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Sample records for acute cold stress

  1. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  2. [Biological function prediction of mir-210 in the liver of acute cold stress rat].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Jin; Lian, Shuai; Guo, Jing-Ru; Zhai, Jun-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Li, Yue; Zhen, Li; Ji, Hong; Yang, Huan-Min

    2016-04-25

    The study was aimed to observe mir-210 expression in liver tissue of acute cold stress rat and predict the function of mir-210 in cold stress. Thirty SPF Wistar male rats which were 12-week-old and weighed (340 ± 20) g were used. The rats were pre-fed in normal room temperature for one week, and then were randomly divided into acute cold stress group at (4 ± 0.1) °C and normal control group at (24 ± 0.1) °C. After the rats were treated with cold stress for 12 h, the liver tissue was extracted and the gene expression of mir-210 was assayed using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrated that the gene expression of mir-210 was significantly enhanced in acute cold stress group compared with that in normal control group (n = 3, P < 0.01). The bioinformatics analysis showed that mir-210 has over hundreds of target genes and four kinds of target genes such as E2F3, RAD52, ISCU and Ephrin-A3 are more relative with liver cold stress. ISCU regulates the cell respiratory metabolism and Ephrin-A3 is related with cell proliferation and apoptosis. On the other hand, up-regulated mir-210 affects the DNA repairing mechanism which usually leads to genetic instabilities. Our results suggest that cold stress-induced up-regulation of mir-210 in liver harmfully influences cell growth, energy metabolism and hereditary.

  3. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  4. Acute Effects of Normobaric Hypoxia on Hand-Temperature Responses During and After Local Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Eiken, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Keramidas, Michail E, Roger Kölegård, Igor B. Mekjavic, and Ola Eiken. Acute effects of normobaric hypoxia on hand-temperature responses during and after local cold stress. High Alt Med Biol. 15:183–191, 2014.—The purpose was to investigate acute effects of normobaric hypoxia on hand-temperature responses during and after a cold-water hand immersion test. Fifteen males performed two right-hand immersion tests in 8°C water, during which they were inspiring either room air (Fio2: 0.21; AIR), or a hypoxic gas mixture (Fio2: 0.14; HYPO). The tests were conducted in a counterbalanced order and separated by a 1-hour interval. Throughout the 30-min cold-water immersion (CWI) and the 15-min spontaneous rewarming (RW) phases, finger-skin temperatures were measured continuously with thermocouple probes; infrared thermography was also employed during the RW phase to map all segments of the hand. During the CWI phase, the average skin temperature (Tavg) of the fingers did not differ between the conditions (AIR: 10.2±0.5°C, HYPO: 10.0±0.5°C; p=0.67). However, Tavg was lower in the HYPO than the AIR RW phase (AIR: 24.5±3.4°C; HYPO: 22.0±3.8°C; p=0.002); a response that was alike in all regions of the immersed hand. Accordingly, present findings suggest that acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia does not aggravate the cold-induced drop in hand temperature of normothermic males. Still, hypoxia markedly impairs the rewarming responses of the hand. PMID:24666109

  5. Modulatory effects on Drosophila larva hearts: room temperature, acute and chronic cold stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue Chen; Yocom, Emily; Sifers, Jacob; Uradu, Henry; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-10-01

    Ectothermic animals are susceptible to temperature changes such as cold shock with seasons. To survive through a cold shock or season, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. Our interest is focusing on the modulation of physiological functions during cold shock and prolonged cold exposure in the fruit fly. We use Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to investigate cardiac function in response to modulators (5-HT-serotonin, Ach-acetylcholine, OA-octopamine, DA-dopamine and a cocktail of modulators) in acute cold shock and chronic cold shock conditions. Semi-intact larvae are used to provide direct access to the modulators of known concentration in a defined saline. The results show that 10 µM 5HT is the only modulator which maintains heart rate for larva raised at 21 °C and then exposed to acute cold shock (10 °C). The modulators 1 µM OA, 10 µM 5HT, 1 mM Ach, 10 µM Ach and a cocktail of modulators (at 10 µM) increased the heart rate significantly in larvae which were cold conditioned (10 °C for 10 days). HPLC analysis indicated both OA and 5-HT decreased in chronic cold conditioning. The larvae maintain heart function in the cold which may be contributed by low circulating levels of modulators. The larval heart responds better to 5-HT, OA, and Ach in conditioned cold than for acute cold, suggesting some acclimation to cold. PMID:27209390

  6. Acute cold stress improved the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines of Chinese soft-shelled turtle against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuobing; Chen, Bojian; Yuan, Lin; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, is widely cultured in East and Southeast Asian countries. It frequently encounters the stress of abrupt temperature changes, which leads to mass death in most cases. However, the mechanism underlying the stress-elicited death remains unknown. We have suspected that the stress impaired the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, which could result in the mass death, as we noticed that there was a clinical syndrome of infection in dead turtles. To test our hypothesis, we first performed bioinformatic annotation of several pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-12β) of Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Then, we treated the turtles in six groups, injected with Aeromonas hydrophila before acute cold stress (25 °C) and controls, after acute cold stress (15 °C) and controls as well as after the temperature was restored to 25 °C and controls, respectively. Subsequently, real-time PCR for several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-8 and IFNγ) was performed to assess the turtle immune function in spleen and intestine, 24 hours after the injection. We found that the mRNA expression levels of the immune molecules were all enhanced after acute cold stress. This change disappeared when the temperature was restored back to 25 °C. Our results suggest that abrupt temperature drop did not suppress the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle in response to germ challenge after abrupt temperature drop. In contrast, it may even increase the expression of various cytokines at least, within a short time after acute cold stress.

  7. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  8. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  9. Assessment of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1991-01-01

    Cold stress may be present in terms of a risk for skin surface cooling (wind chill), extremity cooling and whole body cooling. Measures of cold stress differ for the various situations. The most common approach, however, has been to apply more or less complex formulas for heat balance calculations. The combined effect of several climatic factors (air temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity) and the activity level determines the cooling power of the environment. The cooling power can be easily converted into a required insulation value, that applies both to parts of the body and to the body as a whole. The value provides information about cold stress in two ways; (a) by specifying necessary behavioural adjustments in terms of required activity level and clothing insulation level, and (b) by quantifying the thermal imbalance and tolerance time, when protection worn does not provide sufficient insulation.

  10. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview. PMID:24944030

  11. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview.

  12. Ascorbic acid regulation in stress responses during acute cold exposure and following recovery in juvenile Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-jian; Niu, Cui-juan; Yuan, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Intense temperature change often leads to increased oxidative stress in many animals with a few exceptions, including the turtle. To date, little is known about the mechanism of protective antioxidative defenses in turtles during acute temperature change, specifically the role that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays. In this study, Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were initially acclimated at 28°C (3 wks), exposed to acute cold condition (8°C, 8 h) and finally placed in recovery (28°C, 24 h). L-Gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) mRNA exhibited a stable transcription pattern during the intense thermal fluctuation. GLO activity also remained stable, which validated the mRNA expression pattern. The similar Q10 values for GLO activity in the different treatment groups at incubation temperatures of 28°C and 8°C indicated that the GLO activity response to thermal change exhibited a temperature-dependent enzymatic kinetic characteristic. The AA storage was tissue-specific as well as the AA re-supply in the recovery period, with brain as the priority. Despite the insufficient transport during cold exposure, the plasma AA reservoir greatly contributed to the redistribution of AA during recovery. Depending on the prominent GLO activity, the high level of tissue-specific AA storage and the extraordinary plasma AA transport potential, the Chinese soft-shelled turtle endured severe thermal fluctuations with no apparent oxidative stress. However, the significant decrease in AA concentration in the brain tissue during acute cold exposure suggested that such a strategy may not be sufficient for prolonged cold exposure.

