionnaire was administered preoperatively and postoperatively to the patients, and their functional capacities and symptom severities were recorded. Physical examination was carried out preoperatively and in the postoperative sixth month. Demographic data and preoperative Boston symptomatic and functional scores were similar between both groups. A significant improvement was obtained in the Boston symptomatic and functional scores of both groups, but no significant difference was found between the groups in terms of improvement in the symptomatic and the functional scores. A significant shortening in median nerve motor distal latency and an increase in the velocity of sensory conductions were determined in both groups in the postoperative electromyography, but no difference was found between them in terms of improvement in the electromyography values. It was shown both clinically and electrophysiologically that endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery was as effective as open surgery as a treatment method for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  5. Finite element simulation of the mechanical impact of computer work on the carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Rachiotis, George; Zaoutsos, Stefanos; Eleftheriou, Andreas; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2014-09-22

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a clinical disorder resulting from the compression of the median nerve. The available evidence regarding the association between computer use and CTS is controversial. There is some evidence that computer mouse or keyboard work, or both are associated with the development of CTS. Despite the availability of pressure measurements in the carpal tunnel during computer work (exposure to keyboard or mouse) there are no available data to support a direct effect of the increased intracarpal canal pressure on the median nerve. This study presents an attempt to simulate the direct effects of computer work on the whole carpal area section using finite element analysis. A finite element mesh was produced from computerized tomography scans of the carpal area, involving all tissues present in the carpal tunnel. Two loading scenarios were applied on these models based on biomechanical data measured during computer work. It was found that mouse work can produce large deformation fields on the median nerve region. Also, the high stressing effect of the carpal ligament was verified. Keyboard work produced considerable and heterogeneous elongations along the longitudinal axis of the median nerve. Our study provides evidence that increased intracarpal canal pressures caused by awkward wrist postures imposed during computer work were associated directly with deformation of the median nerve. Despite the limitations of the present study the findings could be considered as a contribution to the understanding of the development of CTS due to exposure to computer work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endoscopic versus open carpal tunnel release for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Dongqing; Zhou, Zifei; Wang, Hongsheng; Liao, Yuxin; Zheng, Longpo; Hua, Yingqi; Cai, Zhengdong

    2015-01-28

    The objective of this study is to do a meta-analysis of the literature and compare the safety and efficacy of endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) and open carpal tunnel release (OCTR) for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A comprehensive literature search of the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register was undertaken for randomized studies reporting carpal tunnel syndrome treated with ECTR or OCTR. The quality of randomized trials was critically assessed. Pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for safety and efficacy outcome variables were calculated by fixed-effect or random-effect methods with RevMan v.5.1 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 13 randomized trials were included by total retrieve and riddling. The results of our meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the overall complication rate (RR = 1.34, 95% CI [0.74, 2.43], P = 0.34), subjective satisfaction (RR = 1.0, 95% CI [0.93, 1.08], P = 0.92), time to return to work (mean difference = -3.52 [-8.15, 1.10], P = 0.14), hand grip and pinch strength, and the operative time (mean difference = -1.89, 95% CI [-5.84, 2.06]) between patients in the ECTR and OCTR groups (P = 0.16, 0.70, and 0.35, respectively). The rate of hand pain (RR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.53, 0.93], P = 0.02) in the ECTR group was significantly lower than that in the OCTR group. ECTR treatment seemed to cause more reversible postoperative nerve injuries as compared with OCTR (RR = 2.38, 95% CI [0.98, 5.77], P = 0.05). Although ECTR significantly reduced postoperative hand pain, it increased the possibility of reversible postoperative nerve injury in patients with idiopathic CTS. No statistical difference in the overall complication rate, subjective satisfaction, the time to return to work, postoperative grip and pinch strength, and operative time was observed between the two groups of

  7. [Diagnostic validity of ultrasonography in carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Haddad-Garay, María; Tricas-Moreno, José M; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urries, Miguel; Estebanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-Garcia, César; Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, Alazne

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonography has emerged as an alternative tool for diagnosing peripheral neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Yet, data are still lacking as regards the diagnostic validity of the different ultrasonography measurements for detecting CTS in clinical settings. To determine the diagnostic validity of ultrasound measurements of the cross-sectional area of the median nerve in the wrist (CSA-M) and of the ratio of the area of the median nerve between the wrist and the forearm (R-WF) in the diagnosis of CTS, using electroneuromyography (ENG) as the reference technique. Ultrasound measurements were performed on 59 subjects (100 wrists) who were referred to have an ENG due to suspected CTS. The examiners that performed the ultrasonography scan did not know the results of the ENG. The cut-off points were later calculated by means of ROC curves for each of the measurements (CSA-M and R-WF) and their diagnostic validity was analysed. With a cut-off point of 9.15 mm2, CSA-M measurement obtained a sensitivity of 75.81%, a specificity of 74.29%, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.95 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.33. For the R-WF measurement and a cut-off point of 1.56, the values for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 70.97%, 71.43%, 2.48 and 0.4, respectively. Both the CSA-M and R-WF appear to be useful measures in the diagnosis of CTS, taking the ENG as a reference test.

  8. Experiences with preventing carpal tunnel syndrome in an automotive plant.

    PubMed

    Žídková, Věra; Nakládalová, Marie; Zapletalová, Jana; Nakládal, Zdeněk; Kollárová, Helena

    2017-02-21

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common occupational disease. The aim was to assess the effect of preventive measures in automotive assembly workers. The analysis summarizes data from annual crosssectional studies. The 7-year analysis of data was based on medical records obtained from an occupational physician and inspections carried out at the workplace where targeted preventive measures were introduced, including better ergonomic arrangement of the workplace, technical adjustments facilitating the work, preventive nerve conduction studies (NCS) testing of the median nerve once a year, switching of workers and their targeted rotation within the workplace. The NCS testing of median nerve conduction at the wrist was the basic objective method for assessment of the prevalence and severity of CTS. Over the study period, the sample comprised 1804 workers at risk for repetitive overuse of the upper extremities, of whom 281 were females with a mean age of 38.5 years and 1523 were males with a mean age of 31.4 years. Over the study period, a total of 13 cases of CTS were recognized as an occupational disease in the plant, 8 of which occurred within the first 2 years from the initiation of production. Introduction of preventive measures decreased the prevalence of median neuropathy from 18.3% of examined extremities in 2011 to 10.5% in 2013 (p = 0.003). In early 2014, the production pace increased and this was accompanied by a rise in abnormal NCS findings to 16.9%. Over the study period, the rate of sensorimotor neuropathy decreased in favor of merely sensory neuropathies, which have been most frequent since 2013. The percentage of employees whose contracts were terminated due to median neuropathy decreased steadily from 5.5% to 0.4%. Targeted prevention of work-related CTS is effective as evidenced by the decrease in the prevalence of median neuropathy detected by NCS. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):45-54.

  9. GEHS Neurophysiological Classification System for Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Greathouse, David G; Ernst, Greg; Halle, John S; Shaffer, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Median neuropathy at or distal to the wrist or carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of a number of muscle, tendon, and nerve-related disorders that affect people performing intensive work with their hands. Following a thorough history and physical examination, electrophysiological examination including both nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG) testing may be performed and currently serve as the reference standard for the diagnosis of CTS. The EMG and NCS exams should identify the peripheral nerve, specific location in the nerve pathway, involvement of sensory and/or motor axons, and the presence of myelinopathy and/or axonopathy neuropathic process. Clinical electrophysiologists now have 2 neurophysiological classification systems for patients with CTS from which to choose when preparing their electrophysiological testing reports. The Bland (2000) and GEHS (2012) neurophysiological classification systems for patients with CTS are discussed. Two case studies of patients with electrophysiological evidence of CTS are presented. Application and comparison of categorizations by the Bland and GEHS neurophysiological classification systems are incorporated into the presentation and discussion of these case studies. This article describes 2 neurophysiological classification systems for patients with CTS. The Bland system documents the distribution of patients with CTS on a scale based upon nerve conduction study findings, but it does not include any EMG findings in its grading scale. The GEHS neurophysiological classification system includes findings for both the NCS and EMG components of the electrophysiological examination. The GEHS classification system provides electrophysiological evidence of myelinopathy and/or axonopathy for patients with CTS. Additional research comparing the psychometric properties and prognostic utility of the Bland and GEHS neurophysiologic classifications is warranted.

  10. Predictive models of carpal tunnel syndrome causation among VDT operators.

    PubMed

    Matias, A C; Salvendy, G; Kuczek, T

    1998-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a cumulative trauma disorder of the hand and wrist, is one of the most common disabling injuries experienced by video-display terminal (VDT) operators. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretically based operational quantitative predictive model of the risk of work-related CTS among VDT operators. A total of 100 female VDT operators, who performed a variety of office functions, were studied at a major midwestern university. Data were collected on job exposure, anthropometry and posture factors using questionnaires, direct observation and video-recording. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression were performed to develop the operational models. The results of the study indicated the following: (1) percentage of workday working with a VDT was the most significant factor and accounted for 60% of the variance explaining the causation of musculoskeletal discomforts associated with CTS; (2) discriminant function with six variables (i.e. work duration, trunk incline, wrist extension, wrist ulnar deviation, overall anthropometric measure, weighted anthropometric measure) correctly classified 73% of the CTS group and 72% of the non-CTS group; (3) using the logistic regression model, the probabilities associated with changes in the predictive variables as affecting CTS risk are presented such that increasing the daily work duration from 1 h to 4 h increases the probability of CTS risk from 0.45 to 0.92. The results of the study suggest that the main causation of CTS is job design, the secondary (and lesser cause) is posture associated with the workplace design and the least contributing factor to CTS causation is the individual's anthropometric make-up.

  11. Comparison of research case definitions for carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Descatha, Alexis; Dale, Ann-Marie; Franzblau, Alfred; Coomes, Justin; Evanoff, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to assess agreement between different case definitions of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for epidemiological studies. Methods We performed a literature search for papers suggesting case definitions for use in epidemiological studies of CTS. Using data elements based on symptom questionnaires, hand diagrams, physical examinations and nerve conduction studies collected from 1107 newly-hired workers, each subject in the study was classified according to each of the case definitions selected from the literature. We compared each case definition to every other case definition, using the Kappa statistic to measure pairwise agreement on whether each subject met the case definition. Results We found six unique papers in a twenty year period suggesting a case definition of CTS for use in population-based studies. We extracted seven case definitions. Definitions included different parameters: symptoms only, symptoms and physical examination, symptoms and either physical examination or median nerve conduction study, symptoms and nerve conduction study. When applied to our study population, the prevalence of CTS using different case definitions ranged from 2.5% to 11.0%. The percentage of misclassification was between 1 to 10%, with generally acceptable levels of agreement (Kappa values ranged from 0.30 to 0.85). Conclusion Different case definitions resulted in widely varying prevalences of CTS. Agreement between case definitions was generally good, particularly between those that required very specific symptoms or the combination of symptoms and physical examination or nerve conduction. The agreement observed between different case definitions suggests that the results can be compared across different research studies of risk factors for CTS. PMID:21301789

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome impairs index finger responses to unpredictable perturbations.

    PubMed

    Grandy, Emily L; Xiu, Kaihua; Marquardt, Tamara L; Li, Chengliu; Evans, Peter J; Li, Zong-Ming

    2017-03-16

    The fine-tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). CTS' effects on hand function have mainly been investigated using predictable manipulation tasks; however, unpredictable perturbations are commonly encountered during manual tasks, presenting situations which may be more challenging to CTS patients given their hand impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle and force responses of the index finger to unpredictable perturbations in patients with CTS. Nine CTS patients and nine asymptomatic controls were instructed to stop the movement of a sliding plate by increasing index finger force following an unexpected perturbation. The electrical activity of the first dorsal interosseous muscle and forces exerted by the index finger were recorded. CTS patients demonstrated 20.9% greater muscle response latency and 12.0% greater force response latency compared to controls (p<0.05). The duration of plate sliding was significantly different between groups (p<0.05); the CTS group's duration was 142.2±5.8ms compared to the control group's duration of 133.1±8.4ms. Although CTS patients had increased muscle and force response durations comparatively, these differences were not statistically significant. Findings from this study suggest CTS-induced sensorimotor deficits interfere with accurate detection, processing and response to unpredictable perturbations. These deficits could be accounted for at multiple levels of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Delayed and decreased responses may indicate inefficient object manipulation by CTS patients and may help to explain why CTS patients tend to drop objects.

  13. Biomechanics of the transverse carpal arch under carpal bone loading.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Kai-Hua; Kim, Joo-Han; Li, Zong-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Carpal tunnel release and conservative interventions are widely used in clinical therapies of carpal tunnel syndrome. The efficacy of these treatment and interventions mainly lies in the exploitation of the mechanical properties of carpal tunnel. This study investigated the structural mechanics of the transverse carpal arch using cadaveric hands. Paired force was applied to the insertion sites of the transverse carpal ligament at both the distal (hamate-trapezium) and proximal (pisiform-scaphoid) levels of the carpal tunnel. The two pairs of forces were simultaneously applied in an inward or outward direction when the transverse carpal ligament was intact and transected. Transverse carpal arch and carpal tunnel compliance in response to the forces were analyzed. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine the effect of the transverse carpal ligament status (intact/transected), the level of the carpal tunnel (distal/proximal) and the force application direction (inward/outward) on the biomechanics of the transverse carpal arch. Transverse carpal ligament plays a stabilizing role in resisting outward deformation of the carpal tunnel. The carpal tunnel at the proximal level is more flexible than the carpal tunnel at the distal level. The carpal tunnel is more compliant under the inward force application than under the outward force application. The understanding of carpal tunnel mechanics potentially helps to improve the existing strategies and to develop alternatives for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomechanics of the Transverse Carpal Arch under Carpal Bone Loading

    PubMed Central

    Xiu, Kai-Hua; Kim, Joo-Han; Li, Zong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel release and conservative interventions are widely used in clinical therapies of carpal tunnel syndrome. The efficacy of these treatment and interventions mainly lies in the exploitation of the mechanical properties of carpal tunnel. This study investigated the structural mechanics of the transverse carpal arch using cadaveric hands. Methods Paired force was applied to the insertion sites of the transverse carpal ligament at both the distal (hamate -trapezium) and proximal (pisiform - scaphoid) level of the carpal tunnel. The two pairs of forces were simultaneously applied in an inward or outward direction when the transverse carpal ligament was intact and transected. Transverse carpal arch and carpal tunnel compliance in response to the forces were analyzed. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine the effect of the transverse carpal ligament status (intact/transected), the level of the carpal tunnel (distal/proximal) and the force application direction (inward/outward) on the biomechanics of the transverse carpal arch. Findings Transverse carpal ligament plays a stabilizing role in resisting outward deformation of the carpal tunnel. The carpal tunnel at the proximal level is more flexible than the carpal tunnel at the distal level. The carpal tunnel is more compliant under the inward force application than under the outward force application. Interpretation The understanding of carpal tunnel mechanics potentially helps to improve the existing strategies and to develop alternatives for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:20579787

  15. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Holden, Jameson; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Im, Jaehyun; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R; Park, Kyungmo; Audette, Joseph; Tommerdahl, Mark; Napadow, Vitaly

    2014-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, a median nerve entrapment neuropathy, is characterized by sensorimotor deficits. Recent reports have shown that this syndrome is also characterized by functional and structural neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex of the brain. However, the linkage between this neuroplasticity and the functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown. Sixty-three subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome aged 20-60 years and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T while vibrotactile stimulation was delivered to median nerve innervated (second and third) and ulnar nerve innervated (fifth) digits. For each subject, the interdigit cortical separation distance for each digit's contralateral primary somatosensory cortex representation was assessed. We also evaluated fine motor skill performance using a previously validated psychomotor performance test (maximum voluntary contraction and visuomotor pinch/release testing) and tactile discrimination capacity using a four-finger forced choice response test. These biobehavioural and clinical metrics were evaluated and correlated with the second/third interdigit cortical separation distance. Compared with healthy control subjects, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced second/third interdigit cortical separation distance (P < 0.05) in contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, corroborating our previous preliminary multi-modal neuroimaging findings. For psychomotor performance testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced maximum voluntary contraction pinch strength (P < 0.01) and a reduced number of pinch/release cycles per second (P < 0.05). Additionally, for four-finger forced-choice testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated greater response time (P < 0.05), and reduced sensory discrimination accuracy (P < 0.001) for median nerve, but not ulnar nerve

  16. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Norman; Holden, Jameson; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Im, Jaehyun; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Park, Kyungmo; Audette, Joseph; Tommerdahl, Mark; Napadow, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, a median nerve entrapment neuropathy, is characterized by sensorimotor deficits. Recent reports have shown that this syndrome is also characterized by functional and structural neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex of the brain. However, the linkage between this neuroplasticity and the functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown. Sixty-three subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome aged 20–60 years and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T while vibrotactile stimulation was delivered to median nerve innervated (second and third) and ulnar nerve innervated (fifth) digits. For each subject, the interdigit cortical separation distance for each digit’s contralateral primary somatosensory cortex representation was assessed. We also evaluated fine motor skill performance using a previously validated psychomotor performance test (maximum voluntary contraction and visuomotor pinch/release testing) and tactile discrimination capacity using a four-finger forced choice response test. These biobehavioural and clinical metrics were evaluated and correlated with the second/third interdigit cortical separation distance. Compared with healthy control subjects, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced second/third interdigit cortical separation distance (P < 0.05) in contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, corroborating our previous preliminary multi-modal neuroimaging findings. For psychomotor performance testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced maximum voluntary contraction pinch strength (P < 0.01) and a reduced number of pinch/release cycles per second (P < 0.05). Additionally, for four-finger forced-choice testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated greater response time (P < 0.05), and reduced sensory discrimination accuracy (P < 0.001) for median nerve, but not ulnar nerve

  17. A vertical mouse and ergonomic mouse pads alter wrist position but do not reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Annina B; Kubler, Paul A; Johnston, Venerina; Coppieters, Michel W

    2015-03-01

    Non-neutral wrist positions and external pressure leading to increased carpal tunnel pressure during computer use have been associated with a heightened risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study investigated whether commonly used ergonomic devices reduce carpal tunnel pressure in patients with CTS. Carpal tunnel pressure was measured in twenty-one patients with CTS before, during and after a computer mouse task using a standard mouse, a vertical mouse, a gel mouse pad and a gliding palm support. Carpal tunnel pressure increased while operating a computer mouse. Although the vertical mouse significantly reduced ulnar deviation and the gel mouse pad and gliding palm support decreased wrist extension, none of the ergonomic devices reduced carpal tunnel pressure. The findings of this study do therefore not endorse a strong recommendation for or against any of the ergonomic devices commonly recommended for patients with CTS. Selection of ergonomic devices remains dependent on personal preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Z-Elongation of the transverse carpal ligament vs. complete resection for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castro-Menéndez, M; Pagazaurtundúa-Gómez, S; Pena-Paz, S; Huici-Izco, R; Rodríguez-Casas, N; Montero-Viéites, A

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is treated successfully by surgical release of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL). However, persistent weakness of grip and pain over the thenar and hypothenar ends of this ligament, and "pillar pain", are reported to be common complications. In order to reduce these complications, different ligament reconstruction or lengthening techniques have been proposed. The purpose of this study is compare effectiveness and complications of TCL z-lengthening technique with complete TCL section. A prospective, randomised, intervention trial was conducted on 80 patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) complete release of TCL; 2) z-lengthening of TCL according to a modified Simonetta technique. Grip strength, pillar pain and clinical and functional assessment were carried out using the Levine et al. questionnaire. No significant differences were observed (p>.05) in the postoperative reviews between the two groups as regards grip strength loss and pillar pain. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative mean Levine scores, but there was no difference in the mean scores of the two procedures at any time. In conclusion, according to the results, TCL z-lengthening is more effective than simple division, but there is no identifiable benefit in z-lengthening for avoiding complications. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Early diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis by means of a transverse carpal ligament biopsy carried out during carpal tunnel syndrome surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernández Fuertes, Judit; Rodríguez Vicente, Óscar; Sánchez Herráez, Sergio; Ramos Pascua, Luis Rafael

    2017-03-03

    The systematic analysis of a carpal transverse ligament (CTL) sample obtained during routine carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery may constitute a method of early diagnosis for systemic amyloidosis. Prospective study carried out on 147 consecutive CTL samples collected from patients intervened for CTS at the University Hospital of León from April 2006 to May 2007. In those cases in which amyloid deposition was observed in the CTL sample, the study was completed with a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the subcutaneous fascia, using the Red Congo stain in both cases. Positive cases were referred to the Internal Medicine and/or Hematology departments, and their evolution was monitored for up to 8 years. CTL amyloid deposition was observed in 29 patients (19.7%), with a FNAB only being performed in 19 of them (65.5%). The test was positive in 11 cases (57.9%), and 4 patients in this subgroup (3% of the total) developed events attributable to amyloidosis over the following 3 years. A CTL routine biopsy carried out during CTS surgery may anticipate the systemic amyloidosis diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for incident carpal tunnel syndrome: results of a prospective cohort study of newly-hired workers.

    PubMed

    Evanoff, Bradley; Dale, Ann Marie; Deych, Elena; Ryan, Daniel; Franzblau, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most costly upper extremity disorders in the working population. Past literature has shown an association between personal and work factors to a case definition of carpal tunnel syndrome but little is known about the combined effects of these factors with the development of this disorder. Few studies have examined these associations in longitudinal studies. The purpose of this paper is to identify risk factors for incident carpal tunnel syndrome in a longitudinal study of workers across a wide range of occupations.

  1. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Associated with Oral Bisphosphonates. A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Martín Arias, Luis H.; Sáinz, María; Escudero, Antonio; Fierro, Inmaculada; Sauzet, Odile; Cornelius, Victoria R.; Molokhia, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates are widely used to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Some severe musculoskeletal reactions have been described with this medication; among them, some cases of carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether bisphosphonates may be associated with this syndrome. Methods A cohort study was conducted to compare exposed to unexposed women; the exposed group was that composed of women having received at least one prescription of an oral bisphosphonate. For the purpose, we used information from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. The outcome of interest was defined as those women diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome. A survival analysis was performed; the Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and to adjust for identified confounding variables. Results Out of a sample of 59,475 women older than 51 years, 19,825 were treated with bisphosphonates during the period studied. No differences in age distribution or mean follow-up time were observed between the two groups in comparison. Overall, there were 572 women diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome, 242 (1.2%) in the group exposed to bisphosphonates, and 330 (0.8%) in the unexposed. An adjusted hazard ratio of developing carpal tunnel syndrome of 1.38 (95%CI, 1.15–1.64) was found for women exposed to bisphosphonates; no significant changes in the hazard ratios were found when considering different levels of bisphosphonate exposure. Conclusions An increased risk of carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with the use of bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women. PMID:26765346

  2. Yoga Asanas for the Relief and Prevention of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleu, Steve

    This collection of yoga asanas (exercises) can help relieve the pain of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and help prevent CTS among people who work on computer terminals. For maximum benefit, the exercises should be practiced daily or on as regular a schedule as possible. They are not intended to replace surgery or a physician's prescribed care. They…

  3. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  4. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  5. Immediate and long-term effects of selected physiotherapy methods in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kwolek, Andrzej; Zwolińska, Jolanta

    2011-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a serious therapeutic problem and it considerably impairs the patients' quality of life. Despite many studies, the effectiveness of conservative treatment is still debatable. This study aimed to evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of conservative treatment involving ultrasound therapy combined with massage and kinesiotherapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 61 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were assessed with regard to such symptoms as pain, numbness, tingling sensation, morning stiffness, and self-care difficulties. We used provocation tests and investigated sensory impairments, autonomic disturbances, and Lüthy's sign. Conduction in the median nerve fibres was assessed during a nerve conduction study. We performed computer-aided measurement of the hand joint range of motion and global grip strength. The tests were conducted before and on completion of a rehabilitation programme. The hands were re-examined one year later. The treatment involved ultrasound therapy, massage, and kinesiotherapy. The treatment outcomes confirmed the effectiveness of the therapeutic programme. Significant improvements concerning the majority of the symptoms were observed between the first and second examination as well for the entire follow-up period. We observed significant improvement in the quality of sensation, the hand range of motion and muscle strength. Ultrasound therapy combined with massage and kinesiotherapy brings the expected, long-term effects in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

  6. Melorheostosis of the humerus: a rare differential diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Vos, J; Mulliez, A; De Loore, G

    2010-04-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon and rare linear hyperostosis, which can be complicated by soft tissue changes. We present a case of this disorder in the humerus, clinically referred because of carpal tunnel syndrome. Although treatment is usually conservative, in this case, a neurolysis and resection of the sclerotic bone were done with good clinical result. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra

    2015-02-15

    Studies have reported contradictory results on the role of keyboard or mouse use in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether computer use causes CTS. Literature searches were conducted in several databases until May 2014. Twelve studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. In a meta-analysis of six studies (N=4964) that compared computer workers with the general population or other occupational populations, computer/typewriter use (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.90), computer/typewriter use ≥1 vs. <1h/day (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.04) and computer/typewriter use ≥4 vs. <4h/day (OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.87) were inversely associated with CTS. Conversely, in a meta-analysis of six studies (N=5202) conducted among office workers, CTS was positively associated with computer/typewriter use (pooled OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65), mouse use (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.43-2.61), frequent computer use (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.09), frequent mouse use (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.18-2.87) and with years of computer work (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.17 for long vs. short). There was no evidence of publication bias for both types of studies. Studies that compared computer workers with the general population or several occupational groups did not control their estimates for occupational risk factors. Thus, office workers with no or little computer use are a more appropriate comparison group than the general population or several occupational groups. This meta-analysis suggests that excessive computer use, particularly mouse usage might be a minor occupational risk factor for CTS. Further prospective studies among office workers with objectively assessed keyboard and mouse use, and CTS symptoms or signs confirmed by a nerve conduction study are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of nerve conduction studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moon, Parag P; Maheshwari, Dilip; Sardana, Vijay; Bhushan, Bharat; Mohan, Sankalp

    2017-01-01

    Numerous nerve conduction tests are used for the electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), with a wide range of sensitivity and specificity reported for each test in clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various nerve conduction tests and determine the properties of the most accurate test. A prospective observational case control study. Eighty patients with clinically confirmed CTS and 80 asymptomatic healthy controls were included in the study. All patients underwent the routine hematological investigations as per the protocol. All cases and controls were subjected to various nerve conduction study protocols for CTS. Results were analyzed statistically. The two-tailed Student's t-test was used for the comparative statistical analysis. The sensitivity of each test was calculated as (the number of hands with an abnormal study result/the number of CTS hands) × 100. Comparison between percentages was performed by the McNemar test. The mean age was 38.19 ± 10.13 years and the female:male ratio was 1.5:1. The mean duration of disease was 0.89 ± 0.61 years. Hypothyroidism was present in 21 (26.25%) patients, whereas 13 (16.25%) and 4 (5%) patients had diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. The median nerve motor latency was 4.73 ± 0.83 ms while the sensory latency was 3.44 ± 0.56 ms. The median nerve orthodomic sensory latency was found to be 2.57 ± 0.31 ms. The conduction velocity across the palm and wrist was 41.37 ± 0.67 ms. The sensitivity was the highest in the inching method (86.25%) and lowest for the conventional median motor and sensory latencies (56.25% and 45%, respectively). Addition of a single test of median and ulnar sensory latency, the median and radial sensory latency or the inching method, in routine protocol will improve the sensitivity for the diagnosis of CTS in all patients.

  9. Bilateral carpal tunnel in childhood associated with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cruz Martínez, A; Arpa, J; Pérez Conde, M C; Ferrer, M T

    1984-01-01

    The case of a 7-year-old girl, the only descendant of non-consanguineous parents, who presented typical features of the Schwartz-Jampel syndrome and electrophysiological evidence of bilateral carpal tunnel is reported. Conventional electromyogram (EMG) showed persistent and continuous electrical activity and high frequency discharges elicited spontaneously by movement of the needle or after voluntary activation. Electrical silence after phenytoin therapy was sometimes seen. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) showed that high frequency discharges had a complex configuration and multiple components. Occasionally the discharges showed a progressive decrease in amplitude. Increased jitter was also found in some potential pairs that had been isolated under voluntary contraction after phenytoin therapy. Motor and sensory conduction velocities on the median nerve were slowed bilaterally across the carpal tunnel. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome is an unusual condition in children and its clinical picture differs from that in adults. Carpal tunnel syndrome was not clinically suspected in the patient reported in this article and the diagnosis was confirmed by the conduction velocity study.

  10. Sonographic measurements of subsynovial connective tissue thickness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Doesburg, Margriet H M; Mink van der Molen, Aebele; Henderson, Jacqueline; Cha, Stephen S; An, Kai Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    A major pathologic finding in patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome is noninflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of sonography to depict this thickening by comparing subsynovial connective tissue thickness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy control participants. Longitudinal sonograms of the middle finger superficial flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue were obtained at 3 levels: at the wrist crease (proximal tunnel), at the hook of the hamate (mid tunnel), and at the distal edge of the transverse carpal ligament (distal tunnel). The thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue perpendicular to the direction of the tendon and the diameter of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon at the same level were measured. Then, a thickness ratio was created. At all 3 levels, the subsynovial connective tissue was thicker in patients than in controls (P < .0001) with a thickness ranging from 0.60 to 0.63 mm in patients and 0.46 to 0.50 mm in controls. The thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients at the hamate and distal levels (P = .018 and .013, respectively). With this study, we have shown that it is possible to measure subsynovial connective tissue thickness with sonography, and the tissue is thicker in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome than in healthy controls.

  11. Pathological changes in the subsynovial connective tissue increase with self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tat, Jimmy; Wilson, Katherine E; Keir, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis and thickening of the subysnovial connective tissue are the most common pathological findings in carpal tunnel syndrome. The relationship between subsynovial connective tissue characteristics and self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms was assessed. Symptoms were characterized using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and Katz hand diagram in twenty-two participants (11 with symptoms, 11 with no symptoms). Using ultrasound, the thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue was measured using a thickness ratio (subsynovial thickness/tendon thickness) and gliding function was assessed using a shear strain index ((Displacement(tendon)-Displacement(subsynovial))/Displacement(tendon)x 100). For gliding function, participants performed 10 repeated flexion-extension cycles of the middle finger at a rate of one cycle per second. Participants with symptoms had a 38.5% greater thickness ratio and 39.2% greater shear strain index compared to participants without symptoms (p<0.05). Ultrasound detected differences the SSCT in symptomatic group that was characterized by low self-reported symptom severity scores. This study found ultrasound useful for measuring structural and functional changes in the SSCT that could provide insight in the early pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome – Part I (anatomy, physiology, etiology and diagnosis)☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Chammas, Michel; Boretto, Jorge; Burmann, Lauren Marquardt; Ramos, Renato Matta; dos Santos Neto, Francisco Carlos; Silva, Jefferson Braga

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is defined by compression of the median nerve in the wrist. It is the commonest of the compressive syndromes and its most frequent cause is idiopathic. Even though spontaneous regression is possible, the general rule is that the symptoms will worsen. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, from the symptoms and provocative tests. Electroneuromyographic examination may be recommended before the operation or in cases of occupational illnesses. PMID:26229841

  13. Thrombosis of the persistent median artery as a cause of carpal tunnel syndrome - case study.

    PubMed

    Rzepecka-Wejs, Ludomira; Multan, Aleksandra; Konarzewska, Aleksandra

    2012-12-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent neuropathy of the upper extremity, that mainly occurs in manual workers and individuals, whose wrist is overloaded by performing repetitive precise tasks. In the past it was common among of typists, seamstresses and mechanics, but nowadays it is often caused by long hours of computer keyboard use. The patient usually complains of pain, hypersensitivity and paresthesia of his hand and fingers in the median nerve distribution. The symptoms often increase at night. In further course of the disease atrophy of thenar muscles is observed. In the past the diagnosis was usually confirmed in nerve conduction studies. Nowadays a magnetic resonance scan or an ultrasound scan can be used to differentiate the cause of the symptoms. The carpal tunnel syndrome is usually caused by compression of the median nerve passing under the flexor retinaculum due to the presence of structures reducing carpal tunnel area, such as an effusion in the flexor tendons sheaths (due to overload or in the course of rheumatoid diseases), bony anomalies, muscle and tendon variants, ganglion cysts or tumors. In some cases diseases of upper extremity vessels including abnormalities of the persistent median artery may also result in carpal tunnel syndrome. We present a case of symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome caused by thrombosis of the persistent median artery which was diagnosed in ultrasound examination. The ultrasound scan enabled for differential diagnosis and resulted in an immediate referral to clinician, who recommended instant commencement on anticoagulant treatment. The follow-up observation revealed nearly complete remission of clinical symptoms and partial recanalization of the persistent median artery.

  14. Occupational Overuse Syndrome (Technological Diseases): Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, a Mouse Shoulder, Cervical Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tiric-Campara, Merita; Krupic, Ferid; Biscevic, Mirza; Spahic, Emina; Maglajlija, Kerima; Masic, Zlatan; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Technological diseases are diseases of the modern era. Some are caused by occupational exposures, and are marked with direct professional relation, or the action of harmful effects in the workplace. Due to the increasing incidence of these diseases on specific workplaces which may be caused by one or more causal factors present in the workplace today, these diseases are considered as professional diseases. Severity of technological disease usually responds to the level and duration of exposure, and usually occurs after many years of exposure to harmful factor. Technological diseases occur due to excessive work at the computer, or excessive use of keyboards and computer mice, especially the non-ergonomic ones. This paper deals with the diseases of the neck, shoulder, elbow and wrist (cervical radiculopathy, mouse shoulder and carpal tunnel syndrome), as is currently the most common diseases of technology in our country and abroad. These three diseases can be caused by long-term load and physical effort, and are tied to specific occupations, such as occupations associated with prolonged sitting, working at the computer and work related to the fixed telephone communication, as well as certain types of sports (tennis, golf and others). PMID:25568584

  15. In-continuity neuroma of the median nerve after surgical release for carpal tunnel syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Depaoli, R; Coscia, D R; Alessandrino, F

    2015-03-01

    Iatrogenic injuries of the median nerve after surgical release for carpal tunnel syndrome resulting in the formation of a neuroma are rare. We present here the case of two patients, one with a bifid median nerve, showing in-continuity neuroma after surgical release for carpal tunnel syndrome. The patients reported persistent post-operative pain and showing symptoms. In both cases, ultrasound showed an in-continuity neuroma with a hypoechoic and enlarged median nerve at the carpal tunnel. The case report shows that ultrasound may be helpful in confirming the clinical diagnosis of neuroma and it is useful for evaluation of the percentage of the area affected by the tear.

  16. The carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2009-12-01

    The carpal bones are deeply convex anteriorly. This bony gutter is converted by the flexor retinaculum into a tube - the carpal tunnel, which conveys the median nerve, together with the long flexor tendons of the fingers and thumb, into the hand. It is of special interest to the surgeon because it is the site of a common nerve entrapment, the carpal tunnel syndrome.

  17. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurophysiological Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in 130 Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Alrawashdeh, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is frequently confirmed by performing nerve conduction studies. Previous studies demonstrated that abnormal nerve conduction study (NCS) is suggestive of CTS among asymptomatic individuals. However, previous studies included individuals with risk factors for the syndrome. A NCS was performed on the median and ulnar nerves in 130 healthy individuals. About 15% of individuals in this study demonstrated electrodiagnostic evidence of carpal tunnels syndrome. Four cases have shown signs of isolated median neuropathy with normal median sensory component. Results indicated that the most widely used method for confirming diagnosis of CTS may have up to 15% of false positives. However, most of those showed changes of minimal CTS. Isolated prolongation of the median motor latency should be investigated further as they are usually classified as moderate to severe CTS and may undergo unnecessary surgeries. PMID:27994828

  18. Comparison of Knifelight Surgery versus Conventional Open Surgery in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heidarian, Amin; Abbasi, Hamidreza; Hasanzadeh Hoseinabadi, Mehdi; Hajialibeyg, Azin; Kalantar Motamedi, Seyed Mohammad; Seifirad, Soroush

    2013-05-01

    A variety of surgical treatment methods for carpal tunnel syndrome are introduced recently, including open surgery, endoscopic and the Knifelight. It is hypothesized that Knifelight method could decrease scar tenderness and time before return to daily activities for patients and is accompanied with less disturbance to fine sensory nerves. To compare the Knifelight instrument and open carpal tunnel release with respect to scar length, operation duration, recovery time needed before return to work and amount of pain three weeks after surgery in patients with neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome. FIFTY NINE PATIENTS WITH INDICATION FOR CARPAL TUNNEL RELEASE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED INTO TWO GROUPS: open (n=30) or Knifelight (n=29). The patients compared regarding scar length, operation duration, time to return to daily activities and amount of pain at three weeks after operation based on Visual Analog Scale. There was no significant differences regarding age and sex in the two groups. The scar length, operation duration and time before return to daily activities were significantly lower in the Knifelight group. Although the mean visual analogue scale of Knifelight group found to be lower than the other, it was not statistically significant. The Knifelight technique is accompanied with advantages over the open surgery regarding operation time, scar length and time to return to daily activities. The pain relieve based on Visual Analog Scale was not statistically different from conventional open surgery.

  19. Transverse plane tendon and median nerve motion in the carpal tunnel: ultrasound comparison of carpal tunnel syndrome patients and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    van Doesburg, Margriet H M; Henderson, Jacqueline; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The median nerve and flexor tendons are known to translate transversely in the carpal tunnel. The purpose of this study was to investigate these motions in differential finger motion using ultrasound, and to compare them in healthy people and carpal tunnel syndrome patients. Transverse ultrasounds clips were taken during fist, index finger, middle finger and thumb flexion in 29 healthy normal subjects and 29 CTS patients. Displacement in palmar-dorsal and radial-ulnar direction was calculated using Analyze software. Additionally, the distance between the median nerve and the tendons was calculated. We found a changed motion pattern of the median nerve in middle finger, index finger and thumb motion between normal subjects and CTS patients (p<0.05). Also, we found a changed motion direction in CTS patients of the FDS III tendon in fist and middle finger motion, and of the FDS II and flexor pollicis longus tendon in index finger and thumb motion, respectively (p<0.05). The distance between the median nerve and the FDS II or FPL tendon is significantly greater in patients than in healthy volunteers for index finger and thumb motion, respectively (p<0.05). Our results suggest a changed motion pattern of the median nerve and several tendons in carpal tunnel syndrome patients compared to normal subjects. Such motion patterns may be useful in distinguishing affected from unaffected individuals, and in studies of the pathomechanics of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  20. A Topical Gel From Flax Seed Oil Compared With Hand Splint in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Setayesh, Mohammad; Sadeghifar, Amir Reza; Nakhaee, Nozar; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the therapeutic effect of flax seed oil topical gel and hand splint in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. This study was a randomized clinical trial. Forty-nine patients, 96 hands, with mild to moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided into 2 groups randomly. One group was treated by topical gel and the other group by hand splint. Intensity of symptoms and function before and after intervention was measured via Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. After intervention, the ANCOVA showed a significant difference between the symptom and function scores of the 2 groups. In both cases, recovery was higher in the gel group (P < .001). The topical use of flax seed oil gel is more effective in the improvement of symptoms and function of patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome as compared with hand splint, and it can be introduced as an effective treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Prevalence of Pronator Teres among Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asheghan, Mahsa; Hollisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Aghdam, Abbas Shahabi; Khatibiaghda, Amidoddin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of conducting this study was to determine the prevalence of PTS among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was conducted from March 2014 to April 2015 in the EDX ward and clinic of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the university hospital; Baqiytallah, a large referral practice and research center in Tehran. We included patients with clinical symptoms and signs of CTS. Clinical assessments were aimed to the diagnosis of CTS and PTS. At the next stage, ultrasound study was performed for the participants with suspected CTS. Sample size calculations were based on the formula: N=4[pq/w2]z1-α/22. Results showed that 13 (8.8%) patients presented electrodiagnostic, and 27 (18.2%) had clinical manifestations of pronator teres syndrome of which, 17 showed ultrasonic signs of the syndrome. In addition, 2, 7, and 8 out of the 17 patients had mild, moderate, and sever carpal tunnel syndrome, respectively. Age was not significantly different between the patients with, and without pronator teres syndrome (p-value=0.179). Nine participants with pronator teres syndrome were male and there was a significant difference concerning sex (p-value=0.013). There was a good agreement between electrodiagnostic and ultrasound findings (Cohen’s kappa coefficient=0.71, p-value<0.0001). Taken together, pronator teres syndrome should be considered as a possibility among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome especially in sever forms. Both electrodiagnostic and sonographic studies are efficient for diagnosing pronator teres syndrome. Men are more prone to develop pronator teres syndrome. PMID:27829824

  2. Ultrasound evaluation on carpal tunnel syndrome before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Castro, Adham do Amaral E; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Sakuma, Alexandre Kaue; Ariede, Bruno Luiz; Barros, Wagner Haese

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in candidates for bariatric surgery comparing with the non-obese population and verify the effects on it of bariatric treatment. We studied three groups of individuals: 1) patients waiting for bariatric surgery (preoperative); 2) individuals who had already undergone the procedure (postoperative); and 3) control group. We collected demographic and clinical data of carpal tunnel syndrome. The Ultrasound examination was carried out to diagnose the syndrome by measuring the median nerve area. We included 329 individuals (114 in the preoperative group, 90 in the postoperative group and 125 controls). There was a higher prevalence of paresthesias (p=0.0003), clinical tests (p=0.0083) on the preoperative group when compared with controls (p<0.00001). There were lowe levels of paresthesias (p=0.0002) and median nerve area (p=0.04) in postoperative patients but with no significant difference in general. A significant difference was found between the preoperative and postoperative groups (p=0.05) in those who performed non-manual work. There was a higher prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the preoperative group compared with the control one, but no significant difference was observed between the pre and postoperative groups in general. There was difference between pre and postoperative groups for non-manual workers.

  3. Comparison of the histopathological findings of patients with diabetic and idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Fatih; Sürmeli, Mehmet; Şimşek, Hülya; Ceran, Candemir; Tezcan, Soner; Taner, Ömer Faruk; Şimşek, Gülçin

    2015-12-01

    This study is aimed to investigate whether there are any histopathological differences between diabetic and idiopathic carpal tunnel syndromes. The biopsy specimens were taken from transverse carpal ligament (TCL), tenosynovium adjacent to median nerve and epineurium of median nerve and evaluated in 47 patients (21 diabetic and 26 idiopathic) who were diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and treated surgically with open carpal tunnel release. Fibroblast proliferation, fibrosis, perivascular inflammation, oedema, vascular proliferation and vascular wall thickness were determined and scored in all specimens. There weren't any histopathological abnormalities in TCL specimens of both groups. Synovial hyperplasia, fibrosis and perivascular inflammation were not observed in tenosynovial analysis of both groups. Diabetic CTS patients, when compared with idiopathic CTS patients, had higher rates of synovial edema (idiopathic CTS 57 %, diabetic CTS 87 %), vascular proliferation (idiopathic CTS 30.8 %, diabetic CTS 90.5 %) and increased vascular wall thickness (idiopathic CTS 11.5 %, diabetic CTS 90.5 %). There was no oedema, fibrosis and perivascular inflammation of the epineurium in specimens of either group. But increases in vascular proliferation (idiopathic CTS 7.7 %, diabetic CTS 71.4 %) and vascular wall thickness (idiopathic CTS 3.8 %, diabetic CTS 71.4 %) was seen in the epineurium of diabetic patients and these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Because of the severe synovial and epineurial histopathological abnormalities and inadequate neural regeneration capacity, surgical open carpal tunnel decompression should be planned earlier in diabetic CTS patients. Further studies should be considered to evaluate the histopathological features of diabetic CTS patients early in the course of the disease.

