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Sample records for acute carrageenan-induced paw

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of lactobacillus on carrageenan-induced paw edema in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amdekar, Sarika; Roy, Purabi; Singh, Vinod; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Rambir; Sharma, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used to assess the anti-inflammatory properties in carrageenan induced acute inflammatory model. Materials and Methods. Diclofenac sodium was used as standard drug at concentration of 150 mg/kg of body weight. Culture of Lactobacillus  2 × 10(7) CFU/ml was given orally. Edema was induced with 1% carrageenan to all the groups after one hour of the oral treatments. Paw thickness was checked at t = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours. Stair climbing score and motility score were assessed at t = 24 hours. Cytokines assay for IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α was performed on serum samples. Results. Lactobacillus showed a statistically significant decrease in paw thickness at P < 0.001. L. acidophilus and L. casei decreased by 32% and 28% in paw thickness. They both significantly increased the stair climbing and motility score. Lactobacillus treatment significantly downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α while upregulated IL-10 at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. L. casei and L. acidophilus significantly decreased the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenan. This study has also proposed that Lactobacillus ameliorated the inflammatory reaction by downregulating the proinflammatory cytokines pathway.

  2. Protective effects of radon inhalation on carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw edema in mice.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Teraoka, Junichi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Yamato, Keiko; Monden, Mayuko; Ishimori, Yuu; Nomura, Takaharu; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether radon inhalation inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice. Carrageenan (1% v/v) was injected subcutaneously into paws of mice that had or had not inhaled approximately 2,000 Bq/m(3) of radon for 24 h. Radon inhalation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities and significantly decreased lipid peroxide levels in mouse paws, indicating that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions. Carrageenan administration induced paw edema and significantly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in serum. However, radon inhalation significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema. Serum TNF-α levels were lower in the radon-treated mice than in sham-treated mice. In addition, SOD and catalase activities in paws were significantly higher in the radon-treated mice than in the sham-treated mice. These findings indicated that radon inhalation had anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw edema.

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reduces carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sümen, G; Cimşit, M; Eroglu, L

    2001-11-16

    The present study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of hyperbaric oxygen treatment by comparing it with that of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and also to investigate whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac in carrageenan-induced paw edema which is commonly employed as an acute inflammation model in rats. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment and diclofenac (20 mg/kg) markedly reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. In other words, they displayed anti-inflammatory activity. On the other hand, hyperbaric oxygen treatment did not consistently modify the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac in this model.

  4. Effects of hydroxytyrosol-20 on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dezheng; Geng, Chengyan; Jiang, Liping; Cao, Jun; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Zhong, Laifu

    2009-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a simple phenol compound extracted from olive leaves. The content of HT in the studied preparation was about 20%, and the preparation was called hydroxytyrosol-20 (HT-20). HT has antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. There has been no report so far on the efficacy of HT-20 in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and hyperalgesia in rats. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory role of HT-20 on carrageenan-induced swelling and hyperalgesia of rat paw. Paw inflammation was assessed by the increase in paw volume and hyperalgesia. The rat paws were cut out under ether anesthesia at 270 min after administration of carrageenan. The tissue of the right paw was isolated separately from the individual rat. The levels of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) mRNA in the tissue were estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the paw pressure thresholds of rats orally administered HT-20 significantly increased at 210, 240 and 270 min after administration of carrageenan, compared with corresponding basal paw pressure thresholds; the degree of swelling of the right hind paw showed a statistically significant reduction, compared with rats in the carrageenan-treated control. In this model, HT-20 appears to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha and not to increase the antiinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression of IL-10.

  5. Amiodarone has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties: an experimental study in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema.

    PubMed

    Halici, Zekai; Dengiz, Gunnur Ozbakis; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Suleyman, Halis; Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Mesut

    2007-07-01

    Amiodarone is a widely used anti-arrhythmic agent. We have investigated alterations in the glutathione (GSH) level and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione s-transferase and glutathione reductase) and myeloperoxidase, as marker of acute inflammation, following oral administration of amiodarone and diclofenac in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. In the present study, we found that 1) Amiodarone reduced the development of carrageenan-induced paw edema, to a greater degree than diclofenac; 2) Amiodarone and diclofenac alleviated increases in the activities of catalase and glutathione s-transferase enzymes resulting from edema; 3) Amiodarone and diclofenac ameliorated depressions in the GSH level and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase enzymes caused by carrageenan injection; and 4) All doses of amiodarone and diclofenac caused an amplification in myeloperoxidase activity resulting from induced paw edema. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of amiodarone on carrageenan-induced acute inflammation can be attributed to its ameliorating effect on the oxidative damage.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of linezolid on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Obara, Shigeaki; Kuroda, Yuko; Kizu, Junko

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of linezolid has recently been reported using in vitro experimental models. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid has not yet been demonstrated using in vivo experimental models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of linezolid and other anti-MRSA agents using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. The pretreatment with 50 mg/kg linezolid significantly suppressed edema rates, compared with control (5% glucose), with edema rates at 0.5 and 3 h after the administration of carrageenan being 17.3 ± 3.5 and 30.8 ± 3.0%, respectively. On the other hand, edema rates were not suppressed by the pretreatments with 50 mg/kg vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, and daptomycin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linezolid exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were observed at linezolid concentrations that are achievable in human serum with conventional dosing. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of linezolid, in addition to its antimicrobial effects, have a protective effect against destructive inflammatory responses in areas of inflammation.

  7. Grapefruit juice potentiates the anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac on the carrageenan-induced rat's paw oedema.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Afaf A

    2002-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with double strength grapefruit juice was investigated on carrageenan-induced rat's paw oedema. Paw was measured by using a plethysmometer 3 h after injecting the phlogestic agent. There was significant inhibition (P< 0.05) of the oedematous response after oral administration of diclofenac alone (1, 2.5, 5 mg kg(-1)p.o.) in a dose-dependent manner. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (10 ml kg(-1)p.o.) orally with all doses of diclofenac, enhanced the inhibitory effect of diclofenac on rat's paw oedema. Double-strength grapefruit juice has synergistic inhibitory effect on rat's paw oedema when administered in combination with diclofenac.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

  9. PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and IC87114 reduce inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw oedema and down-regulate inflammatory gene expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eräsalo, Heikki; Laavola, Mirka; Hämäläinen, Mari; Leppänen, Tiina; Nieminen, Riina; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    PI3K/Akt pathway is a well-characterized pathway controlling cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and survival, and its role in cancer is vastly studied. There is also evidence to suggest the involvement of this pathway in the regulation of inflammatory responses. In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the role of PI3Ks in acute inflammation in vivo using pharmacological inhibitors against PI3Ks in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. A non-selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and a PI3Kδ-selective inhibitor IC87114 were used. Both of these inhibitors reduced inflammatory oedema upon carrageenan challenge in the mouse paw. To explain this result, the effects of the two inhibitors on inflammatory gene expression were investigated in activated macrophages. LY294002 and IC87114 prevented Akt phosphorylation as expected and down-regulated the expression of inflammatory factors IL-6, MCP-1,TNFα and iNOS. These findings suggest that PI3K inhibitors could be used to attenuate inflammatory responses and that the mechanism of action behind this effect is the down-regulation of inflammatory gene expression.

  10. Fluvoxamine inhibits some inflammatory genes expression in LPS/stimulated human endothelial cells, U937 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Laleh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Fluvoxamine is a well-known selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI); Despite its anti-inflammatory effect, little is known about the precise mechanisms involved. In our previous work, we found that IP administration of fluvoxamine produced a noticeable anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of fluvoxamine on the expression of some inflammatory genes like intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM1), cyclooxygenases2 (COX2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Materials and Methods: An in vitro model of LPS stimulated human endothelial cells and U937 macrophages were used. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of fluvoxamine, from 10-8 M to 10-6 M. For in vivo model, fluvoxamine was administered IP at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg-1, before injection of carrageenan. At the end of experiment, the expression of mentioned genes were measured by quantitative real time (RT)-PCR in cells and in paw edema in rat. Results: The expression of ICAM1, VCAM1, COX2, and iNOS was significantly decreased by fluvoxamine in endothelial cells, macrophages, and in rat carrageenan-induced paw edema. Our finding also confirmed that IP injection of fluvoxamine inhibits carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paw edema. Conclusion: The results of present study provide further evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of fluvoxamine. This effect appears to be mediated by down regulation of inflammatory genes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the complex cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunomodulatory effect of fluvoxamine. PMID:27803785

  11. Exosomes from Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Suppress Carrageenan-Induced Acute Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Ramanauskaitė, Giedrė; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Kašėta, Vytautas; Biziulevičienė, Genė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the effects of human dental pulp stem cell-derived exosomes on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation from the supernatants of stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) cultivated in serum-free medium. At 1 h post-carrageenan injection, exosomes derived from supernatants of 2 × 10(6) SHEDs were administered by intraplantar injection to BALB/c mice; 30 mg/kg of prednisolone and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Edema was measured at 6, 24, and 48 h after carrageenan injection. For the in vivo imaging experiments, AngioSPARK750, Cat B 750 FAST, and MMPSense 750 FAST were administered into the mouse tail vein 2 h post-carrageenan injection. Fluorescence images were acquired at 6, 24, and 48 h after edema induction by IVIS Spectrum in vivo imaging system. Exosomes significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all the time points studied (by 39.5, 41.6, and 25.6% at 6, 24, and 48 h after injection, respectively), to similar levels seen with the positive control (prednisolone). In vivo imaging experiments revealed that, both exosomes and prednisolone suppress activities of cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) at the site of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation, showing more prominent effects of prednisolone at the early stages, while exosomes exerted their suppressive effects gradually and at later time points. Our study demonstrates for the first time that exosomes derived from human dental pulp stem cells suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in mice.

  12. Bromoenol Lactone, an Inhibitor of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2, Suppresses Carrageenan-Induced Prostaglandin Production and Hyperalgesia in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchida, Keiichiro; Ibuki, Takae; Matsumura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGI2 are essential to hyperalgesia in inflammatory tissues. These prostaglandins are produced from arachidonic acid, which is cleaved from membrane phospholipids by the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Which isozyme of PLA2 is responsible for the cleavage of arachidonic acid and the production of prostaglandins essential to inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of two PLA2 isozyme-specific inhibitors on carrageenan-induced production of PGE2 and PGI2 in rat hind paw and behavioral nociceptive response to radiant heat. Local administration of bromoenol lactone (BEL), an inhibitor of calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2), significantly reduced carrageenan-induced elevation of prostaglandins in the inflamed foot pad 3 h after injection. It also ameliorated the hyperalgesic response between 1 h and 3 h after carrageenan injection. On the other hand, AACOCF3, an inhibitor of cytosolic PLA2, suppressed neither prostaglandin production nor the hyperalgesic response. BEL did not suppress the mRNA levels of iPLA2β, iPLA2γ, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase, prostaglandin I synthase, or proinflammatory cytokines in the inflamed foot pad, indicating that BEL did not suppress inflammation itself. These results suggest that iPLA2 is involved in the production of prostaglandins and hyperalgesia at the inflammatory loci. PMID:26063975

  13. The anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac is considerably augmented by topical capsaicinoids-containing patch in carrageenan-induced paw oedema of rat.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Nilufer; Uludag, Mecit Orhan; Agis, Erol Rauf; Demirel-Yilmaz, Emine

    2013-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most used drugs in musculoskeletal disorders, but their systemic adverse effects limit their therapeutic benefit in local inflammation. On the other hand, topical preparations of capsaicinoids are widely used for musculoskeletal disorders as a complementary therapy. In this study, the effects of both topical capsaicinoids-containing patch and local subcutaneous capsaicin application on the anti-inflammatory action of NSAID were examined. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema of rats was used as the inflammation model. The volume and weight of the paw oedema and plasma extravasation in the paw were determined after carrageenan injection. The systemic application of diclofenac (3 mg/kg), which is an NSAID, significantly decreased the volume and weight of the paw oedema. Topical capsaicinoids-containing patch application or local capsaicin injection (2, 10, 20 μg/paw) alone did not cause any effect on oedema volume and weight. However, the combination of diclofenac with topical capsaicinoids-containing patch significantly increased the effectiveness of diclofenac on inflammation. Evans blue content of the paws that represents plasma extravasation was decreased by capsaicinoids-containing patch with and without diclofenac and diclofenac combination with the lowest dose of capsaicin injection. The results of this study indicate that topical application of capsaicinoids-containing patch enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac and its beneficial effect may not purely relate to its capsaicin content. In the treatment of local inflammatory disorders, the combination of NSAID with topical capsaicinoids-containing patch could increase the anti-inflammatory efficiency of drug without systemic side effects.

  14. Release-active dilutions of diclofenac enhance anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model.

    PubMed

    Sakat, Sachin S; Mani, Kamaraj; Demidchenko, Yulia O; Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Tarasov, Sergey A; Mathur, Archna; Epstein, Oleg I

    2014-02-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of technologically treated diclofenac (release-active dilutions of diclofenac (RAD of diclofenac)) on anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model. Ninety male Wistar albino rats (6-8 weeks) divided into nine groups (n = 10) were used. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after subplantar injection of carrageenan (0.1 ml of a 1 % solution in normal saline). Diclofenac alone was studied at 5 and 20 mg/kg, RAD of diclofenac alone at 7.5 ml/kg and their combination at 5 and 7.5 ml/kg, respectively. Diclofenac reduced (p < 0.05 at least) paw edema at all time points. RAD of diclofenac enhanced (p < 0.05) anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac (5 mg/kg) at 2, 4, and 6 h on concurrent and at 2 and 4 h on sequential administration. Moreover at 2 h, anti-inflammatory effect of combination treatment reached values comparable to those of diclofenac (20 mg/kg). In conclusion, RAD of diclofenac enhanced anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac.

  15. Vinpocetine Reduces Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production and NF-κB Activation in the Paw and Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Pavão-de-Souza, Gabriela F.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2015-01-01

    Vinpocetine is a safe nootropic agent used for neurological and cerebrovascular diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of vinpocetine has been shown in cell based assays and animal models, leading to suggestions as to its utility in analgesia. However, the mechanisms regarding its efficacy in inflammatory pain treatment are still not completely understood. Herein, the analgesic effect of vinpocetine and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms were addressed in murine inflammatory pain models. Firstly, we investigated the protective effects of vinpocetine in overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone (PBQ) and formalin. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan was then used to induce inflammatory hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated using the electronic von Frey and the hot plate tests, respectively, with neutrophil recruitment to the paw assessed by a myeloperoxidase activity assay. A number of factors were assessed, both peripherally and in the spinal cord, including: antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) levels, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Vinpocetine inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, PBQ and formalin (at both phases), as well as the carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and associated neutrophil recruitment. Both peripherally and in the spinal cord, vinpocetine also inhibited: antioxidant capacity and GSH depletion; increased superoxide anion; IL-1β and TNF-α levels; and NF-κB activation. As such, vinpocetine significantly reduces inflammatory pain by targeting oxidative stress, cytokine production and NF-κB activation at both peripheral and spinal cord levels. PMID:25822523

  16. Effects of different protocol doses of low power gallium-aluminum-arsenate (Ga-Al-As) laser radiation (650 nm) on carrageenan induced rat paw ooedema.

    PubMed

    Albertini, R; Aimbire, F S C; Correa, F I; Ribeiro, W; Cogo, J C; Antunes, E; Teixeira, S A; De Nucci, G; Castro-Faria-Neto, H C; Zângaro, R A; Lopes-Martins, R A B

    2004-05-27

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of the low power laser therapy on the acute inflammatory process. Male Wistar rats were used. The rat paw oedema was induced by sub-plantar injection of carrageenan, the paw volume was measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the injection using a hydroplethysmometer. To investigate the mechanism action of the Ga-Al-As laser on inflammatory oedema, parallel studies were performed using adrenallectomized rats or rats treated with sodium diclofenac. Different laser irradiation protocols were employed for specific energy densities (EDs), exposure times and repetition rates. The rats were irradiated with the Ga-Al-As laser during 80 s each hour. The ED that produced an anti-inflammatory effect were 1 and 2.5 J/cm(2), reducing the oedema by 27% (P<0.05) and 45.4% (P<0.01), respectively. The ED of 2.5 J/cm(2) produced anti-inflammatory effects similar to those produced by the cyclooxigenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac at a dose of 1 mg/kg. In adrenalectomized animals, the laser irradiation failed to inhibit the oedema. Our results suggest that low power laser irradiation possibly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by stimulating the release of adrenal corticosteroid hormones.

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Gelsolin in Acetic Acid Induced Writhing, Tail Immersion and Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Parasar, Devraj; Sagar, Amin; Choudhary, Vikas; Chopra, Bhupinder Singh; Garg, Renu; Ashish; Khatri, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Plasma gelsolin levels significantly decline in several disease conditions, since gelsolin gets scavenged when it depolymerizes and caps filamentous actin released in the circulation following tissue injury. It is well established that our body require/implement inflammatory and analgesic responses to protect against cell damage and injury to the tissue. This study was envisaged to examine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of exogenous gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) in mice models of pain and acute inflammation. Administration of gelsolin in acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests not only demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhing effects, but also exhibited an analgesic activity in tail immersion test in mice as compared to placebo treated mice. Additionally, anti-inflammatory function of gelsolin (8 mg/mouse) compared with anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg)] was confirmed in the carrageenan injection induced paw edema where latter was measured by vernier caliper and fluorescent tomography imaging. Interestingly, results showed that plasma gelsolin was capable of reducing severity of inflammation in mice comparable to diclofenac sodium. Analysis of cytokines and histo-pathological examinations of tissue revealed administration of gelsolin and diclofenac sodium significantly reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. Additionally, carrageenan groups pretreated with diclofenac sodium or gelsolin showed a marked decrease in edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in paw tissue. Our study provides evidence that administration of gelsolin can effectively reduce the pain and inflammation in mice model. PMID:26426535

  18. Protective effect of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S K; Viji, V; Kripa, K; Helen, A

    2011-07-01

    The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on an acute model of inflammation: the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Methanolic extract of J. gendarussa (JRM) roots at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly inhibited edema formation 5 h after carrageenan induction. JRM inhibited carrageenan-elicited total cycloxygenase activity, 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase activities in blood mononuclear cells of rats, decreased neutrophil infiltration in paw tissue as shown by low myeloperoxidase activity, and also caused a 53% inhibition in cyclooxygenase-2 activity in paw tissue. Purification of JRM by liquid-liquid partitioning yielded an ethyl acetate fraction of JRM that showed interleukin-6 downregulation potential and the ability to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production in vivo. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence to support the folklore claim that J. gendarussa is an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:21416126

  19. Anti-inflammatory activities of cardamonin from Alpinia katsumadai through heme oxygenase-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway in the carrageenan-induced paw edema.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lee, Min-Min; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2015-04-01

    Cardamonin is a chalcone isolated from Alpinia katsumadai. This study is aimed to evaluate treatment of cardamonin decreased the paw edema at the 5th hour after λ-carrageenan (Carr) administration and increased the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the anti-inflammatory test. We also demonstrated that cardamonin significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the edema paw at the 5th hour after Carr injection. Cardamonin decreased the nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 levels on the serum level at the 5th hour after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cardamonin decreased Carr-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cycloxyclase (COX-2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), p38] expressions and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions at the 5th hour in the edema paw. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of cardamonin might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB, and MAPK and induction of the HO-1 expression in the edema paw via increasing the activities of CAT and SOD in the edema paw through the suppression of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6.

  20. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  1. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Possebon, Maria I; de Souza, Anderson R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Arakawa, Nilton S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  2. α-Lipoic acid has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties: an experimental study in rats with carrageenan-induced acute and cotton pellet-induced chronic inflammations.

    PubMed

    Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Halici, Zekai; Aygun, Hayati; Halici, Mesut; Atalay, Fadime; Cakir, Ahmet; Cadirci, Elif; Bayir, Yasin; Suleyman, Halis

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been termed the 'ideal' antioxidant, a readily absorbed and bioavailable compound capable of scavenging a number of free radicals, and it has been used for treating diseases in which oxidative stress plays a major role. The present study was designed to gain a better understanding for the positive effects of ALA on the models of acute and chronic inflammation in rats, and also determine its anti-oxidative potency. In an acute model, three doses of ALA (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and one dose of indomethacin (25 mg/kg) or diclofenac (25 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral administration. The paw volumes of the animals were calculated plethysmometrically, and 0·1 ml of 1 % carrageenan (CAR) was injected into the hind paw of each animal 1 h after oral drug administration. The change in paw volume was detected as five replicates every 60 min by plethysmometry. In particular, we investigated the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and myeloperoxidase (MPx), and the amounts of lipid peroxidation (LPO) or total GSH in the paw tissues of CAR-injected rats. We showed that ALA exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on both acute and chronic inflammations, and a strongly anti-oxidative potency on linoleic acid oxidation. Moreover, the administration of CAR induced oedema in the paws. ALA significantly inhibited the ability of CAR to induce: (1) the degree of acute inflammation, (2) the rise in MPx activity, (3) the increases of GST and iNOS activities and the amount of LPO and (4) the decreases of GPx, GR and SOD activities and the amount of GSH. In conclusion, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of ALA, which has a strong anti-oxidative potency, could be related to its positive effects on the antioxidant system in a variety of tissues in rats.

  3. An aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis reduces carrageenan-induced edema and inhibits the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in animal models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schinella, Guillermo; Neyret, Elisa; Cónsole, Gloria; Tournier, Horacio; Prieto, José M; Ríos, José-Luis; Giner, Rosa María

    2014-08-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a highly popular herbal beverage in South America due to its high content of caffeine. Its hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties are of increasing interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and for weight control. In the present study, we show for the first time both the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects of an aqueous extract of mate in three classic in vivo models, namely acute and chronic 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced mouse ear edema and acute carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema. Caffeine, rutin, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicafeoyl quinic acid, and 4,5-dicafeoyl quinic acid, accompanied by a complex mixture of other simple phenolic acids, were identified in the extract by HPLC-UV analyses. In the acute edema model, mate extract applied topically (1 mg/ear) halved the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced acute edema (50 %) and almost suppressed neutrophil infiltration (93 %), while in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced subchronic inflammation, the edema was significantly reduced by 62 % (1 mg/ear/day × seven doses). The oral administration of the mate extract (250 mg/kg) significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema at all time points, an effect which was accompanied by a 43 % and 53 % reduction of the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively. Histological analyses confirmed a reduction of epithelium thickness, dermis with mild inflammation, hair follicles with some secretory cells of sebaceous glands, and hypodermic adipocytes. In conclusion, mate is endowed with in vivo preventative or therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in both local and systemic inflammatory processes.

  4. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain.

  5. Acute and chronic nociceptive phases observed in a rat hind paw ischemia/reperfusion model depend on different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klafke, J Z; da Silva, M A; Rossato, M F; de Prá, S Dal Toé; Rigo, F K; Walker, C I B; Bochi, G V; Moresco, R N; Ferreira, J; Trevisan, G

    2016-02-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) may be evoked by ischemia/reperfusion, eliciting acute and chronic pain that is difficult to treat. Despite this, the underlying mechanism of CRPS1 has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, a chemosensor of inflammation and oxidative substances, in an animal model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Wistar rats were subjected to 3 h hind paw ischemia/reperfusion (CPIP model). Different parameters of nociception, inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative stress were evaluated at 1 (acute) and 14 (chronic) days after CPIP. The effect of a TRPA1 antagonist and the TRPA1 immunoreactivity were also observed after CPIP. In the CPIP acute phase, we observed mechanical and cold allodynia; increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (hind paw), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), lactate (serum), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, hind paw and spinal cord); and higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activities (hind paw). In the CPIP chronic phase, we detected mechanical and cold allodynia and increased levels of IMA (serum), protein carbonyl (hind paw and spinal cord), and 4-HNE (hind paw and spinal cord). TRPA1 antagonism reduced mechanical and cold allodynia 1 and 14 days after CPIP, but no change in TRPA1 immunoreactivity was observed. Different mechanisms underlie acute (inflammation and oxidative stress) and chronic (oxidative stress) phases of CPIP. TRPA1 activation may be relevant for CRPS1/CPIP-induced acute and chronic pain. PMID:26490459

  6. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  7. TPGS-Stabilized Curcumin Nanoparticles Exhibit Superior Effect on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Rachmawati, Heni; Safitri, Dewi; Pradana, Aditya Trias; Adnyana, I Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of the Curcuma genus, has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological applications. Previously, curcumin nanoparticles with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In the present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan (λ-carrageenan) was used to induce inflammation in rats; it was given by an intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In the λ-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles were given orally one hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 h after induction with two different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. A physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with a higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and by the volume of exudate as well as the number of leukocytes reduced in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanoparticles with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effects, indicating the greater absorption capability through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27537907

  8. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials.

  9. The protective role of endogenous estrogens in carrageenan-induced lung injury in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; Sautebin, L.; Serraino, I.; Dugo, L.; Calabró, G.; Caputi, A. P.; Maggi, A.

    2001-01-01

    demonstrates that endogenous estrogens production plays an important protective role against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation by decreasing the expression of specific markers of the delayed phase of this well-known model of acute inflammation. PMID:11683373

  10. Effect of ascophyllan from brown algae Padina tetrastromatica on inflammation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Sulaiman; Kurup, G Muraleedhara; Mahadevan, R

    2013-12-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan was isolated from the brown algae Padina tetrastromatica and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Anti-inflammatory effect of ascophyllan fraction against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was studied. Paw edema in rats was induced by injecting 0.1 ml, 1 % carrageenan suspension in 0.9 % NaCl solution into the sub-plantar tissue of the right hind paw. Carrageenan caused a significant increase in the activity of inflammatory marker enzymes like lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and paw tissue and also increased the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in paw tissue. When compared to the reference drug diclofenac, ascophyllan fraction-3 (AF3) treatment significantly reduced the activities of anti-inflammatory enzymes, concentration of PGE2 and MPO. AF3 treatment decreased the mRNA level expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was decreased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione level were increased on treatment with AF3. Histopathology of paw tissue showed decreased edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with AF3. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of ascophyllan fraction on carrageenan-treated rats.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of laser acupuncture in ST36 (Zusanli) acupoint in mouse paw edema.

    PubMed

    Erthal, Vanessa; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Nohama, Percy

    2016-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in acupuncture is a low-power laser applied to acupoints for providing luminous energy, capable to produce photobiological induction that results in biochemical, bioelectric, and bioenergetic effects. ST36 (Zusanli) is a point of acupuncture commonly used for treatment of several pathological alterations, such as inflammation, acute pain, and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of LLLT (830 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) in ST36 acupoint through the model of carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and the possible mechanisms involved. Female Swiss mice were treated with LLLT in ST36 before the paw edema induction, which was measured by means of a digital micrometer and the temperature through a high-resolution digital thermograph. After this, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were quantified. In another set of experiments, the paw edema was induced by bradykinin, histamine, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). LLLT in ST36 acupoint significantly inhibited the edema formation for 4 h after the carrageenan injection and reduced the paw temperature in 10 %. Furthermore, LLLT also reduced the levels of ROS (55 %) and LOOH (50 %) but, however, did not alter the GSH levels. LLLT in ST36 reduced the paw edema induced by bradykinin (30 min, 6 %, 60 min, 7 %), histamine (30 min, 11 %), and PGE2 (90 min, 10 %, 120 min, 16 %). In conclusion, these results prove that LLLT in ST36 acupoint produces a relevant anti-inflammatory effect, reducing edema, temperature, and free radicals levels in mice paw. PMID:26738499

  12. Pharmacological effect of a new idebenone formulation in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Filomena; Ilari, Sara; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Ventura, Cinzia Anna; Morabito, Chiara; Gliozzi, Micaela; Malafoglia, Valentina; Palma, Ernesto; Paolino, Donatella; Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina

    2016-09-01

    Considerable evidence demonstrated that the central role of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in the development of thermal hyperalgesia is associated to acute and chronic inflammation. Idebenone (IDE), a synthetic analogue of the endogenous cellular antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is an active drug in the central nervous system which shows a protection in a variety of neurological disorders. Since it is lipophilic, poorly water soluble and highly bound to plasma proteins, different technological approaches have been explored to increase its solubility and new pharmaceutical properties. Therefore, it has been complexed with HP-β-cyclodextrins (HP) and its efficacy has been assessed in an animal model of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia. All male rats used for this study received a subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hindpaw in the presence or absence of IDE alone and IDE/HP complex. We observed that IDE poorly reduced painful carrageenan effects whereas IDE/HP complex was able to prevent carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and edema in a dose-dependent manner, reducing spinal MDA levels and protein nitration. Hence, our results demonstrated that when complexed with HP, idebenone exerts a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy. PMID:27480201

  13. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Edlene Lima; Barbosa, Karla Patricia de Souza; Fragoso, Ingrid Tavares; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Oliveira dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana; da Silva, Bruna Santos; Silva, Amanda Karolina Soares e; Rocha, Sura Wanessa Santos; Amaro da Silva Junior, Valdemiro; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy). The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg) three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation. PMID:24550603

  14. Changes in nociceptive reflex facilitation during carrageenan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, J F; Cervero, F

    1996-04-22

    Facilitation of neuronal responses induced by repetitive electrical stimulation of C-fibres (wind-up) is thought to be a substrate of hyperalgesia. There is little information on how these responses are in turn modified during hyperalgesia, and the extent to which hyperalgesic states also induce a facilitation of the neuronal responses mediated by A-fibres. The current study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of peripheral inflammation and stimulus presentation on the facilitation of nociceptive reflexes. Flexor reflexes, recorded as single motor units, were evoked in rats by cycles of low and high frequency electrical stimulation with pulse durations of 0.2, 0.5 and 2 ms. Responses were studied in control and inflammatory conditions, using the carrageenan-induced mono-arthritis model. The results show that the facilitation of late (C-fibre mediated) responses was proportional to the pulse duration of stimulation, as well as to the stimulation frequency. Facilitation was always higher when animals were subjected to inflammation. In inflammatory conditions, facilitation of reflexes was observed not only for late (C-fibre mediated) but also for early (A-fibre mediated) reflex responses. However, the facilitation of these early responses was not proportional to the intensity of stimulation. Thus, in arthritic animals, late (C-fibre mediated) flexion reflexes elicited from the skin, are facilitated and early (A-fibre mediated) reflexes are not only facilitated but, in addition, show a novel wind-up phenomenon.

  15. Niacin inhibits carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Raphael Gomes; Matsui, Tamires Cardoso; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; Godin, Adriana Martins; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; de Matos Coelho, Márcio; Klein, André

    2013-06-01

    Several emerging lines of evidence support an anti-inflammatory role for nicotinic acid (niacin); however, its role in the regulation of leukocyte migration in response to inflammatory stimuli has not been elucidated until now. Herein, we have examined the effect of nicotinic acid on neutrophil recruitment in experimentally induced inflammation. We demonstrated that nicotinic acid treatment inhibited interleukin (IL)-8-induced, leukotriene (LT)B4-induced, and carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into the pleural cavity of BALB/c mice and reduced neutrophil rolling and adherence in a mouse cremaster muscle preparation. Surprisingly, nicotinic acid treatment increased the level of the neutrophil chemoattractant KC in response to carrageenan. These results suggest that nicotinic acid plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation due to its ability to inhibit the actions of the neutrophil chemoattractants IL-8 and LTB4. Further inhibition of chemoattractants leads to impairment of leukocyte rolling and adherence to the vascular endothelium in the microcirculation of inflamed tissues.

  16. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs.

  17. The analgesic efficacy of intra-articular acetaminophen in an experimental model of carrageenan-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Oguzhan; Canbay, Ozgur; Celebi, Nalan; Sahin, Altan; Konan, Ali; Atilla, Pergin; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is one of the most common drugs used for the treatment of pain and fever. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of intra-articular (IA) acetaminophen on carrageenan-induced arthritic pain-related behaviour and spinal c-Fos expression in rats. METHODS: The present study was performed using 20 Sprague Dawley rats. Forty microlitres of IA 0.9% NaCl was injected in the control group, and 40 μL of IA carrageenan was injected in the carrageenan group. One hour after carrageenan injection, 400 μg of IA acetaminophen was injected in the IA acetaminophen group, and 400 μg of intraperitoneal (IP) acet-aminophen was injected in the IP acetaminophen group. One day before injection, and 4 h and 8 h after injection, diameters of both knee joints, motility of the rat, paw loading and joint mobility were assessed. After the rats were euthanized, L3 and L4 spinal segments were excised for c-Fos assessment. RESULTS: IA acetaminophen decreased both the severity and distribution of c-Fos expression. IP acetaminophen decreased only the distribution of c-Fos expression. IA acetaminophen decreased knee diameter at 8 h. IA and IP acetaminophen increased rat motility and paw loading scores. Joint mobility scores of IP acetaminophen were similar to saline at 8 h. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study indicate an analgesic and/or possible anti-inflammatory effect of IA acetaminophen and provide further evidence on the efficacy of systemic acetaminophen injection in reducing arthritic pain. PMID:24093120

  18. Protective effects of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fractions of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2010-02-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions in the traditional medicine of India, were evaluated for their protective effect in acute and chronic models of inflammation. Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and adjuvant induced arthritis were employed as the experimental models of acute and chronic inflammation respectively. Isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction (AFR) from Ruta graveolens and evaluated its anti inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced acute model. AFR with a dose 10 mg/kg showed higher anti inflammatory effect than polyphenols and standard drug diclofenec. AFR significantly decreased the paw edema in arthritic rats. TBARS, COX-2, 5-LOX and MPO level were decreased and the levels of antioxidant enzymes and GSH level were increased on treatment with AFR. The increment in CRP level and ceruloplasmin level observed in arthritic animals were also found to be significantly restored in AFR treated rats. The results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of isolated polyphenolic and alkaloid fraction of Ruta graveolens L. on acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats.

  19. Thermoregulatory vasomotor tone of the rat tail and paws in thermoneutral conditions and its impact on a behavioral model of acute pain.

    PubMed

    El Bitar, Nabil; Pollin, Bernard; Karroum, Elias; Pincedé, Ivanne; Mouraux, André; Le Bars, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The tail and paws in rodents are heat exchangers involved in the maintenance of core body temperature (T(core)). They are also the most widely used target organs to study acute or chronic "models" of pain. We describe the fluctuations of vasomotor tone in the tail and paws in conditions of thermal neutrality and the constraints of these physiological processes on the responses to thermal nociceptive stimuli, commonly used as an index of pain. Skin temperatures were recorded with a calibrated thermal camera to monitor changes of vasomotor tone in the tail and paws of awake and anesthetized rats. In thermoneutral conditions, the sympathetic tone fluctuated at a rate of two to seven cycles/h. Increased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; ∼46 mmHg) was followed by increased heart rate (HR; ∼45 beats/min) within 30 s, vasoconstriction of extremities (3.5-7°C range) within 3-5 min, and increased T(core) (∼0.7°C) within 6 min. Decreased MAP was followed by opposite events. There was a high correlation between HR and T(core) recorded 5-6 min later. The reaction time of the animal's response to a radiant thermal stimulus-heat ramp (6°C/s, 20 mm(2) spot) generated by a CO2 laser-directed to the tail depends on these variations. Consequently, the fluctuations in tail and paw temperature thus represent a serious confound for thermal nociceptive tests, particularly when they are conducted at thermal neutrality. PMID:25008410

  20. Investigation of mucus obtained from different fish species on the acute pain induced with scalpel incision in paw of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Nihal; Suleyman, Bahtiyar; Kuyrukluyildiz, Ufuk; Nalkiran, Hatice Sevim; Kiran, Altan; Gencoglu, Songul; Duzgun, Ahmet; Kurtoglu, Ilker Zeki; Yarali, Oguzhan; Gul, Mehmet Ali; Suleyman, Halis

    2015-01-01

    No comparative study could be found for the analgesic activity of mucuses from the Oncorhynchus mykiss (OM), Salvelinus fontinalis (SF), Salmo coruhensis (SC), Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (AG), and Acipenser baerii (AB) fish species in the literature. We aimed to investigate the effects of mucuses obtained from the abovementioned fish species on scalpel incision-induced pain in the rat paw and to examine the role of oxidant/antioxidant parameters and COX-2 gene expression in the analgesic activities. Animals were divided into groups: SIC (scalpel incision; SI), SIDS (SI+25 mg/kg diclofenac sodium), SOM (SI+25 mg/kg OM mucus), SFM (SI+25 mg/kg SF mucus), SCM (SI+25 mg/kg SC mucus), SAgM (SI+25 mg/kg AG mucus), SAbM (SI+25 mg/kg AB mucus), and HG (healthy). The paw pain thresholds were measured with a Basile algesimeter before and after diclofenac sodium (DS) or mucus administration, and then the rats were euthanized with thiopental sodium. Oxidant/antioxidant and COX-2 gene expression parameters were measured in paw tissues. OM, SC, AG, and AB fish mucuses could not decrease the SI-induced pain. However, SF fish mucus prevented this pain by 69% after the first hour and by 58.3% after the third hour. DS was shown to suppress pain more weakly than SF, preventing the pain by 62.1% and 50.0% after the first and third hours, respectively. SF mucus and DS significantly inhibited increase of COX-2 gene expression, while other fish mucuses could not. None of the fish mucuses except SF mucus in conjunction with DS could significantly inhibit the increase in oxidant parameters and decrease in antioxidants. SF fish mucus should be comparatively assessed in clinical practice for treatment of postoperative pain. PMID:26490740

  1. Antinociceptive Effect of Vardenafil on Carrageenan-Induced Hyperalgesia in Rat: involvement of Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate/Calcium Channels Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gediz, Ezgi İkiz; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Minareci, Edibe; Sadan, Gulay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the peripheral antinociception effects of specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor vardenafil on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats, and the role of calcium besides the L-arginine- nitric oxide (NO)- cyclic guanosine monophophate (cGMP) pathway in these effects. Hyperalgesia was induced by the intraplantar injection of 0.1 mL fresh carrageenan solution to right hind-paw whereas, saline as a vehicle of carrageenan was injected to the left paw. This procedure was used for measuring mechanic nociception pressure via an analgesimeter. Pressure which produced nociception was measured before (0 minute) and after(15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) carrageenan injection. Local administration of vardenafil produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Pretreatment with NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), oxadiazolo (4, 3, a) quinoxalin -1-one (ODQ, inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase) or A23187 (calcium ionophore) decreased the effect of vardenafil. In contrast, L-arginine (nitric oxide donor) seemed to potentiate the vardenafil-induced antinociception. Our results suggest that phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor vardenafil may offer a new therapeutic tool to treat pain. It’s effect was probably result from L-arginine/NO-cGMP pathway activation and Ca + 2 channels are also involved. PMID:26664380

  2. Antinociceptive Effect of Vardenafil on Carrageenan-Induced Hyperalgesia in Rat: involvement of Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate/Calcium Channels Pathway.

    PubMed

    Gediz, Ezgi İkiz; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Minareci, Edibe; Sadan, Gulay

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the peripheral antinociception effects of specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor vardenafil on carrageenan-induced nociception in rats, and the role of calcium besides the L-arginine- nitric oxide (NO)- cyclic guanosine monophophate (cGMP) pathway in these effects. Hyperalgesia was induced by the intraplantar injection of 0.1 mL fresh carrageenan solution to right hind-paw whereas, saline as a vehicle of carrageenan was injected to the left paw. This procedure was used for measuring mechanic nociception pressure via an analgesimeter. Pressure which produced nociception was measured before (0 minute) and after(15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) carrageenan injection. Local administration of vardenafil produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Pretreatment with N(W)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), oxadiazolo (4, 3, a) quinoxalin -1-one (ODQ, inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase) or A23187 (calcium ionophore) decreased the effect of vardenafil. In contrast, L-arginine (nitric oxide donor) seemed to potentiate the vardenafil-induced antinociception. Our results suggest that phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor vardenafil may offer a new therapeutic tool to treat pain. It's effect was probably result from L-arginine/NO-cGMP pathway activation and Ca + 2 channels are also involved. PMID:26664380

  3. Paw preferences in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tan, U

    1987-02-01

    The distribution of paw preferences were studied in 28 dogs. The paw preference was assessed by counting the right and left paw movements performed to remove an adhesive plaster from the eyes. The significance of the right minus left paw reaches in percentages was evaluated statistically in each animal. There were three distinct groups in respect to paw preferences in dogs: right-preferent (57.1%), left-preferent (17.9%), and ambidextrous (25.0%). Statistical analysis showed that the observed frequencies for each group were not merely chance variations which would be expected in a random sample. It was concluded that the population bias can be expressed in a distribution skewed toward a right-hand bias as seen in man.

  4. Phenotypic alterations of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing neurons innervating the rat temporomandibular joint during carrageenan-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Damico, J.P.; Ervolino, E.; Torres, K.R.; Batagello, D.S.; Cruz-Rizzolo, R.J.; Casatti, C.A.; Bauer, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify immunoreactive neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia, specifically neurons that innervate the rat temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A possible variation between the percentages of these neurons in acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis was examined. Retrograde neuronal tracing was combined with indirect immunofluorescence to identify NPY-immunoreactive (NPY-IR) and CGRP- immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) neurons that send nerve fibers to the normal and arthritic temporomandibular joint. In normal joints, NPY-IR neurons constitute 78±3%, 77±6% and 10±4% of double-labeled nucleated neuronal profile originated from the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia, respectively. These percentages in the sympathetic ganglia were significantly decreased in acute (58±2% for superior cervical ganglion and 58±8% for stellate ganglion) and chronic (60±2% for superior cervical ganglion and 59±15% for stellate ganglion) phases of arthritis, while in the otic ganglion these percentages were significantly increased to 19±5% and 13±3%, respectively. In the trigeminal ganglion, CGRP-IR neurons innervating the joint significantly increased from 31±3% in normal animals to 54±2% and 49±3% in the acute and chronic phases of arthritis, respectively. It can be concluded that NPY neurons that send nerve fibers to the rat temporomandibular joint are located mainly in the superior cervical, stellate and otic ganglia. Acute and chronic phases of carrageenan-induced arthritis lead to an increase in the percentage of NPY-IR parasympathetic and CGRP-IR sensory neurons and to a decrease in the percentage of NPY-IR sympathetic neurons related to TMJ innervation. PMID:23027347

  5. Protective effect of proteins derived from Calotropis procera latex against acute inflammation in rat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V L; Guruprasad, B; Chaudhary, P; Fatmi, S M A; Oliveira, R S B; Ramos, M V

    2015-07-01

    The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation. Paw inflammation was also induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and PGE(2), and the inhibitory effect of LP against these mediators was compared with their respective antagonists at the time of peak effect. Treatment with LP produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation, and its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw inflammation was accompanied by reduction in the levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and normalization of tissue architecture. LP also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation induced by different inflammatory mediators, and its efficacy was comparable to their respective antagonists and more pronounced than that of diclofenac. Thus, our study shows that LP has a potential to be used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions where the role of these mediators is well established.

  6. Some aspects of the inhibitory activity of hypolaetin-8-glucoside in acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Villar, A; Gascó, M A; Alcaraz, M J

    1987-07-01

    Hypolaetin-8-glucoside (H-8-G) has been examined for its mode of action in several models of acute inflammation. Its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced inflammation of the rat hind-paw is not affected either by adrenalectomy or by phentolamine given with propranolol. H-8-G and its aglycone, hypolaetin, did not antagonize the actions of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), bradykinin or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on various smooth muscle preparations in-vitro, but protected erythrocytes from heat-induced lysis. The glycoside was more potent than troxerutin on capillary permeability increased by histamine and exerted inhibitory effects on protein exudation, leucocyte migration and beta-glucuronidase activity in the carrageenan air pouch, thereby showing some difference from indomethacin. These results are discussed in relation to the features of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and flavonoid anti-inflammatory actions.

  7. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of tricin, a flavonoid isolated from Njavara rice bran in LPS induced hPBMCs and carrageenan induced rats.

    PubMed

    Shalini, V; Jayalekshmi, Ananthasankaran; Helen, A

    2015-08-01

    Njavara is an indigenous medicinal rice variety traditionally used in Ayurvedic system of medicine practiced in Kerala, India. Tricin is a bioflavonoid present in significantly higher levels in rice bran of Njavara. Present study attempted to identify the molecular target of tricin in TLR mediated signaling pathways by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats as experimental models. Tricin acted upstream in the activation of inflammation cascade by interfering with TLR4 activation, preferably by blocking the LPS induced activation of TLR4, MYD88 and TRIF proteins in hPBMCs. Subsequently, tricin significantly blocked the activation of downstream kinases like p38MAPK, JNK1/2 and IRF3. Thus the inhibitory effect of tricin on NF-κB and IRF3 together confirms the specific inhibition of both MYD88 dependent and TRIF dependent pathways. Tricin treatment also inhibited the pro-inflammatory effect of LPS by blocking the TLR4 signaling mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which is confirmed by specific inhibition of COX-2. Results demonstrated that in addition to NF-κB, tricin can prevent the activation of STAT proteins by significantly inhibiting the activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 via the down regulation of upstream phosphorylating enzymes like JAK1 and JAK2. The protective anti-inflammatory effect of tricin was also confirmed by in vivo experiments. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that tricin exerts its anti-inflammatory effect via a mechanism involving the TLR4/NF-κB/STAT signaling cascade.