  13. Kupffer cell-independent acute hepatocellular oxidative stress and decreased bile formation in post-cold-ischemic rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Suematsu, M; Shimazu, M; Kato, Y; Sano, T; Makino, N; Hirano, K I; Naito, M; Wakabayashi, G; Ishimura, Y; Kitajima, M

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine distribution and time history of oxidative stress during the hyperacute period of reperfusion in the liver grafts undergoing cold ischemia and to investigate roles of Kupffer cells as a potential oxidant source. Rat livers were harvested at 4 degrees C in University of Wisconsin solution and followed by reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer under monitoring bile excretion. To investigate oxidative changes, laser-confocal microfluorography was performed in reperfused livers preloaded with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, a fluorescence precursor sensing intracellular hydroperoxide generation. Livers undergoing the 16-hour cold storage displayed an impaired recovery of bile acid-dependent bile output concurrent with a marked increase in hydroperoxide generation in hepatocytes, which occurred as early as 5 minutes after the onset of reperfusion, whereas the status of lobular perfusion was well maintained. Pretreatment with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a Kupffer cell-depleting reagent, did neither alter the reperfusion-induced periportal oxidative changes nor improve the recovery of bile output in the graft. On the other hand, EPCK, a hepatotropic antioxidant composed of vitamin E phosphate ester bound to vitamin C, not only diminished the oxidative changes but also improved the reduction of bile acid-dependent bile output. Furthermore, the reagent was capable of inhibiting H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes. These results suggest that hepatocytes constitute a major site of the oxidative insult triggered through Kupffer cell-independent mechanisms and serve as an important cellular component to be protected by antioxidant therapeutics.

  14. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  15. Cold induces acute stress but heat is ultimately more deleterious for the reef-building coral Acropora yongei

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Goericke, Ralf; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change driven increases in intensity and frequency of both hot and cold extreme events contribute to coral reef decline by causing widespread coral bleaching and mortality. Here, we show that hot and cold temperature changes cause distinct physiological responses on different time scales in reef-building corals. We exposed the branching coral Acropora yongei in individual aquaria to a ± 5°C temperature change. Compared to heat-treated corals, cold-treated corals initially show greater declines in growth and increases in photosynthetic pressure. However, after 2–3 weeks, cold-treated corals acclimate and show improvements in physiological state. In contrast, heat did not initially harm photochemical efficiency, but after a delay, photosynthetic pressure increased rapidly and corals experienced severe bleaching and cessation of growth. These results suggest that short-term cold temperature is more damaging for branching corals than short-term warm temperature, whereas long-term elevated temperature is more harmful than long-term depressed temperature. PMID:22355753

  16. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  17. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  18. Acute cooling of the body surface and the common cold.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R

    2002-09-01

    There is a widely held belief that acute viral respiratory infections are the result of a "chill" and that the onset of a respiratory infection such as the common cold is often associated with acute cooling of the body surface, especially as the result of wet clothes and hair. However, experiments involving inoculation of common cold viruses into the nose, and periods of cold exposure, have failed to demonstrate any effect of cold exposure on susceptibility to infection with common cold viruses. Present scientific opinion dismisses any cause-and-effect relationship between acute cooling of the body surface and common cold. This review proposes a hypothesis; that acute cooling of the body surface causes reflex vasoconstriction in the nose and upper airways, and that this vasoconstrictor response may inhibit respiratory defence and cause the onset of common cold symptoms by converting an asymptomatic subclinical viral infection into a symptomatic clinical infection.

  19. Systemic Cold Stress Adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Hanak, Anne-Mette; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most important model organisms nowadays phylogenetically situated between higher plants and animals (Merchant et al. 2007). Stress adaptation of this unicellular model algae is in the focus because of its relevance to biomass and biofuel production. Here, we have studied cold stress adaptation of C. reinhardtii hitherto not described for this algae whereas intensively studied in higher plants. Toward this goal, high throughput mass spectrometry was employed to integrate proteome, metabolome, physiological and cell-morphological changes during a time-course from 0 to 120 h. These data were complemented with RT-qPCR for target genes involved in central metabolism, signaling, and lipid biosynthesis. Using this approach dynamics in central metabolism were linked to cold-stress dependent sugar and autophagy pathways as well as novel genes in C. reinhardtii such as CKIN1, CKIN2 and a hitherto functionally not annotated protein named CKIN3. Cold stress affected extensively the physiology and the organization of the cell. Gluconeogenesis and starch biosynthesis pathways are activated leading to a pronounced starch and sugar accumulation. Quantitative lipid profiles indicate a sharp decrease in the lipophilic fraction and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids suggesting this as a mechanism of maintaining membrane fluidity. The proteome is completely remodeled during cold stress: specific candidates of the ribosome and the spliceosome indicate altered biosynthesis and degradation of proteins important for adaptation to low temperatures. Specific proteasome degradation may be mediated by the observed cold-specific changes in the ubiquitinylation system. Sparse partial least squares regression analysis was applied for protein correlation network analysis using proteins as predictors and Fv/Fm, FW, total lipids, and starch as responses. We applied also Granger causality analysis and revealed correlations between proteins and

  20. Traumatic stress in acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, Gary; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Minden, Mark D; Brandwein, Joseph; Schimmer, Aaron; Marmar, Charles; Gagliese, Lucia; Lo, Christopher; Rydall, Anne; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute leukemia is a condition with an acute onset that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. However, the psychological impact of this life-threatening condition and its intensive treatment has not been systematically examined. In the present study, we investigate the prevalence and correlates of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this population. Methods Patients with acute myeloid, lymphocytic, and promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed, recently relapsed, or treatment failures were recruited at a comprehensive cancer center in Toronto, Canada. Participants completed the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, CARES Medical Interaction Subscale, and other psychosocial measures. A multivariate regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Results Of the 205 participants, 58% were male, mean age was 50.1 ± 15.4 years, 86% were recently diagnosed, and 94% were receiving active treatment. The mean Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire score was 30.2 ± 22.5, with 27 of 200 (14%) patients meeting criteria for acute stress disorder and 36 (18%) for subsyndromal acute stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were associated with more physical symptoms, physical symptom distress, attachment anxiety, and perceived difficulty communicating with health-care providers, and poorer spiritual well-being (all p <0.05). Conclusions The present study demonstrates that clinically significant symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia and are linked to the degree of physical suffering, to satisfaction with relationships with health-care providers, and with individual psychological characteristics. Longitudinal study is needed to determine the natural history, but these findings suggest that intervention may be indicated to alleviate or prevent traumatic stress in this population. PMID:22081505

  1. Global transcriptional profiling of a cold-tolerant rice variety under moderate cold stress reveals different cold stress response mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junliang; Zhang, Shaohong; Yang, Tifeng; Zeng, Zichong; Huang, Zhanghui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Xiaofei; Leach, Jan; Leung, Hei; Liu, Bin

    2015-07-01

    Gene expression profiling under severe cold stress (4°C) has been conducted in plants including rice. However, rice seedlings are frequently exposed to milder cold stresses under natural environments. To understand the responses of rice to milder cold stress, a moderately low temperature (8°C) was used for cold treatment prior to genome-wide profiling of gene expression in a cold-tolerant japonica variety, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH). A total of 5557 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found at four time points during moderate cold stress. Both the DEGs and differentially expressed transcription factor genes were clustered into two groups based on their expression, suggesting a two-phase response to cold stress and a determinative role of transcription factors in the regulation of stress response. The induction of OsDREB2A under cold stress is reported for the first time in this study. Among the anti-oxidant enzyme genes, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were upregulated, suggesting that the glutathione system may serve as the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger in LTH. Changes in expression of genes in signal transduction pathways for auxin, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) imply their involvement in cold stress responses. The induction of ABA response genes and detection of enriched cis-elements in DEGs suggest that ABA signaling pathway plays a dominant role in the cold stress response. Our results suggest that rice responses to cold stress vary with the specific temperature imposed and the rice genotype.

  2. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means. PMID:8049001

  3. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means.