  4. Missed childhood-onset carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed as chronic pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Anselm Harry; Horowitz, Michael I; Watson, Steven B; Watson, H Kirk

    2012-10-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a red, swollen, and painful right hand. She first developed symptoms when she was 7 years old. Numerous physicians evaluated her at various institutions but were able to classify her only with chronic pain syndrome. She continued with regular occupational therapy and had to use special aids to compensate throughout school. After 8 years of treatment with no improvement, she presented to our office, where we diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome. Intraoperative findings revealed a large proximal muscle belly of the index lumbrical, a thickened transverse carpal ligament, and marked compression of the median nerve. Two weeks after the surgery, her symptoms cleared; at 5 months, she remained symptom free. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased pain sensitivity is not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Laguarta-Val, Sofia; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the differences in widespread pressure pain and thermal hypersensitivity in women with minimal, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. A total of 72 women with CTS (19 with minimal, 18 with moderate, and 35 with severe) and 19 healthy age-matched women participated. Pressure pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, the C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel, and the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, warm and cold detection thresholds and heat and cold pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence. All outcome parameters were assessed by an assessor blinded to the participant's condition. No significant differences in pain parameters among patients with minimal, moderate, and severe CTS were found. The results showed that PPT were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS as compared with healthy controls (all, P<0.001). In addition, patients with CTS also showed lower heat pain threshold and reduced cold pain threshold compared with controls (P<0.001). No significant sensory differences between minimal, moderate, or severe CTS were found. The similar widespread pressure and thermal hypersensitivity in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS and pain intensity suggests that increased pain sensitivity is not related to electrodiagnostic findings.

  6. Grey-scale sonography and sonoelastography for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Kashiyama, Takahiro; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve at wrist level, and is thought to be caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. There is no standard quantitative reference for the diagnosis of CTS. Grey-scale sonography and sonoelastography (SEL) have been used as diagnostic tools. The most commonly agreed findings in grey-scale sonography for the diagnosis of CTS is enlargement of the median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). Several authors have assessed additional parameters. “Delta CSA” is the difference between the proximal median nerve CSA at the pronator quadratus and the maximal CSA within the carpal tunnel. The “CSA ratio” is the ratio of CSA in the carpal tunnel to the CSA at the mid forearm. These additional parameters showed better diagnostic accuracy than CSA measurement alone. Recently, a number of studies have investigated the elasticity of the median nerve using SEL, and have shown that this also has diagnostic value, as it was significantly stiffer in CTS patients compared to healthy volunteers. In this review, we summarize the usefulness of grey-scale sonography and SEL in diagnosing CTS. PMID:27027498

  7. Critical analysis of outcome measures used in the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, P.; Gul, Arif; Ilango, Balakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers are confounded by the various outcome measures used for the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, we critically analysed the conceptual framework, validity, reliability, responsiveness and appropriateness of some of the commonly used CTS outcome measures. Initially, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify all of the outcome measures used in the assessment of CTS patients, which revealed six different carpal tunnel outcome measures [Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ), Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM), clinical rating scale (Historical-Objective (Hi-Ob) scale) and Upper Extremity Functional Scale (UEFS)]. We analysed the construction framework, development process, validation process, reliability, internal consistency (IC), responsiveness and limitations of each of these outcome measures. Our analysis reveals that BCTQ, MHQ and PEM have comprehensive frameworks, good validity, reliability and responsiveness both in the hands of the developers, as well as independent researchers. The UEFS and Hi-Ob scale need validation and reliability testing by independent researchers. Region-specific measures like DASH have good frameworks and, hence, a potential role in the assessment of CTS but they require more validation in exclusive carpal tunnel patients. PMID:17370071

  8. Critical analysis of outcome measures used in the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Priyanka, P; Gul, Arif; Ilango, Balakrishnan

    2008-08-01

    Clinicians and researchers are confounded by the various outcome measures used for the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, we critically analysed the conceptual framework, validity, reliability, responsiveness and appropriateness of some of the commonly used CTS outcome measures. Initially, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify all of the outcome measures used in the assessment of CTS patients, which revealed six different carpal tunnel outcome measures [Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ), Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM), clinical rating scale (Historical-Objective (Hi-Ob) scale) and Upper Extremity Functional Scale (UEFS)]. We analysed the construction framework, development process, validation process, reliability, internal consistency (IC), responsiveness and limitations of each of these outcome measures. Our analysis reveals that BCTQ, MHQ and PEM have comprehensive frameworks, good validity, reliability and responsiveness both in the hands of the developers, as well as independent researchers. The UEFS and Hi-Ob scale need validation and reliability testing by independent researchers. Region-specific measures like DASH have good frameworks and, hence, a potential role in the assessment of CTS but they require more validation in exclusive carpal tunnel patients.

  9. Management of true recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome: is it worthwhile to bring vascularized tissue?

    PubMed

    Duclos, L; Sokolow, C

    1998-01-01

    Since 1989, 13 consecutive cases of true recurrent carpal tunnel have been operated on. Average delay before reoperation was 20 months (3 to 60 months). Intraoperative findings were univocal: extensive fibrosis with nerve adhesion to the roof of the carpal tunnel and a lack of nerve gliding. Surgery performed was: extensive external neurolysis from distal forearm to distal to carpal tunnel to allow a complete freedom of the nerve. A vascularized flap was never performed. Mean follow-up was 27.5 months (range 4 to 74 months). Results were: complete relief of symptoms in 75%; improvement with complete disappearance of nocturnal symptoms but persistent dysesthesia in 17%; no improvement in one patient (Sudeck's dystrophy). Interests of this study are: homogeneous population (only true recurrence), no bias from work compensation, consecutive cases, one surgeon, standardized surgical procedure and one independent observer. Results suggest that main factor for true recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome is lack of normal gliding of the nerve and that an extensive neurolysis helps to restore this gliding.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of nocturnal splinting for active workers with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; Gell, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether nocturnal splinting of workers identified through active surveillance with symptoms consistent with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) would improve symptoms and median nerve function as well as impact medical care. Randomized controlled trial. A Midwestern auto assembly plant. Active workers with symptoms suggestive of CTS based on a hand diagram. The treatment group received customized wrist splints, which were worn at night for 6 weeks; the control group received ergonomic education alone. Change in wrist, hand, and/or finger discomfort, carpal tunnel symptom severity index, median sensory nerve function, and the percentage of subjects who had carpal tunnel release surgery. The splinted group, unlike the controls, had a significant reduction in wrist, hand, and/or finger discomfort and a similar trend in the Levine carpal tunnel symptom severity index, which was maintained at 12 months. A secondary analysis showed that more median nerve impairment at baseline was associated with less clinical improvement among controls but not among the splinted group. Workers identified with CTS symptoms in an active symptom surveillance tended to benefit from a 6-week nocturnal splinting trial, and the benefits were still evident at the 1-year follow-up. The splinted group improved in terms of hand discomfort regardless of the degree of median nerve impairment, whereas the controls showed improvement only among subjects with normal median nerve function. Results suggest that a short course of nocturnal splinting may reduce wrist, hand, and/or finger discomfort among active workers with symptoms consistent with CTS.

  11. Management of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (ICTS): a survey of rheumatologists' practice and proposed guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pal, B; Morris, J; Keenan, J; Mangion, P

    1997-12-01

    This questionnaire survey was undertaken to study the approaches to diagnosis and management of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome by rheumatologists. Analysis of the completed questionnaires (81% response) showed variations in availability and referral for electrophysiological tests (EMG), initial choice of treatment (depending on patient's age and occupation, duration of symptoms, severity of clinical and EMG findings) and decompression surgery. This led the authors to propose guidelines in the management of this common condition.

  12. A handy review of carpal tunnel syndrome: From anatomy to diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi-rad, Mohammad; Nosair, Emad; Vegh, Andrea; Mohammadi, Afshin; Akkad, Adam; Lesha, Emal; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Sayed, Doaa; Davarian, Ali; Maleki-Miyandoab, Tooraj; Hasan, Anwarul

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most commonly diagnosed disabling condition of the upper extremities. It is the most commonly known and prevalent type of peripheral entrapment neuropathy that accounts for about 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. This review aims to provide an outline of CTS by considering anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnostic modalities and management of this common condition, with an emphasis on the diagnostic imaging evaluation. PMID:24976931

  13. Gouty wrist arthritis causing carpal tunnel syndrome--a case report.

    PubMed

    Sikkandar, M F; Sapuan, J; Singh, R; Abdullah, S

    2012-06-01

    A 63 year old male with a history of gout and hypertension presented with carpal tunnel syndrome. He gave history of bilateral wrist pain associated with numbness over the median nerve distribution of the hand. Tinels sign and Phalens test were positive with no obvious thenar muscle wasting on examination. Tophaceous deposits in the flexor tendons and within the synovium of the wrist joint was seen during surgery and this established gout as the cause of median nerve entrapment in this patient.

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A rare manifestation of distal radius osteoid osteoma.

    PubMed

    Basran, Sukhvinder Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Jameel, Javed; Sajid, Imran

    2015-09-01

    Osteoid Osteoma is a benign bone tumor that normally affects long bones and rarely affects distal radius. Because of its nonspecific presentation in the wrist, it remains a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of Osteoid Osteoma at distal radius having symptoms resembling that of carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively with X-rays; bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI, later histological examination confirmed the diagnoses. Surgical excision lead to a dramatic improvement in the condition of the patient.

  15. [Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements].

    PubMed

    Lewańska, Magdalena; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men), mean age 52 years (standard deviation: +/-6.93) hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. The study revealed high percentage (68.7%) of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%), thyroid diseases (28.7%), hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3%) and diabetes mellitus (12%). In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6%) patients only. The undeniable long-term (20(.2+/-9.3 years) occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases.

  16. Diagnostic Value of Virtual Touch Tissue Imaging Quantification for Evaluating Median Nerve Stiffness in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Miao; Jiang, Jue; Zhou, Qi; Xiang, Li; Huang, Yajuan; Ban, Wenrui; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To measure the shear wave velocity (SWV) of the median nerve by Virtual Touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) through the beginning of the carpal tunnel and to determine whether VTIQ could be used to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. This study recruited 49 consecutive patients (72 wrists) with a definitive diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and 23 healthy volunteers (46 wrists). We measured the median nerve diameter and cross-sectional area by 2-dimensional sonography and the SWV by VTIQ. The interobserver variability was analyzed, and diagnostic values were evaluated by drawing a receiver operating characteristic curve. The median nerve SWV was significantly higher in the carpal tunnel syndrome group (3.857 m/s) than the control group (2.542 m/s; P < .05). A 3.0-m/s SWV cutoff value revealed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 83.3%, 91.3%, 93.8%, 77.8%, and 86.4%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was excellent for the SWV measurements. The median nerve SWV at the carpal tunnel inlet is significantly higher in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, for whom VTIQ appears to be a highly reproducible diagnostic technique. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Evaluation of surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome using local anesthesia☆

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marco Felipe Francisco Honorato; da Rocha Luz Júnior, Aurimar; Roncaglio, Bruno; Queiróz Júnior, Célio Pinheiro; Tribst, Marcelo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the results and complications from surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome by means of an open route, using a local anesthesia technique comprising use of a solution of lidocaine, epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate. Material and methods This was a cohort study conducted through evaluating the medical files of 16 patients who underwent open surgery to treat carpal tunnel syndrome, with use of local anesthesia consisting of 20 mL of 1% lidocaine, adrenaline at 1:100,000 and 2 mL of sodium bicarbonate. The DASH scores before the operation and six months after the operation were evaluated. Comparisons were made regarding the intensity of pain at the time of applying the anesthetic and during the surgical procedure, and in relation to other types of procedure. Results The DASH score improved from 65.17 to 16.53 six months after the operation (p < 0.01). In relation to the anesthesia, 75% of the patients reported that this technique was better than or the same as venous puncture and 81% reported that it was better than a dental procedure. Intraoperative pain occurred in two cases. There were no occurrences of ischemia. Conclusion Use of local anesthesia for surgically treating carpal tunnel syndrome is effective for performing the procedure and for the final result. PMID:26962490

  18. Effects of Neuromobilization Maneuver on Clinical and Electrophysiological Measures of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oskouei, Ali E.; Talebi, Ghadam Ali; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Ghabili, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of neuromobilization combined with routine physiotherapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome through subjective, physical, and electrophysiological studies. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (totally 32 hands) were assigned two groups: treatment and control groups. In both groups, patients received the routine physiotherapy. In addition to the routine physiotherapy, patients in the treatment group received neuromobilization. The symptoms severity scale, visual analogue scale, functional status scale, Phalen’s sign, median nerve tension test, and median nerve distal sensory and motor latency were assessed. [Results] There were significant improvements in the symptoms severity scale, visual analogue scale, median nerve tension test, and Phalen’s sign in both groups. However, the functional status scale and median nerve distal motor latency were significantly improved only in the treatment group. [Conclusion] Neuromobilization in combination with routine physiotherapy improves some clinical findings more effectively than routine physiotherapy. Therefore, this combination can be used as an alternative effective non-invasive treatment for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:25140086

  19. Diagnosis of Severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Using Nerve Conduction Study and Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Kido, Kenji; Imajo, Yasuaki; Funaba, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the correlation between nerve conduction study and ultrasonographic findings for assessment of the usefulness of ultrasonography in determining carpal tunnel syndrome severity. Hands of adults with carpal tunnel syndrome were assessed using ultrasound and nerve conduction studies and grouped according to median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA). There were significant differences (p < 0.01) in mean median nerve CSA between controls, patients with median sensory nerve conduction velocity ≤40 m/s and patients with absent sensory nerve action potential and between controls, patients with median nerve distal motor latency ≥4.5 ms and patients with absent compound muscle action potentials of the abductor pollicis brevis. This is the first report to define median nerve CSA cutoff values (18 mm(2)) for determining carpal tunnel syndrome severity in patients with absent compound muscle action potentials of the abductor pollicis brevis. Median nerve CSA values below the cutoff values should prompt clinicians to consider other disorders, such as cervical compressive myelopathy. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of dental practice as a risk factor in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Borhan Haghighi, A; Khosropanah, H; Vahidnia, F; Esmailzadeh, S; Emami, Z

    2013-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an important cause of work disability. There is controversy over the relation between carpal tunnel syndrome and occupation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the time-span of practicing dentistry and the role of dominant hands in the development of carpal tunnel syndrome. In this descriptive cross sectional study, 40 dentists and dental students (15 women and 25 men) undertook the electroneuro-diagnostic test in both hands by an electromyogram (EMG) and they were also evaluated in terms of self- reported clinical symptoms. 17.5% of participants were diagnosed to have decreased nerve conduction velocity while10% had reported clinical symptoms of CTS. Both dominant and non-dominant hands were involved. Within cases who were diagnosed as having median nerve neuropathy, 87.5% worked more than 20 hours per week. 57% had 17-23 years of dental practice experience and 14.2% of cases had10-16 years of practice in dentistry. The high rate of CTS symptoms, in both dominant and non-dominant hand among dental practitioners with more years of dental practice, indicates a prequisite for particular attention, then sufficient education on the major risk factors causing this problem. Early diagnosis of these symptoms may improve the future management of the disease.

  1. Consumer health information on the Internet about carpal tunnel syndrome: indicators of accuracy.

    PubMed

    Frické, Martin; Fallis, Don; Jones, Marci; Luszko, Gianna M

    2005-02-01

    To identify indicators of accuracy for consumer health information on the Internet. Several popular search engines were used to find websites on carpal tunnel syndrome. The accuracy and completeness of these sites were determined by orthopedic surgeons. It also was noted whether proposed indicators of accuracy were present. The correlation between proposed indicators of accuracy and the actual accuracy of the sites was calculated. A total of 116 websites and 29 candidate indicators were examined. A high Google toolbar rating of the main page of a site, many inlinks to the main page of a site, and an unbiased presentation of information on carpal tunnel syndrome were considered genuine indicators of accuracy. Many proposed indicators taken from published guidelines did not indicate accuracy (e.g., the author or sponsor having medical credentials). There are genuine indicators of the accuracy of health information on the Internet. Determining these indicators, and informing providers and consumers of health information about them, would be useful for public health care. Published guidelines have proposed many indicators that are obvious to unaided observation by the consumer. However, indicators that make use of the invisible link structure of the Internet are more reliable guides to accurate information on carpal tunnel syndrome.

  2. Low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: effective optical power.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhao, Cheng-Qiang; Ye, Gang; Liu, Can-Dong; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Low-power laser therapy has been used for the non-surgical treatment of mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, although its efficacy has been a long-standing controversy. The laser parameters in low-power laser therapy are closely related to the laser effect on human tissue. To evaluate the efficacy of low-power laser therapy, laser parameters should be accurately measured and controlled, which has been ignored in previous clinical trials. Here, we report the measurement of the effective optical power of low-power laser therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. By monitoring the backside reflection and scattering laser power from human skin at the wrist, the effective laser power can be inferred. Using clinical measurements from 30 cases, we found that the effective laser power differed significantly among cases, with the measured laser reflection coefficient ranging from 1.8% to 54%. The reflection coefficient for 36.7% of these 30 cases was in the range of 10-20%, but for 16.7% of cases, it was higher than 40%. Consequently, monitoring the effective optical power during laser irradiation is necessary for the laser therapy of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. The Incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Simultaneous Surgical Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Dupuytren Contracture.

    PubMed

    Buller, Mitchell; Schulz, Steven; Kasdan, Morton; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the incidence of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the concurrent surgical treatment of Dupuytren contracture (DC) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) through a thorough review of evidence available in the literature. The indices of 260 hand surgery books and PubMed were searched for concomitant references to DC and CTS. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated the outcome of patients treated with simultaneous fasciectomy or fasciotomy for DC and carpal tunnel release using CRPS as a complication of treatment. Of the literature reviewed, only 4 studies met the defined criteria for use in the study. Data from the 4 studies were pooled, and the incidence of recurrence and complications, specifically CRPS, was noted. The rate of CRPS was found to be 10.4% in the simultaneous treatment group versus 4.1% in the fasciectomy-only group. This rate is nearly half the 8.3% rate of CRPS found in a randomized trial of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Our analysis demonstrates a marginal increase in the occurrence of CRPS by adding the carpal tunnel release to patients in need of fasciectomy, contradicting the original reports demonstrating a much higher rate of CRPS. This indicates that no clear clinical risk is associated with simultaneous surgical treatment of DC and CTS. In some patients, simultaneous surgical management of DC and CTS can be accomplished safely with minimal increased risk of CRPS type 1.

  4. Bilateral hand/wrist heat and cold hyperalgesia, but not hypoesthesia, in unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Padua, Luca; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate bilaterally warm/cold detection and heat/cold pain thresholds over the hand/wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A total of 25 women with strictly unilateral CTS (mean 42 +/- 10 years), and 20 healthy matched women (mean 41 +/- 8 years) were recruited. Warm/cold detection and heat/cold pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence in a blinded design. Self-reported measures included both clinical pain history (intensity, location and area) and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. No significant differences between groups for both warm and cold detection thresholds in either carpal tunnel or thenar eminence (P > 0.5) were found. Further, significant differences between groups, but not between sides, for both heat and cold pain thresholds in both the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence were found (all P < 0.001). Heat pain thresholds (P < 0.01) were negatively correlated, whereas cold pain thresholds (P < 0.001) were positively correlated with hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms. Our findings revealed bilateral thermal hyperalgesia (lower heat pain and reduced cold pain thresholds) but not hypoesthesia (normal warm/cold detection thresholds) in patients with strictly unilateral CTS when compared to controls. We suggest that bilateral heat and cold hyperalgesia may reflect impairments in central nociceptive processing in patients with unilateral CTS. The bilateral thermal hyperalgesia associated with pain intensity and duration of pain history supports a role of generalized sensitization mechanisms in the initiation, maintenance and spread of pain in CTS.

  5. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of low-level laser therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Jamie; Chong, Su L; Amirjani, Nasim; Chan, K Ming

    2004-08-01

    Several studies have suggested that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is effective in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In a double-blind randomized controlled trial of LLLT, 15 CTS patients, 34 to 67 years of age, were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 8) or treatment group (n =7). Both groups were treated three times per week for 5 weeks. Those in the treatment group received 860 nm galium/aluminum/arsenide laser at a dosage of 6 J/cm2 over the carpal tunnel, whereas those in the control group were treated with sham laser. The primary outcome measure was the Levine Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire, and the secondary outcome measures were electrophysiological data and the Purdue pegboard test. All patients completed the study without adverse effects. There was a significant symptomatic improvement in both the control (P = 0.034) and treatment (P =0.043) groups. However, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measures between the two groups. Thus, LLLT is no more effective in the reduction of symptoms of CTS than is sham treatment.

  6. [Magnetic resonance in the tunnel carpal syndrome. Possibilities and perspectives of an etiopathogenetic study].

    PubMed

    Giovagnoni, A; Ercolani, P; Soccetti, A; Misericordia, M; De Nigris, E

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-four selected patients were evaluated in order to define MRI capabilities in the preoperative evaluation and characterization of the pathogenetic patterns of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). MRI examinations were performed by means of a superconductive unit (1.0 T, Magnetom): SE T1 (500/17) and T2 (2000/90) axial images of the carpal region were obtained with a round surface coil. In 8 patients 3D GE (FLASH) pulse sequences were used to obtain 32 images of the hand; 3D reconstruction was also applied. Six patients with rheumatoid arthritis and amyloidosis were also studied after i.v. injection of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mM/kg). MRI findings were compared with both clinico-electrophysiologic and surgical results. High agreement was observed only between MRI and surgical findings. MRI allowed the direct demonstration of carpal tunnel abnormalities in 8 cases, while abnormal findings in the median nerve were observed in 18 patients. The possibility of depicting medial nerve lesions on T2-weighted images when no direct demonstration of the cause of compression is possible, could represent a guideline for the etiopathogenetic investigation of CTS. However, further experience in selected patients is necessary to define all the aspects relative to this very common syndrome.

  7. Sonographic differences in carpal tunnel syndrome with normal and abnormal nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Borire, Adeniyi A; Hughes, Andrew R; Lueck, Christian J; Colebatch, James G; Krishnan, Arun V

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the differences in sonographic parameters in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with normal and mildly abnormal nerve conduction studies (NCS). This was a prospective cross-sectional study. We assessed 169 wrists (101 patients) with a clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), as well as 20 healthy controls (40 wrists). 49 wrists were classified as mild NCS-positive and 38 as NCS-negative based on our laboratory NCS normal values. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet and mid-forearm were measured and the wrist-to-forearm ratio (WFR) was calculated. 26% of the NCS-negative group had abnormal CSA. The CSA and WFR also differed significantly between the two groups. There was significant correlation between the sonographic and electrophysiologic variables. Ultrasound was diagnostic for CTS in a third of the NCS-negative wrists. Ultrasound may be useful in clinical CTS patients with normal or borderline NCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carpal tunnel syndrome in Indian patients: use of modified questionnaires for assessment.

    PubMed

    Mody, G N; Anderson, G A; Thomas, B P; Pallapati, S C R; Santoshi, J A; Antonisamy, B

    2009-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess the use of a modified carpal tunnel syndrome questionnaire (the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, BCTQ) in an Indian patient population. Seventy-six Indian patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were recruited to this prospective study. On a scale of one to five, the average score for the severity of symptoms was 2.09 (0.89). The average score for functional disability was 1.94 (0.74), which was lower than the average function score reported for Western CTS patients (Levine et al., 1993). The symptom severity and function disability scores were higher in patients with positive Tinel's sign and Phalen's test. The function disability score was moderately correlated with other clinical tests for CTS. The average modified BCTQ scores for Indian CTS patients was established through this study. This modified questionnaire might assist physicians in developing countries to assess disability from CTS, although socioeconomic and cultural differences will have to be taken into account when comparing assessments across different populations.

  9. Hand pain other than carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS): the role of occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Andréu, José-Luis; Otón, Teresa; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sanz, Jesús

    2011-02-01

    Some occupational factors have been implicated in the development of disorders manifested as hand pain. The associations seem to be well documented in processes such as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) or writer's cramp. There are contradictory data in the literature about the relationships of trigger finger, De Quervain's tenosynovitis (DQT) and tenosynovitis of the wrist with occupational factors. In this article, we review current knowledge about clinical manifestations, case definition, implicated occupational factors, diagnosis and treatment of the most relevant hand pain disorders that have been associated with occupational factors, excluding carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).

  10. Atypical Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a Holt Oram Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mace, James; Reddy, Srikanth; Mohil, Randeep

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) presenting with clinical and electrophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome. Pre-operative Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an abnormal course of the median nerve; as such an atypical incision and approach were carried out to decompress the nerve to excellent post operative clinical effect. To our knowledge this is the first description of abnormal nervous course in a patient with HOS leading to peripheral entrapment. A literature surrounding the important aspects of HOS to the orthopaedic surgeon is presented concomitantly. PMID:25621081

  11. [Carpal tunnel syndrome and "trigger wrist" revealing a tendinous sheath fibroma].

    PubMed

    Benhima, M A; Ait Essi, F; Abkari, I; Najeb, Y; Fikry, T

    2014-02-01

    The tendinous sheath fibroma (TSF) is a rare benign tumor, exceptionally responsible for carpal tunnel syndrome and "trigger" wrist: we found this association less than ten times in the English and French literature. We report the case of a 63-year-old right-handed carpenter who featured a triggering phenomenon of the right wrist during the flexion-extension movements and compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel, secondary to a TSF of the flexor digitorum superficialis. The diagnosis was suspected at the sonography and MRI, the tumor was excised and proven histologically to be a TSF. One year later, the patient remained free of symptoms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Effectiveness of hand therapy interventions in primary management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muller, Monique; Tsui, Deborah; Schnurr, Ronda; Biddulph-Deisroth, Lori; Hard, Julie; MacDermid, Joy C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hand therapy interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) based on the best available evidence. A qualitative systematic review was conducted. A literature search using 40 key terms was conducted from the earliest available date to January 2003 using seven databases. Articles were randomly assigned to two of five reviewers and evaluated according to predetermined criteria for inclusion at each of the title, abstract, and article levels. Included studies were independently scored by two reviewers using a structured effectiveness quality evaluation scale and also graded according to Sackett's Levels of Evidence. There were 2027 articles identified from the literature search, of which 345 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-four studies were used to formulate 30 recommendations. Current evidence demonstrates a significant benefit (grade B recommendations) from splinting, ultrasound, nerve gliding exercises, carpal bone mobilization, magnetic therapy, and yoga for people with CTS.

  13. Initially unrecognised lunate dislocation as a cause of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Florian; Mattiassich, Georg; Kaulfersch, Christian; Ortmaier, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    A patient was admitted reporting tingling pain and numbness in the right hand. Neurological examination—including nerve conduction studies—diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome. Operative carpal tunnel release was performed without complications. Four months postoperatively the otherwise healthy patient presented again due to persistent complaints, although preoperative symptoms had improved. On this occasion, the patient reported loss of strength accompanied by rigidity in the wrist. Clinical examination showed some swelling adjacent to the operation wound. A postoperative ganglion cyst was suspected and a conservative treatment option—splinting the wrist—was chosen. Four weeks later the patient presented again with further swelling and increasing rigidity of the wrist. Surgical intervention was planned. Preoperative plain radiographs of the wrist revealed chronic palmar dislocation of the lunate to be the cause of the symptoms in our patient. Radiological signs of scapholunate advanced collapse arthritis (SLAC wrist) were also observed. PMID:23513027

  14. Cervical Radiculopathy and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Determination of the Reliability, Diagnostic Accuracy, and Predictive Validity fo Commonly Used Clinical

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Patients with cervical radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome result in significant medical and occupational costs annually. There is a need to...of diagnostic accuracy. and predictive validity of items of the clinical examination used for the diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.

  15. Association of obesity, gender, age and occupation with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lam, N; Thurston, A

    1998-03-01

    The present study determines the association of obesity, gender, age and occupation in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a New Zealand population. Analysis of questionnaires and clinical review of patients who had undergone surgical decompression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. The age and gender distribution of 655 hands (512 patients) that had undergone carpal tunnel release (CTR) were compared with the age and gender distribution of the New Zealand population. The results indicate that the 3-year-period prevalence of CTS in females is more than double that in males. Proportionally there were more patients over age 55 than in the general population. The findings also indicate that, proportionally, six times the number of females who worked in moderate manual work underwent CTR compared with the general female population and proportionally twice the number of males who worked in heavy office/clerical work underwent CTR compared with the general male population. It was also found that CTR patients are twice as likely to be overweight (body mass index [BMI] > 25) than the general population and female patients are twice as likely to be obese (BMI > 30) than the general population. Carpal tunnel syndrome is more than twice as common in females as it is in males, and patients aged more than 55 years are more likely to suffer from CTS. Females with CTS are more likely to work in moderate manual work and males with CTS are more likely to work in heavy office/clerical work. Obesity and CTS are related statistically.

  16. Correlations between ultrasonography findings and surgical findings in patients with refractory symptoms after primary surgical release for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Nuri; Toros, Tulgar; Çetinkol, Erkin; Ada, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Surgical carpal tunnel release is very effective for symptom relief in carpal tunnel syndrome, and it remains the preferred choice of treatment. However, refractory symptoms following surgical release are not uncommon. We aimed to assess the usefulness of ultrasonography for determining the potential causes of ongoing symptoms following surgical release. This retrospective study included 34 patients (32 women; mean age, 54.7±16.65 years; range: 30 to 81 years) with carpal tunnel syndrome who underwent surgical carpal tunnel release. A pathology related to the cause of the ongoing symptoms was detected by ultrasonography in 25 (74.5%) patients. The most common pathological findings were median nerve swelling (70.6%), incomplete transection of the transverse carpal ligament (23.5%) and perineural fibrosis (17.6%). In the majority of the patients the pathology related to the ongoing symptoms was detected by ultrasonography, suggesting that ultrasonography could be used as a complementary imaging method for identifying the causes of failure following surgical carpal tunnel release. Detection of an ongoing pathology might help clinicians in managing persistent disease cases and aid in planning an exploration.

  17. Is there Light at the End of the Tunnel? Controversies in the Diagnosis and Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prime, Mathew S; Palmer, Jonathan; Khan, Wasim S; Goddard, Nicholas J

    2010-12-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common disorder responsible for considerable patient suffering and cost to health services. Despite extensive research, controversies still exist with regards to best practice in diagnosis, treatment, and service provision. Current best practise would support the use of history, examination and electro-diagnostic studies. The role for ultrasound scanning in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome is yet to be proven. It appears magnetic resonance image scanning has a role where a rare cause for carpal tunnel syndrome may be suspected and also in the detailed reconstruction of the anatomy to aid endoscopic procedures. Treatment options can be surgical or non-surgical and patient choice will dictate the decision. For non-surgical interventions many options have been trialled but until now only steroid use, acupuncture, and splinting have shown discernable benefits. Open surgical decompression of the carpal tunnel appears to be more simple and cost-effective than minimally invasive interventions. For those patients who reject surgery, splinting, acupuncture, and steroid injection can play a role. Recent work looking at different service delivery options has shown some positive results in terms of decreasing patient waiting time for definitive treatment. However, no formal cost-effectiveness analysis has been published and concerns exist about the impact of a stream-lined service on surgical training. In this review, we look at the different diagnostic and treatment options for managing carpal tunnel syndrome. We then consider the different service delivery options and finally the cost-effectiveness evidence.

  18. Risk factors for operated carpal tunnel syndrome: a multicenter population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Bovenzi, Massimo; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Campo, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Pietro G; Ghersi, Rinaldo; Broccoli, Marco; Cancellieri, Maria Pia; Colao, Anna Maria; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Franceschini, Flavia; Fucksia, Serenella; Galli, Paolo; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Lucchini, Roberto; Mandes, Anna; Marras, Teresa; Sgarrella, Carla; Borghesi, Stefano; Fierro, Mauro; Zanardi, Francesca; Mancini, Gianpiero; Violante, Francesco S

    2009-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially and economically relevant disease caused by compression or entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. This population-based case-control study aims to investigate occupational/non-occupational risk factors for surgically treated CTS. Methods Cases (n = 220) aged 18-65 years were randomly drawn from 13 administrative databases of citizens who were surgically treated with carpal tunnel release during 2001. Controls (n = 356) were randomly sampled from National Health Service registry records and were frequency matched by age-gender-specific CTS hospitalization rates. Results At multivariate analysis, risk factors were blue-collar/housewife status, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, sibling history of CTS and coexistence of trigger finger. Being relatively tall (cut-offs based on tertiles: women ≥165 cm; men ≥175 cm) was associated with lower risk. Blue-collar work was a moderate/strong risk factor in both sexes. Raised risks were apparent for combinations of biomechanical risk factors that included frequent repetitivity and sustained force. Conclusion This study strongly underlines the relevance of biomechanical exposures in both non-industrial and industrial work as risk factors for surgically treated CTS. PMID:19758429

  19. Relationship Between Electrodiagnosis and Various Ultrasonographic Findings for Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between electrodiagnosis and various ultrasonographic findings of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and propose the ultrasonographic standard that has closest consistency with the electrodiagnosis. Methods Ultrasonography was performed on 50 female patients (65 cases) previously diagnosed with CTS and 20 normal female volunteers (40 cases). Ultrasonography parameters were as follows: cross-sectional area (CSA) and flattening ratio (FR) of the median nerve at the levels of hamate bone, pisiform bone, and lunate bone; anteroposterior diameter (AP diameter) of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel; wrist to forearm ratio (WFR) of median nerve area at the distal wrist crease and 12 cm proximal to distal wrist crease; and compression ratio (CR) of the median nerve. Independent t-test was performed to compare the ultrasonographic findings between patient and control groups. Significant ultrasonographic findings were compared with the electrodiagnosis results and a kappa coefficient was used to determine the correlation. Results CSA and FR of median nerve at the hamate bone level, CSA of median nerve at pisiform bone level, AP diameter of median nerve within the carpal tunnel, CSA of median nerve at the distal wrist crease and WFR showed significant differences between patient and control groups. WFR showed highest concordance with electrodiagnosis (κ=0.71, p<0.001). Conclusion These findings suggested the applicability of ultrasonography, especially WFR, as a useful adjunctive tool for diagnosis of CTS. PMID:28119834

  20. What Does the Transverse Carpal Ligament Contribute to Carpal Stability?

    PubMed Central

    Vanhees, Matthias; Verstreken, Frederik; van Riet, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background The transverse carpal ligament is well known for its involvement in carpal tunnel syndrome, and sectioning of this ligament remains the definite treatment for this pathology. Some authors believe that the transverse carpal ligament is an important stabilizer of the carpal arch, whereas others do not consider it to be significant. Several studies have been performed, both in vivo and in in vitro. Sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament does not seem to have any effect on the width of the carpal arch in the unloaded condition. However, patients will load the arch during their activities of daily living. Materials and Methods A cadaveric study was done with distraction of the carpal bones before and after sectioning the transverse carpal ligament. Results With the transverse carpal ligament intact, the carpal arch is mobile, with distraction leading up to 50% widening of the arch. Sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament resulted in a significant widening of the carpal arch by a further 30%. Conclusions Loading of the carpal arch after sectioning of the transeverse carapal ligament leads to a significant increase in intracarpal mobility. This will inevitably influence carpal kinematics in the patient and might be responsible for some complications after simple carpal tunnel releases, such as pillar pain, palmar tenderness, and loss of grip strength. PMID:25709876

  1. What does the transverse carpal ligament contribute to carpal stability?

    PubMed

    Vanhees, Matthias; Verstreken, Frederik; van Riet, Roger

    2015-02-01

    Background The transverse carpal ligament is well known for its involvement in carpal tunnel syndrome, and sectioning of this ligament remains the definite treatment for this pathology. Some authors believe that the transverse carpal ligament is an important stabilizer of the carpal arch, whereas others do not consider it to be significant. Several studies have been performed, both in vivo and in in vitro. Sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament does not seem to have any effect on the width of the carpal arch in the unloaded condition. However, patients will load the arch during their activities of daily living. Materials and Methods A cadaveric study was done with distraction of the carpal bones before and after sectioning the transverse carpal ligament. Results With the transverse carpal ligament intact, the carpal arch is mobile, with distraction leading up to 50% widening of the arch. Sectioning of the transverse carpal ligament resulted in a significant widening of the carpal arch by a further 30%. Conclusions Loading of the carpal arch after sectioning of the transeverse carapal ligament leads to a significant increase in intracarpal mobility. This will inevitably influence carpal kinematics in the patient and might be responsible for some complications after simple carpal tunnel releases, such as pillar pain, palmar tenderness, and loss of grip strength.

  2. Identification of Subgroups of Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Central Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Muñoz, Juan J; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; da-Silva-Pocinho, Ricardo F; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Pareja, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Identification of subjects with different sensitization mechanisms can help to identify better therapeutic strategies for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The aim of the current study was to identify subgroups of women with CTS with different levels of sensitization. A total of 223 women with CTS were recruited. Self-reported variables included pain intensity, function, disability, and depression. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerves, C5-C6 joint, carpal tunnel, and tibialis anterior to assess widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. Heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds were also bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence to determine thermal pain hyperalgesia. Pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining fingers was calculated to determine motor assessment. Subgroups were determined according to the status on a previous clinical prediction rule: PPT over the affected C5-C6 joint < 137 kPa, HPT on affected carpal tunnel <39.6ºC, and general health >66 points. The ANOVA showed that women within group 1 (positive rule, n = 60) exhibited bilateral widespread pressure hyperalgesia (P < 0.001) and bilateral thermal thresholds (P < 0.001) than those within group 2 (negative rule, n = 162). Women in group 1 also exhibited higher depression than those in group 2 (P = 0.023). No differences in self-reported variables were observed. This study showed that a clinical prediction rule originally developed for identifying women with CTS who are likely to respond favorably to manual physical therapy was able to identify women exhibiting higher widespread pressure hyper-sensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. This subgroup of women with CTS exhibiting higher sensitization may need specific therapeutic programs. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ultrasound evaluation of patients with moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, A; Sanei-Sistani, S; Sadoughi, N; Hamed-Azimi, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine cut-off points for the crosssectional areas of the median nerve proximal and distal to carpal tunnel in moderate and severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) and compare the results of our study with those available in the literature. Forty-three patients with upper limb pain other than CTS and 36 patients with idiopathic CTS enrolled into the study. The diagnosis and categorization of CTS were based on electrophysiologic criteria of the American Academy of Neurology. Median nerve cross-sectional areas were measured. Arithmetic mean values and standard deviation of each variable were measured. Student t-test and chi-squared test were applied to compare continuous and dichotomous variables between CTS and non-CTS control groups. Ultimately the diagnostic performances of the test characteristics including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were measured. Mean cross-sectional area of the nerve is higher in moderate than severe CTS proximal and distal to carpal tunnel. We accepted cut-off points of 11.5 mm² and 13.5 mm² for cross-sectional areas of the proximal and distal portions of carpal canal respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the proximal inlet are 83%, 90.7%, 65.5% and 55.7%; and for the distal outlet are 36.1%, 93%, 81.2% and 63.4% respectively. We suggest that ultrasound is a good diagnostic modality for patients referred to tertiary care centers which categorized as moderate CTS.

  4. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome and wrist osteoarthritis in long-term paraplegic patients compared with controls.

    PubMed

    Akbar, M; Penzkofer, S; Weber, M A; Bruckner, T; Winterstein, M; Jung, M

    2014-02-01

    We compared functional and structural changes in the hands, in particular the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome, in 56 paraplegic patients who had been wheelchair dependent for over 25 years with a group of able-bodied volunteers (with matching criteria for gender and age). The hands were assessed by clinical examination, electrophysiology, disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand score and magnetic resonance imaging. Hand function was worse and wrist pain was experienced more often in the paraplegic patients, and they also had a significantly higher prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome both clinically and electrophysiologically. The prevalence of wrist and trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis was significantly higher in the right hand.

  5. Clinical surveillance of carpal tunnel syndrome in two areas of the United Kingdom, 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    Bland, J; Rudolfer, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the demographic characteristics of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and changes in incidence over time. Methods: Prospective collection of neurophysiological and clinical data on all patients presenting to the subregional department of clinical neurophysiology in Canterbury, UK, from 1992 to 2001 and to the electromyography clinic in St Luke's Hospital, Huddersfield, UK, from 1991 to 1993. Results: 6245 new cases of neurophysiologically confirmed carpal tunnel syndrome were identified in Canterbury and 590 in Huddersfield. The average annual incidences (per 100 000) were 139.4 for women and 67.2 for men in East Kent, and 83.2 for women and 48.0 for men in Huddersfield. Corrected to the WHO European standard population these rates were 120.5 for women and 60.0 for men in East Kent, and 61.5 for women and 35.0 for men in Huddersfield. Between 1992 and 2001 there was an increase in the number of confirmed cases in East Kent but a decrease in their average severity. The age distributions were bimodal with a peak in the 50–54 age group and a second peak between 75 and 84 years. Over half the cases were bilateral. The disorder was consistently worse in the elderly, and more severe in men than in women in all age groups. Conclusions: The age distributions of unselected cases of carpal tunnel syndrome in both clinics differ markedly from that usually portrayed in surgical series. There was a significant increase in cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2001 in Canterbury, probably the result of increased ascertainment of milder cases. Median nerve impairment is more severe in the elderly and in men at all ages. PMID:14638888

  6. High incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome after deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Loizon, Marine; Laurencin, Chloé; Vial, Christophe; Danaila, Teodor; Thobois, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    We observed several cases of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) revealed after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). 115 consecutive PD patients who underwent STN-DBS between 2010 and 2014 at the Neurological Hospital in Lyon were retrospectively included. CTS was accepted as the diagnosis only if clinical examination and ENMG both confirmed it. Nine patients (7.8 %) developed CTS in the 2 years following surgery, which is far beyond the 2.7/1000 incidence in the general population. The present study shows an overrepresentation of CTS occurrence after STN-DBS in PD.