  8. Changes in lipoxygenase products from synovial fluid in carrageenan induced arthritis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Herlin, T; Fogh, K; Ewald, H; Hansen, E S; Knudsen, V E; Holm, I; Kragballe, K; Bunger, C

    1988-07-01

    A non-suppurative chronic arthritis was induced in the juvenile dog knee by intra-articular instillations with Carrageenan. Lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated from synovial fluid by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). After ten weeks we observed an accumulation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in synovial fluid in five out of six experimental knees (0.94 to 5.5 ng/ml), as judged by integrated optical density. Biological activity of LTB4 was confirmed by chemokinesis. LTB4 was not detected in control knees. The 15-lipoxygenase products, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODD), being inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, were found in relatively high levels in the control knees compared to the arthritic knees. The results denote LTB4 as a pro-inflammatory local mediator during carrageenan-induced arthritis; possibly, the decreased levels of 15-HETE and 13-HODD in the arthritic knees may have a regulatory function, thus facilitating LTB4 generation. PMID:2841956

  9. Nicorandil inhibits neutrophil recruitment in carrageenan-induced experimental pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Tamires C; Coura, Giovanna M E; Melo, Ivo S F; Batista, Carla R A; Augusto, Paulo Sérgio A; Godin, Adriana M; Araújo, Débora P; César, Isabela C; Ribeiro, Lucas S; Souza, Danielle G; Klein, André; de Fátima, Ângelo; Machado, Renes R; Coelho, Márcio M

    2015-12-15

    Nicorandil is a drug characterized by the coupling of a nitric oxide (NO) donor to nicotinamide. We have previously demonstrated that nicotinamide exhibits activity in different models of pain and inflammation. Now, we investigated the effects induced by per os (p.o.) administration of nicorandil (25, 50 or 100mg/Kg) on neutrophil recruitment in a carrageenan-induced model of pleurisy in mice. Effects induced by nicorandil (100mg/kg) were compared with those induced by equimolar doses of nicotinamide (58mg/kg) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-nicotinamide (NHN; 79mg/kg). We also investigated whether effects on the production of inflammatory mediators play a role in the activity of nicorandil. P.o. nicorandil, 0.5h before and 1h after the i.pl. injection of carrageenan, reduced neutrophil recruitment. However, equimolar doses of nicotinamide or NHN failed to induce such effect. Single treatment (previous or late) with nicorandil (100mg/Kg, p.o.) also reduced neutrophils recruitment, although to a lesser extent when compared to the double treatment. Nicorandil reduced the concentrations of interleukin-1β, CXCL-1 and prostaglandin E2 in the pleural exudate. Concluding, we demonstrated the activity of nicorandil in a model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. This activity was characterized by reduction of the neutrophil accumulation and inhibition of production of inflammatory mediators. The effects induced by nicorandil on the leukocytes recruitment and production of inflammatory mediators contribute to a better understanding of its clinical benefits and indicate that these benefits may be due to its vasodilating and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26607465

  10. Pre-emptive anti-hyperalgesic effect of electroacupuncture in carrageenan-induced inflammation: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; Márquez, Lucía; Martínez, Ioanna; Hernández, Ivones; Merino, Nelson; Luque, Yilian; Delgado, Rene; Bosch, Fe

    2009-08-14

    Central sensitization theory has been defined as pivotal for understanding the excitability changes in central neurons following peripheral inflammation or neuropathic injury. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production are the key in these changes. Consequently, neuromodulator drugs have been developed during the last decades. The electroacupuncture (EA) that acts as biochemical modulator in the spinal horn cord would prevent these changes. The aim of this study was to determine the thermal anti-hyperalgesic effect of EA (10 Hz, 3 mA) and its combination with L-NAME as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Also, it investigated the changes in the plasmatic concentrations of NO metabolites. Moreover, the EA combination with sub-effective dose of ketamine as a NMDA antagonist was tested. The EA pre-treatment conducted in unsedated, unrestrained and conscious animals showed a thermal anti-hyperalgesic effect in correspondence with plasmatic increase of NO metabolites. The L-NAME (30 mg/kg) pre-administration decreased significantly the plasmatic concentrations of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and suppressed the anti-hyperalgesic effect of EA. The combination of EA with ketamine enhanced the anti-hyperalgesic effect. These data constitute the first report that suggested the participation, at least in part, of the L-arginine-NOS-NO-GMPc pathway activation in anti-hyperalgesic effect of EA in carrageenan-induced inflammation model.

  11. Peripherally mediated antinociception of the mu-opioid receptor agonist 2-[(4,5alpha-epoxy-3-hydroxy-14beta-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6beta-yl)amino]acetic acid (HS-731) after subcutaneous and oral administration in rats with carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Spetea, Mariana; Guo, Yan; Schütz, Johannes; Windisch, Petra; Schmidhammer, Helmut

    2006-04-01

    Opioids induce analgesia by activating opioid receptors not only within the central nervous system but also on peripheral sensory neurons. This study investigated peripherally mediated antinociception produced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist 2-[(4,5alpha-epoxy-3-hydroxy-14beta-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6beta-yl)amino]acetic acid (HS-731) after s.c. and oral administration in rats with carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation. Antinociceptive effects after s.c. administration were assessed 3 h after intraplantar carrageenan injection and compared with those of centrally acting mu-opioid agonists 14-methoxymetopon and morphine. Opioid agonists caused dose-dependent increases in inflamed paw withdrawal latencies to mechanical and thermal stimulation. The time course of action was different, in that HS-731 (20 microg/kg s.c.) produced significant long-lasting effects up to 4 h after administration, whereas 14-methoxymetopon (20 microg/kg) and morphine (2 mg/kg) reached their peak of action at 10 to 30 min, and their effect declined rapidly thereafter. Subcutaneous administration of the peripherally selective opioid antagonist naloxone methiodide inhibited antinociception elicited by HS-731 (20 microg/kg s.c.), whereas it was ineffective against 14-methoxymetopon (20 microg/kg s.c.). Moreover, the antinociception produced by 100 microg/kg s.c. HS-731 was dose-dependently reversed by s.c. naloxone methiodide. This indicates that HS-731 preferentially activates peripheral opioid receptors, whereas 14-methoxymetopon mediates analgesia via central mechanisms. Orally administered HS-731 significantly reduced hyperalgesia in the inflamed paw induced by carrageenan, which was reversible by s.c. administered naloxone methiodide. These results show that systemic (s.c. and oral) treatment with the mu-opioid agonist HS-731 produces potent and long-lasting antinociception through peripheral mechanisms in rats with carrageenan-induced hindpaw inflammation.

  12. Proteins derived from in vitro culture of the callus and roots of Calotropis procera ameliorate acute inflammation in the rat paw.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Sharma, Nisha; Souza, Isabel Cristina da Cósta; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Carvalho, Cristina Paiva da Silveira

    2015-02-01

    The callus and roots developed from the hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of the germinating seeds of Calotropis procera were grown in culture, and the proteins isolated from them (CP and RP) were evaluated for their efficacy in inhibiting edema formation induced by sub-plantar injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of rat. Intravenous administration of both CP and RP 30 min before inducing inflammation produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation at 1 and 5 mg/kg doses. The extents of inhibition with these proteins ranged between 40 and 70 % at the doses included while the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac produced 50 to 60 % inhibition at 5 mg/kg dose. The inhibitory effect with these proteins was accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in the tissue levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and oxidative stress markers namely glutathione and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and maintenance of tissue architecture. The present study shows that the proteins isolated from the differentiated and undifferentiated tissues derived from the germinating seeds have therapeutic application in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, and these tissues could be used as an alternative source to minimize variability of plant-derived formulations.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Dasyphyllum brasiliensis (Asteraceae) on acute peritonitis induced by beta-glucan from Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Castelucci, Simone; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre; Ambrosio, Sérgio Ricardo; Arakawa, Nilton Syogo; de Lira, Simone Possedente; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2007-05-30

    The tea prepared from leaves and thorns of Dasyphyllum brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is used in the traditional medicine in Brazil for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant. The aqueous crude extract (ACE), the methanol-water (MeOH-H(2)O) fraction obtained by solvent partition and its fractionation products were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities on acute peritonitis induced by beta-glucan from the cell walls of Histoplasma capsulatum. The antiedematogenic activity was also tested using the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in mice. Oral administration of 100 and 300mg/kg of the ACE in mice caused a significant reduction of neutrophil and eosinophil recruitment in the acute peritonitis assay. In addition, ACE at 300mg/kg inhibited the number of mononuclear cells recruitment. The MeOH-H(2)O fraction and its fractionation products (all at 100mg/kg) also presented anti-inflammatory activities, confirmed by the inhibition of cells recruited to the peritoneal cavity. ACE at 100mg/kg did not show any significant reduction of the edema in the mice paw injected with carrageenan. These data together suggest that Dasyphyllum brasiliensis presents significant anti-inflammatory activity, thus supporting the popular use of the tea in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  14. Trichilia monadelpha bark extracts inhibit carrageenan-induced foot-oedema in the 7-day old chick and the oedema associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ainooson, G K; Owusu, G; Woode, E; Ansah, C; Annan, K

    2012-01-01

    Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.

  15. The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of κ-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of κ-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect. PMID:24936368

  16. Protective effect of Arbutus unedo aqueous extract in carrageenan-induced lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Mariotto, Sofia; Esposito, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Ciampa, Anna; Mazzon, Emanuela; de Prati, Alessandra Carcereri; Darra, Elena; Vincenzi, Simone; Cucinotta, Giovanni; Caminiti, Rocco; Suzuki, Hisanori; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we show that an aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo L. (AuE), a Mediterranean endemic plant widely employed as an astringent, diuretic and urinary anti-septic, in vitro down-regulates the expression of some inflammatory genes, such as those encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intracellular adhesion molecule-(ICAM)-1, exerting a inhibitory action on both IFN-gamma-elicited STAT1 activation and IL-6-elicited STAT3 activation. To evaluate further the effect of AuE in animal models of acute inflammation, we examined whether AuE administration attenuates inflammatory response of murine induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan. For this purpose we studied: (1) STAT1/3 activation, (2) TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 production in pleural exudate, (3) lung iNOS, COX-2 and ICAM-1 expression, (4) neutrophil infiltration, (5) the nitration of cellular proteins by peroxynitrite, (6) lipid peroxidation, (7) prostaglandin E2 and nitrite/nitrate levels and (8) lung injury. We show that AuE strongly down-regulates STAT3 activation induced in the lung by carrageenan with concomitant attenuation of all parameters examined associated with inflammation, suggesting that STAT3 should be a new molecular target for anti-inflammatory treatment. This study demonstrates that acute lung inflammation is significantly attenuated by the treatment with AuE. PMID:18249557

  17. Preventive Effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on Thrombosis in κ-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Mohamed, Isam; Liu, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the prodrug principle, aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) was synthesized, which can reduce the side effects of aspirin and eugenol. As a good candidate for new antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory medicine, it is essential to evaluate its preventive effect on thrombosis. Preventive effect of AEE was investigated in κ-carrageenan-induced rat tail thrombosis model. AEE suspension liquids were prepared in 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na). AEE was administrated at the dosage of 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg. Aspirin (20 mg/kg), eugenol (18 mg/kg) and 0.5% CMC-Na (30 mg/kg) were used as control drug. In order to compare the effects between AEE and its precursor, integration of aspirin and eugenol group (molar ratio 1:1) was also designed in the experiment. After drugs were administrated intragastrically for seven days, each rat was injected intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg BW κ-carrageen dissolved in physiological saline to induce thrombosis. The length of tail-thrombosis was measured at 24 and 48 hours. The blank group just was given physiological saline for seven days without κ-carrageenan administrated. The results indicated that AEE significantly not only reduced the average length of thrombus, PT values and FIB concentration, but also reduced the red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT). The effects of AEE on platelet aggregation and anticoagulant in vitro showed that AEE could inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation as dose-dependence but no notable effect on blood clotting. From these results, it was concluded that AEE possessed positive effect on thrombosis prevention in vivo through the reduction of FIB, PLT, inhibition of platelet aggregation and the change of TT and PT values.

  18. Differing effects of exogenous and endogenous hydrogen sulphide in carrageenan-induced knee joint synovitis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ekundi-Valentim, E; Santos, KT; Camargo, EA; Denadai-Souza, A; Teixeira, SA; Zanoni, CI; Grant, AD; Wallace, JL; Muscará, MN; Costa, SK

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent findings suggest that the noxious gas H2S is produced endogenously, and that physiological concentrations of H2S are able to modulate pain and inflammation in rodents. This study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of endogenous and exogenous H2S to modulate carrageenan-induced synovitis in the rat knee. Experimental approach: Synovitis was induced in Wistar rats by intra-articular injection of carrageenan into the knee joint. Sixty minutes prior to carrageenan injection, the rats were pretreated with indomethacin, an inhibitor of H2S formation (dl-propargylglycine) or an H2S donor [Lawesson's reagent (LR)]. Key results: Injection of carrageenan evoked knee inflammation, pain as characterized by impaired gait, secondary tactile allodynia of the ipsilateral hindpaw, joint swelling, histological changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, increased synovial myeloperoxidase, protein nitrotyrosine residues, inducible NOS (iNOS) activity and NO production. Pretreatment with LR or indomethacin significantly attenuated the pain responses, and all the inflammatory and biochemical changes, except for the increased iNOS activity, NO production and 3-NT. Propargylglycine pretreatment potentiated synovial iNOS activity (and NO production), and enhanced macrophage infiltration, but had no effect on other inflammatory parameters. Conclusions and implications: Whereas exogenous H2S delivered to the knee joint can produce a significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effect, locally produced H2S exerts little immunomodulatory effect. These data further support the development and use of H2S donors as potential alternatives (or complementary therapies) to the available anti-inflammatory compounds used for treatment of joint inflammation or relief of its symptoms. PMID:20136840

  19. A comparison of chronic aspartame exposure to aspirin on inflammation, hyperalgesia and open field activity following carrageenan-induced monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    LaBuda, C J; Fuchs, P N

    2001-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether chronic aspartame exposure possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions in the carrageenan-induced monoarthritis model similar to those properties of aspirin. Prior research demonstrated that aspartame can reduce second phase formalin pain and increase motor activity in arthritic patients. Fifty-eight male Sprague-Dawly rats were treated with aspartame (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) or saline for six days. An additional group of animals received daily injections of saline and on the sixth treatment day, received a 150-mg/kg dose of aspirin 30-minutes prior to behavioral testing. On Day 6, animals received an intra-articular (i.a.) injection of 2% lambda carrageenan (CARR) or an equal volume of saline and were tested four hours later on threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, open field activity, and knee joint diameter. Aspirin-treated arthritic animals exhibited significantly less mechanical hyperalgesia and knee joint inflammation compared with vehicle treated arthritic animals. However, aspirin did not reverse thermal hyperalgesia or increase motor activity to control levels. Aspartame did not reduce inflammation, increase motor activity, or attenuate thermal allodynia, but at 50 mg/kg did attenuate mechanical allodynia compared with vehicle treated arthritic animals. The anti-hyperalgesic effect on mechanical hyperalgesia was not seen at 25 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg aspartame. These results suggest that a certain amount of aspartame may provide relief of arthritic pain to a similar degree as aspirin in some individuals. The specific effect of aspartame and aspirin on mechanical hyperalgesia should be considered when these agents are used for the therapeutic treatment of arthritic conditions.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Jeevaneeya Rasayana: an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shyni, G L; Ratheesh, M; Sindhu, G; Helen, A

    2010-12-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the efficacy of Jeevaneeya Rasayana (JR), an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, in adjuvant-induced arthritic (AIA) rat model with reference to mediators of inflammation. The methanolic (MJR), ethanolic (EJR), and water extracts (WJR) of JR were prepared and their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced acute model was evaluated. MJR at a dose of 25 mg/kg showed significantly higher anti-inflammatory effect than EJR, WJR, and standard drug diclofenac. MJR also significantly decreased the paw edema in AIA rats. Activities of cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, and myeloperoxidase were decreased significantly on treatment with MJR. Supplementation with MJR increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the level of glutathione content. The increment in the concentration of C-reactive protein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and ceruloplasmin observed in arthritic rats were found to be significantly restored in MJR treated rats. Thus, the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of methanolic extract of Jeevaneeya Rasayana on acute and chronic models of inflammation.

  1. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  2. The PAWS and STEM reliability analysis programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Stevenson, Philip H.

    1988-01-01

    The PAWS and STEM programs are new design/validation tools. These programs provide a flexible, user-friendly, language-based interface for the input of Markov models describing the behavior of fault-tolerant computer systems. These programs produce exact solutions of the probability of system failure and provide a conservative estimate of the number of significant digits in the solution. PAWS uses a Pade approximation as a solution technique; STEM uses a Taylor series as a solution technique. Both programs have the capability to solve numerically stiff models. PAWS and STEM possess complementary properties with regard to their input space; and, an additional strength of these programs is that they accept input compatible with the SURE program. If used in conjunction with SURE, PAWS and STEM provide a powerful suite of programs to analyze the reliability of fault-tolerant computer systems.

  3. In Vivo Anticoagulant and Thrombolytic Activities of a Fibrinolytic Serine Protease (Brevithrombolase) With the k-Carrageenan-Induced Rat Tail Thrombosis Model.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, in vivo thrombolysis efficiency of Brevithrombolase, a nontoxic fibrinolytic enzyme purified from Brevibacillus brevis strain FF02B, was affirmed by significant inhibition of thrombus formation in the k-carrageenan-induced rat tail, in a dose-dependent manner. Brevithrombolase at a dose of 600 µg/kg showed an efficacy that was comparable to streptokinase and plasmin, in dissolving in vivo thrombus of k-carrageenan-treated rats under identical conditions. The in vivo anticoagulant property of Brevithrombolase was demonstrated by its prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time in Wistar rats. However, the Brevithrombolase-treated rats demonstrated an insignificant decrease in fibrinogen (Fg) level of plasma compared with Fg level of control group of rats corroborating in vivo as well as in vitro anticoagulant activity of Brevithrombolase is due to its hydrolytic action on thrombin. These findings unequivocally suggest that Brevithrombolase may serve a promising alternative to the commercial thrombolytic drugs.

  4. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Nymphaea pubescens Willd. flower extract on carrageenan-induced inflammation and CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sukalyani; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Hazra, Banasri

    2013-09-01

    Nymphaea pubescens Willd. is used as ingredient of ethnic diet and folk medicine in South-East Asia. The water (NPW), methanol (NPM) and chloroform (NPC) extracts of N. pubescens flowers were investigated for NO·, O₂·⁻ and DPPH radical scavenging and iron chelating activities in vitro. NPW was found to be the most potent free radical scavenger (EC₅₀<100 μg/mL) whereas NPC did not show EC₅₀ at 500 μg/mL. Therefore, NPW was selected for further studies on anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, using standard in vitro and in vivo models. NPW exhibited inhibition of nitrogen radical generation in LPS-activated macrophages (IC₅₀=75.5 μg/mL) through suppression of iNOS protein, with no associated toxicity in the cells. Further, 500 mg/kg of NPW reduced rat paw edema by ~50% after 6h of carrageenan administration. Hepatoprotective activity of NPW was also evaluated in vivo on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. NPW treatment (500 mg/kg/day for ten days) attenuated CCl4-induced increase in serum enzymes, viz. alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) and bilirubin. Also, glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-levels were restored towards normalcy in the liver of CCl4-treated rats, indicating the hepatoprotective role of NPW, which was found to contain a fair amount of flavonoids, phenolics, and saponin constituents.

  6. Inhibitory effect of Nymphaea pubescens Willd. flower extract on carrageenan-induced inflammation and CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Sukalyani; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Hazra, Banasri

    2013-09-01

    Nymphaea pubescens Willd. is used as ingredient of ethnic diet and folk medicine in South-East Asia. The water (NPW), methanol (NPM) and chloroform (NPC) extracts of N. pubescens flowers were investigated for NO·, O₂·⁻ and DPPH radical scavenging and iron chelating activities in vitro. NPW was found to be the most potent free radical scavenger (EC₅₀<100 μg/mL) whereas NPC did not show EC₅₀ at 500 μg/mL. Therefore, NPW was selected for further studies on anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, using standard in vitro and in vivo models. NPW exhibited inhibition of nitrogen radical generation in LPS-activated macrophages (IC₅₀=75.5 μg/mL) through suppression of iNOS protein, with no associated toxicity in the cells. Further, 500 mg/kg of NPW reduced rat paw edema by ~50% after 6h of carrageenan administration. Hepatoprotective activity of NPW was also evaluated in vivo on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. NPW treatment (500 mg/kg/day for ten days) attenuated CCl4-induced increase in serum enzymes, viz. alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) and bilirubin. Also, glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-levels were restored towards normalcy in the liver of CCl4-treated rats, indicating the hepatoprotective role of NPW, which was found to contain a fair amount of flavonoids, phenolics, and saponin constituents. PMID:23827777

  7. Paw preference in dogs: relations between lateralised behaviour and immunity.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, A; Siniscalchi, M; Frate, A; Vallortigara, G

    2004-08-31

    Paw use in a task consisting of the removal of a piece of adhesive paper from the snout was investigated in 80 mongrel and pure-bred domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Population lateralisation was observed, but in opposite directions in the two sexes (animals were not desexed): males preferentially used their left paw, females their right paw. The relationship between immune function and paw preference was then investigated. Some immune parameters (total number of white blood cells including lymphocytes, granulocytes and monocytes; leukocyte formula; total proteins; gamma-globulins) were investigated in a sample of left-pawed (n = 6), right-pawed (n = 6) and ambidextrous (n = 6) dogs. The results showed that the percentage of lymphocytes was higher in left-pawed than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs, whereas granulocytes percentage was lower in left-pawed than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. Moreover, total number of lymphocytes cells was higher in left-pawed than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs, whereas the number of gamma-globulins was lower in left-pawed than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. These findings represent the first evidence that brain asymmetry modulates immune responses in dogs.

  8. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Klishko, Alexander N; Farrell, Bradley J; Beloozerova, Irina N; Latash, Mark L; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2014-09-15

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it ("bad variance," variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not ("good variance," variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  9. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Klishko, Alexander N.; Farrell, Bradley J.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  10. Paw paw and cancer: annonaceous acetogenins from discovery to commercial products.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Jerry L

    2008-07-01

    Extracts of paw paw ( Asimina triloba, Annonaceae) are among the most potent of the 3500 species of higher plants screened for bioactive compounds in our laboratories at Purdue University. The paw paw is a small tree native to eastern North America; its edible fruits (sometimes referred to as "Indiana Bananas") have nurtured mankind for centuries. Activity-directed fractionation of the paw paw extracts, using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, led to the isolation and molecular characterization of over 50 unique annonaceous acetogenins. Fractionation of extracts from related species resulted in the identification of over 150 additional acetogenins. The annonaceous acetogenins are derivatives of long-chain (C32 or C34) fatty acids. They are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial (complex I) as well as cytoplasmic (anaerobic) production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the related nucleotides. The powerful cytotoxicity, in vivo antitumor, pesticidal, antimalarial, anthelmintic, piscicidal, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects indicated a myriad of potentially useful applications. Commercial development of these compounds uses natural mixtures of active components, incorporated into pesticidal, topical, and dietary supplement products. Successful applications and commercial products include a shampoo, highly effective in treating infestations of head lice, fleas, and ticks; a series of pesticidal sprays, which protects host plants against a diversity of pests; and an ointment for treatment of oral herpes (HSV-1) and other skin afflictions. The extract (in capsule form) enhances a mixture of natural anthelmintics. In addition, an encapsulated extract has been effectively used by certain cancer patients as a botanical supplement product. PMID:18598079

  11. Adjuvant effect of caffeine on acetylsalicylic acid anti-nociception: prostaglandin E2 synthesis determination in carrageenan-induced peripheral inflammation in rat.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sánchez, Sílvia; Planas, Eulàlia; Poveda, Raquel

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we report a synergistic interaction between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAF) on the inhibition of nociception in a model of peripheral inflammation in rat; on the contrary no interaction have been found on anti-inflammatory effects and peripheral prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) synthesis inhibition. Acute inflammation was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan into the right hind paw, and the effects of the drugs were evaluated from 0 to 5h. Nociception was assessed using the Randall & Selitto test, and the inflammatory response by plethismometry. Oral administration of ASA (10-400mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. On the other hand, oral CAF administration (5-50mg/kg) did not show a dose-related inhibitory effect, neither on the inhibition of nociception nor on the inflammatory response. To analyze a possible interaction between both drugs a dose-response curve to ASA plus a fixed dose of CAF (5mg/kg) was obtained 3h after the injection of carrageenan, when the inflammatory pain peaked. A fixed dose of CAF was able to improve the anti-nociceptive, but not the anti-inflammatory, effects of ASA. We also assessed, by enzyme immunoassay, the effects of the combination on peripheral PGE-2 levels: CAF did not alter the inhibitory effect of ASA on PGE-2 synthesis. Our results corroborate the well-known clinical effects of combining ASA and CAF; on the other hand, we rule out that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition at peripheral sites would be the mechanism responsible of the adjuvant anti-nociceptive effect of CAF.

  12. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.

  13. Dog paw preference shows lability and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Fay; Caldwell, Christine; Cobb, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Paw preferences in domestic dogs were studied using three different behavioural tests, recording frequency, duration and latency of paw use. No overall population tendency to right- or left-paw preference was seen on any of the tests, nor could a sub-population of handed dogs be detected. This failure to replicate previous reports that male dogs tend to use their left paws while females use their right was counterbalanced by a significant tendency for male dogs to use their left paw when initially presented with one test, and for the latency of left paw use to be significantly shorter than that for right paw use on these initial presentations. This significant effect disappeared with repeated presentation of the test, and was not present in females. We conclude that behavioural lateralisation appears to be a labile category in dogs, and may be related to brain hemispheric effects in responding to novel stimuli.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Salbutamol on Acute and Chronic Models of Inflammation in Rats: Involvement of an Antioxidant Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Uzkeser, Hulya; Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Zekai; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Polat, Beyzagul; Yuksel, Tugba Nurcan; Ozaltin, Seda; Atalay, Fadime

    2012-01-01

    The possible role of β-2 adrenergic receptors in modulation of inflammatory and nociceptive conditions suggests that the β-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, salbutamol, may have beneficial anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Therefore, in this study, we induced inflammatory and nociceptive responses with carrageenan-induced paw edema or cotton-pellet-induced granuloma models, both of which result in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that salbutamol would prevent inflammatory and nociceptive responses by stimulating β-2 adrenergic receptors and the prevention of generation of ROS during the acute inflammation process in rats. Both doses of salbutamol used in the study (1 and 2 mg/kg) effectively blocked the acute inflammation and inflammatory nociception induced by carrageenan. In the cotton-pellet-induced granuloma test, both doses of salbutamol also significantly decreased the weight of granuloma tissue on the cotton pellets when compared to the control. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of salbutamol were found to be comparable with those of indomethacin. Salbutamol decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of glutathione (GSH) during the acute phase of inflammation. In conclusion, salbutamol can decrease acute and chronic inflammation, possibly through the stimulation of β-2 adrenergic receptors. This anti-inflammatory effect may be of significance in asthma treatment, where inflammation also takes part in the etiopathology. This study reveals that salbutamol has significant antioxidative effects, which at least partially explain its anti-inflammatory capabilities. These findings presented here may also shed light on the roles of β-2 adrenergic receptors in inflammatory and hyperalgesic conditions. PMID:22665951

  15. Differential Effects of Opioid-Related Ligands and NSAIDs in Nonhuman Primate Models of Acute and Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sukhtankar, Devki D.; Lee, Heeseung; Rice, Kenner C.; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia is a widely used pain model in rodents. However, characteristics of carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and effects of analgesic drugs under these conditions are unknown in nonhuman primates. Objective The aims of this study were to develop carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rhesus monkeys and determine the efficacy and potency of agonists selective for the four opioid receptor subtypes in this model versus acute pain, as compared to NSAIDs. Results Tail-injection of carrageenan produced long-lasting thermal hyperalgesia in monkeys. Systemically administered agonists selective for opioid receptor subtypes i.e. fentanyl (mu/MOP), U-50488H (kappa/KOP), SNC80 (delta/DOP) and Ro 64-6198 (nociceptin/orphanin FQ/NOP) dose-dependently attenuated carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia with different potencies. In absence of carrageenan, these agonists, except SNC80, blocked acute thermal nociception. Opioid-related ligands, especially Ro 64-6198, were much more potent for their antihyperalgesic than antinociceptive effects. Both effects were mediated by the corresponding receptor mechanisms. Only fentanyl produced scratching at antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive doses consistent with its pruritic effects in humans, illustrating a translational profile of MOP agonists in nonhuman primates. Similar to SNC80, systemically administered NSAIDs ketorolac and naproxen dose-dependently attenuated carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia but not acute nociception. Conclusion Using two different pain modalities in nonhuman primates, effectiveness of clinically available analgesics like fentanyl, ketorolac and naproxen was distinguished and their efficacies and potencies were compared with the selective KOP, DOP, and NOP agonists. The opioid-related ligands displayed differential pharmacological properties in regulating hyperalgesia and acute nociception in the same subjects. Such preclinical primate models can be used to investigate novel

  16. The relationship of callosal anatomy to paw preference in dogs.

    PubMed

    Aydinlioglu, A A; Arslanirli, K A; Riza Erdogan, M A; Ragbetli, M C; Keleş, P; Diyarbakirli, S

    2000-04-01

    Previous studies have described the paw preference and asymmetry in dog brains, based on experimental studies. The purpose of the present study is to investigate a possible association between callosal anatomy and paw preference in dogs. The midsagittal area of the dog corpus callosum was measured in its entirety and in six subdivisions in a sample of 21 brains obtained from 9 male and 12 female mongrel dogs which had paw preference testing. The present study showed significant paw differences in dog corpus callosum. A posterior segment of the callosum, the isthmus, was significantly larger in the right pawedness than the left.

  17. Relationship between visuospatial attention and paw preference in dogs.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; d'Ingeo, Serenella; Fornelli, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between visuospatial attention and paw preference was investigated in domestic dogs. Visuospatial attention was evaluated using a food detection task that closely matches the so-called "cancellation" task used in human studies. Paw preference was estimated by quantifying the dog's use of forepaws to hold a puzzle feeder device (namely the "Kong") while eating its content. Results clearly revealed a strong relationship between visuospatial attention bias and motor laterality, with a left-visuospatial bias in the left-pawed group, a right-visuospatial bias in the right-pawed group and with the absence of significant visuospatial attention bias in ambi-pawed subjects. The current findings are the first evidence for the presence of a relationship between motor lateralization and visuospatial attentional mechanisms in a mammal species besides humans.

  18. Relationship between visuospatial attention and paw preference in dogs.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; d'Ingeo, Serenella; Fornelli, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between visuospatial attention and paw preference was investigated in domestic dogs. Visuospatial attention was evaluated using a food detection task that closely matches the so-called "cancellation" task used in human studies. Paw preference was estimated by quantifying the dog's use of forepaws to hold a puzzle feeder device (namely the "Kong") while eating its content. Results clearly revealed a strong relationship between visuospatial attention bias and motor laterality, with a left-visuospatial bias in the left-pawed group, a right-visuospatial bias in the right-pawed group and with the absence of significant visuospatial attention bias in ambi-pawed subjects. The current findings are the first evidence for the presence of a relationship between motor lateralization and visuospatial attentional mechanisms in a mammal species besides humans. PMID:27545695

  19. Relationship between visuospatial attention and paw preference in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; d’Ingeo, Serenella; Fornelli, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between visuospatial attention and paw preference was investigated in domestic dogs. Visuospatial attention was evaluated using a food detection task that closely matches the so-called “cancellation” task used in human studies. Paw preference was estimated by quantifying the dog’s use of forepaws to hold a puzzle feeder device (namely the “Kong”) while eating its content. Results clearly revealed a strong relationship between visuospatial attention bias and motor laterality, with a left-visuospatial bias in the left-pawed group, a right-visuospatial bias in the right-pawed group and with the absence of significant visuospatial attention bias in ambi-pawed subjects. The current findings are the first evidence for the presence of a relationship between motor lateralization and visuospatial attentional mechanisms in a mammal species besides humans. PMID:27545695

  20. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. The effects of celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, on acute inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyal, M T; El-Ghazaly, Mona A; El-Hazek, R M; Nada, A S

    2009-10-01

    The potential value of selective and non-selective COX-2 inhibitors in preventing some of the biochemical changes induced by ionizing radiation was studied in rats exposed to carrageenan-induced paw edema and 6-day-old air pouch models. The animals were exposed to different exposure levels of gamma-radiation, namely either to single doses of 2 and 7.5 Gy or a fractionated dose level of 7.5 Gy delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for 7.5 weeks. The inflammatory response produced by carrageenan in irradiated rats was markedly higher than that induced in non-irradiated animals, and depended on the extent of irradiation. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in doses of 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg was effective in reducing paw edema in irradiated and non-irradiated rats in a dose-dependent manner as well as diclofenac (3 mg/kg), a non-selective COX inhibitor. Irradiation of animals before the induction of the air pouch by an acute dose of 2 Gy led to a significant increase in leukocytic count, as well as in the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), LTB(4), PGE(2) (as an index of COX-2 activity), TXB(2) (as an index of COX-1 activity), and the plasma level of MDA. This increase in level of these parameters was more marked than that observed in the non-irradiated animals subjected to the inflammagen. The blood GSH level was not affected by the dose of irradiation used, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was suppressed. In many respects, celecoxib (5 mg/kg) was as potent as diclofenac in decreasing the elevated levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, LTB(4), PGE(2), but lacked any significant effect on TXB(2) level. Since it is mostly selective for COX-2 with a rare effect on COX-1 enzyme, both drugs at the selected dose levels showed no effect on level of MDA, GSH, and SOD activity.

  2. Enhanced therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of betamethasone upon topical administration with low frequency, low intensity (20 kHz, 100 mW/cm2) ultrasound exposure on carrageenan-induced arthritis in mice model

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Natsheh, Hiba; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Touitou, Elka; Lerman, Melissa A.; Lazarovici, Philip; Lewin, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether low frequency, low intensity (LFLI, 20 kHz, <100 mW/cm2, spatial-peak, temporal-peak) ultrasound (US), delivered by a light-weight (<100g), tether-free, fully wearable, battery powered applicator is capable of reducing inflammation in a mouse model of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The therapeutic, acute, anti-inflammatory effect was estimated by the relative swelling induced in mice hind limb paws. In an independent, indirect approach, the inflammation was bio-imaged by measuring glycolytic activity with near infrared labeled 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG). The outcome of the experiments indicated that the combination of US exposure with topical application of 0.1% w/w betamethasone gel, exhibited statistically significant (p<0.05) enhanced anti-inflammatory properties in comparison with the drug or US treatment alone. The present study underscores the potential benefits of LFLI US assisted drug delivery. However, the proof of concept presented indicates the need for additional experiments to systematically evaluate and optimize the potential of, and the conditions for, safe, LFLI ultrasound promoted non-invasive drug delivery. PMID:26003010

  3. Sex Difference in Oxytocin-Induced Anti-Hyperalgesia at the Spinal Level in Rats with Intraplantar Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Wu, Wan-Chuan; Chang, En-Pei; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated intrathecal administration of oxytocin strongly induced anti-hyperalgesia in male rats. By using an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (atosiban), the descending oxytocinergic pathway was found to regulate inflammatory hyperalgesia in our previous study using male rats. The activity of this neural pathway is elevated during hyperalgesia, but whether this effect differs in a sex-dependent manner remains unknown. We conducted plantar tests on adult male and female virgin rats in which paw inflammation was induced using carrageenan. Exogenous (i.t.) application of oxytocin exerted no anti-hyperalgesic effect in female rats, except at an extremely high dose. Female rats exhibited similar extent of hyperalgesia to male rats did when the animals received the same dose of carrageenan. When atosiban was administered alone, the severity of hyperalgesia was not increased in female rats. Moreover, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) was expressed at higher levels in the spinal cords of female rats compared with those of male rats. Oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia exhibits a sex-dependent difference in rats. This difference can partially result from the higher expression of IRAP in the spinal cords of female rats, because IRAP functions as an enzyme that degrades oxytocin. Our study confirms the existence of a sex difference in oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia at the spinal level in rats. PMID:27606886

  4. Sex Difference in Oxytocin-Induced Anti-Hyperalgesia at the Spinal Level in Rats with Intraplantar Carrageenan-Induced Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Wu, Wan-Chuan; Chang, En-Pei; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated intrathecal administration of oxytocin strongly induced anti-hyperalgesia in male rats. By using an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (atosiban), the descending oxytocinergic pathway was found to regulate inflammatory hyperalgesia in our previous study using male rats. The activity of this neural pathway is elevated during hyperalgesia, but whether this effect differs in a sex-dependent manner remains unknown. We conducted plantar tests on adult male and female virgin rats in which paw inflammation was induced using carrageenan. Exogenous (i.t.) application of oxytocin exerted no anti-hyperalgesic effect in female rats, except at an extremely high dose. Female rats exhibited similar extent of hyperalgesia to male rats did when the animals received the same dose of carrageenan. When atosiban was administered alone, the severity of hyperalgesia was not increased in female rats. Moreover, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) was expressed at higher levels in the spinal cords of female rats compared with those of male rats. Oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia exhibits a sex-dependent difference in rats. This difference can partially result from the higher expression of IRAP in the spinal cords of female rats, because IRAP functions as an enzyme that degrades oxytocin. Our study confirms the existence of a sex difference in oxytocin-induced anti-hyperalgesia at the spinal level in rats. PMID:27606886

  5. The relationships of dog hippocampus to sex and paw preference.

    PubMed

    Aydinlioglu, Atif; Arslan, Kadir; Cengiz, Nurettin; Ragbetli, Murat; Erdogan, Ender

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have described paw preference and asymmetry in dog brains. Electrical activity of the dorsal hippocampus also indicated the existence of hippocampal asymmetry in dogs. In the present study, the possible paw and sex-related asymmetries and right-left differences in dog hippocampus were investigated. The hippocampus was dissected and weighed. Each hippocampus was cut into slices by the slicing apparatus placed horizontally on the tissues. The volumetric measurements were performed using the formula modified from the Cavalieri principle. The present study indicated the significant sex and paw differences and no right-left asymmetry in dog hippocampi. The morphological asymmetries in normal subjects might be related to functional hippocampal asymmetries in memory or in cognitive skills.

  6. Sweating on paws and palms: what is its function?

    PubMed

    Adelman, S; Taylor, C R; Heglund, N C

    1975-11-01

    Man sweats on his palms and the soles of his feet in response to stress and exercise, but not in response to heat. Several functions have been proposed for this type of sweating: increasing friction between skin and substrate; increasing the toughness of the skin; and increasing tactile sensitivity. This study uses a comparative approach to evaluate the role of footpad sweating on increasing friction, utilizing a variety of mammals which possess sweat glands on their footpads (rat, tenrec, hyrax, and dog). We found that all of these animals sweat on their paws while running. Blocking this sweating with atropine sulfate dramatically decreased the coefficient of static friction between the paw and the tread of an inclined treadmill. A similar dose of atropine sulfate had no effect on the coefficient of static friction in a rabbit, and animal that possesses no sweat glands on its paws. We conclude that an important function of this type of sweating is to help prevent slipping between the paw and sthe substrate during running or climbing, and we postulate that the sweating observed in response to stress may play an important role in preparing an animal for fleeing from stressful situations.

  7. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  11. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  12. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from approach along Spencer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from approach along Spencer Paul Road, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  14. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking east - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  15. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  16. The rostral ventromedial medulla control of cutaneous vasomotion of paws and tail in the rat: implication for pain studies.

    PubMed

    El Bitar, Nabil; Pollin, Bernard; Huang, Gan; Mouraux, André; Le Bars, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Thermal neutrality in rodents is achieved by large cyclic variations of the sympathetic drive of the vasomotion of the tail and paws, the most widely used target organs in current acute or chronic animal models of pain. Given the pivotal functional role of rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in nociception and rostral medullary raphe (rMR) in thermoregulation, two largely overlapping brain regions, we aimed at circumscribing the brainstem regions that are the source of premotor afferents to sympathetic preganglionic neurons that control the vasomotor tone of the tail and hind paws. A thermometric infrared camera recorded indirectly the vasomotor tone of the tail and hind paws. During the control period, the rat was maintained in vasoconstriction by preserving a stable, homogeneous, and constant surrounding temperature, slightly below the core temperature. The functional blockade of the RVM/rMR by the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (0.5 nmol, 50 nl) elicited an extensive increase of the temperature of the paws and tail, associated with a slight decrease of blood pressure and heart rate. Both the increased heat loss through vasodilatation and the decrease heart-induced heat production elicited a remarkable reduction of the central temperature. The effective zones were circumscribed to the parts of the RVM/rMR facing the facial nucleus. They match very exactly the brain regions often described as specifically devoted to the control of nociception. Our data support and urge on the highest cautiousness regarding the interpretation of results aimed at studying the effects of any pharmacological manipulations of RVM/rMR with the usual tests of pain.

  17. Gold nanoparticles and/or N-acetylcysteine mediate carrageenan-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Paula, Marcos M S; Petronilho, Fabricia; Vuolo, Francieli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; De Costa, Leandro; Santos, Giulia P; Effting, Pauline S; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Dal-Bó, Alexandre G; Frizon, Tiago E; Silveira, Paulo C L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    We report the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in an acute inflammation model induced by carrageenan (CG) and compared this effect with those induced by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) alone and by the synergistic effect of NAC and AuNP together. Male Wistar rats received saline or saline containing CG administered into the pleural cavity, and some rats also received NAC (20 mg/kg) subcutaneously and/or AuNP administered into the pleural cavity immediately after surgery. Four hours later, the rats were sacrificed and pleural exudates obtained for evaluation of cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase activities. Oxidative stress parameters were also evaluated in the lungs. The results demonstrated that the inflammatory process caused by the administration of CG into the pleural cavity resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase and a reduction in interleukin-10 levels. These levels seem to be reversed after different treatments in animals. Antioxidant enzymes exhibited positive responses after treatment of NAC + AuNP, and all treatments were effective at reducing lipid peroxidation and oxidation of thiol groups induced by CG. These findings suggest that small compounds, such as NAC plus AuNP, may be useful in the treatment of conditions associated with local inflammation. PMID:25917538

  18. An accurate and simple method for measurement of paw edema.

    PubMed

    Fereidoni, M; Ahmadiani, A; Semnanian, S; Javan, M

    2000-01-01

    Several methods for measuring inflammation are available that rely on the parameters changing during inflammation. The most commonly used methods estimate the volume of edema formed. In this study, we present a novel method for measuring the volume of pathologically or artificially induced edema. In this model, a liquid column is placed on a balance. When an object is immersed, the liquid applies a force F to attempt its expulsion. Physically, F is the weight (W) of the volume of liquid displaced by that part of the object inserted into the liquid. A balance is used to measure this force (F=W).Therefore, the partial or entire volume of any object, for example, the inflamed hind paw of a rat, can be calculated thus, using the specific gravity of the immersion liquid, at equilibrium mass/specific gravity=volume (V). The extent of edema at time t (measured as V) will be V(t)-V(o). This method is easy to use, materials are of low cost and readily available. It is important that the rat paw (or any object whose volume is being measured) is kept from contacting the wall of the column containing the fluid whilst the value on the balance is read.