  4. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  5. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  6. Exposure to cold and acute upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Wilkinson, J E

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections (URTI) is directly correlated to air temperature with most URTI occurring seasonally in cold weather. This review looks at four types of cold exposure and examines the evidence and possible mechanisms for any relationship to URTI. The effects of cold are discussed as: 1) Chilling of the nose and upper respiratory tract by breathing cold air, 2) Chilling of the mouth and upper digestive tract by ingestion of cold drinks and food, 3) Acute chilling of the body surface, and, 4) Chilling of the body as a whole with a fall in body temperature, hypothermia. Some studies were found to support a relationship between breathing cold air and chilling the body surface with the development of URTI, although this area is controversial. No evidence was found in the literature to support any relationship between ingestion of cold drinks and food and URTI, and similarly no evidence was found to link hypothermia and URTI. PMID:26030031

  7. Hormonal control of cold stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Marina; Rozhon, Wilfried; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2016-02-01

    Cold stress responses in plants are highly sophisticated events that alter the biochemical composition of cells for protection from damage caused by low temperatures. In addition, cold stress has a profound impact on plant morphologies, causing growth repression and reduced yields. Complex signalling cascades are utilised to induce changes in cold-responsive gene expression that enable plants to withstand chilling or even freezing temperatures. These cascades are governed by the activity of plant hormones, and recent research has provided a better understanding of how cold stress responses are integrated with developmental pathways that modulate growth and initiate other events that increase cold tolerance. Information on the hormonal control of cold stress signalling is summarised to highlight the significant progress that has been made and indicate gaps that still exist in our understanding.

  8. Regulatory Networks in Pollen Development under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamal D.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress modifies anthers’ metabolic pathways to induce pollen sterility. Cold-tolerant plants, unlike the susceptible ones, produce high proportion of viable pollen. Anthers in susceptible plants, when exposed to cold stress, increase abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and reduce ABA catabolism. Increased ABA negatively regulates expression of tapetum cell wall bound invertase and monosaccharide transport genes resulting in distorted carbohydrate pool in anther. Cold-stress also reduces endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs), GA4 and GA7, in susceptible anthers by repression of the GA biosynthesis genes. Here, we discuss recent findings on mechanisms of cold susceptibility in anthers which determine pollen sterility. We also discuss differences in regulatory pathways between cold-stressed anthers of susceptible and tolerant plants that decide pollen sterility or viability. PMID:27066044

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of cold response in tomato fruits identifies dehydrin as a marker of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J; Egea-Cortines, M

    2009-01-01

    Tomato is sensitive to cold during vegetative growth, fruit set, development, and ripening. We have characterized the effect of cold stress (6xC for up to 48 h) on the transcriptome of Micro-Tom tomato fruits during ripening by subtractive PCR. The cold stress caused modifications in gene expression of housekeeping genes. From a total of 38 genes up-regulated by cold, only one clone - a dehydrin homologue - was related to previously identified cold-stress genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed its clustering with other cold-induced dehydrins, and increased distances from dehydrins activated by abscisic acid. Quantitative expression analysis of tomato dehydrin showed it was activated by cold treatment in leaves and fruits. As dehydrin is a member of the Sl-CBF1 regulon from tomato, we analyzed the cold-responsive transcription factor Sl-CBF1 in mature leaves and ripening fruits stored at 6xC. Leaves of Micro-Tom showed high basal levels of the transcription factor Sl-CBF1, compared to fruits. Cold treatment caused increased levels of Sl-CBF1 expression in leaves but not in fruits of Micro-Tom and Demisem (a commercial cultivar). Tomato dehydrin can be used as a transcriptional marker of cold stress in leaves and ripening fruits. However, our results indicate that the cold response activation of dehydrin gene in tomato fruits is the consequence of an alternative pathway, different from the Sl-CBF1 regulon. PMID:19875881

  10. Anoxic stress and rapid cold hardening enhance cold tolerance of the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Cui, Feng; Wang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Hanying; Kang, Le

    2014-10-01

    Anoxia and rapid cold hardening (RCH) can increase the cold tolerance of many animals. However, mechanisms underlying these two kinds of stresses remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship of acclimation to cold stress with acclimation to anoxic stress in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. RCH at 0°C for 3h promoted the survival of cold stress-exposed locusts. Anoxic hypercapnia (CO2 anoxic treatment) for 40 min exerted an effect similar to that of RCH. Anoxic hypercapnia within 1h can all promote the cold hardiness of locusts. We investigated the transcript levels of six heat shock protein (Hsp) genes, namely, Hsp20.5, Hsp20.6, Hsp20.7, Hsp40, Hsp70, and Hsp90. Four genes, namely, Hsp90, Hsp40, Hsp20.5, and Hsp20.7, showed differential responses to RCH and anoxic hypercapnia treatments. Under cold stress, locusts exposed to the two regimens showed different responses for Hsp90, Hsp20.5, and Hsp20.7. However, the varied responses disappeared after recovery from cold stress. Compared with the control group, the transcript levels of six Hsp genes were generally downregulated in locusts subjected to anoxic hypercapnia or/and RCH. These results indicate that anoxic stress and RCH have different mechanisms of regulating the transcription of Hsp family members even if the two treatments exerted similar effects on cold tolerance of the migratory locust. However, Hsps may not play a major role in the promotion of cold hardiness by the two treatments.

  11. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  12. Role of cold shock proteins in growth of Listeria monocytogenes under cold and osmotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Barbara; Klumpp, Jochen; Raimann, Eveline; Loessner, Martin J; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2009-03-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of both public health and food safety significance. It possesses three small, highly homologous protein members of the cold shock protein (Csp) family. We used gene expression analysis and a set of mutants with single, double, and triple deletions of the csp genes to evaluate the roles of CspA, CspB, and CspD in the cold and osmotic (NaCl) stress adaptation responses of L. monocytogenes. All three Csps are dispensable for growth at optimal temperature (37 degrees C). These proteins are, however, required for efficient cold and osmotic stress tolerance of this bacterium. The hierarchies of their functional importance differ, depending on the environmental stress conditions: CspA>CspD>CspB in response to cold stress versus CspD>CspA/CspB in response to NaCl salt osmotic stress. The fact that Csps are promoting L. monocytogenes adaptation against both cold and NaCl stress has significant implications in view of practical food microbial control measures. The combined or sequential exposure of L. monocytogenes cells to these two stresses in food environments might inadvertently induce cross-protection responses.

  13. Pharmacological characterization of standard analgesics on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Nakamura, Saki; Miyake, Takahito; So, Kanako; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Tokuyama, Shogo; Narita, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an acute peripheral neuropathy triggered by cold in almost all patients during or within hours after its infusion. We recently reported that a single administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hypersensitivity 2 h after the administration in mice. In this study, we examined whether standard analgesics relieve the oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity. Gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate significantly inhibited and morphine and milnacipran decreased the acute cold hypersensitivity, while diclofenac and amitriptyline had no effects. These results suggest that gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate are effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24671055

  14. Acute emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2007-07-18

    Episodes of acute emotional stress can have significant adverse effects on the heart. Acute emotional stress can produce left ventricular contractile dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, or disturbances of cardiac rhythm. Although these abnormalities are often only transient, their consequences can be gravely damaging and sometimes fatal. Despite the many descriptions of catastrophic cardiovascular events in the setting of acute emotional stress, the anatomical substrate and physiological pathways by which emotional stress triggers cardiovascular events are only now being characterized, aided by the advent of functional neuroimaging. Recent evidence indicates that asymmetric brain activity is particularly important in making the heart more susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias. Lateralization of cerebral activity during emotional stress may stimulate the heart asymmetrically and produce areas of inhomogeneous repolarization that create electrical instability and facilitate the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with ischemic heart disease who survive an episode of sudden cardiac death in the setting of acute emotional stress should receive a beta-blocker. Nonpharmacological approaches to manage emotional stress in patients with and without coronary artery disease, including social support, relaxation therapy, yoga, meditation, controlled slow breathing, and biofeedback, are also appropriate to consider and merit additional investigation in randomized trials.