  7. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in a pizza chef

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Lorusso, Antonio; L’Abbate, Nicola; Assennato, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    A case of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in a 22-year-old pizza chef is described. An on-site analysis revealed that job tasks performed by the worker exposed him to a combination of biomechanical risk factors. Patient history and workplace observations suggest that occupational physical exposure may have caused the bilateral entrapment neuropathies. The present report underlines the advisability of a detailed occupational history in the case of entrapment neuropathies of the upper limbs commonly regarded as being related to biomechanical occupational exposure. PMID:21686375

  8. Rewiring the primary somatosensory cortex in carpal tunnel syndrome with acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yumi; Kim, Hyungjun; Kettner, Norman; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Ong-Sutherland, Rebecca; Mezzacappa, Pia; Libby, Alexandra; Mawla, Ishtiaq; Morse, Leslie R; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2017-03-02

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting the median nerve at the wrist. Acupuncture is a minimally-invasive and conservative therapeutic option, and while rooted in a complex practice ritual, acupuncture overlaps significantly with many conventional peripherally-focused neuromodulatory therapies. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms by which acupuncture impacts accepted subjective/psychological and objective/physiological outcomes are not well understood. Eligible patients (n = 80, 65 female, age: 49.3 ± 8.6 years) were enrolled and randomized into three intervention arms: (i) verum electro-acupuncture 'local' to the more affected hand; (ii) verum electro-acupuncture at 'distal' body sites, near the ankle contralesional to the more affected hand; and (iii) local sham electro-acupuncture using non-penetrating placebo needles. Acupuncture therapy was provided for 16 sessions over 8 weeks. Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire assessed pain and paraesthesia symptoms at baseline, following therapy and at 3-month follow-up. Nerve conduction studies assessing median nerve sensory latency and brain imaging data were acquired at baseline and following therapy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging assessed somatotopy in the primary somatosensory cortex using vibrotactile stimulation over three digits (2, 3 and 5). While all three acupuncture interventions reduced symptom severity, verum (local and distal) acupuncture was superior to sham in producing improvements in neurophysiological outcomes, both local to the wrist (i.e. median sensory nerve conduction latency) and in the brain (i.e. digit 2/3 cortical separation distance). Moreover, greater improvement in second/third interdigit cortical separation distance following verum acupuncture predicted sustained improvements in symptom severity at 3-month follow-up. We further explored potential differential mechanisms of local versus distal acupuncture using diffusion tensor

  9. [Diffuse tenosenovial giant cell tumor of the wrist revealed by carpal tunnel syndrome: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Ait Essi, F; Younsi, A; Abkari, I; Benhima, M A; Najeb, Y; Latifi, M; Fakhri, A; Belaabidia, B

    2012-10-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign proliferative lesion of synovial origin that may affect the joints, bursae and tendon sheaths. It is the second most common soft tissue tumor of the hand after ganglion cyst. The localised (nodular) form is the most common. However, the less-common diffuse-type giant cell tumour is usually located in the peri-articular soft tissue. The authors report the case of a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath arising from the carpal tunnel of the wrist in a 42-year-old woman. The patient presented a mild carpal tunnel syndrome and a mid-palmar swelling. We present an unusual localization of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, causing carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Single versus repetitive injection of lignocaine in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Akarsu, S; Karadaş, Ö; Tok, F; Levent Gül, H; Eroğlu, E

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of single versus repetitive injection of lignocaine into the carpal tunnel for the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. The 42 patients included were randomly assigned to two Groups: group 1 was injected with 4 mL of 1% lignocaine once and Group 2 was injected with 4 mL of 1% lignocaine twice a week for 2 weeks. Clinical and electrophysiological evaluations were performed at the study onset, and at 6 and 12 weeks following the final injection. Initially, the groups were similar with respect to clinical and electrophysiological findings. All parameters in Group 2 improved 6 weeks post treatment (p < 0.05), and these improvements persisted at 12 weeks post treatment (p < 0.05). Repetitive local lignocaine injection was effective in reducing the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome and improving electrophysiological findings.

  11. The association of Raynaud's syndrome with carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Peter; Mohokum, Melvin; Schlattmann, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has traditionally been included among the diseases associated with Raynaud's syndrome (RS). The prevalence of RS in patients suffering from CTS is not well defined. The objective of this paper was to assess the prevalence of RS in patients with CTS-a meta-analysis of published data was performed. The PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine and ISI Web of Knowledge was used for studies dealing with RS and CTS. The studies provided sufficient data to estimate the prevalence of RS in patients of CTS. A forest plot was determined by the revealed prevalence. Statistical analysis was based on methods for a random effects meta-analysis and a finite mixture model for proportions. Publication bias was investigated with the linear regression test (Egger's method). A meta-regression was conducted by the year of publication. Eight eligible studies, contributing data on 675 subjects, were included in this meta-analysis. For CTS, a pooled prevalence of 15.5% and 95% CI (95% CI 0.043, 0.318) were obtained. Statistically publication bias was present (P value 0.143). A mixture model analysis found five latent classes. The meta-regression indicated that the estimated prevalence increased when the year of commencement increased, too. Within the decade (1957-1967), the odds ratio increased from 1 (95% CI 1.065, 1.112) to 2.340 (95% CI 1.886, 2.903). Despite some heterogeneity, there is a possible indication of an association between RS and patients with CTS.

  12. Mucopolysaccharidosis type-IS presenting with onset of carpal tunnel syndrome at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Cengiz; Kurtulus, Duygu; Cihandide, Ercan

    2009-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) results from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L iduronidase. Three subtypes, based on severity of clinical findings, have been described, of which MPS type IS (also called Scheie syndrome) is the mildest form. A woman (age, 30 years) and her little brother (age, 21 years) presented to our clinic complaining of atrophy of the thenar muscles, numbness in both hands, and contractures in the finger joints. Electrophysiologic examination showed severe carpal tunnel syndrome for both patients. Findings of cardiac and ocular involvements and decreased level of alpha-L iduronidase confirmed the diagnosis of Scheie syndrome. Enzyme replacement therapy was initiated for the further prevention of musculoskeletal and other organ complications. Delayed diagnosis of MPS type-IS and the musculoskeletal findings are discussed in these 2 familial patients.

  13. Prognostic factors for return-to-work following surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan; Johnston, Venerina; Hines, Sonia; Ross, Mark; Coppieters, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common problem, that can be effectively managed by surgery. Screening for prognostic factors is important to identify workers who are at a greater risk of a poor work outcome in order to implement tailored interventions to facilitate their return-to-work. To synthesize the best available evidence on the association of preoperative prognostic factors with work-related outcomes in people who have undergone carpal tunnel surgery. Participants included those who were employed at the time of surgery, underwent carpal tunnel surgery and planned to return-to-work. The primary outcome was return-to-work. Quantitative studies investigating at least one prognostic factor for a work-related outcome in studies of workers who had carpal tunnel surgery were considered. Eleven electronic databases were searched from their respective inception date up to July 2015. A total of 3893 publications were reviewed. The quality of the included studies was assessed by two reviewers using a modified version of an appraisal tool (Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument [JBI-MAStARI]). The following criteria were evaluated: study population representativeness, clearly defined prognostic factors and outcomes, potential confounding variables and appropriate statistical analysis. Data extraction was performed using a modified version of the standardized extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI. Statistical pooling was not possible. Findings are presented in tables and narrative format. Eleven studies (13 publications) investigating 93 prognostic factors for delayed return-to-work or prolonged work disability outcomes and 27 prognostic factors for work role functioning in 4187 participants were identified.Prognostic factors associated with workers' increased likelihood of an earlier return-to-work in a moderate-to-high-quality study included worker expected or desired fewer days off work, occupation, lower pain anxiety and if

  14. Speckle-Tracking Sonographic Assessment of Longitudinal Motion of the Flexor Tendon and Subsynovial Tissue in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Doesburg, Margriet H. M.; Yoshii, Yuichi; Henderson, Jacqueline; Villarraga, Hector R.; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to image both tendon and subsynovial connective tissue movement in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy control volunteers, using sonography with speckle tracking. To estimate accuracy of this tracking method, we used in vivo measurements during surgery to validate the motion estimated with sonography. Methods We recruited 22 healthy volunteers and 18 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Longitudinal sonograms of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and subsynovial connective tissue were obtained during finger flexion and extension. The images were analyzed with a speckle-tracking algorithm. The ratio of the sub-synovial connective tissue velocity to tendon velocity was calculated as the maximum velocity ratio, and the shear index, the ratio of tendon to subsynovial connective tissue motion, was calculated. For validation, we recorded flexor digitorum superficialis tendon motion during open carpal tunnel release. Results The shear index was higher in patients than controls (P < .05), whereas the maximum velocity ratio in extension was lower in patients than controls (P < .05). We found good intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.08) for shear index and maximum velocity ratio measurements between speckle-tracking and in vivo measurements. Bland-Altman analyses showed that all measurements remained within the limits of agreement. Conclusions Speckle tracking is a potentially useful method to assess the biomechanics within the carpal tunnel and to distinguish between healthy individuals and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. This method, however, needs to be further developed for clinical use, with the shear index and maximum velocity ratio as possible differentiating parameters between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy individuals. PMID:22733858

  15. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light): a preliminary, prospective, open clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulos, I; Johnson, M I

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy, but no satisfactory conservative treatment is available at present. An uncontrolled experimental study was conducted in patients who visited our clinic from mid-2001 to mid-2002. A total of 25 patients (22 women and three men) with unilateral idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, mild to moderate nocturnal pain, and paraesthesia lasting >3 months participated in the study. The average age of the patients was 47.4 years and the average duration of patients' symptoms was 5.2 months. Polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) was administered perpendicular to the carpal tunnel area. The irradiation time for each session was 6 min at an operating distance of 5-10 cm from the carpal tunnel area, three times weekly for 4 weeks. Outcome measures used were the participants' global assessments of nocturnal pain and paraesthesia, respectively, at 4 weeks and 6 months. At 4 weeks, two patients (8%) had no change in nocturnal pain, six (24%) were in slightly less nocturnal pain, 12 (48%) were much better in regard to nocturnal pain and five (20%) were pain-free. At 6 months, three patients (12%) were slightly better in regard to nocturnal pain, 13 (52%) were much better regarding nocturnal pain, and nine patients (36%) were pain-free. At 4 weeks, four patients (16%) had no change in paraesthesia, five (20%) were slightly better, 13 patients (52%) were much better, and three patients (12%) were without paraesthesia. At 6 months, two patients (8%) had no change in paraesthesia, two (8%) were slightly better, 14 (56%) were much better, and seven (28%) were without paraesthesia. Nocturnal pain and paraesthesia associated with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome improved during polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) treatment. Controlled

  16. Randomised controlled trial of local corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the median nerve and results in pain, tingling and numbness in the wrist and hand. It is a common condition in general practice. Effectiveness of treatment by intracarpal corticosteroid injection has never been investigated in general practice. The objective of this study was to determine if corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome provided by general practitioners are effective. Methods In this study 69 participants with a clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome were recruited from 20 general practices. Short-term outcomes were assessed in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Long-term results were assessed in a prospective cohort-study of steroid responders. Participants were randomised to intracarpal injections of 1 ml triamcinolonacetonide 10 mg/ml (TCA) or 1 ml NaCl (placebo). Non-responders to NaCl were treated with additional TCA injections. Main outcomes were immediate treatment success, mean score of the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) of the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire, subjective improvement and proportion of participants with recurrences during follow-up. Duration of follow-up was twelve months. Results The TCA-group (36 participants) had better outcomes than the NaCl-group (33 participants) during short-term assessment for outcome measures treatment response, mean improvement of SSS-score (the mean difference in change score was 0.637 {95% CI: 0.320, 0.960; p < 0.001}) and FSS-score (the mean difference in change score was 0.588 {95% CI: 0.232, 0.944; p = 0.002}) and perceived improvement (p = 0.01). The number to treat to achieve satisfactory partial treatment response or complete resolution of symptoms and signs was 3 (95% CI:1.83, 9.72). 49% of TCA-responders (17/35) had recurrences during follow-up. In the group of TCA-responders without recurrences (51%, 18/35) outcomes for SSS-score and FSS-score deteriorated during the follow

  17. High-resolution MRI predicts steroid injection response in carpal tunnel syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Oshige, Takahisa; Matsuyama, Atsushi; Oki, Hodaka; Kinoshita, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Sakai, Akinori; Hisaoka, Masanori; Korogi, Yukunori

    2014-03-01

    To correlate median nerve T2 signal and shape at the carpal tunnel with steroid injection (SI) response in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. One hundred and sixty-three CTS wrists of 92 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo SI were prospectively evaluated with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a nerve conduction study. All patients underwent axial high-resolution T2-weighted MRI (in-plane resolution of 0.25 × 0.25 mm). The CTS wrists were classified into three groups according to the nerve T2 signal and the flattening ratio at the hook of hamate level: group 1, high and oval; group 2, high and flat; group 3, low and flat. Clinical response to SI was evaluated at 6 months after injection. One hundred and thirteen of the 163 wrists (69.3%) responded well to SI. The percentage of improvement was 81.7% (49/60) in group 1, 69.9% (51/73) in group 2, and 43.3% (13/30) in group 3 (P < 0.01). On stepwise logistic regression analysis high-resolution MRI was the only significant independent factor for SI response in CTS patients (P < 0.01). High-resolution MRI correlates well with SI response in CTS patients and seems useful for predicting SI response. • MRI may help determine appropriate care in carpal tunnel syndrome. • MRI helps in therapeutic decision-making whenever steroid injection is considered. • T2 signal decrease of the median nerve correlates with poor outcome. • T2 signal decrease of median nerve may reflect fibrosis and amyloid deposition.

  18. Sonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence and correlation with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Omer; Kalyoncu, Umut; Akdogan, Ali; Karadag, Yesim Sucullu; Bilgen, Sule Apras; Ozbakır, Senay; Filippucci, Emilio; Kiraz, Sedat; Ertenli, Ihsan; Grassi, Walter; Calgüneri, Meral

    2012-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most frequent extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). High frequency ultrasonography (US) is a sensitive and specific method in diagnosis of CTS. This study is aimed to: firstly assess diameter frequency of CTS in RA with US and compare with a control group; secondly, investigate relationship of CTS with disease activity. One hundred consecutive RA patients (women/men: 78/22) fulfilling ACR 1987 RA criteria and 45 healthy controls (women/control: 34/11) were enrolled into study. Disease activity parameters, RA and CTS patient global assessment and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ-DI) were recorded. Both patient and control group were questioned about secondary causes of CTS, and Katz hand diagram, Boston CTS questionnaire and Phalen ve Tinel tests were applied once for each hand. Wrist joint and carpal tunnel were assessed with US grey scale and power Doppler US, then cross-sectional area of median nerve (CSA) was calculated. Patients with median nerve CSA between 10.0 and 13.0 mm(2) were evaluated with electromyography (EMG). CTS was diagnosed if CSA of median nerve >13.0 mm(2) or CTS was shown with NCS. Although there was no difference between RA patients and controls in age, sex, history of DM (+) and goitre, CTS was more frequent in RA group (respectively, 17.0% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.038). In RA group with CTS, age, history of DM, disease duration, HAQ-DI score, CTS patient global score, Boston symptom severity and functional status scores were elevated compared to without CTS [respectively, 57 (36-73) vs. 50 (24-76), P = 0.041; 35.3% vs. 6.0%, P < 0.001; 108 (12-396) months vs. 72 (6-360) months, P = 0.036; 1.93 (0.75-2.87) vs. 1.125 (0-2.75), P = 0.013; 52 (1-97) vs. 25 (0-91), P = 0.001; 2.81 (1.18-4.17) vs. 2.0 (1.0-4.01), P = 0.01; 3.37 (1.37-5.0) vs. 2.25 (1.0-5.0), P = 0.008]. No difference was found between CTS (+) and (-) RA patients in acute phase reactants, disease activity and US findings

  19. Sensory distribution indicates severity of median nerve damage in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, E P; Ng, E S; Chan, Y H; Therimadasamy, A K

    2008-07-01

    Sensory symptoms within the median nerve distribution are a primary clinical diagnostic criterion for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, the distribution of the sensory symptoms in CTS varies from patient to patient. This study identifies the clinical and electrophysiological findings that correlate with the distribution of sensory symptoms in an Asian population with CTS. In a prospective study of 105 patients with electrophysiologically confirmed CTS, clinical and educational data were correlated with sensory symptom distribution. Median nerve distribution was strongly associated with more severe nerve conduction abnormality, male gender, and relief by movement. Patients with a complete median sensory distribution had more electrophysiological abnormality than those with an incomplete median distribution. Extra-median distribution was associated with the least nerve conduction abnormality. Educational qualification, age, symptom duration and body mass index were not associated with the pattern of sensory symptoms. In carpal tunnel syndrome, sensory symptom distribution is strongly dependant on the degree of electrophysiological median nerve damage. Median nerve sensory distribution is associated with severe nerve damage. This study provides clinicians with a simple clinical rule for assigning the degree of median nerve damage in patients with CTS based on sensory distribution patterns.

  20. Assessment of Decisional Conflict about the Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, Comparing Patients and Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Michiel GJS.; Bossen, Jeroen K.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Mudgal, Chaitanya S.; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of the process of developing a decision aid for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) according to the Ottawa Decision Support Framework, we were interested in the level of ‘decisional conflict’ of hand surgeons and patients with CTS. This study addresses the null hypothesis that there is no difference between surgeon and patient decisional conflict with respect to test and treatment options for CTS. Secondary analyses assess the impact of patient and physician demographics and the strength of the patient-physician relationship on decisional conflict. Methods: One-hundred-twenty-three observers of the Science of Variation Group (SOVG) and 84 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome completed a survey regarding the Decisional Conflict Scale. Patients also filled out the Pain Self-efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) and the Patient Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9). Results: On average, patients had significantly greater decision conflict and scored higher on most subscales of the decisional conflict scale than hand surgeons. Factors associated with greater decision conflict were specific hand surgeon, less self-efficacy (confidence that one can achieve one’s goals in spite of pain), and higher PDRQ (relationship between patient and doctor). Surgeons from Europe have--on average--significantly more decision conflict than surgeons in the United States of America. Conclusions: Patients with CTS have more decision conflict than hand surgeons. Decision aids might help narrow this gap in decisional conflict. PMID:27200394

  1. Recovery function of somatosensory evoked brain response in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: A magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Akihito; Shinohara, Takaaki; Nakano, Tomonori; Uemura, Jun-Ichi; Goto, Sae; Hirayama, Masaaki; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    The recovery function of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) was recorded to investigate excitatory and inhibitory balance in the somatosensory cortex of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. SEFs were recorded in patients and controls. Recordings were taken following median nerve stimulation with single and double pulses with interstimulus intervals of 10-200ms. The root mean square for the N20m component following the second stimulation was analyzed. SEFs following stimulation of the first and middle digits were also recorded and the location for the equivalent current dipoles was estimated in three-dimensional planes. Distances on the vertical axis between the equivalent current dipoles for the first and third digits were shorter in patients than in control participants. The root mean square for the N20m recovered earlier in patients compared to controls; this was statistically significant at an interstimulus interval of 10ms. There was no relationship between N20m recovery and the equivalent current dipole location in the primary somatosensory cortex. Carpal tunnel syndrome was associated with functional disinhibition and destruction of the somatotopic organization in the primary somatosensory cortex. Disinhibitory changes might induce a maladaptation of the central nervous system relating to pain. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome treatment: a cross-sectional study among 106 patients.

    PubMed

    Aouatef, M; Asma, B; Hajer, H; Charfeddine, A; Lamia, B; Taoufik, K

    2017-08-03

    The objective is to assess the influence of sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables on the choice of treatment of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). An exhaustive and trans-sectional study was conducted over a period of eight years, from 1st January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in the Department of Occupational Medicine at University Hospital of Mahdia, Tunisia. The study population was represented by patients with work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Data collection was based on a questionnaire sheet, describing social, occupational and medical characteristics of patients. The study population was characterized by a large female dominance, representing 95.3% with an average age of 42±7.8 years. Patients medically treated represented 38.7% and 61.3% had had surgical treatment. After binary logistic regression, surgical indication of CTS was significantly correlated to diabetes (p=0.017), other musculoskeletal disorders (p=0.02), functional signs of CTS (acrocyanosis p=0.05; muscle weakness p=0.015; radiating pain p=0.01; painful discomfort of the hand, the forearm or arm p=0.027) and to the atrophy of thenar muscles (p=0.018). According to this study, the choice of therapy for occupational CTS depends only on clinical data. More detailed studies will be needed to refine these results.

  3. [Neurophysiological advances in carpal tunnel syndrome: process of central sensitisation or local neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Santiago, R; de-la-Llave-Rincon, A I; Laguarta-Val, S; Martinez-Perez, A; Pareja, J A; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, C

    2012-04-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is considered a simple entrapment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel. In the last years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms. To review the basis neurophysiology of peripheral and central sensitization by applying them to CTS and to determine their clinical repercussions. Several studies have revealed that patients with CTS exhibit somato-sensory changes in areas innervated by the median nerve and also in areas non-related with the median nerve. Individuals with CTS exhibited widespread mechanical and thermal pain hyperalgesia, although they suffered from unilateral symptoms. Further, patients also showed wide-spread impairments in vibration conduction, deficits in fine motor control and changes in the somato-sensory cortex. These evidences support the presence of a complex process of peripheral and central sensitization in patients with CTS which may constitute a negative prognosis factor for the management of these patients. The advances in neurosciences in the last years support the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in CTS. These mechanisms justify the necessity of conceptual changes and in the management, both conservative and surgical, of this syndrome. Additionally, central sensitization can also play a relevant role in the prognosis of CTS since it can constitute a negative prognosis factor for its treatment.

  4. The Effect of Polarized Polychromatic Noncoherent Light (Bioptron) Therapy on Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Rezaei, Sajad; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Eliaspour, Dariush; Karimzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To study the effects of Polarized Polychromatic Noncoherent Light (Bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: This study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. Forty four patients with mild or moderate CTS (confirmed by clinical and electrodiagnostic studies) were assigned randomly into two groups (intervention and control goups). At the beginning of the study, both groups received wrist splinting for 8 weeks. Bioptron light was applied for the intervention group (eight sessions, for 3/weeks). Bioptron was applied perpendicularly to the wrist from a 10 centimeter sdistance. Pain severity and electrodiagnostic measurements were compared from before to 8 weeks after initiating each treatment. Results: Eight weeks after starting the treatments, the mean of pain severity based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores decreased significantly in both groups. Median Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) latency decreased significantly in both groups. However, other electrophysiological findings (median Compound Motor Action Potential (CMAP) latency and amplitude, also SNAP amplitude) did not change after the therapy in both groups. There was no meaningful difference between two groups regarding the changes in the pain severity. Conclusion: Bioptron with the above mentioned parameters led to therapeutic effects equal to splinting alone in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, applying Bioptron with different therapeutic protocols and light parameters other than used in this study, perhaps longer duration of therapy and long term assessment may reveal different results favoring Bioptron therapy. PMID:25606338

  5. The effect of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Rezaei, Sajad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Eliaspour, Dariush; Karimzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of Polarized Polychromatic Noncoherent Light (Bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. Forty four patients with mild or moderate CTS (confirmed by clinical and electrodiagnostic studies) were assigned randomly into two groups (intervention and control goups). At the beginning of the study, both groups received wrist splinting for 8 weeks. Bioptron light was applied for the intervention group (eight sessions, for 3/weeks). Bioptron was applied perpendicularly to the wrist from a 10 centimeter sdistance. Pain severity and electrodiagnostic measurements were compared from before to 8 weeks after initiating each treatment. Eight weeks after starting the treatments, the mean of pain severity based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores decreased significantly in both groups. Median Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) latency decreased significantly in both groups. However, other electrophysiological findings (median Compound Motor Action Potential (CMAP) latency and amplitude, also SNAP amplitude) did not change after the therapy in both groups. There was no meaningful difference between two groups regarding the changes in the pain severity. Bioptron with the above mentioned parameters led to therapeutic effects equal to splinting alone in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, applying Bioptron with different therapeutic protocols and light parameters other than used in this study, perhaps longer duration of therapy and long term assessment may reveal different results favoring Bioptron therapy.

  6. Battling Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through Ergonomics: A Case Study of Texas A&M's Library Provides Insights and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Joyce K.

    1995-01-01

    Current library automation practices and new technologies have forced library managers to seek some means of reducing carpal tunnel syndrome, and a case study of Texas A&M's library provides insights. Highlights include identifying and assessing the injuries, adjusting work surfaces, testing and selecting new keyboards, and developing…

  7. Battling Carpal Tunnel Syndrome through Ergonomics: A Case Study of Texas A&M's Library Provides Insights and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Joyce K.

    1995-01-01

    Current library automation practices and new technologies have forced library managers to seek some means of reducing carpal tunnel syndrome, and a case study of Texas A&M's library provides insights. Highlights include identifying and assessing the injuries, adjusting work surfaces, testing and selecting new keyboards, and developing…

  8. The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Cara; Alexander, Michael; Kane, David

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy, affecting 9% of women, and it is responsible for significant morbidity and occupational absence. Clinical assessment is used for initial diagnosis and nerve conduction (NC) studies are currently the principal test used to confirm the diagnosis. Sensitivity of NC studies is >85% and specificity is >95%. There is now good evidence that US can be used as an alternative to NC studies to diagnose CTS. US can assess the anatomy of the median nerve and also identify pathology of the surrounding structures that may compress the nerve. Median nerve enlargement (cross-sectional area ≥10 mm(2) at the level of the pisiform bone or tunnel inlet) is the most commonly used parameter to diagnose CTS on US, and sensitivity has been reported to be as high as 97.9% using this parameter. US may also be used to guide therapeutic corticosteroid injection into the carpal tunnel--thus avoiding median nerve injury--and to objectively monitor the response to treatment. There is now sufficient evidence to propose a new paradigm for the diagnosis of CTS that incorporates US. US is proposed as the initial diagnostic test in CTS based on similar sensitivity and specificity to NC studies but higher patient acceptability, lower cost and additional capability to assess carpal tunnel anatomy and guide injection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A manual therapy intervention improves symptoms in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maddali Bongi, Susanna; Signorini, Massimo; Bassetti, Massimo; Del Rosso, Angela; Orlandi, Martina; De Scisciolo, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    In carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), manual therapy interventions (MTI) reduce tissue adhesion and increase wrist mobility. We evaluated the efficacy of a MTI in relieving CTS signs and symptoms. Twenty-two CTS patients (pts) (41 hands) were treated with a MTI, consisting in 6 treatments (2/week for 3 weeks) of soft tissues of wrist and hands and of carpal bones. Pts were assessed for hand sensitivity, paresthesia, hand strength, hand and forearm pain, night awakening; Phalen test, thenar eminence hypotrophy and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS). Median nerve was studied by sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and distal motor latency (DML). CTS was scored as minimal, mild, medium, severe and extreme. We considered as control group the same pts assessed before treatment: at baseline (T0a) and after 12 weeks (T0b). Pts were evaluated at the end of treatment (T1) and after 24-week (T2) follow-up. At T0b, versus T0a, forearm pain and Phalen test positivity were increased and hand strength reduced (p < 0.05). BCTQ-SSS and BCTQ-FSS scores improved at T1 versus T0b (p < 0.05) with the amelioration maintained at T2. At T1, the number of pts with paresthesia, night awakening, hypoesthesia, Phalen test, hand strength reduction and hand sensitivity was reduced with the lacking of symptoms maintained at T2 (p < 0.05). No changes in SNCV, DML and CTS scoring were shown. MTI improved CTS signs and symptoms, with benefits maintained at follow-up. Thus, it may be valid as a conservative therapy.

  10. Static Magnetic Field Therapy for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Agatha P.; Markov, Marko S.; Carlson, Nels; Gregory, William L.; Carlson, Hans; Elmer, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of conducting trials of static magnetic field (SMF) therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), to collect preliminary data on the effectiveness of two SMF dosages and to explore the influence of a SMF on median nerve conduction. Design Randomized, double blind, sham controlled trial with 6-week intervention and 12-week follow-up. Setting University hospital outpatient clinics Participants Women and men (N=60), ages 21–65, with electrophysiologically-confirmed CTS diagnosis, recruited from the general population. Interventions Participants wore nightly either neodymium magnets that delivered either 15 or 45mTesla (mT) to the contents of the carpal canal, or a non-magnetic disk. Main Outcome Measures Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Function Severity Scale (FSS) of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and 4 median nerve parameters: sensory distal latency, sensory nerve action potential amplitude, motor distal latency and compound motor action potential amplitude). Results 58 of 60 randomized participants completed the study. There were no significant between-group differences for change in the primary endpoint SSS or for FSS or median nerve conduction parameters. For the SSS and the FSS each group showed a reduction at 6-weeks indicating improvement in symptoms. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of testing SMF therapy for CTS. There were no between-group differences observed for the BCTQ or median nerve parameters following 6 weeks of SMF therapy. Significant within-group, symptomatic improvements of the same magnitude were experienced by participants in both active and sham magnet groups. Future studies are needed to optimize SMF dosimetry and resolve issues related to the use of sham controls in SMF trials. PMID:20599049

  11. Clinical Findings of Asymptomatic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical differences between patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who have asymptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and those who have symptomatic CTS. Methods Sixty-three patients with DM were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), nerve conduction studies (NCS), and ultrasonographic evaluation of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve. According to the BCTQ responses and NCS results, the patients were divided into the following three groups: group 1 (n=16), in which NCS results did not reveal CTS; group 2 (n=19), in which NCS results revealed CTS but the group scored 0 points on the BCTQ (asymptomatic); and group 3 (n=28), in which NCS results revealed CTS and the group scored >1 point on the BCTQ (symptomatic). The clinical findings, NCS results, and CSA of the median nerve were compared among the three groups. Results There were no significant differences in age, DM duration, glycated hemoglobin levels, and presence of diabetic polyneuropathy among the three groups. The peak latency of the median sensory nerve action potential was significantly shorter in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (p<0.001); however, no difference was observed between groups 2 and 3. CSA of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel in group 2 was significantly larger than that in group 1 and smaller than that in group 3 (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of our study suggest that the symptoms of CTS in patients with diabetes are related to CSA of the median nerve, which is consistent with swelling of the nerve. PMID:27446786

  12. Canaletto implant in revision surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome: 21 case series.

    PubMed

    Bilasy, A; Facca, S; Gouzou, S; Liverneaux, P A

    2012-09-01

    Revision carpal tunnel surgery varies from 0.3% to 19%. It involves a delayed neurolysis and prevention of perineural fibrosis. Despite numerous available procedures, the results remain mediocre. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of the Canaletto implant in this indication. Our series includes 20 patients (1 bilateral affection) reoperated for carpal tunnel between October 2008 and December 2009. After the first operation, the symptom-free period was 112 weeks, on average. The average incision was 27 mm. After neurolysis, the Canaletto implant was placed in contact with the nerve. Immediate postoperative mobilization was commenced. Sensory (pain, DN4, and hypoesthesia), motor (Jamar, muscle wasting), and functional (disabilities of the arm, should, and hand; DASH) criteria were evaluated. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the median nerve was measured. Average follow up was 12.1 months. All measurements were improved after insertion of the Canaletto implant: pain (6.45-3.68), DN4 (4.29-3.48), Quick DASH (55.30-34.96), Jamar (66.11-84.76), NCV (29.79-39.06 m/s), hypoesthesia (76.2-23.8%), wasting (42.9-23.8%). Nevertheless, four patients did not improve, and pain was the same or worse in six cases. Our results show that in recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome, Canaletto implant insertion gives results at least as good as other techniques, with the added advantage of a smaller access incision, a rapid, less invasive technique, and the eliminated morbidity of raising a flap to cover the median nerve.

  13. [Inability to work before and after operation for carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej; Puchalski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropathy, affecting approximately 5.8% women and 0.6% men. In consideration of its commonness and occurrence in persons in employment age it is considered a cause of significant work absence. Operative treatment of the syndrome results in temporary decreasing of the power and dexterity of the hand, what is also a cause of inability to work. There is lack of information in Polish literature about the dimension of this problem. The objective of this study was to determinate a work absence caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, both before and after the operation. Fifty-six employed patients, 44 women and 12 men in a mean age of 49 years (range 27-63) who underwent a mini-invasive carpal tunnel release were analyzed. Patients were asked for duration of the disease and time off work before the operation and were followed-up for 6 months with a time off work to be noted. At 6 months, a self-assessment of the satisfaction with the result was performed in a simple four-grade scale. A mean duration of the disease in 56 employed patients was 34 months (range 2 months-20 years). Prior to the surgery, 22 patients (39%) were on sickness related sick leave for an average 2.9 months (range 3-12), After the operation all patients availed of sick leave for a mean of 2.3 months (range 1-6). Eight (14%) of the employed patients did not return to work in a 6 months follow-up for various reasons, but mostly due to weakness and reduced dexterity of the involved hand. None of the patients complained of symptoms similar to the pre-operative and in none any complication occurred. In subjective evaluation of the effectiveness of the surgery, comparing to the status before operation 31 patients (26%) were completely free of pain and other symptoms, in 80 (66%) complaints significantly reduced, in 5 (4%) remained the same and in 5 (4%) deteriorated. Statistical analysis revealed that 22 patients who availed of sick leave prior to surgery

  14. Manual Physical Therapy Versus Surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Fahandezh-Saddi Díaz, Homid; Martínez-Martín, Javier; Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado-Pérez, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    This randomized clinical trial investigated the effectiveness of surgery compared with physical therapy consisting of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The setting was a public hospital and 2 physical therapy practices in Madrid, Spain. One hundred twenty women with CTS were enrolled between February 2013 and January 2014, with 1-year follow-up completed in January 2015. Interventions consisted of 3 sessions of manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system (physical therapy group, n = 60) or decompression/release of the carpal tunnel (surgical group, n = 60). The primary outcome was pain intensity (mean pain and the worst pain), and secondary outcomes included functional status and symptoms severity subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and the self-perceived improvement. They were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months by a blinded assessor. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 12 months, 111 (92%) women completed the follow-up (55/60 physical therapy, 56/60 surgery). Adjusted analyses showed an advantage (all, P < .01) for physical therapy at 1 and 3 months in mean pain (Δ -2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) -2.8 to -1.2]/-1.3 [95% CI -2.1 to -.6]), the worst pain (Δ -2.9 [-4.0 to -2.0]/-2.0 [-3.0 to -.9]), and function (Δ -.8 [-1.0 to -.6]/-.3 [-.5 to -.1]), respectively. Changes in pain and function were similar between the groups at 6 and 12 months. The 2 groups had similar improvements in the symptoms severity subscale of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire at all follow-ups. In women with CTS, physical therapy may result in similar outcomes on pain and function to surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01789645. This study found that surgery and physical manual therapies including desensitization maneuvers of the central nervous system were similarly effective at medium-term and long-term follow-ups for improving pain

  15. Efficacies of Acupuncture and Anti-inflammatory Treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Bazrafshan, Esmaeel; Momeninejad, Hadi; Jahani, Navid

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the efficacies of acupuncture and anti-inflammatory treatment in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Fifty patients with mild to moderate CTS were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received night wrist splints as the standard conservative treatment for 1 month. The acupuncture group also received eight sessions of acupuncture therapy (twice a week for 4 weeks). The control group received 400 mg of ibuprofen three times a day for 10 days. The visual analog scale (VAS) score, the score on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire for Functional Status and Symptom Severity (BCTQ FUNCT and SYMPT), and the electrodiagnostic findings were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after treatment. At the final follow up, significant improvements were found in both groups (p < 0.05). Statistically significant improvements were observed in the VAS score, the score on the global BCTQ FUNCT and SYMPT, and the electrodiagnostic findings, but not in the distal motor latency (DML), in the acupuncture group (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that acupuncture affected the score on the global BCTQ FUNCT and SYMPT, the VAS score, and the electrodiagnostic findings, except the DML, more than ibuprofen did and that acupuncture might be an effective treatment for CTS.

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with high fibrinogen and fibrinogen deposits.

    PubMed

    Utrobičić, Ivan; Novak, Ivana; Marinović-Terzić, Ivana; Matić, Katarina; Lessel, Davor; Salamunić, Ilza; Babić, Mirna Saraga; Kunac, Nenad; Mešin, Anka Koštić; Kubisch, Christian; Maček, Boris; Terzić, Janoš

    2014-09-01

    Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (ICTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy. Some cases of ICTS are linked to mutations of the transthyretin gene, whereas others are associated with systemic amyloidosis. The majority of ICTS cases are of unknown etiology. To study molecular mechanisms of ICTS development. A total of 71 ICTS patients and 68 control subjects were included in the study. The fibrinogen level was determined before surgery and its deposition in the transversal carpal ligament (TCL) was detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and mass spectrometry. Fibrinogen interaction with other proteins was studied by immunoprecipitation assay. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory and hemostatic protein fibrinogen are elevated in ICTS patients. Other measured systemic inflammatory markers were not affected, and local inflammatory responses in TCL were absent. ICTS patients have shorter bleeding times, probably because of the elevated plasma levels of fibrinogen. Polymorphisms of the fibrinogen B promoter region were previously associated with increased plasma fibrinogen, but this association was not observed among patients with ICTS. Interestingly, we detected fibrinogen deposits in the TCL, whereas transcriptional activity of the fibrinogen genes was low. Amyloidogenic proteins, including transthyretin and α-synuclein, were also found in the TCL, whereas their local transcriptional activity was rather high. Finally, we demonstrated that fibrinogen interacts with transthyretin and α-synuclein in TCL lysates. Our data indicate that fibrinogen and other aggregation-prone proteins have potentially important roles in the pathogenesis of ICTS.

  17. A new provocative test for carpal tunnel syndrome. Assessment of wrist flexion and nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Tetro, A M; Evanoff, B A; Hollstien, S B; Gelberman, R H

    1998-05-01

    To establish the value of median nerve compression with wrist flexion as a provocative test for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), we performed a prospective study of 64 patients (95 hands) with CTS confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies and 50 normal subjects (96 hands). We recorded results for the common provocative tests (Tinel's percussion test, Phalen's wrist flexion test and the carpal compression test) and the new test which combines wrist flexion with median nerve compression. Using a receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) technique, we found that the optimal cut-off time for the wrist-flexion and median-nerve compression test was 20 s, giving a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 99%. These results were significantly better than for Phalen's wrist flexion test (61% and 83%, respectively) and for the sensitivity of Tinel's test (74%). The positive predictive values of the wrist flexion and median-nerve compression test, which is more important clinically, were 99%, 95% and 81% at population prevalences of 50%, 20% and 5%, respectively. These were significantly better than those of the three other provocative tests at each prevalence. Electrodiagnostic studies have significant false-positive and false-negative rates in CTS, and therefore provocative tests remain important in its diagnosis. We have shown that wrist flexion combined with the median-nerve compression test at 20 s, is significantly better than the other methods, and may thus be clinically useful.

  18. An epidemiological profile of cashiers holders carpal tunnel syndrome in a grocery store chain.

    PubMed

    Costa, R; Barros, R; Campos, D; Lima, D; Barbosa, Geórgia

    2012-01-01

    Occupational diseases are those acquired in the work. Statistics show an increase number of cases, victims like typists, telephone's operators, cashiers and many others with varied levels of involvement. It is composed of disorders affecting the upper limbs being recognized by the Ministry of Social Welfare. Among these diseases stands out for its high occurrence Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). It has been considered a disease of the century, because its incidence has increased in 40.8% of repetitive stress disorders, with prevalence in females, and predominant age ranging from 25 to 40 years. It is characterized by pain and paresthesia in the first four fingers and wrists, and arm pain, weakness, numbness in the territory of the median nerve, preserving or not the palmar sensation and numbness in the median sensory distribution. This study aims to assess functional capacity and severity of symptoms presented by cashiers diagnosed with CTS. It is a descriptive and quantitative in nature. The population consists of 13 grocery store cashiers of both sexes, with a workload of 42 hours. We will be used as an instrument called the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. That purports to be an effective means of measuring the numbness and pain in hands and wrists. Exclusion criteria we consider the subjects who have other diseases associated with CTS. The collection is with the possibility of partial results to be entered in a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel for data analysis and subsequent discussion and correlation with the current literature.

  19. Conservative treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: comparison between laser therapy and Fascial Manipulation(®).

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Elisa; Pintucci, Marco; Cultrera, Pina; Baldini, Enrico; Stecco, Antonio; Petrocelli, Antonio; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is multifactorial and most cases are classified as idiopathic (Thurston 2013). A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the effectiveness of Fascial Manipulation(®) (FM) and Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for CTS. This prospective trial included 42 patients (70 hands with symptoms) with clinical and electroneuromyographic diagnosis of CTS. The patients were randomly assigned to receive multiple sessions of FM or multiple session of LLLT. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) were performed at baseline, end of treatment and after three months. The group that received FM showed a significant reduction in subjective pain perception and an increased function assessed by BCTQ at the end of the treatment and follow-up. The group that received LLLT showed an improvement in the BCTQ at the end of the treatment but the improvement level was not sustained at the three month follow-up. FM is a valid alternative treatment for CTS.

  20. Value of superb microvascular imaging ultrasonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Chen, Li; Wu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Ji-Bin; Hu, Bing; Jiang, Li-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the value of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with that of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS). Fifty patients with symptomatic CTS and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The cross-sectional area (CSA), CDUS score, PDUS score, and SMI score of the median nerve (MN) at the carpal tunnel were recorded. The value of different ultrasonography (US) diagnostic strategies was calculated. The blood flow display ratio in the MN of the healthy volunteers had no statistical difference between CDUS, PDUS, and SMI (20%, 32%, and 48%, respectively, P >.05). The blood flow display ratio for SMI in patients was significantly higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (90%, 52%, and 60%, respectively, P <.005). The accuracy of SMI score ≥2 (79%) was much higher than that of CDUS and PDUS (61% and 63%, respectively, P <.05). Comprehensive consideration of SMI and CSA, CSA≥10.5 mm2, and/or SMI score ≥2 has the highest accuracy (83%), significantly higher than that of CSA combination with CDUS or PDUS (68% and 69%, respectively, P <.05). SMI is more sensitive to display the blood flow in the MN with CTS than CDUS and PDUS. It might significantly improve the diagnosis value for CTS. PMID:28538376

  1. An innovative hand brace for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Manente, G; Torrieri, F; Di Blasio, F; Staniscia, T; Romano, F; Uncini, A

    2001-08-01

    We developed a hand brace and studied its efficacy and tolerability in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We randomized 83 subjects into a treated group, which wore the hand brace at night for 4 weeks, and a control group, which received no treatment. The primary efficacy measure was change in the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) score. Secondary measures were Subjects' Global Impression of Change Questionnaire (SGICQ), median distal motor latency, sensory conduction velocity and amplitude, and neurophysiological class of severity. The treated group showed a reduction in BCTQ symptomatic score (from 2.75 to 1.54 at 4 weeks; P < 0.001) and functional score (from 1.89 to 1.48; P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in the control subjects. SGICQ documented improvement in all treated subjects (P = 0.006). No significant difference was found in electrophysiological measurements, but overall neurophysiological classification shifted to less severe classes in the treated group (P < 0.05). Thus, the study demonstrates that this hand brace is highly efficient in relieving symptoms and functional loss in CTS.