  19. Effect of DHU001, a Polyherbal Formula on Formalin-induced Paw Chronic Inflammation of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon-Hee; Chung, In-Kwon; Cheon, Woo-Hyun; Lee, Hyeung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    The effect of DHU001, a mixed herbal formula consisted of 7 types aqueous extracts for various respiratory disorders were evaluated on the formalin-induced paw chronic inflammation in mice after oral administration. Mice were subaponeurotically injected in the left hind paw with 0.02 ml of 3.75% formalin, then subjected to 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg of DHU001 oral administration, once a day for 10 days during which then the hind-paw thickness and volume were measured daily. The paw wet-weight, histological profiles, histomorphometrical analyses and paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α contents were conducted at termination. After two formalin treatments, a marked increase in the paw thickness and volume was detected in the formalin-injected control as compared with that in the intact control, plus at the time of sacrifice the paw wet-weights, paw TNF-α contents were also dramatically increased with severe chronic inflammation signs at histopathological observations. However, these formalin-induced chronic inflammatory changes were dramatically decreased by treatment of dexamethasone and all three different dosages of DHU001. DHU001 has favorable effects on formalin-induced chronic inflammation mediated by TNF-α suppression, and DHU001 may represent an alternative approach for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:24278557

  20. Extended duration local anesthetic agent in a rat paw model.

    PubMed

    Ickowicz, D E; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Weiniger, C F

    2014-07-01

    Encapsulated local anesthetics extend postoperative analgesic effect following site-directed nerve injection; potentially reducing postoperative complications. Our study aim was to investigate efficacy of our improved extended duration formulation - 15% bupivacaine in poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 synthesized by ring opening polymerization. In vitro, around 70% of bupivacaine was released from the p(DLLA-CO) 3:7 after 10 days. A single injection of the optimal formulation of 15% bupivacaine-polymer or plain (0.5%) bupivacaine (control), was injected via a 22G needle beside the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia; followed (in some animals) by a 1cm longitudinal incision through the skin and fascia of the paw area. Behavioral tests for sensory and motor block assessment were done using Hargreave's hot plate score, von Frey filaments and rearing count. The 15% bupivacaine formulation significantly prolonged sensory block duration up to at least 48 h. Following surgery, motor block was observed for 48 h following administration of bupivacaine-polymer formulation and rearing was reduced (returning to baseline after 48 h). No significant differences in mechanical nociceptive response were observed. The optimized bupivacaine-polymer formulation prolonged duration of local anesthesia effect in our animal model up to at least 48 h. PMID:24726301

  1. Right-but not left-paw use in female rats provides advantage in forced swim tests.

    PubMed

    Soyman, Efe; Tunckol, Elcin; Lacin, Emre; Canbeyli, Resit

    2015-10-15

    Left- and right-pawed adult female Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming on two consecutive days. Compared to the right-pawed group, left- pawed rats displayed significantly increased immobility from the first to the second swim test and remained significantly more immobile in the second swim test. Both groups performed similarly in spatial learning in the Morris water maze suggesting that left- pawed rats are differentially and specifically susceptible to depressogenic treatment.

  2. Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) Datasets for Multi-Mbar Simulations: An Evolutionary Algorithm Based Recipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, K.; Topsakal, M.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We attempt to achieve the accuracy of full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) method, as implemented in the WIEN2k code, at the favorable computational efficiency of the projector augmented wave (PAW) method for ab initio calculations of solids. For decades, PAW datasets have been generated by manually choosing its parameters and by visually inspecting its logarithmic derivatives, partial wave, and projector basis set. In addition to being tedious and error-prone, this procedure is inadequate because it is impractical to manually explore the full parameter space, as an infinite number of PAW parameter sets for a given augmentation radius can be generated maintaining all the constraints on logarithmic derivatives and basis sets. Performance verification of all plausible solutions against FLAPW is also impractical. Here we report the development of a hybrid algorithm to construct optimized PAW basis sets that can closely reproduce FLAPW results from zero to ultra-high pressures. The approach applies evolutionary computing (EC) to generate optimum PAW parameter sets using the ATOMPAW code. We have the Quantum ESPRESSO distribution to generate equation of state (EOS) to be compared with WIEN2k EOSs set as target. Softer PAW potentials reproducing yet more closely FLAPW EOSs can be found with this method. We demonstrate its working principles and workability by optimizing PAW basis functions for carbon, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, and iron atoms. The algorithm requires minimal user intervention in a sense that there is no requirement of visual inspection of logarithmic derivatives or of projector functions.

  3. Pharmacological characterization of the rat paw edema induced by Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    PubMed

    de Faria L; Antunes, E; Bon, C; de Araújo, A L

    2001-06-01

    The inflammatory response induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom (BLV) in the rat hind-paw was studied measuring paw edema. Non-heated BLV (75microg/paw) caused a marked paw edema accompanied by intense haemorrhage whereas heated venom (97 degrees C, 30s; 12.5-100microg/paw) produced a dose- and time-dependent non-haemorrhagic edema. The response with heated BLV was maximal within 15min disappearing over 24h. Heated venom was then routinely used at the dose of 75microg/paw. The prostacyclin analogue iloprost (0.1microg/paw) potentiated by 125% the venom-induced edema. The histamine H(1) receptor antagonist mepyramine (6mg/kg) or the serotonin/histamine receptor antagonist cyproheptadine (6mg/kg) partially inhibited BLV-induced edema whereas the combination of both compounds virtually abolished the edema. The lipoxygenase inhibitor BWA4C (10mg/kg), but not the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg), significantly inhibited the edema (35% reduction; P<0.05). Dexamethasone (1mg/kg) also markedly (P<0.001) reduced venom-induced edema. The bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.6mg/kg) reduced by 30% (P<0.05) the venom induced edema, whereas the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (300microg/paw) potentiated by 42% (P<0.05) the edema. Bothrops lanceolatus antivenon (anti-BLV) reduced by 28% (P<0.05) the venom-induced edema while intravenous administration of antivenom failed to affect the edema. In conclusion, BLV-induced rat paw edema involves mast cell degranulation causing local release of histamine and serotonin, a phenomenon mediated mainly by kinins and lipoxygenase metabolites. Additionally, the use of a specific Bothrops lanceolatus antivenom, given subplantarily or intravenously, revealed to be little effective to prevent BLV-induced edema. PMID:11137542

  4. Relationship between paw preference strength and noise phobia in Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Branson, N J; Rogers, L J

    2006-08-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between degree of lateralization and noise phobia in 48 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to reactivity to the sounds of thunderstorms and fireworks, measured by playback and a questionnaire. The dogs without a significant paw preference were significantly more reactive to the sounds than the dogs with either a left-paw or right-paw preference. Intense reactivity, therefore, is associated with a weaker strength of cerebral lateralization. The authors note the similarity between their finding and the weaker hand preferences shown in humans suffering extreme levels of anxiety and suggest neural mechanisms that may be involved.

  5. Relationship between paw preference strength and noise phobia in Canis familiaris.

    PubMed

    Branson, N J; Rogers, L J

    2006-08-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between degree of lateralization and noise phobia in 48 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to reactivity to the sounds of thunderstorms and fireworks, measured by playback and a questionnaire. The dogs without a significant paw preference were significantly more reactive to the sounds than the dogs with either a left-paw or right-paw preference. Intense reactivity, therefore, is associated with a weaker strength of cerebral lateralization. The authors note the similarity between their finding and the weaker hand preferences shown in humans suffering extreme levels of anxiety and suggest neural mechanisms that may be involved. PMID:16893254

  6. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1 receptors prevents the induction of thermal hyperalgesia via modulation of TRPV1 expression in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain rats: involvement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in DRGs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Gu; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2014-04-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1Rs) are involved in cutaneous nociceptive signaling, it remains unclear how P2Y1Rs contribute to peripheral sensitization. The current study was designed to delineate the role of peripheral P2Y1Rs in pain and to investigate potential linkages to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in DRGs and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) expression in a rodent inflammatory pain model. Following injection of 2% carrageenan into the hind paw, expressions of P2Y1 and TRPV1 and the phosphorylation rates of both p38 MAPK and ERK but not JNK were increased and peaked at day 2 post-injection. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1Rs by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS2500 injection (i.pl, D0 to D2) significantly reduced the induction of thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Simultaneously, MRS2500 injections suppressed upregulated TRPV1 expression and DRG p38 phosphorylation, while pERK signaling was not affected. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 activation in the DRGs by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor, i.t, D0 to D2) prevented the upregulation of TRPV1 and a single i.t injection of SB203580 reversed the established thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Lastly, to identify the mechanism of action of P2Y1Rs, we repeatedly injected the P2Y1 agonist, MRS2365 into the naïve rat's hind paw and observed a dose-dependent increase in TRPV1 expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These data demonstrate a sequential role for P2Y1R, p38 MAPK and TRPV1 in inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia; thus, peripheral P2Y1Rs activation modulates p38 MAPK signaling and TRPV1 expression, which ultimately leads to the induction of thermal hyperalgesia. PMID:24333674

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-Butanol Extract from Ipomoea stolonifera In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping; Ji, Bin; Wang, Jinzhi; Bai, Xueting; Shi, Ganggang

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese traditional medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of I. stolonifera has not been elucidated. For this reason, the anti-inflammatory activity of n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS) was evaluated in vivo by using acute models (croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced rat pleurisy) and chronic models (cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma, and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rat arthritis). Results indicated that oral administration of BE-IS significantly attenuated croton oil-induced ear edema, decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema, reduced carrageenan-induced exudates and cellular migration, inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation and improved CFA-induced arthritis. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that BE-IS decreased the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the activity of anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in vivo, and reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. Results obtained in vivo and in vitro demonstrate that BE-IS has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of Ipomoea stolonifera in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24752203

  8. PAWS/STEM - PADE APPROXIMATION WITH SCALING AND SCALED TAYLOR EXPONENTIAL MATRIX (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional fault-tree techniques for analyzing the reliability of large, complex systems fail to model the dynamic reconfiguration capabilities of modern computer systems. Markov models, on the other hand, can describe fault-recovery (via system reconfiguration) as well as fault-occurrence. The Pade Approximation with Scaling (PAWS) and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix (STEM) programs provide a flexible, user-friendly, language-based interface for the creation and evaluation of Markov models describing the behavior of fault-tolerant reconfigurable computer systems. PAWS and STEM produce exact solutions for the probability of system failure and provide a conservative estimate of the number of significant digits in the solution. The calculation of the probability of entering a death state of a Markov model (representing system failure) requires the solution of a set of coupled differential equations. Because of the large disparity between the rates of fault arrivals and system recoveries, Markov models of fault-tolerant architectures inevitably lead to numerically stiff differential equations. Both PAWS and STEM have the capability to solve numerically stiff models. These complementary programs use separate methods to determine the matrix exponential in the solution of the model's system of differential equations. In general, PAWS is better suited to evaluate small and dense models. STEM operates at lower precision, but works faster than PAWS for larger models. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. Although different solution techniques are utilized on different programs, it is possible to have a common input language. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of programs that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation. The set of programs are: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST

  9. PAWS/STEM - PADE APPROXIMATION WITH SCALING AND SCALED TAYLOR EXPONENTIAL MATRIX (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional fault-tree techniques for analyzing the reliability of large, complex systems fail to model the dynamic reconfiguration capabilities of modern computer systems. Markov models, on the other hand, can describe fault-recovery (via system reconfiguration) as well as fault-occurrence. The Pade Approximation with Scaling (PAWS) and Scaled Taylor Exponential Matrix (STEM) programs provide a flexible, user-friendly, language-based interface for the creation and evaluation of Markov models describing the behavior of fault-tolerant reconfigurable computer systems. PAWS and STEM produce exact solutions for the probability of system failure and provide a conservative estimate of the number of significant digits in the solution. The calculation of the probability of entering a death state of a Markov model (representing system failure) requires the solution of a set of coupled differential equations. Because of the large disparity between the rates of fault arrivals and system recoveries, Markov models of fault-tolerant architectures inevitably lead to numerically stiff differential equations. Both PAWS and STEM have the capability to solve numerically stiff models. These complementary programs use separate methods to determine the matrix exponential in the solution of the model's system of differential equations. In general, PAWS is better suited to evaluate small and dense models. STEM operates at lower precision, but works faster than PAWS for larger models. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. Although different solution techniques are utilized on different programs, it is possible to have a common input language. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of programs that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation. The set of programs are: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Medium Molecular Weight Heparinyl Amino Acid Derivatives on Ischemic Paw Edema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Seiichi; Toda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the radical-scavenging effects of heparin (HE), medium molecular weight heparinyl phenylalanine (MHF), and medium molecular weight heparinyl leucine (MHL) using ischemic paw edema in mice. We also examined the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of mice that were administered these compounds as an index of their side-effects. HE had a preventative effect and significant reduced ischemic paw edema. However, its effect was not dose-dependent and the dose-response curve was bell-shaped. The effective dose of HE also exhibited a prolonged APTT. Pretreatment using MHF and MHL were effective against ischemic paw edema without a prolonged APTT. Remarkably, the action of MHF was not only preventively, but also therapeutically active. These results suggest that MHF and MHL are superior to HE as safe radical scavengers in vivo. PMID:27381605

  11. The pharmacological profile of ovalbumin-induced paw oedema in rats.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, R F G; Melcíades, G B; Assreuy, A M S; Rocha, M F G; Ribeiro, R A; Lima, A A M

    2002-06-01

    Rats are commonly used in anaphylaxis models, mainly in intestinal anaphylaxis. Hypersensitivity mechanisms are complex and they are not clearly defined. Ovalbumin (OVA) is commonly used for studies on the hypersensitivity mechanism. However, the potential pro-inflammatory mediators induced by this antigen in the model of paw oedema in immunized rats are still not completely understood. This work examines the pharmacological modulation of several mediators involved in rat hind paw immune oedema induced by OVA. Wistar rats were previously immunized (14-18 days) with OVA (30 microg, intraperitoneally) or sham-sensitized with aluminum hydroxide (control). The paw volumes were measured before the antigenic stimuli and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after the intraplantar injection of OVA (10 microg/paw). Subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, cyproheptadine, chlorpromazine or methysergide significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the allergic paw oedema. The dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (NDGA), the cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), the lipoxygenase inhibitor (MK-886), the PAF antagonist (WEB 2086), the mast cell stabilizer (ketotifen), and the anti-histamine (meclizine) did not inhibit the immune oedema. In addition, thalidomide and pentoxifylline (anti-tumour necrosis factor drugs) were ineffective against OVA-induced oedema. The fact that indomethacin, MK-886, NDGA and WEB 2086 are unable to inhibit this allergic oedema indicates that the dexamethasone action seems not to be via phospholipase A2, but possibly due to the synthesis and/or the inhibitory activity of cytokines. The paw oedema inhibition by diphenhydramine, but not by meclizine, may suggest a different mechanism, which is independent of the effect of histamine. These data indicate that allergic oedema is more sensitive to anti-serotonin drugs, mainly anti-5-HT2, suggesting that the principal mediator of this inflammatory response is serotonin. PMID:12137244

  12. Catecholamine plasma levels following immune stimulation with rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preferences.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Sasso, Raffaella; Pepe, Anna M; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Quaranta, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    Epinephrine and norepinephrine plasma levels were assessed in dogs in relation to paw preference following an immune challenge with rabies vaccine. The results showed that both catecholamines increased after the vaccine administration, confirming the main role of the sympathetic nervous system in the modulation activity between the brain and the immune system. Moreover, ambidextrous dogs showed a significantly higher increase of epinephrine levels 8 days after immunization with respect to right- and left-pawed dogs, suggesting that the biological activity of this molecule could be key for a different immune response with regard to laterality.

  13. Programmable Automated Welding System (PAWS): Control of welding through software and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Martin D.; Doyle, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The ATD phase of the PAWS program ended in November 1992 and the follow-on ManTech program was started in September 1993. The system will be industrially hardened during the first year of this program. Follow-on years will focus upon the transition into specific end-user sites. These implementations will also expand the system into other welding processes (e.g. FCAW, GTAW, PAW). In addition, the architecture is being developed for application to other non-welding robotic processes (e.g. inspection, surface finishing). Future development is anticipated to encompass hardening for extreme environments, expanded exception handling techniques, and application to a range of manipulators.

  14. Representability of Bloch states on Projector-augmented-wave (PAW) basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Luis; Ferretti, Andrea; Curtarolo, Stefano; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Design of small, yet `complete', localized basis sets is necessary for an efficient dual representation of Bloch states on both plane-wave and localized basis. Such simultaneous dual representation permits the development of faster more accurate (beyond DFT) electronic-structure methods for atomistic materials (e.g. the ACBN0 method.) by benefiting from algorithms (real and reciprocal space) and hardware acceleration (e.g. GPUs) used in the quantum-chemistry and solid-state communities. Finding a `complete' atomic-orbital basis (partial waves) is also a requirement in the generation of robust and transferable PAW pseudopotentials. We have employed the atomic-orbital basis from available PAW data sets, which extends through most of the periodic table, and tested the representability of Bloch states on such basis. Our results show that PAW data sets allow systematic and accurate representability of the PAW Bloch states, better than with traditional quantum-chemistry double-zeta- and double-zeta-polarized-quality basis sets.

  15. Ciclamilast Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Zhang, Shui-juan; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yujin; Yang, Xin-fu; Yu, Bing; Xie, Qiang-min

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effect of a novel and selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, ciclamilast, on chronic inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA), a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and acute inflammation in the rat and mouse model of carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis. Our results showed that daily oral administration of ciclamilast at 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the increase in hind paw volume of rats with AIA. The inhibition of paw edema was associated with inhibition of both the production of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and cell infiltration assessed in subcutaneous paw tissue. Moreover, there was significantly less tissue destruction in the ciclamilast-treated rats compared to the vehicle-treated rats, as assessed by radiographic analysis and histopathological evaluation. In the two acute inflammation models, ciclamilast inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and inflammatory cell migration into the peritoneal cavity in mice in a dose-dependent manner. These results not only suggest that ciclamilast, as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), can attenuate RA but also provide proof of principle that a PDE4 inhibitor may be useful for the treatment of arthritis. PMID:26000303

  16. Influence of Epilobium extracts on prostaglandin biosynthesis and carrageenin induced oedema of the rat paw.

    PubMed

    Hiermann, A; Juan, H; Sametz, W

    1986-08-01

    Epilobium species have been used as remedies in folk-medicine for the treatment of pathophysiological processes of the prostata. In this paper the influence of extracts of Herba Epilobii angustifolii L. and Herba Epilobii parviflori Schreb. on prostaglandin biosynthesis and the carrageenin rat paw oedema is described. Aqueous extracts of Herba E. angustifolii reduced the release of prostaglandins I2, E2 and D2 (in the perfused rabbit ear) approximately 5 times more effectively than did similar extracts of Herba E. parviflori. Methanolic extracts were inactive. The aqueous extract of E. angustifolium strongly reduced the carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema whereas that of E. parviflorum was inactive. The chemical nature of the active compound(s) is as yet unknown but flavonoids and sitosterol derivatives can be excluded. PMID:3099091

  17. PAW, a general-purpose portable software tool for data analysis and presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, René; Couet, Olivier; Vandoni, Carlo E.; Zanarini, Pietro

    1989-12-01

    During the last twenty years, CERN has played a leading role as the focus for development of packages and software libraries to solve problems related to high energy physics (HEP). The results of the integration of resources from many different laboratories can be expressed in several million lines of code written at CERN during this period of time, used at CERN and distributed to collaborating laboratories. Nowadays, this role of software developer is considered very important by the entire HEP community. In this paper a large software package, where man-machine interaction and graphics play a key role (PAW - Physics Analysis Workstation), is described. PAW is essentially an interactive system which includes many different software tools, strongly oriented towards data analysis and data presentation. Some of these tools have been available in different forms and with different human interfaces for several years.

  18. Determination of analgesic drug efficacies by modification of the Randall and Selitto rat yeast paw test.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, R E; Latranyi, M B; Iorio, L C; Barnett, A

    1983-11-01

    This report describes a modified Randall and Selitto (1957) rat yeast paw test that can evaluate differences in efficacy of different analgesics. The modifications consist of a decrease in the rate of acceleration of the noxious stimulus (mechanical pressure) on the inflamed paw from 20 to 12.5 mmHg/sec and an extension of the cut-off time from 15 to 60 sec. All the narcoticlike drugs tested (morphine, codeine, and pentazocine) increased the response latencies of the inflamed paws to the cut-off time. The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory-like drugs tested (acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and proquazone) showed plateaus in their analgesic effects (i.e., increasing the dose failed to produce significantly greater increases in the response latencies compared to the next lower dose). Zomepirac (80-240 mg/kg p.o.) did not show this plateau effect, but was unable to increase response latencies to greater than 30 sec because of the toxicity of higher doses (320 mg/kg p.o.). Flunixin NMG (the meglumine salt of flunixin), a nonnarcotic analgesic, did not display a plateau effect and increased response latencies to maximum values. The methodology was therefore able to discriminate analgesics active against mild to severe clinical pain (narcoticlike) from those only useful against mild to moderate pain (nonnarcotic-like).

  19. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  20. Dynamic Control of Walking and Paw-shaking in the Cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Jessica; Cymbalyuk, Gennady

    Multistable central pattern generators (CPGs) are capable of producing multiple rhythmic patterns with different periods. We developed a model of a half center oscillator, consisting of two reciprocally inhibitory neurons. Each neuron contains two slow inward currents, a Na+current, and a Ca+ + current. We found that a walking rhythm (1 Hz) and a paw-shaking rhythm (10 Hz) do coexist in this model . The kinetics of the inactivations of INaSand ICaS produce this multistability. A paw-shaking response can be demonstrated as a result of a switch in the multistable model or as a transient response of a nearby monostable model. The duration of this transient paw-shaking response depends on pulse duration and the phase of walking at which the pulse is initiated. We also developed a model of two populations with 20 neurons each, in which there are random inhibitory synapses across the two populations and random excitatory synapses within each population. This population model generates similar behavior as the two neuron model.

  1. A wavelet-based Projector Augmented-Wave (PAW) method: Reaching frozen-core all-electron precision with a systematic, adaptive and localized wavelet basis set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, T.; Caliste, D.; Genovese, L.; Torrent, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present a Projector Augmented-Wave (PAW) method based on a wavelet basis set. We implemented our wavelet-PAW method as a PAW library in the ABINIT package [http://www.abinit.org] and into BigDFT [http://www.bigdft.org]. We test our implementation in prototypical systems to illustrate the potential usage of our code. By using the wavelet-PAW method, we can simulate charged and special boundary condition systems with frozen-core all-electron precision. Furthermore, our work paves the way to large-scale and potentially order- N simulations within a PAW method.

  2. Microstructure and Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel Joints by PAW + GTAW Combined Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan

    2016-08-01

    The combined double-pass process of plasma arc welding (PAW) + gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was performed on 304 austenitic stainless steel with the thickness of 12 mm. Results indicated that two different morphologies of ferrite (e.g., lathy δ-ferrite and skeletal δ-ferrite) were formed within the austenite matrix in PAW weld metal (PAW-WM). GTAW weld metal (GTAW-WM) was mainly composed of fine austenite and skeletal δ-ferrite. In transition zone between PAW-WM and GTAW-WM, epitaxial growth contributed to cellular dendritic crystals transforming into columnar crystals. The tensile strength of joint is about 700 MPa. The impact toughness of WM varied from 281 J (20 °C) to 122 (-196 °C), while the impact toughness of heat-affected zone (HAZ) varied from 205 J (20 °C) to 112 J (-196 °C).

  3. Microstructure and Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel Joints by PAW + GTAW Combined Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan

    2016-10-01

    The combined double-pass process of plasma arc welding (PAW) + gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was performed on 304 austenitic stainless steel with the thickness of 12 mm. Results indicated that two different morphologies of ferrite (e.g., lathy δ-ferrite and skeletal δ-ferrite) were formed within the austenite matrix in PAW weld metal (PAW-WM). GTAW weld metal (GTAW-WM) was mainly composed of fine austenite and skeletal δ-ferrite. In transition zone between PAW-WM and GTAW-WM, epitaxial growth contributed to cellular dendritic crystals transforming into columnar crystals. The tensile strength of joint is about 700 MPa. The impact toughness of WM varied from 281 J (20 °C) to 122 (-196 °C), while the impact toughness of heat-affected zone (HAZ) varied from 205 J (20 °C) to 112 J (-196 °C).

  4. Effect of Royal Jelly on Formalin Induced-Inflammation in Rat Hind Paw

    PubMed Central

    Arzi, Ardeshir; Olapour, Samaneh; Yaghooti, Hamid; Sistani Karampour, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Royal Jelly (RJ), a food item secreted by worker honeybees, is a mixture that contains protein, glucose, lipid, vitamins, and minerals; it is widely used as a commercial medical product. Previous studies have shown that RJ has a number of physiological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic and antioxidant activities. Objectives: In the present study, the anti-inflammatory properties of RJ were investigated in formalin-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups (n = 6) as follows: test groups received different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) of RJ and a negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg) and a positive control group received aspirin (300 mg/kg, i.p). Edema was induced on the right hind paw of the rat by a subplantar injection of 100 µL of formalin (2.5%) after 30 minutes. Paw edema was measured in the rats received the drugs, saline and aspirin before and after the formalin injection during 5 hours, using a plethysmometer. Results: The results showed that RJ has a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect and the highest anti-inflammatory effect was observed in the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Conclusions: Royal jelly has potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to aspirin and it could be used in the treatment of inflammation. However, further studies are required to determine the active components in RJ responsible for this effect and its mechanism of action. PMID:25866724

  5. Mediation by bradykinin of rat paw oedema induced by collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum.

    PubMed Central

    Legat, F. J.; Griesbacher, T.; Lembeck, F.

    1994-01-01

    1. Collagenases are thought to play a major role in the pathology of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium histolyticum, because they can destroy the connective tissue barriers. We investigated possible mediators involved in the oedema formation and plasma protein extravasation which follow the injection of a collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) from Clostridium histolyticum into one hind paw of anaesthetized rats. 2. The magnitude of the oedema following a subplantar injection was dependent on the dose of collagenase (30, 100 and 300 micrograms) injected. It reached its maximum within 30 min and remained unchanged for at least 5 h. Plasma protein extravasation into the paw was most pronounced within 20 min of the injection. Heat-inactivated collagenase was ineffective. 3. The B2 bradykinin (BK) antagonist icatibant (D-Arg-[Hyp3-Thi5-D-Tic7- Oic8] bradykinin, formerly named Hoe-140) reduced oedema formation in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal reduction of around 65% at a dose of 100 nmol kg-1 (s.c.). A significant effect could already be observed at a dose of 10 nmol kg-1. The duration of the effect of icatibant (100 nmol kg-1) was found to be at least 3 h. These results demonstrate the high potency and long duration of action of icatibant. Pretreatment of rats with the bradykinin B1 antagonist, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK did not affect collagenase-induced paw oedema. Thus, the observed collagenase-induced effects are mainly mediated by BK through activation of B2 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915609

  6. Allometry and asymmetry in the dog brain: the right hemisphere is heavier regardless of paw preference.

    PubMed

    Tan, U; Calişkan, S

    1987-08-01

    The allometric relationship between brain and body size and asymmetry in the weight of the cerebral hemispheres were studied in dogs. A regression analysis of the brain versus body weight revealed an allometric relationship according to the power function Y = kXa. The right cerebral hemisphere was found to be significantly heavier than the left. This finding was not associated with paw preference. In accordance with previous studies, it was concluded that the right-biased asymmetry in the weight of the cerebral hemispheres may be a common feature of the mammalian brain. Functional implications of the results were discussed with regard to the right hemisphere specializations.

  7. Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom induces oedema formation and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, A L; de Souza, A O; da Cruz-Höfling, M A; Flores, C A; Bon, C

    2000-02-01

    The ability of snake venoms to increase vascular permeability and to induce oedema through the release of pharmacologically active substances is well known. We have studied the oedema and vascular permeability induced by Bothrops lanceolatus venom in male Swiss white mice. Paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of B. lanceolatus venom (125-1000 ng/paw) and was quantified as the increase in paw weight. Changes in vascular permeability were assessed by measuring the amount of Evans blue dye extravasation. The oedema and the increase in vascular permeability were maximal within 2 h and had resolved after 24 h. The administration of the vasodilator iloprost (20 ng/paw) immediately after B. lanceolatus venom potentiated the oedema and the increase in vascular permeability by approximately four-fold. Pretreating the mice with indomethacin, dexamethasone, NDGA or BW A4C inhibited the venom-induced oedema and the increase in vascular permeability. In contrast, histamine, serotonin and PAF-acether antagonists (mepyramine, cyproheptadine and WEB 2086, respectively) were ineffective. Histological examination showed that B. lanceolatus venom (250 ng and 500 ng/paw) caused thickening of the inner dermal layers which was accompanied by extensive intercellular spaces indicative of oedema. In addition, there was a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly neutrophils, into the underlying muscle layer. The latter, however, remained morphologically unaffected during the 3 h of observation. Venom doses larger than 500 ng/paw produced intense haemorrhage. These results indicate that B. lanceolatus venom induces oedema and increases vascular permeability in the mouse hind paw. The principal mediators of this inflammatory response are cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products. PMID:10665802

  8. Service learning: Priority 4 Paws mobile surgical service for shelter animals.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lynetta J; Ferguson, Nancy; Litster, Annette; Arighi, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    The increasing attention given to competencies needed to enter the workforce has revealed a need for veterinary students to gain more experience in performing small-animal elective surgery before graduation. In addition, guidelines for standards of care for shelter animals recommend that all dogs and cats should be spayed or neutered before adoption. Teaching surgical skills while serving the needs of local animal shelters represents an ideal service-learning opportunity. Following a pilot study and the benchmarking of other programs, an elective course in shelter medicine and surgery was created at Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine (PVM) to allow senior DVM students an opportunity to spend 2 weeks on a mobile surgery unit (Priority 4 Paws) and 1 week at an animal shelter. With financial assistance from sponsors and donors, PVM purchased and equipped a mobile surgery unit, hired a full-time veterinarian and a registered veterinary technician, and established relationships with 12 animal shelters. From July 30, 2012, to March 22, 2013, 1,941 spays and neuters were performed with excellent postsurgical outcomes while training 33 veterinary students on rotation and 26 veterinary technician students. The program was well accepted by both students and the shelters being served. The Priority 4 Paws program is an example of an integrated, community-based service-learning opportunity that not only helps to improve the surgical skills of veterinary students but also helps to meet an identified community need.

  9. Glutaminase Increases in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons after Unilateral Adjuvant-Induced Hind Paw Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, E. Matthew; Zhang, Zijia; Schechter, Ruben; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of DRG neurons. After eight days AIA, GLS-ir remained elevated in small (<400 µm2), presumably nociceptive neurons. Western blot analysis of the L4 DRG at day four AIA confirmed the elevated GLS-ir. The present study indicates that GLS expression is increased in the chronic stage of inflammation and may be a target for chronic pain therapy. PMID:26771651

  10. The effect of intra-articular vanilloid receptor agonists on pain behavior measures in a murine model of acute monoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mishal; Mahowald, Maren L; Frizelle, Sandra P; Dorman, Christopher W; Funkenbusch, Sonia C; Krug, Hollis E

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the US, and the primary manifestation of arthritis is joint pain that leads to progressive physical limitation, disability, morbidity, and increased health care utilization. Capsaicin (CAP) is a vanilloid agonist that causes substance P depletion by interacting with vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential V1 on small unmyelinated C fibers. It has been used topically for analgesia in osteoarthritis with variable success. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultra potent CAP analog. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effects of intra-articular (IA) administration of CAP and RTX in experimental acute inflammatory arthritis in mice. Evoked pain score (EPS) and a dynamic weight bearing (DWB) device were used to measure nociceptive behaviors in a murine model of acute inflammatory monoarthritis. A total of 56 C57B16 male mice underwent EPS and DWB testing – 24 nonarthritic controls and 32 mice with carrageenan-induced arthritis. The effects of pretreatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX were measured. Nociception was reproducibly demonstrated by increased EPS and reduced DWB measures in the affected limb of arthritic mice. Pretreatment with 0.001% RTX resulted in statistically significant improvement in EPS and DWB measures when compared with those observed in carrageenan-induced arthritis animals. Pretreatment with IA 0.0003% RTX and IA 0.01% CAP resulted in improvement in some but not all of these measures. The remaining 24 mice underwent evaluation following treatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX, and the results obtained were similar to that of naïve, nonarthritic mice. PMID:27574462

  11. The effect of intra-articular vanilloid receptor agonists on pain behavior measures in a murine model of acute monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mishal; Mahowald, Maren L; Frizelle, Sandra P; Dorman, Christopher W; Funkenbusch, Sonia C; Krug, Hollis E

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the US, and the primary manifestation of arthritis is joint pain that leads to progressive physical limitation, disability, morbidity, and increased health care utilization. Capsaicin (CAP) is a vanilloid agonist that causes substance P depletion by interacting with vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential V1 on small unmyelinated C fibers. It has been used topically for analgesia in osteoarthritis with variable success. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is an ultra potent CAP analog. The aim of this study was to measure the analgesic effects of intra-articular (IA) administration of CAP and RTX in experimental acute inflammatory arthritis in mice. Evoked pain score (EPS) and a dynamic weight bearing (DWB) device were used to measure nociceptive behaviors in a murine model of acute inflammatory monoarthritis. A total of 56 C57B16 male mice underwent EPS and DWB testing - 24 nonarthritic controls and 32 mice with carrageenan-induced arthritis. The effects of pretreatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX were measured. Nociception was reproducibly demonstrated by increased EPS and reduced DWB measures in the affected limb of arthritic mice. Pretreatment with 0.001% RTX resulted in statistically significant improvement in EPS and DWB measures when compared with those observed in carrageenan-induced arthritis animals. Pretreatment with IA 0.0003% RTX and IA 0.01% CAP resulted in improvement in some but not all of these measures. The remaining 24 mice underwent evaluation following treatment with 0.1% CAP, 0.0003% RTX, or 0.001% RTX, and the results obtained were similar to that of naïve, nonarthritic mice. PMID:27574462

  12. Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory actions of Alangium salviifolium root extract.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Padmaja, B Suma; Sravanthi, M; Ramyasree, P; Kavitha, K

    2012-01-01

    Alangium salviifolium root was screened for phytochemical and anti-inflammatory properties. The percentage inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema was studied in rats. Alangium salvifolium gave maximum extractive values with Ethanol and the Loss on Drying value, total ash value and acid-insoluble ash and water soluble ash values were within limits. The extract gave positive tests for phytosterols, triterpenes, flavonoids, carbohydrates and alkaloids. The extract was free from glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins and amino acids. In acute toxicity studies, Alangium salviifolium root extract was found to be safe up to 3000 mg kg⁻¹, p.o. in the albino rats. The Alangium salviifolium root gave significant per cent inhibition of the maximal paw oedema and very highly significant per cent inhibition of total paw oedema during 6 h. This study revealed that Alangium salviifolium root has good anti-inflammatory actions when compared with Diclofenac sodium.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents.

    PubMed

    Channa, Shabana; Dar, Ahsana; Anjum, Shazia; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2006-03-01

    The ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera (Scrophulariaceae) exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and rats, an acute inflammatory model. To assess the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory action against carrageenan, the ethanol extract was treated with chemical mediators (histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2) and arachidonic acid)-induced edema in rats. The extract selectively inhibited prostaglandin E(2)-induced inflammation. Thus, it may be inferred that B. monniera possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity that may well be relevant for its effectiveness in the healing of various inflammatory conditions in traditional medicine.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Beta Vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Swati; Garg, Vipin Kumar; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of phytochemically evaluated aqueous extract of leaves of Beta vulgaris for its anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma method for chronic inflammation. The standard drug used was indomethacin (10 mg/kg) for both the models. In both methods, aqueous extract at a dose level of 1000 mg/kg has shown significant activity which is comparable to that of the standard PMID:24826006

  15. Acute stress regulates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Sheng; Li, Feng-Peng; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Bao-Jun; Qu, Fang; Wen, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yang; Lin, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Restraint stress modulates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated the effect of 1 h restraint on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and increase in paw volume (PV) of the injected paw induced by BV. SPFR was measured immediately after BV injection, and PWMT and PV were measured 2 h before BV and 2-8 h after BV. The results showed that acute restraint inhibited significantly the SPFR but failed to affect mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, stress enhanced significantly inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the effects of pretreatment with capsaicin locally applied to the sciatic nerve, systemic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and systemic naloxone were examined on the antinociception and proinflammation produced by acute restraint stress. Local capsaicin pretreatment inhibited BV-induced nociception and inflammatory edema, and had additive effects with stress on nociception but reduced stress enhancement of edema. Systemic 6-OHDA treatment attenuated the proinflammatory effect of stress, but did not affect the antinociceptive effect. Systemic naloxone pretreatment eliminated the antinociceptive effect of stress, but did not affect proinflammation. Taken together, our data indicate that acute restraint stress contributes to antinociception via activating an endogenous opioid system, while sympathetic postganglionic fibers may contribute to enhanced inflammation in the BV pain model.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    PubMed

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  17. Pure MnTBAP selectively scavenges peroxynitrite over superoxide: comparison of pure and commercial MnTBAP samples to MnTE-2-PyP in two models of oxidative stress injury, an SOD-specific Escherichia coli model and carrageenan-induced pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Batinić-Haberle, Ines; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Rebouças, Júlio S; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Mazzon, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Radi, Rafael; Spasojević, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Salvemini, Daniela

    2009-01-15

    MnTBAP is often referred to as an SOD mimic in numerous models of oxidative stress. We have recently reported that pure MnTBAP does not dismute superoxide, but commercial or poorly purified samples are able to perform O2.- dismutation with low-to-moderate efficacy via non-innocent Mn-containing impurities. Herein, we show that neither commercial nor pure MnTBAP could substitute for SOD enzyme in a SOD-deficient Escherichia coli model, whereas MnTE-2-PyP-treated SOD-deficient E. coli grew as well as a wild-type strain. This SOD-specific system indicates that MnTBAP does not act as an SOD mimic in vivo. In another model, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice, inflammation was evidenced by increased pleural fluid exudate and neutrophil infiltration and activation: these events were blocked by 0.3 mg/kg MnTE-2-PyP and, to a slightly lesser extent, by 10 mg/kg of either MnTBAP. Also, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, an indication of peroxynitrite existence in vivo, was blocked by both compounds; again MnTE-2-PyP was 33-fold more effective. Pleurisy model data indicate that MnTBAP exerts some protective actions in common with MnTE-2-PyP, which are not O2.- related and can be fully rationalized if one considers that the common biological role shared by MnTBAP and MnTE-2-PyP is related to their reduction of peroxynitrite and carbonate radical, the latter arising from ONOOCO2 adduct. The log kcat (O2.-) value for MnTBAP is estimated to be about 3.16, which is approximately 5 and approximately 6 orders of magnitude smaller than the SOD activities of the potent SOD mimic MnTE-2-PyP and Cu,Zn-SOD, respectively. This very low value indicates that MnTBAP is too inefficient at dismuting superoxide to be of any biological impact, which was confirmed in the SOD-deficient E. coli model. The peroxynitrite scavenging ability of MnTBAP, however, is only approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of MnTE-2-PyP and is not significantly affected by the presence of the SOD

  18. Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS): Multiscale Analysis of the ISM in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardy, Stephen; Leroy, A. K.; Schinnerer, E.; Pety, J.; Colombo, D.; PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) obtained a 12CO(J=1→0) map of the center region of M51 at a 37-pc scale. This allows us, for the first time, to study the multiscale structure of the molecular interstellar medium across an entire spiral galaxy. We analyze emission on scales from 40 pc to 4 kpc, measuring the properties of structures in the molecular ISM defined by intensity isosurfaces. At each scale, we measure the size, line width, and luminosity of the emergent structures. We derive scaling relations among these properties and compare them to the Larson scaling relations obtained for individual GMCs. The most striking result is how strongly the Larson scaling relations hold at a range of scales and intensity cuts, especially on smaller scales (see Colombo et al. poster in this session). Despite this, at luminosities above L_CO ~ 1E7 K km/s pc2 we find structures to be unbound, when considering only their molecular gas mass, and with larger line widths than predicted by the basic scaling relations. Across all scales, we find only weak variations in surface density.

  19. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.

    PubMed Central

    Sajeesh, Thankarajan; Parimelazhagan, Thangaraj

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%), the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P < 0.001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+)-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments. PMID:24672339

  20. Viper venom induced inflammation with Montivipera xanthina (Gray, 1849) and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in rat.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Erel, Sura Baykan; Köksal, Cinel; Göçmen, Bayram; Yıldız, Mehmet Zülfü; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, Nefise Ülkü

    2013-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the characterization of Montivipera xanthina crude venom partially by in vitro and in vivo and the anti-snake venom activities of Artemisia absinthium L. in comparison with carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model in rats. The LD50 value was estimated as 8.78 mg/kg within 24 h by different venom doses administrated intraperitoneally in mice. The IC50 value was 0.43 ± 0.18 μg/ml after 48 h treatment while the calculated value was 0.73 ± 0.10 μg/ml for the culture media totally refreshed after 2 h treatment with venom. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with A. absinthium extract, 30 min before venom or carrageenan was injected subplantarly into the left hind paw. Intraperitoneal administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg extract was inhibited venom induced paw swelling at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h (p < 0.05) while 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg extract treatment was inhibited carrageenan-induced paw swelling at 2, 3, 4 and 5 h (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the in vivo toxicity and inflammatory actions and in vitro cytotoxic actions of crude M. xanthina venom were performed as a first report and inhibition of venom-induced inflammation by methanolic extract of A. absinthium was described.

  1. Catecholamine plasma levels, IFN-γ serum levels and antibodies production induced by rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preference.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Cirone, Francesco; Guaricci, Antonio Ciro; Quaranta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    To explore the possible role of the sympathetic nervous activity in the asymmetrical crosstalk between the brain and immune system, catecholamine (E, NE) plasma levels, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) serum levels and production of antibodies induced by rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preference were measured. The results showed that the direction of behavioural lateralization influenced both epinephrine levels and immune response in dogs. A different kinetic of epinephrine levels after immunization was observed in left-pawed dogs compared to both right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. The titers of antirabies antibodies were lower in left-pawed dogs than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. Similarly, the IFN-γ serum levels were lower in left-pawed dogs than in the other two groups. Taken together, these findings showed that the left-pawed group appeared to be consistently the different group stressing the fundamental role played by the sympathetic nervous system as a mechanistic basis for the crosstalk between the brain and the immune system.

  2. Protein associated with SMAD1 (PAWS1/FAM83G) is a substrate for type I bone morphogenetic protein receptors and modulates bone morphogenetic protein signalling

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Janis; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Herhaus, Lina; Gourlay, Robert; Macartney, Thomas; Campbell, David; Smith, James C.; Sapkota, Gopal P.

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control multiple cellular processes in embryos and adult tissues. BMPs signal through the activation of type I BMP receptor kinases, which then phosphorylate SMADs 1/5/8. In the canonical pathway, this triggers the association of these SMADs with SMAD4 and their translocation to the nucleus, where they regulate gene expression. BMPs can also signal independently of SMAD4, but this pathway is poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of PAWS1/FAM83G as a novel SMAD1 interactor. PAWS1 forms a complex with SMAD1 in a SMAD4-independent manner, and BMP signalling induces the phosphorylation of PAWS1 through BMPR1A. The phosphorylation of PAWS1 in response to BMP is essential for activation of the SMAD4-independent BMP target genes NEDD9 and ASNS. Our findings identify PAWS1 as the first non-SMAD substrate for type I BMP receptor kinases and as a novel player in the BMP pathway. We also demonstrate that PAWS1 regulates the expression of several non-BMP target genes, suggesting roles for PAWS1 beyond the BMP pathway. PMID:24554596

  3. Histamine paw edema of mice was increased and became H[sub 2]-antagonist sensitive by co-injection of nitric oxide forming agents, but serotonin paw edema was decreased

    SciTech Connect

    Oyanagui, Yoshihiko; Sato, Sachio )

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) surprisingly caused the opposite effect on histamine and serotonin edema. The local injection of acidified nitrite (0.3-30 [mu]g/paw which correspond 10 [mu]g-1mg/kg) increased histamine edema of mice up to 45[plus minus]4% and suppressed serotonin edema to 90[plus minus]3%. Other NO-generators (nitroprusside sodium and hydroxylamine) showed similar effects. These results were in accordance with previous data on endogenous NO. Methylene blue (MB, 30ng/paw which corresponds to 1 [mu]g/kg) suppressed histamine edema (62[plus minus]3%) and increased serotonin edema (43[plus minus]3%) in normal mice, being reversed by acidified nitrite. This suggests the involvement of guanosine 3[prime], 5[prime]-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) formation for the action of NO. Histamine edema became sensitive to H[sub 2]-antagonist, cimetidine, by co-injection of 30 [mu]g/paw (which corresponds to 1mg/kg) acidified nitrite (ED[sub 50] = 30 [mu]g/kg versus [much gt] 1mg/kg). NO seemed to modify the histamine receptor(s) or tautomeric form of histamine. NO, O[sup [minus

  4. Immune Modulation of B. terrestris Worker (a Type of Bumblebee), Extract on CFA-induced Paw Edema in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ja; Han, Jea Woong; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Yun, Eun Young

    2014-01-01

    To develop a composition for enhancing immunity, based on alcohol extracts of the bumblebee as an active ingredient, bumblebee ethanol extracts were evaluated for their protective effect in chronic models of inflammation, adjuvant induced rat arthritis. B. terrestris worker extract (SDIEX) and, B. hypocrita sapporoensis lava an pupa extract (SPDYBEX), significantly decreased paw edema in arthritic rats, at a dose 100 mg/kg, respectively. The cytokine levels related inflammation of COX-2, sPLA2, VEGF, and TNF-α, were decreased, compared to positive control, indomethacin (5 mg/kg). Histopathological data demonstrated decreases inflammatory activity, hind paw edema, and repaired hyaline articular cartilage in DRG over a 2 wk administration. HPLC and GC-MS analysis of SDIEX and SPDYBEX revealed the presence of cantharidin. PMID:25584147

  5. In vivo antiarthritic activity of Rosa centifolia L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Nair, Vinod; Singh, Surender; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rosa centifolia L. (Rosaceae) have been used for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the traditional system of medicine. Aim: In this study, the antiarthritic activity of the alcoholic extract from the floral parts of R. centifolia was investigated. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity of R. centifolia alcoholic extract (RCAE: 32, 64, and 128 mg/kg) was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model. Serum from arthritic rats was collected for the estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Further, the safety of RCAE was evaluated in an acute and sub-acute (28-day) oral toxicity study. Results: RCAE (64 and 128 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1, 3, and 6 h post carrageenan challenge and demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) antiarthritic activity on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 day following CFA immunization. Further, RCAE (128 mg/kg) treatment also produced a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as compared with control. Further, no toxicologically significant treatment-related effects were observed in the oral sub-acute toxicity study conducted with the extract. Conclusion: The result of study demonstrates the antiarthritic activity of R. centifolia and validates its traditional use for the treatment of RA. PMID:27313424

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of the hydralcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes on rat paw and skin edema.