  15. Cold Stress Effects on Exposure Tolerance and Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Cold weather can have deleterious effects on health, tolerance, and performance. This paper will review the physiological responses and external factors that impact cold tolerance and physical performance. Tolerance is defined as the ability to withstand cold stress with minimal changes in physiological strain. Physiological and pathophysiological responses to short-term (cold shock) and long-term cold water and air exposure are presented. Factors (habituation, anthropometry, sex, race, and fitness) that influence cold tolerance are also reviewed. The impact of cold exposure on physical performance, especially aerobic performance, has not been thoroughly studied. The few studies that have been done suggest that aerobic performance is degraded in cold environments. Potential physiological mechanisms (decreases in deep body and muscle temperature, cardiovascular, and metabolism) are discussed. Likewise, strength and power are also degraded during cold exposure, primarily through a decline in muscle temperature. The review also discusses the concept of thermoregulatory fatigue, a reduction in the thermal effector responses of shivering and vasoconstriction, as a result of multistressor factors, including exhaustive exercise. PMID:26756639

  16. Acute lymphopenia, stress, and plasma cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, L H; Theunissen, P M; Went, K

    1975-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were determined in 51 children on admission to hospital for a variety of acute illnesses which were associated with a lymphopenia, and again when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. The ratio cortisol level/lymphocyte count was much higher in the acute phase of the illness than later when the lymphocyte count had returned to normal. It is concluded that the lymphocyte count is a useful means of detecting an acute stress condition, and the time of return of normal plasma cortisol levels. PMID:1167069

  17. Behavioral, endocrine, immune, and performance measures for pigs exposed to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Hicks, T A; McGlone, J J; Whisnant, C S; Kattesh, H G; Norman, R L

    1998-02-01

    Weanling pigs (n = 132) were used to investigate the effects of three common stressors (and a control) and differing social status on behavior, immunity, plasma cortisol, blood chemical, and performance measures. Eleven blocks of 12 pigs each were evaluated. Each pen contained three pigs of dominant (DOM), intermediate (INT), or submissive (SUB) social status. Two weeks later, random pens of pigs experienced either a control treatment (CON) or they were stressed for 4 h by shipping (SHIP), heat-stressed (HEAT) with overhead heat lamps in their home pens, or cold-stressed (COLD) by direct application of water and an air current. Treatments did not influence body weights; however, percentage weight loss during SHIP was greater than for other treatments. Body weights were heavier for DOM pigs than for INT and SUB pigs. Social status had large effects on plasma cortisol, globulin, acute-phase proteins, body weight, and weight changes. Only acute shipping stress resulted in weight loss. Many immune and blood measures were not changed among acutely stressed pigs; however, the relationship between social status and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell cytotoxicity was disrupted during acute stress. Pig behavior was significantly changed by each stress treatment in a unique manner. During acute stress, behavioral changes seem to be the most consistent and reliable indicators.

  18. A rabbit ear model for cold stress testing.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Gordon, S; Holden, M B; Smith, B P; Russell, G B; Koman, L A

    1994-01-01

    A rabbit ear model resembling the human digit was studied to determine the vascular response of the rabbit ear to a cold stress. Following moderate cooling (10 minutes at 5 degrees - 8 degrees C), auricular blood flow and cutaneous perfusion were reduced. This decrease was reversed by 30 minutes of warming. The response in the rabbit ear to cold stress is similar to that of normal human digits. The similarities between the control of the circulation in human digits and rabbit ears may result from the similarities in digital and auricular vascular receptors and receptor subtypes. Verification of the rabbit model provides an experimental method for obtaining important data regarding digital pathophysiology and the treatment of cold intolerance. Further study with this model will provide clinically relevant information regarding the pathophysiology of digital thermoregulatory abnormalities. PMID:7830538

  19. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  20. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-07-20

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.

  1. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  2. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B.; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  3. Intermittent cold stress enhances features of atherosclerotic plaque instability in apolipoprotein E‑deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Tang, Bing; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2014-10-01

    The cold weather is associated with an increased occurrence of acute coronary events. However, the mechanisms underlying cold‑induced myocardial infarctions have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, 20 male, eight week‑old, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)‑deficient mice were subjected to either control conditions or intermittent cold exposure for eight weeks. Mice in the cold group were placed in a cold room at 4˚C for 4 h per day, while the mice in the control group were kept in a room at 24˚C. Cold‑exposed mice did not significantly differ from control mice in body weight, fasting glucose concentration and plasma lipid levels, including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein and high‑density lipoprotein. The hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections of the aortic root demonstrated increased plaque size in the cold group compared with the control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, cold‑treated mice exhibited significantly decreased plaque collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell deposition and increased macrophage and lymphocyte content (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which are typical features of atherosclerotic plaque instability. Additionally, the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP‑9 and MMP‑14 were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)‑1 expression was decreased (P<0.05) following exposure to a cold environment. The present study demonstrated that chronic intermittent cold stress may increase atherosclerotic plaque size and promote plaque instability in ApoE‑deficient mice by altering the balance of MMPs and TIMPs. These findings may provide mechanistic insights into sudden cardiac death in cold environments. PMID:25109747

  4. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  5. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress.

  6. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mediates airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion through a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yang; Haiqiao, Wu; Xie, Wenyao; Huaping, Huang; Zhong, Han; Xiangdong, Zhou; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M

    2016-09-01

    Acute or chronic cold exposure exacerbates chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a cold-shock protein and is induced by various environmental stressors, such as hypothermia and hypoxia. In this study, we showed that CIRP gene and protein levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD and in rats with chronic airway inflammation compared with healthy subjects. Similarly, inflammatory cytokine production and MUC5AC secretion were up-regulated in rats following cigarette smoke inhalation. Cold temperature-induced CIRP overexpression and translocation were shown to be dependent on arginine methylation in vitro. CIRP overexpression promoted stress granule (SG) assembly. In the cytoplasm, the stability of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs was increased through specific interactions between CIRP and mediator mRNA 3'-UTRs; these interactions increased the mRNA translation, resulting in MUC5AC overproduction in response to cold stress. Conversely, CIRP silencing and a methyltransferase inhibitor (adenosine dialdehyde) promoted cytokine mRNA degradation and inhibited the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion. These findings indicate that cold temperature can induce an airway inflammatory response and excess mucus production via a CIRP-mediated increase in mRNA stability and protein translation. PMID:27477308

  7. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  8. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  9. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  10. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII. PMID:26360248

  11. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  12. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T; Brody, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione-glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin-oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD(+)-NADH (and NADP-NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents.

  13. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly

  14. Acute stress, memory, attention and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Vedhara, K; Hyde, J; Gilchrist, I D; Tytherleigh, M; Plummer, S

    2000-08-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the relationship between acute changes in cortisol and memory and attention in the context of an acute naturalistic stressor, namely, examination stress. Sixty students (36 male, 24 female) participated in an assessment of self-reported levels of stress, salivary cortisol, short term memory, selective and divided attention and auditory verbal working memory. Assessments were conducted during a non-exam and exam period. The results revealed that the exam period was associated with an increase in perceived levels of stress, but also a significant reduction in levels of salivary cortisol, compared with the non-exam period. This reduction in cortisol was associated with enhanced short-term memory (as measured by the total number of words recalled in a free recall task), impaired attention and an impairment in the primacy effect (a hippocampal-specific index of short term memory), but no significant effects on auditory verbal working memory. It was concluded that the results support the view that cortisol can modulate cognitive processes and that the effects of corticosteroids on cognitive function are selective.

  15. Estimation of cold stress effect on dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouček, J.; Letkovičová, M.; Kovalčuj, K.