  2. Motor Unit Number Estimation and Motor Unit Action Potential Analysis in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Jee, Sung Ju; Kim, Young-Jae; Shin, Hyun-Dae

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative analysis of motor unit action potential (MUAP) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) according to electrophysiologic severity, ultrasonographic measurement and clinical symptoms. Method We evaluated 78 wrists of 45 patients, who had been diagnosed with CTS and 42 wrists of 21 healthy controls. Median nerve conduction studies, amplitude and duration of MUAP, and the MUNE of the abductor pollicis brevis were measured. The cross sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the pisiform and distal radioulnar joint level was determined by high resolution ultrasonography. Clinical symptom of CTS was assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Results The MUNE, the amplitude and the duration of MUAP of the CTS group were significantly different from those found in the control group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.944 for MUNE, 0.923 for MUAP amplitude and 0.953 for MUAP duration. MUNE had a negative correlation with electrophysiologic stage of CTS, amplitude and duration of MUAP, CSA at pisiform level, and the score of BCTQ. The amplitude and duration of MUAP had a positive correlation with the score of BCTQ. The electrophysiologic stage was correlated with amplitude but not with the duration of MUAP. Conclusion MUNE, amplitude and duration of MUAP are useful tests for diagnosis of CTS. In addition, the MUNE serves as a good indicator of CTS severity. PMID:22506210

  3. Carpal tunnel syndrome and the use of computer mouse and keyboard: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Jane F; Gerr, Fred; Atroshi, Isam

    2008-01-01

    Background This review examines evidence for an association between computer work and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods A systematic review of studies of computer work and CTS was performed. Supplementary, longitudinal studies of low force, repetitive work and CTS, and studies of possible pathophysiological mechanisms were evaluated. Results Eight epidemiological studies of the association between computer work and CTS were identified. All eight studies had one or more limitation including imprecise exposure and outcome assessment, low statistical power or potentially serious biases. In three of the studies an exposure-response association was observed but because of possible misclassification no firm conclusions could be drawn. Three of the studies found risks below 1. Also longitudinal studies of repetitive low-force non-computer work (n = 3) were reviewed but these studies did not add evidence to an association. Measurements of carpal tunnel pressure (CTP) under conditions typically observed among computer users showed pressure values below levels considered harmful. However, during actual mouse use one study showed an increase of CTP to potentially harmful levels. The long term effects of prolonged or repeatedly increased pressures at these levels are not known, however. Conclusion There is insufficient epidemiological evidence that computer work causes CTS. PMID:18838001

  4. Electroacupuncture and splinting versus splinting alone to treat carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Ho, Robin S T; Liu, Siya; Chong, Marc K C; Leung, Albert W N; Yip, Benjamin H K; Griffiths, Sian M; Zee, Benny C Y; Wu, Justin C Y; Sit, Regina W S; Lau, Alexander Y L; Wong, Samuel Y S

    2016-09-06

    The effectiveness of acupuncture for managing carpal tunnel syndrome is uncertain, particularly in patients already receiving conventional treatments (e.g., splinting). We aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture combined with splinting. We conducted a randomized parallel-group assessor-blinded 2-arm trial on patients with clinically diagnosed primary carpal tunnel syndrome. The treatment group was offered 13 sessions of electroacupuncture over 17 weeks. The treatment and control groups both received continuous nocturnal wrist splinting. Of 181 participants randomly assigned to electroacupuncture combined with splinting (n = 90) or splinting alone (n = 91), 174 (96.1%) completed all follow-up. The electroacupuncture group showed greater improvements at 17 weeks in symptoms (primary outcome of Symptom Severity Scale score mean difference [MD] -0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.36 to -0.03), disability (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score MD -6.72, 95% CI -10.9 to -2.57), function (Functional Status Scale score MD -0.22, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.05), dexterity (time to complete blinded pick-up test MD -6.13 seconds, 95% CI -10.6 to -1.63) and maximal tip pinch strength (MD 1.17 lb, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.86). Differences between groups were small and clinically unimportant for reduction in pain (numerical rating scale -0.70, 95% CI -1.34 to -0.06), and not significant for sensation (first finger monofilament test -0.08 mm, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.06). For patients with primary carpal tunnel syndrome, chronic mild to moderate symptoms and no indication for surgery, electroacupuncture produces small changes in symptoms, disability, function, dexterity and pinch strength when added to nocturnal splinting. Chinese Clinical Trial Register no. ChiCTR-TRC-11001655 (www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=7890); subsequently deposited in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial2.aspx

  5. Electroacupuncture and splinting versus splinting alone to treat carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Ho, Robin S.T.; Liu, Siya; Chong, Marc K.C.; Leung, Albert W.N.; Yip, Benjamin H.K.; Griffiths, Sian M.; Zee, Benny C.Y.; Wu, Justin C.Y.; Sit, Regina W.S.; Lau, Alexander Y.L.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of acupuncture for managing carpal tunnel syndrome is uncertain, particularly in patients already receiving conventional treatments (e.g., splinting). We aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture combined with splinting. Methods: We conducted a randomized parallel-group assessor-blinded 2-arm trial on patients with clinically diagnosed primary carpal tunnel syndrome. The treatment group was offered 13 sessions of electroacupuncture over 17 weeks. The treatment and control groups both received continuous nocturnal wrist splinting. Results: Of 181 participants randomly assigned to electroacupuncture combined with splinting (n = 90) or splinting alone (n = 91), 174 (96.1%) completed all follow-up. The electroacupuncture group showed greater improvements at 17 weeks in symptoms (primary outcome of Symptom Severity Scale score mean difference [MD] −0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.36 to −0.03), disability (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire score MD −6.72, 95% CI −10.9 to −2.57), function (Functional Status Scale score MD −0.22, 95% CI −0.38 to −0.05), dexterity (time to complete blinded pick-up test MD −6.13 seconds, 95% CI −10.6 to −1.63) and maximal tip pinch strength (MD 1.17 lb, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.86). Differences between groups were small and clinically unimportant for reduction in pain (numerical rating scale −0.70, 95% CI −1.34 to −0.06), and not significant for sensation (first finger monofilament test −0.08 mm, 95% CI −0.22 to 0.06). Interpretation: For patients with primary carpal tunnel syndrome, chronic mild to moderate symptoms and no indication for surgery, electroacupuncture produces small changes in symptoms, disability, function, dexterity and pinch strength when added to nocturnal splinting. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register no. ChiCTR-TRC-11001655 (www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=7890); subsequently deposited in the World Health

  6. Acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Alan

    2008-07-01

    The mortality rate for coronary artery disease has decreased steadily over the past 25 yeas, attributable to a great extent to advances in medical and mechanical interventions. Nevertheless, mortality rates for acute coronary syndromes remain between 4% and 7%. This article highlights treatment options and the challenge of implementing evidence-based recommendations.

  7. Sickness absence from work among persons with new physician-diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome: a population-based matched-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Atroshi, Isam; Zhou, Caddie; Jöud, Anna; Petersson, Ingemar F; Englund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is common among employed persons. Data on sickness absence from work in relation to carpal tunnel syndrome have been usually based on self-report and derived from clinical or occupational populations. We aimed to determine sickness absence among persons with physician-diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to the general population. In Skåne region in Sweden we identified all subjects, aged 17-57 years, with new physician-made diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome during 5 years (2004-2008). For each subject we randomly sampled, from the general population, 4 matched reference subjects without carpal tunnel syndrome; the two cohorts comprised 5456 and 21,667 subjects, respectively (73% women; mean age 43 years). We retrieved social insurance register data on all sickness absence periods longer than 2 weeks from 12 months before to 24 months after diagnosis. Of those with carpal tunnel syndrome 2111 women (53%) and 710 men (48%) underwent surgery within 24 months of diagnosis. We compared all-cause sickness absence and analyzed sickness absence in conjunction with diagnosis and surgery. Mean number of all-cause sickness absence days per each 30-day period from 12 months before to 24 months after diagnosis was significantly higher in the carpal tunnel syndrome than in the reference cohort. A new sickness absence period longer than 2 weeks in conjunction with diagnosis was recorded in 12% of the women (n = 492) and 11% of the men (n = 170) and with surgery in 53% (n = 1121) and 58% (n = 408) of the surgically treated, respectively; median duration in conjunction with surgery was 35 days (IQR 27-45) for women and 41 days (IQR 28-50) for men. Persons with physician-diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome have substantially more sickness absence from work than age and sex-matched persons from the general population from 1 year before to 2 years after diagnosis. Gender differences were small.

  8. The nerve/tunnel index: a new diagnostic standard for carpal tunnel syndrome using sonography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Seop; Joo, Seung Ho; Han, Zee-A; Kim, Yong Wook

    2012-01-01

    To define the relationship between body indices of healthy adults and cross-sectional areas of the carpal tunnel and median nerve and to obtain the nerve/tunnel index, which represents a new standard for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome using sonography. Body indices (height, weight, and body mass index) were analyzed in 60 healthy adults, and electromyography and sonography were also performed. The cross-sectional areas of the proximal and distal median nerve and carpal tunnel were obtained by sonography. The proximal and distal nerve/tunnel indices were obtained by calculating the ratio between the proximal and distal cross-sectional areas of the median nerve to those of the carpal tunnel and multiplying the value by 100. Although the proximal cross-sectional areas of the median nerve and body indices showed statistically significant relationships with weak positive correlations, the proximal and distal areas of the carpal tunnel showed relatively stronger correlations with body indices. Between sexes, there were significant differences in the proximal median nerve cross-sectional area (mean ± SD: male, 10.48 ± 3.21 mm(2); female, 8.81 ± 3.21 mm(2); P < .05) and proximal carpal tunnel area (male, 182.50 ± 21.15 mm(2); female, 151.23 ± 21.14 mm(2); P < .05). There was no difference in the proximal nerve/tunnel index (male, 5.80% ± 1.72%; female, 5.91% ± 1.63%). There was a statistically significant difference in the distal carpal tunnel cross-sectional area (male, 138.90 ± 20.95 mm(2); female, 121.50 ± 18.99 mm(2); P < .05) between sexes, but the distal median area (male, 9.99 ± 3.42 mm(2); female, 8.46 ± 1.84 mm(2)) and distal nerve/tunnel index (male, 7.15% ± 2.00%; female, 7.01% ± 1.38%) showed no significant differences. The proximal index was significantly higher than the distal index (proximal, 5.85% ± 1.66%; distal, 7.08% ± 1.71%). The nerve/tunnel index is unaffected by body indices or sex and thus may be a useful and objective standard for

  9. Ultrasonographic assessment of longitudinal median nerve and hand flexor tendon dynamics in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Jan-Wiebe H; Scheltens-De Boer, Marjan; Blok, Joleen H; Amadio, Peter C; Hovius, Steven E R; Stam, Henk J; Selles, Ruud W

    2012-05-01

    Changes in subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients may result in altered dynamics; consequently, quantification of these dynamics might support objective diagnosis of CTS. We measured and compared longitudinal excursion of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons, the median nerve, and the SSCT between the most and least affected hands of 51 CTS patients during extension-to-fist motion. Median nerve and flexor digitorum superficialis tendon excursions in the most affected hands were smaller than in the least affected hands of the same patients, whereas the excursions of the flexor digitorum profundus were larger. Based on these excursions, logistic regression models classified between 67% and 86% of the hands correctly as having CTS. The altered hand dynamics in CTS patients may have implications for the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of CTS, and ultrasound-based classification models may further support the diagnosis of CTS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bifid median nerve in carpal tunnel syndrome: do we need to know?

    PubMed

    Kasius, Kristel M; Claes, Franka; Meulstee, Jan; Verhagen, Wim Im

    2014-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a bifid median nerve predisposes to development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and investigated differences in electrophysiological findings and outcome. A total of 259 consecutive patients with clinically defined CTS were included and investigated clinically, electrophysiologically, and ultrasonographically. Fifty-four healthy asymptomatic volunteers were investigated ultrasonographically. The prevalence of bifid median nerves is equal in patients with CTS and controls. Electrophysiological and ultrasonographic abnormalities are more pronounced in patients with non-bifid median nerves. Some outcome data are better in patients with non-bifid median nerves, but others do not show significant differences. A bifid median nerve is not an independent risk factor for development of CTS. Some of our data suggest outcome after surgical decompression to be different, but others do not. The surgical technique in these patients may therefore have to be reevaluated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effectiveness of post-offer pre-placement nerve conduction screening for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bethany T; Zeringue, Angelique; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated post-offer pre-placement (POPP) nerve conduction studies (NCS) for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), testing diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness. A total of 1027 newly hired workers underwent baseline NCS and were followed for an average of 3.7 years for diagnosed CTS. Measures of diagnostic yield included sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). Cost-effectiveness of POPP screening was evaluated using a range of inputs. Abnormal NCS was strongly associated with future CTS with univariate hazard ratios ranging from 2.95 to 11.25, depending on test parameters used. Nevertheless, PPV was poor, 6.4% to 18.5%. Cost-effectiveness of POPP varied with CTS case costs, screening costs, and NCS thresholds. Although abnormal NCS at hire increases risk of future CTS, the PPV is low, and POPP screening is not cost-effective to employers in most scenarios tested.

  12. The Effectiveness of Post-Offer Pre-placement Nerve Conduction Screening for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bethany T.; Zeringue, Angelique; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated post-offer pre-placement (POPP) nerve conduction studies (NCS) for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), testing diagnostic yield and cost-effectiveness. Methods 1027 newly hired workers underwent baseline NCS, and were followed for an average of 3.7 years for diagnosed CTS. Measures of diagnostic yield included sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV). Cost-effectiveness of POPP screening was evaluated using a range of inputs. Results Abnormal NCS was strongly associated with future CTS with univariate hazard ratios ranging from 2.95 to 11.25, depending on test parameters used. However, PPV was poor, 6.4–18.5%. Cost-effectiveness of POPP varied with CTS case costs, screening costs, and NCS thresholds. Conclusions Although abnormal NCS at hire increases risk of future CTS, the PPV is low, and POPP screening is not cost effective to employers in most scenarios tested. PMID:25099410

  13. Two-point discrimination and kinesthetic sense disorders in productive age individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate two-point discrimination (2PD) sense and kinesthetic sense dysfunctions in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients compared with a healthy group. Methods: The 2PD sense, muscle force, and kinesthetic differentiation (KD) of strength; the range of motion in radiocarpal articulation; and KD of motion were assessed. Results: The 2PD sense assessment showed significantly higher values in all the examined fingers in the CTS group than in those in the healthy group (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in the percentage value of error in KD of pincer and cylindrical grip (p<0.01) as well as in KD of flexion and extension movement in the radiocarpal articulation (p<0.01) between the studied groups. Conclusions: There are significant differences in the 2PD sense and KD of strength and movement between CTS patients compared with healthy individuals. PMID:27108640

  14. The Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Blocker, Jill N.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations. Results The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of CTS in poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work. PMID:22258161

  15. Correlating ultrasound findings of carpal tunnel syndrome with nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Min Wook; Ko, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to make correlations between ultrasonographic measurements of thenar muscle and flexor retinaculum and nerve conduction studies (NCS) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Ultrasound and NCS were performed on 92 wrists with CTS and on 40 wrists from healthy individuals. Ultrasound of thenar and hypothenar muscles, flexor retinaculum, and median nerve were assessed. The ultrasonographic findings were compared between the 2 groups, and correlation analyses between median latency and ultrasonographic findings were performed. Motor latency correlated positively with flexor retinaculum thickness (FRT) and negatively with the ratio of thenar to hypothenar muscle. FRT and motor latency were found to be increased significantly in CTS. The ratio of thenar to hypothenar muscle was found to be decreased significantly in CTS compared with controls. The ultrasonographic findings of FRT and thenar muscle reflect the severity of disease in patients with CTS and are valuable for the diagnosis of CTS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Changes in treatment plan for carpal tunnel syndrome based on electrodiagnostic test results.

    PubMed

    Becker, S J E; Makanji, H S; Ring, D

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated how often the treatment plan for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) changed based on electrodiagnostic test results. Secondly, we assessed factors associated with a change in the treatment plan for CTS. One-hundred-and-thirty English-speaking adult patients underwent electrodiagnostic testing in a prospective cohort study. Treatment plan was recorded before and after testing. Treatment plan changed in 25 patients (19%) based on electrodiagnostic test results. The plan for operative treatment before testing decreased significantly after testing (83% versus 72%). The best logistic regression model for no change in treatment plan included a prolonged or non-recordable median distal sensory latency (normal, prolonged, or non-recordable), and explained 24% of the variation. For surgeons that manage CTS on the basis of objective pathophysiology rather than symptoms, electrodiagnostic test results often lead to changes in recommended treatment.

  17. Spatial-temporal features of thermal images for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan Roldan, Kevin; Ortega Piedrahita, Marco A.; Benitez, Hernan D.

    2014-02-01

    Disorders associated with repeated trauma account for about 60% of all occupational illnesses, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) being the most consulted today. Infrared Thermography (IT) has come to play an important role in the field of medicine. IT is non-invasive and detects diseases based on measuring temperature variations. IT represents a possible alternative to prevalent methods for diagnosis of CTS (i.e. nerve conduction studies and electromiography). This work presents a set of spatial-temporal features extracted from thermal images taken in healthy and ill patients. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers test this feature space with Leave One Out (LOO) validation error. The results of the proposed approach show linear separability and lower validation errors when compared to features used in previous works that do not account for temperature spatial variability.

  18. Wheelchair ergonomic hand drive mechanism use improves wrist mechanics associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zukowski, Lisa A; Roper, Jaimie A; Shechtman, Orit; Otzel, Dana M; Hovis, Patty W; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Among conventional manual wheelchair (CMW) users, 49% to 63% experience carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) that is likely induced by large forces transmitted through the wrist and extreme wrist orientations. The ergonomic hand drive mechanism (EHDM) tested in this study has been shown to utilize a more neutral wrist orientation. This study evaluates the use of an EHDM in terms of wrist orientations that may predispose individuals to CTS. Eleven adult full-time CMW users with spinal cord injury participated. Motion data were captured as participants propelled across a flat surface, completing five trials in a CMW and five trials in the same CMW fitted with the EHDM. Average angular wrist orientations were compared between the two propulsion styles. Use of the EHDM resulted in reduced wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The shift to more neutral wrist orientations observed with EHDM use may reduce median nerve compression.

  19. [Pain and numbness in the arms and hands and carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Valéria Ribeiro Nogueira; Dantas, Fábio Galvão; Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Alves; de Medeiros, Jovany Luis Alves

    2006-12-01

    We studied the frequency and localization of pain and numbness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), in comparison with individuals of the general population, matched for sex and age, and we determined the sensitivity and the specificity of these symptoms for the CTS diagnosis. Pain was a common symptom in the two groups of patients. Numbness occurred more frequently in CTS group (p<0.05). In CTS patients, pain complaints were present in neck (42.8%), arms (36.8%) and hands (82.8%). Among controls, pain was more common in head (11.4%), trunk (37.1%), legs (22.8%). In our casuistics, in relation to the CTS diagnosis, the presence of pain and numbness have low sensitivity and high specificity when they occur in the arms, and high sensitivity and specificity when they occur in the hands.

  20. Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Pooled Occupational Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew Steven; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew S; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Wood, Eric M; Kendall, Richard; Wertsch, Jacqueline; Foster, James; Garg, Arun; Drury, David L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain if cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) risk factors. Analysis of pooled baseline data from two large prospective cohort studies (n = 1824) assessed the relationships between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study prevalence. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual risk scores. There was a strong relationship between CVD risk score and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study after adjustment for confounders, with odds ratios as high as 4.16 and 7.35, respectively. Dose responses were also observed. In this workplace population, there is a strong association between CVD risk scores and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study that persisted after controlling for confounders. These data suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism.

  1. Evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome treated by endoscopic technique

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Aldo; Meirelles, Lia Miyamoto; Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Raduan, Jorge; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Faloppa, Flávio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the postoperative results of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome by the endoscopic release technique with single portal. Methods: 78 patients (80 wrists) were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 3 and 6 months by the Boston questionnaire, the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, monofilament test sensitivity, grip strength, lateral pinch, pulp to pulp pinch and tripod pinch. Results: Statistical analysis was significant (p <0.05) in the progressive decline of pain and improved function (Boston) during follow-up. The sensitivity significantly improved comparing the data pre and postoperatively. The grip strength, lateral pinch, pulp to pulp pinch and tripod pinch decreased in the first month after surgery, returning to preoperative values around the third month postoperatively. Conclusion: The technique proved to be safe and effective in improving pain, function, and return sensitivity and strength. Level of Evidence II, Prospective study PMID:24644417

  2. Intermittent axial wrist traction as a conservative treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Brunarski, David J; Kleinberg, Brian A; Wilkins, Kathryn R

    2004-01-01

    Four patients with clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence of carpal tunnel syndrome underwent intermittent axial wrist traction with a pneumatic device which applied a controlled traction force of forty to sixty pounds per square inch along the axis of the forearm. Traction cycled intermittently five seconds on and five seconds off. Treatment duration was five minutes. Patients in this study received between five and twelve treatment sessions over a three month period. All neurophysiological tests were performed at an independent site without knowledge of treatment plan before treatment commenced and then repeated after the last treatment three months later. Clinical tests were performed initially, after three months and after one year. Significant subjective improvement in all cases were accompanied by objective improvement and normalization of the nerve conduction studies. PMID:17549120

  3. Associations between workplace factors and carpal tunnel syndrome: A multi-site cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Z Joyce; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Gerr, Fred; Eisen, Ellen A; Hegmann, Kurt T; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Evanoff, Bradley; Dale, Ann Marie; Thiese, Matthew S; Garg, Arun; Kapellusch, Jay; Burt, Susan; Merlino, Linda; Rempel, David

    2015-05-01

    Few large epidemiologic studies have used rigorous case criteria, individual-level exposure measurements, and appropriate control for confounders to examine associations between workplace psychosocial and biomechanical factors and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Pooling data from five independent research studies, we assessed associations between prevalent CTS and personal, work psychosocial, and biomechanical factors while adjusting for confounders using multivariable logistic regression. Prevalent CTS was associated with personal factors of older age, obesity, female sex, medical conditions, previous distal upper extremity disorders, workplace measures of peak forceful hand activity, a composite measure of force and repetition (ACGIH Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level), and hand vibration. In this cross-sectional analysis of production and service workers, CTS prevalence was associated with workplace and biomechanical factors. The findings were similar to those from a prospective analysis of the same cohort with differences that may be due to recall bias and other factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in workers from a fishnet factory in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jianmongkol, Surut; Kosuwon, Weerachai; Thumroj, Ekamol; Sumanont, Sermsak

    2005-07-01

    We determined the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at a fishnet factory in order to discern the possible associated risk factors at this type of workplace. The 662 workers were interviewed then physically examined. The prevalence of CTS was 14.5%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Workers directly involved in the production of fishnets had a significantly higher risk of CTS than the factory's office workers or housemaids (odds ratio = 1.84; range, 1.03-3.29; 95% CI, p = 0.049). There was no association between the length of employment in the factory with CTS (odds ratio = 1.13; range, 0.77-1.66; 95% CI, p = 0.591). Our results confirm that factory jobs with repetitive hyperflexing and twisting of the wrists are at risk of CTS.

  5. The sensitivity and specificity of tests for carpal tunnel syndrome vary with the comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Gerr, F; Letz, R

    1998-04-01

    The performance of a variety of common office-based clinical tests for detection of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was assessed in 119 subjects with and without electrophysiological evidence of CTS. Symptoms compatible with CTS and electrophysiological tests positive for median mononeuropathy at the wrist were observed in 57 hands, symptoms compatible with CTS and normal electrophysiological test results were observed in 58 hands, and no symptoms compatible with CTS and normal electrophysiological test results were observed in 123 hands. For all the diagnostic tests studied, the proportion of subjects who had a false positive clinical test result was much higher in the electrophysiologically normal subjects who had CTS compatible hand symptoms than in the electrophysiologically normal subjects who were asymptomatic. These results suggest that many studies that have evaluated diagnostic tests for CTS have produced falsely optimistic estimates of the test's performance because of their use of asymptomatic comparison subjects.

  6. Two-point discrimination and kinesthetic sense disorders in productive age individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2016-06-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two-point discrimination (2PD) sense and kinesthetic sense dysfunctions in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients compared with a healthy group. The 2PD sense, muscle force, and kinesthetic differentiation (KD) of strength; the range of motion in radiocarpal articulation; and KD of motion were assessed. The 2PD sense assessment showed significantly higher values in all the examined fingers in the CTS group than in those in the healthy group (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in the percentage value of error in KD of pincer and cylindrical grip (p<0.01) as well as in KD of flexion and extension movement in the radiocarpal articulation (p<0.01) between the studied groups. There are significant differences in the 2PD sense and KD of strength and movement between CTS patients compared with healthy individuals.

  7. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence as a screening method for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Mertik, M; Turk, Z

    2009-01-01

    This study further evaluated a computer-based infrared thermography (IRT) system, which employs artificial neural networks for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) using a large database of 502 thermal images of the dorsal and palmar side of 132 healthy and 119 pathological hands. It confirmed the hypothesis that the dorsal side of the hand is of greater importance than the palmar side when diagnosing CTS thermographically. Using this method it was possible correctly to classify 72.2% of all hands (healthy and pathological) based on dorsal images and > 80% of hands when only severely affected and healthy hands were considered. Compared with the gold standard electromyographic diagnosis of CTS, IRT cannot be recommended as an adequate diagnostic tool when exact severity level diagnosis is required, however we conclude that IRT could be used as a screening tool for severe cases in populations with high ergonomic risk factors of CTS.

  8. The Acupuncture Effect on Median Nerve Morphology in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    PubMed

    Ural, Fatma Gülçin; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acupuncture effect on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and, additionally, to identify whether clinical, electrophysiological, and ultrasonographic changes show any association. Forty-five limbs of 27 female patients were randomly divided into two groups (acupuncture and control). All patients used night wrist splint. The patients in the acupuncture group received additional acupuncture therapy. Visual analog scale (VAS), Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire scores, electrophysiologic measurements, and median nerve CSAs were noted before and after the treatment in both groups. VAS, DHI, Quick DASH scores, and electrophysiological measurements were improved in both groups. The median nerve CSA significantly decreased in the acupuncture group, whereas there was no change in the control group. After acupuncture therapy, the patients with CTS might have both clinical and morphological improvement.

  9. A repeated carpal tunnel syndrome due to tophaceous gout in flexor tendon

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Gouty tophi is a rare cause of CTS. We first report a unique case of repeated CTS with gouty tophi in flexor tendon. In the previous literature, the symptoms cases of CTS were gradually increased. Patient concerns: We report a 44-year-old male porter presented with mass on his left distal forearm combined a repeated carpal tunnel syndrome for 5 years. He felt numbness in fingers and his left palmar. The CTS symptoms had been eased through rest and dugs medication. It recurred twice. Diagnoses: Monosodium urate crystal deposits were found in surgery. Histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of gout. Interventions: We removed partial of gouty tophus and retained the integrity of the tendon. Outcomes: Two years after the surgery, the patient had not experienced any symptom recurrence. Lessons: Early diagnosis and control of gout are necessary to avoid irreversible complications. The surgery combined with decreasing trioxypurine treatment can improve the treatment outcome of gouty tophus. PMID:28248892

  10. Predicting the result of nerve conduction tests in carpal tunnel syndrome using a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bridges, M J; Robertson, D C; Chuck, A J

    2011-01-01

    We performed a study to determine whether the results of a questionnaire could be used to predict the results of nerve conduction tests in patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome. Two hundred and eleven consecutive patients underwent electrophysiological testing, and completed the questionnaire designed by Kamath and Stothard. Two questionnaire threshold scores were identified, which classified with high sensitivity and high specificity those patients who had normal, and abnormal nerve conduction tests respectively. Patients who scored greater than 6 on the questionnaire could be classified with 87% specificity as having abnormal tests, and patients scoring below 3 on the questionnaire could be classified with 87% sensitivity as having normal studies. We suggest therefore that patients who score above 6, or below 3 on this questionnaire may not need to be referred for nerve conduction tests, as the result can be predicted with adequate accuracy.

  11. Wheelchair ergonomic hand drive mechanism use improves wrist mechanics associated with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zukowski, Lisa A.; Roper, Jaimie A.; Shechtman, Orit; Otzel, Dana M.; Hovis, Patty W.; Tillman, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Among conventional manual wheelchair (CMW) users, 49% to 63% experience carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) that is likely induced by large forces transmitted through the wrist and extreme wrist orientations. The ergonomic hand drive mechanism (EHDM) tested in this study has been shown to utilize a more neutral wrist orientation. This study evaluates the use of an EHDM in terms of wrist orientations that may predispose individuals to CTS. Eleven adult full-time CMW users with spinal cord injury participated. Motion data were captured as participants propelled across a flat surface, completing five trials in a CMW and five trials in the same CMW fitted with the EHDM. Average angular wrist orientations were compared between the two propulsion styles. Use of the EHDM resulted in reduced wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The shift to more neutral wrist orientations observed with EHDM use may reduce median nerve compression. PMID:25856042

  12. Revision surgery for recurrent and persistent carpal tunnel syndrome: Clinical results and factors affecting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Djerbi, I; César, M; Lenoir, H; Coulet, B; Lazerges, C; Chammas, M

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-eight hands in 36 patients with recurrent or persistent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were reviewed retrospectively after a mean of 51 months (range 12-86) to identify factors that may lead to poor outcomes after surgical management. Clinical assessment focused on pain and sensitivity recovery, measured with a VAS and Weber's two-point discrimination test, respectively. At the latest follow-up, we found 11 excellent, 15 good, nine fair and three poor results. The risk of fair or poor results was significantly higher in the presence of intraneural fibrosis, severe preoperative sensory deficit, neuroma of the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, workers compensation claims and number of previous surgeries. This last factor also significantly increased the risk of intraneural fibrosis. Despite disappointing outcomes, identification of these factors may improve our prognostic ability for revision surgery in cases of recurrent CTS.

  13. Effectiveness of PELOID therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metin Ökmen, Burcu; Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Meliha; Güneş, Aygül; Eröksüz, Riza; Altan, Lale

    2017-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is the most common neuromuscular cause of upper extremity disability. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of peloid therapy in patients with CTS. This randomized, controlled, single-blind study enrolled 70 patients between the ages of 30 to 65 who had a diagnosis of either mild, mild-to-moderate, or moderate CTS. The patients were randomized into two groups using random number table. In the first group, (Group 1)(n = 35), patients were given splint (every night for 6 weeks) + peloid treatment(five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks) and in the second group, (Group 2)(n = 28), patients received splint treatment(every night for 6 weeks) alone. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale(VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography(ENMG), the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire(BCTSQ), hand grip strength(HGS), finger grip strength(FGS), and Short Form-12(SF-12). The data were obtained before treatment(W0), immediately after treatment(W2), and one month after treatment(W6). Both in Group 1 and 2, there was a statistically significant improvement in all the evaluation parameters at W2 and W6 when compared to W0(p < 0.05). Comparison of the groups with each other revealed significantly better results for VAS, BCTSQ, mSNCV, SF-12 in Group 1 than in Group 2 at W2(p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in favor of Group 1 for VAS, BCTSQ, FGS and MCS at W6 when compared to W0 (p < 0.05). The results of our study demonstrated that in patients with CTS; peloid + splint treatment was more effective than splint treatment alone in pain, functionality and life quality both at after treatment(W2) and one month after treatment (W6). We may suggest peloid as a supplementary therapeutic agent in CTS.

  14. Effectiveness of PELOID therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metin Ökmen, Burcu; Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Meliha; Güneş, Aygül; Eröksüz, Riza; Altan, Lale

    2017-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is the most common neuromuscular cause of upper extremity disability. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of peloid therapy in patients with CTS. This randomized, controlled, single-blind study enrolled 70 patients between the ages of 30 to 65 who had a diagnosis of either mild, mild-to-moderate, or moderate CTS. The patients were randomized into two groups using random number table. In the first group, (Group 1)( n = 35), patients were given splint (every night for 6 weeks) + peloid treatment(five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks) and in the second group, (Group 2)( n = 28), patients received splint treatment(every night for 6 weeks) alone. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale(VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography(ENMG), the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire(BCTSQ), hand grip strength(HGS), finger grip strength(FGS), and Short Form-12(SF-12). The data were obtained before treatment(W0), immediately after treatment(W2), and one month after treatment(W6). Both in Group 1 and 2, there was a statistically significant improvement in all the evaluation parameters at W2 and W6 when compared to W0( p < 0.05). Comparison of the groups with each other revealed significantly better results for VAS, BCTSQ, mSNCV, SF-12 in Group 1 than in Group 2 at W2( p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in favor of Group 1 for VAS, BCTSQ, FGS and MCS at W6 when compared to W0 ( p < 0.05). The results of our study demonstrated that in patients with CTS; peloid + splint treatment was more effective than splint treatment alone in pain, functionality and life quality both at after treatment(W2) and one month after treatment (W6). We may suggest peloid as a supplementary therapeutic agent in CTS.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Cheng; Ho, Cheng-Wen; Sun, Chia-Hung; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Li, Tsung-Ying; Shih, Feng-Mei; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the therapeutic efficiency of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Forty-four patients with CTS were randomized into intervention or control groups. Patients in the intervention group were treated with PRF and night splint, and the control group was prescribed night splint alone. Primary outcome was the onset time of significant pain relief assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), and secondary outcomes included evaluation of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) results, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. All outcome measurements were performed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment. Thirty-six patients completed the study. The onset time of pain relief in the intervention group was significantly shorter (median onset time of 2 days vs. 14 days; hazard ratio = 7.37; 95% CI, 3.04-17.87) compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in VAS and BCTQ scores (p < 0.05) was detected in the intervention group at all follow-up periods compared to the controls (except for the severity subscale of BCTQ at week 1). Ultrasound-guided PRF treatment resulted in a lower VAS score and stronger finger pinch compared to the control group over the entire study. Our study shows that ultrasound-guided PRF serves as a better approach for pain relief in patients with CTS. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02217293.

  16. Efficacy of paraffin wax bath for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ordahan, Banu; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

    2017-08-07

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most frequently diagnosed neuropathy of upper extremity entrapment neuropathies. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of paraffin therapy in patients with CTS. Seventy patients diagnosed with mild or moderate CTS were randomly divided into two groups as splint treatment (during the night and day time as much as possible for 3 weeks) alone and splint (during the night and day time as much as possible for 3 weeks) + paraffin treatment (five consecutive days a week for 3 weeks). Clinical and electrophysiological assessments were performed before and 3 weeks after treatment. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTSQ). The significant improvement was found in VAS scores in both groups when compared with pretreatment values (p < 0.05). There was no significant improvement in functional capacity score (p > 0.05), whereas a significant improvement was noted in the BCTQ symptom severity scale score in the splint group (p < 0.05). Significant improvements were demonstrated in both scorers in the combined treatment group. Similarly, significant improvements were found in the combined treatment group in terms of motor and sensory distal latency, sensory amplitude, and median sensory nerve velocity (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in electrophysiologic parameters in the splint group (p > 0.05), and the difference in these parameters between the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, using splinting alone in patients with CTS is an effective treatment for reducing symptoms in the early stages. Paraffin treatment with splint increases the recovery in functional and electrophysiological parameters.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Pulsed Radiofrequency for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the therapeutic efficiency of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Forty-four patients with CTS were randomized into intervention or control groups. Patients in the intervention group were treated with PRF and night splint, and the control group was prescribed night splint alone. Primary outcome was the onset time of significant pain relief assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), and secondary outcomes included evaluation of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) results, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. All outcome measurements were performed at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment. Results Thirty-six patients completed the study. The onset time of pain relief in the intervention group was significantly shorter (median onset time of 2 days vs. 14 days; hazard ratio = 7.37; 95% CI, 3.04–17.87) compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in VAS and BCTQ scores (p < 0.05) was detected in the intervention group at all follow-up periods compared to the controls (except for the severity subscale of BCTQ at week 1). Ultrasound-guided PRF treatment resulted in a lower VAS score and stronger finger pinch compared to the control group over the entire study. Conclusions Our study shows that ultrasound-guided PRF serves as a better approach for pain relief in patients with CTS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02217293 PMID:26067628

  18. Efficacy of paraffin wax bath for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordahan, Banu; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

    2017-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most frequently diagnosed neuropathy of upper extremity entrapment neuropathies. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of paraffin therapy in patients with CTS. Seventy patients diagnosed with mild or moderate CTS were randomly divided into two groups as splint treatment (during the night and day time as much as possible for 3 weeks) alone and splint (during the night and day time as much as possible for 3 weeks) + paraffin treatment (five consecutive days a week for 3 weeks). Clinical and electrophysiological assessments were performed before and 3 weeks after treatment. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTSQ). The significant improvement was found in VAS scores in both groups when compared with pretreatment values (p < 0.05). There was no significant improvement in functional capacity score (p > 0.05), whereas a significant improvement was noted in the BCTQ symptom severity scale score in the splint group (p < 0.05). Significant improvements were demonstrated in both scorers in the combined treatment group. Similarly, significant improvements were found in the combined treatment group in terms of motor and sensory distal latency, sensory amplitude, and median sensory nerve velocity (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in electrophysiologic parameters in the splint group (p > 0.05), and the difference in these parameters between the groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, using splinting alone in patients with CTS is an effective treatment for reducing symptoms in the early stages. Paraffin treatment with splint increases the recovery in functional and electrophysiological parameters.

  19. Enhanced expression of Wnt9a in the flexor tenosynovium in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Menuki, Kunitaka; Zenke, Yukichi; Hirasawa, Hideyuki; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between abnormal Wnt signaling and the cause of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (ICTS) and whether an association exists between Wnt signaling and cell proliferation in the flexor tenosynovium. The subjects included nine patients with ICTS; the controls were nine patients with distal radius fractures without any symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. We extracted mRNA from the flexor tenosynovium and compared the expression levels of genes encoding 17 types of Wnt in both subjects and controls via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels of factors involved in cell proliferation, such as estrogen-responsive finger protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also measured using quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, we compared the Wnt and MIB-1 protein expression levels to clarify the effect of Wnt on cell proliferation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed significantly greater expression of the gene encoding Wnt9a in subjects with ICTS than in controls and also revealed a positive correlation between the expression of genes encoding Wnt9a and VEGF in subjects with ICTS. Quantitative evaluation using immunohistochemical staining also indicated more marked Wnt9a expression in subjects than in controls. However, there was no relationship between the expression of Wnt9a and the cell proliferation index MIB-1. These results indicate that Wnt9a expression is enhanced in ICTS and that Wnt9a may be involved in VEGF expression in ICTS. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Assessment of quality of pre- and postoperative information documents about carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Facca, S; Sauleau, E; Robert, E; Gouzou, S; Clavert, P; Liverneaux, P

    2014-02-01

    Before surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, oral patient information is partially understood and accepted. The objective of this study was to perform a documentation for patients, as recommended by the High Authority in Healthcare (HAS), then to compare the effectiveness of oral information. Our series included 37 patients who received the same information: preoperative shower, pathophysiology, and postoperative instructions. The first 18 (group 1) received only oral information. The following 19 (group 2) received oral, written and visual information. The information in Group 2 followed the methodology of McClune: promoter (Department of Hand Surgery), organizing committee (two teachers from the School of Decorative Arts, two teachers of the School of Medicine), group work (five art students, five medical students), panel of experts (three surgeons, two occupational therapists, one physiotherapist). Four documents were developed: a booklet, a diagram, an animation, a poster. Satisfaction was higher in group 2. Understanding and memorization were better in group 2. Fifty-six percent of patients in group 1 would have liked a paper, 12.5% videos, none went on the Internet. Twelve and a half percent of the patients in group 2 went on the Internet, 18.8% would have liked videos. Our results show that in terms of carpal tunnel syndrome, the written and visual information materials for patients significantly improve the efficacy of oral information. These documents may be extended to other pathologies in Hand Surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-analysis: association between wrist posture and carpal tunnel syndrome among workers.

    PubMed

    You, Doohee; Smith, Allan H; Rempel, David

    2014-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-related peripheral neuropathy. In addition to grip force and repetitive hand exertions, wrist posture (hyperextension and hyperflexion) may be a risk factor for CTS among workers. However, findings of studies evaluating the relationship between wrist posture and CTS are inconsistent. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies to evaluate the evidence of the relationship between wrist posture at work and risk of CTS. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies published between 1980 and 2012. The following search terms were used: "work related", "carpal tunnel syndrome", "wrist posture", and "epidemiology". The studies defined wrist posture as the deviation of the wrist in extension or flexion from a neutral wrist posture. Relative risk (RR) of individual studies for postural risk was pooled to evaluate the overall risk of wrist posture on CTS. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were cross-sectional or case-control designs and relied on self-report or observer's estimates for wrist posture assessment. The pooled RR of work-related CTS increased with increasing hours of exposure to wrist deviation or extension/flexion [RR = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.646-2.43; p < 0.01: Shore-adjusted 95% CI: 1.32-2.97]. We found evidence that prolonged exposure to non-neutral wrist postures is associated with a twofold increased risk for CTS compared with low hours of exposure to non-neutral wrist postures. Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.

  2. [The risk of the carpal tunnel syndrome in some work activities].

    PubMed

    Baldasseroni, A; Tartaglia, R; Carnevale, F

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to generate hypotheses on what could be the ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) job classes with a major risk of carpal tunnel syndrome in order to plan more specific analytic epidemiology studies and apply more correct ergonomic solutions. A case-control cross-sectional survey without matching was carried out. The source of data were the computerized medical records of a large regional hospital: 833 carpal tunnel syndrome cases (mean age 48, SD 9.33) and 3222 controls (mean age 43.5, SD 13.22) hospitalized for other diseases, were selected. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence limits, controlled for age and gender by a logistic linear regression model, were calculated as measures of association for the comparison between non-exposed managerial/administrative staff and industrial workers. The analysis showed a statistically significant risk for some ISTAT job classes, in particular class 53 (spinners, weavers, dyers and similar jobs) (OR = 2.65; C.L. 1.52-4.62) class 54 (knitters, tailors, hatmakers, upholsterers and similar jobs) (OR = 1.69; C.L. 1.06-2.71), 55 (tanners, shoemakers, leather manufacture workers and similar jobs) (OR = 2.74; C.L. 1.66-4.53) and group 742 (Hotel and restaurant cooks) (OR = 2.99; C.L. 1.45-6.13). Job classes 45 (carpenters, welders and similar jobs). 62 (electricians, electrotechnicians, radio engineers and similar jobs), 63 (gasfitters, plumbers, heating engineers and similar jobs) and 85 (porters and other jobs involving manual handling of loads) showed ORs higher than 2 but without statistical significance. The results are valid for planning further studies, especially in the textile and shoe and leather manufacturing sectors.

  3. Long-term result and patient reported outcome of wrist splint treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Povlsen, Bo; Bashir, Muhammad; Wong, Fabian

    2014-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the commonest peripheral neuropathy presenting to specialist hand and wrist clinics. This study investigated the long-term outcome of carpal tunnel syndrome treated with isolated night wrist splint and the factors determining the likelihood of success of this intervention. Seventy-five patients referred to a specialist hand clinic with CTS were given night wrist splint treatment for 3 months as per a previous study protocol. Fifty-two patients from this cohort did not wish to have surgery after wrist splint treatment and were followed for a further 33-month period. Baseline pain and numbness levels were recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) using a questionnaire upon first presentation. A further questionnaire at 36 months reassessed pain and numbness levels, patients' satisfaction with the treatment, and whether they had subsequent surgical decompression. Of the patients who completed the follow-up questionnaire 33 months after their period of conservative management, 43% were successfully treated with splint treatment alone. There was no difference in the VAS for pain or numbness at the baseline and at 36 months between successful and failed treatment groups. Patients successfully treated with wrist splinting alone reported a higher level of satisfaction with their treatment compared to patients who failed wrist splint treatment or had surgical decompression. The results reinforce the previous recommendation on wrist splinting as a first-line treatment in the Primary Care setting. Referral to specialist hand and wrist clinics should be reserved for patients with symptoms refractory to this initial measure.