    PubMed

    Penna, S C; Medeiros, M V; Aimbire, F S C; Faria-Neto, H C C; Sertié, J A A; Lopes-Martins, R A B

    2003-01-01

    Plant extracts have been used for centuries as a popular mode of treatment for several health disorders. Over the last ten years, the study of those extracts has attracted attention in different fields of the biological sciences. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), is a commom constituent of diet worldwide and it has been reported that its extracts present some pharmacological activities. Here we investigate the effects of the crude hydralcoholic extract of ginger rhizomes on the classical models of rat paw and skin edema. The carrageenan-, compound 48/80- or serotonin-induced rat paw edema were inhibited significantly by the intraperitoneal administration of alcoholic ginger extract. Ginger extract was also effective in inhibiting 48/80-induced rat skin edema at doses of 0.6 and 1.8 mg/site. Rat skin edema induced by substance P or bradikinin was not affected by treatment with Z. officinalle extract. The intraperitoneal administration of ginger extract (186 mg/kg(-1) body wt.) 1 h prior to serotonin injections, reduced significantly the serotonin-induced rat skin edema. Our results demonstrated that crude extract of Zingiber officinale was able to reduce rat paw and skin edema induced by carrageenan, 48/80 compound and serotonin. The antiedematogenic activity seems to be related, at least partially, to an antagonism of the serotonin receptor. PMID:12834002

  7. Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 4-Methylcyclopentadecanone on Edema Models in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yukui; Li, Yue; Li, Xiufeng; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-methylcyclopentadecanone (4-MCPC) on edema models in mice and aimed to determine the safety of 4-MCPC after acute exposure. The acute toxicity of 4-MCPC was evaluated by oral administration to rats of single doses of 0, 5, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Toxic symptoms were observed for 14 days. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in xylene-induced mouse ear edema and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema. The animals were treated with 4-MCPC once every day for seven consecutive days. Edema index, % inhibition, IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2 and MPO levels in paws were detected after the treatment with xylene or carrageenan. Our results indicated that the LD50 value of 4-MCPC in rats is greater than 5000 mg/kg. The ED50 of 4-MCPC in xylene-induced mouse ear edema model was 7.5 mg/kg. 4-MCPC (8 or 16 mg/kg) remarkably inhibited carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema. Further study revealed that 4-MCPC treatment also decreased IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2 and MPO levels in mice paws. Intragastric administration of 4-MCPC exhibited more significant anti-inflammatory activity than muscone at a dose of 16 mg/kg. Taken together, our results suggest that 4-MCPC has potent anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanisms might be related to the decreases of the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, PGE2 and MPO in inflamed paws. PMID:24351869

  9. Epidemiology of Salmonella on the Paws and in the Faeces of Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bondo, K J; Pearl, D L; Janecko, N; Boerlin, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Parmley, J; Jardine, C M

    2016-06-01

    Raccoons are common in urban and rural environments and can carry a wide range of bacteria, including Salmonella, that can negatively affect human and livestock health. Although previous studies have reported that raccoons shed a variety of Salmonella serovars in their faeces, it is unknown whether Salmonella is carried on raccoon paws. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of Salmonella on the paws and in the faeces of raccoons in south-western Ontario. Raccoons were sampled in a repeat cross-sectional study on five swine farms and five conservation areas from May to October 2012. A total of 416 paired faecal and paw samples were collected from 285 individual raccoons. Salmonella was detected in 18% (75/416; 95% CI, 14-22%) and 27% (111/416; 95% CI, 22-31%) of paw and faecal samples, respectively. Salmonella was detected only on paws in 8% (35/416; 95% CI, 5.9-11.5%), only in faeces in 17% (71/416; 95% CI, 13.6-21.0%) and on both paws and in faeces in 10% (40/416; 95% CI, 7.0-12.9%) of raccoon captures. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of Salmonella and age (adult, juvenile), sex (male, female), location type (swine farm, conservation area), sample type (faeces, paw) and season (May-July and August-October). Random intercepts were included to account for clustering by individual animal and location. Significant differences, that varied by sample type and season, were noted in the prevalence of Salmonella carriage between sexes. Raccoons can carry Salmonella serovars known to infect humans and livestock on their paws and/or in their faeces and therefore have the potential to mechanically and biologically disseminate Salmonella among livestock facilities and human recreational areas. PMID:26404182

  10. Epidemiology of Salmonella on the Paws and in the Faeces of Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bondo, K J; Pearl, D L; Janecko, N; Boerlin, P; Reid-Smith, R J; Parmley, J; Jardine, C M

    2016-06-01

    Raccoons are common in urban and rural environments and can carry a wide range of bacteria, including Salmonella, that can negatively affect human and livestock health. Although previous studies have reported that raccoons shed a variety of Salmonella serovars in their faeces, it is unknown whether Salmonella is carried on raccoon paws. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of Salmonella on the paws and in the faeces of raccoons in south-western Ontario. Raccoons were sampled in a repeat cross-sectional study on five swine farms and five conservation areas from May to October 2012. A total of 416 paired faecal and paw samples were collected from 285 individual raccoons. Salmonella was detected in 18% (75/416; 95% CI, 14-22%) and 27% (111/416; 95% CI, 22-31%) of paw and faecal samples, respectively. Salmonella was detected only on paws in 8% (35/416; 95% CI, 5.9-11.5%), only in faeces in 17% (71/416; 95% CI, 13.6-21.0%) and on both paws and in faeces in 10% (40/416; 95% CI, 7.0-12.9%) of raccoon captures. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of Salmonella and age (adult, juvenile), sex (male, female), location type (swine farm, conservation area), sample type (faeces, paw) and season (May-July and August-October). Random intercepts were included to account for clustering by individual animal and location. Significant differences, that varied by sample type and season, were noted in the prevalence of Salmonella carriage between sexes. Raccoons can carry Salmonella serovars known to infect humans and livestock on their paws and/or in their faeces and therefore have the potential to mechanically and biologically disseminate Salmonella among livestock facilities and human recreational areas.

  11. Lateralised behaviour and immune response in dogs: relations between paw preference and interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and IgG antibodies production.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, A; Siniscalchi, M; Frate, A; Iacoviello, R; Buonavoglia, C; Vallortigara, G

    2006-01-30

    The production of specific antibodies (IgG), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was evaluated in dogs in relation to behavioural lateralisation as assessed by paw preference. Left-handed, right-handed and ambidextrous dogs of mixed breed were selected on the basis of their performance in a task consisting of the removal of a piece of adhesive paper from the snout. All dogs were immunised with rabies vaccine. IgG anti-rabies antibody response was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test. Serum IFN-gamma and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA in animals showing significant individual left-, right- or no-paw preferences in the behavioural test. The results showed that the direction of behavioural lateralisation influenced the immune response in dogs. The titers of anti-rabies antibodies were lower in left-pawed dogs than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. Similarly, the IFN-gamma serum levels were lower in left-pawed dogs than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. IL-10, on the contrary, seemed to be an immune parameter, which was not affected by lateralisation. These findings suggest that immunomodulation can be correlated with brain laterality in canine species by the regulation of the production of antibodies and some cytokines like IFN-gamma, which are molecules involved in the immune-neurohumoral crosstalk.

  12. [Dynamics of driven rhythm in neuron in sensorimotor cerebral cortices in rabbit on electrodermal paw stimulation].

    PubMed

    Galashina, A G; Bogdanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The dominant centre is a zone of proof higher excitation of neurons in the cortex of the brain, resulting from long stimulation or effector (in our case of a forepaw of an animal) or direct cortical representations of this effector. Besides of higher excitation and the firmness of excitation neurones, the dominant centre has two more very important properties--ability to summation (addition) coming to a cortex and extending on cortical neural networks excitations and inertia. Last property is shown what even in some days after the termination of the stimulations which have formed a dominant, in reply to testing stimulus (earlier indifferent for an animal) the centre is activated and puts in action effector. By means of irritation of a paw of rabbits rhythmic impulses of a current of threshold force us had been formed a rhythmic defensive dominant. Interconnected (coincidence) neuronal activity of the sensorimotor cortex of rabbits, in which the rhythmic defensive dominanta has been created, was investigated. Temporal of sequences intervals between the coincidence impulses in peaks of crosscorrelation histograms (CCH) was analyzed. Frequency of occurrence of the coincidence impulses (intervals between impulses), forming CCH was defined by means of "secondary" autocorrelation histograms (ACH) in during a minute. Peaks on "secondary" ACH showed prevalent intervals between of the coincidence impulses. For the further analysis only those peaks of "secondary" ACH, which prevailed over an average level of the histogram with significance p < 0.05 was used. It has been found that in the formed locus of the defensive dominant the coincidence impulses appear not only in the rhythm of stimulation applied in experiment-- s, but also in multiple beat to it (4, 6 and 8 s). Registration and analysis of neuronal activity were done after creation of a rhythmic dominant. At the beginning of each experiment (i.e. before a presentation of testing stimulus) single 2 --econd peaks were

  13. Analytic projection from plane-wave and PAW wavefunctions and application to chemical-bonding analysis in solids.

    PubMed

    Maintz, Stefan; Deringer, Volker L; Tchougréeff, Andrei L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Quantum-chemical computations of solids benefit enormously from numerically efficient plane-wave (PW) basis sets, and together with the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method, the latter have risen to one of the predominant standards in computational solid-state sciences. Despite their advantages, plane waves lack local information, which makes the interpretation of local densities-of-states (DOS) difficult and precludes the direct use of atom-resolved chemical bonding indicators such as the crystal orbital overlap population (COOP) and the crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) techniques. Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to overcome this fundamental issue, built around the concept of basis-set projection onto a local auxiliary basis. In this work, we propose a novel computational technique toward this goal by transferring the PW/PAW wavefunctions to a properly chosen local basis using analytically derived expressions. In particular, we describe a general approach to project both PW and PAW eigenstates onto given custom orbitals, which we then exemplify at the hand of contracted multiple-ζ Slater-type orbitals. The validity of the method presented here is illustrated by applications to chemical textbook examples-diamond, gallium arsenide, the transition-metal titanium-as well as nanoscale allotropes of carbon: a nanotube and the C60 fullerene. Remarkably, the analytical approach not only recovers the total and projected electronic DOS with a high degree of confidence, but it also yields a realistic chemical-bonding picture in the framework of the projected COHP method. PMID:24022911

  14. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The PAWS catalogs of GMCs and islands in M51 (Colombo+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, D.; Hughes, A.; Schinnerer, E.; Meidt, S. E.; Leroy, A. K.; Pety, J.; Dobbs, C. L.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Dumas, G.; Thompson, T. A.; Schuster, K. F.; Kramer, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS; Schinnerer et al., 2013ApJ...779...42S) is a large IRAM program involving 210hr of observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) and IRAM 30m telescope to conduct a sensitive, high angular resolution (1.16''*0.97''), 12CO(1-0) survey of the inner disk of M51a (field-of-view, FoV ~270''*170''). The spatial resolution at our assumed distance to M51 of 7.6Mpc (Ciardullo et al. 2002, cat. J/ApJ/577/31) is ~40pc. The inclusion of the 30m single dish data during joint deconvolution ensures that flux information on all spatial scales is conserved. The rms of the noise fluctuations in the cube is ~0.4K per 5km/s channel. This sensitivity is sufficient to detect an object with a gas mass of 1.2*105M{Sun} at the 5σrms level. The PAWS data cube covers the LSR velocity range between 173 and 769km/s. A detailed description of the observing strategy, calibration and data reduction is presented by Pety et al. (2013ApJ...779...43P). (2 data files).

  16. Inflammatory mediators involved in the paw edema and hyperalgesia induced by Batroxase, a metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops atrox snake venom.

    PubMed

    De Toni, Lanuze G B; Menaldo, Danilo L; Cintra, Adélia C O; Figueiredo, Maria J; de Souza, Anderson R; Maximiano, William M A; Jamur, Maria C; Souza, Glória E P; Sampaio, Suely V

    2015-09-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases have been described as responsible for several inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the edema and hyperalgesia induced in rats by Batroxase, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops atrox venom, along with possible inflammatory mediators involved in these responses. Batroxase or sterile saline was injected into rat paws and the edema and hyperalgesic effects were evaluated for 6h by using a plethysmometer and a Von Frey system, respectively. Batroxase induced significant edematogenic and hyperalgesic peak responses in the first hours after administration. The inflammatory mediators involved in these responses were assayed by pretreatment of animals with synthesis inhibitors or receptor antagonists. Peak responses were significantly reduced by administration of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, the H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine and the FLAP inhibitor MK-886. Rat paws injected with compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, followed by Batroxase injection resulted in significant reduction of the edema and hyperalgesia. However, Batroxase itself induced minor degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cells in vitro. Additionally, the inflammatory responses did not seem to be related to prostaglandins, bradykinin or nitric oxide. Our results indicate a major involvement of histamine and leukotrienes in the edema and hyperalgesia induced by Batroxase, which could be related, at least in part, to mast cell degranulation. PMID:26072684

  17. Contribution of α,β-Amyrenone to the Anti-Inflammatory and Antihypersensitivity Effects of Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.

    PubMed Central

    Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Rocha, Lilian W.; Silva, Gislaine Franciele; Reichert, Simone; Claudino, Vanessa D.; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth Meri; Malheiros, Angela; Souza, Márcia Maria De; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Bellé Bresolin, Tania M.; Machado, Marina da Silva; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the constituents of the dichloromethane fraction obtained from A. moluccana and also to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of α,β-amyrenone isolated from A. moluccana in mice. The dichloromethane fraction was evaluated by gas chromatography and submitted to purification. The mixture of α,β-amyrenone was isolated and then evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw-oedema or pleurisy and CFA-induced arthritis models in mice. Five triterpenes, α,β-amyrenone, glutinol, and α,β-amyrin were isolated from dichloromethane fraction of A. moluccana leaf extract. The mixture of α,β-amyrenone, dosed orally, was able to reduce mechanical hypersensitivity and paw-oedema induced by carrageenan, interfering with neutrophil migration. Similar results were observed in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy model. Repeated administration of the compounds was also effective in reducing the mechanical sensitization and oedema developed in the arthritis model induced by CFA. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that α,β-amyrenone interferes in both acute and chronic inflammatory processes. We can infer that these effects involve, at least in part, a reduction in the neutrophil migration. Therefore, it seems reasonable to suggest that α,β-amyrenone could represent a new therapeutic tool for the management of painful and inflammatory diseases, especially those presenting a chronic profile. PMID:25386561

  18. Protective Effect of Metformin against Acute Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rat.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhimanu; Kumar, Vijay L

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The antidiabetic drug, metformin, can inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators in several disease conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of metformin in ameliorating edema formation, oxidative stress, mediator release and vascular changes associated with acute inflammation in the rat carrageenan model. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited paw swelling induced by carrageenan and normalized the tissue levels of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase and nitrite. It also maintained oxidative homeostasis as indicated by near normal levels of the oxidative stress markers glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, catalase and superoxide dismutase. The histopathology of the paw tissue in metformin-treated animals was similar to that in normal paw and had similar effects to diclofenac. In a rat peritonitis model, metformin reduced vascular permeability and cellular infiltration. In conclusion, this study shows that metformin has a potential for use in treating various inflammatory conditions. PMID:27510757

  19. Antiedematogenic and antioxidant properties of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction of Calotropis procera latex in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; de Araújo Viana, Carolina; Ramos, Marcio V.; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex on edema formation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. Methods: A sub-plantar injection of carrageenan was given to induce edema in the hind paw of the rat. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex was evaluated following intravenous administration (5 and 25 mg/kg body weight) and was compared with that of diclofenac given orally (5 mg/kg). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the inflamed paw tissue at the end of the study. Results: The high molecular weight protein fraction obtained from the latex of C. procera produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation that was accompanied by normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and MPO, a marker for neutrophils in the paw tissue. Conclusions: The high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex ameliorates acute inflammation in the paw through its antioxidant effect. PMID:25767367

  20. Drug modulation of antigen-induced paw oedema in guinea-pigs: effects of lipopolysaccharide, tumour necrosis factor and leucocyte depletion.

    PubMed

    da Motta, J I; Cunha, F Q; Vargaftig, B B; Ferreira, S H

    1994-05-01

    1. In guinea-pigs previously sensitized with ovalbumin, the intra-plantar administration of the antigen induced dose-dependent and sustained oedema. An intense infiltrate of neutrophils and eosinophils was observed at the peak of the oedema (4 h). 2. Oedema induced by ovalbumin at the doses of 50 or 200 micrograms/paw was not inhibited by antihistamines (meclizine and cetirizine), a PAF antagonist (BN 50730), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), a lipoxygenase inhibitor (MK-886), a dual type lipo- and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (NDGA), a bradykinin antagonist (Hoe 140) or the combination of cetirizine, MK-886, indomethacin and BN 50730. These drugs did inhibit paw oedema induced by their specific agonists or by carrageenin. These results suggest that histamine, PAF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes or bradykinin are not important in the development of immune paw oedema in guinea-pigs. 3. Dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1) inhibited oedema induced by ovalbumin (50 or 200 micrograms/paw, P < 0.05). This effect apparently does not result from inhibition of arachidonate metabolism, since indomethacin, MK-886 and NDGA were without effect. 4. Oedema induced by ovalbumin (50 or 200 micrograms/paw) was also inhibited by azelastine. This effect was not due to the anti-histaminic property of azelastine since two other potent-antihistamines, meclizine and cetirizine, were ineffective. 5. Intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently inhibited the oedema induced by ovalbumin (200 micrograms/paw). This effect could not be attributed to hypotension or leucopenia since the maximal dose applied (81 micrograms kg-1) did not induce significant changes in the blood pressure or in the white blood cell levels of the animals. It is suggested that the effect of LPS is mediated by the endogenous release of cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha). Murine TNF alpha dose dependently(9-81 microg kg-1) inhibited the paw oedema induced by ovalbumin.7. The anti

  1. An induced mass spawn of the hermaphroditic lion-paw scallop, Nodipecten subnodosus: genetic assignment of maternal and paternal parentage.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jessica L; Ibarra, Ana M; Ramirez, José L; May, Bernie

    2008-01-01

    The Pacific lion-paw scallop is commonly propagated for aquaculture by induced mass spawns of few individuals. Parentage of a mass spawn of this species has not been evaluated nor has the maternal and paternal contribution of each of these functional hermaphrodites to the progeny. Genotypes of 6 spawners and 374 resulting progeny at 6 microsatellite loci were coupled with mitochondrial DNA sequencing to assign maternal and paternal parentage. After the identification of a high proportion of null alleles (9.7%), microsatellite data revealed that 51.7% of the progenies were full siblings, with a significant, unequal contribution of the 6 spawners to the progeny. Three progenies were the result of self-fertilization. All spawners contributed paternally (though unequally); however, 2 spawners were the maternal parents of all but 7 progenies resulting in a variance effective population size of 3.52. DNA sequencing confirmed 4 microsatellite mutations within 4476 alleles scored, all in the paternal germ line. With minor exception, the loci conformed to Mendelian rules of segregation when null alleles were accounted for, and 2 loci were found to be linked. These results lend insight to the genetic composition of induced mass spawns and provide a basis for the development of more effective spawning techniques.

  2. Delayed anti-inflammatory action of nedocromil sodium in the rat paw is dependent on de novo protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Raud, J; Konrad, D; Dahlén, S E

    1995-08-25

    Nedocromil sodium is commonly suggested to reduce allergic inflammation by inhibiting mediator release from mast cells. However, nedocromil also exhibits a wide range of additional anti-inflammatory activities, including inhibition of increased vascular permeability induced by individual mediators such as histamine. In the present study, we have further characterized the mode of action of nedocromil in a rat model for hind paw edema. Mast cell-dependent edema was induced with compound 48/80 (edema response mainly due to 5-hydroxytryptamine release), and direct mediator-induced plasma extravasation was evoked by exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (both agents injected locally). Local pretreatment with nedocromil for 20 min dose-dependently inhibited the edema evoked by compound 48/80 more effectively than that induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. However, after 2 h pretreatment, both the 5-hydroxytryptamine-and compound 48/80-induced edema responses were inhibited to approximately the same extent by a range of concentrations of nedocromil, as well as by dexamethasone. Local inhibition of RNA/protein synthesis with actinomycin-D abolished the effects of both dexamethasone and nedocromil (2 h local pretreatment). We thus conclude that nedocromil can produce an 'anti-exudative' effect that is independent of inhibition of mast cell mediator release, is slow in onset, and requires de novo protein synthesis.

  3. Apoptosis of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus induced with paralyzing shellfish poison from Gymnodinium catenatum.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Norma; Ascencio, Felipe; Shoshani, Liora; Contreras, Rubén G

    2014-12-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons (PSPs) that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. Previously, we recorded a decrease in hemocytes 24h after injection of PSPs (gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers, GTX2/3) in the adductor muscle in the lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. In this work, qualitative and quantitative analyses, in in vivo and in vitro experiments, revealed that the lower count of hemocytes results from cells undergoing typical apoptosis when exposed to GTX 2/3 epimers. This includes visible morphological alterations of the cytoplasmic membrane, damage to the nuclear membrane, condensation of chromatin, DNA fragmentation, and release of DNA fragments into the cytoplasm. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer cell membrane and activation of cysteine-aspartic proteases, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Addition of an inhibitor of caspase to the medium suppressed activation in hemocytes exposed to the toxins, suggesting that cell death was induced by a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. The results are important for future investigation of the scallop's immune system and should provide new insights into apoptotic processes in immune cells of scallops exposed to PSPs.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818

  5. Extracts of Leptadenia hastata Leaf, a Famine Food and Traditional Remedy for Furuncles, Suppress Inflammation in Murine Models.

    PubMed

    Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Ufere, Ifechukwu Kenneth; Akah, Peter Achunike; Ezea, Samson Chukwuemeka; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the methanol extract (LHE), hexane (LHHF), ethylacetate (LHEF) and methanol (LHMF) fractions of leaf of Leptadenia hastata on acute and chronic inflammation were studied. Furthermore, the effects of LHE on acetic acid induced increase in vascular permeability, carrageenan induced leucocyte migration and membrane stability were evaluated. The LHE and fractions were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. The LHE, LHEF and LHMF significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed topical ear edema, systemic paw edema, global edematous response to formaldehyde arthritis and granuloma tissue growth. The LHE suppressed acetic acid induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced leucocyte migration, and also stabilized the erythrocyte membrane. An acute toxicity test in mice established an oral LD50 > 5 g/kg for LHE. The LHEF elicited the greatest inhibition, suggesting that the observed anti-inflammatory effects may be attributable to the flavonoids abundant in the fraction. These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of L. hastata leaf in the treatment of furuncles may largely derive from anti-inflammatory activities mediated through inhibition of both increase in vascular permeability and leucocyte migration, and stabilization of cell membranes.

  6. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 ...

  7. Neutralization of the oedematogenic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom on the mouse paw by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Perales, J; Amorim, C Z; Rocha, S L; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H

    1992-11-01

    The pharmacological modulation of mice paw oedema produced by Bothrops jararaca venom (BJV) has been studied. Intraplantar injection of BJV (1-30 micrograms/paw) produced a dose- and time-related oedema, which was maximal 30 min after injection, reduced gradually thereafter and disappeared over 48 h. BJV heated at 100 degrees C for 5 or 15 min blocked local hemorrhage and caused partial inhibition of its oedematogenic activity. The BJV oedema was not inhibited by the anti-histamine meclizine, the inhibitor of histamine and serotonin, cyproheptadine, PAF-acether antagonist WEB 2170 or by the anti-leukotrienes C4/D4, LY 171883. Dexamethasone, aspirin, indomethacin, and the dual cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor BW 755C inhibited BJV-induced oedema indicating that arachidonic acid metabolism products via the cyclooxygenase pathway participate in its genesis and/or maintenance. The antibothropic fraction (ABF) (25-200 micrograms/paw) isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum neutralized the oedema induced by the venom with and without heating, the hemorrhage induced by BJV and partially blocked the oedema induced by bradykinin and by cellulose sulphate. The oedema produced by histamine, serotonin, PAF-acether or leukotriene C4 was not inhibited. PMID:1295374

  8. Gas Kinematics on Giant Molecular Cloud Scales in M51 with PAWS: Cloud Stabilization through Dynamical Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; García-Burillo, Santiago; Hughes, Annie; Colombo, Dario; Pety, Jérôme; Dobbs, Clare L.; Schuster, Karl F.; Kramer, Carsten; Leroy, Adam K.; Dumas, Galle; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-12-01

    We use the high spatial and spectral resolution of the PAWS CO(1-0) survey of the inner 9 kpc of the iconic spiral galaxy M51 to examine the effects of gas streaming motions on the star-forming properties of individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We compare our view of gas flows in M51—which arise due to departures from axisymmetry in the gravitational potential (i.e., the nuclear bar and spiral arms)—with the global pattern of star formation as traced by Hα and 24 μm emission. We find that the dynamical environment of GMCs strongly affects their ability to form stars, in the sense that GMCs situated in regions with large streaming motions can be stabilized, while similarly massive GMCs in regions without streaming go on to efficiently form stars. We argue that this is the result of reduced surface pressure felt by clouds embedded in an ambient medium undergoing large streaming motions, which prevent collapse. Indeed, the variation in gas depletion time expected based on the observed streaming motions throughout the disk of M51 quantitatively agrees with the variation in the observed gas depletion time scale. The example of M51 shows that streaming motions, triggered by gravitational instabilities in the form of bars and spiral arms, can alter the star formation law; this can explain the variation in gas depletion time among galaxies with different masses and morphologies. In particular, we can explain the long gas depletion times in spiral galaxies compared with dwarf galaxies and starbursts. We suggest that adding a dynamical pressure term to the canonical free-fall time produces a single star formation law that can be applied to all star-forming regions and galaxies across cosmic time.

  9. Gas kinematics on giant molecular cloud scales in M51 with PAWS: Cloud stabilization through dynamical pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; Hughes, Annie; Colombo, Dario; Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl F.; Dumas, Galle; Dobbs, Clare L.; Kramer, Carsten; Leroy, Adam K.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-12-10

    We use the high spatial and spectral resolution of the PAWS CO(1-0) survey of the inner 9 kpc of the iconic spiral galaxy M51 to examine the effects of gas streaming motions on the star-forming properties of individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We compare our view of gas flows in M51—which arise due to departures from axisymmetry in the gravitational potential (i.e., the nuclear bar and spiral arms)—with the global pattern of star formation as traced by Hα and 24 μm emission. We find that the dynamical environment of GMCs strongly affects their ability to form stars, in the sense that GMCs situated in regions with large streaming motions can be stabilized, while similarly massive GMCs in regions without streaming go on to efficiently form stars. We argue that this is the result of reduced surface pressure felt by clouds embedded in an ambient medium undergoing large streaming motions, which prevent collapse. Indeed, the variation in gas depletion time expected based on the observed streaming motions throughout the disk of M51 quantitatively agrees with the variation in the observed gas depletion time scale. The example of M51 shows that streaming motions, triggered by gravitational instabilities in the form of bars and spiral arms, can alter the star formation law; this can explain the variation in gas depletion time among galaxies with different masses and morphologies. In particular, we can explain the long gas depletion times in spiral galaxies compared with dwarf galaxies and starbursts. We suggest that adding a dynamical pressure term to the canonical free-fall time produces a single star formation law that can be applied to all star-forming regions and galaxies across cosmic time.

  10. Antiallergic and Antiarthritic Effects of Stem Bark Extract of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng) Monachino (Tiliaceae) in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, David D.; Osafo, Newman; Abotsi, Regina E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Various parts of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng) Monachino (Tiliaceae) find a use in traditional medicine in the treatment of pain and oedema among others. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antiarthritic effects of a 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Glyphaea brevis in murine models. Materials and Methods. The effect of the aqueous ethanol extract of Glyphaea brevis extract (GBE) was assessed on the maximal and total oedema responses in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice to evaluate the acute anti-inflammatory actions of the extract. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced with compound 48/80 and survival rates monitored for 1 h in mice with prior treatment with GBE to assess the anti-allergic action of the extract. The indirect antihistamine effect of GBE was evaluated on clonidine-induced catalepsy. Rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model was used to study GBE's antiarthritic action. Results. GBE significantly suppressed the mean maximal swelling and the total paw swellings over 6 h in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically. GBE dose dependently increased the time for compound 48/80-induced mortality. Administered either prophylactically or therapeutically, GBE inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy while it had no effect on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. GBE caused a significant dose-dependent suppression of Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. Conclusion. Glyphaea brevis inhibits the in vivo degranulation of mast cells and thereby suppress allergy. In addition it exhibits anti-inflammatory action and attenuates Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. The results of this work contribute to validate the traditional use of Glyphaea brevis in the management of inflammatory disorders. PMID:24167739

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, A B; Damre, A S; Kulkami, K R; Saraf, M N

    2002-07-01

    Saussurea lappa, Argyreia speciosa and Achyranthes aspera are well known Indian medicinal plants used in the indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. The ethanolic extracts of the plants at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. were screened for their effect on acute and chronic inflammation induced in mice and rats. S. lappa and A. speciosa were found to significantly inhibit paw edema induced by carrageenan and Freund's complete adjuvant and to prevent accumulation of inflammatory cells in carrageenan-induced peritonitis at doses of 50-200 mg/kg. A. aspera inhibited these inflammatory responses at doses of 100-200 mg/kg. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extracts of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera possess anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity and support the rationale behind the traditional use of these plants in inflammatory conditions.

  13. Pharmacology of a new non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory agent: 6,11-dihydro-11-oxodibenz [b, e] oxepin-2-acetic acid (HP 549).

    PubMed

    Lassman, H B; Kirby, R E; Wilker, J C; Mc Fadden, A R; Aultz, D E; Hoffman, D; Helsley, G C; Novick, W J

    1977-05-01

    HP 549 is an orally effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with moderate analgesic and antipyretic activity. It is active in adjuvant-induced polyarthritis when given prophylactically or therapeutically. HP 549 also inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema in the rat, an activity which is not altered by adrenalectomy. The analgesic activity of HP 549 was demonstrated in phenylquinone writhing. However, HP 549 produced variable results in the Randall-Selitto analgesia test. The anti-pyretic activity of HP 549 appears to be weak. HP 549, unlike other pharmacologically active anti-inflammatory drugs, does not produce gastric irritation at effective doses and is 45 times less ulcerogenic than indomethacin. Also the acute therapeutic indices for HP 549 are more favorable than for indomethacin. PMID:901062

  14. Naringenin reduces inflammatory pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Mizokami, Sandra S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-06-01

    Naringenin is a flavonoid widely consumed by humans that present anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity. Recently, the analgesic effect of naringenin has been demonstrated in neuropathic pain models. Herein, we tested the analgesic effects of naringenin in several models of inflammatory pain. Mice received treatment with naringenin (16.7-150 mg/kg, per oral), or with the controls anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or dipyrone (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) prior the inflammatory stimuli injection. For acute pain, we used acetic acid- and PBQ-induced visceral pain (abdominal writhings), and formalin-, capsaicin-, and CFA-induced paw flinching and licking. By using an electronic version of von Frey filaments, we also investigated the effects of naringenin in pain intensity to a mechanical stimulus (mechanical hyperalgesia) after carrageenan, capsaicin, CFA, or PGE2 intraplantar injection. Naringenin (50 mg/kg) reduced acute pain behaviors induced by all tested stimuli, including both phases of formalin test, suggesting a direct nociceptor modulatory effect of this compound besides its anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, naringenin also inhibited the increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulus induced by carrageenan, capsaicin, and PGE2. Daily treatment with naringenin during 7 days also reduced CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia without gastric or hepatic toxicity. The mechanisms of naringenin involve the inhibition of carrageenan-induced oxidative stress, hyperalgesic cytokines (IL-33, TNF-α, and IL-1β) production and NF-κB activation in the paw skin. Naringenin also activated the analgesic NO-cyclic GMP-PKG-ATP sensitive K(+) channel signaling pathway to inhibit carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and neutrophil recruitment. These results suggest that naringenin inhibits both inflammatory pain and neurogenic inflammation. PMID:26907804

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin.

    PubMed

    Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Sardar, K K; Kumar, D; Tandan, S K

    2012-12-01

    Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Sal) is one of the most important traditional Indian medicinal plants. The resin of the plant has been used in the treatment of inflammation in folklore medicine. In the present study, ethanolic extract (70%) of S. robusta resin (SRE) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Acute inflammation was produced by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and sub-acute by cotton pellet-induced granuloma in male Wistar rats. The antipyretic activity of SRE was studied using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The rats were divided into five groups with five animals in each group. Group I was treated with vehicle i.e. 1% v/v Tween-80 and served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with three different doses of SRE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally). Group V was treated with standard drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg orally). The anti-inflammatory activity of SRE was assessed by per cent reduction in edema volume of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and by per cent decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. SRE (100 and 300 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in edema volume and decrease in granulation tissue formation in rats. Significant reduction in pyrexia was observed at all the dose levels of SRE i.e. 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The results of the present study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of S. robusta resin and supported its traditional therapeutic use in painful inflammatory conditions and fever. PMID:23350282

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of betalain-rich dye of Beta vulgaris: effect on edema, leukocyte recruitment, superoxide anion and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Longhi-Balbinot, Daniela T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Sassonia, Rogério C; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-04-01

    We have recently developed betalain-rich beetroot (Beta vulgaris) dye (betalain) to be used in food products. Betalain (30-300 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment diminished carrageenan (100 µg/paw)-induced paw edema and neutrophil migration to the paw skin tissue. Betalain (100 mg/kg) treatment by subcutaneous or per oral routes also inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema. Importantly, the post-treatment with betalain (100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited carrageenan- and complete Freund's adjuvant (10 µl/paw)-induced paw edema. Betalain (100 mg/kg) also reduced carrageenan (500 µg/cavity)-induced recruitment of total leukocytes, including mononuclear cells and neutrophils, as well as increasing vascular permeability in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, betalain significantly reduced carrageenan-induced superoxide anion, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the peritoneal fluid, as well as augmenting IL-10 levels. Therefore, this compound presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis by reducing the production of superoxide anion and the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, in addition to increasing IL-10 levels. These results suggest that betalain shows therapeutic potential that could be utilized in the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases.

  17. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  18. Carrageenan-induced ulceration of the large intestine in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Watt, J; Marcus, R

    1971-02-01

    A 5% aqueous solution of degraded carrageenan derived from the red seaweed Eucheuma spinosum was fed to guinea pigs in their drinking water over a period of 20-45 days. Occult blood in the faeces and multiple ulcers in the caecum, colon and rectum occurred in 100% of animals by the 30th day. The clinical and pathological features bear a close resemblance to human ulcerative colitis. The method provides a simple experimental model for the study of various aspects of the pathology of ulcerative lesions in the large intestine as well as the effects of therapeutic agents. PMID:5548564

  19. Bioactivities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches: antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Santos, Bruna C S; Alves, Maria Silvana; Araújo, Aílson L A; Yamamoto, Célia H; Pinto, Míriam A O; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Sousa, Orlando V

    2016-07-11

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches. Phytochemical screening and total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazin (DPPH) and iron reducing power methods. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate and tail immersion assays; while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleurisy tests were performed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammation. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, terpenes, sterols and saponins. Expressive levels of total phenols and flavonoids and a promising antioxidant effect were quantified. At the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the extract inhibited the writhing, reduced both phases of paw licking time and increased the reaction time on the hot plate. In the tail immersion test, the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) caused a significant inhibition of pain. In these doses, the paw edema, exudate volume and leucocyte mobilization were significantly reduced. These results suggest that A. fastigiatum can be an active source of substances with antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, adding scientific support to the appropriate use in the Brazilian folk medicine. PMID:27411067

  20. In vivo anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of a medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella F.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana

    2015-07-01

    This research examined antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of C. bonducella whole seeds in experimental albino rats. Three doses, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the whole seed ethanolic extract prepared as a suspension in 2 ml of 2% gum acacia were used. Acute inflammatory and antipyretic activities were evaluated in experimental animals by carrageenan induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia models, respectively. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in paw volumes, and pyrexia was noted in experimental animals when compared with control animals. The ethanol see extract (400 mg/kg) displayed in vivo anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic in terms of reduction in paw edema, % writhes inhibition and rectal temperature by (0.24±0.03), (31.38%) and (36.2±0.1), respectively. Overall the whole ethanolic seed extract at all tested concentrations produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic activities. The results obtained in this study clearly indicated the ethno-medicinal potential of C. bonducella in curing pain and inflammation related disorders, supporting its efficacy as a natural analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:26431663

  1. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.

    PubMed

    Olajide, O A; Ajayi, F F; Ekhelar, A I; Awe, S O; Makinde, J M; Alada, A R

    1999-06-01

    The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.

  2. Probability Distribution Functions of 12CO(J = 1 → 0) Brightness and Integrated Intensity in M51: The PAWS View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; Colombo, Dario; Pety, Jerôme; Leroy, Adam K.; Dobbs, Clare L.; García-Burillo, Santiago; Thompson, Todd A.; Dumas, Gaëlle; Schuster, Karl F.; Kramer, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the distribution of CO brightness temperature and integrated intensity in M51 at ~40 pc resolution using new 12CO(J = 1 → 0) data from the Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS). We present probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the CO emission within the PAWS field of view, which covers the inner ~11 × 7 kpc of M51. We find clear variations in the shape of CO PDFs both within different M51 environments, defined according to dynamical criteria, and among M51 and two nearby low-mass galaxies, M33 and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Globally, the PDFs for the inner disk of M51 can be represented by narrow lognormal functions that cover ~1-2 orders of magnitude in CO brightness and integrated intensity. The PDFs for M33 and the LMC are narrower and peak at lower CO intensities, consistent with their lower gas surface densities. However, the CO PDFs for different dynamical environments within the PAWS field depart significantly from the shape of the global distribution. The PDFs for the interarm region are approximately lognormal, but in the spiral arms and central region of M51, they exhibit diverse shapes with a significant excess of bright CO emission. The observed environmental dependence on the shape of the CO PDFs is qualitatively consistent with changes that would be expected if molecular gas in the spiral arms is characterized by a larger range of average densities, gas temperatures, and velocity fluctuations, although further work is required to disentangle the relative importance of large-scale dynamical effects versus star formation feedback in regulating these properties. We show that the shape of the CO PDFs for different M51 environments is only weakly related to global properties of the CO emission, e.g., the total CO luminosity, but is strongly correlated with properties of the local giant molecular cloud (GMC) and young stellar cluster populations, including the shape of their mass distributions. For galaxies with

  3. In vivo and In vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Indazole and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Muniappan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory response is closely intertwined with the process of repair. However in some diseases the inflammatory response may be exaggerated and sustained without apparent benefit and even with severe adverse complications. For decades, we have been primarily relying upon Nonsteroidal (NSAID) and Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory agents for management of various inflammatory conditions. However, adverse effects of these drugs are severe which often leads to patient’s non-compliance with inadequate relief. Therefore, there has been a constant pursuit to develop newer anti - inflammatory treatment with fewer side effects. Aim The study was designed to investigate the possible anti- inflammatory activity of indazole, its derivatives and to further investigate the possible cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect. Materials and Methods Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema in rats was employed to study the acute anti-inflammatory activity of indazole and its derivatives. Further, the role of cyclooxygenase – 2, pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumour Necrosis Factor – α, Interleukin – 1β and free radical scavenging activity (LPO, DPPH and NO) in the action of indazole and its derivatives was investigated using in vitro assays. Results SPSS version 16.0 software was used for analyse the anti-inflamatory data. The IC50 values of indazole and its derivatives obtained in in vitro experiments were calculated by linear regression analysis. Indazole and its derivatives significantly, dose dependently and time dependently inhibited carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. In addition, the test compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase–2, pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential anti-inflammatory action of investigated indazoles. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase -2, cytokines and free radicals may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical composition of the essential oils from Senecio flammeus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kai-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xia; Dai, Jia-Li; Zhu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Many species from Senecio genus have been used in traditional medicine, and their pharmacological activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Senecio flammeus. A total of 48 components representing 98.41 % of the total oils were identified. The main compounds in the oils were α-farnesene (11.26 %), caryophyllene (8.69 %), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.23 %), and α-pinene (6.36 %). The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils was evaluated in rodents (10–90 mg/kg bw) in classical models of inflammation [carrageenan-induced paw edema, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma]. The essential oils at doses of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg bw significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema by 17.42 % (P < 0.05), 52.90 % (P < 0.05), and 66.45 % (P < 0.05) 4 h after carrageenan injection, respectively, and significantly reduced myeloperoxidase activity (P < 0.05). The essential oils (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) also produced a significant dose-dependent response to reduce TPA-induced ear edema by 20.27 % (P < 0.05), 33.06 % (P < 0.05), and 53.90 % (P < 0.05), respectively. The essential oils produced significant dose-response anti-inflammatory activity against cotton pellet-induced granuloma that peaked at the highest dose of 90 mg/kg (49.08 % wet weight and 47.29 % dry weight). Results demonstrate that the essential oils of S. flammeus were effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, thereby supporting the traditional use of this herb. PMID:26417301

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of ficus deltoidea.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Z A; Hussain, M K; Mohamad, A S; Abdullah, F C; Sulaiman, M R

    2012-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea (Family Moraceae) leaves have been used traditionally by the Malays to treat ailments such as wounds, sores, and rheumatism. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of F. deltoidea leaf (FDA) using acute and chronic inflammatory models. FDA, in the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally in rats (n = 6) before the animals were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma test, and formalin test. The first two tests represent acute and chronic models of inflammation, respectively. The first and second phases of the formalin test represent neurogenic pain and inflammatory-mediated pain, respectively; thus, only the second phase was measured in the present study. Results showed that FDA exerted significant (p < .05) anti-inflammatory activity in all assays, with dose-response effects seen in the paw edema and formalin tests. In conclusion, the leaf of F. deltoidea possesses anti-inflammatory activity against acute and chronic inflammatory responses and against pain-associated inflammatory response. These findings justify the traditional uses of F. deltoidea leaves for treatment of inflammatory-mediated ailments.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of azadirachtin in mice.