    1991-03-01

    Twelve crossbred heifers (Slovak Spotted x Holstein-Friesian) were housed in an open, uninsulated barn with straw bedding and a concrete-floored yard. Minimum temperatures inside the barn were as low as -19°C. The average milk yield decreased as the temperatures approached these minima. Compared with the temperate conditions, the feed intake and blood levels of glucose and free fatty acids increased. The level of sodium declined significantly during the second cold period. Correlations and regressions between milk yield and biochemical parameters were calculated, and the results indicate that the concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triiodothyronine and the haematocrit values may serve to predict milk production during periods of cold stress, or in lactations of 305 days.

  16. Parent-Child Agreement Regarding Children's Acute Stress: The Role of Parent Acute Stress Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Miller, Victoria A.; Winston, Flaura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We examined parent--child agreement regarding child acute stress disorder (ASD) and the relationship between parent ASD symptoms and parent ratings of child ASD. Method: Parent-child dyads (N = 219; child age 8-17 years) were assessed within 1 month of child injury. Parent--child agreement was examined regarding child ASD presence,…

  17. Unstressing intemperate models: how cold stress undermines mouse modeling.

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L

    2012-06-01

    Mus musculus enjoys pride of place at the center of contemporary biomedical research. Despite being the current model system of choice for in vivo mechanistic analysis, mice have clear limitations. The literature is littered with examples of therapeutic approaches that showed promise in mouse models but failed in clinical trials. More generally, mice often provide poor mimics of the human diseases being modeled. Available data suggest that the cold stress to which laboratory mice are ubiquitously subjected profoundly affects mouse physiology in ways that impair the modeling of human homeostasis and disease. Experimental attention to this key, albeit largely ignored, environmental variable is likely to have a broad transformative effect on biomedical research.

  18. Neural models on temperature regulation for cold-stressed animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present review evaluates several assumptions common to a variety of current models for thermoregulation in cold-stressed animals. Three areas covered by the models are discussed: signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS), portions of the CNS involved, and the arrangement of neurons within networks. Assumptions in each of these categories are considered. The evaluation of the models is based on the experimental foundations of the assumptions. Regions of the nervous system concerned here include the hypothalamus, the skin, the spinal cord, the hippocampus, and the septal area of the brain.

  19. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  20. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), super oxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and heat stress

  1. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  2. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  3. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  4. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  5. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  6. Bifactor Item Response Theory Model of Acute Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Yuan; Tang, Jingjing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Better understanding of acute stress responses is important for revision of DSM-5. However, the latent structure and relationship between different aspects of acute stress responses haven’t been clarified comprehensively. Bifactor item response model may help resolve this problem. Objective The purpose of this study is to develop a statistical model of acute stress responses, based on data from earthquake rescuers using Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS). Through this model, we could better understand acute stress responses comprehensively, and provide preliminary information for computerized adaptive testing of stress responses. Methods Acute stress responses of earthquake rescuers were evaluated using ASRS, and state/trait anxiety were assessed using State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was used to analyze the data. Additionally, we tested this hierarchical model with model fit comparisons with one-dimensional and five-dimensional models. The correlations among acute stress responses and state/trait anxiety were compared, based on both the five-dimensional and bifactor models. Results Model fit comparisons showed bifactor model fit the data best. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied greatly between different aspects of stress responses. Many symptoms (40%) of physiological responses had positive loadings on general factor, and negative loadings on specific factor of physiological responses, while other stress responses had positive loadings on both general and specific factors. After extracting general factor of stress responses using bifactor analysis, significant positive correlations between physiological responses and state/trait anxiety (r = 0.185/0.112, p<0.01) changed into negative ones (r = −0.177/−0.38, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results demonstrated bifactor structure of acute stress responses, and positive and negative correlations between physiological responses

  7. The wheat aquaporin gene TaAQP7 confers tolerance to cold stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Zhou, Shiyi; Hu, Wei; Deng, Xiaomin; Wei, Shuya; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporin proteins (AQPs) have been shown to be involved in abiotic stress responses. However, the precise role of AQPs, especially in response to cold stress, is not understood in wheat (Triticum aestivum). In the present study, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that TaAQP7 expression increased in leaves, but decreased in roots after cold treatment. Expression of TaAQP7 in tobacco plants resulted in increased root elongation and better growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants under cold stress. Moreover, after cold treatment, the transgenic tobacco lines exhibited higher chlorophyll contents, lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and less ion leakage (IL) than WT plants. Thus, expression of TaAQP7 enhanced cold stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Taken together, our results suggest that TaAQP7 confers cold stress tolerance by relieving membrane damage in the transgenic plants.

  8. The effects of acute and chronic stress on motor and sensory performance in male Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Metz, G A; Schwab, M E; Welzl, H

    2001-01-01

    Any behavioral testing induces stress to some degree. A meaningful interpretation of behavioral results can be difficult if stress, caused by handling or the testing situation, modifies the experimental outcome. Especially for neurological animal models, it is important to know how stress affects motor and sensory performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of varying degrees of stress on several motor and sensory tasks that are frequently used to assess functional recovery after lesion-induced impairments in adult rats. Acute, subchronic, and chronic stress impaired ladder walking and prolonged the duration of grasping a bar. Stress also altered walking patterns by increasing the base of support and foot rotation and reducing stride length. Furthermore, chronic stress induced hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, but did not significantly influence the latency to remove sticky papers from the hindpaws (sticky paper test). In the light--dark (L/D) test, stress reduced the latency to enter the dark compartment and enhanced the number of transitions supporting that cold swim stress modifies the animal's level of anxiety. These data point towards a critical influence of acute or chronic stress on motor control and sensory performance of rats, suggesting that stress might be a critical intervening variable of the outcome of behavioral tests. PMID:11239978

  9. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, V.; Rekha, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days). The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR) supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally) during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and serum reduced glutathione (GSH) in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT) and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress. PMID:20442818

  10. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Andy; Tseng, Te-Ming; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Burgos, Nilda Roma

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1) classify the subspecies (ssp.) grouping (japonica or indica) of 21 accessions; 2) evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3) analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and cultivated

  11. Changes in free amino acid levels in sour orange leaves in response to cold stress and during recovery from cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, we reported that potted sour orange trees recovering from cold stress attracted more Asian citrus psyllid than the control plants continuously kept under warm condition. In parallel studies, cold treated plants were shown to have relatively increased amounts of ninhydrin positi...

  12. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  13. Variations in mental performance under moderate cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. M.; Panwar, M. R.

    1987-03-01

    Effects of moderate cold stress on reasoning ability, associative learning and critical flicker frequncy of Indian subjects were studied by exposing them to 25‡C,. 20‡C, 15‡C and 10‡C for three hours. A second set of experiments was also conducted to confirm the conclusions of the first by using the same temperatures and duration of exposure. However, not only the sample used in the second case was larger and different but also the mental functions tested were numerical ability, running memory and mental alertness. It has been concluded that there is a significant impairment of simple cognitive functions at 15‡C which is 10‡C lower than their most comfortable temperature of 25‡C.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops.

  15. Thermoregulatory disorders and illness related to heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, William P

    2016-04-01

    Thermoregulation is a vital function of the autonomic nervous system in response to cold and heat stress. Thermoregulatory physiology sustains health by keeping body core temperature within a degree or two of 37°C, which enables normal cellular function. Heat production and dissipation are dependent on a coordinated set of autonomic responses. The clinical detection of thermoregulatory impairment provides important diagnostic and localizing information in the evaluation of disorders that impair thermoregulatory pathways, including autonomic neuropathies and ganglionopathies. Failure of neural thermoregulatory mechanisms or exposure to extreme or sustained temperatures that overwhelm the body's thermoregulatory capacity can also result in potentially life-threatening departures from normothermia. Hypothermia, defined as a core temperature of <35.0°C, may present with shivering, respiratory depression, cardiac dysrhythmias, impaired mental function, mydriasis, hypotension, and muscle dysfunction, which can progress to cardiac arrest or coma. Management includes warming measures, hydration, and cardiovascular support. Deaths from hypothermia are twice as frequent as deaths from hyperthermia. Hyperthermia, defined as a core temperature of >40.5°C, may present with sweating, flushing, tachycardia, fatigue, lightheadedness, headache, and paresthesia, progressing to weakness, muscle cramps, oliguria, nausea, agitation, hypotension, syncope, confusion, delirium, seizures, and coma. Mental status changes and core temperature distinguish potentially fatal heat stroke from heat exhaustion. Management requires the immediate reduction of core temperature. Ice water immersion has been shown to be superior to alternative cooling measures. Avoidance of thermal risk and early recognition of cold or heat stress are the cornerstones of preventive therapy. PMID:26794588

  16. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  17. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.