  4. Predictors of normal electrodiagnostic testing in the evaluation of suspected carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeffrey; Zhao, Meijuan; Ring, David

    2010-12-01

    Electrodiagnostic studies (electromyography and nerve conduction velocity; EMG/NCV) are used to confirm the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to evaluate its severity. We investigated the hypothesis that normal electrodiagnostic median nerve testing is predicted by 1) Physician pre-test confidence in the diagnosis of CTS, and 2) Puzzling patient factors. One hundred and forty consecutive patients who underwent electrodiagnostic testing to evaluate for possible CTS were reviewed retrospectively. Both physician confidence in the diagnosis of CTS and puzzling patient factors (heightened illness concern, disproportionate complaints, and vague/nonanatomical/noncharacteristic symptoms) were recorded. Electrodiagnostic testing was used as the reference standard for diagnosis of CTS. Electrodiagnostic testing confirmed CTS in 115 patients and was within normal limits in 25 patients. Low physician confidence in the diagnosis of CTS was highly predictive of a normal electrodiagnostic test (p < 0.001), with high sensitivity (97%), moderate specificity (40%), and high overall accuracy (87%). Puzzling patient factors were moderately predictive of normal electrodiagnostic testing (p < 0.001), with low sensitivity (16%), high specificity (96%), and high overall accuracy (81%). The best multivariable model retained younger age, negative Phalen's test, and low physician confidence as the best predictors of normal electrodiagnostic testing and explained 35% of the variation in test results. A model with low confidence alone explained 19% of the variation in test results. Physician intuition as recorded in the medical record in terms of puzzlement and low confidence are very specific and accurate predictors of normal electrodiagnostic testing in the setting of suspected carpal tunnel syndrome.

  5. Combined tarsal and carpal tunnel syndrome in mucolipidosis type III. A case study and review.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Izelle; Potgieter, Denise; van der Westhuizen, Francois Hendrikus

    2009-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type III (MLIII) (MIM# 252600) is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder that results from uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine: lysosomal hydrolase N-acetyl-1-phosphotransferase or UDP-GlcNAc 1-phosphotransferase deficiency. Clinical manifestations include developmental delay, short stature and other structural abnormalities. Less common clinical features, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, claw hand deformities, trigger fingers, and claw toes have previously been reported, but no specific association with tarsal tunnel syndrome has been reported in the literature. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the posterior tibialis nerve in the tunnel formed by the medial malleolus of the ankle and the flexor retinaculum. It causes pain in the heel and sole of the foot as well as abnormal sensation in the distribution area of nervus tibialis posterior. In adults, the most common cause described is a ganglion. The phenomenon is rare in children and the published series are small. This case report portrays the presentation of a young girl with breath-holding spells secondary to painful bilateral tarsal tunnel syndrome and trigger fingers subsequently diagnosed with MLIII.

  6. Pre- and post-operative comorbidities in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: cervical arthritis, basal joint arthritis of the thumb, and trigger digit.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Gong, H S; Lee, H J; Lee, Y H; Rhee, S H; Baek, G H

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 633 hands in 362 patients who had idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome and underwent carpal tunnel release between 1999 and 2009. Electrophysiological studies and simple radiographs of the wrist, cervical spine, and basal joint of the thumb were routinely checked, and patients were also assessed for the presence of trigger digit or de Quervain's disease before and after surgery. Among 362 patients, cervical arthritis was found in 253 patients (70%), and C5-C6 arthritis was the most common site. Basal joint arthritis of the thumb was observed in 216 (34%) of the 633 hands. Trigger digit or de Quervain's disease was observed in 85 of the 633 hands (13%) before surgery, and developed in 67 hands (11%) after surgery. Cervical arthritis, basal joint arthritis, and trigger digit commonly coexist with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient education about these disorders is very important when they coexist with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Korean Version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire: Its Clinical Evaluation in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Following Local Corticosteroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook; Nam, Tai-Seung; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and validate the Korean version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (K-BCTQ) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). After translation and cultural adaptation of the BCTQ to a Korean version, the K-BCTQ was administered to 54 patients with CTS; it was administered again after 2 weeks to assess reliability. Additionally, we administered K-DASH and EQ-5D to assess construct-validity. In a prospective study of responsiveness to clinical change, 29 of 54 patients were treated by ultrasonography-guided local corticosteroid injection therapy. The internal consistency of the K-BCTQ was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.915) and the intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.931 for the symptom severity scale (P<0.001) and 0.844 for the functional severity scale (P<0.001). The construct-validity between the symptom severity scale and the K-DASH, and between the functional severity scale and the K-DASH were significantly correlated (both P<0.001). Clinical improvement was noted in 29 patients with injection therapy. The effect size of symptom severity was 0.67, and that of functional severity was 0.58. In conclusion, the K-BCTQ shows good reliability, construct-validity, and acceptable responsiveness after local corticosteroid injection therapy (Clinical trial number, KCT0000050). PMID:23853496

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version of the Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire: its clinical evaluation in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome following local corticosteroid injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook; Nam, Tai-Seung; Kim, Myung-Sun; Lee, Shin-Seok

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and validate the Korean version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (K-BCTQ) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). After translation and cultural adaptation of the BCTQ to a Korean version, the K-BCTQ was administered to 54 patients with CTS; it was administered again after 2 weeks to assess reliability. Additionally, we administered K-DASH and EQ-5D to assess construct-validity. In a prospective study of responsiveness to clinical change, 29 of 54 patients were treated by ultrasonography-guided local corticosteroid injection therapy. The internal consistency of the K-BCTQ was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.915) and the intra-class correlation coefficients were 0.931 for the symptom severity scale (P<0.001) and 0.844 for the functional severity scale (P<0.001). The construct-validity between the symptom severity scale and the K-DASH, and between the functional severity scale and the K-DASH were significantly correlated (both P<0.001). Clinical improvement was noted in 29 patients with injection therapy. The effect size of symptom severity was 0.67, and that of functional severity was 0.58. In conclusion, the K-BCTQ shows good reliability, construct-validity, and acceptable responsiveness after local corticosteroid injection therapy (Clinical trial number, KCT0000050).

  9. Intraoperative dynamic pressure measurements in carpal tunnel syndrome: Correlations with clinical signs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Il Sup; Sung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Won; Hong, Jae Taek

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the correlations between dynamic carpal tunnel pressure and clinical signs. From December 2008 to May 2010, open carpal tunnel release (OCTR) was performed on a total of 90 hands (83 patients). All patients completed neurological and provocation tests (two-point discrimination, Tinel test, Phalen test, reverse-Phalen test and assessment of thenar muscle atrophy). Carpal tunnel pressure (CTP) was measured in two parts of carpal tunnel (proximal and distal carpal tunnel) and in three different postures (neutral, wrist flexion and wrist extension). There were 74 females and nine males aged 36 to 86 years (mean age 54). CTP values were more elevated in the wrist extension than wrist flexion in the proximal carpal tunnel but not at the distal carpal tunnel. There was no statistically significant correlation among CTP, provocation testing, and clinical signs. However, two-point discrimination (2-PD) showed a statistically significant correlation with CTP, especially in the proximal area in the wrist extension posture (P<0.01). Duration of symptoms (SD) statistically correlated with CTP in the distal carpal tunnel in the neutral posture (P<0.01). 2-PD and duration of symptoms are correlated with the CTP value in specific areas and with hand postures. This emphasizes the importance of releasing the entire carpal tunnel lesion since CTP values appear to vary within the carpal tunnel space and according to hand posture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pressure-morphology relationship of a released carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hee; Marquardt, Tamara L; Gabra, Joseph N; Shen, Zhilei Liu; Evans, Peter J; Seitz, William H; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-04-01

    We investigated morphological changes of a released carpal tunnel in response to variations of carpal tunnel pressure. Pressure within the carpal tunnel is known to be elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and dependent on wrist posture. Previously, increased carpal tunnel pressure was shown to affect the morphology of the carpal tunnel with an intact transverse carpal ligament (TCL). However, the pressure-morphology relationship of the carpal tunnel after release of the TCL has not been investigated. Carpal tunnel release (CTR) was performed endoscopically on cadaveric hands and the carpal tunnel pressure was dynamically increased from 10 to 120 mmHg. Simultaneously, carpal tunnel cross-sectional images were captured by an ultrasound system, and pressure measurements were recorded by a pressure transducer. Carpal tunnel pressure significantly affected carpal arch area (p < 0.001), with an increase of >62 mm(2) at 120 mmHg. Carpal arch height, length, and width also significantly changed with carpal tunnel pressure (p < 0.05). As carpal tunnel pressure increased, carpal arch height and length increased, but the carpal arch width decreased. Analyses of the pressure-morphology relationship for a released carpal tunnel revealed a nine times greater compliance than that previously reported for a carpal tunnel with an intact TCL. This change of structural properties as a result of transecting the TCL helps explain the reduction of carpal tunnel pressure and relief of symptoms for patients after CTR surgery. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome in mucopolysaccharidosis I: a registry-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Viskochil, David; Muenzer, Joseph; Guffon, Nathalie; Garin, Christophe; Munoz-Rojas, M Veronica; Moy, Kristin A; Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2017-09-11

    To characterize carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). Data were included for patients with MPS I who had either nerve conduction examination that included a diagnosis of CTS or who had CTS release surgery. Although this represented a subset of patients with CTS in the MPS I Registry, the criteria were considered the most objective for data analysis. As of March 2016, 994 patients were categorized with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated (Hurler-Scheie or Scheie syndromes) MPS I. Among these, 291 had a CTS diagnosis based on abnormal nerve conduction (n=54) or release surgery (n=237). Median ages (minimum, maximum) at first CTS diagnosis were 5 years 2 months (10mo, 16y 2mo) and 9y 11mo (1y 8mo, 44y 1mo) for patients with severe and attenuated MPS I respectively. Most patients had their first CTS diagnosis after MPS I diagnosis (94%) and treatment (hematopoietic stem cell transplant and/or enzyme replacement therapy) (74%). For 11% of patients with attenuated disease, CTS diagnosis preceded MPS I diagnosis by a mean of 7 years 6 months. CTS is a rare complication in pediatric patients and should alert medical care providers to the potential diagnosis of MPS I. Significant delays exist between diagnosis of CTS and MPS I for patients with attenuated disease. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Mac Keith Press.

  12. Examining the association between musculoskeletal injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome in manual laborers.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Yeboah, Samuel; Walker, Francis O; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Newman, Jill C; Arcury, Thomas A; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    The association between musculoskeletal injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not been investigated in a large, population-based study. Latino manual laborers were recruited as part of a study of work-related health conditions. Each had a clinical examination, completed a hand diagram, and had nerve conduction studies. A total of 512 individuals completed all testing. An association was found between rotator cuff syndrome and CTS, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.25 (P = 0.01) for the right arm, 2.08 (P = 0.03) for the left arm, and 1.84 (P = 0.03) for all individuals. Associations between epicondylitis and CTS did not reach statistical significance. Individuals with rotator cuff syndrome have a higher prevalence of CTS. Further investigations will be needed to examine for causation and to determine if 1 condition typically occurs first and leads to the other. Muscle Nerve 54: 31-35, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Carpal Tunnel Exercises: Can They Relieve Symptoms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... carpal tunnel syndrome. Would regular hand and wrist exercises help me avoid surgery? Answers from Peter C. ... D. Probably not. When used alone, carpal tunnel exercises aren't likely to relieve symptoms, such as ...

  14. Median nerve T2 assessment in the wrist joints: preliminary study in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Han, Jong Kyu; Im, Soo Bin; Kang, Sung Jin

    2014-10-01

    To perform a prospective quantitative analysis of median nerve T2 values and cross-sectional area (CSA) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as compared to asymptomatic volunteers. Twelve CTS patients with positive nerve conduction results and 12 healthy volunteers (controls) were enrolled and underwent axial T2 mapping of the wrist joints. Median nerve T2 values and CSAs at the distal radioulnar joint, pisiform, and hook of hamate levels were compared between the groups. The T2 values at the proximal and distal carpal tunnel were higher in the CTS patients than in the controls (P < 0.05). The T2 values at the distal radioulnar joint did not differ between the groups (P = 0.99). The CSAs of the median nerve at all levels of the carpal tunnel were significantly larger in the CTS patients than in the controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that median nerve T2 assessment is feasible and that T2 assessment may offer functional information about the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and has the potential to be a promising complementary method for evaluation of CTS patients. A future study with larger sample sizes is necessary to investigate the potential effect of median nerve T2 assessment to a reliable tool in the diagnosis of CTS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Er:YAG laser for the surgical treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Detlef; Ebinger, Thomas; Illich, Wolfgang; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    2003-10-01

    We developed a new surgical procedure to improve the recurrence rate using an Er:YAG laser as dissection tool for the carpal ligament with the objective to ablate a small amount of the carpal ligament and to denaturate its ends. The Er:YAG Laser was transmitted to the applicator via a GeO fiber. With this system we proceeded 10 carpal ligament dissections without any complications in the follow-up period. All patients were free of pain and recurrence.

  16. Amyloid and non-amyloid carpal tunnel syndrome in patients receiving chronic renal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chary-Valckenaere, I; Kessler, M; Mainard, D; Schertz, L; Chanliau, J; Champigneulle, J; Pourel, J; Gaucher, A; Netter, P

    1998-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of amyloid deposits among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) receiving dialysis, and to investigate the factors associated with amyloid and non-amyloid CTS. Subjects for this prospective study were dialysis patients who underwent surgery for CTS in the same surgical unit between 1989 and 1997. CTS was diagnosed from clinical and electromyographic (EMG) findings. Systematic standard radiographs and laboratory data were also obtained. Surgical investigations included systematic macroscopic examination and biopsy of the epineurium, flexor retinaculum, synovium, and flexor tendon sheaths. Samples were stained for amyloid and examined by plain and polarized light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Forty-one samples from 30 patients (11 bilateral cases) were examined. Amyloid deposits were found in 26 samples from 18 patients (7 M, 11 F). Fifteen samples from 12 patients (3 M, 9 F) showed no amyloid deposits. Amyloid CTS was statistically significantly associated with arthralgia and longterm dialysis [mean 13.3 (range 5.5-23) vs 7.5 yrs (range 3 mo-14 yrs)] in non-amyloid CTS. Flexor tenosynovitis and carpal bone erosion occurred more frequently in amyloid CTS. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in clinical, laboratory or EMG findings, type of dialysis membrane, or frequency of ipsilateral fistula. Only amyloid CTS was recurrent. Amyloid deposits were confirmed microscopically in 63.4% of patients. The relatively large number of cases of non-amyloid CTS without signs of dialysis associated arthropathy suggests that CTS is not a satisfactory criterion for diagnosis of dialysis arthropathy or beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis unless the presence of amyloid has been confirmed or duration of dialysis treatment has been at least 15 years.

  17. Conservative treatment in patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Del Barrio, S; Bueno Gracia, E; Hidalgo García, C; Estébanez de Miguel, E; Tricás Moreno, J M; Rodríguez Marco, S; Ceballos Laita, L

    2016-07-22

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy. It is characterised by the compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. CTS presents a high prevalence and it is a disabling condition from the earliest stages. Severe cases are usually treated surgically, while conservative treatment is recommended in mild to moderate cases. The aim of this systematic review is to present the conservative treatments and determine their effectiveness in mild-to-moderate cases of CTS over the last 15 years. A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA criteria. We used the Medline, PEDro, and Cochrane databases to find and select randomised controlled clinical trials evaluating the effects of conservative treatment on the symptoms and functional ability of patients with mild to moderate CTS; 32 clinical trials were included. There is evidence supporting the effectiveness of oral drugs, although injections appear to be more effective. Splinting has been shown to be effective, and it is also associated with use of other non-pharmacological techniques. Assessments of the use of electrotherapy techniques alone have shown no conclusive results about their effectiveness. Other soft tissue techniques have also shown good results but evidence on this topic is limited. Various treatment combinations (drug and non-pharmacological treatments) have been proposed without conclusive results. Several conservative treatments are able to relieve symptoms and improve functional ability of patients with mild-to-moderate CTS. These include splinting, oral drugs, injections, electrotherapy, specific manual techniques, and neural gliding exercises as well as different combinations of the above. We have been unable to describe the best technique or combination of techniques due to the limitations of the studies; therefore, further studies of better methodological quality are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S

  18. Ultrasound elastographic evaluation of the median nerve in pregnant women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogur, T; Yakut, Z I; Teber, M A; Alp, F; Turan, A; Tural, A; Gelisen, O

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the median nerve (MN) in pregnant women with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by using ultrasound elastography. 30 wrists of 20 pregnant women with CTS and 25 wrists of 14 healthy control pregnant women were evaluated by ultrasound and ultrasound elastography (UE). The MN in the patients' wrist was imaged to measure the cross-sectional area and longitudinally to calculate the elasticity value (EV) at four different locations (proximal carpal tunnel (CT) at the level of the pisiform, distal CT at the level of the hamate, middle of the CT and forearm at one centimeter above the CT). Clinical classification was performed according to a historic and objective scale of CTS. In the healthy pregnant women and pregnant women with CTS, MN area and EV were analyzed statistically by comparing with parity and clinical grade. There was a statistically significant difference for MN area between the patient and control groups (p = 0.001). A positive relationship was found between parity in pregnancy and clinical grade of the CTS (p = 0.035, Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.386). Although MN elasticity for both groups was nearly the same in the proximal region of the CT, these values were decreased in the middle of the CT. MN elasticity values were smaller in the distal region of CT, and it was statistically significant in pregnant women with CTS (p = 0.02). Ultrasound elastography, which is a non-invasive, inexpensive and a favorable diagnosis technique, may be useful in the diagnosis of CTS, especially in conditions in which an invasive procedure would be problem, as in pregnancy.

  19. Assessment of Median Nerve Mobility by Ultrasound Dynamic Imaging for Diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tai-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Ru; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chen, Jiann-Perng; Hsu, Yen-Wei; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by median nerve entrapment at the wrist and the resulting median nerve dysfunction. CTS is diagnosed clinically as the gold standard and confirmed with nerve conduction studies (NCS). Complementing NCS, ultrasound imaging could provide additional anatomical information on pathological and motion changes of the median nerve. The purpose of this study was to estimate the transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements by analyzing ultrasound dynamic images to distinguish between normal subjects and CTS patients. Transverse ultrasound images were acquired, and a speckle-tracking algorithm was used to determine the lateral displacements of the median nerve in radial-ulnar plane in B-mode images utilizing the multilevel block-sum pyramid algorithm and averaging. All of the averaged lateral displacements at separate acquisition times within a single flexion-extension cycle were accumulated to obtain the cumulative lateral displacements, which were curve-fitted with a second-order polynomial function. The fitted curve was regarded as the transverse sliding pattern of the median nerve. The R2 value, curvature, and amplitude of the fitted curves were computed to evaluate the goodness, variation and maximum value of the fit, respectively. Box plots, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm were utilized for statistical analysis. The transverse sliding of the median nerve during finger movements was greater and had a steeper fitted curve in the normal subjects than in the patients with mild or severe CTS. The temporal changes in transverse sliding of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel were found to be correlated with the presence of CTS and its severity. The representative transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements were demonstrated to be useful for quantitatively estimating

  20. The diagnostic value of ultrasound compared with nerve conduction velocity in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azami, Ahad; Maleki, Nasrollah; Anari, Hassan; Iranparvar Alamdari, Manouchehr; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammadreza; Tavosi, Zahra

    2014-07-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common form of peripheral entrapment neuropathy. The use of sonography for investigation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal conditions has been rapidly increasing over the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sonography can be an alternative method to nerve conduction study (NCS) in the diagnosis of CTS. Individuals with electrodiagnostically proven CTS and healthy control subjects were enrolled prospectively. Median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and flattening ratio (FR) at three different levels, proximal to tunnel inlet, at tunnel inlet and tunnel outlet, and flexor retinaculum thickness, were measured. Then, comparisons between ultrasonography and NCS were made. We assessed 180 wrists, of which 120 were electrophysiologically confirmed as CTS diseased hands and 60 nondiseased hands in 90 patients (83 women and seven men). The mean median nerve CSA at the tunnel inlet was 13.31 ± 3.23 mm(2) in CTS diseased hands and 8.57 ± 0.82 mm(2) in nondiseased hands. Post hoc comparisons between the diseased and nondiseased hands demonstrated that the CSA at various levels of the median nerve were significantly greater in the CTS diseased hands than the nondiseased hands (P = 0.001). CSA at the tunnel inlet with a threshold of 9.15 mm(2) gave the best diagnostic accuracy with a sensitivity and specificity of 99.2% and 88.3%, respectively. The difference in cross-sectional area of the median nerve in mild, moderate and severe CTS was statistically significant. Ultrasonographic measurement of the CSA of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet is useful in diagnosing and grading CTS. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Value of high-frequency ultrasound in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuji; Meng, Zengdong; Pan, Xuekun; Qin, Libo; Wang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound examination for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A total of 63 wrists from 45 patients diagnosed with CTS were selected as the study group, and 43 asymptomatic wrists of 40 cases were included as the normal control group. Parameters such as the transverse diameter, vertical diameter, cross-sectional area (CSA), and flattening rate (FR) of the carpal tunnel radioulnar joint, postular bone, and median nerve in the hamate bone hook plane were measured, and the differences between the two groups were compared. The median nerve CSA in the postular bone plate was significantly greater in the study group than in the normal control group (0.17±0.05 vs. 0.09±0.02, P<0.01), and the FR at the hook of the hamate was significantly higher in the study group (3.52±0.86 vs. 3.21±0.26, P<0.01). Our results suggest that ultrasonography can effectively provide dynamic real-time images of the wrist in addition to being painless, non-invasive, and associated with relatively low costs. Based on our findings, we believe that ultrasonography is an effective examination method for CTS. When the threshold of the median nerve CSA in the postular bone plate was set as 10 mm2, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 86%, respectively. Therefore, the median nerve CSA may represent a good clinical indicator of CTS. PMID:26885222

  2. Value of high-frequency ultrasound in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuji; Meng, Zengdong; Pan, Xuekun; Qin, Libo; Wang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound examination for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A total of 63 wrists from 45 patients diagnosed with CTS were selected as the study group, and 43 asymptomatic wrists of 40 cases were included as the normal control group. Parameters such as the transverse diameter, vertical diameter, cross-sectional area (CSA), and flattening rate (FR) of the carpal tunnel radioulnar joint, postular bone, and median nerve in the hamate bone hook plane were measured, and the differences between the two groups were compared. The median nerve CSA in the postular bone plate was significantly greater in the study group than in the normal control group (0.17±0.05 vs. 0.09±0.02, P<0.01), and the FR at the hook of the hamate was significantly higher in the study group (3.52±0.86 vs. 3.21±0.26, P<0.01). Our results suggest that ultrasonography can effectively provide dynamic real-time images of the wrist in addition to being painless, non-invasive, and associated with relatively low costs. Based on our findings, we believe that ultrasonography is an effective examination method for CTS. When the threshold of the median nerve CSA in the postular bone plate was set as 10 mm(2), the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 86%, respectively. Therefore, the median nerve CSA may represent a good clinical indicator of CTS.

  3. Assessment of Median Nerve Mobility by Ultrasound Dynamic Imaging for Diagnosing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tai-Tzung; Lee, Ming-Ru; Liao, Yin-Yin; Chen, Jiann-Perng; Hsu, Yen-Wei; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy and is characterized by median nerve entrapment at the wrist and the resulting median nerve dysfunction. CTS is diagnosed clinically as the gold standard and confirmed with nerve conduction studies (NCS). Complementing NCS, ultrasound imaging could provide additional anatomical information on pathological and motion changes of the median nerve. The purpose of this study was to estimate the transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements by analyzing ultrasound dynamic images to distinguish between normal subjects and CTS patients. Transverse ultrasound images were acquired, and a speckle-tracking algorithm was used to determine the lateral displacements of the median nerve in radial-ulnar plane in B-mode images utilizing the multilevel block-sum pyramid algorithm and averaging. All of the averaged lateral displacements at separate acquisition times within a single flexion–extension cycle were accumulated to obtain the cumulative lateral displacements, which were curve-fitted with a second-order polynomial function. The fitted curve was regarded as the transverse sliding pattern of the median nerve. The R2 value, curvature, and amplitude of the fitted curves were computed to evaluate the goodness, variation and maximum value of the fit, respectively. Box plots, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm were utilized for statistical analysis. The transverse sliding of the median nerve during finger movements was greater and had a steeper fitted curve in the normal subjects than in the patients with mild or severe CTS. The temporal changes in transverse sliding of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel were found to be correlated with the presence of CTS and its severity. The representative transverse sliding patterns of the median nerve during finger movements were demonstrated to be useful for quantitatively estimating

  4. The Efficacy of 100 and 300 mg Gabapentin in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eftekharsadat, Bina; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a neuropathy due to the compression of the median nerve. It is shown that gabapentin in high doses is effective in treatment of CTS patients. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of low doses of gabapentin in treatment of CTS patients. Ninety patients with CTS were randomly assigned to groups A, B and C. Gabapentin was administered to group A with dose of 100 mg/day and to group B with dose of 300 mg/day for 2 months. Group C received no treatment. Before and after treatment, patients were evaluated using Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and parasthesia, Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire (BCTQ) including Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. The pinch and grip strength was also measured. There was significant improvement in VAS, grip strength, pinch strength, SSS, FSS and BCTQ score in all three groups (p < 0.05), but the changes in CMAP and SNAP was not significant. Groups A and B in comparison to group C had significantly better improvement in VAS, pinch strength, SSS, FSS and BCTQ total score (p < 0.05). There was significantly more improvement in pinch strength and SSS score in group B compared to group A (p < 0.05). Gabapentin in low doses is a useful drug in treatment of CTS symptoms with no side effects and intolerance. Gabapentin with dose of 300 mg/day is more effective than the dose of 100 mg/day.

  5. The Efficacy of 100 and 300 mg Gabapentin in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharsadat, Bina; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Habibzadeh, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a neuropathy due to the compression of the median nerve. It is shown that gabapentin in high doses is effective in treatment of CTS patients. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of low doses of gabapentin in treatment of CTS patients. Ninety patients with CTS were randomly assigned to groups A, B and C. Gabapentin was administered to group A with dose of 100 mg/day and to group B with dose of 300 mg/day for 2 months. Group C received no treatment. Before and after treatment, patients were evaluated using Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and parasthesia, Boston carpal tunnel questionnaire (BCTQ) including Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. The pinch and grip strength was also measured. There was significant improvement in VAS, grip strength, pinch strength, SSS, FSS and BCTQ score in all three groups (p < 0.05), but the changes in CMAP and SNAP was not significant. Groups A and B in comparison to group C had significantly better improvement in VAS, pinch strength, SSS, FSS and BCTQ total score (p < 0.05). There was significantly more improvement in pinch strength and SSS score in group B compared to group A (p < 0.05). Gabapentin in low doses is a useful drug in treatment of CTS symptoms with no side effects and intolerance. Gabapentin with dose of 300 mg/day is more effective than the dose of 100 mg/day. PMID:26664397

  6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Analyzing efficacy and utility of clinical tests and various diagnostic modalities

    PubMed Central

    Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Sood, Isha; Bhargava, Amita N.; Bhushan, Bharat; Rana, Kirti; Jangid, Hemant; Shubhkaran, Khichar; Pujar, Guruprasad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy, but not adequately studied in India. Objectives: To study clinical tests, nerve conduction studies (NCS), ultrasonography (USG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing CTS. Materials and Methods: We diagnosed CTS in 54 patients (93 hands) out of 60 screened patients with symptoms compatible with CTS, including 19 control patients (23 hands). We conducted provocative tests and calculated Boston Carpal tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) symptom (S) and function (F) scores. NCS positive patients were classified into mild, mild-to-moderate, moderate, severe, and all-CTS groups. Median nerve anteroposterior, transverse, circumference (CIR), and cross-sectional area (CSA) at inlet (I), middle (M), and outlet (O) each was measured by USG in all patients. MRI was done in 26 patients (39 hands). Results: Phalen, hand elevation and pressure provocation tests had higher sensitivity, Tinel's test had higher specificity and tethered median nerve and tourniquet tests had low sensitivity and moderate specificity. USG had low sensitivity but high specificity, and MRI had moderate sensitivity. USG in patients compared to controls was significantly abnormal in CSA-I, CIR-I, and CSA-O. Significant correlation was found between BCTQ-S and NCS and BCTQ-S and CIR-O. CIR-M, CIR-O, CSA-M, and CSA-I had correlation with NCS. MRI was significant in moderate and in moderate + severe groups combined and associated pathologies were detected in 59% patients. Conclusion: NCS remain gold standard but USG and MRI help increase sensitivity and detect mass lesions amenable to surgery. PMID:26752893

  7. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Force Coordination and Muscle Coherence during Precision Pinch.

    PubMed

    Lu, Szu-Ching; Xiu, Kaihua; Li, Ke; Marquardt, Tamara L; Evans, Peter J; Li, Zong-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), caused by entrapment of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, impairs hand function including dexterous manipulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CTS on force coordination and muscle coherence during low-intensity sustained precision pinch while the wrist assumed different postures. Twenty subjects (10 CTS patients and 10 asymptomatic controls) participated in this study. An instrumented pinch device was used to measure the thumb and index finger forces while simultaneously collecting surface electromyographic activities of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles. Subjects performed a sustained precision pinch at 10% maximum pinch force for 15 sec with the wrist stabilized at 30° extension, neutral, or 30° flexion using customized splints. The force discrepancy and the force coordination angle between the thumb and index finger forces were calculated, as well as the β-band (15-30 Hz) coherence between APB and FDI. The index finger applied greater force than the thumb (p < 0.05); this force discrepancy was increased with wrist flexion (p < 0.05), but was not affected by CTS (p > 0.05). The directional force coordination was not significantly affected by wrist posture or CTS (p > 0.05). In general, digit force coordination during precision pinch seems to be sensitive to wrist flexion, but is not affected by CTS. The β-band muscular coherence was increased by wrist flexion for CTS patients (p < 0.05), which could be a compensatory mechanism for the flexion-induced exacerbation of CTS symptoms. This study demonstrates that wrist flexion negatively influences muscle and force coordination in CTS patients supporting the avoidance of flexion posture for symptom exacerbation and functional performance.

  8. Prevalence and Related Characteristics of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Orchardists in the Gyeongsangnam-do Region.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Kong, Min Sik; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Chang Han; Oh, Min-Kyun; Lee, Eun Shin; Shin, Heesuk; Yoon, Chul Ho

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and related characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in orchardists and to investigate the association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations. Between July 2013 and September 2014, 377 subjects (174 men and 203 women) visited the Gyeongsang National University Hospital's Center for Farmer's Safety and Health. All the subjects underwent electrodiagnostic tests and physical examination, including Phalen's test, Tinel's sign, and Durkan's carpal compression test (CCT). The subjects were classified into 2 groups, the normal group and the CTS group, according to electrodiagnostic test results. To determine the related characteristics of CTS, potential variables, including age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, and total work time, were compared between the 2 groups. The association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations was analyzed. CTS was diagnosed in 194 subjects based only on electrodiagnostic test results, corresponding to a prevalence of 51.5%. Among the variables, mean age (p=0.001) and total work time (p=0.007) were significantly correlated with CTS. With respect to the physical examinations, low specificities were observed for Tinel's sign, Phalen's test, and Durkan's CCT (38.4%, 36.1%, and 40.9%, respectively) in the subjects aged ≥65 years. In addition, Phalen's test (p=0.003) and Tinel's sign (p=0.032) in men and Durkan's CCT (p=0.047) in women showed statistically significant differences with increasing CTS severity. The odds ratio was 2.066 for Durkan's CCT in women according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. CTS prevalence among orchardists was high, and Durkan's CCT result was significantly quantitatively correlated with the electrodiagnostic test results. Therefore, Durkan's CCT is another reliable examination method for CTS.

  9. Prevalence and Related Characteristics of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Orchardists in the Gyeongsangnam-do Region

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and related characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in orchardists and to investigate the association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations. Methods Between July 2013 and September 2014, 377 subjects (174 men and 203 women) visited the Gyeongsang National University Hospital's Center for Farmer's Safety and Health. All the subjects underwent electrodiagnostic tests and physical examination, including Phalen's test, Tinel's sign, and Durkan's carpal compression test (CCT). The subjects were classified into 2 groups, the normal group and the CTS group, according to electrodiagnostic test results. To determine the related characteristics of CTS, potential variables, including age, sex, drinking, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, and total work time, were compared between the 2 groups. The association between electrodiagnostic severity and physical examinations was analyzed. Results CTS was diagnosed in 194 subjects based only on electrodiagnostic test results, corresponding to a prevalence of 51.5%. Among the variables, mean age (p=0.001) and total work time (p=0.007) were significantly correlated with CTS. With respect to the physical examinations, low specificities were observed for Tinel's sign, Phalen's test, and Durkan's CCT (38.4%, 36.1%, and 40.9%, respectively) in the subjects aged ≥65 years. In addition, Phalen's test (p=0.003) and Tinel's sign (p=0.032) in men and Durkan's CCT (p=0.047) in women showed statistically significant differences with increasing CTS severity. The odds ratio was 2.066 for Durkan's CCT in women according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion CTS prevalence among orchardists was high, and Durkan's CCT result was significantly quantitatively correlated with the electrodiagnostic test results. Therefore, Durkan's CCT is another reliable examination method for CTS. PMID:27847721

  10. Electrophysiologic and Ultrasonographic Assessment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contributing factors of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), electrodiagnostic and ultrasonographic findings of median nerve, and median nerve change after exercise in wheelchair basketball (WCB) players. Methods Fifteen WCB players with manual wheelchairs were enrolled in the study. Medical history of the subjects was taken. Electrodiagnosis and ultrasonography of both median nerves were performed to assess CTS in WCB players. Ultrasonographic median nerves evaluation was conducted after wheelchair propulsion for 20 minutes. Results Average body mass index (BMI) and period of wheelchair use of CTS subjects were greater than those of normal subjects. Electrodiagnosis revealed CTS in 14 of 30 hands (47%). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of median nerve was greater in CTS subjects than in normal subjects at 0.5 cm and 1 cm proximal to distal wrist crease (DWC), DWC, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and 3.5 cm distal to DWC. After exercising, median nerve CSAs at 0.5 cm and 1 cm proximal to DWC, DWC, and 3 cm and 3.5 cm distal to DWC were greater than baseline CSAs in CTS subjects; and median nerve CSAs at 1 cm proximal to DWC and DWC were greater than baseline CSAs in normal subjects. The changes in median nerve CSA after exercise in CTS subjects were greater than in normal subjects at 0.5 cm proximal to DWC and 3 cm and 3.5 cm distal to DWC. Conclusion BMI and total period of wheelchair use contributed to developing CTS in WCB players. The experimental exercise might be related to the median nerve swelling around the inlet and outlet of carpal tunnel in WCB athletes with CTS. PMID:28289636

  11. Electrophysiologic and Ultrasonographic Assessment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Beom Suk; Kim, Min Je; Kim, Ki Hoon; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Dong Hwee

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the contributing factors of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), electrodiagnostic and ultrasonographic findings of median nerve, and median nerve change after exercise in wheelchair basketball (WCB) players. Fifteen WCB players with manual wheelchairs were enrolled in the study. Medical history of the subjects was taken. Electrodiagnosis and ultrasonography of both median nerves were performed to assess CTS in WCB players. Ultrasonographic median nerves evaluation was conducted after wheelchair propulsion for 20 minutes. Average body mass index (BMI) and period of wheelchair use of CTS subjects were greater than those of normal subjects. Electrodiagnosis revealed CTS in 14 of 30 hands (47%). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of median nerve was greater in CTS subjects than in normal subjects at 0.5 cm and 1 cm proximal to distal wrist crease (DWC), DWC, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and 3.5 cm distal to DWC. After exercising, median nerve CSAs at 0.5 cm and 1 cm proximal to DWC, DWC, and 3 cm and 3.5 cm distal to DWC were greater than baseline CSAs in CTS subjects; and median nerve CSAs at 1 cm proximal to DWC and DWC were greater than baseline CSAs in normal subjects. The changes in median nerve CSA after exercise in CTS subjects were greater than in normal subjects at 0.5 cm proximal to DWC and 3 cm and 3.5 cm distal to DWC. BMI and total period of wheelchair use contributed to developing CTS in WCB players. The experimental exercise might be related to the median nerve swelling around the inlet and outlet of carpal tunnel in WCB athletes with CTS.

  12. Palmitoylethanolamide, a neutraceutical, in nerve compression syndromes: efficacy and safety in sciatic pain and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA's efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA's action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes.

  13. Exploring the Effectiveness of External Use of Bach Flower Remedies on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Suárez, Saira R; Águila-Vázquez, Jaime; Suárez-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Vázquez-León, Lázaro; Casanova-Giral, Margarita; Morales-Morales, Roberto; Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C

    2017-01-01

    A randomized, pilot, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of a cream based on Bach flower remedies (BFR) on symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome. Forty-three patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome during their "waiting" time for surgical option were randomized into 3 parallel groups: Placebo (n = 14), blinded BFR (n = 16), and nonblinded BFR (n = 13). These groups were treated during 21 days with topical placebo or a cream based on BFR. Significant improvements were observed on self-reported symptom severity and pain intensity favorable to BFR groups with large effect sizes (η(2)partial > 0.40). In addition, all signs observed during the clinical exam showed significant improvements among the groups as well as symptoms of pain, night pain, and tingling, also with large effect sizes (φ > 0.5). Finally, there were significant differences between the blinded and nonblinded BFR groups for signs and pain registered in clinical exam but not in self-reports. The proposed BFR cream could be an effective intervention in the management of mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome, reducing the severity symptoms and providing pain relief. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The correlation between muscle and nerve fiber conduction velocities in thenar muscle is lost in case of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Dassouki, Mohamad; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) in thenar muscle of 20 normal subjects and of 20 patients suffering from a moderate carpal tunnel syndrome. Our goal was to confirm the positive correlation between MFCV and MNCV and to assess the influence of carpal tunnel syndrome on this relationship. MFCV was calculated in voluntarily contracted thenar muscle using a multi-channel surface recording and a spike-triggered averaging technique. MFCV values ranged between 2.6 and 7.2 m/s (mean+/-SEM: 4.5+/-0.3) in normal subjects and between 3.5 and 6.9 m/s (4.7+/-0.2) in patients. Subjects and patients did not differ regarding MFCV values, but a correlation between MFCV and MNCV was found in normal subjects (P=0.0005) and not in patients (P=0.54). A correlation between muscle and nerve conduction velocities existed in healthy subjects but was lost in case of moderate carpal tunnel syndrome. MFCV appeared to be insensitive to focal nerve conduction slowing.

  15. [Carpal tunnel syndrome in workers engaged in the assembly of manufactured products in various industries in the province of Brescia].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G

    1996-01-01

    Tests were carried out on five manual assembly departments in a variety of different factories, in order to assess the risks associated with the onset of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and to describe the prevalence of this disorder among exposed workers. The application of the risk analysis method proposed by the EPM Research Unit in Milan (Italy) demonstrated the presence of numerous jobs featuring both a high frequency of actions per minute and a total lack of recovery times, in addition to a variety of incongrous upper limb postures. The clinical and instrumental investigation diagnosed 76 cases of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among the 170 exposed workers. 62% of the cases was bilateral and 24% was associated with Guyon Channel Syndrome. In two of the five departments reviewed, the carpal tunnel disorders detected were endemic, and featured unusually high prevalence. The situation had been seriously underestimated by the company technical and medical staff, resulting in a failure to call for the urgent adoption of individual protection and collective prevention measures. The authors recommend that an extensive and adequate occupational risk assessment analysis be performed: the local occupational health services could play a critical role in identifying the highest risk industries and the diseases diagnosed in a hospital environment.

  16. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  17. Acute compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure - ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS.

  18. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Turk, Z

    2008-01-01

    Thermography for the measurement of surface temperatures is well known in industry, although is not established in medicine despite its safety, lack of pain and invasiveness, easy reproducibility, and low running costs. Promising results have been achieved in nerve entrapment syndromes, although thermography has never represented a real alternative to electromyography. Here an attempt is described to improve the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome with thermography using a computer-based system employing artificial neural networks to analyse the images. Method reliability was tested on 112 images (depicting the dorsal and palmar sides of 26 healthy and 30 pathological hands), with the hand divided into 12 segments and compared relative to a reference. Palmar segments appeared to have no beneficial influence on classification outcome, whereas dorsal segments gave improved outcome with classification success rates near to or over 80%, and finger segments influenced by the median nerve appeared to be of greatest importance. These are preliminary results from a limited number of images and further research will be undertaken as our image database grows.

  19. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hecker, M; Weigand, M A; Mayer, K

    2012-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the clinical manifestation of an acute lung injury caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has led to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. The development of innovative therapy options, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, have the potential to further improve survival of this devastating disease.

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition with multiple causes and a high mortality rate. Approximately 150,000 cases are reported in the United States annually, making ARDS a public health concern. Management of the condition is complex because of its severity, and medical imaging is essential for both the diagnosis and management of ARDS. This article introduces common signs, symptoms, risk factors, and causes of ARDS. Diagnostic criteria, histopathology, treatment strategies, and prognostic information also are discussed. The article explains the value of medical imaging studies of ARDS, especially radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasonography.