    PubMed

    Soares, Darly G; Godin, Adriana M; Menezes, Raquel R; Nogueira, Rafaela D; Brito, Ana Mercy S; Melo, Ivo S F; Coura, Giovanna Maria E; Souza, Danielle G; Amaral, Flávio A; Paulino, Tony P; Coelho, Márcio M; Machado, Renes R

    2014-06-01

    Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) extracts have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. However, the activities of azadirachtin, a limonoid and the major bioactive compound found in the extracts, have been poorly investigated in animal models. In the present study, we investigated the effects induced by azadirachtin in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by subcutaneous cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of azadirachtin in mice. Zymosan-induced writhing and hot plate tests were employed to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. To explore putative mechanisms of action, the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in inflammatory tissue was measured and the effect induced by opioidergic and serotonergic antagonists was evaluated. Previous per os (p. o.) administration of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan. However, the concomitant increase of the paw concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α induced by this inflammatory stimulus was not reduced by azadirachtin. In addition to inhibiting the acute paw edema induced by carrageenan, azadirachtin (6, 60, and 120 mg/kg) inhibited the proliferative phase of the inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the reduced formation of fibrovascular tissue growth. Azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) also inhibited the nociceptive response in models of nociceptive (hot plate) and inflammatory (writhing induced by zymosan) pain. The activity of azadirachtin (120 mg/kg) in the model of nociceptive pain was attenuated by a nonselective opioid antagonist, naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i. p.), but not by a nonselective serotonergic antagonist, cyproheptadine. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the activity of azadirachtin in experimental models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain, and also in models of acute and chronic inflammation

  7. Physiological Correlation of Airway Pressure and Transpulmonary Pressure Stress Index on Respiratory Mechanics in Acute Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chun; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Yun-Hang; Liu, Wei; Urbino, Rosario; Ranieri, V Marco; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress index at post-recruitment maneuvers could be a method of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. However, airway pressure (Paw) stress index may not reflect lung mechanics in the patients with high chest wall elastance. This study was to evaluate the Paw stress index on lung mechanics and the correlation between Paw stress index and transpulmonary pressure (PL) stress index in acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients. Methods: Twenty-four ARF patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively recruited from July 2011 to April 2013 in Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, China and Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista-Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy. All patients underwent MV with volume control (tidal volume 6 ml/kg) for 20 min. PEEP was set according to the ARDSnet study protocol. The patients were divided into two groups according to the chest wall elastance/respiratory system elastance ratio. The high elastance group (H group, n = 14) had a ratio ≥30%, and the low elastance group (L group, n = 10) had a ratio <30%. Respiratory elastance, gas-exchange, Paw stress index, and PL stress index were measured. Student's t-test, regression analysis, and Bland–Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: Pneumonia was the major cause of respiratory failure (71.0%). Compared with the L group, PEEP was lower in the H group (5.7 ± 1.7 cmH2O vs. 9.0 ± 2.3 cmH2O, P < 0.01). Compared with the H group, lung elastance was higher (20.0 ± 7.8 cmH2O/L vs. 11.6 ± 3.6 cmH2O/L, P < 0.01), and stress was higher in the L group (7.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9, P = 0.02). A linear relationship was observed between the Paw stress index and the PL stress index in H group (R2= 0.56, P < 0.01) and L group (R2= 0.85, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In the ARF patients with MV, Paw stress index can substitute for PL to guide ventilator settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196870 (https

  8. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic profile of 6,11-dihydrodibenzo-[b.e.]-thiepin-11-one-3-acetic acid (tiopinac).

    PubMed

    Rooks, W H; Tomolonis, A J; Maloney, P J; Roszkowski, A; Wallach, M B

    1980-06-01

    Tiopinac displayed marked anti-inflammatory activity when given p.o. in rat models of acute and chronic inflammation. It inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema (40 x phenylbutazone), and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma (0.8 x indomethacin). In an 18-day test, tiopinac prevented the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis (10-15 x naproxen) and had similar activity versus pre-induced arthritis. Tiopinac exhibited antiphlogistic activity in adrenalectomized rats. It did not have corticosteroid activity. Depending upon the type of analgesic test used, the potency of tiopinac varied. When given p.o. it inhibited phenylquinone-induced writhing in the mouse and rat (respectively 16 and 10 x aspirin). In contrast, tiopinac had approximately 10 times the potency of indomethacin in increasing the pain threshold when yeast-inflamed paws were compressed. The pain threshold of the noninflamed paw was not increased. Tiopinac was highly active versus pain induced by flexing the adjuvant arthritic-inflamed paw (greater than or equal to 1000 x aspirin). It was inactive in the mouse hot-plate test in which opiate-like agents are active. Tiopinac, p.o., lowered yeast-induced pyrexia (130 x aspirin). Tiopinac did not have significant cardiovascular or CNS activity. Whereas the Ed50 versus adjuvant arthritis in rats was 0.1 mg/kg/day p.o., rats tolerated up to 20 mg/kg/day p.o. in the 8-day cotton-pellet test. Lack of anorexia and emesis in dogs with up to 30 mg/kg p.o. and mild oral activity in producing gastric erosion in acute and subacute studies in rats suggests that tiopinac may have relatively little gastrointestinal irritating activity. PMID:6967686

  9. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A L R; Pinheiro, C A; Oliveira, G J; Torres, J N L; Moraes, M O; Ribeiro, R A; Vale, M L; Souza, M H L P

    2012-06-01

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K(+)ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K(+)ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E(2)- (PGE(2), 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE(2)) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE(2)) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE(2); 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE(2); 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels. PMID:22450376

  10. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gangwar, Mayank; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Ghildiyal, Shivani; Nath, Gopal; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently, we observed wound healing activity of 50% ethanol extract of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg (MP) fruit hairs extract (MPE). In several intestinal infections, localized inflammation is of common occurrence and hence we evaluated the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE in different rat experimental models. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan (acute) and turpentine oil induced formalin (subacute) induced paw edema and while granuloma pouch (subacute) in rats. Analgesic and hypnotic activity of MPE was undertaken by tail-flick, hot-plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests while pentobarbitone-induced hypnotic potentiation in rats. Results: MPE at a dose of 200 mg/kg at 3 h after their administration showed inhibition of formalin-induced paw edema by 41.60% (P < 0.001) and carrageenan-induced paw edema by 55.30% (P < 0.001). After 7 days of treatments, MPE showed 38.0% (P < 0.001) inhibition against formalin-induced paw edema and reduced weight of turpentine-induced granuloma pouch by 29.6% (P < 0.01) and volume of exudates by 26.1% (P < 0.01), respectively. MPE (200 mg/kg) showed dose-dependent elevation in pain threshold and peak analgesic effect at 120 min as evidenced by increased latency period in tail flick method and increased reaction time in the hot-plate test while the reduction in the number of acetic acid-induced writhes by 45.7% (P < 0.001). The pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis model showed potentiation, as defined by increased duration of sleep in treated group rats as compared to control. Conclusion: Thus, the study revealed MPE is effective in reducing acute and subacute inflammation and showed effective and similar analgesic activity. This seemed to be safe in the treatment of pain and inflammation. PMID:27069718

  11. Improvement of bioavailability and anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin in combination with emu oil.

    PubMed

    Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Shrivastava, Shweta; Nair, Kala; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Talluri, M V N Kumar; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of emu oil on bioavailability of curcumin when co-administered and to evaluate the property that enhances the anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin. Oral bioavailability of curcumin in combination with emu oil was determined by measuring the plasma concentration of curcumin by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema model (acute model) and in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis model (chronic model) in male SD rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin in combination with emu oil has been significantly increased in both acute and chronic inflammatory models as evident from inhibition of increase in paw volume, arthritic score, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The increased anti-inflammatory activity in combination therapy is due to enhanced bioavailability (5.2-fold compared to aqueous suspension) of curcumin by emu oil. Finally, it is concluded that the combination of emu oil with curcumin will be a promising approach for the treatment of arthritis. PMID:25028100

  12. Acute, flaccid quadriplegia in three cats with suspected coral snake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, C L; Hopkins, A L; Ford, S L; Meeks, J C

    1996-01-01

    Three cats were evaluated for acute, ascending, flaccid quadriplegia; depression; and reduced nociception. Complete or partial neuromuscular junction blockade was found on nerve stimulation studies during electromyographic examinations. Two of the cases had wounds on the chin or paw compatible with coral snake bites. Although a coral snake was found in only one case, coral snake envenomation was suspected because potential for exposure, clinical signs, and electrodiagnostic findings were similar to dogs reported with this condition and to cats with tiger snake envenomation. Only one case received coral snake antivenin. All cases recovered within seven-to-10 days.

  13. Cromoglycate and nedocromil enhanced the reactive oxygen species-dependent suppressions with, but not without, dexamethasone in ischaemic and histamine paw oedema of mice

    PubMed Central

    Oyanagui, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory actions of two anti-allergic drugs, alone or with dexamethasone (Dex) were examined in two models, because inflammation is claimed to be important for allergic events, especially for asthma. Cromoglycate and nedocromil were tested in ischaemic- and histamineinduced paw oedema models of mice. These antiallergic drugs (1–100 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to suppress these oedemata, but enhanced the suppressions by a low dose of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) at 3–8 h after Dex injection. The mode of effects by anti-allergic drugs resembled that of a natural antioxidant (α-tocopherol, β-carotene etc.), and was different from that of an immunosuppressant like FK506. The enhancing potencies of the two anti-allergic drugs were similar at 6 h after Dex in both oedemata, and were diminished by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (i.p.). Cycloheximide completely abolished suppressions. Nedocromil, but not cromoglycate, inhibits inflammatory events. Therefore, there are common unknown actions by which the two anti-allergics enhance suppression by Dex. A possible mechanism of this action was supposed to enhance the superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide-dependent glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling in the target cells. PMID:18472872

  14. Multi-laminated metal hydroxide nanocontainers for oral-specific delivery for bioavailability improvement and treatment of inflammatory paw edema in mice.

    PubMed

    Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Sie, Huei-Wun; Shih, Hung-Yuan; Lue, Sheng-I; Kankala, Shravankumar; Jeng, Chien-Chung; Deng, Jin-Pei; Weng, Ching-Feng; Liu, Chen-Lun; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-15

    Multiple layers of pH-sensitive enteric copolymers were coated over layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles for controllable drug release and improved solubility of hydrophobic drugs. The nano-sized LDH carriers significantly improved the accessibility of sulfasalazine molecules that have positively charged frameworks. In addition, the successful encapsulation of negatively charged enteric copolymers was achieved via electrostatic attractions. The multi-layered enteric polymer coating could potentially protect nanoparticle dissolution at gastric pH and accelerate the dissolution velocity, which would improve the drug bioavailability in the colon. Next, biological studies of this formulation indicated a highly protective effect from the scavenging of superoxide free radicals and diethyl maleate (DEM) induced lipid peroxidation, which are major cell signalling pathways for inflammation. The histological view of the liver and kidney sections revealed that the nanoformulation is safe and highly biocompatible. The animal studies conducted via paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) revealed that enteric-coated LDH-sulfasalazine nanoparticles provided a sustained release that maintained the sulfasalazine concentrations in a therapeutic window. Therefore, this nanoformulation exhibited preferential efficacy in reducing the CFA-induced inflammation especially at day 4. PMID:26225492

  15. Pycnogonids associated with the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby) in Ojo de Liebre Bay, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de León-Espinosa, Angel; de León-González, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of epibenthic pycnogonids collected on the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus are recorded. A new species of Eurycyde, Eurycyde bamberi, is described. Of the 19 species known in this genus; the new species is closest to Eurycyde hispida Kroyer, 1844 but differs from it in the absence of plumose spines and the shapes of the lateral process, first coxa, and ocular tubercle. The new species represents the third member of Eurycyde from the eastern Pacific in addition to Eurycyde spinosa Hilton, 1916 and Eurycyde clitellaria Stock, 1955. Besides Eurycyde bamberi, the following species were collected: Nymphopsis duodorsospinosa Hilton, 1942c; Callipallene californiensis (Hall, 1913); Nymphon lituus Child, 1979; and Pycnogonum rickettsi Schmitt, 1934. Pycnogonum rickettsi is recorded for first time from Mexican waters, as is Nymphon lituus from the western coast of Baja California Peninsula. Each of these four species are re-described and re-illustrated in order to fill in existing gaps in the literature of the region. PMID:26692802

  16. The PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS) III. How Dynamical Environments Regulate the Structure of the Molecular Gas and Star Formation in M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidt, Sharon; Schinnerer, E.; Hughes, A.; Garcia Burillo, S.; Colombo, D.; Pety, J.; Leroy, A. K.; Dobbs, C.; Dumas, G.; Schuster, K. F.; Thompson, T. A.; Kramer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Gas kinematics on the scales of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) are essential for probing the framework that links the large-scale organization of interstellar gas to cloud formation and subsequent star formation. We will present an overview of our results on the importance of dynamical environment for molecular gas and star formation from the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS, PI: E. Schinnerer), which has mapped CO(1-0) emission in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 40pc resolution and is sensitive to giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with masses above 10^5 Msun. The observed gas motions suggest a strong response to the gravitational forces exerted by the stellar spiral arms, and we find that the properties of the CO emission in M51 show significant variation that can be linked to the (galactic) dynamical environment in which the molecular gas is located. Dynamically distinct regions exhibit different GMC properties and mass spectra, as well as distinct patterns of star formation. We have analyzed how the stability of GMCs depends on dynamical environment (including the effects of pressure, shear, turbulence). We will discuss the impact of our results on the interpretation of standard GMC scaling relations and as a potential source of the observed scatter in extragalactic star formation laws.

  17. Acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Nancy S

    2013-09-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a common infectious disease syndrome, causing a combination of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. There are more than 350 million cases of acute gastroenteritis in the United States annually and 48 million of these cases are caused by foodborne bacteria. Traveler's diarrhea affects more than half of people traveling from developed countries to developing countries. In adult and pediatric patients, the prevalence of Clostridium difficile is increasing. Contact precautions, public health education, and prudent use of antibiotics are necessary goals in decreasing the prevalence of Clostridium difficle. Preventing dehydration or providing appropriate rehydration is the primary supportive treatment of acute gastroenteritis.

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  19. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  20. Bilobalide, a unique constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Michelle; Dolan, Sharron

    2013-08-01

    Standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 has been shown to inhibit inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats; however, the mechanism of action is not known. This study set out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of bilobalide, a unique G. biloba constituent, in three well-characterized models of acute inflammatory pain. The effect of oral, intraplantar or intrathecal administration of bilobalide or drug-vehicle (0.25% agar; 10% ethanol in H2O) on responses to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw, and paw oedema were assessed in adult male Wistar rats before and after intradermal hindpaw injection of carrageenan (3%; 50 μl) or capsaicin (10 μg; 50 μl) or after hindpaw incision (n=6-8/group). Oral administration of bilobalide (10-30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited thermal hyperalgesia in response to carrageenan, capsaicin and paw incision, independent of dose, with an efficacy similar to that of diclofenac. In the carrageenan model, mechanical hypersensitivity and paw oedema were also significantly reduced after treatment with bilobalide (10-30 mg/kg). Intrathecal administration of bilobalide (0.5-1 μg) inhibited carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but had no effect on mechanical hypersensitivity or paw oedema (application≥2 μg induced adverse effects, precluding testing of higher doses). Intraplantar administration of bilobalide (30-100 μg) had no effect. These data show that bilobalide is a potent anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic agent, the therapeutic effects of which are mediated in part through a central site of action, and may account for the therapeutic action of the whole extract G. biloba.

  1. The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Sood, Shailja; Singla, Sumeet Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals.

  2. Effect of vehicle on diclofenac sodium permeation from new topical formulations: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Vanna; Peana, Alessandra T; Moretti, Mario D L

    2009-01-01

    In this study the effect of vehicle on in vitro diffusion of diclofenac sodium (DS) from new different formulations such as Carbopol gel (A), Sodium lauryl sulphate cream (B) and Carbopol cream (C) was evaluated with Franz diffusion cells using hydrophilic and hydrophobic synthetic membranes. The commercial formulation Voltaren Emulgel was used as reference. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of topical formulations was studied in the carrageenan-induced edema and hyperalgesia, whereas the antinociceptive effect was evaluated on thermal pain threshold in rat paw. The flux of DS across hydrophilic membranes showed this rank order: Control approximately equal to C > A approximately equal to B. On the other hand, the diffusion rate of DS across hydrophobic membranes resulted in the following order: Control > B > A approximately equal to C; this suggested a lower interaction between the vehicles and these membranes. The in vivo results indicated that the prepared formulations failed in the inflammatory tests to reduce the development of edema. Nevertheless, treatment with B formulation inhibited the development of acute hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, and elicited a significant increase in paw withdrawal latencies whereas other formulations were ineffective. The results obtained in this study suggest that Sodium lauryl sulphate cream might be useful in local pain conditions and may be an effective alternative to the presently used systemic routes.

  3. Promotion of Growth of Tumour Cells in Acutely Inflamed Tissues

    PubMed Central

    van den Brenk, H. A. S.; Stone, M.; Kelly, H.; Orton, C.; Sharpington, C.

    1974-01-01

    Acute inflammatory reactions were induced in rats by the intravenous injection of cellulose sulphate (CS) or an extract of normal rat lung homogenate (LH), or by intraperitoneal injections of Compound 48/80. These treatments greatly increased survival and clonogenic growth in the lungs of rats of intravenously injected allogeneic W-256 and Y-P388 tumour cells. Increase in the dose of intravenously injected CS caused a logarithmic increase in colony forming efficiency (CFE) of tumour cells in the lungs. CFE was not stimulated by the intravenous injection of rats with pharmacological mediators of inflammation (histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and prostaglandins PGE1 and PGF2α) which are released from tissues by agents which induce inflammation. Stimulation of CFE by CS occurred in adrenalectomized rats but was inhibited by treatment of rats with an anti-inflammatory steroid, dexamethasone. CFE was stimulated by CS in tumour immunized rats; the inflammatory state did not prevent the expression of immunity but “rescued” a proportion (approximately 20%) of the injected tumour cells from immunodestruction in the lungs. A higher proportion of tumours grew in the paws of rats when a small number of W-256 cells were injected interdigitally into the acute inflammatory swellings produced by the local injection of paws with LH or CS. CS is a “synthetic heparin” which causes marked prolongation of blood clotting time and also increases fibrinolytic activity of the blood. Anticoagulant treatment of rats with heparin did not affect CFE. Thus, there was no direct correlation between blood clotting time and CFE of blood borne tumour cells in the rat. The mechanisms which may be responsible for the nonspecific growth promoting effects of inflammatory reactions induced by various types of tissue injury on tumour induction and growth are discussed. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4451630

  4. Sirtinol Inhibits Neutrophil Elastase Activity and Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yung-Fong; Yu, Huang-Ping; Chang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Fu-Chao; Huang, Zhen-Cheng; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activity of neutrophil elastase leads to a protease–antiprotease imbalance, and plays an essential pathogenic role in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We assayed the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of the action of sirtinol in human neutrophils, and in neutrophil elastase (HNE)-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated ALI in mice. Sirtinol significantly inhibited the activity of HNE from human neutrophils in response to various stimulators. The inhibitory effects on HNE activity were not mediated through protein kinase A, calcium, extracellular-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, or Src family kinases. Analysis of enzymatic activities showed that sirtinol inhibited HNE activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that sirtinol does not affect neutrophil function and is an HNE inhibitor. In addition, administration of sirtinol significantly inhibited HNE-induced paw edema, and attenuated the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced pulmonary wet/dry weight ratio in the LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Our study indicates that sirtinol has anti-inflammatory effects through direct inhibition of HNE activity and attenuates HNE-induced and LPS-mediated tissue or organ injury in vivo. Sirtinol is a novel HNE inhibitor and may have the potential for clinical application in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25666548

  5. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  6. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ketoprofen in palm oil esters nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Sakeena, M H F; Yam, M F; Elrashid, S M; Munavvar, A S; Azmin, M N

    2010-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been used in the treatment of various kinds of pains, inflammation and arthritis. However, oral administration of ketoprofen produces serious gastrointestinal adverse effects. One of the promising methods to overcome these adverse effects is to administer the drug through the skin. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects from topically applied ketoprofen entrapped palm oil esters (POEs) based nanoemulsion and to compare with market ketoprofen product, Fastum(®) gel. The novelty of this study is, use of POEs for the oil phase of nanoemulsion. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were performed on rats by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema test and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test to compare the ketoprofen entrapped POEs based nanoemulsion formulation and market formulation. Results indicated that there are no significant different between ketoprofen entrapped POEs nanoemulsion and market formulation in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema study and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold study. However, it shows a significant different between POEs nanoemulsion formulation and control group in these studies at p<0.05. From these results it was concluded that the developed nanoemulsion have great potential for topical application of ketoprofen.

  7. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  8. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  9. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  10. Role of volatile oil pretreatment and skin cholesterol on permeation of ion-paired diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Sapra, B; Gupta, S; Tiwary, A K

    2000-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of volatile oil pretreated skin on in vitro permeation from films containing ionized and dodecylamine ion-paired diclofenac sodium (DS). The involvement of skin cholesterol was investigated to determine its possible role in enhancing the permeation of ion-paired DS. Cardamom oil produced the maximum (10 x) in vitro permeation enhancement for ion-paired DS. The carrageenan induced rat paw oedema reduction (up to 12 hr) by cardamom oil was comparable to that of diclofenac injection (s c). Leaching of cholesterol from excised skin in addition to increased partition coefficient following volatile oil skin pretreatment appears to be responsible for in vitro permeation enhancement of DS. Whereas, a mild barrier perturbation effect due to altered cholesterol levels following pretreatment with volatile oils appears to increase the permeation of ion-paired DS across viable skin, thereby producing significant reduction of carrageenan induced paw oedema.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of a novel steroidal derivative from Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Gupta, Gaurav; Kazmi, Imran; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Afzal, Obaid; Alam, Jahangir; Hakeem, Khalidur Rahman; Pravez, Mohammad; Gupta, Ritu; Anwar, Firoz

    2012-07-01

    A new steroidal derivative, urs Stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one and other four compounds were isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. The structure of this new steroid was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. Carrageenan induced paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory and acetic acid induced model used for analgesic activity. This new steroidal compound was found to be active in reducing inflammation (% inhibition 87.29 and 84.45 respectively) when compared with diclofenac. Further, it showed 75.72% protection in analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. In conclusion the % inhibition against carrageenan induced rat paw edema and % protection against acetic acid induced writhings showed by new compound revealed that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of aqueous extract B. pinnatum are mainly due to the presence of this steroidal compound.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of a novel steroidal derivative from Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Gupta, Gaurav; Kazmi, Imran; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Afzal, Obaid; Alam, Jahangir; Hakeem, Khalidur Rahman; Pravez, Mohammad; Gupta, Ritu; Anwar, Firoz

    2012-07-01

    A new steroidal derivative, urs Stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one and other four compounds were isolated from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. The structure of this new steroid was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. Carrageenan induced paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory and acetic acid induced model used for analgesic activity. This new steroidal compound was found to be active in reducing inflammation (% inhibition 87.29 and 84.45 respectively) when compared with diclofenac. Further, it showed 75.72% protection in analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. In conclusion the % inhibition against carrageenan induced rat paw edema and % protection against acetic acid induced writhings showed by new compound revealed that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of aqueous extract B. pinnatum are mainly due to the presence of this steroidal compound. PMID:22465504

  13. In vivo evaluation method of the effect of nattokinase on carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Seitaro; Hagimori, Masayori; Ogasawara, Masayoshi; Arakawa, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Nattokinase inhibits thrombus formation in vitro. However, in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis remains to be conducted. Subcutaneous nattokinase injections of 1 or 2 mg/ml were administered to the tails of rats. Subsequently, κ-carrageenan was intravenously administered to the tails at 12 h after nattokinase injections. The mean length of the infarcted regions in the tails of rats was significantly shorter in rats administered 2 mg/ml of nattokinase than those in control rats. Nattokinase exhibited significant prophylactic antithrombotic effects. Previously, the in vitro efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis had been reported; now our study has revealed the in vivo efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis.

  14. Spinal distribution of c-Fos activated neurons expressing enkephalin in acute and chronic pain models.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Mehdi; Duraku, Liron S; Kohli, Somesh K; Jongen, Joost L M; Holstege, Jan C

    2014-01-16

    The endogenous opioid enkephalin is known to inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission. Here we investigated activation of spinal enkephalinergic neurons by determining the proportions of c-Fos expressing (activated) spinal neurons that were enkephalinergic after different acute and chronic peripheral nociceptive stimuli. The number of c-Fos-activated neurons in the dorsal horn was increased after hind paw injection of capsaicin, formalin or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 1.5 hrs - 4 days). The numbers of these neurons that were enkephalinergic increased after paraformaldehyde, and at 20 hrs, but not 1.5 hrs or 4 days post-CFA as compared to saline. In the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, c-Fos expression was increased acutely (2 hrs) and chronically (2 weeks), and a greater number of these were enkephalinergic in the nerve-injured animals acutely compared to controls (sham-SNI). Combining all acute (=2 hrs) versus chronic (≥20 hrs) treatment groups, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of activated neurons that were enkephalinergic in superficial layers, but a significant increase in the deeper layers of the dorsal horn in the chronic treatment group. It is concluded that the overall percentage of c-Fos activated neurons that contained enkephalin was not significantly different between acute and chronic pain phases. However, the shift in localization of these neurons within the spinal dorsal horn indicates a noxious stimulus directed activation pattern.

  15. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  16. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. PMID:25620693

  17. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 gene deficiency attenuates nociceptive behaviors in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Rahman, Md Habibur; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDKs) 1-4, expressed in peripheral and central tissues, regulate the activity of the PDH complex (PDC). The PDC is an important mitochondrial gatekeeping enzyme that controls cellular metabolism. The role of PDKs in diverse neurological disorders, including neurometabolic aberrations and neurodegeneration, has been described. Implications for a role of PDKs in inflammation and neurometabolic coupling led us to investigate the effect of genetic ablation of PDK2/4 on nociception in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain. Deficiency in Pdk2 and/or Pdk4 in mice led to attenuation of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors (flinching, licking, biting, or lifting of the injected paw). Likewise, the pharmacological inhibition of PDKs substantially diminished the nociceptive responses in the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, formalin-provoked paw edema formation and mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities were significantly reduced in Pdk2/4-deficient mice. Formalin-driven neutrophil recruitment at the site of inflammation, spinal glial activation, and neuronal sensitization were substantially lessened in the second or late phase of the formalin test in Pdk2/4-deficient animals. Overall, our results suggest that PDK2/4 can be a potential target for the development of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26931482

  18. Acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity.

  19. Oral bioavailability, efficacy and gastric tolerability of P2026, a novel nitric oxide-releasing diclofenac in rat.

    PubMed

    Pathan, Asif R; Karwa, Manoj; Pamidiboina, Venu; Deshattiwar, Jagannath J; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Gaikwad, Parikshit P; Mali, Sunil V; Desai, Dattatraya C; Dhiman, Mini; Thanga Mariappan, T; Sharma, Somesh D; Satyam, Apparao; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2010-08-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate, P2026 [(2-((2-(nitrooxy)ethyl)disulfanyl)ethyl 2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)phenyl)acetate)], a novel NO (nitric oxide) donor prodrug of diclofenac for its ability to release NO and diclofenac, and whether P2026 provides advantage of improved activity/gastric tolerability over diclofenac. Oral bioavailability of P2026 was estimated from plasma concentration of diclofenac and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in three different models of inflammation: acute (carrageenan-induced paw oedema), chronic (adjuvant-induced arthritis), and systemic (lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock). Gastric tolerability was evaluated from compound's propensity to cause gastric ulcers. P2026 exhibited dose-dependent diclofenac and NOx release. Similar to diclofenac, P2026 showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic model, whereas it improved activity in systemic model. Both diclofenac and P2026 inhibited gastric prostaglandin, but only diclofenac produced dose-dependent haemorrhagic ulcers. Thus, the results suggest that coupling of NO and diclofenac contribute to improved gastric tolerability while retaining the anti-inflammatory properties of diclofenac.

  20. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  1. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines. PMID:26815859

  2. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4–8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer’s patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines. PMID:26815859

  3. A RG-II Type Polysaccharide Purified from Aconitum coreanum Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation by Inhibiting the NF-κB Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Jiaye; Shi, Songshan; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Yongbo; Huang, Dan; Ke, Yan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-01-01

    Korean mondshood root polysaccharides (KMPS) isolated from the root of Aconitum coreanum (Lévl.) Rapaics have shown anti-inflammatory activity, which is strongly influenced by their chemical structures and chain conformations. However, the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect by these polysaccharides have yet to be elucidated. A RG-II polysaccharide (KMPS-2E, Mw 84.8 kDa) was isolated from KMPS and its chemical structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The backbone of KMPS-2E consisted of units of [→6) -β-D-Galp (1→3)-β-L-Rhap-(1→4)-β-D-GalpA-(1→3)-β-D-Galp-(1→] with the side chain →5)-β-D-Arap (1→3, 5)-β-D-Arap (1→ attached to the backbone through O-4 of (1→3,4)-L-Rhap. T-β-D-Galp is attached to the backbone through O-6 of (1→3,6)-β-D-Galp residues and T-β-D-Ara is connected to the end group of each chain. The anti-inflammatory effects of KMPS-2E and the underlying mechanisms using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema were investigated. KMPS-2E (50, 100 and 200 µg/mL) inhibits iNOS, TLR4, phospho-NF-κB–p65 expression, phosphor-IKK, phosphor-IκB-α expression as well as the degradation of IκB-α and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by the NF-κB signal pathways in macrophages. KMPS-2E also inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB as assayed by electrophorectic mobility shift assay (EMSA) in a dose-dependent manner and it reduced NF-κB DNA binding affinity by 62.1% at 200µg/mL. In rats, KMPS-2E (200 mg/kg) can significantly inhibit carrageenan-induced paw edema as ibuprofen (200 mg/kg) within 3 h after a single oral dose. The results indicate that KMPS-2E is a promising herb-derived drug against acute inflammation. PMID:24927178

  4. Accounting for the Delay in the Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain: Axonal and Nuclear Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Bogen, Oliver; Reichling, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Acute insults produce hyperalgesic priming, a neuroplastic change in nociceptors that markedly prolongs inflammatory mediator-induced hyperalgesia. After an acute initiating insult, there is a 72 h delay to the onset of priming, for which the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that the delay is due to the time required for a signal to travel from the peripheral terminal to the cell body followed by a return signal to the peripheral terminal. We report that when an inducer of hyperalgesic priming (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) is administered at the spinal cord of Sprague Dawley rats, priming is detected at the peripheral terminal with a delay significantly shorter than when applied peripherally. Spinally induced priming is detected not only when prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is presented to the peripheral nociceptor terminals, but also when it is presented intrathecally to the central terminals in the spinal cord. Furthermore, when an inducer of priming is administered in the paw, priming can be detected in spinal cord (as prolonged hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal PGE2), but only when the mechanical stimulus is presented to the paw on the side where the priming inducer was administered. Both spinally and peripherally induced priming is prevented by intrathecal oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to the nuclear transcription factor CREB mRNA. Finally, the inhibitor of protein translation reversed hyperalgesic priming only when injected at the site where PGE2 was administered, suggesting that the signal transmitted from the cell body to the peripheral terminal is not a newly translated protein, but possibly a newly expressed mRNA. PMID:25589745

  5. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  6. Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw) norm anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Eugênia C.; da Silva, Nicácio H.; Santos, Renata Almeida; Sudário, Ana Patrícia Paiva; Rodrigues e Silva, Antonio Alfredo; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norm. (TFN) unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%). Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01%) and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04%) extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract), parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second), falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone) and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract) were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses. PMID:21808568

  7. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  8. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  9. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  10. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus . Other causes ...

  11. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction extracted from the marine red algae Gracilaria caudata.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luciano de Sousa; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio Duarte; Silva, Renan Oliveira; Barros, Francisco Clark Nogueira; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Ponte; Aragão, Karoline Sabóia; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; Barbosa, André Luiz dos Reis; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim

    2013-02-01

    Many algal species contain relatively high concentrations of polysaccharide substances, a number of which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in mice of a sulfated polysaccharide fraction (PLS) extracted from the algae Gracilaria caudata. The antiinflammatory activity of PLS was evaluated using several inflammatory agents (carrageenan, dextran, bradykinin, and histamine) to induce paw edema and peritonitis in Swiss mice. Samples of the paw tissue and peritoneal fluid were removed to determine myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or TNF-α and IL-1β levels, respectively. Mechanical hypernociception was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the plantar surface of the paw. Pretreatment of mice by intraperitoneal administration of PLS (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, PLS 10 mg/kg effectively inhibited edema induced by dextran and histamine; however, edema induced by bradykinin was unaffected by PLS. PLS 10 mg/kg inhibited total and differential peritoneal leukocyte counts following carrageenan-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, PLS reduced carrageenan-increased MPO activity in paws and reduced cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity. Finally PLS pretreatment also reduced hypernociception 3-4 h after carrageenan. We conclude that PLS reduces the inflammatory response and hypernociception in mice by reducing neutrophil migration and cytokines concentration.

  12. Reduced inflammatory response in rats fed fat-rich diets: role of leukotrienes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L R; Jancar, S; Curi, R; Sannomiya, P

    2000-05-26

    The effect of fat-rich diets on the acute inflammatory response was examined. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were fed, for 6 weeks, with a control diet (4% fat content), or a control diet supplemented with coconut or soybean oils (15% fat content). Carrageenan-induced paw oedema and pleurisy were evaluated. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) C4/D4 concentrations were determined in the pleural exudate (ELISA). Pleural samples were tested for their effect on cutaneous vascular permeability of control rats and the effect of a LTD4 receptor antagonist (L660-711; 10 mg/kg; i.v.) examined. Relative to controls, rats fed both fat-rich diets presented a significant reduction in protein leakage and oedema formation without affecting the number of migrating leukocytes. Production of LTC4/D4 in pleural exudate was significantly increased from 1.8 +/- 0.2 ng/ml in controls to 2.8 +/- 0.2 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 ng/ml in animals fed coconut and soybean oil enriched diets, respectively, without changes in PGE2 production. The activity of these samples on cutaneous vascular permeability was 50% reduced, returning to control values after treatment of testing animals with a LTD4 receptor antagonist. Rats fed fat-rich diets presented a reduced inflammatory response due, at least in part, to the LTC4/D4 mediated vasoconstrictor effect.

  13. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Senovilla, Laura; Jemaà, Mohamed; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2013-01-01

    Background. In folk medicine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is used as a remedy for a variety of diseases. This study investigates the in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of EVOO on mice and rats. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice, the analgesic effect of EVOO was evaluated. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphine were used as standard drugs, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by means of the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats using acetylsalicylic acid and dexamethasone as standard drugs. Last, the xenograft model in athymic mice was used to evaluate the anticancer effect in vivo. Results. EVOO significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes and reduces acute and inflammatory pain in the two phases of the formalin test. It has also a better effect than Dexamethasone in the anti-inflammatory test. Finally, the intraperitoneal administration of EVOO affects the growth of HCT 116 tumours xenografted in athymic mice. Conclusion. EVOO has a significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, further detailed studies are required to determine the active component responsible for these effects and mechanism pathway. PMID:24455277

  14. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and QSAR Studies of Newer Isoxazole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Asirvatham, Sahaya; Mahajan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    A series of newer 3-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-5-substituted phenylisoxazoles derivatives have been synthesized by reacting hydroxylamine hydrochloride with chalcones. The chalcones were formed by reacting different aromatic aldehydes with 4-methoxyacetophenone in presence of aqueos potassium hydroxide (KOH). The purity of all the synthesized compounds was checked by recording their melting points and the retention Factors (Rf) values from thin layer chromatography. The structures of the compounds were characterized by recording their infrared (IR) spectra and confirmed by recording their nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra. The acute toxicity study was carried out on all the synthesized compounds and they were screened for their antiinflammatory activity by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. Anti-inflammatory studies showed statistically significant activity when compared to the control, indomethacin. The two most potent compounds giving good anti-inflammatory activity were further evaluated for their antiulcer activity. The compounds were subjected to quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) studies. A close correlation between the observed and the predicted anti-inflammatory activity (Log % inhibition) for the compounds indicated the development of the best QSAR model. The synthesized compounds were found to be non-ulcerogenic as compared to the standard, aspirin.

  15. Proniosomal formulation of curcumin having anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in different experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Rai, A K

    2012-10-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient of the spice turmeric, has a long history as an herbal remedy for a variety of diseases. Transdermal drug delivery has been recognized as an alternative route to oral delivery. Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle delivery concept with the potential for drug delivery via the transdermal route. In this study, different proniosomal gel bases were prepared by the ether injection method, using Span 60 and Span 80, Tween 20, cholesterol, and formulation PA2. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, revealing vesicular structures, and assessed for stability and effect on in vitro skin permeation using rat skin. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of formulation PA2 and PB1 were compared with a standard market product containing indomethacin. The effect of formulation PA2 and PB1 was evaluated for acute inflammation in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and for chronic inflammation in complete Freud's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Further histopathological and radiographic evaluation was performed. The investigated curcumin loaded proniosomal formula proved to be non-irritant, non-toxic, but had lower anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects than the marketed indomethacin products.

  16. Effects of Space Flight on the Chemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingze; Gao, Wenyuan; Yan, Shuo; Zhao, Yaxin

    2012-01-01

    Licorice, the oldest Chinese traditional medicine, is widely used in the treatment of human diseases. Due to the deficiency of wild resource, selecting and breeding becomes a key issue to expanding the supply of licorice. Spaceflight technology will become a new method for medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the components and anti-inflammatory activity in licorice. After flowing on a recoverable satellite for 18 days, licorice seeds were germinated and grown to maturity and the parallel ground-based seeds were also planted under the same conditions. The main components in licorice root were analyzed through HPLC. The contents of two components in spaceflight groups were higher than that of the ground control ones. Three acute inflammatory models including xylene-induced auricular edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability were utilized to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of licorice pre and post spaceflight. The licorice extract showed the significant anti-inflammation activity. After the spaceflight, the pharmacological activity of licorice got higher than that of the ground control one. All of the models gained the tendency that the spaceflight group of species Hangjinqi had the strongest activity than other groups. The research provided the scientific data for a new breeding of medicinal plant through the spaceflight and indicated that the technology of space flight may be a new effective method for the breeding and cultivation of licorice.

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  18. In vivo anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activities of aqueous extracts from Thymelaea hirsuta

    PubMed Central

    Azza, Zora; Oudghiri, Mounia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta (TH) are used as a decoction in the treatment of different pathologies in folk medicine in Morocco. Objective: The aqueous extracts were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity and in inhibition of adjuvant induction arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, and the antiarthritic activity was carried out using complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: The plant extract (500 mg/kg body weight) exhibited significant activity in acute inflammation produced 60% of inhibition after 4 h as compared with that of the standard anti-inflammatory drug, the diclofenac (100 mg/kg) which showed 40% of inhibition. In arthritis model, the extract produced 85% inhibition after 18 days when compared with the diclofenac (10 mg/kg; 72%). Conclusion: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of TH had an anti-inflammatory activity and inhibited the induction of adjuvant arthritis in male Wistar rats. PMID:25829798

  19. Aceclofenac topical dosage forms: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Dua, Kamal; Pabreja, Kavita; Ramana, Malipeddi Venkata

    2010-12-01

    Aceclofenac is a new generation non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug showing effective anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. It is available in the form of tablets of 100 mg. Importance of aceclofenac as a NSAID has inspired development of topical dosage forms. This mode of administration may help avoid typical side effects associated with oral administration of NSAIDs, which have led to its withdrawal. Furthermore, aceclofenac topical dosage forms can be used as a supplement to oral therapy for better treatment of conditions such as arthritis. Ointments, creams, and gels containing 1% (m/m) aceclofenac have been prepared. They were tested for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, extrudability, drug content uniformity, in vitro diffusion and in vitro permeation. Gels prepared using Carbopol 940 (AF2, AF3) and macrogol bases (AF7) were selected after the analysis of the results. They were evaluated for acute skin irritancy, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects using the carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema method. AF2 was shown to be significantly (p < 0.05) more effective in inhibiting hyperalgesia associated with inflammation, compared to AF3 and AF7. Hence, AF2 may be suggested as an alternative to oral preparations.

  20. Synthesis and molecular modeling studies of anti-inflammatory active 1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Flora F

    2011-01-01

    A variety of N-aryl-7-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamides 5, 6, 8, and 9 were synthesized via reaction of the 2-amino derivatives 4 with acid chlorides and aromatic aldehydes. Meanwhile, 4a,b were obtained through the reaction of 2-pyrrolidinylidenepropanedinitrile 1 with chloroacetanilides 2a,b. In addition, the tricyclic pyrimido[5,4-a]pyrrolizines were formed through conducting the reaction of 4a,b with 90% formic acid. Anti-inflammatory activity screening of some synthesized compounds utilizing in vivo acute carrageenan-induced paw edema standard method in rats exhibited that the prepared heterocycles possess considerable pharmacological properties especially, 4a, 4b, 10a, and 10b which reveal remarkable activities relative to diclofenac sodium (reference standard). Ulcerogenic liability of the highly promising synthesized anti-inflammatory active agents were evaluated and 4a and 4b showed ulcerogenic liability lower than that of the standard used drug. Molecular modeling studies were initiated herein in order to validate the attained pharmacological data and provide understandable evidence for the observed anti-inflammatory behavior.

  1. Proniosomal formulation of curcumin having anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in different experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Rai, A K

    2012-10-01

    Curcumin, the active ingredient of the spice turmeric, has a long history as an herbal remedy for a variety of diseases. Transdermal drug delivery has been recognized as an alternative route to oral delivery. Proniosomes offer a versatile vesicle delivery concept with the potential for drug delivery via the transdermal route. In this study, different proniosomal gel bases were prepared by the ether injection method, using Span 60 and Span 80, Tween 20, cholesterol, and formulation PA2. They were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, revealing vesicular structures, and assessed for stability and effect on in vitro skin permeation using rat skin. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of formulation PA2 and PB1 were compared with a standard market product containing indomethacin. The effect of formulation PA2 and PB1 was evaluated for acute inflammation in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and for chronic inflammation in complete Freud's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Further histopathological and radiographic evaluation was performed. The investigated curcumin loaded proniosomal formula proved to be non-irritant, non-toxic, but had lower anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects than the marketed indomethacin products. PMID:23136720

  2. In vitro release and antiinflammatory activity of topical formulations of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Moretti, M D; Gavini, E; Peana, A T

    2000-01-01

    Ketoprofen (KP) is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used in clinical practice for the control of acute and chronic pain of soft tissues and skeletal muscle system. The importance of KP in the therapeutic field, has stimulated the development of topical dosage forms to improve its percutaneous absorption through the application site. Moreover they could provide relatively consistent drug levels for prolonged periods and avoid gastric irritation, typical side effect of NSAID oral administration. Since the topical formulation efficiency depends on vehicle characteristics, some different ointments, at 1% and 5% concentrations of KP, were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. Among tested ointments, 1% Carbopol cream and 5% Carbopol gel showed the best fluxes of drug through regenerated cellulose membrane. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of KP, evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, showed a good correlation with the in vitro results about considered creams, but the gels in vivo activity was not in according to their in vitro behaviour. The extemporaneous Carbopol cream was able to produce a better edema inhibition than the commercial one, taken as a reference and widely utilized as a topical therapeutic item. About gels, the obtained results were nearly the maximum response considered possible for a topical antiinflammatory drug.

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process. PMID:24601082

  4. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-oedematous effects of Lafoensia pacari extract and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Fontanari, Caroline; Melo, Mirian C C; Ambrosio, Sérgio R; de Souza, Glória E P; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; da Costa, Fernando B; Albuquerque, Deijanira A; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect that the ethanolic extract of L. pacari has in Toxocara canis infection (a model of systemic eosinophilia). In this study, we tested the anti-inflammatory activity of the same L. pacari extract in mice injected intraperitoneally with beta-glucan present in fraction 1 (F1) of the Histoplasma capsulatum cell wall (a model of acute eosinophilic inflammation). We also determined the anti-oedematous, analgesic and anti-pyretic effects of L. pacari extract in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, acetic acid writhing and LPS-induced fever, respectively. L. pacari extract significantly inhibited leucocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity induced by beta-glucan. In addition, the L. pacari extract presented significant analgesic, anti-oedematous and anti-pyretic effects. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the L. pacari extract in the F1 model led us to identify ellagic acid. As did the extract, ellagic acid presented anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and analgesic effects. However, ellagic acid had no anti-pyretic effect, suggesting that other compounds present in the plant stem are responsible for this effect. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate potential therapeutic effects of L. pacari extract and ellagic acid, providing new prospects for the development of drugs to treat pain, oedema and inflammation. PMID:16945186

  5. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  6. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine.

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine. PMID:27133079

  8. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  9. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  10. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  11. Acute mastoiditis--revisited.

    PubMed

    Luntz, M; Keren, G; Nusem, S; Kronenberg, J

    1994-09-01

    The clinical course and causative organisms were studied in 18 patients with acute mastoiditis, 13 of whom (72%) had no previous history of middle ear disease. Their age ranged from 5 months to 21 years, and duration of middle ear symptoms immediately prior to admission ranged from 1 to 45 days (average 9.7 days). None had undergone a myringotomy prior to admission, while 13 (72%) had been receiving antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media. Three were admitted with intracranial complications. Bacteria were isolated in 10 of the 16 patients in whom samples were available for bacterial culture, and included Streptococcus pneumonia (2), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Staphlococcus coagulase negative (2), Klebsiella pneumonia (1), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1). Of the 17 patients treated by us, 11 received surgery. Acute otitis media, secretory otitis media, acute mastoiditis, subacute mastoiditis and masked mastoiditis create a continuum. Antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media cannot be considered as an absolute safeguard against acute mastoiditis. When antibiotics are prescribed for acute mastoiditis before culture result is available, an anti-staphylococcal agent should be included. At least some patients with acute mastoiditis develop a primary infection of the bony framework of the middle ear cleft. The prevalence of the intracranial complications in acute mastoiditis is still high and may appear soon after or concomitant with the first sign of acute mastioditis.