  18. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

  19. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals. PMID:23478289

  20. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M

    2010-02-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) to gauge the anti-stress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the anti-stress activity of Z. officinale in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4 degrees for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone levels. There is also alteration in the blood cell counts. Pretreatment with the extract significantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and increase in anoxia tolerance time in physical and anoxia stress models, respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress and swimming endurance stress models. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. officinale has significant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models. PMID:19909780

  1. Effect of season on peripheral resistance to localised cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Harimura, Y.; Tochihara, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Ohnaka, T.; Matsui, J.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect that seasonal changes have on the effect of localised cold stress on peripheral temperatures using the foot immersion method with a cold water bath. The subjects were six males and four females. The data were obtained in April, July, October and January. Skin temperature of the right index finger, the forehead, the arm, the cheek, the second toe and the instep were measured before, during and after the immersion of the feet in water at 15°C for 10 mins, as well as oxygen consumption before immersion of the feet. The average finger temperature was highest during foot immersion in the summer, next highest in the winter, then spring, and the lowest during foot immersion in the autumn. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period in the autumn tended to be lower than in other seasons. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period affected the temperature change of the finger during the immersion period. The rate of increase of the toe temperature and the foot temperature during post-immersion in the summer and the spring were greater than those in the autumn and winter. Oxygen consumption during the pre-immersion period in the autumn was significantly lower than in the other seasons (p<0.001 or 0.010). Cooling the feet caused no significant changes in the temperatures the cheek, forehead or forearm. The cheek temperature in the summer and autumn was cooler than corresponding temperatures taken in the winter and spring.

  2. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23–71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). Results There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5–6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Conclusion Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems. PMID:23301005

  3. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  4. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  5. The effects of acute cold exposure on morphology and gene expression in the heart of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Ohtsuka, Akira; Kanai, Yukio; Hirabayashi, Miho

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure induces an increase in blood flow and blood pressure, and long-term exposure to cold causes cardiac hypertrophy. Neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly sensitive to cold exposure, because their capacity for thermogenesis is immature until 1 week after hatching. Hence, we hypothesized that the heart of chicks at around 1 week of age acutely responds to cold environment. To investigate the effect of acute (24 h) and long-term (2 weeks) cold on the heart of chicks, 7-day-old chicks were exposed to cold temperature (4 °C) or kept warm (30 °C). Chicks exposed to the cold showed cardiac hypertrophy with marked left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation and wall thickening. On the other hand, long-term cold exposure (2 weeks from 7-day-old) induced an increase in total ventricular mass, but not in LV morphological parameters. Then, we investigated the details of acute cardiac hypertrophy in chicks. Electron microscopy revealed that cardiomyocytes in the hypertrophied LV had enlarged mitochondria with less dense cristae. Although the mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase in the LV of the cold-exposed chicks significantly increased, the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation did not change in response to cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and function under physiological cardiac hypertrophy, increased in LV of cold-exposed chicks. The study found that acute cold exposure to neonatal chicks induces LV hypertrophy. However, these results suggest that acute cold exposure to chicks might induce both adaptive and maladaptive responses of the LV. PMID:26733397

  6. The expression of thioredoxin-1 in acute epinephrine stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jin-Jing; Zeng, Xian-Si; Li, Kun; Ma, Li-Fang; Chen, Lei; Song, Xin-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Stress, a state of perceived threat to homeostasis, regulates a panel of important physiological functions. The human mind and body respond to stress by activating the sympathetic nervous system and secreting the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in the "fight-or-flight" response. However, the protective mechanism of acute stress is still unknown. In the present study, an acute stress mouse model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine (0.2 mg kg(-1)) for 4 h. Epinephrine treatment induced heat shock 70(Hsp70) expression in the stress responsive tissues, such as the cortex, hippocampus, thymus, and kidney. Further, the expression of thioredoxin-1(Trx-1), a cytoprotective protein, was also upregulated in these stress responsive tissues. In addition, the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor of Trx-1, was increased after treatment with epinephrine. The block of CREB activation by H89 inhibited the acute epinephrine stress-induced Trx-1 and Hsp70 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that acute stimuli of epinephrine induced Trx-1 expression through activating CREB and may represent a protective role against stress. PMID:27511023

  7. Adaptation of body temperature and nociception to cold stress in preweanling rats.

    PubMed

    Hamm, R J; Knisely, J S; Lyons, C M

    1990-05-01

    In order to investigate the response of rat pups to stress, 10-day-old rats (N = 10) were exposed to cold water (14 degrees C) for 5 min or to a control treatment (N = 10) for 5 consecutive days. On the sixth day when the rats were 15 days of age, all rat pups were immersed in cold water for 5 min. Body temperature and nociceptive threshold were recorded as functional indexes of the stress response to cold water. Results revealed that the rat pups that had been previously exposed to the cold stressor demonstrated a smaller decline in body temperature and a smaller increase in nociceptive threshold following cold-water immersion than rat pups which had no prior experience with the stressor. Thus, as measured by thermoregulatory and nociceptive function, 15-day-old rat pups are capable of adapting to repeated stressful experiences.

  8. Supplemental fat for dairy calves during mild cold stress.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Da Silva, D N L; LaBerge, R J; Schefers, J; Kertz, A

    2014-05-01

    Eighty-one Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy calves fed calf milk replacer (CMR) were used to determine response to increasing amounts of supplemental fat during mild cold stress. Calves (n=27) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low fat [LF; 28% crude protein:15% fat milk replacer (28:15 MR)]; (2) medium fat [MF; 28:15 MR+113 g/d of commercial fat supplement (FS)]; (3) high fat (HF; 28:15 MR+227 g/d of FS). The MF and HF calves received FS from d 2 to 21, and all calves were fed LF from d 22 to 49. The CMR was fed at 1.4% of birth body weight (BBW) from d 1 to 10, at 1.8% of BBW from d 11 to 42, and at 0.9% of BBW from d 43 to 49. Calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in hutches until d 56. The CMR was reconstituted to 13% solids. Calves were fed a commercial starter grain (19.2% crude protein on a dry matter basis) ad libitum and offered warm water after CMR feeding. Calves were fed CMR twice daily at 0630 and 1730 h in hutches bedded with straw. Starter intake, CMR intake, and ambient temperature were measured daily, and body weight (BW), hip height, and body length were measured weekly. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Calf BBW averaged 42.0 ± 1.0 kg, total serum protein averaged 5.8 ± 0.1mg/dL, and birth ambient temperature averaged 5.0 ± 1.1°C. Feeding FS increased metabolizable energy intake (MEI) over maintenance but decreased efficiency of conversion of BW gain:MEI. Starter intake by LF calves was greatest until the beginning of weaning, after which starter intake was similar among treatments. Because of higher starter intake, total MEI was similar among treatments. Feed efficiency through d 49 was greater for calves fed MF and HF. Average daily gain during fat supplementation was greater for MF and HF than for LF. Lack of increase in BW gain and feed efficiency between MF and HF treatments indicated that HF did not result in advantages

  9. Supplemental fat for dairy calves during mild cold stress.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Da Silva, D N L; LaBerge, R J; Schefers, J; Kertz, A