  1. The Relationship between Nerve Conduction Study and Clinical Grading of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheluvaiah, Janardhan D.; Agadi, Jagadish B.; Nagaraj, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment. Subjective sensory symptoms are common place in patients with CTS, but sometimes they are not supported by objective findings in the neurological examination. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies are a valid and reliable means of confirming the diagnosis. The amplitudes along with the conduction velocities of the sensory nerve action potential and motor nerve action potential reflect the functional state of axons, and are useful parameters and complement the clinical grading in the assessment of severity of CTS. Aim To conduct median nerve sensory and motor conduction studies on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and correlate the relationship between nerve conduction study parameters and the clinical severity grading. Materials and Methods Based on clinical assessment, the study patients were divided into 03 groups with mild CTS, moderate CTS and severe CTS respectively as per Mackinnson’s classification. Median and ulnar nerve conduction studies were performed on bilateral upper limbs of 50 patients with symptoms of CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. The relationship between the clinical severity grade and various nerve conduction study parameters were correlated. Results In this prospective case control study, 50 patients with symptoms consistent with CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were examined over a 10 month period. A total of 30 patients had unilateral CTS (right upper limb in 19 and left upper limb in 11) and 20 patients had bilateral CTS. Female to male ratio was 3.54 to 1. Age ranged from 25 to 81 years. The mean age at presentation was 49.68±11.7 years. Tingling paresthesias of hand and first three fingers were the most frequent symptoms 48 (98%). Tinel’s and Phalen’s sign were positive in 36 (72%) and 44 (88%) patients respectively. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 52.68±99.81 weeks. 16 patients (32%) had

  2. The Relationship between Nerve Conduction Study and Clinical Grading of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Srikanteswara, Praveen Kumar; Cheluvaiah, Janardhan D; Agadi, Jagadish B; Nagaraj, Karthik

    2016-07-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment. Subjective sensory symptoms are common place in patients with CTS, but sometimes they are not supported by objective findings in the neurological examination. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies are a valid and reliable means of confirming the diagnosis. The amplitudes along with the conduction velocities of the sensory nerve action potential and motor nerve action potential reflect the functional state of axons, and are useful parameters and complement the clinical grading in the assessment of severity of CTS. To conduct median nerve sensory and motor conduction studies on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and correlate the relationship between nerve conduction study parameters and the clinical severity grading. Based on clinical assessment, the study patients were divided into 03 groups with mild CTS, moderate CTS and severe CTS respectively as per Mackinnson's classification. Median and ulnar nerve conduction studies were performed on bilateral upper limbs of 50 patients with symptoms of CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. The relationship between the clinical severity grade and various nerve conduction study parameters were correlated. In this prospective case control study, 50 patients with symptoms consistent with CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were examined over a 10 month period. A total of 30 patients had unilateral CTS (right upper limb in 19 and left upper limb in 11) and 20 patients had bilateral CTS. Female to male ratio was 3.54 to 1. Age ranged from 25 to 81 years. The mean age at presentation was 49.68±11.7 years. Tingling paresthesias of hand and first three fingers were the most frequent symptoms 48 (98%). Tinel's and Phalen's sign were positive in 36 (72%) and 44 (88%) patients respectively. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 52.68±99.81 weeks. 16 patients (32%) had mild CTS, 25 (50%) had moderate CTS and 9 (18%) had

  3. Effectiveness of PELOID therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled single blind study.

    PubMed

    Metin Ökmen, Burcu; Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Meliha; Güneş, Aygül; Eröksüz, Riza; Altan, Lale

    2017-02-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is the most common neuromuscular cause of upper extremity disability. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of peloid therapy in patients with CTS. This randomized, controlled, single-blind study enrolled 70 patients between the ages of 30 to 65 who had a diagnosis of either mild, mild-to-moderate, or moderate CTS. The patients were randomized into two groups using random number table. In the first group, (Group 1)(n = 35), patients were given splint (every night for 6 weeks) + peloid treatment(five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks) and in the second group, (Group 2)(n = 28), patients received splint treatment(every night for 6 weeks) alone. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale(VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography(ENMG), the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire(BCTSQ), hand grip strength(HGS), finger grip strength(FGS), and Short Form-12(SF-12). The data were obtained before treatment(W0), immediately after treatment(W2), and one month after treatment(W6). Both in Group 1 and 2, there was a statistically significant improvement in all the evaluation parameters at W2 and W6 when compared to W0(p < 0.05). Comparison of the groups with each other revealed significantly better results for VAS, BCTSQ, mSNCV, SF-12 in Group 1 than in Group 2 at W2(p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in favor of Group 1 for VAS, BCTSQ, FGS and MCS at W6 when compared to W0 (p < 0.05). The results of our study demonstrated that in patients with CTS; peloid + splint treatment was more effective than splint treatment alone in pain, functionality and life quality both at after treatment(W2) and one month after treatment (W6). We may suggest peloid as a supplementary therapeutic agent in CTS.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) among medical laboratory staff at King Saud University Hospitals, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed S, Shaffi; Anas M, Bardeesi; Aref A, Altwair; Abdulrahman A, AlMubarak

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a group of symptoms resulting from local compression of the median nerve at the wrist leading to its subsequent functional impairment and local ischemia of the nerve. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and commonly reported symptoms of CTS in the laboratory workers of King Saud University (KSU) hospitals and to identify the associated variables with CTS. Methods: This was a quantitative observational cross-sectional study which was conducted in KSU hospitals’ laboratories with a total of 225 participants by using a standardized questionnaire known as “ Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Data Analysis was carried out by IBM SPSS Statistics software version 21.0. Results: Out of the 225 participants, 57 were found to be severely symptomatic with a prevalence of 25.3%. Among the severely affected participants, females were more than males (58% > 42%) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.045). Technicians affected (91.2%) were more than attendants (8.8%) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.042). Conclusion: The prevalence of Carpal tunnel syndrome in KSU hospitals’ medical laboratory staff (25.3%) was close to what was found in literature (21.5%). So laboratory workers are at risk of developing CTS, especially females and technicians with the dominant hand most likely to be affected. PMID:26101485

  5. Comparison of the Clinical Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection with and without Needle Release of the Transverse Carpal Ligament in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuan-Yan; Xiong, Mao-Xiang; Zhao, Yu; He, Fan-Ding; Cheng, Xue-Qing; Wu, Yan-Yan; Chen, Kai; Lu, Man

    2017-01-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection with and without needle release of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Between May 2014 and June 2016, 52 patients (56 wrists) with CTS were included in this study. Among these patients, 28 wrists were treated with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection plus needle release of the TCL (group A) and 28 wrists were treated with a single ultrasound-guided corticosteroids injection (group B). The following parameters were assessed and compared including postoperative results of procedure based on relief of symptoms, electrophysiological parameters (distal motor latency, sensory conduction velocity, and sensory nerve action potential of median nerve), and ultrasound parameters (anteroposterior diameter and cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the levels of pisiform and hamate bone, and the thicknesses of TCL on the cross-section at the level of hamate bone). The overall excellent and good rate regarding the postoperative results of procedure based on the relief of symptoms at 1 month postoperatively was 82.1% in group A and 46.4% in group B (p = 0.004). There was significant difference in the above electrophysiological and ultrasound parameters between the preoperative and postoperative values in both groups (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference was also observed in the postoperative values of the above-mentioned electrophysiological and ultrasound parameters in the 2 groups (all p < 0.05). Both approaches had treatment benefit in CTS. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection in combination with needle release of the TCL is superior to the single ultrasound-guided corticosteroids injection. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Carpal tunnel syndrome in association with hand-arm vibration syndrome: a review of claimants seeking compensation in the Mining Industry.

    PubMed

    Burke, F D; Lawson, I J; McGeoch, K L; Miles, J N V; Proud, G

    2005-05-01

    Twenty six thousand eight hundred and forty-two miners seeking compensation were clinically assessed for vascular and neurosensory impairment arising from exposure to occupational hand-arm vibration (Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome). They were also assessed clinically for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome which, if present, would result in additional compensation. Fifteen per cent were assessed as having both HAVS and CTS. Thirty-eight per cent of claimants had nocturnal wakening, 1.3% wasting of abductor pollicis brevis, 15% had a positive Tinel's test and 20% had a positive Phalen's test. The 15% prevalence reported is lower than the rates cited previously in several small population studies of workers exposed to vibration. This paper reports the results of the assessment process and discusses the difficulty of discriminating Carpal Tunnel Syndrome from diffuse neurosensory impairment arising from HAVS.

  7. Digital flexion contracture and severe carpal tunnel syndrome due to tophaceus infiltration of wrist flexor tendon: first manifestation of gout.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, P; Caba, M; Gómez-Sánchez, R; Gómez-Morales, M

    2011-11-09

    The authors report an unusual case of flexor tenosynovitis, severe carpal tunnel syndrome, and triggering at the carpal tunnel as the first manifestation of gout. A 69-year-old man presented with digital flexion contracture and severe carpal tunnel syndrome of his right hand and was treated surgically. A flexor tenosynovectomy and a median nerve neurolysis were performed through an extended carpal tunnel approach. The sublimis and the profundus tendons were involved. Partial ruptures and multiple whitish lesions suggestive of tophacceous infiltration of the flexor tendons were seen. Macroscopically, the removed synovial tissue was involved by multiple whitish nodules that were milimetric in size and was suggestive of monosodium urate crystals deposits. By light microscopy examination, numerous nonnecrotizing granulomas of different sizes were observed that were compounded by large aggregations of acellular nonpolarized material, surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, mononuclear cells, and foreign body multinucleated giant cells. Postoperatively, the patient recovered with resolution of the median nerve symptoms and a near-to-full range of motion of the affected digits.To the authors' knowledge, this patient is the first case report with flexor tendons tophacceous infiltration as the first clinical sign of gout. Gouty flexor tenosynovitis can occur in the absence of a long history of gout. A high index of suspicion is paramount to the initiation of proper management. Operative treatment of gouty flexor tenosynovitis is mandatory to debulk tophaceous deposits, improve tendon gliding, and decompress nerves. Routine uric acid determination could be helpful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with flexor tenosynovitis. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Injection versus Decompression for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome-Pilot trial (INDICATE-P)-protocol for a randomised feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Will; Ryan, Daniel; Khan, Asif; Kerr, Hui-Ling; Beard, David; Cook, Jonathan; Rombach, Ines; Cooper, Cushla

    2017-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the commonest peripheral nerve disorder in the UK, with over 52,996 carpal tunnel decompressions performed in 2011. By 2030, this figure is estimated to double. Whilst evidence supports conservative measures for mild symptoms, and early surgery for severe symptoms, controversy remains over the most appropriate management for patients that present with moderate disease, with regard to early surgery or late surgery following steroid injection. Injection versus Decompression for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome-Pilot trial (INDICATE-P) is a feasibility study for a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (INDICATE) to determine whether patients over the age of 18 with moderate CTS should undergo early surgical decompression of the median nerve or a single steroid injection (followed by later surgery if required). INDICATE-P is a feasibility study for an open (non-blinded) randomised controlled pilot trial. Eligible participants will be adults with a clinical diagnosis of moderate CTS. This is defined as symptoms disturbing sleep or restricting activities of daily living or work, despite a 2-week trial of night splints. Participants will be randomised to one of two possible interventions: surgical decompression or a single steroid injection (followed by surgery later if required). Clinical outcome measures will be captured by postal questionnaire at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomisation. In order to improve the study design for the main INDICATE trial, feasibility data will also be collected to identify difficulties in recruitment and retention, to gain patient feedback on questionnaires and to confirm the suitability of the proposed outcome measures. The INDICATE-P feasibility study will contribute to the design and execution of the INDICATE trial, which will seek to assess the safety and effectiveness of two approaches to treatment for patients over 18 years of age with moderate CTS: early carpal tunnel decompression or a single steroid

  9. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    PubMed

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936.

  10. [Acute coronary syndrome -- 2012].

    PubMed

    Becker, Dávid; Merkely, Béla

    2012-12-23

    The acute coronary syndrome is the most severe form of coronary artery disease. It is an immediate threat of life and the mortality rate can be high without proper therapy and patient management. Based on the first ECG, two different forms can be distinguished: acute coronary syndrome with and without ST elevation. Besides adequate medication, management of these patients is an essential part of treatment. In case of ST elevation, coronarography and percutaneous coronary intervention is needed in general, within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. When ST elevation is not detected on the ECG, individual ischemic risk factors and predictable mortality of the patient may define the necessity and the date of the invasive examination. The Hungarian hemodynamic laboratory network covers almost the whole country and, therefore, practically each patient may receive a state-of-the-art therapy. Although indicators of cardiovascular diseases are still prominent, the mortality rate of myocardial Infarction is decreasing in Hungary due to the well-organized invasive care.

  11. Dual-portal endoscopic release of the transverse ligament in carpal tunnel syndrome: results of 411 procedures with special reference to technique, efficacy, and complications.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Joachim; Schroeder, Henry W S; Gaab, Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Endoscopic release of carpal tunnel syndrome is still under debate. The main advantages of the technique are considered to be minor postoperative pain and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Disadvantages are thought to be the impossibility of a direct median nerve neurolysis and a higher surgical complication rate, including injury to the median nerve. The results of 411 consecutive endoscopic carpal tunnel procedures performed between March 1995 and September 2004 are presented. All patients were prospectively followed. In the present series, a success rate of 98.05% was observed. There was no permanent morbidity and, in particular, there was no injury of the median nerve. In four (0.97%) patients, the preoperative symptoms did not improve. In two (0.49%) of these patients, an incomplete release of the carpal ligament occurred. In another four patients (0.97%), a switch to open surgery was required. The present data prove that the endoscopic technique is a safe and reliable technique for carpal tunnel surgery. The data do not support the current discussion of a higher risk of median nerve injury with endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery. Thus, for our group, the endoscopic technique represents the therapy of choice for the primary idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

  12. Free anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized lateral femoral cutaneous nerve for the treatment of neuroma-in-continuity and recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome after carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Nana; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao

    2014-02-01

    Treatment of recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is challenging, especially in a case with recurrent CTS and a neuroma formation. Resection of the neuroma causing the syndrome, reconstruction of the nerve gap of the median nerve, and covering up the reconstructed median nerve with well-vascularized soft tissue for prevention of CTS re-recurrence are the essential procedures. We report a case of recurrent CTS with severe pain due to a neuroma-in-continuity successfully treated using a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with a vascularized lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). A 2 cm neuroma existed in the median nerve and was resected. The nerve gap was repaired using a vascularized LFCN included in the ALT flap. The ALT flap was transferred to the wrist to cover the median nerve. The severe pain disappeared completely and the sensory and motor impairment of the median nerve improved 5 months after the free flap surgery, as the Tinel's sign moved distally away from the wrist and disappeared. The result of the Semmes-Weinstein test improved from 5.08 to 4.31 and she was able to flex and extend the right wrist and fingers without pain. CTS did not recur 15 months after the surgery. A free ALT flap with vascularized LFCN allows nerve reconstruction for the median nerve gap created after neuroma resection and coverage of the median nerve with well-vascularized soft tissue to prevent adhesion and CTS recurrence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mikolasevic, I; Milic, S; Orlic, L; Poropat, G; Jakopcic, I; Franjic, N; Klanac, A; Kristo, N; Stimac, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on the course of acute pancreatitis determined by disease severity, the presence of local and systemic complications and survival rate. 609 patients admitted to our hospital in the period from January 1, 2008 up to June 31, 2015 with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were analyzed. The diagnosis and the severity of acute pancreatitis were made according to the revised Atlanta classification criteria from 2012. Of 609 patients with acute pancreatitis, 110 fulfilled the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome had statistically significantly higher incidence of moderately severe (38.2% vs. 28.5%; p=0.05) and severe (22.7% vs. 12.8%; p=0.01) acute pancreatitis in comparison to those without metabolic syndrome, while patients without metabolic syndrome had higher incidence of mild acute pancreatitis in comparison to those patients with metabolic syndrome (58.7% vs. 39.1%; p<0.001). Patients with metabolic syndrome had a higher number of local and systemic complications, and higher APACHE II score in comparison to patients without metabolic syndrome. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the presence of metabolic syndrome was independently associated with moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis. Comparing survival rates, patients suffering from metabolic syndrome had a higher death rate compared to patients without metabolic syndrome (16% vs. 4.5%; p<0.001). The presence of metabolic syndrome at admission portends a higher risk of moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis, as well as higher mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. General Population Job Exposure Matrix Applied to a Pooled Study of Prevalent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S.; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title–based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14–2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09–2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. PMID:25700886

  15. Pre-surgery Disability Compensation Predicts Long-Term Disability among Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; Turner, Judith A.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Franklin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to identify early risk factors for work disability compensation prior to and after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery, and to determine whether pre-surgery disability compensation is associated with long-term disability. Methods Washington State workers’ compensation administrative data and data from interviews with workers 18 days (median) after submitting new workers’ compensation claims for CTS were examined. Baseline risk factors for pre-surgery disability compensation and for long-term disability (≥365 days of work disability compensation prior to two years after claim filing) were evaluated for workers who underwent CTS surgery and had at least one day of disability compensation (N=670). Results After adjustment for baseline long-term disability risk factors, workers with pre-surgery disability compensation had over five times the odds of long-term disability. Baseline factors in multiple domains, including job, psychosocial, clinical, and worker pain and function, were associated with both pre-surgery disability compensation and long-term disability. Conclusions Risk factors for work disability prior to and after CTS surgery are similar, and early work disability is a risk factor for long-term CTS-related disability. An integrated approach to CTS-related disability prevention could include identifying and addressing combined risk factors soon after claim filing, more efficient use of conservative treatments and appropriate work modifications to minimize early work loss, and, when indicated, timely surgical intervention. PMID:22392804

  16. Reappraisal of the F/M amplitude ratio in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ginanneschi, F; Mondelli, M; Aretini, A; Rossi, Alessandro

    The F-wave/M-wave amplitude (F/M-amp) ratio has been shown to be increased in peripheral neuropathies, provided the maximum M-wave is relatively preserved. Reduced M-wave amplitudes and central facilitation of antidromically-induced reactivation of the anterior horn cells' axon hillocks (F-wave) are believed to contribute to higher F/M-amp ratios. The present study was undertaken to re-evaluate mechanisms responsible for higher F/M-amp ratios in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 232 cases affected by CTS and 108 controls. Fand M-wave amplitudes and F-wave chronodispersion were analyzed for the median and ulnar nerves. The F/M-amp ratio of the median nerve in CTS subjects with moderate-severe nerve damage was significantly higher than that of mild CTS subjects and controls. Chronodispersion of the median nerve F-wave increased with increasing CTS severity. We conclude that the relative preservation of the median nerve F-wave is due to damage to the large diameter muscle afferent fibers responsible for the monosynaptic response. Absence of the monosynaptic response makes the small motoneurons, usually inaccessible to the antidromic volley because of its collision with the orthodromic reflex volley, able to fire in the F-wave.

  17. Is carpal tunnel syndrome related to computer exposure at work? A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mediouni, Zakia; de Roquemaurel, Alexis; Dumontier, Christian; Becour, Bertrand; Garrabe, Hélène; Roquelaure, Yves; Descatha, Alexis

    2014-02-01

    A meta-analysis on epidemiological studies was undertaken to assess association between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and computer work. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Base de Donnees de Sante Publique) were searched with cross-references from published reviews. We included recent studies, original epidemiological studies for which the association was assessed with blind reviewing with control group. Relevant associations were extracted, and a metarisk was calculated using the generic variance approach (meta-odds ratio [meta-OR]). Six studies met the criteria for inclusion. Results are contradictory because of heterogeneous work exposure. The meta-OR for computer use was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 3.55). The meta-OR for keyboarding was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.98) and for mouse 1.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 4.21). It was not possible to show an association between computer use and CTS, although some particular work circumstances may be associated with CTS.

  18. The efficacy of phonophoresis on electrophysiological studies of the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soyupek, Feray; Kutluhan, Suleyman; Uslusoy, Gokcen; Ilgun, Erdem; Eris, Sevilay; Askin, Ayhan

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of phonophoresis with nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (P-NSAID) and corticosteroids (P-CS) in the treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to compare the efficacy of phonophoresis with local CS injection (LCSI) and splinting with a 3-month follow-up. 84 hands of 51 patients with CTS were treated by applying LCSI, P-CS, P-NSAID, and wrist splinting. Electrophysiological studies, grip strength, hand dexterity, and sensory recovery of the first three digits were assessed. Duruöz hand index (DHI) was used to assess the functional hand disability. For clinical evaluation, we used Phalen and Tinnel signs. Pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale. The LCIS group showed a significant improvement in pain relief and DHI, but this group had significant deterioration in the results of monofilament and pegboard tests. The P-CS group showed improvement in sensory nerve conduction velocity, distal latency, grip strength, and DHI parameters. There was a significant improvement in grip strength, pegboard test, and pain intensity in the P-NSAID group. There was improvement only in pain intensity in the splinting group. We identified marked improvement in the electrophysiological studies in the P-CS group. Splinting had no effect on hand functions, disability, and electrophysiological studies.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of ultrasound and paraffin therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Hsieh, Shih-Fu; Horng, Yu-Shiow; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lee, Kun-Chang; Horng, Yi-Shiung

    2014-11-26

    Conclusive evidence indicating an effective treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a common entrapment neuropathy, is lacking. Ultrasound therapy (US therapy) has long been used as one of the combination treatments for CTS. In addition, paraffin bath therapy has been applied widely as a physical modality in treating patients with hand conditions. The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the efficacy of combining a wrist orthosis with either US therapy or paraffin bath therapy in treating CTS patients. Patients with CTS were randomized into two groups. All patients received a wrist orthosis. Twice per week, one group underwent paraffin therapy, and the other group underwent ultrasound therapy. Each patient received a questionnaire, physical examination and nerve conduction study of the upper extremities before and after treatment for eight weeks. Sixty patients were recruited, and 47 completed the study. Statistical analysis revealed significant improvements in symptom severity scores in both groups. After adjusting for age, gender and baseline data, the analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference in the functional status score between two groups. The combination of ultrasound therapy with a wrist orthosis may be more effective than paraffin therapy with a wrist orthosis. Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT02278289 Oct 28, 2014.

  20. Relaxin Modulates the Expression of MMPs and TIMPs in Fibroblasts of Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Mi; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kang, Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect of relaxin in subsynovial fibroblasts activated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Materials and Methods To test the anti-fibrotic effect of an adenovirus-relaxin construct (Ad-RLN) on subsynovial fibroblasts in vitro, cells from subsynovial connective tissue of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome were activated with TGF-β1 and exposed to Ad-RLN (as a therapeutic gene) or adenovirus-lacZ construct (as a marker gene) for four hours. Subsynovial fibroblast cultures without adenoviral exposure served as controls. Results We observed induction of gene expressions of collagen I, III and IV, as well as the abatement of alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) synthesis, Smad2 phosphorylation, and fibronectin at the protein level, in comparison to controls. In addition, protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) I was significantly induced, whereas the protein expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) I and IV were reduced due to relaxin expression. Conclusion RLN prevents excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix by reducing the expressions of its components, such as fibronectin, a-SMA, and phosphorylated Smad2, by increasing the expression of MMPs; and by decreasing the expression of TIMPs. PMID:28120574

  1. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in a large footwear factory.

    PubMed

    Roquelaure, Y; Mariel, J; Dano, C; Fanello, S; Penneau-Fontbonne, D

    2001-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a large modern footwear factory and to identify factors predictive of CTS. To this end, 199 workers were examined in 1996, and 162 of them were re-examined in 1997. Ergonomic and psychosocial risk factors of CTS were assessed by workpost analysis and self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of CTS at baseline in 1996 and in 1997 was 16.6% (95%CI: 11.4-21.7) and 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-16.8), respectively. The incidence rate of CTS in 1997 was 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-7.8). No specific type of job performance was associated with CTS. Obesity (OR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.1-17.1) and psychological distress at baseline (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.0-18.6) were strongly predictive of CTS. Rapid trigger movements of the fingers were also predictive of CTS (OR = 3.8; 95%CI: 1.0-17.2). A strict control of thework by superiors was negatively associatedwith CTS (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.2-1.3). The prevalence and incidence of CTS in this workforce were largely higher than in the general population and numerous industries. The study highlights the role of psychological distress in workers exposed to a high level of physical exposure and psychological demand.

  2. Longitudinal Outcomes Following a Randomized Controlled Trial of Dynamic Splint Stretching for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Willis, F Buck; Fowler, Brook

    2016-09-01

    Background: The incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 48 million patients in the United States. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine whether Dynasplint stretching (immediately after diagnosis) had an effect on a patient's decision to seek surgical treatment for CTS. Methods: Fifty patients (10 men, 40 women, mean age 51.2 ± 12 years) were recruited for this randomized, controlled, longitudinal trial. Patients were diagnosed with CTS by physical examination and nerve conduction studies. The intervention used was Dynasplint stretching that delivered a prolonged duration of low load stretching. Patients who were randomly chosen for the Experimental category wore the device for two 30-minute sessions per day with regular increases in splint tension for 60 days. Control patients received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication plus instructions on daily home stretching. Results: The final, longitudinal outcome showed a 72% reduction in surgery chosen by the experimental group (n = 25), compared with 38% reduction for control patients (n = 25). Conclusions: Immediate treatment with Dynasplint stretching showed a 2 to 1 reduction in surgery, with abundant financial savings.

  3. Longitudinal Outcomes Following a Randomized Controlled Trial of Dynamic Splint Stretching for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Willis, F. Buck; Fowler, Brook

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is 48 million patients in the United States. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine whether Dynasplint stretching (immediately after diagnosis) had an effect on a patient’s decision to seek surgical treatment for CTS. Methods: Fifty patients (10 men, 40 women, mean age 51.2 ± 12 years) were recruited for this randomized, controlled, longitudinal trial. Patients were diagnosed with CTS by physical examination and nerve conduction studies. The intervention used was Dynasplint stretching that delivered a prolonged duration of low load stretching. Patients who were randomly chosen for the Experimental category wore the device for two 30-minute sessions per day with regular increases in splint tension for 60 days. Control patients received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication plus instructions on daily home stretching. Results: The final, longitudinal outcome showed a 72% reduction in surgery chosen by the experimental group (n = 25), compared with 38% reduction for control patients (n = 25). Conclusions: Immediate treatment with Dynasplint stretching showed a 2 to 1 reduction in surgery, with abundant financial savings. PMID:27698630

  4. Median nerve ultrasound in diabetic peripheral neuropathy with and without carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Watson, James; Boon, Andrea J; Sorenson, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    Median nerve ultrasound shows increased cross-sectional area (CSA) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PN). The role of ultrasound in diagnosing CTS superimposed on diabetic PN is unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate ultrasound for diagnosis of CTS in diabetic PN. Prospective recruitment of diabetics with electrodiagnostically proven PN, subdivided into cases (with CTS) or controls (without CTS). The gold standard for CTS was clinical diagnosis. NCS were correlated with blinded median nerve CSA ultrasound measurements. Eight cases (CTS) and eight controls (no CTS) were recruited. Nerve conduction studies (NCS): Median nerve distal latencies (antidromic sensory; palmar; lumbrical motor; and lumbrical motor to ulnar interosseous difference) were significantly prolonged in CTS cases. No ultrasound measurement (distal median CSA, wrist-forearm ratio, wrist-forearm difference) reached significance to detect CTS. Area under the curve was greatest for lumbrical distal latency by receiver operator characteristic analysis (0.85). In this pilot study, NCS may be superior to ultrasound for identification of superimposed CTS in diabetic PN patients, but larger numbers are needed for confirmation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  5. Neuromuscular ultrasound in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and normal nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Aseem, Fazila; Williams, Jessica W; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) are sensitive for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), but a small proportion of patients with clinical CTS have normal NCS. This retrospective study was designed to assess the neuromuscular ultrasound findings in a group of CTS patients. The electronic medical record was reviewed by a neurologist to identify patients who had a diagnosis of CTS with normal NCS, including either mixed median-ulnar comparison or transcarpal sensory studies, and complete neuromuscular ultrasound evaluation for CTS. Fourteen individuals (22 wrists) met all criteria. A total of 92.3% had median nerve cross-sectional area enlargement at the wrist (mean 16.3 mm(2) ), 100% had increased wrist-to-forearm median nerve area ratio (mean 2.4), 82.4% had decreased median nerve echogenicity, 75.0% had decreased median nerve mobility, and 7.1% had increased median nerve vascularity. A large proportion of patients with clinical CTS but normal NCS have abnormal neuromuscular ultrasound findings. Muscle Nerve 55: 913-915, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nerve ultrasound in clinical management of carpal tunnel syndrome in mucopolysaccharidosis.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Tobias; Bühring, Nina; Schelle, Thomas; Münchau, Alexander; Muschol, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of diseases with an almost 100% lifetime incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in MPSsubtypes I, II, and VI. We compared nerve ultrasound with clinical signs and electrophysiology in a clinical setting to screen for CTSin MPS. Twenty-four patients (13 male, 11 female, mean age of 7y 11mo [SD8y 5mo], range 6mo-29y) were screened for CTS. Eight of these patients were re-examined post-operatively. Clinical signs, distal motor latency, compound muscle action potential, sensory nerve action potential amplitude and velocity, as well as echogenicity and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the wrist and forearm determined with ultrasound were assessed and the wrist to forearm ratio (WFR) calculated. Eighteen healthy participants formed a comparison group, who were also investigated with nerve ultrasound. In 26% of the patients' hands, clinical signs of CTSwere present; 77% fulfilled electrophysiological and 92% nerve ultrasound criteria for CTS. Post-operatively, electrophysiology improved significantly, whereas ultrasound results were unchanged. In the comparison group, age and height correlated with the CSA, but not with WFR. Nerve ultrasound is a useful and painless primary screening tool for CTSin MPS. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Evidence-based guideline: neuromuscular ultrasound for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Michael S; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D; Boon, Andrea J; Alter, Katharine E; Hunt, Christopher H; Flores, Victor H; Werner, Robert A; Shook, Steven J; Thomas, T Darrell; Primack, Scott J; Walker, Francis O

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an evidence-based guideline for the use of neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Two questions were asked: (1) What is the accuracy of median nerve cross-sectional area enlargement as measured with ultrasound for the diagnosis of CTS? (2) What added value, if any, does neuromuscular ultrasound provide over electrodiagnostic studies alone for the diagnosis of CTS? A systematic review was performed, and studies were classified according to American Academy of Neurology criteria for rating articles of diagnostic accuracy (question 1) and for screening articles (question 2). Neuromuscular ultrasound measurement of median nerve cross-sectional area at the wrist is accurate and may be offered as a diagnostic test for CTS (Level A). Neuromuscular ultrasound probably adds value to electrodiagnostic studies when diagnosing CTS and should be considered in screening for structural abnormalities at the wrist in those with CTS (Level B). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Relationship between ultrasound measurements of the median nerve and electrophysiological severity in carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bueno-Gracia, Elena; Tricás-Moreno, José Miguel; Fanlo-Mazas, Pablo; Malo-Urriés, Miguel; Haddad-Garay, María; Estébanez-de-Miguel, Elena; Hidalgo-García, César; Ruiz-de-Escudero Zapico, Alazne

    2015-11-16

    Ultrasonography is a tool that has advanced a great deal in the diagnosis of neural compressive pathologies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In order to plan the treatment it is important to establish the severity of the pathology, which means that it would be important to know the capacity of ultrasonography to determine the extent to which the median nerve is compromised at this level. To investigate the correlation between ultrasound measurements and electrophysiological severity in patients with CTS. Ultrasound measurements were performed with 59 subjects (97 wrists) who were referred to have an electroneurogram (ENG) due to suspected CTS. According to the ENG, the subjects were classified as healthy, mild, moderate or severe CTS. The relationship between the ultrasound measurements and the results of the ENG were later analysed in terms of their severity. The ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves were calculated for the optimal cut-off values in each group, taking into account their severity. Both ultrasound measurements showed a correlation with the severity of the CTS determined by ENG. The cross-sectional area of the median nerve in the wrist (CSA-W) showed the highest correlation (r = 0.613). There is a relation between the ultrasound measurements of the median nerve, especially in the CSA-W, and the severity of CTS in the clinical context. These measurements could be used as complementary data to diagnose CTS and to determine its severity.

  9. Comparison of static wrist splint with static wrist and metacarpophalangeal splint in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Gul Tugba; Caglar, Nil Sayiner; Aytekin, Ebru; Ozgonenel, Levent; Tutun, Sule; Demir, Saliha Eroglu

    2015-01-01

    The position of metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints may be an important factor affecting the efficacy of splinting in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a neutral volar static wrist splint with a neutral volar static wrist and MCP splint in patients with CTS. Fifty-four hands were included into the study. A neutral volar static wrist splint was given to the symptomatic hands of the patients in group 1 while a neutral volar static wrist and MCP splint was given to the symptomatic hands of the patients in group 2. Evaluation parameters were Visual Analog Scale for pain severity (VASp), grip strength, pinch strength, electrophysiologic tests and CTS Questionnaire (CTSQ) at baseline and four weeks later. At baseline there was no difference between groups. The intergroup comparison of the improvement showed significant differences in VASp at rest, grip strength, pinch strength and CTSQ functional capacity scores between groups in favor of wrist MCP splint. Although there were significant improvements with regard to sensory amplitude and motor latency in both groups after therapy, the differences between groups were not at the level of significance. The position of MCP joints seems to be an important factor for the treatment of CTS and should be considered while prescribing a splint to the patients with CTS.

  10. A square-shaped wrist as a predictor of carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman

    2015-11-01

    This meta-analysis aims to assess an association between wrist ratio (wrist thickness/wrist width) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Sixteen studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Mean wrist ratio was higher in individuals with CTS compared with those without CTS [pooled mean difference 0.036, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.025-0.046]. Pooled odds ratio (OR) of CTS for mean wrist ratio was 4.56 (95% CI 2.97-6.99), and for wrist ratio ≥0.70 vs. <0.70 it was 2.73 (95% CI 1.49-5.01). In addition, the pooled OR for a 1-unit (0.01) increase in wrist ratio was 1.12 (CI 1.09-1.16). The association between wrist ratio and CTS did not differ between men and women. Moreover, there was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that a square-shaped wrist is a predictor for CTS in both men and women. Future studies should explore whether a square-shaped wrist can potentiate the adverse effects of obesity and occupational workloads on CTS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Role of Wrist Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Onen, Mehmet Resid; Kayalar, Ali Erhan; Ilbas, Elif Nurbegum; Gokcan, Recai; Gulec, Ilker; Naderi, Sait

    2015-01-01

    The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the commonest compressive neuropathy. Electromyography (EMG) is accepted as gold standard in diagnosis of CTS. However, pathologies and variations that are associated with a various findings may lead to failure. Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) was applied to 69 wrists of 55 patients, who received a diagnosis of CTS by means of clinical and electrodiagnostic testing (EDT) during the years 2011 and 2013. We detected a total of 71 additional pathologies in MRI analyses: 29 degenerative bone cysts, 28 ganglion cysts, 8 tenosynovitis, and 6 avascular necroses. While the MRI detected 44 (59.5%) additional radiological pathologies in 39 wrists diagnosed with mid-level CTS by means of EMG, the number of detected additional pathologies was 27 (36.5%) in 30 wrists diagnosed with advanced-level CTS. Wrist MRI is an effective means to reveal associated pathologies in patients diagnosed with CTS by means of clinical testing and EDT. Additional pathologies may not only change the applicable type of surgery, but also decrease the number of postoperative failures. Wrist MRI is recommended, especially for young cases with unilateral CTS history accompanied by dubious clinical symptoms and lacking any pronounced predisposing factors.

  12. [Etiological factors for developing carpal tunnel syndrome in people who work with computers].

    PubMed

    Lewańska, Magdalena; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most frequent mononeuropathy of upper extremities. From the early 1990's it has been suggested that intensive work with computers can result in CTS development, however, this relationship has not as yet been proved. The aim of the study was to evaluate occupational and non-occupational risk factors for developing CTS in the population of computer-users. The study group comprised 60 patients (58 women and 2 men; mean age: 53.8 +/- 6.35 years) working with computers and suspected of occupational CTS. A survey as well as both median and ulnar nerve conduction examination (NCS) were performed in all the subjects. The patients worked with use of computer for 6.43 +/- 1.71 h per day. The mean latency between the beginning of employment and the occurrence of first CTS symptoms was 12.09 +/- 5.94 years. All patients met the clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria of CTS. In the majority of patients etiological factors for developing CTS were non-occupational: obesity, hypothyroidism, oophorectomy, past hysterectomy, hormonal replacement therapy or oral contraceptives, recent menopause, diabetes, tendovaginitis. In 7 computer-users etiological factors were not identified. The results of our study show that CTS is usually generated by different causes not related with using computers at work.

  13. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome among employees at a poultry processing plant

    PubMed Central

    Musolin, Kristin; Ramsey, Jessica G.; Wassell, James T.; Hard, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among poultry processing employees while taking into account non-occupational factors and assess any association between CTS prevalence and exposure groups. Methods Performed a cross-sectional survey to assess CTS (n = 318). A CTS case was defined as an employee with self-reported CTS symptoms, an abnormal hand symptom diagram, and an abnormal nerve conduction study (NCS). Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Results Three hundred and one participants had sufficient symptom information or NCS data to be classified. 126 (42%) of 301 participants had evidence of CTS. In the adjusted analysis, the highest exposure group had CTS prevalence that was significantly higher than that for the lower exposure group [PR: 1.61; 95% CI = (1.20, 2.17)]. Conclusions Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations were provided to reduce exposure to these risk factors. PMID:24820549

  14. A novel Fuzzy Expert System for the identification of severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kunhimangalam, Reeda; Ovallath, Sujith; Joseph, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, a peripheral nerve disorder, at the earliest possible stage is very crucial because if left untreated it may cause permanent nerve damage reducing the chances of successful treatment. Here a novel Fuzzy Expert System designed using MATLAB is proposed for identification of severity of CTS. The data used were the nerve conduction study data obtained from Kannur Medical College, India. It consists of thirteen input fields, which include the clinical values of the diagnostic test and the clinical symptoms, and the output field gives the disease severity. The results obtained match with the expert's opinion with 98.4% accuracy and high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Since quantification of the intensity of CTS is a crucial step in the electrodiagnostic procedure and is important for defining prognosis and therapeutic measures, such an expert system can be of immense use in those regions where the service of such specialists may not be readily available. It may also prove useful in combination with other systems in providing diagnostic and predictive medical opinions and can add value if introduced into the routine clinical consultations to arrive at the most accurate medical diagnosis in a timely manner.

  15. A Novel Fuzzy Expert System for the Identification of Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kunhimangalam, Reeda; Ovallath, Sujith; Joseph, Paul K.

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, a peripheral nerve disorder, at the earliest possible stage is very crucial because if left untreated it may cause permanent nerve damage reducing the chances of successful treatment. Here a novel Fuzzy Expert System designed using MATLAB is proposed for identification of severity of CTS. The data used were the nerve conduction study data obtained from Kannur Medical College, India. It consists of thirteen input fields, which include the clinical values of the diagnostic test and the clinical symptoms, and the output field gives the disease severity. The results obtained match with the expert's opinion with 98.4% accuracy and high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Since quantification of the intensity of CTS is a crucial step in the electrodiagnostic procedure and is important for defining prognosis and therapeutic measures, such an expert system can be of immense use in those regions where the service of such specialists may not be readily available. It may also prove useful in combination with other systems in providing diagnostic and predictive medical opinions and can add value if introduced into the routine clinical consultations to arrive at the most accurate medical diagnosis in a timely manner. PMID:24083245

  16. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on adaptation of multi-digit forces to object texture

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Mostafa; Santello, Marco; Johnston, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The ability to adapt digit forces to object properties requires both anticipatory and feedback-driven control mechanisms which can be disrupted in individuals with a compromised sensorimotor system. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a median nerve compression neuropathy affecting sensory and motor function in a subset of digits in the hand. Our objective was to examine how CTS patients coordinate anticipatory and feedback-driven control for multi-digit grip force adaptation. Methods We asked CTS patients and healthy controls to grasp, lift, and hold an object with different textures. Results CTS patients effectively adapted their digit forces to changes in object texture, but produced excessive grip forces. CTS patients also produced larger peak force rate profiles with fewer modulations of normal force prior to lift onset than did controls and continued to increase grip force throughout the lift whereas forces were set at lift onset for the controls. Conclusions These findings suggest that CTS patients use less online sensory feedback for fine-tuning their grip forces, relying more on anticipatory control than do healthy controls. Significance These characteristics in force adaptation in CTS patients indicate impaired sensorimotor control which leads to excessive grip forces with the potential to further exacerbate their median nerve compression. PMID:22627019

  17. Impact of Work Organizational Factors on Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Stephen S; Kapellusch, Jay M; Merryweather, Andrew S; Thiese, Matthew S; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T; Silverstein, Barbara A; Marcum, Jennifer L; Tang, Ruoliang

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relationships between work organizational variables (job rotation, overtime work, having a second job, and work pacing) (These work organizational variables and their relationships with biomechanical and psychosocial exposures were studied previously and published in a separate paper.) and health outcome measures [carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), lateral and medial epicondylitis (LEPI/MEPI)]. Using a pooled baseline cohort of 1834 subjects, the relationships were studied using logistic regression models. Varied degrees of associations between the work organizational and outcomes variables were found. Job rotation was significantly associated with being a CTS case [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00 to 1.50]. Overtime work was significantly associated with lower LEPI prevalence (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.84). No statistically significant associations were found between having a second job and different work pacing and any of the three health outcome measures. Work organizational variables were only partially associated with the studied health outcomes.

  18. Pre-surgery disability compensation predicts long-term disability among workers with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spector, June T; Turner, Judith A; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Franklin, Gary

    2012-09-01

    We sought to identify early risk factors for work disability compensation prior to and after carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery, and to determine whether pre-surgery disability compensation is associated with long-term disability. Washington State workers' compensation administrative data and data from interviews with workers 18 days (median) after submitting new workers' compensation claims for CTS were examined. Baseline risk factors for pre-surgery disability compensation and for long-term disability (>365 days of work disability compensation prior to 2 years after claim filing) were evaluated for workers who underwent CTS surgery and had at least 1 day of disability compensation (N = 670). After adjustment for baseline long-term disability risk factors, workers with pre-surgery disability compensation had over five times the odds of long-term disability. Baseline factors in multiple domains, including job, psychosocial, clinical, and worker pain and function, were associated with both pre-surgery disability compensation and long-term disability. Risk factors for work disability prior to and after CTS surgery are similar, and early work disability is a risk factor for long-term CTS-related disability. An integrated approach to CTS-related disability prevention could include identifying and addressing combined risk factors soon after claim filing, more efficient use of conservative treatments and appropriate work modifications to minimize early work loss, and, when indicated, timely surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-term symptomatic, functional, and work outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Evanoff, Bradley; Gardner, Bethany T; Strickland, Jaime R; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Franzblau, Alfred; Dale, Ann Marie

    2016-05-01

    The long-term outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) including symptoms, functional status, work disability, and economic impact are unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 234 active construction workers with medical claims for CTS and 249 workers without CTS claims; non-cases were matched on age, trade, and insurance eligibility. We conducted telephone interviews with cases and non-cases and collected administrative data on work hours. Compared to non-cases, CTS cases were more likely to report recurrent hand symptoms, decreased work productivity/quality, decreased performance of physical work demands, and greater functional limitations. Surgical cases showed larger improvements on multiple outcomes than non-surgical cases. Minimal differences in paid work hours were seen between cases and non-cases in the years preceding and following CTS claims. Persistent symptoms and functional impairments were present several years after CTS diagnosis. Long-term functional limitations shown by this and other studies indicate the need for improved prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Self-reported physical work exposures and incident carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bethany T; Zeringue, Angelique; Strickland, Jaime; Descatha, Alexis; Franzblau, Alfred; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate associations between self-reported physical work exposures and incident carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Newly employed workers (n = 1,107) underwent repeated nerve conduction studies (NCS), and periodic surveys on hand symptoms and physical work exposures including average daily duration of wrist bending, forearm rotation, finger pinching, using vibrating tools, finger/thumb pressing, forceful gripping, and lifting >2 pounds. Multiple logistic regression models examined relationships between peak, most recent, and time-weighted average exposures and incident CTS, adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index. 710 subjects (64.1%) completed follow-up NCS; 31 incident cases of CTS occurred over 3-year follow-up. All models describing lifting or forceful gripping exposures predicted future CTS. Vibrating tool use was predictive in some models. Self-reported exposures showed consistent risks across different exposure models in this prospective study. Workers' self-reported job demands can provide useful information for targeting work interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Effects of litigation on utilization of health care and physician workload.

    PubMed

    Kasdan, M L; Vender, M I; Lewis, K; Stallings, S P; Melhorn, J M

    1996-07-01

    We performed a study consisting of two parts to investigate the impact of litigation on patient recovery and physician workload. We received 556 replies from a questionnaire sent to hand surgeons and discovered that 98.20% of them felt that litigation increased the subjective complaints of patients. Most of these physicians (89.75%) also felt that litigation led to a worse result from treatment. Second, we undertook a retrospective chart review of 447 patients to see if there was a correlation between litigation, patient utilization of health care and physician workload. We found that workers' compensation patients with pending litigation went to the doctor's office more. They also had more letters, phone calls, and forms associated with their care, had more nerve conduction studies performed, and took longer to be discharged from care than patients with non-work-related carpal tunnel syndrome as well as workers' compensation patients who did not have pending litigation. These results indicated that litigation does affect patient utilization of health care and increases the workload on the physician.