  12. Attenuation of acute morphine withdrawal in the neonatal rat by the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist LY235959.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kathy L; Zhu, Hongbo; Jenab, Shirzad; Du, Ted; Inturrisi, Charles E; Barr, Gordon A

    2002-03-01

    The present study examined the ability of LY235959, a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, to attenuate behaviors and c-fos mRNA expression associated with acute morphine withdrawal in the infant rat. Rat pups were given a single dose of morphine (10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline. Two hours later, pups were removed from the dam and injected with either LY235959 (10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline. Fifteen minutes later acute morphine withdrawal was precipitated with naltrexone (10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) and behaviors were recorded every 15 s for the next 60 min. Immediately after behavioral testing, brain and spinal cord were assayed for c-fos mRNA analysis by solution hybridization. The intensity of the morphine withdrawal syndrome was reduced in pups pre-treated with LY235959. Withdrawal behaviors such as head moves, moving paws, rolling, and walking were decreased, and vocalizations were completely eliminated in pups pre-treated with LY2359559. Acute morphine withdrawal increased c-fos mRNA expression in the brain and the spinal cord, which was attenuated by pre-treatment of LY235959. Thus, in the 7-day-old rat, as in the adult, NMDA receptors play a role in the behavioral and molecular manifestations of acute morphine withdrawal. PMID:11850145

  13. Beneficial Effects of Trillium govanianum Rhizomes in Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ur Rahman, Shafiq; Adhikari, Achyut; Ismail, Muhammad; Raza Shah, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Farman; Haseeb, Abdul; Akbar, Fazal; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Trillium govanianum rhizome is used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional medicine in northern Pakistan. In an attempt to establish its medicinal value, the present research evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of T. govanianum. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions was investigated in the carrageenan induced paw edema assay. The in vitro suppression of oxidative burst of extract, fractions and isolated compounds was assessed through luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The in vivo analgesic activity was assayed in chemical and thermal induced nociceptive pain models. The crude methanol extract and its solvent fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic responses, exhibited by significant amelioration of paw edema and relieve of the tonic visceral chemical and acute phasic thermal nociception. In the oxidative burst assay, based on IC50, the crude methanol extract and n-butanol soluble fraction produced a significant inhibition, followed by chloroform and hexane soluble fractions as compared to ibuprofen. Similarly, the isolated compounds pennogenin and borassoside E exhibited significant level of oxidative burst suppressive activity. The in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as well as the in vitro inhibition of oxidative burst validated the traditional use of T. govanianum rhizomes as a phytotherapeutic remedy for both inflammatory conditions and pain. The observed activities might be attributed to the presence of steroids and steroid-based compounds. Therefore, the rhizomes of this plant species could serve as potential novel source of compounds effective for alleviating pain and inflammation. PMID:27556434

  14. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts: Therapeutics for peroxynitrite-mediated pathology

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Daniela; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Stern, Michael K.; Currie, Mark G.; Misko, Thomas P.

    1998-01-01

    Inflamed tissue is often characterized by the production of NO and superoxide. These radicals react at diffusion-limited rates to form the powerful oxidant peroxynitrite (PN). When protonated, PN decomposes into either nitrate or reactive intermediates capable of mediating tissue damage by oxidation of protein, lipid, and nucleic acid. We recently have identified porphyrin derivatives capable of catalyzing an increase in nitrate formation with a concomitant decrease in the HO·-like and NO2·-like reactivity of PN. Here, we present evidence for the efficacy of these PN decomposition catalysts both in vitro and in vivo. Cells in culture were protected from exogenously added PN by the catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-disulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron (III), whereas free iron and the structurally related compound without iron 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-disulfonatophenyl)porphyrin did not protect. Cytoprotection correlated well with a reduction in the nitrotyrosine content of released cytosolic proteins, a biochemical marker for PN formation. Carrageenan-induced paw edema is a model of acute inflammation in which PN may play a major role. When tested in this system, both 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-disulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron (III) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4′-pyridyl)porphyrinato iron (III) caused a dose-dependent reduction in swelling and lactate dehydrogenase release as well as a detectable shift to nitrate formation in paw tissue. In addition, the catalysts did not elevate mean arterial pressure, suggesting a lack of interaction with NO. Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence supporting the therapeutic value of manipulating PN pharmacologically. Thus, PN decomposition catalysts may represent a unique class of anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:9482943

  15. Improvement of p-cymene antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects by inclusion in β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Quintans, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira; Menezes, Paula Passos; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes Silva; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José

    2013-03-15

    Previously, we have demonstrated the analgesic-like property of p-cymene in rodents. Short half-life is a limitation for p-cymene application and several approaches have been used to improve pharmaceutical properties of monoterpenes, including the employment of drug-delivery systems. Here, we used p-cymene/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex and p-cymene (PC) isolated to evaluated whether the complex formulation is able to improve the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene. Male mice (26-30g) were pretreated with PC/β-CD (20 or 40mg/kg, p.o.), PC (20 or 40mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (distilled water), 0.5h before painful tests and antinociceptive effect was evaluated at times: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16h after treatment. We evaluated the analgesic-like effect of PC/β-CD and PC in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, hot-plate, carrageenan-induced paw edema and in rota-rod apparatus. Our results demonstrated that acute treatment with complex PC/β-CD produced an antinocicepitve effect (p<0.01 or p<0.001) for 8h followed whereas isolated PC produced the same effect for 2h. Similar results were obtained in hot-plate test, PC/β-CD, in all doses, significantly reduces (p<0.01 or p<0.001) nociceptive behavior for 8h while isolated PC for 1h, did so only in higher dose. Such results were unlikely to be caused by motor abnormality. Systemic pretreatment with PC/β-CD and PC inhibited the development paw edema by carrageenan 1%, but PC/β-CD did so during a longer period when compared with isolated monoterpene alone. Our results provide evidence to propose that the complex with β-CD improved analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of p-cymene. PMID:23357360

  16. Effect of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus) seeds in animal models of pain and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A.; Agarwal, Sneha; Garud, Mayuresh S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Jyotishmati, scientifically known as Celastrus paniculatus Wild (Celastraceae) is one of the most important medicinal plants in Ayurveda. The plant has shown significant pharmacological activities like anti-arthritic, wound healing, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant. Objective: To study possible effects of alcoholic extract of Celastrus paniculatus seeds (AlcE) in experimentally induced pain and inflammation in mice. Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive activity was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by tail immersion, hot plate, and acetic-acid-induced writhing tests at doses of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in model of carrageenan-induced acute plantar inflammation in Wistar rats. Results: In tail immersion test, AlcE showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in tail withdrawal response at dose of 250 mg/kg with maximum possible effect of 15.71%. The maximum possible effect of 23.32% and 30.16% (P < 0.001) was seen at dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg at 3 hours after administration of extract, respectively. In hot plate test, increase in paw licking time was reported at dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. AlcE (1,000 mg/kg) showed maximum response (6.23 ± 0.46) when compared with control (3.20 ± 0.18) at 90 min. In acetic acid induced writhings, AlcE at dose of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg body weight showed 32.35%, 49.01%, and 58.82% inhibition in writhings, respectively. AlcE treated animals (500 and 1,000 mg/kg) showed significant decrease in paw edema at 3 hours and 4 hours, when compared with control animals. Conclusion: Jyotishmati seed extract possesses significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26166997

  17. Comparison of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of meloxicam gel with diclofenac and piroxicam gels in animal models: pharmacokinetic parameters after topical application.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Bansal, P; Bhardwaj, R K; Jaiswal, J; Velpandian, T

    2002-01-01

    Meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a preferential inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 and has demonstrated potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity after oral administration. The present work was carried out to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of a newer topical gel formulation of meloxicam (1% w/w gel) and compare it with 0.5% w/w piroxicam and 1% w/w diclofenac gels in experimental animal models. The study was also extended to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a newer formulation of meloxicam gel after topical application on depilated skin of rats. The anti-inflammatory activities of meloxicam, piroxicam and diclofenac gels were compared using carrageenan-induced acute paw oedema and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic paw oedema in rats. Meloxicam gel showed increased protection against inflammation as compared to piroxicam and diclofenac gels. Acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced phase I and phase II pain models were used to compare their analgesic activity. Meloxicam gel showed significant protection in formalin-induced phase II pain whereas its analgesic activity was less as compared to diclofenac and piroxicam gels in writhing test and formalin-induced phase I pain. The pharmacokinetic studies showed peak plasma drug concentration (C(max)) of 48.48 +/- 6.57 microg/ml at 2 h (T(max)) after topical application of 500 mg of meloxicam gel formulation. The area under the curve as calculated from 0 to 6 h was found to be 114.18 +/- 4.23 and 194.13 +/- 3.78 microg x h/ml for 0 to infinity. The results indicate that topical preparation of meloxicam could be an effective alternative to diclofenac and piroxicam gels in inflammatory conditions and its associated pain with the possibility of less systemic side-effects.

  18. Anti-rheumatoid arthritic activity of flavonoids from Daphne genkwa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cui-Ping; He, Xin; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Su-Li; Li, Hui; Song, Zi-Jing; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Yang, Zhong-Lin; Li, Ping; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid arthritic activity of four flavonoids from Daphne genkwa (FFD) in vivo and in vitro. Flavonoids of D. genkwa were extracted by refluxing with ethanol and purified by polyamide resin. An in vivo carrageenan-induced paw edema model, tampon-granuloma model and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis mouse model were used to evaluate the anti-rheumatoid arthritic activities of FFD. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) release and neutral red uptake (NRU) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In addition, antioxidant effect of FFD was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. A high dose of FFD significantly reduced the degree of acute inflammatory paw edema in mice as a response to carrageenan administration (p<0.01). FFD displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of granuloma formation in mice (p<0.05). FFD also inhibited chronic inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats when administered orally at the dose of 50mg/kg/day (p<0.001). In addition, FFD suppressed the production of NO and exhibited immunoregulatory function in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells in a dose-related manner. Simultaneously, FFD revealed conspicuous antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 18.20μg/ml. FFD possesses significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, which could be a potential therapeutic agent for chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24561028

  19. [Pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi

    2011-03-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy have been clarified in this decade, although many unknown mechanisms remain to be elucidated. According to progress of MRI and neuroimmunological analysis and the observation of clinical findings, many new syndromes were found, which enhanced our understanding of acute encephalitis and acute encephalopathy. The pathogenesis of encephalitis is divided into infection and immune mediated mechanisms. The antibodies to neuronal surface antigens(NSA) such as NMDA receptors, leucin-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and aquaporin 4 were demonstrated in specific encephalitis, limbic encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica. Anti-NSA antibody encephalitis should be treated by immunotherapy such as corticosteroid and plasmapheresis. Acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS) is a devastating postinfectious disease in children and adults, although the pathogenesis of AERRPS is poorly understood. Influenza associated encephalopathy(IAE) is characterized by it's high incidence in Japanese children between 1 year and 5 years of age, its onset in the first or the second day of illness and its high mortality (15-30%) and morbidity (25-40%). We proposed the classification of IAE with poor prognosis from the neuroradiological findings. Four types of encephalopathy seem to be differentiated from each other, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) type, hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) type, acute brain swelling (ABS) type, febrile convulsive status epilepticus (FCSE) type. The notable radiological features are thalamic lesions in ANE, diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema in HSES, reversible cerebral swelling in ABS which sometimes reaches lethal brain herniation, and in FCSE type, dendritic high signal in subcortical white matter by DWI ("bright tree appearance") appears simultaneously with the later onset of repetitive focal seizure. These four types are

  20. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients.

  1. Acute Vision Loss.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nika; Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Acute vision loss can be transient (lasting <24 hours) or persistent (lasting >24 hours). When patients present with acute vision loss, it is important to ascertain the duration of vision loss and whether it is a unilateral process affecting one eye or a bilateral process affecting both eyes. This article focuses on causes of acute vision loss in the nontraumatic setting and provides management pearls to help health care providers better triage these patients. PMID:26319342

  2. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  3. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. PMID:17486680

  4. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Novel Polysaccharide Sacran Extracted from Cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum in Various Inflammatory Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Keiichi; Tanida, Yuki; Hata, Kyona; Hayashi, Tomoya; Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim Abu; Higashi, Taishi; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Kondo, Yuki; Irie, Tetsumi; Kaneko, Shinichiro; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the megamolecular polysaccharide sacran extracted from cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum using various inflammatory animal models. Sacran showed potent anti-inflammatory effects with optimum effective concentrations at 0.01 and 0.05% (w/v). Sacran markedly inhibited paw swelling and neutrophil infiltration in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Additionally, 6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinoxalinone-3-propionyl-carboxylic acid (DMEQ)-labeled sacran had the ability to penetrate carrageenan-induced rat paw skin rather than normal skin. Also, sacran significantly suppressed kaolin-induced and dextran-induced rat paw edema throughout the duration of the study. Furthermore, sacran significantly suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema and mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Safety of sacran solution was verified by negligible cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that sacran may be useful as a therapeutic agent against inflammatory skin diseases with no life-threatening adverse effects. PMID:27170516

  7. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong-Hua; Feng, Rui-Zhang; Li, Qun; Wei, Qin; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Tao, Cui; Jia, Ren-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection. PMID:25664080

  8. Hubbard physics in the PAW GW approximation.

    PubMed

    Booth, J M; Drumm, D W; Casey, P S; Smith, J S; Russo, S P

    2016-06-28

    It is demonstrated that the signatures of the Hubbard Model in the strongly interacting regime can be simulated by modifying the screening in the limit of zero wavevector in Projector-Augmented Wave GW calculations for systems without significant nesting. This modification, when applied to the Mott insulator CuO, results in the opening of the Mott gap by the splitting of states at the Fermi level into upper and lower Hubbard bands, and exhibits a giant transfer of spectral weight upon electron doping. The method is also employed to clearly illustrate that the M1 and M2 forms of vanadium dioxide are fundamentally different types of insulator. Standard GW calculations are sufficient to open a gap in M1 VO2, which arise from the Peierls pairing filling the valence band, creating homopolar bonds. The valence band wavefunctions are stabilized with respect to the conduction band, reducing polarizability and pushing the conduction band eigenvalues to higher energy. The M2 structure, however, opens a gap from strong on-site interactions; it is a Mott insulator.

  9. Hubbard physics in the PAW GW approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, J. M.; Drumm, D. W.; Casey, P. S.; Smith, J. S.; Russo, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    It is demonstrated that the signatures of the Hubbard Model in the strongly interacting regime can be simulated by modifying the screening in the limit of zero wavevector in Projector-Augmented Wave GW calculations for systems without significant nesting. This modification, when applied to the Mott insulator CuO, results in the opening of the Mott gap by the splitting of states at the Fermi level into upper and lower Hubbard bands, and exhibits a giant transfer of spectral weight upon electron doping. The method is also employed to clearly illustrate that the M1 and M2 forms of vanadium dioxide are fundamentally different types of insulator. Standard GW calculations are sufficient to open a gap in M1 VO2, which arise from the Peierls pairing filling the valence band, creating homopolar bonds. The valence band wavefunctions are stabilized with respect to the conduction band, reducing polarizability and pushing the conduction band eigenvalues to higher energy. The M2 structure, however, opens a gap from strong on-site interactions; it is a Mott insulator.

  10. Hubbard physics in the PAW GW approximation.

    PubMed

    Booth, J M; Drumm, D W; Casey, P S; Smith, J S; Russo, S P

    2016-06-28

    It is demonstrated that the signatures of the Hubbard Model in the strongly interacting regime can be simulated by modifying the screening in the limit of zero wavevector in Projector-Augmented Wave GW calculations for systems without significant nesting. This modification, when applied to the Mott insulator CuO, results in the opening of the Mott gap by the splitting of states at the Fermi level into upper and lower Hubbard bands, and exhibits a giant transfer of spectral weight upon electron doping. The method is also employed to clearly illustrate that the M1 and M2 forms of vanadium dioxide are fundamentally different types of insulator. Standard GW calculations are sufficient to open a gap in M1 VO2, which arise from the Peierls pairing filling the valence band, creating homopolar bonds. The valence band wavefunctions are stabilized with respect to the conduction band, reducing polarizability and pushing the conduction band eigenvalues to higher energy. The M2 structure, however, opens a gap from strong on-site interactions; it is a Mott insulator. PMID:27369500

  11. 'Paws' for Pet Safety This Fall

    MedlinePlus

    ... all school supplies packed away and out of animals' reach. SOURCE: ASPCA, news release, September 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are provided by HealthDay and ...

  12. Keyboard Success: MicroType PAWS Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidanque, Ann; And Others

    This is a teacher's guide to a 30-lesson keyboarding program for elementary and middle school students. The primary instructional objectives are to teach students how to: (1) keyboard from a correct position; (2) identify the names for the fingers to be used to keyboard; and (3) locate the most frequently used keys with the correct finger. No…

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, P; Priya, N Gayatri; Subathra, M; Ramesh, A

    2008-07-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata were evaluated in acute and chronic inflammation induced in Wistar albino rats. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and some antioxidants produced during chronic inflammation were quantitated. Hexane (320mg/kg of body weight in 25% DMSO), chloroform (320mg/kg body weight in 25% DMSO), ethyl acetate (160mg/kg body weight in 25% DMSO), aqueous (320mg/kg of body weight in ddH(2)O) fractions, two negative control groups (25% DMSO and ddH(2)O) and two anti-inflammatory drugs (Diclofenac: 25mg/kg of body weight; Indomethacin: 10mg/kg of body weight both in ddH(2)O) were administered by oral intubations to the eight groups of rats consisting six animals, each. In acute study, 1% carrageenan was injected subcutaneously in the sub-plantar region of the right hind paw after 1h of administration of test doses. The increased paw edema was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24h intervals. In the chronic study, the oral administration was carried out for seven consecutive days. On eighth day, four sterile cotton pellets (50mg each) were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of the rats. On the sixteenth day, the rats were sacrificed and the cotton pellets with granulomatous tissue were dissected out and weighed (fresh and dry). Both in chronic and acute inflammation, ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous fraction (AF) were effective. EAF is comparable with the positive standards in chronic inflammation. The results indicate that EAF's anti-inflammatory activity is largely due to its ability to modulate in vivo antioxidants.

  14. Alterations in attentional mechanisms in response to acute inflammatory pain and morphine administration.

    PubMed

    Boyette-Davis, J A; Thompson, C D; Fuchs, P N

    2008-01-24

    Research indicates that pain negatively impacts attention; however, the extent of this impact and the mechanisms of the effect of pain on normal attentional processing remain unclear. This study 1) examined the impact of acute inflammatory pain on attentional processing, 2) examined the impact of morphine on attentional processing, and 3) determined if an analgesic dose of morphine would return attentional processing to normal levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), a test commonly used to assess the attentional mechanisms of rodents. Animals were injected with saline or 1, 3, or 6 mg/kg of morphine. Twenty minutes later, animals received a formalin (or saline) injection into one hind paw to induce an inflammatory condition and were then immediately tested in the 5CSRTT. The results show that the formalin injection significantly impaired performance, as measured by an increase in the number of trials in which the animal failed to attend to the task. Likewise, a high dose of morphine (6 mg/kg) produced similar decrements in task performance. Of primary importance is that 3 mg/kg of morphine produced analgesia with only mild sedation, and performance in the 5CSRTT was improved with this dose. This is the first study to use an animal model of acute pain to demonstrate the negative impact of pain on attention, and provides a novel approach to examine the neural correlates that underlie the disruptive impact of pain on attention.

  15. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  16. Uncomplicated acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, R; Sande, M A

    2000-12-19

    Acute bronchitis is an acute cough illness in otherwise healthy adults that usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks. This review describes the pathophysiology of the condition and provides a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Practical points to be made are:1. Respiratory viruses appear to cause the large majority of cases of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.2. Pertussis infection is present in up to 10% to 20% of adults with cough illness of more than 2 to 3 weeks' duration. No clinical features distinguish pertussis from nonpertussis infection in adults who were immunized against pertussis as children.3. Transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness appears to be the predominant mechanism of the bothersome cough of acute bronchitis.4. Ruling out pneumonia is the primary objective in evaluating adults with acute cough illness in whom comorbid conditions and occult asthma are absent or unlikely. In the absence of abnormalities in vital signs (heart rate > 100 beats/min, respiratory rate > 24 breaths/min, and oral body temperature > 38 degrees C), the likelihood of pneumonia is very low.5. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials do not support routine antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis.6. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have shown that inhaled albuterol decreases the duration of cough in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis.7. Intervention studies suggest that antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis can be reduced by using a combination of patient and physician education. Decreased rates of antibiotic treatment are not associated with increased utilization, return visits, or dissatisfaction with care.

  17. Acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sise, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is uncommon and always occurs in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. Mortality rates remain high. The 4 major types of acute mesenteric ischemia are acute superior mesenteric artery thromboembolic occlusion, mesenteric arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, including ischemic colitis. Delays in diagnosis are common and associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis requires attention to history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion, and early contract CT scanning. Selective use of nonoperative therapy has an important role in nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia of the small bowel and colon.

  18. Nickel(II) Complex of Polyhydroxybenzaldehyde N4-Thiosemicarbazone Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Sheng Wei; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Phan, Alicia Yi Ling; Wong, Won Fen; Wang, Hao; Paterson, Ian C.; Ea, Chee Kwee; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Maah, Mohd Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Background The biological properties of thiosemicarbazone have been widely reported. The incorporation of some transition metals such as Fe, Ni and Cu to thiosemicarbazone complexes is known to enhance its biological effects. In this study, we incorporated nickel(II) ions into thiosemicarbazone with N4-substitution groups H3L (H; H3L1, CH3; H3L2, C6H5; H3L3 and C2H5; H3L4) and examined its potential anti-inflammatory activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Four ligands (1–4) and their respective nickel-containing complexes (5–8) were synthesized and characterized. The compounds synthesized were tested for their effects on NF-κB nuclear translocation, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and NF-κB transactivation activity. The active compound was further evaluated on its ability to suppress carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in vivo. A potential binding target of the active compound was also predicted by molecular docking analysis. Conclusions/Significance Among all synthesized compounds tested, we found that complex [Ni(H2L1)(PPh3)]Cl (5) (complex 5), potently inhibited IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells as well as TNFα-stimulated HeLa S3 cells. In addition, complex 5 significantly down-regulated LPS- or TNFα-induced transcription of NF-κB target genes, including genes that encode the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IFNβ and IL6. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that complex 5 inhibited the transactivation activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of complex 5 was also supported by its suppressive effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema formation in wild type C57BL/6 mice. Interestingly, molecular docking study showed that complex 5 potentially interact with the active site of IKKβ. Taken together, we suggest complex 5 as a novel NF-κB inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24977407

  19. In vivo characterization of the highly selective monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor KML29: antinociceptive activity without cannabimimetic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Ignatowska-Jankowska, B M; Ghosh, S; Crowe, M S; Kinsey, S G; Niphakis, M J; Abdullah, R A; Tao, Q; O' Neal, S T; Walentiny, D M; Wiley, J L; Cravatt, B F; Lichtman, A H

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeSince monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) has been firmly established as the predominant catabolic enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a great need has emerged for the development of highly selective MAGL inhibitors. Here, we tested the in vivo effects of one such compound, KML29 (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl 4-(bis(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate). Experimental ApproachIn the present study, we tested KML29 in murine inflammatory (i.e. carrageenan) and sciatic nerve injury pain models, as well as the diclofenac-induced gastric haemorrhage model. KML29 was also evaluated for cannabimimetic effects, including measurements of locomotor activity, body temperature, catalepsy, and cannabinoid interoceptive effects in the drug discrimination paradigm. Key ResultsKML29 attenuated carrageenan-induced paw oedema and completely reversed carrageenan-induced mechanical allodynia. These effects underwent tolerance after repeated administration of high-dose KML29, which were accompanied by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor desensitization. Acute or repeated KML29 administration increased 2-AG levels and concomitantly reduced arachidonic acid levels, but without elevating anandamide (AEA) levels in the whole brain. Furthermore, KML29 partially reversed allodynia in the sciatic nerve injury model and completely prevented diclofenac-induced gastric haemorrhages. CB1 and CB2 receptors played differential roles in these pharmacological effects of KML29. In contrast, KML29 did not elicit cannabimimetic effects, including catalepsy, hypothermia and hypomotility. Although KML29 did not substitute for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in C57BL/6J mice, it fully and dose-dependantly substituted for AEA in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) (−/−) mice, consistent with previous work showing that dual FAAH and MAGL inhibition produces THC-like subjective effects. Conclusions and ImplicationsThese results

  20. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  1. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  2. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  3. Treatment of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  4. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  5. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  6. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  7. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  8. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary Radiation Emergencies & Your Health Possible Health Effects Contamination and Exposure Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) Cutaneous Radiation ... Decision Making in Radiation Emergencies Protective Actions Internal Contamination Clinical Reference (ICCR) Application Psychological First Aid in ...

  9. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children. PMID:27613655

  10. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bang-Tian; Li, Wei-Xi; He, Rong-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances) plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-α and interleukin-(IL-) 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food. PMID:22900128

  12. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) modulates neurological function when intravenously infused in acute and, chronically injured spinal cord of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Renno, Waleed M; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Mousa, Alyaa; Karam, Shaima M; Abul, Habib; Asfar, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and long lasting motor and sensory deficits, chronic pain, and autonomic dysreflexia. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown to produce neuroprotective effect in a broad range of neurodegenerative disease animal models. This study designed to test the efficacy of intravenous infusion of EGCG for 36 h, in acutely injured rats' spinal cord: within first 4 h post-injury and, in chronically SC injured rats: after one year of injury. Functional outcomes measured using standard BBB scale, The Louisville Swim Scale (LSS) and, pain behavior assessment tests. 72 Female adult rats subjected to moderate thoracic SCI using MASCIS Impactor, blindly randomized as the following: (I) Acute SCI + EGCG (II) Acute SCI + saline. (III) Chronic SCI + EGCG. (IV) Chronic SCI + saline and, sham SCI animals. EGCG i.v. treatment of acute and, chronic SCI animals resulted in significantly better recovery of motor and sensory functions, BBB and LSS (P < 0.005) and (P < 0.05) respectively. Tactile allodynia, mechanical nociception (P < 0.05) significantly improved. Paw withdrawal and, tail flick latencies increase significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, in the EGCG treated acute SCI animals the percentage of lesion size area significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) and, the number of neurons in the spinal cord increased (P < 0.001). Percent areas of GAP-43 and GFAP immunohistochemistry showed significant (P < 0.05) increase. We conclude that the therapeutic window of opportunity for EGCG to depict neurological recovery in SCI animals, is viable up to one year post SCI when intravenously infused for 36 h. PMID:24071567

  13. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) modulates neurological function when intravenously infused in acute and, chronically injured spinal cord of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Renno, Waleed M; Al-Khaledi, Ghanim; Mousa, Alyaa; Karam, Shaima M; Abul, Habib; Asfar, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe and long lasting motor and sensory deficits, chronic pain, and autonomic dysreflexia. (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown to produce neuroprotective effect in a broad range of neurodegenerative disease animal models. This study designed to test the efficacy of intravenous infusion of EGCG for 36 h, in acutely injured rats' spinal cord: within first 4 h post-injury and, in chronically SC injured rats: after one year of injury. Functional outcomes measured using standard BBB scale, The Louisville Swim Scale (LSS) and, pain behavior assessment tests. 72 Female adult rats subjected to moderate thoracic SCI using MASCIS Impactor, blindly randomized as the following: (I) Acute SCI + EGCG (II) Acute SCI + saline. (III) Chronic SCI + EGCG. (IV) Chronic SCI + saline and, sham SCI animals. EGCG i.v. treatment of acute and, chronic SCI animals resulted in significantly better recovery of motor and sensory functions, BBB and LSS (P < 0.005) and (P < 0.05) respectively. Tactile allodynia, mechanical nociception (P < 0.05) significantly improved. Paw withdrawal and, tail flick latencies increase significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, in the EGCG treated acute SCI animals the percentage of lesion size area significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) and, the number of neurons in the spinal cord increased (P < 0.001). Percent areas of GAP-43 and GFAP immunohistochemistry showed significant (P < 0.05) increase. We conclude that the therapeutic window of opportunity for EGCG to depict neurological recovery in SCI animals, is viable up to one year post SCI when intravenously infused for 36 h.

  14. Flavopiridol, Cytarabine, and Mitoxantrone in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  16. Thrombosis and acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Solís, Erick

    2012-04-01

    Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with acute leukemia. While the presence of central venous lines, concomitant steroids, the use of Escherichia coli asparaginase and hereditary thrombophilic abnormalities are known risk factors for thrombosis in children, information on the pathogenesis, risk factors, and clinical outcome of thrombosis in adult patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still scarce. Expert consensus and guidelines regarding leukemia-specific risk factors, thrombosis prevention, and treatment strategies, as well as optimal type of central venous catheter in acute leukemia patients are required. It is likely that each subtype of acute leukemia represents a different setting for the development of thrombosis and the risk of bleeding. This is perhaps due to a combination of different disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms of thrombosis, including the type of chemotherapy protocol chosen, the underlying patients health, associated risk factors, as well as the biology of the disease itself. The risk of thrombosis may also vary according to ethnicity and prevalence of hereditary risk factors for thrombosis; thus, it is advisable for Latin American, Asian, and African countries to report on their specific patient population. PMID:22507812

  17. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  18. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE GLOMERULITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lukens, Francis D. W.; Longcope, Warfield T.

    1931-01-01

    1. Both focal and diffuse glomerulitis has been produced in rabbits by the injection directly into the left renal artery of suspensions of heat killed hemolytic streptococci. 2. Similar lesions in the glomeruli could not be obtained by the injection of suspensions of bismuth oxychloride into the left renal artery of normal rabbits. 3. The acute glomerulitis occurred in only about one-half of the rabbits employed for the experiments. 4. Glomerulitis was observed much more frequently in rabbits in which an acute localized streptococcus infection had been produced by the intracutaneous injection of living hemolytic streptococci, than in normal rabbits. The occurrence of acute glomerulitis was usually associated with a well marked skin reaction to the filtrates of hemolytic streptococci. PMID:19869861

  20. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  1. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  2. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Katie S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk and immediate management options by both the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical. PMID:26210926

  3. The Acute Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Heiken, Jay P

    2015-11-01

    Acute disorders of the abdominal aorta are potentially lethal conditions that require prompt evaluation and treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging method for evaluating these conditions because of its availability and speed. Volumetric CT acquisition with multiplanar reconstruction and three-dimensional analysis is now the standard technique for evaluating the aorta. MR imaging may be useful for select applications in stable patients in whom rupture has been excluded. Imaging is indispensable for diagnosis and treatment planning, because management has shifted toward endoluminal repair. Acute abdominal aortic conditions most commonly are complications of aneurysms and atherosclerosis. PMID:26526434

  4. Acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Gordon R.

    1974-01-01

    While rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon except where there are poor and crowded living conditions, sporadic acute attacks continue to occur in a family or pediatric medical practice. The physician's role in management of the sore throat in the diagnosis of suspected cases of rheumatic fever and in follow-up for continued prophylaxis is discussed. The frequency of admissions and presenting features of 159 patients with acute rheumatic fever is reviewed. Continued surveillance is required if we are to achieve a further reduction in attack rate and complications. PMID:4419123

  5. Acute sinusitis in children.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2013-04-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a common illness in children. Viral upper respiratory tract infection is the most common presentation of rhinosinusitis. Most children resolve the infection spontaneously and only a small proportion develops a secondary bacterial infection. The proper choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the likely infecting pathogens, bacterial antibiotic resistance, and pharmacologic profiles of antibiotics. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is currently recommended as the empiric treatment in those requiring antimicrobial therapy. Isolation of the causative agents should be considered in those who failed the initial treatment. In addition to antibiotics, adjuvant therapies and surgery may be used in the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

  6. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Mirtaceae).

    PubMed

    García, M D; Fernández, M A; Alvarez, A; Saenz, M T

    2004-03-01

    The leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua (Urban & Ekman) Landrum L. (Myrtaceae) are used against the pain and the inflammation in popular medicine of the Caribe area. In the present work, the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effect, and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa have been investigated. The antinociceptive action was assayed in several experimental models in mice: acetic acid, formalin, and hot plate tests. The aqueous extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced the nociception induced by the acetic acid intraperitoneal injection (P<0.001). In the formalin test, the extract also significantly reduced the painful stimulus in both phases of the test (P<0.001). On the contrary, the extract neither significantly increased the latency time of licking nor jumping in the hot plate test. In the anti-inflammatory study, the plant also showed an interesting effect. Aqueous extract (125 and 250 mg/kg) orally administered, significantly reduced the carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw at 1, 3, and 5 h (P<0.001). In the TPA test the edema was dose-dependent and significantly reduced by the extract (0.5, 1, and 3 mg per ear) when it was topically applied (P<0.01; P<0.001). The levels of myeloperoxidase enzyme also were reduced in the inflamed tissue by the extract. Acute toxicity also was investigated and the results indicated a moderate toxicity (LD50: 287 +/- 12.9 mg residue/kg; 1.854 +/- 0.083 g plant/kg). These results revealed that the extract from leaves of Pimenta racemosa var. ozua exerts an important antinociceptive activity, associated to an anti-inflammatory effect which to appear be markedly influenced by the inhibition of neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue and that lack of toxic effects at usual doses.

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Solanum Melongena Linn. in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity study according to OECD425 guidelines was done to find out the LD50 of test drug. Carrageenan induced paw oedema method in Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Aspirin in the dose of 300mg/kg was used as the standard drug and three doses of aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena L. (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg b.w.) was used as the test drug. The results were measured at 1st h, 3rd h, and 5th h after the carrageenan injection. Results: In acute oral toxicity study none of the animals died at the dose of 2000mg/kg. Aqueous extract of Solanum melongena Linn leaf in the dose of 200mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (p <0.05) at 3rd hr and highly significant anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.001) at 5th hr; in the dose of 400 mg/kg, test drug showed p<0.01 at 3rd and p<0.001 at 5th hr and in the dose of 100mg/kg it showed significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory activity at 5th hr. In doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of S. melongena L showed the percentage of inhibition of 42.62% which is less than the standard drug aspirin which showed 64.5% inhibition. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn has anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25738003

  8. Mechanical properties, skin permeation and in vivo evaluations of dexibuprofen-loaded emulsion gel for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Giu; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Son, Mi Woon; Jang, Sun Woo; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the gel properties, skin permeation and in vivo drug efficacy of a novel dexibuprofen-loaded emulsion gel for topical delivery. In this study, the dexibuprofen-loaded emulsion gel and ibuprofen-loaded emulsion gel were prepared with isopropanol, Tween 80, propylene glycol, isopropyl myristate and carbopol. Their mechanical properties such as hardness and adhesiveness were assessed. Moreover, their skin permeation, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive efficacy were evaluated using Franz diffusion cell with the hairless mouse skin, the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test and paw pressure test in rat's hind paws compared with the commercial hydrogel, respectively. The dexibuprofen emulsion gel and ibuprofen emulsion gel provided significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness than the commercial hydrogel. The dexibuprofen emulsion gel enhanced skin permeability by about twofold and 3.5-fold without lag time compared to the ibuprofen emulsion gel and the commercial hydrogel, respectively, suggesting its faster skin permeation. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory efficacy and alleviation in carrageenan-induced inflammation was in the order of dexibuprofen emulsion gel > commercial hydrogel > ibuprofen emulsion gel. The dexibuprofen emulsion gel furnished significantly higher nociceptive thresholds than the ibuprofen emulsion gel and the commercial hydrogel, leading to the most improved anti-nociceptive efficacy. Thus, this dexibuprofen-loaded emulsion gel with good mechanical property, rapid skin permeation and excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive efficacy would be a strong candidate for the topical delivery of anti-inflammatory dexibuprofen.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Li, Chu-Wen; Chen, Hai-Ming; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Su, Zi-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF- κ B, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE. PMID:24223056

  11. Margaritaria discoidea (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark extract attenuates allergy and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, David D.; Osafo, Newman; Oppong-Sarfo, Joshua; Prah, Jude K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various parts of Margaritaria discoidea find use in traditional medicine in the treatment of pain and oedema. This study evaluated the anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of a 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Margaritaria discoidea, MDE in rodents. Materials and Methods: Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by the injection of compound 48/80 into mice and their survival rate was monitored to evaluate the anti-allergic action of the extract. The effect of MDE assessed on the maximal and total oedema responses in the mouse carrageenan-induced paw oedema was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of the extract while the Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model was employed to study the anti-arthritic effects of MDE. Results: MDE dose-dependently increased the time for compound 48/80-induced mortality in mice. MDE suppressed the mean maximal swelling and the total paw swellings induced over 6 h in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically. MDE caused a reduction in serum levels of TNFα and IL-6 and significantly suppressed Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. Conclusion: Margaritaria discoidea suppresses allergy and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in mice. In addition it attenuates Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis through a reduction in serum levels of TNFα and IL-6 in rats. PMID:24761122

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Li, Chu-Wen; Chen, Hai-Ming; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Su, Zi-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF- κ B, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE. PMID:24223056

  13. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... about acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in a part of ... the body from doing their jobs. Types of leukemia Not all leukemias are the same. There are ...

  14. Effects of a carrageenan-induced myositis on the discharge properties of group III and IV muscle receptors in the cat.

    PubMed

    Berberich, P; Hoheisel, U; Mense, S

    1988-05-01

    1. To see how muscle group III and IV receptors are affected by a myositis, the background activity and mechanical excitability of slowly conducting afferent units from normal and inflamed muscles were studied in chloralose-anesthetized cats. The inflammation was induced by infiltrating the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle with a suspension of 2% carrageenan. According to their responsiveness to local pressure stimulation the receptors were classified as touch units, moderate pressure units, and noxious pressure (probably nociceptive) units. The impulse activity in single afferent units was recorded up to 14 h after induction of the inflammation. 2. In inflamed muscle both group III and group IV receptors showed an increase in the proportion of units having a background activity and in the mean background activity. The differences reached statistically significant levels in group III fibers only. 3. A characteristic feature of the background activity of some receptors in inflamed muscle was its intermittent nature: the discharges occurred either as grouped impulses of short duration or as phases of relatively high discharge frequency alternating with long periods of silence. 4. In normal muscle no receptor exhibited intermittent discharges or had a discharge rate exceeding 7 imp/min. Thus the presence of an intermittent background activity or a high frequency of the background discharge can be considered as characteristic for afferent units from an inflamed muscle. 5. The time course of the background activity showed two peaks, one occurring 2-4 h, the other one 6-7 h after induction of the inflammation. Recordings of single units during the transition from the normal to the inflamed state demonstrated that the first increase in background discharge took place 1-1.5 h after injection of carrageenan. 6. The proportion of noxious pressure units was reduced and that of moderate pressure units increased in inflamed muscle. In this case the difference was significant for group IV units only. 7. The response curves upon mechanical stimulation did not show significant differences in normal and inflamed muscle, i.e., sensitized noxious pressure units behaved similar to real touch units or moderate pressure units with respect to their mechanical excitability. 8. No apparent correlation existed between the receptors' mechanical threshold and degree of background activity in inflamed muscle. This suggests that the inflammation-induced change in mechanical excitability and development of background activity are independent phenomena.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3385466

  15. Molecular modeling of lectin-like protein from Acacia farnesiana reveals a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism in Carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Vanessa Erika Ferreira; Matias da Rocha, Bruno Anderson; Batista da Nóbrega, Raphael; Silva-Filho, José Caetano; Teixeira, Claudener Souza; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Ferreira, Sergio Henrique; Figueiredo, Jozi Godoy; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Delatorre, Plinio

    2013-01-01

    Acacia farnesiana lectin-like protein (AFAL) is a chitin-binding protein and has been classified as phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA). Legume lectins are examples for structural studies, and this family of proteins shows a remarkable conservation in primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. Lectins have ability to reduce the effects of inflammation caused by phlogistic agents, such as carrageenan (CGN). This paper explains the anti-inflammatory activity of AFAL through structural comparison with anti-inflammatory legume lectins. The AFAL model was obtained by molecular modeling and molecular docking with glycan and carrageenan were performed to explain the AFAL structural behavior and biological activity. Pisum sativum lectin was the best template for molecular modeling. The AFAL structure model is folded as a β sandwich. The model differs from template in loop regions, number of β strands and carbohydrate-binding site. Carrageenan and glycan bind to different sites on AFAL. The ability of AFAL binding to carrageenan can be explained by absence of the sixth β -strand (posterior β sheets) and two β strands in frontal region. AFAL can inhibit pathway inflammatory process by carrageenan injection by connecting to it and preventing its entry into the cell and triggers the reaction.

  16. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  17. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery.

  18. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  19. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  20. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  1. Acute coronary care 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the titles are: The measurement of acute myocardial infarct size by CT; Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of myocardial ischemia and infarction; Poistron imaging in the evaluation of ischemia and myocardial infarction; and New inotropic agents.

  2. Acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Vlodov, J; Tenner, S M

    2001-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis has multiple causes, an unpredictable course, and myriad complications. The diagnosis relies on a combination of history, physical examination, serologic markers, and radiologic findings. The mainstay of therapy includes aggressive hydration, maintenance of NPO, and adequate analgesia with narcotics. Antibiotic and nutritional support with total parenteral nutrition should be used when appropriate.

  3. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  4. [Management of acute tendinitis].

    PubMed

    Rapp, H J; Heisse, K; Becker, M; Stechele, M

    1992-12-01

    Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.

  5. Acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Frankish, P D; Mason, G H; Allen, P R; Milsom, F P; Christmas, T I

    1988-10-12

    Two cases of acute streptococcal necrotising fasciitis are reported. Both patients were taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs when they developed this infection. Urgent surgical debridement was undertaken and resulted in a successful outcome in both patients. The clinical and histopathological features of this condition are reviewed.

  6. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India, is used in Ayurveda as “rejuvenating herb” since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33–89.00%), ABTS (23.03–94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94–70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica

  7. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide from Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, S; Gato, A; Lamela, M; Freire-Garabal, M; Calleja, J M

    2003-06-01

    Crude polysaccharide extracts were obtained from aqueous extracts of the microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The crude extracts were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose columns. The molecular weights of the polysaccharides in each fraction were estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl columns. The crude polysaccharide extracts of both microalgae showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. In assays of effects on the delayed hyper-sensitivity response, and on phagocytic activity assayed in vivo and in vitro, the C. stigmatophora extract showed immunosuppressant effects, while the P. tricornutum extract showed immunostimulatory effects. PMID:12820237

  8. New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pooja; Jyotshna; Gupta, Namita; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-liquid partitioning of Ricinus communis root methanol extract resulted in enrichment of compounds. Purification of the n-hexane fraction led to the isolation and characterisation of two triterpenes: one known compound lupeol (1) and a new diketone pentacyclic triterpene named as erandone (urs-6-ene-3,16-dione) (2), from the plant. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic techniques. Crude methanolic, enriched n-hexane fraction and isolates at doses 100 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema model.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  10. Physico-Phytochemical investigation and Anti-inflammatory screening of Capsicum annum L. and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R. Br

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, K.; Shyamala, R.; Thirumurugan, V.; Sethuraman, M.; Rajan, S.; Badami, Shrishailappa; Mukherjee, Pulok K.

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum annum L. (Family: Solanaceae) and Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. (Family: Asclepiadaceae) are commonly used in Tamilnadufor treating various ailments in the native system of medicine. The hydroalcoholic extracts of both plants at dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight showed demonstrable anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced hind paw model in rats. Nevertheless, the overall anti-inflammatory activity exhibited by the extracts are found to be less as compared with that of standard drug Indometacin. Preliminary physico-phytochemical analysis of the plants in question were attempted. The results are highlighted and discussed. PMID:22557366

  11. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain by its encapsulation in katira gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bernela, Manju; Ahuja, Munish; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Bromelain-loaded katira gum nanoparticles were synthesized using 3 level optimization process and desirability approach. Nanoparticles of the optimized batch were characterized using particle size analysis, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by employing carrageenan induced rat-paw oedema method showed that encapsulation of bromelain in katira gum nanoparticles substantially enhanced its anti-inflammatory potential. This may be attributed to enhanced absorption owing to reduced particle size or to protection of bromelain from acid proteases.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of Abutilon indicum extract.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Priyanka; Chauhan, N S; Patel, J R

    2012-01-01

    Abutilon indicum Linn. had been broadly used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of A. indicum Linn. was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity at doses 250, 500 and 750 mg kg⁻¹ using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in healthy Wistar albino rats. Results of in vivo activity led to the conclusion that the ethanolic extract of A. indicum showed predominantly significant activity in a dose-dependent manner, which is comparable to the reference standard ibuprofen. The results prove the traditional use of plant in the treatment of inflammation. PMID:21999427

  13. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Reena, M; Kiran, G; Rajyalakshmi, G; Venkateshwa, Rao J; Sarangapani, M

    2010-06-01

    A series of 2-substituted-((N, N-disubstituted)-1, 3-benzoxazole)-5-carboxamides derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of 2-substituted-5-carbomethoxy benzoxazole with different secondary amines. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS) & elemental analysis. All these compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. All of these compounds exhibited significant activity. Among the tested compounds Ve, Vg, Vf and Va were considered to have potent anti-inflammatory activity and was comparable with standard.