    2014-05-01

    Eighty-one Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy calves fed calf milk replacer (CMR) were used to determine response to increasing amounts of supplemental fat during mild cold stress. Calves (n=27) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low fat [LF; 28% crude protein:15% fat milk replacer (28:15 MR)]; (2) medium fat [MF; 28:15 MR+113 g/d of commercial fat supplement (FS)]; (3) high fat (HF; 28:15 MR+227 g/d of FS). The MF and HF calves received FS from d 2 to 21, and all calves were fed LF from d 22 to 49. The CMR was fed at 1.4% of birth body weight (BBW) from d 1 to 10, at 1.8% of BBW from d 11 to 42, and at 0.9% of BBW from d 43 to 49. Calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in hutches until d 56. The CMR was reconstituted to 13% solids. Calves were fed a commercial starter grain (19.2% crude protein on a dry matter basis) ad libitum and offered warm water after CMR feeding. Calves were fed CMR twice daily at 0630 and 1730 h in hutches bedded with straw. Starter intake, CMR intake, and ambient temperature were measured daily, and body weight (BW), hip height, and body length were measured weekly. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Calf BBW averaged 42.0 ± 1.0 kg, total serum protein averaged 5.8 ± 0.1mg/dL, and birth ambient temperature averaged 5.0 ± 1.1°C. Feeding FS increased metabolizable energy intake (MEI) over maintenance but decreased efficiency of conversion of BW gain:MEI. Starter intake by LF calves was greatest until the beginning of weaning, after which starter intake was similar among treatments. Because of higher starter intake, total MEI was similar among treatments. Feed efficiency through d 49 was greater for calves fed MF and HF. Average daily gain during fat supplementation was greater for MF and HF than for LF. Lack of increase in BW gain and feed efficiency between MF and HF treatments indicated that HF did not result in advantages

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which "oxidation-reduction process" was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189. PMID:26941746

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which “oxidation-reduction process” was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189. PMID:26941746

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which "oxidation-reduction process" was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189.

  13. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  14. Evidence for ACD5 ceramide kinase activity involvement in Arabidopsis response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Chavarria, Heidy; Rézé, Nathalie; Sotta, Bruno; Baudouin, Emmanuel; Guillas, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Although sphingolipids emerged as important signals for plant response to low temperature, investigations have been limited so far to the function of long-chain base intermediates. The formation and function of ceramide phosphates (Cer-Ps) in chilled Arabidopsis were explored. Cer-Ps were analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) following in vivo metabolic radiolabelling. Ceramide kinase activity, gene expression and growth phenotype were determined in unstressed and cold-stressed wild type (WT) and Arabidopsis ceramide kinase mutant acd5. A rapid and transient formation of Cer-P occurs in cold-stressed WT Arabidopsis plantlets and cultured cells, which is strongly impaired in acd5 mutant. Although concomitant, Cer-P formation is independent of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) formation. No variation of ceramide kinase activity was measured in vitro in WT plantlets upon cold stress but the activity in acd5 mutant was further reduced by cold stress. At the seedling stage, acd5 response to cold was similar to that of WT. Nevertheless, acd5 seed germination was hypersensitive to cold and abscisic acid (ABA), and ABA-dependent gene expression was modified in acd5 seeds when germinated at low temperature. Our data involve for the first time Cer-P and ACD5 in low temperature response and further underline the complexity of sphingolipid signalling operating during cold stress.

  15. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade.

  16. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Halabian, Raheleh; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Masroori, Nasser; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  17. Effect of cold stress on expression of AMPKalpha-PPARalpha pathway and inflammation genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-wei; Bi, Ming-yu; Yao, Hai-dong; Fu, Jing; Li, Shu; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-09-01

    Animals are exposed to various environmental stresses every day, including the stress associated with living in cold temperatures. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of interaction between lipid metabolism and inflammation induced by cold stress in the livers of chickens. Fifteen-day-old male chicks were randomly allocated into 12 groups (10 chickens per group). After exposure of the chickens to the cold stress, cholesterol fractionation was used to examine high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations. Aminotransferase activities were examined with the use of the aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) assay. The AMP-activated protein kinase alpha-proliferator-activated receptor alpha (AMPKalpha-PPARalpha) pathway genes (AMPKalpha1, AMPKalpha2, PPARalpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferaseI [CPTI], acetyl-CoA carboxylase [ACC]) and inflammatory cytokines (prostaglandin E synthase [PGEs], inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1], nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kappaB], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], and TNF-alpha-like factor [LITAF]) were also measured. The results showed that during the response to cold stress, serum LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations increased. Histopathologic analyses provided evidence that liver tissues were seriously injured in the chickens exposed to the cold stress. Serum aminotransferase activities were also increased in the group of animals exposed to the cold stress. Additionally, the expressions of AMPKalpha-PPARalpha pathway genes and inflammatory cytokine genes were significantly increased in the animals exposed to cold temperatures. These results suggested that increased inflammation was a feature associated with a lipid-metabolism disorder in the livers of chickens exposed to cold stress.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus of chicken during cold stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Wang, M; Geng, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    In order to discover the mechanism of cold stress and identify differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus during cold stress, 4 weeks of age Huainan partridge chickens, Chinese indigenous breed, were chosen for 24 h cold stress and then hypothalamus were isolated and labeled by reverse transcription reaction for cDNA. Labeled cDNA were hybridized with cDNA microarray. After scanning and image processing, the different gene expression profiling of hypothalamus and normal control was investigated. The differentially expressed genes included 334 down-regulated genes and 543 up-regulated genes. In these differentially regulated genes, myosin heavy chain polypeptide 11 (MYH11), light chain polypeptide 9 (MYL9) and tenascin-Y (TNXB), etc., which involved in muscle activity were significantly down-regulated. Genes like cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (NPY5R), hypocretin receptor 2 (HCRTR2) and hypocretin neuropeptide precursor (HCRT) which responsible for regulation of feeding behavior were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes responsible for lipid synthesis, like apolipoprotein (APOB) and agouti related protein homolog (AGRP), were also up-regulated. Through pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomics, during 24 h cold stress, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was firstly initiated in chickens for stimulation of central nervus for feed intake. Adipocytokine signaling pathway was in high activation for supplementation of body energy. Jak-STAT, Ca(2+) signaling pathway and other biological reactions were also initiated in response to cold stress. The biological pathways participated in cold stress would provide important information for clarify the mechanism of cold stress and the differentially expressed genes would give much help for screening of candidate genes in breeding of cold stress resistant lines.

  19. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  20. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks. PMID:26642742

  1. Transcriptional profiling of Petunia seedlings reveals candidate regulators of the cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Ning, Luyun; Zhang, Junwei; Bao, Manzhu; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petunias are important ornamentals with the capacity for cold acclimation. So far, there is limited information concerning gene regulation and signaling pathways associated with the cold stress response in petunias. A custom-designed petunia microarray representing 24816 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in petunia seedlings subjected to cold at 2°C for 0.5 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 5 d. A total of 2071 transcripts displayed differential expression patterns under cold stress, of which 1149 were up-regulated and 922 were down-regulated. Gene ontology enrichment analysis demarcated related biological processes, suggesting a possible link between flavonoid metabolism and plant adaptation to low temperatures. Many novel stress-responsive regulators were revealed, suggesting that diverse regulatory pathways may exist in petunias in addition to the well-characterized CBF pathway. The expression changes of selected genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided the petunia genes on the array into 65 modules that showed high co-expression and identified stress-specific hub genes with high connectivity. Our identification of these transcriptional responses and groups of differentially expressed regulators will facilitate the functional dissection of the molecular mechanism in petunias responding to environment stresses and extend our ability to improve cold tolerance in plants. PMID:25784921

  2. Acute toxicity of dispersed crude oil on the cold-water copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Elusive implications of lipid content.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida B; Olsen, Anders J; Salaberria, Iurgi; Nordtug, Trond