  2. Carpal tunnel syndrome and HIV infection. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Corcho, Andrés; Barrueta-Reyes, Dagnis; Bouza-Jiménez, Yadira; Jam-Morales, Blas C.; Bouza-Jiménez, Yanelka; Lopez-Puig, Yarima

    2009-01-01

    The first clinical case of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Cuban HIV-infected patient was described, and the scientific literature indexed in: PUBMED/MEDLINE, LILACS and BIREME were revised. The case presented was a male with HIV infection without preceding opportunistic illnesses, CD4+ T cell count over 200 cells/mm3 and clinical symptoms of pain, tingling and numbness in the right hand and wrist for three months. The electrophysiological study was compatible with CTS. The pharmacological treatment did not modify the symptoms and the patient received specific surgical treatment with absolute resolution of symptoms. CTS is a compressive neuropathy that can occur in HIV-positive individuals with as similar frequency as in the general population. The association between HIV infection and CTS is scarcely described in the medical scientific literature and probably does not represent a different phenomenon from what happens in the HIV-negative population. Nevertheless, its clinical recognition among other neurological and muscle-skeletal manifestations in HIV-infected patients is important. PMID:24470880

  3. Physical Examination Has a Low Yield in Screening for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Descatha, Alexis; Coomes, Justin; Franzblau, Alfred; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical examination is often used to screen workers for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In a population of newly-hired workers, we evaluated the yield of such screening. Methods Our study population included 1108 newly-hired workers in diverse industries. Baseline data included a symptom questionnaire, physical exam, and bilateral nerve conduction testing of the median and ulnar nerves; individual results were not shared with the employer. We tested three outcomes: symptoms of CTS, abnormal median nerve conduction, and a case definition of CTS that required both symptoms and median neuropathy. Results Of the exam measures used, only Semmes-Weinstein sensory testing had a sensitivity value above 31%. Positive predictive values were low, and likelihood ratios were all under 5.0 for positive testing and over 0.2 for negative testing. Conclusion Physical examination maneuvers have a low yield for the diagnosis of CTS in workplace surveillance programs and in post-offer, pre-placement screening programs. PMID:21154516

  4. Clinical and electrophysiological evaluation of neutral wrist nocturnal splinting in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chao; Dong, Hongjuan; Chu, Hong; Lu, Zuneng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To prospectively assess the effectiveness of neutral wrist nocturnal splinting in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by using clinical scores and nerve conduction studies (NCS). [Subjects and Methods] Forty-one patients enrolled in the study were clinically evaluated by a symptom severity scale (SSS) and functional status scale (FSS), and were electrophysiologically evaluated by conventional NCS; distal motor latency (DML), sensory conduction velocity (SCV), and difference in sensory latency between the median and ulnar nerves (ΔDSL) were measured. Subjects were treated with wrist splinting. Patients who showed no improvement in symptoms were treated with other conservative treatments, the remaining patients continued to wear splints. SSS, FSS, and NCS were evaluated after splinting as well. [Results] The follow-up was completed in 20 patients (31 wrists) with splinting. SSS and FSS decreased, the DML shortened and ΔDSL decreased significantly after splinting for 3.03 ± 1.16 months. There were significant correlations between SSS and DML, SCV of wrist digit 2, and SCV of wrist digit 4. No correlations were found between SSS and ΔDSL, and FSS and the parameters of NCS. [Conclusion] Neutral wrist nocturnal splinting is effective in at least short term for CTS patients. There is a weak correlation between clinical scores and NCS, which suggests that both approaches should be used to effectively assess the therapeutic effect of CTS treatment. PMID:27630413

  5. Palmitoylethanolamide, a neutraceutical, in nerve compression syndromes: efficacy and safety in sciatic pain and carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid modulator in animals and humans, and has been evaluated since the 1970s as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug in more than 30 clinical trials, in a total of ~6,000 patients. PEA is currently available worldwide as a nutraceutical in different formulations, with and without excipients. Here we describe the results of all clinical trials evaluating PEA’s efficacy and safety in nerve compression syndromes: sciatic pain and pain due to carpal tunnel syndrome, and review preclinical evidence in nerve impingement models. Both the pharmacological studies as well as the clinical trials supported PEA’s action as an analgesic compound. In total, eight clinical trials have been published in such entrapment syndromes, and 1,366 patients have been included in these trials. PEA proved to be effective and safe in nerve compression syndromes. In one pivotal, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 636 sciatic pain patients, the number needed to treat to reach 50% pain reduction compared to baseline was 1.5 after 3 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, no drug interactions or troublesome side effects have been described so far. Physicians are not always aware of PEA as a relevant and safe alternative to opioids and co-analgesics in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Especially since the often prescribed co-analgesic pregabaline has been proven to be ineffective in sciatic pain in a double blind enrichment trial, PEA should be considered as a new and safe treatment option for nerve compression syndromes. PMID:26604814

  6. Primary care management of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome referred to surgeons: are non‐operative interventions effectively utilised?

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Frank D; Bradley, Mary J; Sinha, Shiladitya; Wilgis, E F Shaw; Dubin, Norman H

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate the non‐operative primary care management (splintage, task modification advice, steroid injections and oral medications) of carpal tunnel syndrome before patients were referred to a hand surgeon for decompression. Design and setting Preoperative data were obtained on age, gender, body mass index, employment, symptom duration, and preoperative clinical stage for patients undergoing carpal tunnel decompression (263 in the USA, 227 in the UK). Results Primary care physicians made relatively poor use of beneficial treatment options with the exception of splintage in the US (73% of cases compared with 22.8% in the UK). Steroid injections were used in only 22.6% (US) and 9.8% (UK) of cases. Task modification advice was almost never given. Oral medication was employed in 18.8% of US cases and 8.9% of UK cases. Conclusions This study analyses the non‐operative modalities available and suggests that there is scope for more effective use of non‐operative treatment before referral for carpal tunnel decompression. PMID:17621622

  7. Do exposure limits for hand-transmitted vibration prevent carpal tunnel syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gillibrand, S; Ntani, G; Coggon, D

    2016-07-01

    An apparently high frequency of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among shipyard workers undergoing health surveillance because of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) prompted concerns that current regulatory limits on exposure might not protect adequately against the disorder. To explore whether within regulatory limits, higher exposures to HTV predispose to CTS. As part of a retrospective audit, we compared duration and current intensity of exposure to HTV in cases with new-onset CTS and controls matched for age. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify associations, which were summarized by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 23 cases and 55 controls. After adjustment for body mass index and previous diagnosis of diabetes, no clear associations were observed either with duration of exposure to HTV or with current intensity of exposure. Risk was non-significantly elevated in men with ≥30 years' exposure to HTV (OR 1.6), but in the highest category of current exposure [8-h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration (A8) ≥ 4.0 m/s(2)], risk was lower than that in the reference category (A8 < 2.5 m/s(2)). Moreover, there was a significantly reduced risk of CTS in men with a previous diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). We found no evidence that below the current limit for A(8) of 5 m/s(2), higher exposures to HTV predispose to CTS. However, care should be taken not to overlook the possibility of treatable CTS when workers with diagnosed HAVS present with new or worsening sensory symptoms in the hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Altered median nerve deformation and transverse displacement during wrist movement in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexiang; Filius, Anika; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M; Thoreson, Andrew R; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome. Strong pinch or grip with wrist flexion has been considered a risk factor for CTS. Studying median nerve displacement during wrist movements may provide useful information about median nerve kinematic changes in patients with CTS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformability and mobility of the median nerve in patients with CTS compared to healthy subjects. Dynamic ultrasound images were obtained in 20 affected wrists of 13 patients with CTS. Results were compared to complementary data obtained from both wrists of 10 healthy subjects reported in a previous study. Shape and position of initial and final median nerve were measured and analyzed for six defined wrist movements. The deformation ratios for each movement were defined as the median nerve area, perimeter, and circularity of the final position normalized by respective values assessed in the initial position. The median nerve displacement vector and magnitude were also calculated. The deformation ratio for circularity was significantly less in patients with CTS compared to healthy subjects during wrist flexion (P < .05). The mean vector of median nerve displacement during wrist flexion was significantly different between patients with CTS and healthy subjects (P < .05). The displacement magnitude of the median nerve was found to be less in patients with CTS compared to healthy subjects during most movements, with the exception of wrist extension with fingers extended. Patients with CTS differ from normal subjects with regard to mobility and deformability of the median nerve. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Altered Median Nerve Deformation and Transverse Displacement during Wrist Movement in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiang; Filius, Anika; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome. Strong pinch or grip with wrist flexion has been considered a risk factor for CTS. Studying median nerve displacement during wrist movements may provide useful information about median nerve kinematic changes in CTS patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deformability and mobility of the median nerve in CTS patients compared to healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Dynamic ultrasound images were obtained in 20 affected wrists of 13 patients with CTS. Results were compared to complementary data obtained from both wrists of 10 healthy subjects reported in a previous study. Initial and final median nerve shape and position were measured and analyzed for six defined wrist movements. The deformation ratios for each movement were defined as the median nerve area, perimeter and circularity of the final position normalized by respective values assessed in the initial position. The median nerve displacement vector and magnitude were also calculated. Results: The deformation ratio for circularity was significant less in CTS patients compared to healthy subjects during wrist flexion (P<0.05). The mean vector of median nerve displacement during wrist flexion was significantly different between CTS patients and healthy subjects (P<0.05). The displacement magnitude of the median nerve was found to be less in CTS patients compared to healthy subjects during most movements, with the exception of wrist extension with fingers extended. Conclusions: CTS Patients differ from normal subjects with regard to mobility and deformability of the median nerve. PMID:24594417

  10. Physical work load factors and carpal tunnel syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shiri, R; Miranda, H; Heliövaara, M; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2009-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome. Studies on selected occupational populations suggest an association of CTS with forceful repetitive work and vibration. Only few population-based studies have addressed the role of physical load factors in CTS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between exposures to a single or a combination of physical work load factors and CTS. The target population consisted of people aged 30 years or older residing in Finland during 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4%) were included in the study. Occupational physical load factors were assessed by interview and CTS by physical examination. The prevalence of possible or probable CTS was 2.1% in men and 5.3% in women. Work tasks with vibrating tools (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9) and handgrip with high forces (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.5) were related to an increased prevalence of CTS. There were joint effects between work tasks requiring handgrip with high forces and the use of vibrating tools (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.0 to 5.4), between forceful activities (handgrip with high forces or handling of loads) and repetitive movements of the hands (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.9), and between repetitive movements of the hands and the use of vibrating tools (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.8). Only exposure in the most recent job was associated with CTS. Work tasks demanding handgrip with high forces or the use of vibrating tools are associated with CTS. The association is stronger if these work tasks are accompanied by repetitive movements of the hand or wrist.

  11. [Epidemiology of occupationally-caused carpal tunnel syndrome in the province of Alicante, Spain 1996-2004].

    PubMed

    Roel-Valdés, José; Arizo-Luque, Vanessa; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the major health problems of workers who perform tasks entailing intense manual stress and repetitive movements of the upper limbs. The implementation of regulations and social changes, as well as the incorporation of women into the working world bring to bear the need of ascertaining whether any changes have taken place in the pattern of occurrence of this syndrome and in the factors conditioning the same. The objectives of this study are to know the frequency with which this syndrome occurs in the province of Alicante, to discover the work-related characteristics of those individuals affected thereby, to analyze the procedure followed for treatment and rehabilitation and to delve into the situation of those affected upon their return to work. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population studies was comprised of all those workers for whom an occupational disease report was remitted to the Safety and Health Commission within the 1996-2004 period. A total of 266 reports of occupational disease due to carpal tunnel syndrome were filed. The incidence rate was 4.2 cases per 100,000 workers. A total of 62.8% of the cases were females, 25% of whom were under 30 years of age. The average length of employment at the company was 132.3 months. The risk factors most often mentioned are performing repetitive movements and activities requiring manual strength.

  12. Analysis of factors affecting development of carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with Hurler syndrome after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khanna, G; Van Heest, A E; Agel, J; Bjoraker, K; Grewal, S; Abel, S; Krivit, W; Peters, C; Orchard, P J

    2007-03-01

    Children with Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPSIH)) have skeletal, joint and soft tissue abnormalities that may persist or progress after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report our single center experience with development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in 43 children with MPSIH after HSCT. Twenty-three children (59%) developed CTS following HSCT; 19 of the 39 children with enzyme activity in the normal or heterozygous range developed CTS (49%), whereas all four children with low heterozygous or absent enzyme activity developed CTS after HSCT. Fourteen of 19 related donor marrow recipients, eight of 19 of those receiving an unrelated donor graft and one of five unrelated cord blood recipients developed CTS. The mean age at surgical release was 4.8 years. With each year increase in age at HSCT, there was a 55% increased risk. Age and enzyme activity after HSCT were significant factors in the development of CTS. Transplantation by 2 years of age reduced the risk of developing CTS by 46%; higher enzyme activity led to a 78% reduction in the risk of developing CTS. However, children transplanted for MPSIH remain at risk for the development of CTS, and should be monitored on an ongoing basis by nerve conduction velocity testing.

  13. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matĕjovic, M; Novák, I; Srámek, V; Rokyta, R; Hora, P; Nalos, M

    1999-04-26

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the general term used for severe acute respiratory failure of diverse aetiology. It is associated with a high morbidity, mortality (50-70%), and financial costs. Regardless of aetiology, the basic pathogenesis of ARDS is a systemic inflammatory response leading to a diffuse inflammatory process that involves both lungs, thus causing diffuse alveolar and endothelial damage with increased pulmonary capillary permeability and excessive extravascular lung water accumulation. ARDS is commonly associated with sepsis and multiple organ failure. The clinical picture involves progressive hypoxaemia, radiographic evidence of pulmonary oedema, decreased lung compliance and pulmonary hypertension. Despite the scientific and technological progress in critical care medicine, there is no specific ARDS therapy available at the moment and its management remains supportive. Therapeutic goals include resolution of underlying conditions, maintenance of acceptable gas exchange and tissue oxygenation and prevention of iatrogenic lung injury. Many new specific therapeutic strategies have been developed, however, most of them require further scientific evaluation. The paper reviews definition, basic pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ARDS and discusses current concepts of therapeutic possibilities of ARDS.

  14. Relationship Between Intraneural Vascular Flow Measured With Sonography and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Diagnosis Based on Electrodiagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kevin D.; Roll, Shawn C.; Volz, Kevin R.; Freimer, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to document and analyze intraneural vascular flow within the median nerve using power and spectral Doppler sonography and to determine the relationship of this vascular flow with diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome based on electrodiagnostic testing. Methods Power and spectral Doppler sonograms in the median nerve were prospectively collected in 47 symptomatic and 44 asymptomatic subjects. Doppler studies were conducted with a 12-MHz linear transducer. Strict inclusion criteria were established for postexamination assessment of waveforms; routine quality assurance was completed; electrodiagnostic tests were conducted on the same day as sonographic measurements; and the skin temperature was controlled. Included waveforms were categorized by location and averaged by individual for comparative analysis to electrodiagnostic testing. Results A total of 416 waveforms were collected, and 245 were retained for statistical analysis based on strict inclusion criteria. The mean spectral peak velocity among all waveforms was 4.42 (SD, 2.15) cm/s. At the level of the pisiform, the most consistent data point, mean peak systole, was 3.75 cm/s in symptomatic patients versus 4.26 cm/s in asymptomatic controls. Statistical trending showed an initial increase in the mean spectral peak velocity in symptomatic but diagnostically negative cases, with decreasing velocity as diagnostic categories progressed from mild to severe. Conclusions An inverse relationship may exist between intraneural vascular flow in the median nerve and an increasing severity of carpal tunnel syndrome based on nerve conduction results. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether spectral Doppler sonography can provide an additive benefit for diagnosing the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:22535720

  15. Pressure-Morphology Relationship of a Released Carpal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hee; Marquardt, Tamara L.; Gabra, Joseph N.; Shen, Zhilei Liu; Evans, Peter J.; Seitz, William H.; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate morphological changes of a released carpal tunnel in response to variations of carpal tunnel pressure. Pressure within the carpal tunnel is known to be elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and dependent on wrist posture. Previously, increased carpal tunnel pressure was shown to affect the morphology of the carpal tunnel with an intact transverse carpal ligament. However, the pressure-morphology relationship of the carpal tunnel after release of the transverse carpal ligament has not been investigated. Carpal tunnel release (CTR) was performed endoscopically on cadaveric hands and the carpal tunnel pressure was dynamically increased from 10 to 120 mmHg. Simultaneously, carpal tunnel cross-sectional images were captured by an ultrasound system and pressure measurements were recorded by a pressure transducer. It was found that carpal tunnel pressure significantly affected carpal arch area (p<0.001), with an increase >62 mm2 at 120 mmHg. Carpal arch height, length, and width were also found to significantly change with carpal tunnel pressure (p<0.05). As carpal tunnel pressure increased, carpal arch height and length increased, but the carpal arch width decreased. Analyses of the pressure-morphology relationship for a released carpal tunnel revealed a nine times greater compliance than that previously reported for a carpal tunnel with an intact transverse carpal ligament. This change of structural properties as a result of transecting the transverse carpal ligament helps explain the reduction of carpal tunnel pressure and relief of symptoms for patients after CTR surgery. PMID:23184493

  16. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: design of a randomized single-blinded controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common neuropathy in the upper extremity, resulting from the compression of the median nerve at wrist level. Clinical studies are essentials to present evidence on therapeutic resources use at early restoration on peripheral nerve functionality. Low-level laser therapy has been widely investigated in researches related to nerve regeneration. Therefore, it is suggested that the effect of low-level laser therapy associated with other conservative rehabilitation techniques may positively affect symptoms and overall hand function in compressive neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in addition to orthoses therapy and home orientations in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods/Design Patients older than 18 years old will be included, with clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, excluding comorbidies. A physiotherapist will conduct intervention, with a blinding evaluator. Randomization will be applied to allocate the patients in each group: with association or not to low-level laser therapy. All of them will be submitted to orthoses therapy and home orientations. Outcome will be assessed through: pain visual analogic scale, Semmes Weinstein monofilaments™ threshold sensibility test, Pinch Gauge™, Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and two point discrimination test. Discussion This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial, which aim to assess the effectiveness of conservative treatment added to low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Trial registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - 75ddtf / Universal Trial Number: U1111-1121-5184 PMID:23237204

  17. Transfer of the flexor carpi radialis to the abductor pollicis brevis tendon for the restoration of tip-pinch in severe carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Danoff, J R; Birman, M V; Rosenwasser, M P

    2014-02-01

    In patients with severe thenar atrophy secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome, we hypothesize that following open carpal tunnel release, concomitant transfer of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) origin to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon will lead to improved patient function restoring palmar abduction and thumb opposition. We evaluated 14 patients through questionnaires and seven patients through additional physical examination (thumb range of motion, ability to tip pinch, grip/pinch strength) for a mean follow-up of 2.8 years. All patients showed evidence of palmar abduction with 71% demonstrating the ability to oppose the thumb to the tip and base of the small finger. The transfer of the APB origin to the FCR tendon can restore thumb abduction and opposition for thenar paralysis secondary to severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients experience good functional outcomes with the majority experiencing restored thumb opposition.

  18. The development of risk assessment models for carpal tunnel syndrome: a case-referent study.

    PubMed

    You, Heecheon; Simmons, Zachary; Freivalds, Andris; Kothari, Milind; Naidu, Sanjiv; Young, Ronda

    2004-05-15

    The present study developed risk assessment models for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) which can provide information of the likelihood of developing CTS for an individual having certain personal characteristics and occupational risks. A case-referent study was conducted consisting of two case groups and one referent group: (1) 22 work-related CTS patients (W-CTS), (2) 25 non-work related CTS patients (NW-CTS), and (3) 50 healthy workers (HEALTHY) having had no CTS history. The classification of CTS patients into one of the case groups was determined according to the type of insurance covering their medical costs. Personal characteristics, psychosocial stresses at work, and physical work conditions were surveyed by using a questionnaire tailor-designed to CTS (reliability of each scale > or = 0.7). By contrasting the risk information of each case group to that of the referent group, three logistic regression models were developed: W-CTS/HEALTHY, NW-CTS/HEALTHY, and C-CTS/HEALTHY (C-CTS, the combined group of W-CTS and NW-CTS). ROC analysis indicated that the models have satisfactory discriminability (d' = 1.91 to 2.51) and high classification accuracy (overall accuracy = 83-89%). Both W-CTS/HEALTHY and C-CTS/HEALTHY include personal and physical factors, while NW-CTS/HEALTHY involves only personal factors. This suggests that the injury causation of NW-CTS patients should be attributable mainly to their 'high' personal susceptibility to the disorder rather than exposure to adverse work conditions, while that of W-CTS patients be attributable to improper work conditions and CTS-prone personal characteristics in combination.

  19. Work increases the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population.

    PubMed

    Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Pelier-Cady, Marie-Christine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Raimbeau, Guy; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a general population according to employment status and to assess the proportion of cases attributable to work. CTS occurring in patients aged 20-59 years living in the French Maine and Loire region were included prospectively from 2002 to 2004. Medical and occupation history was gathered by mailed questionnaire. Incidence rates of CTS and relative risks (RRs) of CTS were computed in relation to employment status. The attributable fractions of risk of CTS to work among the exposed persons (AFEs) were calculated. A total of 1168 patients (819 women, 349 men) were included during the 3-year period. The mean incidence rate of CTS per 1000 person-years was higher in employed than unemployed persons (1.7 vs. 0.8 in women and 0.6 vs. 0.3 in men). The excess risk of CTS was statistically significant for male (RR 4.2) and female (RR 3.0) blue-collar workers and female lower-grade white-collar workers (RR 2.5). The AFE to work in general was 47% (95% confidence interval: 39-54) in women. AFEs reached higher values in female blue-collar workers [67% (65-68)] and lower-grade services, sales, and clerical white-collar workers [61% (57-64)]. The AFE in male blue-collar workers was 76% (72-80). These data show a higher incidence of CTS in the working than the non-working population and suggest that a substantial proportion of CTS cases diagnosed in lower-grade white-collar and blue-collar workers are attributable to work.

  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome and computer exposure at work in two large complementary cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mediouni, Z; Bodin, J; Dale, A M; Herquelot, E; Carton, M; Leclerc, A; Fouquet, N; Dumontier, C; Roquelaure, Y; Evanoff, B A; Descatha, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The boom in computer use and concurrent high rates in musculoskeletal complaints and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among users have led to a controversy about a possible link. Most studies have used cross-sectional designs and shown no association. The present study used longitudinal data from two large complementary cohorts to evaluate a possible relationship between CTS and the performance of computer work. Settings and participants The Cosali cohort is a representative sample of a French working population that evaluated CTS using standardised clinical examinations and assessed self-reported computer use. The PrediCTS cohort study enrolled newly hired clerical, service and construction workers in several industries in the USA, evaluated CTS using symptoms and nerve conduction studies (NCS), and estimated exposures to computer work using a job exposure matrix. Primary and secondary outcome measures During a follow-up of 3–5 years, the association between new cases of CTS and computer work was calculated using logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age, obesity and relevant associated disorders. Results In the Cosali study, 1551 workers (41.8%) completed follow-up physical examinations; 36 (2.3%) participants were diagnosed with CTS. In the PrediCTS study, 711 workers (64.2%) completed follow-up evaluations, whereas 31 (4.3%) had new cases of CTS. The adjusted OR for the group with the highest exposure to computer use was 0.39 (0.17; 0.89) in the Cosali cohort and 0.16 (0.05; 0.59) in the PrediCTS cohort. Conclusions Data from two large cohorts in two different countries showed no association between computer work and new cases of CTS among workers in diverse jobs with varying job exposures. CTS is far more common among workers in non-computer related jobs; prevention efforts and work-related compensation programmes should focus on workers performing forceful hand exertion. PMID:26353869

  1. Electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome regarding the presence of subjective and physical findings.

    PubMed

    Radovic, Diana; Lazovic, Milica; Nikolic, Dejan; Radosavljevic, Natasa; Hrkovic, Marija

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of median nerve conduction velocities by electrodiagnostic procedure in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with and without present subjective and physical findings. We have evaluated 116 patients that were diagnosis with CTS. Subjective findings: weakness, numbness and night pain were analyzed. Further physical findings were evaluated: Tinels sign, muscles hypotrophy and weakness according to muscle manual test (MMT). Duration of complaints was evaluated as well. Electroneurographic findings included: estimation of median nerve motor terminal latency (mMTL), sensory velocity (mSV) and motor velocity (mMV). Significantly longer complaints were present in patients who experienced night pain (p=0.015) and those with muscles weakness on MMT (p=0.016). Statistically significant increase for mMTL values was noticed for patients with Tinels sign (p=0.045), present muscles hypotrophy (p=0.001) and weakness on MMT (p=0.001). There is significant decrease for mMV in group with present Tinels sign (p=0.048), muscle hypotrophy (p=0.003) and weakness on MMT (p=0.002), and for mSV in group with present muscle hypotrophy (p=0.008) and group with weakness on MMT (p=0.019). Multivariate logistic regressional analysis shown that only for hypotrophy, mMTL variable presents significant independent contributor (p=0.009). For the diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning along with elecroneurography it is necessary to evaluate patients with CTS clinically, since different clinical manifestations are correlating in different degree with electroneurographic findings.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase genes on chromosome 11q22 and risk of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burger, Marilize C; De Wet, Hanli; Collins, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Involvement of tendons and/or connective tissue structures in the aetiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been proposed. DNA sequence variants within genes encoding structural components of the collagen fibril, the basic structural unit of connective tissue, have been shown to associate with modulating CTS risk. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in connective tissue remodelling. Variants within the MMP10, MMP1, MMP3 and MMP12 gene cluster on chromosome 11q22 have been associated with connective tissue injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variants within these MMP genes are associated with CTS. Ninety-seven, self-reported Coloured participants with a history of CTS release surgery and 131 appropriately matched controls were genotyped for MMP10 rs486055 (C/T), MMP1 rs1799750 (G/GG), MMP3 rs679620 (A/G) or MMP12 rs2276109 (A/G) variants. A Pearson's Chi-squared test or a Fisher's exact test was used to determine any significant differences between the genotype distributions or any other categorical data of the groups. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to detect any significant differences between CTS and control groups for continuous data. There were no independent associations between any of the investigated MMP variants and CTS. There were also no significant differences in the relative distributions of the constructed MMP inferred haplotypes between CTS and CON groups. The MMP variants previously associated with other connective tissue injuries were not associated with CTS in this population. These findings do not exclude the possibility that other variants within this locus or other MMP genes are associated with CTS.

  3. Effect of hand volume and other anthropometric measurements on carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Yıldız; Bülbül, İsmail; Öcek, Levent; Şener, Ufuk; Zorlu, Yaşar

    2017-04-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), majority of cases are considered to be idiopathic, is the most commonly encountered peripheral neuropathy causing disability. We asserted that thick and big hands may more prone to idiopathic CTS (ICTS) than others. The study included 165 subjects admitted to our electrophysiology lab with pre-diagnosis of CTS between May 2014 and April 2015. Eighty-five of the subjects were diagnosed as ICTS. The parameters analyzed were: age, gender, occupation, BMI, hand dominance, grade of ICTS, wrist circumference, proximal/distal width of palm, hand/palm length, hand volume and palm length/proximal palm width. Female gender was significantly higher in both groups. The mean age of study group was 44.02 ± 9.11 years, and control group was 41.25 ± 9.94 years. BMI, wrist circumference and hand volume were significantly higher in the study group (p < 0.05). However, palm length/prox.palm width ratio was higher in the control group (p = 0.00). There were also significant differences among CTS groups in terms of age (p = 0.001). Mean age was higher in severe CTS group. Female gender, older age and high BMI are risk factors for ICTS. Higher hand volume, wrist circumference and lower palm length/prox. palm width ratio can also be anthropometric risk factors. Large hand volumes, big and coarse hands are more prone to ICTS.

  4. Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Diagnostic Accuracy of Hand and Body Anthropometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Mauro; Farioli, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano; Aretini, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Federica; Greco, Giuseppe; Curti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic properties of hand/wrist and body measures according to validated clinical and electrophysiological carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) severity scales. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study. For each case, two controls were enrolled. Two five-stage clinical and electrophysiological scales were used to evaluate CTS severity. Anthropometric measurements were collected and obesity indicators and hand/wrist ratios were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated separately by gender. Results We consecutively enrolled 370 cases and 747 controls. The wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio showed the highest proportion of cases with abnormal values in the severe stages of CTS for clinical and electrophysiological severity scales in both genders. Accuracy tended to increase with CTS severity for females and males. In severe stage, most of the indexes presented moderate accuracy in both genders. Among subjects with severe CTS, the wrist-palm ratio presented the highest AUC for hand measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.83 and 0.76, respectively) and males (AUC 0.91 and 0.82, respectively). Among subjects with severe CTS, the waist-stature ratio showed the highest AUC for body measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.78 and 0.77, respectively) and males (AUC 0.84 and 0.76, respectively). The results of waist-hip-height ratio AUC were similar. Conclusions Wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio could contribute to support the diagnostic hypothesis of severe CTS that however has to be confirmed by nerve conduction study. PMID:27768728

  5. A prospective study of carpal tunnel syndrome: workplace and individual risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Susan; Deddens, James A; Crombie, Ken; Jin, Yan; Wurzelbacher, Steve; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) from workplace physical factors, particularly hand activity level and forceful exertion, while taking into account individual factors including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and pre-existing medical conditions. Methods Three healthcare and manufacturing workplaces were selected for inclusion on the basis of range of exposure to hand activity level and forceful exertion represented by their jobs. Each study participants job tasks were observed and evaluated ’ onsite and videotaped for further analysis, including frequency and duration of exertion and postural deviation. Individual health assessment entailed electrodiagnostic testing of median and ulnar nerves, physical examination and questionnaires at baseline with annual follow-up for 2 years. Results The incidence of dominant hand CTS during the study was 5.11 per 100 person-years (29 cases). Adjusted HRs for dominant hand CTS were as follows: working with forceful exertion ≥20% but <60% of the time: 2.83 (1.18, 6.79) and ≥60% of the time vs <20%: 19.57 (5.96, 64.24), BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obesity): 3.19 (1.28, 7.98). The American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for hand activity level also predicted CTS, HR=1.40 (1.11, 1.78) for each unit increase in the TLV ratio, controlling for obesity and job strain. Conclusions Workplace and individual risk factors both contribute to the risk for CTS. Time spent in forceful exertion can be a greater risk for CTS than obesity if the job exposure is high. Preventive workplace efforts should target forceful exertions. PMID:23788614

  6. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome among Laboratory Technicians in Relation to Personal and Ergonomic Factors at Work.

    PubMed

    El-Helaly, Mohamed; Balkhy, Hanan H; Vallenius, Laura

    2017-08-31

    Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been reported in different occupations, including laboratory technicians, so this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the associated personal and ergonomic factors for CTS among laboratory technicians.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 279 laboratory technicians at King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia, who filled in a self-administered questionnaire, including questions regarding their demographic criteria, occupational history, job tasks, workplace tools, ergonomic factors at work, and symptoms suggestive of CTS. Physical examinations and electrodiagnostic studies were carried out for those who had symptoms suggestive of CTS to confirm the diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for both personal and physical factors in association with confirmed CTS among laboratory technicians. The prevalence of CTS among the laboratory technicians was 9.7% (27/279). The following were the statistically significant risk factors for CTS among them: gender (all cases of CTS were female, P = 0.00), arm/hand exertion (OR:7.96; 95% CI: 1.84-34.33), pipetting (OR:7.27; 95% CI: 3.15-16.78), repetitive tasks (OR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.39-15.70), using unadjustable chairs or desks (OR:3.35; 95% CI: 1.23-9.15), and working with a biosafety cabinet (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.11-5.59). CTS cases had significant longer work duration (17.9 ± 5.6 years) than CTS non-case (11.5 ± 7.4 yeas) with low OR (1.108). This study demonstrates some personal and ergonomic factors associated with CTS among the laboratory technicians, including female gender, arm/hand exertion, pipetting, repetitive tasks, working with a biosafety cabinet, and an unadjusted workstation.

  7. Combination of high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi-Esfe, Ahmad Reza; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Mazloumi, Mehdi; Vaziri-Bozorg, Seyed Mehran; Niri, Sanaz Ghaderi; Kahnouji, Hossein; Rahmani, Maryam

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound has recently emerged as a diagnostic tool in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). To evaluate the utility of a combination of high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasound as an alternative to electrodiagnostic tests (EDT), in CTS diagnosis, and to define an ultrasonographic prediction model for CTS. A total of 85 patients with certain clinical diagnosis of CTS and 49 healthy controls were enrolled. High-resolution and color Doppler ultrasound were performed and the cross-sectional area (CSA), hypoechogenicity, and hypervascularity of the median nerve were evaluated. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cut-off point of median nerve CSA in diagnosis of CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to formulate a prediction model for CTS. The optimal cut-off point of median CSA in wrist was 10.5 mm(2). Hypervascularity (OR = 37.95), hypoechogenicity (OR = 12.30), and high CSA (OR = 34.79) of median nerve were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in CTS patients than in controls. No significant difference was found between the sensitivity and specificity of EDT and any of the above indices in prediction of CTS. An ultrasonographic model for prediction of CTS, comprised hypervascularity and/or high CSA of median nerve, could predict the CTS probability between 87-99%. The sensitivity and specificity of this model (86% and 84%) was not different from EDT (80% and 84%). A combination of high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasound can be used as a non-invasive alternative to EDT in diagnosis of CTS.

  8. Ultrasound elastographic evaluation of the median nerve in hemodialysis with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hua; Hu, Hai-Yang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xia; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the elasticity of the median nerve (MN) between hemodialysis (HD) patients without carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and with CTS, and to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of the elasticity of the MN in HD-CTS. The MN in 22 HD patients without CTS and 49 HD-CTS patients was studied. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and the elasticity of the MN, which was measured as the subcutaneous fat/median nerve (SF/MN) strain ratio, were evaluated. The mean SF/MN strain ratio in the groups that had received hemodialysis for 0-5, >5-10, and >10-15 years was 1.4 ± 0.28, 1.7 ± 0.18, and 2.0 ± 0.67, respectively. The mean CSA of the MN in the three groups was 9.9 ± 1.30, 11.6 ± 1.61, and 13.4 ± 2.14 mm(2), respectively. The presence of CTS was predicted by means of SF/MN strain ratio and CSA cutoff values of 1.8 and 11 mm(2), respectively. Both the SF/MN strain ratio and the CSA in the patients with CTS were higher than those in the patients without CTS (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of the SF/MN strain ratio and CSA of the MN were 75 and 92 % and 79.2 and 84 %, respectively. Sonoelastography helps to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonographic assessment of CTS.

  9. An Association between Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Migraine Headaches—National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Law, Huay-Zong; Amirlak, Bardia; Cheng, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine headaches have not historically been considered a compression neuropathy. Recent studies suggest that some migraines are successfully treated by targeted peripheral nerve decompression. Other compression neuropathies have previously been associated with one another. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether an association exists between migraines and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most common compression neuropathy. Methods: Data from 25,880 respondents of the cross-sectional 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to calculate nationally representative prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of CTS and migraine headaches. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CI for the degree of association between migraines and CTS after controlling for known demographic and health-related factors. Results: CTS was associated with older age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, and smoking. CTS was less common in Hispanics and Asians. Migraine was associated with younger age, female gender, obesity, diabetes, and current smoking. Migraine was less common in Asians. Migraine prevalence was 34% in those with CTS compared with 16% in those without CTS (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.16–3.13). CTS prevalence in patients with migraine headache was 8% compared with 3% in those without migraine headache (aOR, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.22–3.22). Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate an association between CTS and migraine headache. Longitudinal and genetic studies with physician verification of migraine headaches and CTS are needed to further define this association. PMID:25878944

  10. Biomechanical risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled study of 2474 workers

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Eisen, Ellen A; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew S; Dale, Ann Marie; Evanoff, Bradley; Burt, Susan; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Merlino, Linda; Gerr, Fred; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Between 2001 and 2010, five research groups conducted coordinated prospective studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence among US workers from various industries and collected detailed subject-level exposure information with follow-up of symptoms, electrophysiological measures and job changes. Objective This analysis examined the associations between workplace biomechanical factors and incidence of dominant-hand CTS, adjusting for personal risk factors. Methods 2474 participants, without CTS or possible polyneuropathy at enrolment, were followed up to 6.5 years (5102 person-years). Individual workplace exposure measures of the dominant hand were collected for each task and included force, repetition, duty cycle and posture. Task exposures were combined across the workweek using time-weighted averaging to estimate job-level exposures. CTS case-criteria were based on symptoms and results of electrophysiological testing. HRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results After adjustment for covariates, analyst (HR=2.17; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.43) and worker (HR=2.08; 95% CI 1.31 to 3.39) estimated peak hand force, forceful repetition rate (HR=1.84; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.86) and per cent time spent (eg, duty cycle) in forceful hand exertions (HR=2.05; 95% CI 1.34 to 3.15) were associated with increased risk of incident CTS. Associations were not observed between total hand repetition rate, per cent duration of all hand exertions, or wrist posture and incident CTS. Conclusions In this prospective multicentre study of production and service workers, measures of exposure to forceful hand exertion were associated with incident CTS after controlling for important covariates. These findings may influence the design of workplace safety programmes for preventing work-related CTS. PMID:25324489

  11. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on Dexterous Manipulation Are Grip Type-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A.; Ross, Mark A.; Sanniec, Kyle; Gleason, Elizabeth A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Santello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) impairs sensation of a subset of digits. Although the effects of CTS on manipulation performed with CTS-affected digits have been studied using precision grip tasks, the extent to which CTS affects multi-digit force coordination has only recently been studied. Whole-hand manipulation studies have shown that CTS patients retain the ability to modulate multi-digit forces to object mass, mass distribution, and texture. However, CTS results in sensorimotor deficits relative to healthy controls, including significantly larger grip force and lower ability to balance the torques generated by the digits. Here we investigated the effects of CTS on multi-digit force modulation to object weight when manipulating an object with a variable number of fingers. We hypothesized that CTS patients would be able to modulate digit forces to object weight. However, as different grip types involve the exclusive use of CTS-affected digits (‘uniform’ grips) or a combination of CTS-affected and non-affected digits (‘mixed’ grips), we addressed the question of whether ‘mixed’ grips would reduce or worsen CTS-induced force coordination deficits. The former scenario would be due to adding digits with intact tactile feedback, whereas the latter scenario might occur due to a potentially greater challenge for the central nervous system of integrating ‘noisy’ and intact tactile feedback. CTS patients learned multi-digit force modulation to object weight regardless of grip type. Although controls exerted the same total grip force across all grip types, patients exerted significantly larger grip force than controls but only for manipulations with four and five digits. Importantly, this effect was due to CTS patients’ inability to change the finger force distribution when adding the ring and little fingers. These findings suggest that CTS primarily challenges sensorimotor integration processes for dexterous manipulation underlying the coordination of CTS

  12. The construct validity and responsiveness of sensory tests in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Derek K M; MacDermid, JoyC; Walton, Dave; Grewal, Ruby

    2014-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is fundamental to evaluation of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and responsiveness for sensory threshold tests in patients with CTS. Sixty-three patients diagnosed with CTS were evaluated prior to orthotic intervention and again at follow up at 6 and 12 weeks. Sensory tests included touch threshold PSSD (Pressure Specified Sensory Device) and vibration threshold (Vibrometer). Construct validity was assessed by comparing sensory tests to hand function, and dexterity testing using Spearman rho (rs). Patients were classified as either responders or non-responders to orthotic intervention based on the change score of the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) of 0.5. Responsiveness of the sensory tools was measured using ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves, SRM (Standardized Response Mean), and ES (Effect Sizes). The PSSD had low to moderate correlations (rs ≤ 0.32) while Vibrometer scores had moderate correlations (rs = 0.36 - 0.41) with dexterity scores. The Clinically Important Difference (CID) for the PSSD was estimated at 0.15 g/mm(2) but was not discriminative. The Vibrometer demonstrated moderate responsiveness, with a SRM = 0.61 and an ES = 0.46 among responders. The PSSD had a SRM = 0.09 and an ES = 0.08 and showed low responsiveness for patients with a clinically important improvement in symptoms. Measurement properties suggest that the Vibrometer was preferable to the PSSD because it was more correlated to hand function, and was more responsive. Clinicians may choose use the Vibrometer opposed to the PSSD for determining important change in sensation after orthotic intervention.

  13. Symptoms, signs and nerve conduction velocities in patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To inform the clinical management of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and case definition for CTS in epidemiological research, we explored the relation of symptoms and signs to sensory nerve conduction (SNC) measurements. Methods Patients aged 20–64 years who were referred to a neurophysiology service for investigation of suspected CTS, completed a symptom questionnaire (including hand diagrams) and physical examination (including Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests). Differences in SNC velocity between the little and index finger were compared according to the anatomical distribution of symptoms in the hand and findings on physical examination. Results Analysis was based on 1806 hands in 908 patients (response rate 73%). In hands with numbness or tingling but negative on both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests, the mean difference in SNC velocities was no higher than in hands with no numbness or tingling. The largest differences in SNC velocities occurred in hands with extensive numbness or tingling in the median nerve sensory distribution and both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests positive (mean 13.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-15.0 m/s). Hand pain and thumb weakness were unrelated to SNC velocity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in the absence of other objective evidence of median nerve dysfunction, there is little value in referring patients of working age with suspected CTS for nerve conduction studies if they are negative on both Tinel’s and Phalen’s tests. Alternative case definitions for CTS in epidemiological research are proposed according to the extent of diagnostic information available and the relative importance of sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23947775

  14. General population job exposure matrix applied to a pooled study of prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Zeringue, Angelique; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Bao, Stephen; Thiese, Matthew S; Merlino, Linda; Burt, Susan; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T; Eisen, Ellen A; Evanoff, Bradley

    2015-03-15

    A job exposure matrix may be useful for the study of biomechanical workplace risk factors when individual-level exposure data are unavailable. We used job title-based exposure data from a public data source to construct a job exposure matrix and test exposure-response relationships with prevalent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Exposures of repetitive motion and force from the Occupational Information Network were assigned to 3,452 active workers from several industries, enrolled between 2001 and 2008 from 6 studies. Repetitive motion and force exposures were combined into high/high, high/low, and low/low exposure groupings in each of 4 multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for personal factors. Although force measures alone were not independent predictors of CTS in these data, strong associations between combined physical exposures of force and repetition and CTS were observed in all models. Consistent with previous literature, this report shows that workers with high force/high repetition jobs had the highest prevalence of CTS (odds ratio = 2.14-2.95) followed by intermediate values (odds ratio = 1.09-2.27) in mixed exposed jobs relative to the lowest exposed workers. This study supports the use of a general population job exposure matrix to estimate workplace physical exposures in epidemiologic studies of musculoskeletal disorders when measures of individual exposures are unavailable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Relationship of age, body mass index, wrist and waist circumferences to carpal tunnel syndrome severity.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Hatice Ferhan; Kilic, Selim; Anlar, Omer

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a multifactorial etiology involving systemic, anatomical, idiopathic, and ergonomic characteristics. In this study, an investigation of the relationship between the CTS degree established by electrophysiological measurements in patients with clinical CTS prediagnosis, and age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hand wrist circumference, and waist circumference measurements has been done. On 547 patients included in the study, motor and sensory conduction examinations of the median and ulnar nerve were done on one or two upper extremities thought to have CTS. In terms of CTS severity, the patients were divided into four groups (normal, mild, medium, and severe CTS). A total of 843 electrophysiological examinations were done consisting of 424 on the right hand wrist and 419 on the left hand wrist. When the age group of 18-35 years is taken as the reference group, the CTS development risk independent of BMI has been found to have increased by a factor of 1.86 for ages 36-64 years, and by 4.17 for ages 65 years and higher after adjustment for BMI. With respect to normal degree CTS group, the BMI were significantly different in groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS. The waist circumferences of groups with mild, medium, and severe CTS severity were found to be significantly higher in comparison to the normal reference group. When this value was corrected with BMI and re-examined the statistically significant differences persisted. The study identified a significant relationship between the CTS severity and age, BMI, waist circumference.