  14. Dimethyl-diphenyl-propanamide derivatives as nonsteroidal dissociated glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingwei V; Weinstein, David S; Doweyko, Lidia M; Gong, Hua; Vaccaro, Wayne; Huynh, Tram; Xiao, Hai-Yun; Doweyko, Arthur M; McKay, Lorraine; Holloway, Deborah A; Somerville, John E; Habte, Sium; Cunningham, Mark; McMahon, Michele; Townsend, Robert; Shuster, David; Dodd, John H; Nadler, Steven G; Barrish, Joel C

    2010-12-01

    A series of 2,2-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl-propanamides as novel glucocorticoid receptor modulators is reported. SAR exploration led to the identification of 4-hydroxyphenyl propanamide derivatives displaying good agonist activity in GR-mediated transrepression assays and reduced agonist activity in GR-mediated transactivation assays. Compounds 17 and 30 showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to prednisolone in the rat carrageenan-induced paw edema model, with markedly decreased side effects with regard to increases in blood glucose and expression of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase. A hypothetical binding mode accounting for the induction of the functional activity by a 4-hydroxyl group is proposed. PMID:21073190

  15. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity and acute oral toxicity of standardized ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sutha; Esfahani, Azadeh Sabetghadam; Ismail, Sabariah; Ramanathan, Surash; Yam, Mun Fei

    2010-04-22

    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.

  16. The management of acute pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Wells, T A; Curzen, N P

    2005-01-01

    Acute pericarditis is usually a benign self-limiting condition, often of unexplained or viral aetiology, involving inflammation of the pericardial layers. It is often part of the differential diagnosis in patients admitted with acute chest pain and can be confused with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and pleurisy. Occasionally it can result in cardiac tamponade and, if associated with myocarditis, in heart failure. This article sets out how to diagnose acute pericarditis, the common underlying causes, the possible treatment options and outcomes. PMID:21655516

  17. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  18. Acute Resistance Exercise Induces Antinociception by Activation of the Endocannabinoid System in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago; da Silva, José Felippe Pinho; Aguiar, Daniele; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise (RE) is also known as strength training, and it is performed to increase the strength and mass of muscles, bone strength and metabolism. RE has been increasingly prescribed for pain relief. However, the endogenous mechanisms underlying this antinociceptive effect are still largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in RE-induced antinociception. Methods Male Wistar rats were submitted to acute RE in a weight-lifting model. The nociceptive threshold was measured by a mechanical nociceptive test (paw pressure) before and after exercise. To investigate the involvement of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids in RE-induced antinociception, cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists, endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor were injected before RE. After RE, CB1 cannabinoid receptors were quantified in rat brain tissue by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In addition, endocannabinoid plasma levels were measured by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results RE-induced antinociception was prevented by preinjection with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists. By contrast, preadministration of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and the anandamide reuptake inhibitor prolonged and enhanced this effect. RE also produced an increase in the expression and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in rat brain tissue and in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal regions and an increase of endocannabinoid plasma levels. Conclusion The present study suggests that a single session of RE activates the endocannabinoid system to induce antinociception. PMID:24977916

  19. Acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B

    2000-07-01

    We encounter patients with acute pain many times each day, and few aspects of veterinary practice offer such an opportunity to help so many in such a profoundly rewarding way. As emphasized here and elsewhere, we now have excellent tools with which to help these animals, and the biggest impediment to optimal treatment of their pain is often our own difficulty in recognizing its presence. Perhaps the single most important aspect of treating acute pain is to cultivate an ability to see past our personal biases and expectations which may limit treatment and to rediscover the common sense we had about pain before we entered the profession. By rededicating ourselves to seeking out, preventing, and relieving pain, we not only perform a vital service for our patients but also elevate our profession even as we reap financial and spiritual rewards for our efforts. What could be better? PMID:10932832

  20. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.

  1. Acute aortic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  2. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  3. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Laraki, M; Harti, A; Bouderka, M A; Barrou, H; Matar, N; Benaguida, M

    1993-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy is a serious condition and diagnosis is often difficult. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old woman in the 32nd week of her fifth pregnancy, in which the outcome was fatal for both mother and child. The cause of pancreatitis during pregnancy has been attributed to many factors, chiefly cholelithiasis. A number of recent studies have shown the relationship existing between the role played by pregnancy in predisposing to gallbladder disease with lithiasis. Many diagnosis errors are made in this condition. Thus modern treatment methods have improved the prognosis in acute pancreatitis but, when it occurs during pregnancy, diagnostic delays often lead to a gloomy outlook. PMID:8248696

  4. Acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corvera, Joel S

    2016-05-01

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a term used to describe a constellation of life-threatening aortic diseases that have similar presentation, but appear to have distinct demographic, clinical, pathological and survival characteristics. Many believe that the three major entities that comprise AAS: aortic dissection (AD), intramural hematoma (IMH) and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU), make up a spectrum of aortic disease in which one entity may evolve into or coexist with another. Much of the confusion in accurately classifying an AAS is that they present with similar symptoms: typically acute onset of severe chest or back pain, and may have similar radiographic features, since the disease entities all involve injury or disruption of the medial layer of the aortic wall. The accurate diagnosis of an AAS is often made at operation. This manuscript will attempt to clarify the similarities and differences between AD, IMH and PAU of the ascending aorta and describe the challenges in distinguishing them from one another. PMID:27386405

  5. Cytokines and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Christmas, S; Sutton, R; Neoptolemos, J; Slavin, J

    1999-07-01

    Cytokines have been shown to play a pivotal role in multiple organ dysfunction, a major cause of death in severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, the two-hit hypothesis of the cytokine-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome explains the variable individual response to severe acute pancreatitis and the impact of secondary events such as sepsis or therapeutic intervention. Many experimental anti-cytokine therapies have been administered following induction of experimental pancreatitis, and have proved to be therapeutic. Patients with severe pancreatitis present early because of pain. Clearly then a window for therapeutic intervention is available between onset of symptoms and peak pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. It is this fundamental observation that convinces many in the field that the treatment of AP will be one of the first clinical successes for novel drugs or therapy that seek to modulate the inflammatory response.

  6. Acute arsenic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Alvarez, J A

    1989-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute arsenic poisoning should be considered in any patient presenting with severe gastrointestinal complaints. Signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, colicky abdominal pain and profuse, watery diarrhea. Hypotension, fluid and electrolyte disturbances, mental status changes, electrocardiographic abnormalities, respiratory failure and death can result. Quantitative measurement of 24-hour urinary arsenic excretion is the only reliable laboratory test to confirm arsenic poisoning. Treatment includes gastric emesis or lavage, chelation therapy, electrolyte and fluid replacement, and cardiorespiratory support.

  7. [Acute Chest Pain].

    PubMed

    Gmür, Christian

    2016-02-17

    Acute chest pain is a frequent consultation reason in general practice as well as in emergency departments. With the help of history, physical examination, ECG, laboratory and newly developed risk scores, potentially life-threatening diseases and high-risk patients may be detected and treated early, quickly and cost-effectively. New biomarkers and their combination with risk scores can increase the negative predictive value to exclude certain diseases. PMID:26886697

  8. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  9. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  10. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  11. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4000 million cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 1996, resulting in 2.5 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries traveling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, and oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution). PMID:19450323

  12. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  13. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xue; Guo, Menghu; Wieland, L. Susan; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to determine the effects and, when possible, the safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute hordeola, in comparison to no specific treatment (e.g., observation), sham acupuncture, or other active treatments. Acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment also will be compared to that treatment alone. PMID:25214814

  14. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Tenconi, Rossana; Tagliaferri, Laura; Albertario, Giada; Patria, Maria Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2012-08-01

    Rhinosinusitis is almost always a complication of a viral infection involving the upper respiratory tract. A common cold is the first symptom of rhinosinusitis, but infectious processes involving the nose inevitably affect the paranasal sinuses because of their anatomical contiguity. The symptoms remain those of a common cold as long as nasal phlogosis is moderate and the ostia between the nose and sinuses are patent. If the inflammation is intense, edema may obliterate the ostia and isolate the sinuses, thus stopping the removal of the exudates. The duration of symptoms makes it possible to distinguish acute (10-30 days) from subacute (30-90 days) and chronic rhinosinusitis (>90 days). The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis should only be based on anamnestic and clinical criteria in children with serious or persistent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection, or which appear within a short time of an apparent recovery. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of the paranasal sinuses should be reserved for children reasonably considered to be candidates for surgery. Antibiotics are recommended in cases of mild acute bacterial rhinosinusitis as a means of accelerating the resolution of symptoms. The use of antibiotics is mandatory in severe acute bacterial rhinosinusitis to cure the disease and avoid the possible onset of severe complications.

  15. Acute lung injury review.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Kenji; King, Landon S; Aggarwal, Neil R; De Gorordo, Antonio; D'Alessio, Franco R; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-01-01

    The first report of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was published in 1967, and even now acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are severe forms of diffuse lung disease that impose a substantial health burden all over the world. Recent estimates indicate approximately 190,000 cases per year of ALI in the United States each year, with an associated 74,500 deaths per year. Common causes of ALI/ARDS are sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, aspiration pneumonia, pancreatitis, and so on. Several pathologic stages of ALI/ARDS have been described: acute inflammation with neutrophil infiltration, fibroproliferative phase with hyaline membranes, with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, and resolution phase. There has been intense investigation into the pathophysiologic events relevant to each stage of ALI/ARDS, and much has been learned in the alveolar epithelial, endobronchial homeostasis, and alveolar cell immune responses, especially neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in an animal model. However, these effective results in the animal models are not equally adoptive to those in randomized, controlled trials. The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable with the likely pathophysiologic complexity of human ALI/ARDS. In 1994, the definition was recommended by the American-European Consensus Conference Committee, which facilitated easy nomination of patients with ALI/ARDS for a randomized, clinical trial. Here, we review the recent randomized, clinical trials of ALI/ARDS.

  16. Medical treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mayerle, Julia; Simon, Peter; Lerch, Markus M

    2004-12-01

    Eighty percent of all cases of acute pancreatitis are linked etiologically to gallstone disease or caused by immoderate alcohol consumption. No specific causal treatment for acute pancreatitis exists. Early prognostic factors that indicate severe disease are three or more signs on organ failure scores according to Ranson, Imrie, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) 11, extrapancreatic complications of the disease, or the detection of pancreatic necrosis on CT scans. Elevated CRP levels above 130 mg/L can also predict a severe course of acute pancreatitis. The essential medical treatment for acute pancreatitis is the correction of hypovolemia. Moreover, relief of often severe visceral pain is a high priority. Prophylactic antibiotics should be restricted to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, infected necrosis, or other infectious complications. Enteral nutrition has no adverse effect compared with parenteral nutrition during the course of acute pancreatitis, and is probably beneficial in regard to outcome.

  17. Targeted Therapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  18. Safety and anti-ulcerogenic activity of a novel polyphenol-rich extract of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L).

    PubMed

    Issac, Abin; Gopakumar, G; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Maliakel, Balu; Krishnakumar, I M

    2015-03-01

    Despite the various reports on the pharmacology of Clove bud [Syzygium aromaticum]-derived essential oil and its major component eugenol, systematic information on the bioactivity of clove polyphenols is very limited. Clove buds being one of the richest sources of dietary polyphenols with many traditional medicinal uses, the present contribution attempted to derive their standardized polyphenol-rich extracts as a water soluble free flowing powder (Clovinol) suitable for functional food applications, without the issues of its characteristic pungency and aroma. The extract was characterized by electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), and investigated for in vivo antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities. Clovinol showed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as measured by cellular antioxidant levels, and the ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced paw swelling in mice. Further investigations revealed its significant anti-ulcerogenic activity (>97% inhibition of ethanol-induced stomach ulcers in Wistar rats when orally administered at 100 mg per kg b.w.) and up regulation of in vivo antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT). Clovinol also reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation among ulcer induced rats, indicating its usefulness in ameliorating oxidative stress and improving gastrointestinal health, especially upon chronic alcohol consumption. The extract was also shown to be safe and suitable for further investigations and development upon acute toxicity studies at 5 g per kg body weight and 28 days of repeated dose toxicity studies at 2.5 g per kg b.w. PMID:25605463

  19. Tenidap, a structurally novel drug for the treatment of arthritis: antiinflammatory and analgesic properties.

    PubMed

    Moore, P F; Larson, D L; Otterness, I G; Weissman, A; Kadin, S B; Sweeney, F J; Eskra, J D; Nagahisa, A; Sakakibara, M; Carty, T J

    1996-02-01

    Tenidap is a new anti-rheumatic agent which has clinical properties characteristic of a disease modifying drug combined with acute antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. This paper details tenidap's cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity and the resulting pharmacological properties in experimental animals. Tenidap inhibited calcium ionophore-stimulated prostaglandin D2 synthesis by rat basophilic leukemia cells (COX-1) with an IC50 of 20 nM. In two different in vitro human test systems, tenidap inhibited COX-1 activity more potently than COX-2, although the relative potency ratio (COX-1/COX-2) differed markedly between the two systems. Tenidap inhibited the COX pathway when added to human blood in vitro (IC50, 7.8 mu M) and when administered orally to monkeys, rats and dogs (at 5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg p.o., respectively) and COX activity measured ex vivo in blood collected 2 to 4 hours post dose. After oral administration to rats, tenidap inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema with an ED50 of 14 mg/kg and inhibited the glucocorticoid-resistant UV erythema in guinea pigs with an ED50 of 1.4 mg/kg. It retained antiinflammatory activity in adrenalectomized rats indicating that this property is independent of adrenal stimulation. Oral administration of tenidap inhibited the development of adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in the rat and exhibited antinociceptive activity in the murine phenylbenzoquinone and rat acetic acid abdominal constriction tests. These data indicate that tenidap is an effective antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in animal models. These cyclooxygenase-dependent pharmacologic activities do not explain tenidap's disease modifying anti-arthritic properties but add a useful symptom modifying component to its clinical profile. PMID:8907585

  20. Protective Effect of Bioactivity Guided Fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Root Bark against Hepatic Injury and Chronic Inflammation via Inhibiting Inflammatory Markers and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kalita, Bhupalee; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.

  1. Safety and anti-ulcerogenic activity of a novel polyphenol-rich extract of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum L).

    PubMed

    Issac, Abin; Gopakumar, G; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Maliakel, Balu; Krishnakumar, I M

    2015-03-01

    Despite the various reports on the pharmacology of Clove bud [Syzygium aromaticum]-derived essential oil and its major component eugenol, systematic information on the bioactivity of clove polyphenols is very limited. Clove buds being one of the richest sources of dietary polyphenols with many traditional medicinal uses, the present contribution attempted to derive their standardized polyphenol-rich extracts as a water soluble free flowing powder (Clovinol) suitable for functional food applications, without the issues of its characteristic pungency and aroma. The extract was characterized by electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), and investigated for in vivo antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities. Clovinol showed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as measured by cellular antioxidant levels, and the ability to inhibit carrageenan-induced paw swelling in mice. Further investigations revealed its significant anti-ulcerogenic activity (>97% inhibition of ethanol-induced stomach ulcers in Wistar rats when orally administered at 100 mg per kg b.w.) and up regulation of in vivo antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT). Clovinol also reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation among ulcer induced rats, indicating its usefulness in ameliorating oxidative stress and improving gastrointestinal health, especially upon chronic alcohol consumption. The extract was also shown to be safe and suitable for further investigations and development upon acute toxicity studies at 5 g per kg body weight and 28 days of repeated dose toxicity studies at 2.5 g per kg b.w.

  2. Protective Effect of Bioactivity Guided Fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Root Bark against Hepatic Injury and Chronic Inflammation via Inhibiting Inflammatory Markers and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kalita, Bhupalee; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation. PMID:27656145

  3. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory properties of some aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Akram; El-Khatib, Riyad; Rainsford, K D; Whitehouse, M W

    2012-02-01

    A variety of novel aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic curcuminoids were synthesised, characterised and their anti-inflammatory activities (AIA) determined in vivo. Some of these compounds also were tested for inflammatory mediator production. The AIA of the main representatives of these compounds were assessed by oral administration to female Wistar rats using (a) acute carrageenan-induced paw oedema, (b) chronic adjuvant arthritis (therapeutic mode), and (c) anti-pyretic activity assessed in the yeast pyrexia. Gastric ulceration was determined in pre-inflamed rats. Natural curcumin showed modest aspirin-like anti-inflammatory activity which was enhanced when co-administered with the PGE(1) analogue misoprostol as a synergist. In contrast, four novel curcuminoids (RK-97, RK-103, RK-104 and RK-106) in which the bis-methoxy-phenyl group of curcumin was replaced with bis-dimethoxybutenolidyl-(ascorbate), bis-naphthyl, and bis-furanyl derivatives, respectively, had potent activity in the anti-arthritic assay with little gastric or systemic toxicity, compared with the vehicle-treated controls. Of the curcuminoids the furan RK-106 was the only compound to inhibit production of TNFα and IL-1β in a monocytic cell-line THP-1 in vitro. The inactivity of RK-106 on the production of PGE(2) may be related to its absence of gastrotoxicity. None of the curcuminoids exhibited anti-pyretic activity and this may also be related to its insensitivity to PGE(2). Thus, these novel curcuminoids, such as RK-106, may warrant the development of new low gastro-toxic anti-inflammatory agents with selective inhibitory activity of cytokine inflammatory mediators. PMID:22172598

  4. Selective disturbance of pain sensitivity after social isolation.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gabor; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of social isolation or NMDA-receptor antagonists on pain sensitivity have repeatedly been described. However, the mechanisms underlying the alterations of pain perception in these models still remain a matter of debate. Thus, we aimed to determine the long-lasting effects of subchronic ketamine treatment and social isolation on the C- and Adelta-fiber-mediated nociception. Wistar rats after weaning (21-23 days old) were either housed individually or grouped for 21 days. The animals were treated daily for 14 days with either ketamine (30 mg/kg) or saline. On the 21st day, tail-flick latency was determined at 48 degrees C (C-fiber activation) and 52 degrees C (affects mainly Adelta-fibers), and rats were rehoused. Tail-flick test was repeated 2 and 4 weeks later. On the 5th week, carrageenan-induced heat hyperalgesia was determined on paw-withdrawal test before and after morphine treatment (1, 2 or 3 mg/kg). Regarding tail-flick latencies at 48 degrees C, juvenile isolation, but not ketamine resulted in a significantly enhanced pain threshold (p<0.001) throughout the investigation period, while the changes at 52 degrees C were not significant. In addition, both isolation and ketamine treatments enhanced the antihyperalgesic effect of 2 mg/kg morphine. In summary, juvenile isolation exerts a long-lasting effect on acute heat pain sensitivity, disturbing primarily the C-fiber-linked pain pathways, suggesting a selective disruption in the parallel sensory pathways. Since both social isolation and NMDA treatment are well-known animal models of schizophrenia, our results showed that juvenile isolation but not ketamine administration can simulate hypoalgesia associated with this disease. PMID:18761027

  5. Protective Effect of Bioactivity Guided Fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Root Bark against Hepatic Injury and Chronic Inflammation via Inhibiting Inflammatory Markers and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kalita, Bhupalee; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation. PMID:27656145

  6. [Computer tomography in acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Triller, J; Scheidegger, J; Terrier, F

    1983-07-01

    Computer tomography of the kidneys was performed on 30 patients with acute renal infections (acute suppurative pyelonephritis, acute renal abscess, infected cyst, pyelonephrosis, calculus perforation, retroperitoneal abscess). Computer tomography provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the renal and extra-renal inflammatory process than did the urogram or sonogram. This may significantly affect the choice of treatment, particularly concerning the use of drugs or of surgery. Angiography and retrograde pyelography may be used in selected cases, especially where there is a suspicion of acute bacterial nephritis, renal vein thrombosis or ureteric obstruction.

  7. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations.

  8. Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Juergen; Kvasnicka, Hans M; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette

    2004-04-01

    Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis (APMF) is an ill-defined disorder that may either evolve as a clonal hematopoietic condition or as a sequel of toxic exposure to the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, controversy and discussion continues as to whether APMF may be considered as a hyperfibrotic (de novo) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or as a severe toxic myelopathy with accompanying myelofibrosis. In this context scant knowledge exists about BM findings, but especially evolution of this disorder according to sequential examinations. Clinically patients present with pancytopenia, a very few blasts in the peripheral blood and no or little splenomegaly. Initially BM histopathology is characterized by different degrees of reticulin-collagen fibrosis and wide ranges of cellularity with a prominent left-shifted and often macrocytic erythropoiesis associated with a reduction and maturation defects of the neutrophil series. Most conspicuous are abnormalities of the megakaryocytes including loose clustering, dislocation towards the endosteal border and appearance of atypical microforms with compact nuclei. Moreover, besides myelofibrosis in a number of patients the interstitial compartment displays a remarkable inflammatory reaction with lymphoid nodules, abundant iron-laden macrophages, perivascular plasmacytosis and increase in microvessels. Repeatedly performed BM biopsies reveal an accumulation of dispersed or clustered CD34+ and lysozyme-expressing blasts in keeping with the insidious transformation into acute leukemia. Prognosis is unfavorable with a median survival of less than 1 year. In conclusion, APMF has to be regarded as a condition that shows considerable overlappings with primary hyperfibrotic MDS, AML and toxic myelopathy (secondary MDS) with accompanying myelofibrosis and therefore can not be considered as a definite clinical entity.

  9. Acute brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Martin, G T

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, the complications of head injuries were controlled but not eliminated. The wars of the 21st century turned attention to blast, the instant of impact and the primary injury of concussion. Computer calculations have established that in the first 5 milliseconds after the impact, four independent injuries on the brain are inflicted: 1) impact and its shockwave, 2) deceleration, 3) rotation and 4) skull deformity with vibration (or resonance). The recovery, pathology and symptoms after acute brain trauma have always been something of a puzzle. The variability of these four modes of injury, along with a variable reserve of neurones, explains some of this problem.

  10. [Infant acute leukemia].

    PubMed

    Brethon, Benoît; Cavé, Hélène; Fahd, Mony; Baruchel, André

    2016-03-01

    If acute leukemia is the most frequent cancer in childhood (33%), it remains a very rare diagnosis in infants less than one year old, e.g. less than 5% of cases. At this age, the frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (almost all of B-lineage) is quite similar to the one of myeloblastic forms (AML). Infant leukemia frequently presents with high hyperleucocytosis, major tumoral burden and numerous extra-hematological features, especially in central nervous system and skin. Whatever the lineage, the leukemic cell is often very immature cytologically and immunologically. Rearrangements of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene, located on band 11q23, are the hallmark of these immature leukemias and confer a particular resistance to conventional approaches, corticosteroids and chemotherapy. The immaturity of infants less than 1-year-old is associated to a decrease of the tolerable dose-intensity of some drugs (anthracyclines, alkylating agents) or asks questions about some procedures like radiotherapy or high dose conditioning regimen, responsible of inacceptable acute and late toxicities. The high level of severe infectious diseases and other high-grade side effects limits also the capacity to cure these infants. The survival of infants less than 1-year-old with AML is only 50% but similar to older children. On the other hand, survival of those with ALL is the same, then quite limited comparing the 80% survival in children over one year. Allogeneic stem cell transplantations are indicated in high-risk subgroups of infant ALL (age below 6 months, high hyperleucocytosis >300.10(9)/L, MLL-rearrangement, initial poor prednisone response). However, morbidity and mortality remain very important and these approaches cannot be extended to all cases. During the neonatal period, the dismal prognosis linked to the high number of primary failures or very early relapses and uncertainties about the late toxicities question physicians about ethics. It is an emergency to

  11. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  12. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. PMID:24439877

  13. [Acute necrotizing enteritis].

    PubMed

    Marincaş, M; Bratucu, E; Straja, D; Daha, C; Boru, C

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective clinical study done on a 13-pacients basis diagnosed during surgery with acute necrotizing enteritis. This study follows the complexity of pathogenic factors and the difficulties one confronts with when establishing a diagnosis since the clinical manifestations are non-specifical and shows the contribution of laboratory data to an earliest possible diagnosis. Both medical and surgical treatment are analyzed depending on the results achieved with an attempt to determine a therapeutic approach as beneficial as possible, aiming at making clear either enterectomy or a conservatory surgical decision should be made. Mortality rate under such therapeutical approach was 38%.

  14. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  15. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Gretchen

    2014-03-01

    One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients.

  16. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2010-06-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (ACC) can develop with or without gallstones after surgery and in critically ill or injured patients. Diabetes mellitus, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, shock, and cardiac arrest also have been associated with AAC. The pathogenesis of AAC is complex and multifactorial. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is most accurate for the diagnosis of AAC in the critically ill patient. CT is probably of comparable accuracy, but carries both advantages and disadvantages. Rapid improvement may be expected when AAC is diagnosed correctly and cholecystostomy is performed timely. PMID:20478490

  17. Acute medial elbow ruptures.

    PubMed

    Norwood, L A; Shook, J A; Andrews, J R

    1981-01-01

    Disruption of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor muscles, and anterior elbow capsule may result from valgus vector forces and subsequently cause difficulty in throwing, pulling, pushing and catching. Complete medial elbow tears were diagnosed acutely in four elbows by abduction stress tests at 15 degrees of flexion. Three elbows had associated ulnar nerve compression. We repaired torn medial structures by direct suture without ligamentous reconstruction. We also decompressed ulnar nerves and performed one anterior transposition. Full range of motion, strength, and return to previous functional level was attained without infection, neurovascular compression, or myositis ossificans.

  18. Acute ischemic stroke update.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kathleen; Orr, Sean; Briand, Mary; Piazza, Carolyn; Veydt, Annita; McCoy, Stacey

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States and is the number one cause of long-term disability. Legislative mandates, largely the result of the American Heart Association, American Stroke Association, and Brain Attack Coalition working cooperatively, have resulted in nationwide standardization of care for patients who experience a stroke. Transport to a skilled facility that can provide optimal care, including immediate treatment to halt or reverse the damage caused by stroke, must occur swiftly. Admission to a certified stroke center is recommended for improving outcomes. Most strokes are ischemic in nature. Acute ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous group of vascular diseases, which makes targeted treatment challenging. To provide a thorough review of the literature since the 2007 acute ischemic stroke guidelines were developed, we performed a search of the MEDLINE database (January 1, 2004-July 1, 2009) for relevant English-language studies. Results (through July 1, 2009) from clinical trials included in the Internet Stroke Center registry were also accessed. Results from several pivotal studies have contributed to our knowledge of stroke. Additional data support the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase, the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke since 1995. Due to these study results, the American Stroke Association changed its recommendation to extend the time window for administration of intravenous alteplase from within 3 hours to 4.5 hours of symptom onset; this recommendation enables many more patients to receive the drug. Other findings included clinically useful biomarkers, the role of inflammation and infection, an expanded role for placement of intracranial stents, a reduced role for urgent carotid endarterectomy, alternative treatments for large-vessel disease, identification of nontraditional risk factors, including risk factors for women, and newly published pediatric stroke guidelines. In addition, new devices for

  19. Acute extremity compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, C

    2000-01-01

    Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome is a disorder, which can cause loss of limb if left untreated. Compartment syndrome develops when pressures within the fascial compartments become elevated, resulting in decreased perfusion to muscles and nerves. Left untreated, tissue death occurs. Rapid identification of clinical signs can decrease severity of symptoms. Diligent nursing assessment and monitoring of clinical signs, with communication to the physician, will facilitate rapid treatment by the physician. The primary treatment option is early identification and intervention through performance of a fasciotomy.

  20. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Edwin C.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Garewal, Harinder S.

    1987-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia frequently associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Data on 11 patients with APL treated at our institution were analyzed and compared with those of 147 published cases. Most had a bleeding diathesis at presentation and evidence of DIC eventually developed in all. Seven patients (64%) showed the t(15;17)(q22;q21) karyotype or a similar translocation. Using a chemotherapy induction regimen containing an anthracycline, complete remission, requiring a total of 14 courses of treatment, was achieved in six patients (55%). The median duration of response and median survival for complete responders were 10 and 15 months, respectively. Three patients (27%) died of bleeding complications during induction therapy. The tritiated-thymidine labeling index of leukemia cells predicted which patients would achieve a complete remission. Review of six studies of 147 patients with APL from the past 12 years supports the use of a chemotherapy induction regimen containing anthracycline or amsacrine and heparin for the treatment of DIC. PMID:3472414

  1. Acute systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Use of the test that aimed to identify the single lethal dose of a substance that kills half the animals in a test group (the LD50 test) should finally be discontinued by the end of 2002, after many years of controversy and debate. In its stead are three recently developed alternative animal tests that significantly improve animal welfare: the fixed dose procedure, the acute toxic class method, and the up and down procedure. These tests have already undergone revision, both to improve their scientific performance and, importantly, to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy of acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used (perhaps by mid-2002) as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests to improve dose level selection and reduce (at least modestly) the number of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, which will require at least 10 yr.

  2. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

  3. Imaging acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    González, R Gilberto; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is common and often treatable, but treatment requires reliable information on the state of the brain that may be provided by modern neuroimaging. Critical information includes: the presence of hemorrhage; the site of arterial occlusion; the size of the early infarct "core"; and the size of underperfused, potentially threatened brain parenchyma, commonly referred to as the "penumbra." In this chapter we review the major determinants of outcomes in ischemic stroke patients, and the clinical value of various advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging methods that may provide key physiologic information in these patients. The focus is on major strokes due to occlusions of large arteries of the anterior circulation, the most common cause of a severe stroke syndrome. The current evidence-based approach to imaging the acute stroke patient at the Massachusetts General Hospital is presented, which is applicable for all stroke types. We conclude with new information on time and stroke evolution that imaging has revealed, and how it may open the possibilities of treating many more patients. PMID:27432672

  4. Management of acute sunburn.

    PubMed

    Han, Amy; Maibach, Howard I

    2004-01-01

    Current literature documents the use of many pharmacologic agents in the management of acute sunburn. While numerous studies have been undertaken, there is no consensus on an algorithm for such treatment. We review the literature for an evidence-based approach to the management of sunburn. A MEDLINE search was conducted whereby all published articles related to sunburn or ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema from 1966-2001 were evaluated. Studies and reviews were excluded if they were not conducted in human beings. The results of these studies are varying and often conflicting in terms of clinical effectiveness or feasibility. A total of 40 studies were reviewed. Fourteen out of the 40 studies addressed the actual treatment of sunburn (i.e. the application of a substance after the development of signs or symptoms). The majority concluded that either corticosteroids, NSAIDs, antioxidants, antihistamines or emollients were ineffective at decreasing recovery time. The remaining studies showed mild improvement with such treatments, but study designs or methods were flawed. Furthermore, regardless of the treatment modality, the damage to epidermal cells is the same. Given the lack of convincing data and consensus of opinion regarding sunburn management, the most effective and practical approach to acute sunburn is symptomatic treatment of UV light-induced symptoms, including erythema, pain and pruritus.

  5. Neurological emergencies: acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, R.; Dennis, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stroke causes a vast amount of death and disability throughout the world, yet for many healthcare professionals it remains an area of therapeutic nihilism, and thus uninteresting. This negative perception is shared by the general public, who often have a poor understanding of the early symptoms and significance of a stroke. Yet within the past few years there have been many important developments in the approach to caring for stroke patients, for both the acute management and secondary prevention. After the completion of numerous clinical trials, there is now robust evidence to either support or discredit various interventions. Even more exciting is the prospect of yet more data becoming available in the near future, testing a whole array of treatments, as clinical interest in stroke expands exponentially. In this review an evidence based approach to the management of acute stroke within the first few days is presented, including ischaemic and haemorrhagic events, but not subarachnoid haemorrhage. It is explained why stroke is regarded as a medical emergency, and the importance of a rational, methodic approach to the initial assessment, which is the key to accurate diagnosis and subsequent management, is emphasised. The potential early problems associated with stroke are identified and specific interventions for different stroke types are discussed. The review ends with a brief discussion of the implications that the evolving treatments have for the organisation of modern stroke services.

 PMID:10675208

  6. Acute Bacterial Cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Vincent; Lammert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial cholangitis for the most part owing to common bile duct stones is common in gastroenterology practice and represents a potentially life-threatening condition often characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and jaundice (Charcot's triad) as well as confusion and septic shock (Reynolds' pentad). Methods This review is based on a systematic literature review in PubMed with the search items ‘cholangitis’, ‘choledocholithiasis’, ‘gallstone disease’, ‘biliary infection’, and ‘biliary sepsis’. Results Although most patients respond to empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, timely endoscopic biliary drainage depending on the severity of the disease is required to eliminate the underlying obstruction. Specific recommendations have been derived from the Tokyo guideline working group consensus 2006 and its update in 2013, albeit poorly evidence-based, providing a comprehensive overview of diagnosis, classification, risk stratification, and treatment algorithms in acute bacterial cholangitis. Conclusion Prompt clinical recognition and accurate diagnostic workup including adequate laboratory assessment and (aetiology-oriented) imaging are critical steps in the management of cholangitis. Treatment is directed at the two major interrelated pathophysiologic components, i.e. bacterial infection (immediate antimicrobial therapy) and bile duct obstruction (biliary drainage). As for the latter, transpapillary endoscopic drainage by stent or nasobiliary drain and/or same-session bile duct clearance, depending on individual disease severity, represent first-line treatment approaches. PMID:26468310

  7. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation.

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B

    2015-02-01

    Inaugural traumatic patellar dislocation is most often due to trauma sustained during physical or sports activity. Two-thirds of acute patellar dislocations occur in young active patients (less than 20 years old). Non-contact knee sprain in flexion and valgus is the leading mechanism in patellar dislocation, accounting for as many as 93% of all cases. The strong displacement of the patella tears the medial stabilizing structures, and notably the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), which is almost always injured in acute patellar dislocation, most frequently at its femoral attachment. Lateral patellar glide can be assessed with the knee in extension or 20° flexion. Displacement by more than 50% of the patellar width is considered abnormal and may induce apprehension. Plain X-ray and CT are mandatory to diagnose bony risk factors for patellar dislocation, such as trochlear dysplasia or increased tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG), and plan correction. MRI gives information on cartilage and capsulo-ligamentous status for treatment planning: free bodies or osteochondral fracture have to be treated surgically. If patellar dislocation occurs in an anatomically normal knee and osteochondral fracture is ruled out on MRI, non-operative treatment is usually recommended.

  8. Effects of histidine and N-acetylcysteine on diclofenac-induced anti-inflammatory response in acute inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Yahyaee, Fatere

    2010-11-01

    The intra-plantar injection of carrageenan elicited an inflammatory response characterized by increase of the paw thickness and infiltration of neutrophils in paw tissues. Histidine, n-acetylcysteine and diclofenac decreased paw thickness, and neutrophil infiltration in the paw tissues. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by co-administration of histidine and n-acetylcysteine with diclofenac, was more than that obtained from histidine and n-acetylcysteine administered alone. The results suggested that histidine, n-acetylcysteine and diclofenac produced anti-inflammatory activities by reducing paw edema and neutrophil infiltrationin induced by carrageenan. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase products such as prostaglandins may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects induced by histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

  9. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... key statistics about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... leukemias). The rest of this document focuses on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in adults. For information on ALL in ...

  10. Acute diabetic abdomen in childhood.

    PubMed

    Valerio, D

    1976-01-10

    Three children presented as acute surgical emergencies due to undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Where diabetic ketoacidosis mimicks the acute abdomen three clinical features are important in reaching the right diagnosis-namely, a history of polydipsia, polyuria, and anorexia preceding the abdominal pain, the deep sighing and rapid respirations, and severe dehydration.

  11. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  12. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  13. Acute pain medicine in anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Anastacia P.; Tighe, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society for Regional Anesthesia have recently focused on the evolving practice of acute pain medicine. There is increasing recognition that the scope and practice of acute pain therapies must extend beyond the subacute pain phase to include pre-pain and pre-intervention risk stratification, resident and fellow education in regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia, as well as a deeper understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that are integral to the variability observed among individual responses to nociception. Acute pain medicine is also being established as a vital component of successful systems-level acute pain management programs, inpatient cost containment, and patient satisfaction scores. In this review, we discuss the evolution and practice of acute pain medicine and we aim to facilitate further discussion on the evolution and advancement of this field as a subspecialty of anesthesiology. PMID:24381730

  14. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Cochlospermum tinctorium (A. Rich) Possess Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, TS; Magaji, MG; Yaro, AH; Musa, AM; Adamu, AK

    2011-01-01

    Cochlopermum tinctorium A. Rich. (Cochlospermaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in the West Africa sub-region for the management of various conditions including pain and inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we report the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous methanol leaf (20–80 mg/kg), root (7.5–30 mg/kg), and root bark (20–80 mg/kg) extracts of the plant. The analgesic potentials of the extracts were studied using acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.The extracts significantly and dose dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. However, the highest protection against writhing was produced by aqueous methanol leaf extract at the dose of 80 mg/kg (96.65%) which even was greater than that of the standard agent, ketoprofen (82.30%). The extracts did not significantly increase mean latency of response in the hot plate test. However, aqueous methanol root bark extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean latency of pain response. While the extracts of the root and root bark extracts of the plant afforded non dose-dependent protection against carrageenan-induced edema, the aqueous methanol leaf extract significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced hind paw edema at the end of the third hour.The present study suggests that the aqueous methanol leaf, root, and root bark extracts of Cochlopermum tinctorium possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities which lend some credence to the ethnomedical claim of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. PMID:21897665

  16. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  17. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  18. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hiroto; Greaves, Mel; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is seen in both children and adults, but its incidence peaks between ages 2 and 5 years. The causation of ALL is considered to be multi-factorial, including exogenous or endogenous exposures, genetic susceptibility, and chance. The survival rate of paediatric ALL has improved to approximately 90% in recent trials with risk stratification by biologic features of leukaemic cells and response to therapy, therapy modification based on patient pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics, and improved supportive care. However, innovative approaches are needed to further improve survival while reducing adverse effects. While most children can be cured, the prognosis of infants and adults with ALL remains poor. Recent genome-wide profiling of germline and leukaemic cell DNA has identified novel submicroscopic structural genetic alterations and sequence mutations that contribute to leukaemogenesis, define new ALL subtypes, influence responsiveness to treatment, and may provide novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalized medicine. PMID:23523389

  19. [Acute intermittent porphyria].

    PubMed

    Catania, A; Caimi, G

    1983-11-10

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a congenital disease which as its name suggests, runs intermittently. Biochemically it is characterised by over-production of hepatic ALA synthetase (ALA-s), inducible mitochondrial enzyme and an increase in prophyrinic precursors (PBG, ac S-ALA). Clinically it is characterised by an abdominal nervous symptomatology. The primary metabolic error has been identified as a deficiency in enzyme activity which partially blocks haem biosynthesis. During the appearance of clinical manifestations, certain factors are present which have the capacity of inducing hepatic ALA-s production in vitro. Apart from some preventive measures treatment is mainly of symptomatology and complications. More recently the use of ALA-s inhibitors has been introduced. PMID:6657112

  20. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nompleggi, D J

    1999-08-01

    Pancreatitis is a common disorder. Numerous factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pancreatitis, but the exact mechanisms of these conditions are still poorly understood. Depending on the cause of the disorder, patients who have pancreatitis are usually not malnourished and are able to eat within 5 to 7 days of disease onset. In these patients, nutritional support is unnecessary. However, severe disease induces a catabolic state similar to that seen in trauma and sepsis, resulting in rapid weight loss and increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, vigorous nutritional support may be useful in the treatment of severe pancreatitis. Studies have shown that parenteral and enteral nutritional support are well tolerated and can maintain or improve nutritional status in patients with pancreatitis. This article reviews nutritional assessment and therapy in pancreatitis.

  1. Acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Helen; Wallis, Sebastian; Coatesworth, Andrew P

    2015-05-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common problem facing general practitioners, paediatricians and otolaryngologists. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, presentation, natural history, complications and management of AOM. The literature was reviewed by using the PubMed search engine and entering a combination of terms including 'AOM', 'epidemiology' and 'management'. Relevant articles were identified and examined for content. What is the take-home message? AOM is a very common problem affecting the majority of children at least once and places a large burden on health care systems throughout the world. Although symptomatic relief is often enough for most children, more severe and protracted cases require treatment with antibiotics, especially in younger children. PMID:25913598

  2. [Acute epiglottitis in adults].

    PubMed

    Castillo, A

    1992-09-01

    The author presents the clinical history of 14 patients, from 21 to 48 years of age, 10 men and 4 women, with a final diagnosis of acute epiglottitis who were hospitalized at Gorgas Army Hospital or at the San Fernando Clinic. All the patients had pharyngitis and dysphagia, a few with nasal voice, stridor and difficulty breathing, as the chief complaint. All the patients were initially intubated orally for diagnostic purposes and immediately after nasotracheal intubation was done until the patient improved in 2 or 3 days (one patient remained intubated for 5 days). All patients were kept in the Intensive Care Unit and were treated with Ampicillin and Chloramphenicol IV and lately with a second generation cephalosporin (Cefamandole). The patients allergic to Penicillin were treated with Clindamycin and Chloramphenicol. Corticosteroids were not used in any of the patients. There were no sequelae and none of the patients expired. PMID:1439005

  3. Acute haematogenous osteitis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J R; Orr, J D; Maclean, D A; Scobie, W G

    1980-01-01

    During a 10-year period 217 cases of acute haematogenous osteitis were treated. In 131 patients the diagnosis was confirmed either radiologically or bacteriologically, but in the other 86 the diagnosis was based on clinical examination. Either cloxacillin or lincomycin proved to be effective if given before bacteriological diagnosis. Frequent clinical examination, assessing both local signs and the child's general state, will decide which child requires surgery (which should be reserved for the toxic child, the child with concomitant medical disorders lowering host resistance, and the child who does not respond to, or has a lesion which flares up after, initial conservative treatment). Constant vigilance is required by clinicians looking after children with this disease in order to reduce the disabling long-term sequelae. PMID:7458395

  4. Acute Leukemias in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Mohan K. R.

    1979-01-01

    With combination chemotherapy approximately 50% of children with lymphoblastic leukemia survive for five or more years and it is now realistic to hope for a cure. Development of sophisticated cytochemical and immunological techniques have enabled us to recognize the factors that predispose to treatment failures. The survival in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia continues to be poor despite the introduction of several innovative treatment regimens. Current research is focused on the manipulation of the host-tumor immune response to eradicate the disease by treatment modalities such as immunotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Since the treatment regimens are becoming more complex, the initial diagnosis and treatment is best carried out at centres specialized in the management of childhood malignancies. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:21297755

  5. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory failure produced by an inflammatory edema secondary to increased lung capillary permeability. This causes alveolar flooding and subsequently deep hypoxemia, with intrapulmonary shunt as its most important underlying mechanism. Characteristically, this alteration is unresponsive to high FIO2 and only reverses with end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP). Pulmonary infiltrates on CXR and CT are the hallmark, together with decreased lung compliance. ARDS always occurs within a week of exposition to a precipitating factor; most frequently pneumonia, shock, aspiration of gastric contents, sepsis, and trauma. In CT scan, the disease is frequently inhomogeneous, with gravitational infiltrates coexisting with normal-density areas and also with hyperaerated parenchyma. Mortality is high (30-60%) especially in ARDS associated with septic shock and neurocritical diseases. The cornerstone of therapy lies in the treatment of the underlying cause and in the use mechanical ventilation which, if inappropriately administered, can lead to ventilator-induced lung injury. Tidal volume = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight to maintain an end-inspiratory (plateau) pressure = 30 cm H2O ("protective ventilation") is the only variable consistently associated with decreased mortality. Moderate-to-high PEEP levels are frequently required to treat hypoxemia, yet no specific level or titration strategy has improved outcomes. Recently, the use of early prone positioning in patients with PaO2/FIO2 = 150 was associated with increased survival. In severely hypoxemic patients, it may be necessary to use adjuvants of mechanical ventilation as recruitment maneuvers, pressure-controlled modes, neuromuscular blocking agents, and extracorporeal-membrane oxygenation. Fluid restriction appears beneficial. PMID:27576283

  6. Asthma in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of adults have suffered an attack of asthma, and up to 5% of these have severe disease that responds poorly to treatment. Patients with severe disease have an increased risk of death, but patients with mild to moderate disease are also at risk of exacerbations. Most guidelines about the management of asthma follow stepwise protocols. This review does not endorse or follow any particular protocol, but presents the evidence about specific interventions. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 100 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (plus ipratropium bromide, pressured metered-dose inhalers, short-acting continuous nebulised, short-acting intermittent nebulised, short-acting iv, and inhaled formoterol); corticosteroids (inhaled); corticosteroids (single oral, combined inhaled, and short courses); education about acute asthma; generalist care; helium–oxygen mixture (heliox); magnesium sulphate (iv and adding isotonic nebulised magnesium to inhaled beta2 agonists); mechanical ventilation; oxygen supplementation (controlled 28% oxygen and controlled 100% oxygen); and specialist care. PMID:21463536

  7. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure.