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome: what is attributable to work? The Montreal study.

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, M; Stock, S; Patry, L; Armstrong, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the fraction of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) that is attributable to work in the total adult population of the island of Montreal. METHODS: The population consisted of 1.1 million people 20-64 years of age, with 73.2% of men and 60.6% of women employed. The rates of first surgery for CTS were compared between occupational groups and the total adult population with the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) method. Rates of surgery for the island of Montreal were obtained from the provincial data base of payments. The occupational history was obtained from telephone interviews of a sample of surgical cases. The attributable fractions in exposed people were calculated with odds ratios (ORs) obtained from logistic regressions with non-manual workers as the control group. RESULTS: The surgical incidence of CTS was 0.9/1000 adults. SIRs for all manual workers were 1.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4-2.5) in men and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4-2.2) in women, and the fractions attributable to work were 76% (95% CI 47-88) and 55% (95% CI 33-69), respectively. Seven occupational groups were identified as having excess risk of surgical CTS, with fractions attributable to occupation ranging from 75% to 99%. CONCLUSION: Among manual workers on the island of Montreal, 55% of surgical CTS in women and 76% in men was attributable to work. Increased risk of surgical CTS was found in seven occupational groups. PMID:9282130

  17. Effects of carpal tunnel syndrome on dexterous manipulation are grip type-dependent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Johnston, Jamie A; Ross, Mark A; Sanniec, Kyle; Gleason, Elizabeth A; Dueck, Amylou C; Santello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) impairs sensation of a subset of digits. Although the effects of CTS on manipulation performed with CTS-affected digits have been studied using precision grip tasks, the extent to which CTS affects multi-digit force coordination has only recently been studied. Whole-hand manipulation studies have shown that CTS patients retain the ability to modulate multi-digit forces to object mass, mass distribution, and texture. However, CTS results in sensorimotor deficits relative to healthy controls, including significantly larger grip force and lower ability to balance the torques generated by the digits. Here we investigated the effects of CTS on multi-digit force modulation to object weight when manipulating an object with a variable number of fingers. We hypothesized that CTS patients would be able to modulate digit forces to object weight. However, as different grip types involve the exclusive use of CTS-affected digits ('uniform' grips) or a combination of CTS-affected and non-affected digits ('mixed' grips), we addressed the question of whether 'mixed' grips would reduce or worsen CTS-induced force coordination deficits. The former scenario would be due to adding digits with intact tactile feedback, whereas the latter scenario might occur due to a potentially greater challenge for the central nervous system of integrating 'noisy' and intact tactile feedback. CTS patients learned multi-digit force modulation to object weight regardless of grip type. Although controls exerted the same total grip force across all grip types, patients exerted significantly larger grip force than controls but only for manipulations with four and five digits. Importantly, this effect was due to CTS patients' inability to change the finger force distribution when adding the ring and little fingers. These findings suggest that CTS primarily challenges sensorimotor integration processes for dexterous manipulation underlying the coordination of CTS-affected and non

  18. Reliability of the Infraspinatus Test in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Meder, Marek A; Amtage, Florian; Lange, Ruediger; Rijntjes, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Recently, a standardized provocation tests for the infraspinatus muscle, the Infraspinatus test (IsT), aimed at clinically confirming Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS), was validated in a multiple-blind, controlled study. The present study was conducted to investigate inter-rater reliability of the IsT under conditions as they occur in daily clinical practice, since this is essential for acceptance of any new test. Two raters from different medical disciplines used the IsT in the same group of subjects at different localities and with an interval of two to four weeks. Arms with symptoms of CTS were examined and compared with a control group of arms without symptoms. Nerve conduction studies were performed in all the subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Cohen's Kappa (for inter-rater reliability) and McNemar's test (for determining dependencies between arms and raters). A total of 34 subjects (age 35-86 years) were investigated with the IsT by two raters in a blinded fashion. There was a high agreement between raters with a Kappa statistic of κ=0.868, when performing this new provocation test. The McNemar test did not reveal dependencies between Rater A and Rater B (p=0.6171), nor between the left and right arms of subjects (Rater A: p=0.4533, Rater B: p=0.5023). The new provocation test of the infraspinatus muscle is not only capable of confirming CTS, as was shown before, but is also a reliable method for use by different examiners under customary conditions.

  19. Isokinetic evaluation of wrist muscle strength in patients of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ağırman, Mehmet; Kara, Adnan; Durmuş, Oğuz; Saral, İlknur; Çakar, Engin

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the isokinetic characteristics of wrist strength in flexion, extension, supination, pronation, radial, and ulnar deviation in patients with moderate or severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Thirteen patients (23 hands) (2 males, 11 females; mean age 45 years; range 29 to 60 years) with moderate or severe CTS were compared to six healthy control subjects (12 hands) (2 males, 4 females; mean age 41 years; range 27 to 63 years) in this study, which was conducted between January 2016 and April 2016. Wrist flexion, extension, supination, pronation, radial, and ulnar deviation muscle strengths were measured at 30°/second (5 sets) angular velocity with isokinetic dynamometer. Grip strength was measured with hand dynamometer (kilograms). Boston Questionnaire was used for clinical assessment. Grip strength (p=0.003); wrist flexion 30°/second (p=0.014); extension 30°/second (p=0.016); and ulnar deviation 30°/second (p=0.017) muscle strengths were lower in CTS patients compared with the control group. An evaluation according to symptom duration did not reveal any significant relationship in any of the isokinetic tests with the exception of pronation 30°/second (p=0.039, r= -0.432) and ulnar deviation 30°/second (p=0.034, r=0.443) in CTS patients. No significant relationship was found between Boston Questionnaire, grip strength, and isokinetic test results. Quantitative wrist strength measurements with isokinetic dynamometers are beneficial in conservative exercise treatments and motor assessments of CTS patients.

  20. Associations Between Body Anthropometric Measures and Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Mauro; Curti, Stefania; Mattioli, Stefano; Aretini, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Federica; Greco, Giuseppe; Farioli, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    To assess the associations between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) severity and selected anthropometric and obesity indexes. We performed a case-control study. Clinical and electrophysiological severity of CTS was classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on validated scales. Body and hand anthropometric characteristics were measured at the time of the electrodiagnostic study. We estimated the relative risk ratios (RRRs) of CTS severity by fitting multinomial logistic regression models adjusted by age and sex. In addition, we fitted multivariable models, including age, sex, wrist ratio, hand ratio, body mass index (BMI), and waist/stature ratio. Electromyography laboratories. Consecutive patients (N=1087), those with CTS (n=340) and those without CTS (n=747), were enrolled. Not applicable. Associations between CTS severity and selected anthropometric and obesity indexes. We observed associations between many anthropometric indexes and CTS severity. Among obesity indexes, the waist/stature ratio, and among hand anthropometric indexes, the wrist/palm ratio, showed the highest RRRs for the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales. The RRRs of severe CTS (adjusted for age and sex) for the wrist/palm ratio were 3.5 for the clinical scale and 2.4 for the electrophysiological scale. The RRRs of severe CTS for the waist/stature ratio were 2.3 for the clinical scale and 2.0 for the electrophysiological scale. In the multivariable models, both BMI and the waist/stature ratio were associated with the outcomes. Different configurations of the body and, in particular, the hand and wrist system may influence the occurrence and severity of CTS. Multiple obesity indexes, possibly including the waist/stature ratio, should be considered when investigating the association between body composition and CTS. Future studies should determine whether in obese subjects with CTS the weight and waist circumference loss produces an improvement in CTS symptoms and recovery of distal

  1. Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a meat packing plant

    PubMed Central

    Gorsche, R. G.; Wiley, J. P.; Renger, R. F.; Brant, R. F.; Gemer, T. Y.; Sasyniuk, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a modern meat packing plant. The secondary objective was to explore the relation between ethnicity and CTS. METHODS: Six hundred and sixty five workers were interviewed and examined to find the prevalence of CTS. Subsequently, 421 workers without CTS were followed up and examined at a median interval of 253 days; of those, 333 remained without CTS and were again examined at a median interval of 148 days. RESULTS: The prevalence and incidence of CTS was 21% and 11/100 person-years, respectively. The incidence for Asian mixed, white, and other ethnicities was 12.0, 12.2, and 7.2 cases/100 person- years, respectively. The observed incidence for men and women was 9.7 and 18.4 cases/100 person-years, respectively. This difference was not quite significant (p = 0.068) with an estimated relative risk (women v men) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.9 to 3.8). The interaction between sex and use of tools was significant (p = 0.04), however, although the relative risk for CTS in women who used tools was 4.2 the numbers were small and not significant. The relative risk for men who used tools was 0.64 and not significant. The percentage of incident cases with comorbid disease was only 6.3% (3/47). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and incidence of CTS in this workforce were higher than in the general population. However, the prevalence of CTS in this modern, mechanised plant was not significantly different from that reported in older plants. No relation was found between ethnicity, age, body mass index, and CTS for either prevalence or incidence. Comorbid disease among the cases of CTS is significantly less than that found in other industry.   PMID:10474539

  2. Electrophysiological Assessment for Splinting in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Kodera, Norie; Tomori, Yuji; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Takai, Shinro

    2017-09-15

    An electrophysiological study is commonly used to decide a therapeutic strategy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, the electrophysiological parameter measurement as a prognostic indicator for CTS after wrist splinting was assessed to identify appropriate candidates for wrist splinting for CTS. One hundred and six hands in 78 patients with CTS were treated by wrist splinting, and three electrophysiological parameters; median distal motor latency (DML) of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle, median distal sensory latency (DSL) of the index finger, and second lumbrical-interossei latency difference (2L-INT LD); were statistically analyzed to compare with clinical results by Kelly's evaluation respectively. Clinical results were excellent in 15 hands, good in 51 hands, fair in 19 hands, and poor in 21 hands. The recordable rate in 2L-INT LD (99.1%) was higher than DML (96.2%) and DSL (79.2%). Patients with DML less than 6.5 ms, DSL less than 5.7 ms, or 2L-INT LD less than 2.5 ms had significantly excellent or good clinical results. The odds ratios of the DML, DSL, and the 2L-INT LD were 7.93, 8.81, and 12.8, respectively. This study demonstrated that CTS patients with DML less than 6.5 ms, DSL less than 5.7 ms, or 2L-INT less than 2.5 ms were good candidates for wrist splinting. Especially, the 2L-INT LD could be the most reliable indicator to predict clinical results for all grades of CTS. This electrophysiological information could be useful in further improvement of accurate diagnosis of CTS, and may help in the assessment of appropriate treatment for CTS with wrist splinting.

  3. A comparison of the performance of anatomical MRI and DTI in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sung Hye; Kwon, Bong Cheol; Park, Chanyeong; Hwang, Su Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sam Soo

    2014-11-01

    To compare the performance of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with that of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We performed 3T anatomical MRI and DTI on 42 patients and 42 age-matched controls. The median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), relative median nerve signal intensity, and palmar bowing of the flexor retinaculum, assessed with anatomical MRI, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient of the median nerve, assessed with DTI, were measured at four locations: the hamate level, the pisiform level (P0), the level located 1cm proximal to the P0 level (P1), and the distal radioulnar joint level (DR). Adding the ratios and differences of the median nerve parameters between the measurements at the DR and other locations to the diagnostic parameters, we evaluated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of all the diagnostic parameters of both scans. The AUCs of FA(P1) (0.814) and FA(P0) (0.824) in DTI were larger than the largest AUC for anatomical MRI, CSA(P1) (0.759). However, the receiver operating characteristics of the three parameters were not significantly different (P>0.1). The sensitivity and specificity of CSA(P1) (76.2% and 73.8%) and FA(P1) (73.8% and 76.2%) increased after inclusive and exclusive combination to 90.5% each. The individual performances of both scans were not significantly different in diagnosing CTS. Measuring both CSA and FA at P1 may be useful and efficient to utilize the merits of both scans and to increase the CTS diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled study of 2474 workers.

    PubMed

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Eisen, Ellen A; Kapellusch, Jay; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew S; Dale, Ann Marie; Evanoff, Bradley; Burt, Susan; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Merlino, Linda; Gerr, Fred; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2010, five research groups conducted coordinated prospective studies of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) incidence among US workers from various industries and collected detailed subject-level exposure information with follow-up of symptoms, electrophysiological measures and job changes. This analysis examined the associations between workplace biomechanical factors and incidence of dominant-hand CTS, adjusting for personal risk factors. 2474 participants, without CTS or possible polyneuropathy at enrolment, were followed up to 6.5 years (5102 person-years). Individual workplace exposure measures of the dominant hand were collected for each task and included force, repetition, duty cycle and posture. Task exposures were combined across the workweek using time-weighted averaging to estimate job-level exposures. CTS case-criteria were based on symptoms and results of electrophysiological testing. HRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. After adjustment for covariates, analyst (HR=2.17; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.43) and worker (HR=2.08; 95% CI 1.31 to 3.39) estimated peak hand force, forceful repetition rate (HR=1.84; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.86) and per cent time spent (eg, duty cycle) in forceful hand exertions (HR=2.05; 95% CI 1.34 to 3.15) were associated with increased risk of incident CTS. Associations were not observed between total hand repetition rate, per cent duration of all hand exertions, or wrist posture and incident CTS. In this prospective multicentre study of production and service workers, measures of exposure to forceful hand exertion were associated with incident CTS after controlling for important covariates. These findings may influence the design of workplace safety programmes for preventing work-related CTS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of vibrometry for detection of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerr, F; Letz, R; Harris-Abbott, D; Hopkins, L C

    1995-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the utility of vibrotactile thresholds (VTs) obtained before and after a 10-minute period of wrist flexion as a method for detection of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among adult subjects. Subjects with hand discomfort were recruited from patients referred to a university-based electromyography laboratory. Asymptomatic subjects were recruited from among office and technical staff at a professional school. In addition to electrophysiologic evaluation (EP), all subjects were offered VT measurement of the index and small fingers, bilaterally, before and after a 10-minute period of wrist flexion. A total of 144 subjects were recruited, and three hand-condition groups were established: 57 hands had symptoms and EP results compatible with CTS (Group 1), 58 hands had symptoms compatible with CTS and normal EP results (Group 2), and 123 hands had no symptoms and normal EP results (Group 3). Group 1 was considered the "disease-positive" group, and Groups 2 and 3 were both considered "disease-negative" groups. Analyses were performed separately for dominant and nondominant hands, and results were pooled when appropriate. Outcomes of interest were the VTs obtained from the index and small fingers before and after 10 minutes of maximal voluntary wrist flexion as well as variables calculated from them. Significant differences in mean VT were observed between the three hand-condition groups for most of the outcomes evaluated. At any given level of specificity, the sensitivity of vibrometry performed after 10 minutes of wrist flexion was approximately two times that obtained before wrist flexion for detection of electrophysiologically confirmed CTS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Screening for Acromegaly in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Study (ACROCARP).

    PubMed

    Zoicas, F; Kleindienst, A; Mayr, B; Buchfelder, M; Megele, R; Schöfl, C

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis of acromegaly prevents irreversible comorbidities and facilitates surgical cure. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in acromegaly and patients have often undergone surgery for CTS prior to the diagnosis of acromegaly. We hypothesized that screening CTS-patients for acromegaly could facilitate active case-finding. We prospectively enrolled 196 patients [135 women, 56.9 (range 23-103) years] who presented with CTS for surgery. Patients were asked about 6 symptoms suggestive of acromegaly using a questionnaire calculating a symptom score (0-6 points), and insulin-like-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured. If IGF-1 was increased, IGF-1 measurement was repeated, and random growth hormone (GH) and/or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of GH-suppression were performed. The mean symptom score was 1.7±1.3 points. Three patients reported the maximal symptom score of 6 points, but none of them had an increased IGF-1. There was no correlation between the symptom score and IGF-1-SDS (standard deviation score) (r=0.026; p=0.71). Four patients had an IGF-1>2 SDS. In 2 patients acromegaly was ruled out using random GH and OGTT. One patient had normal IGF-1 and random GH at follow-up. One patient refused further diagnostics. In this prospective cohort of patients with CTS, the observed frequency of acromegaly was at most 0.51% (95% CI 0.03 to 2.83%). In this prospective study, none of the 196 patients with CTS had proven acromegaly. Thus, we see no evidence to justify general screening of patients with CTS for acromegaly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the treatment of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Kiyani, Abolghasem; Dehghan, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new and noninvasive treatment including extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of CTS. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on 60 patients with moderate CTS in selected health centers of Isfahan Medical University from November 2014 to April 2015. Patients with CTS were randomly divided into two groups. Conservative treatment including wrist splint at night for 3 months, consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 2 weeks, and oral consumption of Vitamin B1 for a month was recommended for both groups. The first group was treated with ESWT, one session per week for 4 weeks. Focus probe with 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, and 0.15 energy and shock numbers 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 were used from the first session to the fourth, respectively. The evaluated parameters were assessed before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, Student’s t-test, and Chi-square test. Results: All parameters were significantly decreased in the ESWT group after 3 months. These results remained almost constant after 6 months compared with 3 months after treatment. However, only two parameters considerably improved after 3 months of treatment in the control group. The entire indexes in the control group implicated the regression of results in long-term period. Conclusion: It is recommended to use ESWT as a conservative treatment in patients with CTS. PMID:27563630

  8. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Firosh; Shehna, Abdulkhader; Ramesh, Sivaramakrishnan; Sandhya, Kakkassery Sankaran; Paul, Reji

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS) was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001), HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001), and HADS depression score (P = 0.01). CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103), HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211), or HADS depression score (P = 0.55). CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048). Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity. PMID:28298847

  9. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the 6-Item Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale Questionnaire Into Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Rodrigo Pires; Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Meirelles, Lia Miyamoto; Raduan Neto, Jorge; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Fallopa, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are several medical questionnaires to evaluate the quality of life of carpal tunnel syndrome patients. However, most measures are only available in English. We chose to translate and culturally adapt to Portuguese the Six-Item Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale (CTS-6) questionnaire because it provides objective assessment using a small number of questions. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation were carried out according to the medical literature and consisted of five steps: (1) initial translation by two translators fluent in both languages, (2) association of initial translations, (3) back translation to Portuguese by two native speakers of English, (4) association of back translation and (5) comparison with the original version. Results: The Portuguese version was administered to patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and difficulties were noted concerning the comprehension and completion of the translated questionnaire. Patients had difficulty in understanding the horizontal layout of the response choices. Without altering the content, we changed the response choices to a vertical layout and re-administered the questionnaire to a new sample of patients followed up in the same ambulatory care service. We noted a substantial improvement in comprehension and completion of the questionnaire after the modifications. Conclusions: Availability of a Portuguese version of the Six-Item Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale (CTS-6) questionnaire will allow an objective evaluation of the treatment of a syndrome that is very prominent in medical practice. PMID:27390557

  10. Acute Diarrheal Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kam, H.J.; Choi, S.; Cho, J.P.; Min, Y.G.; Park, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In an effort to identify and characterize the environmental factors that affect the number of patients with acute diarrheal (AD) syndrome, we developed and tested two regional surveillance models including holiday and weather information in addition to visitor records, at emergency medical facilities in the Seoul metropolitan area of Korea. Methods With 1,328,686 emergency department visitor records from the National Emergency Department Information system (NEDIS) and the holiday and weather information, two seasonal ARIMA models were constructed: (1) The simple model (only with total patient number), (2) the environmental factor-added model. The stationary R-squared was utilized as an in-sample model goodness-of-fit statistic for the constructed models, and the cumulative mean of the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) was used to measure post-sample forecast accuracy over the next 1 month. Results The (1,0,1)(0,1,1)7 ARIMA model resulted in an adequate model fit for the daily number of AD patient visits over 12 months for both cases. Among various features, the total number of patient visits was selected as a commonly influential independent variable. Additionally, for the environmental factor-added model, holidays and daily precipitation were selected as features that statistically significantly affected model fitting. Stationary R-squared values were changed in a range of 0.651-0.828 (simple), and 0.805-0.844 (environmental factor-added) with p<0.05. In terms of prediction, the MAPE values changed within 0.090-0.120 and 0.089-0.114, respectively. Conclusion The environmental factor-added model yielded better MAPE values. Holiday and weather information appear to be crucial for the construction of an accurate syndromic surveillance model for AD, in addition to the visitor and assessment records. PMID:23616829

  11. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial.

  12. Narrowing carpal arch width to increase cross-sectional area of carpal tunnel--a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-Ming; Gabra, Joseph N; Marquardt, Tamara L; Kim, Dong Hee

    2013-04-01

    Carpal tunnel morphology plays an essential role in the etiology and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to observe the morphological changes of the carpal tunnel as a result of carpal arch width narrowing. It was hypothesized that carpal arch width narrowing would result in increased height and area of the carpal arch. The carpal arch width of eight cadaveric hands was narrowed by a custom apparatus and cross-sectional ultrasound images were acquired. The carpal arch height and area were quantified as the carpal arch width was narrowed. Correlation and regression analyses were performed for the carpal arch height and area with respect to the carpal arch width. The carpal tunnel became more convex as the carpal arch width was narrowed. The initial carpal arch width, height, and area were 25.7 (SD1.9) mm, 4.1 (SD0.6) mm, and 68.5 (SD14.0) mm(2), respectively. The carpal arch height and area negatively correlated with the carpal arch width, with correlation coefficients of -0.974 (SD0.018) and -0.925 (SD0.034), respectively. Linear regression analyses showed a 1mm narrowing of the carpal arch width resulted in proportional increases of 0.40 (SD0.14) mm in the carpal arch height and 4.0 (SD2.2) mm(2) in the carpal arch area. This study demonstrates that carpal arch width narrowing leads to increased carpal arch height and area, a potential mechanism to reduce the mechanical insult to the median nerve and relieve symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Narrowing carpal arch width to increase cross-sectional area of carpal tunnel – a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zong-Ming; Gabra, Joseph N.; Marquardt, Tamara L.; Kim, Dong Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel morphology plays an essential role in the etiology and treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to observe the morphological changes of the carpal tunnel as a result of carpal arch width narrowing. It was hypothesized carpal arch width narrowing would result in increased height and area of the carpal arch. Methods The carpal arch width of eight cadaveric hands was narrowed by a custom apparatus and cross-sectional ultrasound images were acquired. The carpal arch height and area were quantified as the carpal arch width was narrowed. Correlation and regression analyses were performed for the carpal arch height and area with respect to the carpal arch width. Findings The carpal tunnel became more convex as the carpal arch width was narrowed. The initial carpal arch width, height, and area were 25.7 (SD 1.9) mm, 4.1 (SD 0.6) mm, and 68.5 (SD 14.0) mm2, respectively. The carpal arch height and area negatively correlated with the carpal arch width, with correlation coefficients of −0.974 (SD 0.018) and −0.925 (SD 0.034), respectively. Linear regression analyses showed a 1 mm narrowing of the carpal arch width resulted in proportional increases of 0.40 (SD 0.14) mm in the carpal arch height and 4.0 (SD 2.2) mm2 in the carpal arch area. Interpretation This study demonstrates that carpal arch width narrowing leads to increased carpal arch height and area, a potential mechanism to reduce the mechanical insult to the median nerve and relieve symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:23583095

  14. Assessing the Value of High-Quality Care for Work-Associated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a Large Integrated Health Care System: Study Design.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Craig; Asch, Steven; Hanson, Mark; Avins, Andrew; Levitan, Barbara; Roth, Carol; Robbins, Michael; Dworsky, Michael; Seabury, Seth; Nuckols, Teryl

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about quality of care for occupational health disorders, although it may affect worker health and workers' compensation costs. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-associated condition that causes substantial disability. To describe the design of a study that is assessing quality of care for work-associated CTS and associations with clinical outcomes and costs. Prospective observational study of 477 individuals with new workers' compensation claims for CTS without acute trauma who were treated at 30 occupational health clinics from 2011 to 2013 and followed for 18 months. Timing of key clinical events, adherence to 45 quality measures, changes in scores on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2), and costs associated with medical care and disability. Two hundred sixty-seven subjects (56%) received a diagnosis of CTS and had claims filed around the first visit to occupational health, 104 (22%) received a diagnosis before that visit and claim, and 98 (21%) received a diagnosis or had claims filed after that visit. One hundred seventy-eight (37%) subjects had time off work, which started around the time of surgery in 147 (83%) cases and lasted a median of 41 days (interquartile range = 42 days). The timing of diagnosis varied, but time off work was generally short and related to surgery. If associations of quality of care with key medical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes are identified for work-associated CTS, systematic efforts to evaluate and improve quality of medical care for this condition are warranted.

  15. Assessing the Value of High-Quality Care for Work-Associated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a Large Integrated Health Care System: Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Craig; Asch, Steven; Hanson, Mark; Avins, Andrew; Levitan, Barbara; Roth, Carol; Robbins, Michael; Dworsky, Michael; Seabury, Seth; Nuckols, Teryl

    2016-01-01

    Context Little is known about quality of care for occupational health disorders, although it may affect worker health and workers’ compensation costs. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-associated condition that causes substantial disability. Objective To describe the design of a study that is assessing quality of care for work-associated CTS and associations with clinical outcomes and costs. Design Prospective observational study of 477 individuals with new workers’ compensation claims for CTS without acute trauma who were treated at 30 occupational health clinics from 2011 to 2013 and followed for 18 months. Main Outcome Measures Timing of key clinical events, adherence to 45 quality measures, changes in scores on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2), and costs associated with medical care and disability. Results Two hundred sixty-seven subjects (56%) received a diagnosis of CTS and had claims filed around the first visit to occupational health, 104 (22%) received a diagnosis before that visit and claim, and 98 (21%) received a diagnosis or had claims filed after that visit. One hundred seventy-eight (37%) subjects had time off work, which started around the time of surgery in 147 (83%) cases and lasted a median of 41 days (interquartile range = 42 days). Conclusions The timing of diagnosis varied, but time off work was generally short and related to surgery. If associations of quality of care with key medical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes are identified for work-associated CTS, systematic efforts to evaluate and improve quality of medical care for this condition are warranted. PMID:27723446

  16. A 12-year experience using the Brown two-portal endoscopic procedure of transverse carpal ligament release in 14,722 patients: defining a new paradigm in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Christopher L; Brown, Michael G; Lopez, Randolph A; Lee, Andrew K; Dang, Joseph; Harper, R Douglas

    2007-12-01

    Compared with the open technique, endoscopic carpal tunnel release has a shorter postoperative recovery period but has been associated with an increased risk of iatrogenic injury. Because of morbidity of the open method, including painful scars, pillar pain, tendon adhesions, scar entrapment of the median nerve, chronic regional pain syndrome, and a longer postoperative recovery period, many patients have been treated nonoperatively to circumvent or forestall surgery, resulting in unrelieved median nerve compression and an increased risk of permanent nerve injury. Inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome based on history and physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies; failure of a short trial of conservative therapy; and advanced disease as evidenced by sensory, motor, or atrophic changes in the median nerve distribution. Exclusion criteria included prior surgery, wrist extension of less [corrected] than 40 degrees, mass within the carpal tunnel, Guyon's syndrome, and bony carpal tunnel abnormalities. Patients meeting these criteria were treated by the Brown two-portal endoscopic technique. A total of 14,722 patients were treated with the Brown endoscopic procedure. Eleven patients (0.07 percent) required conversion to an open procedure. There was one iatrogenic injury. Postoperative results were inversely related to the severity of the preoperative electrodiagnostic studies and the duration of symptoms regardless of the method of nonoperative treatment given. Operative decompression should be carried out promptly if symptoms have been present for 2 months or longer, as the occurrence of permanent nerve damage has been noted within this time frame. The authors advocate use of the two-portal endoscopic technique as previously described by Brown et al. for this purpose.

  17. The effect of excess body mass on the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis of 58 studies.

    PubMed

    Shiri, R; Pourmemari, M H; Falah-Hassani, K; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to estimate the effects of overweight and obesity on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and to assess whether sex modifies the associations. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases from 1953 to February 2015. Fifty-eight studies consisting of 1,379,372 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. We used a random-effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. Overweight increased the risk of CTS or carpal tunnel release 1.5-fold (pooled confounder-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% CI 1.37-1.57, N = 1,279,546) and obesity twofold (adjusted OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.92-2.13, N = 1,362,207). Each one-unit increase in body mass index increased the risk of CTS by 7.4% (adjusted OR = 1.074, 95% CI 1.071-1.077, N = 1,258,578). Overweight and obesity had stronger effects on carpal tunnel release than CTS. The associations did not differ between men and women, and they were independent of study design. Moreover, the associations were not due to bias or confounding. Excess body mass markedly increases the risk of CTS. As the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally, overweight-related CTS is expected to increase. Future studies should investigate whether a square-shaped wrist and exposure to physical workload factors potentiate the adverse effect of obesity on the median nerve.

  18. 3T diffusion tensor imaging and electroneurography of peripheral nerve: a morphofunctional analysis in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brienza, Marianna; Pujia, Francesco; Colaiacomo, M Chiara; Anastasio, M Grazia; Pierelli, Francesco; Di Biasi, Claudio; Andreoli, Chiara; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Valente, Gabriele O R

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for pathologies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) through clinical, electrophysiological and morphological evaluation of the median nerve. The present work was a multilevel prospective study involving 30 subjects, 15 of whom had carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and 15 healthy controls. All subjects underwent clinical evaluation through administration of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ), electroneurography (ENG), 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging with DTI, and calculation of fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at the flexor retinaculum. Tractography was also performed for three-dimensional reconstruction of the route of the median nerve through the carpal tunnel. The degree of functional impairment was compared with the anatomical damage to the median nerve according to ENG and DTI. FA and ADC were significantly correlated with ENG parameters of CTS and BCTQ data. Mean FA and ADC values in the CTS patients were 0.359±0.06 and 1.866±0.050×10(-3)mm(2)/s, respectively, vs 0.59±0.014 and 1.395±0.035×10(-3)mm(2)/s, respectively, in the controls. FA was decreased and ADC increased in patients with CTS compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). DTI parameters were clearly confirmed by both clinical and ENG data and, therefore, may be used for the diagnosis of CTS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Value of F-wave studies on the electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alemdar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background F waves are late electrophysiological responses to antidromic activation of motor neurons and are used to evaluate the conduction along the whole length of peripheral nerves. We aimed to determine the diagnostic efficacies of minimum median nerve F-wave latency (FWL) and median-to-ulnar nerve F-wave latency difference (FWLD) on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Materials and methods The electrophysiological studies consisted of sensory and motor nerve conduction and F-wave studies of the median and ulnar nerves. The best cut-off points of minimum median nerve FWL and FWLD for the diagnosis of CTS were detected for the whole study group and for different height subgroups (Group 1: 150–159 cm, Group 2: 160–169 cm, and Group 3: over 170 cm). The diagnostic efficacies of minimum median nerve FWL and FWLD were calculated for the whole CTS group and for the mild CTS group, separately. Results The best cut-off point of minimum median nerve FWL on the diagnosis of CTS was determined as 24.60 ms for the whole group. It was 23.90 ms for Group 1, 24.80 ms for Group 2, and 28.40 ms for Group 3. The usage of these stratified cut-off points yielded a higher total diagnostic efficacy rate than single cut-off point usage (79.9% vs 69%, respectively; P=0.02). The best cut-off point of FWLD on the diagnosis of CTS was 0.80 ms for the whole group. It was 0.55 ms for Group 1, 0.30 ms for Group 2, and 0.85 ms for Group 3. Both the single cutoff point usage and the stratified chart usage for FWLD had equal diagnostic efficacy (85.1%). In the mild CTS group, diagnostic efficacy was 55.5% for minimum median nerve FWL and 78.8% for FWLD (P=0.0001). Conclusion Median-to-ulnar nerve FWLD yields a higher diagnostic efficacy than minimum median nerve FWL on the diagnosis of CTS. However, the sensitivities of both parameters are not satisfactory for the extremities with mild CTS, which compose the main group having diagnostic challenge. PMID:26357476

  20. Clinical profile, electrodiagnosis and outcome in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a Singapore perspective.

    PubMed

    Tay, L B; Urkude, R; Verma, K K

    2006-12-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS ) is the most common entrapment neuropathy seen in our neurodiagnostic laboratory referrals. We describe the clinical profile, and outcome in patients with electrophysiological diagnosis of CTS seen in our centre over a six month period. A retrospective study was carried out and included 134 consecutive patients with CTS referred to the Neurodiagnostic Laboratory, National Neuroscience Institute, from October 2003 to March 2004, for the confirmatory testing. Severity grade was assigned following American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine criteria of CTS. The majority of patients were female (81.3 percent) with mean age of presentation being 53.6 years. Chinese women constitute the majority racial group. Paraesthesia (70.1 percent) and numbness (19.4 percent) were the presenting sensory symptoms. In the nerve conduction study, 108 patients had bilateral CTS with 35 having unilateral symptoms. Dominant hand involvement was present in 92.3 percent. Overall, 40.3 percent had mild, 46.3 percent had moderate and 13.4 percent had severe CTS, with median duration of symptoms of two, four and 12 months, respectively. Follow-up data were available for 115 patients. 27 patients with surgical treatment showed resolution or improvement in 53.3 percent with moderate CTS, and 83.3 percent with severe CTS, at three-month follow-up. 14 patients turned up for six-month follow-up and 92.9 percent showed improvement in symptoms. 88 patients were managed conservatively; symptoms were unchanged or worsened in 80.6 percent with mild CTS, 65.9 percent with moderate CTS, and 62.5 percent with severe CTS at three-month follow-up. Of the 54 patients who turned up for six-month follow-up, the clinical symptom remain unchanged or worsened in 68.5 percent. The severity of CTS is associated with longer duration of symptoms. Sensory symptoms and dominant hand involvement is more common. There is a high default rate in the clinical follow-up. Early surgical

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome and computer exposure at work in two large complementary cohorts.

    PubMed

    Mediouni, Z; Bodin, J; Dale, A M; Herquelot, E; Carton, M; Leclerc, A; Fouquet, N; Dumontier, C; Roquelaure, Y; Evanoff, B A; Descatha, A

    2015-09-09

    The boom in computer use and concurrent high rates in musculoskeletal complaints and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among users have led to a controversy about a possible link. Most studies have used cross-sectional designs and shown no association. The present study used longitudinal data from two large complementary cohorts to evaluate a possible relationship between CTS and the performance of computer work. The Cosali cohort is a representative sample of a French working population that evaluated CTS using standardised clinical examinations and assessed self-reported computer use. The PrediCTS cohort study enrolled newly hired clerical, service and construction workers in several industries in the USA, evaluated CTS using symptoms and nerve conduction studies (NCS), and estimated exposures to computer work using a job exposure matrix. During a follow-up of 3-5 years, the association between new cases of CTS and computer work was calculated using logistic regression models adjusting for sex, age, obesity and relevant associated disorders. In the Cosali study, 1551 workers (41.8%) completed follow-up physical examinations; 36 (2.3%) participants were diagnosed with CTS. In the PrediCTS study, 711 workers (64.2%) completed follow-up evaluations, whereas 31 (4.3%) had new cases of CTS. The adjusted OR for the group with the highest exposure to computer use was 0.39 (0.17; 0.89) in the Cosali cohort and 0.16 (0.05; 0.59) in the PrediCTS cohort. Data from two large cohorts in two different countries showed no association between computer work and new cases of CTS among workers in diverse jobs with varying job exposures. CTS is far more common among workers in non-computer related jobs; prevention efforts and work-related compensation programmes should focus on workers performing forceful hand exertion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: which transcarpal conduction technique is best?

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Hong; Liao, Yi-Chu; Lee, Yi-Chung; Hsieh, Peiyuan F; Liu, Lu-Han

    2009-10-01

    Transcarpal conduction techniques are commonly used to be supplementary techniques to distal sensory and motor latencies (DSL and DML) in the electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, which transcarpal conduction techniques, or combination of techniques, are the most sensitive for the electrodiagnosis of CTS is unknown. To determine which transcarpal conduction technique is the most sensitive for the electrodiagnosis of CTS, we prospectively conduct this study. Study subjects were 100 patients with CTS and 50 controls. In addition to DSL and DML determinations, all subjects were evaluated using four transcarpal conduction techniques. These were (1) median wrist-palm sensory conduction time (W-Psen CT); (2) median wrist-palm mixed nerve conduction time (W-Pmix CT); (3) the difference of conduction time across wrist between median and ulnar nerves (W-Pmix M-U CT); and (4) median wrist-palm motor conduction velocity (W-Pmot CV). The sensitivities and specificities of these tests were compared. Ninety patients had one or more electrophysiologic abnormalities. The DSL and DML diagnostic sensitivities were 74% and 72%, respectively. Better sensitivities were obtained with W-Psen CT (82%), W-Pmot CV (81%), W-Pmix CT (78%), and W-Pmix M-U CT (79%). Compared between four transcarpal conduction techniques, there was no significant difference in sensitivity. Of 26 patients with CTS with normal DSL, additional electrophysiologic abnormalities were revealed with W-Psen CT (30.7%), W-Pmot CV (53.8%), W-Pmix CT (30.7%), or W-Pmix M-U CT (38.5%). When W-Pmot CV was compared with W-Psen CT and W-Pmot CV versus W-Pmix CT, calculated probabilities (P = 0.07) showed a clear trend toward statistical significance. Furthermore, of 20 patients with normal DSL and DML, five patients had abnormality for W-Psen CT, eight for W-Pmot CV, four for W-Pmix CT, and six for W-Pmix M-U CT. On the basis of the results, we concluded that the most simple and reliable transcarpal

  3. Which nerve conduction parameters can predict spontaneous electromyographic activity in carpal tunnel syndrome?

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Lee, Wei-Ju; Liao, Yi-Chu; Chang, Ming-Hong

    2013-11-01

    We investigate electrodiagnostic markers to determine which parameters are the best predictors of spontaneous electromyographic (EMG) activity in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 229 patients with clinically proven and nerve conduction study (NCS)-proven CTS, as well as 100 normal control subjects. All subjects were evaluated using electrodiagnostic techniques, including median distal sensory latencies (DSLs), sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), distal motor latencies (DMLs), compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), forearm median nerve conduction velocities (FMCVs) and wrist-palm motor conduction velocities (W-P MCVs). All CTS patients underwent EMG examination of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle, and the presence or absence of spontaneous EMG activities was recorded. Normal limits were determined by calculating the means ± 2 standard deviations from the control data. Associations between parameters from the NCS and EMG findings were investigated. In patients with clinically diagnosed CTS, abnormal median CMAP amplitudes were the best predictors of spontaneous activity during EMG examination (p<0.001; OR 36.58; 95% CI 15.85-84.43). If the median CMAP amplitude was ≤ 2.1 mV, the rate of occurrence of spontaneous EMG activity was >95% (positive predictive rate >95%). If the median CMAP amplitude was higher than the normal limit (>4.9 mV), the rate of no spontaneous EMG activity was >94% (negative predictive rate >94%). An abnormal SNAP amplitude was the second best predictor of spontaneous EMG activity (p<0.001; OR 4.13; 95% CI 2.16-7.90), and an abnormal FMCV was the third best predictor (p=0.01; OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.20-3.67). No other nerve conduction parameters had significant power to predict spontaneous activity upon EMG examination. The CMAP amplitudes of the APB are the most powerful predictors of the occurrence of spontaneous EMG activity. Low CMAP amplitudes are strongly associated with spontaneous activity, whereas high CMAP

  4. Efficacy, safety, and cost of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yi-Ming; Wang, Xi-Shan; Wei, Zhi-Jian; Fan, Bao-You; Lin, Wei; Zhou, Xian-Hu; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral nerve entrapment disease. Either surgical or conservative intervention for CTS patients is needed to choose. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical efficacy, safety, and cost of surgical versus nonsurgical intervention. Methods: The eligible studies were acquired from PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Google, and Cochrane Library. The data were extracted by 2 of the coauthors independently and were analyzed by RevMan5.3. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and Newcastle–Ottawa Scale were used to assess risk of bias. Results: Thirteen studies including 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 observational studies were assessed. The methodological quality of the trials ranged from moderate to high. The difference of clinical efficacy was statistically significant between surgical and nonsurgical intervention, and nonsurgical treatment was more effective (OR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.18–4.67, P = 0.01). Meanwhile, different results were discovered by subgroup analysis. The pooled results of function improvement, symptom improvement, neurophysiological parameters improvement, and cost of care at different follow-up times showed that the differences were not statistically significant between the 2 interventions. The difference of complications and side-effects was statistically significant and conservative treatment achieved better result than surgery (OR = 2.03, 95%CI = 1.28–3.22, P = 0.003). Sensitivity analysis proved the stability of the pooled results. Conclusion: Both surgical and conservative interventions had benefits in CTS. Nonsurgical treatment was more effective and safety than surgical treatment, but there were no significant differences in function improvement, symptom improvement, neurophysiological

  5. How to make electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome with normal distal conductions?

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Liao, Yi-Chu; Wei, Shiew-Jue; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ming-Hong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate which electrodiagnostic techniques are better in clinically diagnosed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and patients with CTS with normal distal conduction study. A total of 230 clinically diagnosed patients with CTS and 100 normal control subjects were enrolled. All subjects were evaluated by eight electrodiagnostic techniques, including conventional conduction studies: median distal sensory latency and distal motor latency; short distance conduction studies across wrist, including wrist-palm sensory conduction time and wrist-palm motor conduction velocity; comparison of median sensory conduction across the wrist with radial or ulnar nerves in the same limb (median-radial sensory latency difference [M-R] or median-ulnar sensory latency difference [M-U]); and comparison of median wrist-palm and palm-index conduction, including distoproximal conduction time difference and distoproximal conduction time ratio. Normal limits were derived by calculating the mean ± 2 standard deviations from the data of the controls. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with 95% confidence interval of each test were calculated. In clinically diagnosed patients with CTS, M-R is the best diagnostic technique with significant difference in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.912) compared with other tests except that of M-U. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of M-R were 84.3%, 98%, 99%, and 73.1%, respectively. Further evaluation of patients with CTS with normal distal latencies also revealed the best diagnostic value of M-R and M-U with significance to other tests in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In clinical practice, after conventional median distal sensory latency and distal motor latency studies, the authors suggest performing

  6. Multidimensional Ultrasound Imaging of the Wrist: Changes of Shape and Displacement of the Median Nerve and Tendons in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Filius, Anika; Scheltens, Marjan; Bosch, Hans G.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Stam, Henk J.; Hovius, Steven E.R.; Amadio, Peter C.; Selles, Ruud W.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of structures within the carpal tunnel may alter in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) due to fibrotic changes and increased carpal tunnel pressure. Ultrasound can visualize these potential changes, making ultrasound potentially an accurate diagnostic tool. To study this,