  8. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bromelia hieronymi: comparison with bromelain.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-03-01

    Some plant proteases (e. g., papain, bromelain, ficin) have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, and especially bromelain is still being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. Bromelain is an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus. In this study the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract of Bromelia hieronymi fruits, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases, is presented. Different doses of a partially purified extract of B. hieronymi were assayed on carrageenan-induced and serotonine-induced rat paw edema, as well as in cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of the partially purified extract and bromelain showed significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses. Treatment of the partially purified extract and bromelain with E-64 provoked loss of anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw edema, a fact which is consistent with the hypothesis that the proteolytic activity would be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Selected Dihydroxyflavones

    PubMed Central

    Sangeetha, K.S.Sridevi

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanism of inflammation is attributed, to release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils and macrophages. Over production of reactive oxygen species may result in tissue injury by damaging macromolecules. Flavones are the polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant property. This antioxidant property of flavones may have beneficial effect against inflammation. Aim To study the anti-inflammatory effect of selected dihydroxyflavones (DHF) in albino rats. The prime objective of the present study is to identify safe and effective agents to treat inflammation from among the selected DHF group of compounds. Materials and Methods The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of four selected dihydroxyflavone derivatives; 2’,3’- dihydroxyflavone and 2’, 4’ -dihydroxyflavones, 5, 3’- dihydroxyflavone and 7, 3’ dihydroxyflavone. The anti-inflammatory activity of selected DHF was studied in rats by carrageenan induced hind paw oedema method. Results All the selected dihydroxyflavone derivatives showed dose and time dependent inhibition of carrageenan induced paw oedema. PMID:26155493

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of extract obtained from Aspergillus candidus MTCC 2202 broth filtrate.

    PubMed

    Malpure, Pankaj P; Shah, Abhishek S; Juvekar, Archana R

    2006-06-01

    Antioxidant potential of Aspergillus candidus MTCC 2202 broth filtrate extract was studied using different antioxidant models, whereas anti-inflammatory potential was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The ethyl acetate extract at 1000 microg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity of the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl,2-picryl hydrazyl upto 96.65% (IC50=430.36 microg/ml) and scavenging of the radical cation, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) upto 92.25% (IC50=606.29 microg/ml) at the same concentration. The extract had good reducing power, however showed moderate inhibition for conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances (59.56 and 51.45%). The total phenolic content of various extracts of A. candidus broth filtrate was measured and a correlation between radical scavenging activities of extracts with total phenolic content was observed. The ethyl acetate extract (125 mg/kg ip) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The exhibited antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract of A. candidus broth filtrate was comparable with BHA and ascorbic acid, while anti-inflammatory activity was comparable with standard diclofenac sodium.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of once-a-day transdermal gels of diclofenac diethylamine.

    PubMed

    Baboota, S; Shakeel, F; Kohli, K

    2006-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to prepare and evaluate transdermal gels of diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA) containing penetration enhancers such as olesan oil and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Transdermal gels were prepared using different polymers such as carbopol-940, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose-K(4) M, hydroxy propyl cellulose-M, and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. The formulated gels were subjected to physicochemical studies, in vitro release studies and in vitro skin permeations studies and were evaluated for drug content, viscosity, extrudability, spreadability, and pH. The in vitro release studies of prepared gels were performed using specially designed Fites cell and in vitro skin permeation studies were performed using keshary-chien diffusion cell through rat skin. Selected formulations were evaluated for their antiinflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The carbopol-940 and PVA gels containing 10% DMSO showed best in vitro skin permeation of DDEA. In vivo study for the selected formulation showed a sustained reduction in inflammation in the carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The efficacies of carbopol-940 and PVA gels were also compared with that of the marketed Voveran gel,(R) and it was found that carbopol and PVA gels produced better results than the Voveran gel. (c) 2006 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of boswellic acid-NSAID hybrid molecules as anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents.

    PubMed

    Shenvi, Suvarna; Kiran, K R; Kumar, Krishna; Diwakar, Latha; Reddy, G Chandrasekara

    2015-06-15

    Methyl esters of the β-boswellic acid (BA) and 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) obtained from Boswellia serrata resin were subjected to Steglich esterification with the different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) viz., ibuprofen, naproxen, diclophenac and indomethacin. The novel hybrids of methyl boswellate (5-8) and that of methyl 11-keto boswellate (9-12) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema model and anti-arthritic activity by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in Wister albino rat. Significant inhibition on carrageenan-induced paw edema has been observed with 5, 6 and 10 where as in CFA induced rats, hybrids 5, 8, 9 and 12 exhibited pronounced antiarthritic activity. Hybrid molecules 5 and 9 have been found to be more effective in inhibiting in-vivo COX-2 than ibuprofen by itself, thus showing the synergistic effect. Hybrid 5 and 9 tested for in-vitro lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 (LOX/COX-2) inhibitory activity. The studies revealed that both 5 and 9 inhibited COX-2 relatively better than LOX enzyme. PMID:26010018

  15. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results: The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (P<0.01) in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion: Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain. PMID:22144770

  16. Antinociceptive Activity of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Donald, Graciela Rocha; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. (ZP) is a traditional medicinal plant used mainly in countries from Asia such as Japan. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of ZP essential oil (ZPEO). The major component present in the essential oil was beta-phellandrene (29.39%). Its antinociceptive activity was tested through animal models (formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking and hot plate). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP), with measurement of cytokines. The results showed antinociceptive effect for ZPEO for the first phase of the formalin-induced licking, glutamate, and hot plate tests. However, ZPEO had no effect on reducing paw licking induced by capsaicin. Finally, ZPEO had no effect against inflammation induced by carrageenan. PMID:27547225

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity in mice of extracts from Mediterranean marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Herencia, F; Ubeda, A; Ferrándiz, M L; Terencio, M C; Alcaraz, M J; García-Carrascosa, M; Capaccioni, R; Payá, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the marine invertebrates Leptogorgia ceratophyta, Holothuria tubulosa, Coscinasterias tenuispina and Phallusia fumigata on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice were investigated. The dichloromethane extract of Coscinasterias tenuispina and the methanol extract of Holothuria tubulosa administered p.o. at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, inhibited oedema in a dose-dependent manner 3 h after administration of carrageenan. Both extracts partially decreased elastase activity and PGE2 levels measured in homogenates from inflamed paws, without affecting the levels of this prostanoid present in stomach homogenates. As observed with the selective inhibitor NS398, both extracts can decrease cyclo-oxygenase activity in inflamed tissues but do not modify the constitutive cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Therefore, these extracts represent new marine resources for the isolation of novel agents active on inflammatory conditions.

  18. Antinociceptive Activity of Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Donald, Graciela Rocha; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. (ZP) is a traditional medicinal plant used mainly in countries from Asia such as Japan. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect of ZP essential oil (ZPEO). The major component present in the essential oil was beta-phellandrene (29.39%). Its antinociceptive activity was tested through animal models (formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking and hot plate). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration into the subcutaneous air pouch (SAP), with measurement of cytokines. The results showed antinociceptive effect for ZPEO for the first phase of the formalin-induced licking, glutamate, and hot plate tests. However, ZPEO had no effect on reducing paw licking induced by capsaicin. Finally, ZPEO had no effect against inflammation induced by carrageenan. PMID:27547225

  19. Modifying anti-inflammatory effect of Diclofenac with Murraya koenigii.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ginpreet; Daftardar, Saloni; Barve, Kalyani H

    2014-01-01

    Murraya koenigii (Curry leaves) has been widely used in Asian countries for the treatment of some ailments such as diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, leaves of Murraya koenigii were extracted with ethanol and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanolic extract showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity at third hour after carrageenan administration when compared with the standard drug, Diclofenac. The percent inhibition of paw volume was found to be 84.75% for 50 mg/kg of extract whereas it was found to be 80.86% for 50 mg/kg extract in combination with Diclofenac 10 mg/kg. Thus, the present study suggests that the combination therapy potentiates the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac and may help in reducing the dose of the synthetic drug. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article.

  20. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory action of Opuntia elatior Mill fruits

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, Navin R.; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opuntia elatio Mill is a xerophytic plant with potentially active nutrients. It is traditionally appreciated for its pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this plant is insufficient. Objective: The present study evaluates the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of prickly pear. Materials and Methods: Writhing and tail-immersion tests were carried out to evaluate analgesic action, while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and neutrophil adhesion tests were conducted in Albino wistar rats to assess anti-inflammatory action. Results: ED50 values of the fruit juice in writhing, tail immersion, and paw edema test were 0.919, 2.77, and 9.282 ml/kg, respectively. The fruits of Opuntia produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory action in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The results establish the folklore use of prickly pear may be due to the presence of betacyanin and/or other phenolic compounds. PMID:26166996

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of drug release from semisolid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Petró, E; Balogh, A; Blazsó, G; Erös, I; Csóka, I

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the in vitro and in vivo testing of anti-inflammatory drug containing creams, hydrogels and organogels for dermal use. In vitro penetration studies were performed with products by measuring the diffused drug amount through synthetic membranes soaked in isopropyl myristate (IPM). Our developed preparations were investigated under in vitro conditions together with two marketed medicinal products used as reference preparations. In vivo studies were carried out on anaesthetized male Wistar rats; the carrageenan-induced paw oedema decreasing effect of twelve different formulations and the reference products were measured in comparison with a control group. All - previously in vitro screened - selected products reduced paw oedema in rats. Significant differences were found among the developed products both in vitro and in vivo. Correlation between the in vitro penetration studies and in vivo results were found in the case of o/w creams, organogels and hydrogels.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of protocatechuic acid in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Lende, Amol B; Kshirsagar, Ajay D; Deshpande, Avinash D; Muley, Milind M; Patil, Rajesh Ramesh; Bafna, Pallavi A; Naik, Suresh R

    2011-10-01

    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of protocatechuic acid (PCA), a natural product, was evaluated in different rat models (viz., carrageenan-induced paw oedema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and Freund's adjuvant arthritis) of inflammation and chemical and heat induced mouse models of pain. Treatment with PCA inhibited significantly different biological parameters like hind paw oedema, granuloma exudates formation and arthritis index in carrageenan oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and Freund's adjuvant arthritis, respectively. The biochemical changes viz., glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation and NO in oedematous or in liver tissues and serum alanine aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase occurred during different types of inflammation were either significantly restored or inhibited with PCA pretreatment. Present experimental findings demonstrate promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of PCA which is comparable with that of standard drugs used.

  3. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke.

  4. Early management of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; Bruno, Marco J

    2013-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common gastro-intestinal indication for acute hospitalization and its incidence continues to rise. In severe pancreatitis, morbidity and mortality remains high and is mainly driven by organ failure and infectious complications. Early management strategies should aim to prevent or treat organ failure and to reduce infectious complications. This review addresses the management of acute pancreatitis in the first hours to days after onset of symptoms, including fluid therapy, nutrition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. This review also discusses the recently revised Atlanta classification which provides new uniform terminology, thereby facilitating communication regarding severity and complications of pancreatitis.

  5. [Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Marteles, Marta; Urrutia, Agustín

    2014-03-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock are two of the main forms of presentation of acute heart failure. Both entities are serious, with high mortality, and require early diagnosis and prompt and aggressive management. Acute pulmonary edema is due to the passage of fluid through the alveolarcapillary membrane and is usually the result of an acute cardiac episode. Correct evaluation and clinical identification of the process is essential in the management of acute pulmonary edema. The initial aim of treatment is to ensure hemodynamic stability and to correct hypoxemia. Other measures that can be used are vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, loop diuretics and, in specific instances, opioids. Cardiogenic shock is characterized by sustained hypoperfusion, pulmonary wedge pressure > 18 mmHg and a cardiac index < 2.2l/min/m(2). The process typically presents with hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure > 30 mmHg) and absent or reduced diuresis (< 0.5 ml/kg/h). The most common cause is left ventricular failure due to acute myocardial infarction. Treatment consists of general measures to reverse acidosis and hypoxemia, as well as the use of vasopressors and inotropic drugs. Early coronary revascularization has been demonstrated to improve survival in shock associated with ischaemic heart disease.

  6. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years. PMID:27571467

  7. Acute intestinal anisakiasis: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, H N; Avcu, S; Pauwels, W; Mortelé, K J; De Backer, A I

    2012-09-01

    Small bowel anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease that results from consumption of raw or insufficiently pickled, salted, smoked, or cooked wild marine fish infected with Anisakis larvae. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis in a 63-year-old woman presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints one day after ingestion of raw wild-caught herring from the Northsea. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated thickening of the distal small bowel wall, mucosa with hyperenhancement, mural stratification, fluid accumulation within dilated small-bowel loops and hyperemia of mesenteric vessels. In patients with a recent history of eating raw marine fish presenting with acute onset of abdominal complaints and CT features of acute small bowel inflammation the possibility of anisakiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal syndromes.

  8. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  9. Ultrasonography in acute gallbladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Soiva, M; Pamilo, M; Päivänsalo, M; Taavitsainen, M; Suramo, I

    1988-01-01

    The files of patients with acute cholecystitis from two large university hospitals from the years 1978-1985 were employed to find the cases with acute gallbladder perforation for this study. Only those patients (n = 9) were selected for the analysis of sonographic signs of acute gallbladder perforation who had less than 48 hours of symptoms before sonography, and were operated upon within 24 hours of the sonography. Patients (n = 10) with non-complicated acute cholecystitis and identical in regard to the duration of the symptoms and the timing of the sonography and the operation formed a control group. The sonographic findings in patients with gallbladder perforation were pericholecystic fluid collections, free peritoneal fluid, disappearance of the gallbladder wall echoes, focal highly echogenic areas with acoustic shadows in the gallbladder, and an inhomogeneous, generally echo-poor gallbladder wall. PMID:2964842

  10. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  11. Inflammatory mediators in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M; Brady, M; Shokuhi, S; Christmas, S; Neoptolemos, J P; Slavin, J

    2000-02-01

    Inflammatory mediators play a key role in acute pancreatitis and the resultant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, which is the primary cause of death in this condition. Recent studies have confirmed the critical role played by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, PAF, IL-10, C5a, ICAM-1, and substance P. The systemic effects of acute pancreatitis have many similarities to those of other conditions such as septicaemia, severe burns, and trauma. The delay between the onset of inflammation in the pancreas and the development of the systemic response makes acute pancreatitis an ideal experimental and clinical model with which to study the role of inflammatory mediators and to test novel therapies. Elucidation of the key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis will facilitate the development of clinically effective anti-inflammatory therapy.

  12. [Ascites and acute kidney injury].

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Waseem; Fayazuddin, Mohd.; Shariq, Syed; Singh, Ompal; Moin, Shagufta; Akhtar, Kafil; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cichorium intybus L. commonly known as chicory is one of the important medicinal plants commonly used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is commonly used for the treatment of diseases involving a khapa and pitta doshas. Traditionally, C. intybus is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but there are only few in vitro studies reporting the anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory. Objective: Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of roots of chicory and mechanisms involved in it using in vivo models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150–200 g were used. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots of chicory were prepared with the help of Soxhlet's apparatus. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1 and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated. Results: Chicory roots demonstrated significant dose-dependent decrease in paw edema in carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Chicory roots diminished the serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 levels. They also significantly attenuated the malonylaldehyde levels and increased the activities of CAT and GPx in paw tissue. Similarly, chicory roots demonstrated a significant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. Conclusion: Chicory roots possess anti-inflammatory activity, and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines, antioxidant effects, and their free radical scavenging activity. PMID:25737610

  14. Acute upper airway infections.

    PubMed

    West, J V

    2002-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are common and important. Although rarely fatal, they are a source of significant morbidity and carry a considerable economic burden. Numerous therapies for the common cold have no effect on symptoms or outcome. Complications such as cough are not improved by over-the-counter preparations, while labelling cough alone as a symptom of asthma may result in unnecessary use of inhaled steroid treatment. Clinical presentation of sore throat does not accurately predict whether the infection is viral or bacterial, while throat culture and rapid antigen tests do not significantly change prescribing practice. Antibiotics have only a limited place in the management of recurrent sore throat due to group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. Routine use of antibiotics in upper respiratory infection enhances parent belief in their effectiveness and increases the likelihood of future consultation in primary care for minor self-limiting illness. Respiratory viruses play a major role in the aetiology of acute otitis media (AOM); prevention includes the use of influenza or RSV vaccination, in addition to reducing other risk factors such as early exposure to respiratory viruses in day-care settings and to environmental tobacco smoke. The use of ventilation tubes (grommets) in secretory otitis media (SOM) remains controversial with conflicting data on developmental outcome and quality of life in young children. New conjugate pneumococcal vaccines appear safe in young children and prevent 6-7% of clinically diagnosed AOM.

  15. Acute Diarrhea in Children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Vuletić, Biljana; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child's treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea.The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD. PMID:26946776

  16. Traumatic stress in acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Gary; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Minden, Mark D; Brandwein, Joseph; Schimmer, Aaron; Marmar, Charles; Gagliese, Lucia; Lo, Christopher; Rydall, Anne; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute leukemia is a condition with an acute onset that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. However, the psychological impact of this life-threatening condition and its intensive treatment has not been systematically examined. In the present study, we investigate the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this population. Methods Patients with acute myeloid, lymphocytic, and promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed, recently relapsed, or treatment failures were recruited at a comprehensive cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, CARES Medical Interaction Subscale, and other psychosocial measures. A multivariate regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Of the 205 participants, 58% were male, mean age was 50.1 ± 15.4 years, 86% were recently diagnosed, and 94% were receiving active treatment. The mean Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire score was 30.2 ± 22.5, with 27 of 200 (14%) patients meeting criteria for acute stress disorder and 36 (18%) for subsyndromal acute stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with more physical symptoms, physical symptom distress, attachment anxiety, and perceived difficulty communicating with health-care providers, and poorer spiritual well-being (all p <0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that clinically significant symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia and are linked to the degree of physical suffering, to satisfaction with relationships with health-care providers, and with individual psychological characteristics. Longitudinal study is needed to determine the natural history, but these findings suggest that intervention may be indicated to alleviate or prevent traumatic stress in this population. PMID:22081505

  17. Differential Action between Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B in Eliciting an Anti-Inflammatory Action: The Depletion of Reduced Glutathione and the Induction of an Antioxidant Response

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Wong, Hoi Shan; Chen, Jihang; Chan, Wing Man; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2016-01-01

    Schisandrin A (Sch A) and schisandrin B (Sch B) are active components of Schisandrae Fructus. We compared the biochemical mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory action of Sch A and Sch B, using cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Pre-incubation with Sch A or Sch B produced an anti-inflammatory action in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, as evidenced by the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory c-Jun N-terminal kinases/p38 kinase/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway as well as the suppression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and effectors, with the extent of inhibition by Sch A being more pronounced. The greater activity of Sch A in anti-inflammatory response was associated with a greater decrease in cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and a greater increase in glutathione S-transferase activity than corresponding changes produced by Sch B. However, upon incubation, only Sch B resulted in the activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2 and the induction of a significant increase in the expression of thioredoxin (TRX) in RAW264.7 cells. The Sch B-induced increase in TRX expression was associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and effectors in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Studies in a mouse model of inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema) indicated that while long-term treatment with either Sch A or Sch B suppressed the extent of paw edema, only acute treatment with Sch A produced a significant degree of inhibition on the inflammatory response. Although only Sch A decreased the cellular GSH level and suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation in ConA-simulated splenocytes in vitro, both Sch A and Sch B treatments, while not altering cellular GSH levels, suppressed ConA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation ex vivo. These results suggest that Sch A and Sch B may act differentially on activating GST

  18. Differential Action between Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B in Eliciting an Anti-Inflammatory Action: The Depletion of Reduced Glutathione and the Induction of an Antioxidant Response.

    PubMed

    Leong, Pou Kuan; Wong, Hoi Shan; Chen, Jihang; Chan, Wing Man; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2016-01-01

    Schisandrin A (Sch A) and schisandrin B (Sch B) are active components of Schisandrae Fructus. We compared the biochemical mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory action of Sch A and Sch B, using cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated mouse splenocytes. Pre-incubation with Sch A or Sch B produced an anti-inflammatory action in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, as evidenced by the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory c-Jun N-terminal kinases/p38 kinase/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway as well as the suppression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and effectors, with the extent of inhibition by Sch A being more pronounced. The greater activity of Sch A in anti-inflammatory response was associated with a greater decrease in cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and a greater increase in glutathione S-transferase activity than corresponding changes produced by Sch B. However, upon incubation, only Sch B resulted in the activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like factor 2 and the induction of a significant increase in the expression of thioredoxin (TRX) in RAW264.7 cells. The Sch B-induced increase in TRX expression was associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and effectors in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Studies in a mouse model of inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw edema) indicated that while long-term treatment with either Sch A or Sch B suppressed the extent of paw edema, only acute treatment with Sch A produced a significant degree of inhibition on the inflammatory response. Although only Sch A decreased the cellular GSH level and suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation in ConA-simulated splenocytes in vitro, both Sch A and Sch B treatments, while not altering cellular GSH levels, suppressed ConA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation ex vivo. These results suggest that Sch A and Sch B may act differentially on activating GST

  19. [Correlation between hyperamylasemia and acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Monaco, R; Durante, E; Pampolini, M; Tioli, P

    1981-05-31

    It is often difficult to differentiate acute pancreatitis (A.P.) from some other acute abdominal diseases, when there is an elevated serum amylase. In contrast, the renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a percentage of creatinine clearance, can separate patients with A.P. from patients with acute colecistitis, common duct stone without pancreatitis, hyperamylasemia after biliary surgery, acute peptic ulcer and acute salivary diseases.

  20. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wen-Te; Liao, Jung-Chun; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lin, Yu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500 mg/kg) decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased edema paw volume at 4th to 5th hours after λ-carrageenan had been injected. Histopathologically, CRMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. These results were indicated that anti-inflammatory mechanism of CRMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, CRMeOH also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, NFκB, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS levels. The contents of two active ingredients, ursolic acid and lupeol, were quantitatively determined. This paper demonstrated possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CRMeOH and provided evidence for the classical treatment of Cissus repens in inflammatory diseases. PMID:22991570

  1. Perioperative acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Goren, O; Matot, I

    2015-12-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is not uncommon and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Recently, several definition systems for AKI were proposed, incorporating both small changes of serum creatinine and urinary output reduction as diagnostic criteria. Novel biomarkers are under investigation as fast and accurate predictors of AKI. Several special considerations regarding the risk of AKI are of note in the surgical patient. Co-morbidities are important risk factors for AKI. The surgery in itself, especially emergency and major surgery in the critically ill, is associated with a high incidence of AKI. Certain types of surgeries, such as cardiac and transplantation surgeries, require special attention because they carry higher risk of AKI. Nephrotoxic drugs, contrast dye, and diuretics are commonly used in the perioperative period and are responsible for a significant amount of in-hospital AKI. Before surgery, the anaesthetist is required to identify patients at risk of AKI, optimize anaemia, and treat hypovolaemia. During surgery, normovolaemia is of utmost importance. Additionally, the surgical and anaesthesia team is advised to use measures to reduce blood loss and avoid unnecessary blood transfusion. Hypotension should be avoided because even short periods of mean arterial pressure <55-60 mm Hg carry a risk of postoperative AKI. Higher blood pressures are probably required for hypertensive patients. Urine output can be reduced significantly during surgery and is unrelated to perioperative renal function. Thus, fluids should not be given in excess for the sole purpose of avoiding or treating oliguria. Use of hydroxyethyl starch needs to be reconsidered. Recent evidence indicates a beneficial effect of administering low-chloride solutions. PMID:26658199

  2. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ≥ 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  3. Acute Migraine Treatment in Adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Werner J

    2015-06-01

    There are many options for acute migraine attack treatment, but none is ideal for all patients. This study aims to review current medical office-based acute migraine therapy in adults and provides readers with an organized approach to this important facet of migraine treatment. A general literature review includes a review of several recent published guidelines. Acetaminophen, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], naproxen sodium, and diclofenac potassium), and 7 triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan, and zolmitriptan) have good evidence for efficacy and form the core of acute migraine treatment. NSAID-triptan combinations, dihydroergotamine, non-opioid combination analgesics (acetaminophen, ASA, and caffeine), and several anti-emetics (metoclopramide, domperidone, and prochlorperazine) are additional evidence-based options. Opioid containing combination analgesics may be helpful in specific patients, but should not be used routinely. Clinical features to be considered when choosing an acute migraine medication include usual headache intensity, usual rapidity of pain intensity increase, nausea, vomiting, degree of disability, patient response to previously used medications, history of headache recurrence with previous attacks, and the presence of contraindications to specific acute medications. Available acute medications can be organized into 4 treatment strategies, including a strategy for attacks of mild to moderate severity (strategy one: acetaminophen and/or NSAIDs), a triptan strategy for patients with severe attacks and for attacks not responding to strategy one, a refractory attack strategy, and a strategy for patients with contraindications to vasoconstricting drugs. Acute treatment of migraine attacks during pregnancy, lactation, and for patients with chronic migraine is also discussed. In chronic migraine, it is particularly important that medication

  4. Genetically Modified T-cell Immunotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Donor; Early Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Late Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Acute kidney injury in acute liver failure: a review.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joanna K; Love, Eleanor; Craig, Darren G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2013-11-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare and often devastating condition consequent on massive liver cell necrosis that frequently affects young, previously healthy individuals resulting in altered cognitive function, coagulopathy and peripheral vasodilation. These patients frequently develop concurrent acute kidney injury (AKI). This abrupt and sustained decline in renal function, through a number of pathogenic mechanisms such as renal hypoperfusion, direct drug-induced nephrotoxicity or sepsis/systemic inflammatory response contributes to increased morbidity and is strongly associated with a worse prognosis. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology AKI in the context of acute liver failure may be beneficial in a number of areas; the development of new and sensitive biomarkers of renal dysfunction, refining prognosis and organ allocation, and ultimately leading to the development of novel treatment strategies, these issues are discussed in more detail in this expert review.

  6. [Tomodensitometry of severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; Abanou, A; Viandier, A; Laval-Jeantet, M

    1983-01-01

    90 computed tomographic examinations were performed to 57 patients referred at Hospital Saint-Louis for an acute pancreatitis. 32 patients were operated or autopsied. Among these 32 patients, 19 patients had 21 examinations before surgery or autopsy; the other 13 patients had their computed tomographic examinations after one or more surgical procedures. During a severe acute pancreatitis the pancreas is always large either locally or diffusely. A pancreatic reaction is visible around and possibly at distance of the pancreas. When extraluminal gas is visible (3/5) it signifies gangrenous pancreatitis but it is necessary to eliminate a digestive fistulous tract and/or a communication between a pseudocyst and the digestive tract. Except gangrenous it is not possible to precise the nature of pancreatic reaction. The diagnosis of pseudocyst was easy 9/10, difficult 1/10; we did a false positive diagnosis of pseudocyst. Computed tomography and ultrasounds were compared in ten patients for the search of gallbladder lithiasis. Computed tomography can show large and small (2/4) biliary calculus in the gallbladder that cannot be shown by ultrasounds. A normal pancreas in a normal retroperitoneal space exclude the diagnosis of a severe acute pancreatitis. CT aspects of acute pancreatitis must be considered as a good diagnostic test of an acute pancreatitis.

  7. Natural course of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Beger, H G; Rau, B; Mayer, J; Pralle, U

    1997-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis comprises, in terms of clinical, pathologic, biochemical, and bacteriologic data, four entities. Interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis are the most frequent clinical manifestations; pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic abscess are late complications after necrotizing pancreatitis, developing after 3 to 5 weeks. Determinants of the natural course of acute pancreatitis are pancreatic parenchymal necrosis, extrapancreatic retroperitoneal fatty tissue necrosis, biologically active compounds in pancreatic ascites, and infection of necrosis. Early in the course of acute pancreatitis multiple organ failure is the consequence of various inflammatory mediators that are released from the inflammatory process and from activated leukocytes attracted by pancreatic injury. During the late course, starting the second week, local and systemic septic complications are dominant. Around 80% of deaths in acute pancreatitis are caused by septic complications. The infection of pancreatic necrosis occurs in 8% to 12% of acute pancreatitis and in 30% to 40% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Bacteriologic analysis of intraoperative smears and aspirates reveals predominantly gram-negative germs deriving from the intestine, most frequently Escherichia coli. It has been confirmed that after necrotizing pancreatitis a considerable large group of patients suffer long-lasting exocrine and endocrine insufficiency.

  8. Endoscopic Treatment of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis and Smoldering Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Das, Rohit; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) is a challenging condition that can lead to chronic pancreatitis and long-term morbidity. Etiology-based treatment can potentially have an impact on the natural history of RAP and its progression to chronic pancreatitis. In cases of divisum-associated RAP and idiopathic RAP, several studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic therapy in alleviation of symptoms and frequency of AP events. This review discusses the literature available on these topic as well as touching on the role of endoscopic therapy in smoldering acute pancreatitis.

  9. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Autophagy in acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Blomgren, Klas; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism that ensures the lysosomal degradation of old, supernumerary or ectopic cytoplasmic entities. Most eukaryotic cells, including neurons, rely on proficient autophagic responses for the maintenance of homeostasis in response to stress. Accordingly, autophagy mediates neuroprotective effects following some forms of acute brain damage, including methamphetamine intoxication, spinal cord injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage. In some other circumstances, however, the autophagic machinery precipitates a peculiar form of cell death (known as autosis) that contributes to the aetiology of other types of acute brain damage, such as neonatal asphyxia. Here, we dissect the context-specific impact of autophagy on non-infectious acute brain injury, emphasizing the possible therapeutic application of pharmacological activators and inhibitors of this catabolic process for neuroprotection. PMID:27256553

  11. Biochemical markers of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Matull, W R; Pereira, S P; O'Donohue, J W

    2006-04-01

    Serum amylase remains the most commonly used biochemical marker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but its sensitivity can be reduced by late presentation, hypertriglyceridaemia, and chronic alcoholism. Urinary trypsinogen-2 is convenient, of comparable diagnostic accuracy, and provides greater (99%) negative predictive value. Early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis can be made by well validated scoring systems at 48 hours, but the novel serum markers procalcitonin and interleukin 6 allow earlier prediction (12 to 24 hours after admission). Serum alanine transaminase >150 IU/l and jaundice suggest a gallstone aetiology, requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. For obscure aetiologies, serum calcium and triglycerides should be measured. Genetic polymorphisms may play an important role in "idiopathic" acute recurrent pancreatitis.

  12. Acute Stroke Imaging Research Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Köhrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wu, Ona; Warach, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The recent “Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment” meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them. PMID:18477656

  13. Update on acute rheumatic fever

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Sharen; Kelly, Len

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To remind physicians who work with aboriginal populations of the ongoing prevalence of acute rheumatic fever and to review the recent evidence on presentation, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched from 1996 to 2007 with a focus on prevention, epidemiology, and disease management. Case series data from medical records at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Ontario were also used. MAIN MESSAGE Acute rheumatic fever is still a clinical entity in aboriginal communities in northwest Ontario. Identification, treatment, and secondary prophylaxis are necessary. CONCLUSION Acute rheumatic fever is not a forgotten disease and still exists in remote areas of Canada. PMID:19439697

  14. Anti-inflammatory potential of β-amyrin, a triterpenoid isolated from Costus igneus.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kripa; Mathew, Limi Elizabeth; Vijayalakshmi, N R; Helen, A

    2014-12-01

    Costus igneus, common name Fiery Costus or Spiral Flag, is a species of herbaceous plant in the Costaceae family. It is cultivated in India for its use in traditional medicine especially for diabetes. The present study was carried out to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of β-amyrin isolated from the leaves of Costus igneus (C. igneus) using carrageenan-induced rat model and LPS-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in vitro model. The differential fractionation of leaves of Costus igneus showed maximum percentage inhibition of paw edema at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in methanolic extract (MEC). MEC elicited significant anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities in monocytes when compared to carrageenan control. The effect of MEC was more pronounced than standard drug Diclofenac (20 mg/kg body weight). After fractionation of MEC using various solvents such as chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol, the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of chloroform extract (CEC) of MEC was evaluated since it showed maximum beneficial effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW Treatment of carrageenan-induced rats with CEC exerted significantly decreased COX-2, MPO, and NOS activities when compared to carrageenan-induced rats. By the partial purification of CEC by liquid-liquid partition chromatography, TLC, mass, IR and NMR spectroscopy, the active component β-amyrin was isolated. Significant decrease in edema was observed by the administration of β-amyrin in a dose-dependent manner and 100 µg of β-amyrin showed 97 % in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Treatment with β-amyrin significantly inhibited PGE2, IL-6 secretion, and NF-κB activation in a concentration-dependent manner on LPS-induced hPBMCs. Thus, β-amyrin, an active component isolated from C. igneus, serves as a promising and expanding platform for treatment

  15. Acute kidney injury in children.

    PubMed

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  16. [Pregnancy and acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Dániel

    2016-05-15

    Pregnancy-related ischemic strokes play an important role in both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Changes in hemostaseology and hemodynamics as well as risk factors related to or independent from pregnancy contribute to the increased stroke-risk during gestation and the puerperium. Potential teratogenic effects make diagnostics, acute therapy and prevention challenging. Because randomized, controlled trials are not available, a multicenter registry of patients with gestational stroke would be desirable. Until definite guidelines emerge, management of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy remains individual, involving experts and weighing the risks and benefits.

  17. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A

    2007-03-01

    The benefit of early enteral nutrition (EN) for the disease process and for patient outcome in severe acute pancreatitis is dramatic. A narrow window of opportunity exists during which there is potential for EN to decrease disease severity and reduce overall complications. Most patients with severe pancreatitis tolerate enteral feeds. Any signs of symptom exacerbation or increasing inflammation in response to EN may be ameliorated by subtle adjustments in the feeding strategy. In this manner, provision of EN represents primary therapy in the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis and is emerging as the gold standard of therapy in nutrition support for this disease process.

  18. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    PubMed

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  19. Acute liver failure in children.

    PubMed

    Devictor, Denis; Tissieres, Pierre; Afanetti, Mickael; Debray, Dominique

    2011-06-01

    The management of children with acute liver failure mandates a multidisciplinary approach and intense monitoring. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing specific and supportive medical measures, but clinical studies have mainly concerned adult patients. There are no specific medical therapies, except for a few metabolic diseases presenting with acute liver failure. Liver transplantation still remains the only definitive therapy in most instances. Recent clinical studies suggest that hepatocyte transplantation may be useful for bridging patients to liver transplantation, for providing metabolic support during liver failure and for replacing liver transplantation in certain metabolic liver diseases.

  20. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax. PMID:24862410

  1. Acute tibial tubercle avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    McKoy, Brodie E; Stanitski, Carl L

    2003-07-01

    Acute tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are uncommon, and these injuries typically occur in mature-appearing adolescent boys involved in jumping sports, particularly basketball. The developmental anatomy of the tibial tuberosity and the changes surrounding normal physiologic epiphysiodesis render this structure susceptible to acute avulsion fractures. Possible associated injuries include patellar and quadriceps avulsions, collateral and cruciate ligament tears, and meniscal damage. The treatment of this injury is based on the amount of displacement and associated injuries. Nondisplaced fractures are treated nonoperatively with cast immobilization. Displaced fractures require open reduction and internal fixation. Even in Type III injuries, the outcome is usually excellent.

  2. Acute interstitial pneumonia and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Swigris, Jeffrey J; Brown, Kevin K

    2006-12-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEIPF) are similar respiratory disorders characterized by the rapid development of progressive dyspnea and cough. Both frequently lead to respiratory failure and death. Pathologically, each is characterized by the presence of a diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) pattern; in AIP, DAD is the sole pattern, whereas in AEIPF DAD is superimposed upon a background usual interstitial pneumonia. They differ in that patients with AEIPF have preexisting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, whereas patients with AIP have no predisposing disorders to account for their disease. Because both presentations overlap with multiple other causes of acute lung injury, a comprehensive evaluation is necessary to rule out disorders such as overwhelming infection or congestive heart failure. Although a confident diagnosis can be achieved without it, a surgical lung biopsy is necessary to provide a definitive diagnosis. Despite minimal evidence, glucocorticoids are frequently begun once microbiological evaluation confirms the absence of infection. Despite therapy, the case fatality rate ranges up to 70% for both, with most patients dying in the first 2 weeks. Survivors of the acute event can recover to their previous baseline; however, most AIP survivors will stabilize with some functional impairment, whereas in those with AEIPF, progressive fibrosis with functional deterioration is the rule.

  3. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  4. General Information about Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  5. General Information about Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  6. General Information about Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health ... the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  7. Targeted Therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monoclonal antibodies to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia Targeted therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia In recent years, new ... These drugs are often referred to as targeted therapy. Some of these drugs can be useful in ...

  8. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  9. Stages of Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  11. How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is acute lymphocytic leukemia treated? How is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? Most types of cancers are assigned numbered ... ALL are now named as follows: B-cell ALL Early pre-B ALL (also called pro-B ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute myeloid leukemia, a cancer of the blood-forming tissue ( bone marrow ). In normal bone marrow, hematopoietic ... 7186-203. Review. Citation on PubMed de Thé H, Chen Z. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia: novel insights into ...

  13. Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarvesh Pal

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article. PMID:27052074

  14. Obstructive Uropathy Secondary to Missed Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a rare complication of acute appendicitis. We present a case of missed appendicitis in a 52-year-old female which presented as a right-sided hydronephrosis. 2 days after admission to the Department of Urology CT revealed acute appendicitis for what open appendectomy was performed. Acute appendicitis can lead to obstructive uropathy by periappendiceal inflammation due to adjacency. Urologists, surgeons, and emergency physicians should be aware of this rare complication of atypical acute appendicitis.

  15. Optical diagnosis of acute scrotum in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Nigro, Mark; Afshar, Kourosh; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Acute scrotum is a urologic condition defined by scrotal pain, swelling, and redness of acute onset. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to preserve testicular viability. The history and clinical symptoms reported are key to diagnosis and proper treatment, but are not always readily obtained in children, in whom common causes of acute scrotum include testicular torsion, torsion of the appendix testis, and epididymitis. These acute conditions have different causal pathology that mandate specific treatment, hence the importance of early and accurate diagnosis.

  16. Acute Kidney Injury in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Palevsky, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The aging kidney undergoes a number of important anatomic and physiologic changes that increase the risk of acute kidney injury (formerly acute renal failure) in the elderly. This article reviews these changes and discusses the diagnoses frequently encountered in the elderly patient with acute kidney injury. The incidence, staging, evaluation, management, and prognosis of acute kidney injury are also examined with special focus given to older adults. PMID:19765485

  17. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. PMID:20352584

  18. Acute arsenical myopathy: morphological description.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Sola, J; Nogue, S; Grau, J M; Casademont, J; Munne, P

    1991-01-01

    We describe the histological findings of the muscle in a case of acute voluntary massive arsenic intoxication resulting in severe rhabdomyolysis. The main features on muscle biopsy were perifascicular hypercontracted fibers, myofibrillar disruption, mitochondrial abnormalities and abundant cytoplasmic vacuoles containing lipids.

  19. Acute arsenical poisoning in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A J; Taylor, A J

    1979-05-23

    Four cases of acute poisoning with arsenic are described. Although no new approach to therapy is proposed it is suggested from the data of arsenic recovery from the dialysate of one of the patients studied, that peritoneal dialysis is unlikely to be satisfactory.

  20. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7022419

  1. Dirofilariasis Mimicking an Acute Scrotum.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Mirko; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Prestipino, Marco; Giovenali, Paolo; Appignani, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    Human infections caused by Dirofilaria repens have been reported in many areas of the world. We describe a case of a 3-year-old child with an intrascrotal mass caused by D repens mimicking an acute scrotum. This represents the first case of scrotal dirofilariasis described in pediatric age with such an unusual presentation.

  2. Early seizures in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Chraa; Kissani, Najib

    2015-01-01

    Early seizures (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and the predictive factors for early seizures as well the clinical outcome in patients with first-ever stroke. A total of 352 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke, admitted to our department, were included in this retrospective study. Early seizures were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. About 47 patients (13%) had early seizure, and 8 had a status epilepticus. We had 28 women and 19 men. The mean age was 71.6 ± 14.6. They were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical associated hemorrhage. ES were associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). Early seizures occured in about 13% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES seem to be associated with a worse outcome after acute stroke. PMID:26097640

  3. The management of acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  4. [Radionuclide diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Moskalenko, N I; Tikhonenko, E P

    1986-01-01

    Nephroscintigraphy using a 67Ga-citrate complex and 99mTc-pyrophosphate was performed in 88 patients with acute pyelonephritis. Nuclide hyperfixation was revealed in 97.8% of the cases. Three groups of patients were singled out on the basis of the intensity of incorporation and nature of the distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals (RP) in the kidneys. In the 1st group the RP incorporation was insignificant but higher than normal values; the RP distribution in the affected kidney was diffuse-inhomogenous. These changes were considered to be typical of acute serous pyelonephritis. In the 2nd and 3rd groups a sharp rise of the RP accumulation was noted, being typical of acute purulent pyelonephritis. One could distinguish between diffuse and focal lesions by the picture of the RP distribution in the renal parenchyma. Diuresis stimulation made it possible to differentiate an actual nuclide fixation during inflammation from nuclide mechanical retention as a result of urine outflow disorder. According to the authors, both radiopharmaceuticals could be applied for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis as well as for differential diagnosis of various forms of the disease. PMID:3001474

  5. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  6. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  7. Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Thomas; Furman, Janet

    2016-06-01

    Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) arthropathy, also called pseudogout, is common, and becomes more prevalent as patients age. The presenting symptoms are similar to both gout and septic arthritis but may be treated differently. This article describes a typical patient presentation and management from an emergency medicine and orthopedic surgery standpoint. PMID:27228038

  8. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  9. Decitabine and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-06

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-23

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Acute coronary care: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Califf, R.M.; Wagner, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 58 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques for Diagnosing and Sizing of Myocardial Infarction; The Use of Serial Radionuclide Angiography for Monitoring Function during Acute Myocardial Infarction; Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Myocardial Infarction; and The Valve of Radionuclide Angiography for Risk Assessment of Patients following Acute Myocardial Infarction.

  13. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  14. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-25

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  16. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV. PMID:26459091

  17. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of a plant breeding cultivar of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Venâncio, Antônio Medeiros; Onofre, Alexandre Sherlley; Lira, Amintas Figueiredo; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Marchioro, Murilo; Estevam, Charles dos Santos; de Araujo, Brancilene Santos

    2011-05-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. is an aromatic herb used in Brazil to treat illnesses such as respiratory and rheumatic problems, vomiting, and pain. In the present study, the chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive effects of the essential oil (EO) of the cultivar "Maria Bonita" obtained from O. basilicum L. PI 197442 genotype were evaluated in Swiss mice (20-35 g each). Lethal dose to cause 50 % death (LD50) was calculated from a dose-response curve (100-5000 mg/kg body wt.; n = 6) as 532 mg/kg body wt. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test (0.6 % i. p.), EO (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt., n = 8, s. c.) was effective in reducing the abdominal contractions at all doses (48-78 %). In the hot-plate test, EO significantly increased the latency at 50 mg/kg body wt. at all times (37-52 %, n = 8, s. c.). However, the effects of morphine and EO at 50 mg/kg were reverted in the presence of naloxone, an opioid antagonist. In the formalin test, EO significantly reduced paw licking time in the first and second phases of pain at 200 mg/kg body wt. (38 and 75 %, respectively, n = 8, s. c.). The results suggested that the peripheral and central antinociceptive effects of EO are related to the inhibition of the biosynthesis of pain mediators, such as prostaglandins and prostacyclins, and its ability to interact with opioid receptors.

  18. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2010-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480

  19. Keyboard Success! Microtype "PAWS" Version. Computer Flip Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidanque, Ann; And Others

    Designed for use by elementary and middle school students, this computer flip book contains the exercises for each lesson in a 30-lesson keyboarding program, a brief outline of the development of writing devices, and exercises for 25 bonus lessons. For each lesson, the flip book provides a keyboard diagram with the keys that have been introduced…

  20. Animal-assisted therapy: paws with a cause.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Lorraine S

    2013-03-01

    Ranger, the cardiac Pet Therapy standard poodle, was called upon by a family member to visit Mrs. M, a patient hospitalized for worsening heart failure. Although short of breath, Mrs. M started talking to Ranger as he rested quietly on the bed beside her. She told him in a soft voice that she knew she was sick but "you, my friend, give me strength and courage." Mrs. M died 1 week later. Soon after, the family stated in a survey that the interaction between Mrs. M and Ranger was very important to Mrs. M and that she had looked forward to her visits with Ranger. Mrs. M indicated to her family that Ranger made her feel calm and protected as she faced her illness.