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, acute toxicity data were used from two previously reported studies where cold-water copepods were exposed to mechanically dispersed (MD) and chemically (CD) dispersed oil. In one of these studies, concentration-dependent mortality was observed, whereas no apparent relationship between exposure concentration and mortality was found in the other. The only marked difference between the studies is that copepods in the first experiment displayed a lower lipid sac volume (on average) than in the second one. In this study additional biometric data on lipid content were utilized and observed effects and toxicokinetics modeling applied in order to investigate whether differences in sensitivity between copepod cohorts might be explained by differences in lipid content. Results suggest that although a considerable lipid sac might retard toxicokinetics, the observed differences in lipid volume are not sufficient to explain differences in toxicity. Further, there are no apparent indications that acute toxic stress leads to lipid depletion, or that acute increased mortality rate selectively affects lipid-poor individuals. It is conceivable that other potential explanations exist, but the causal relationship between lipid content and increased mortality frequency remains elusive. PMID:27484137

  3. Acute toxicity of dispersed crude oil on the cold-water copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Elusive implications of lipid content.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida B; Olsen, Anders J; Salaberria, Iurgi; Nordtug, Trond

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, acute toxicity data were used from two previously reported studies where cold-water copepods were exposed to mechanically dispersed (MD) and chemically (CD) dispersed oil. In one of these studies, concentration-dependent mortality was observed, whereas no apparent relationship between exposure concentration and mortality was found in the other. The only marked difference between the studies is that copepods in the first experiment displayed a lower lipid sac volume (on average) than in the second one. In this study additional biometric data on lipid content were utilized and observed effects and toxicokinetics modeling applied in order to investigate whether differences in sensitivity between copepod cohorts might be explained by differences in lipid content. Results suggest that although a considerable lipid sac might retard toxicokinetics, the observed differences in lipid volume are not sufficient to explain differences in toxicity. Further, there are no apparent indications that acute toxic stress leads to lipid depletion, or that acute increased mortality rate selectively affects lipid-poor individuals. It is conceivable that other potential explanations exist, but the causal relationship between lipid content and increased mortality frequency remains elusive.

  4. Acute nonhypothermic exposure to cold impedes motor skill performance in video gaming compared to thermo-neutral and hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew M; Crowther, Robert G; Morton, R Hugh; Polman, Remco C

    2011-02-01

    The study examined whether or not acute exposure to unfamiliar hot or cold conditions impairs performance of highly skilled coordinative activities and whether prior physical self-efficacy beliefs were associated with task completion. Nineteen volunteers completed both Guitar Hero and Archery activities as a test battery using the Nintendo Wii console in cold (2 degrees C), neutral (20 degrees C), and hot (38 degrees C) conditions. Participants all completed physical self-efficacy questionnaires following experimental familiarization. Performances of both Guitar Hero and Archery significantly decreased in the cold compared with the neutral condition. The cold trial was also perceived as the condition requiring both greater concentration and effort. There was no association between performance and physical self-efficacy. Performance of these coordinative tasks was compromised by acute (nonhypothermic) exposure to cold; the most likely explanation is that the cold condition presented a greater challenge to attentional processes as a form of environmental distraction. PMID:21466095

  5. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems. PMID:24351762

  6. A cognitive deficit induced in rats by chronic intermittent cold stress is reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Danet, M.; Lapiz-Bluhm, S.; Morilak, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that 14-days of chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress induced a cognitive deficit in reversal learning on the rat attentional set-shifting test. This effect may be related to dysregulation of 5-HT function in orbitofrontal cortex, as a model of cognitive dysfunction in depression. To test the ability of chronic antidepressant drug treatment to reverse the cognitive deficit induced by CIC, it was first necessary to assess the temporal characteristics of the CIC-induced cognitive deficit. Thus, in the first study, we assessed the duration of the cognitive deficit following 2-weeks CIC stress. Replicating previous experiments, CIC induced a reversal learning deficit tested 3 days after the last cold exposure. However, cognitive performance of CIC-stressed rats was no different from unstressed controls when tested 7, 14 or 21 days after termination of the stress treatment. We next compared behavior 3 days after 2-weeks CIC to that seen 3 days after 5-weeks CIC, and found similar deficits in reversal learning. Thus, in the final study, antidepressant drug treatment was initiated after 2-weeks of CIC stress, and was maintained for 3 weeks, concurrent with the continuation of CIC stress. Both chronic and acute treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, but not the norepinephrine reuptake blocker, desipramine, reversed the cognitive deficit induced by CIC stress. Thus, this stress-induced cognitive deficit may be a useful model for cognitive deficits related to prefrontal cortical hypoactivity in depression, and for investigating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of chronic antidepressant drug treatment. PMID:20149267

  7. Comparative analysis of gene expression in response to cold stress in diverse rice genotypes.

    PubMed

    Moraes de Freitas, Gabriela Peres; Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Braga, Eugenia Bolacel; Pereira, Andy

    2016-02-26

    Cold stress is a major factor affecting rice (Oryza sativa) growth and productivity, limiting its distribution worldwide. Rice production is affected primarily due to its vulnerability to cold stress at seedling stage, as well as reproductive stage leading to spikelet sterility. We report here the analysis of 21 diverse rice genotypes from the USDA mini-core collection for cold tolerance and categorized their tolerance levels on the basis of reduction in growth measured by root and shoot length. The screening identified 12 cold tolerant genotypes from which six tolerant genotypes were characterized at the vegetative stage for cold tolerance and gas-exchange parameters. Two tolerant and two sensitive genotypes were used further for gene expression analysis. Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP) genes showed a clear difference in expression between cold tolerant and sensitive genotypes suggesting that they are good candidates for engineering cold tolerance in rice. Nipponbare was identified as a cold tolerant genotype with stress tolerance mechanism potentially operating via both ABA dependent and independent pathways. PMID:26855133

  8. Mild cold-stress depresses immune responses: Implications for cancer models involving laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    Messmer, Michelle N.; Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Eng, Jason W.-L.; Abrams, Scott I.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically accurate mouse models of cancer are critical in the pre-clinical development of novel cancer therapies. However, current standardized animal-housing temperatures elicit chronic cold-associated stress in mice, which is further increased in the presence of tumor. This cold-stress significantly impacts experimental outcomes. Data from our lab and others suggests standard housing fundamentally alters murine physiology, and this can produce altered immune baselines in tumor and other disease models. Researchers may thus underestimate the efficacy of therapies that are benefitted by immune responses. A potential mediator, norepinephrine, also underlies stress pathways common in mice and humans. Therefore, research into mechanisms connecting cold-stress and norepinephrine signaling with immune-depression in mice could highlight new combination therapies for humans to simultaneously target stress while stimulating anti-tumor immunity. PMID:25066924

  9. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects.

  10. Delayed effects of cold stress on immune response in laboratory mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cichoń, Mariusz; Chadzińska, Magdalena; Ksiazek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the trade-off between the cost of thermoregulation and immune function in laboratory mice. Mice were maintained either at 23 degrees C or cold exposed at 5 degrees C for 10 days. Then, they were immunized with sheep red blood cells. Thus, the cold-exposed mice had either experienced or not experienced cold stress prior to immunization. Cold stress elicited a substantial increase in food intake, accompanied by a significant reduction in food digestibility. An increase in mass of metabolically active internal organs (small intestines, heart and kidney) was observed in cold-exposed mice. These findings reassured us that costs of increased thermoregulation caused by cold stress were substantial. The immune response of mice exposed to long-lasting cold stress was significantly lower, but immune response was not affected in short-exposed mice. Differences in immune response between experimental groups accompanied changes in mass of immunocompetent organs (thymus and spleen). Our findings indicate that studies of trade-offs should account for the fact that resource reallocation in response to an environmental challenge may not be immediate. In fact, resource reallocation may be postponed until the new environmental state becomes permanent or until an organism attains physiological adaptation to the current conditions. PMID:12137580

  11. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to “anhedonic” behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-of-shock (n = 38) or negative performance feedback (n = 42), and a no-stress condition. Results Stress increased negative affect and anxiety. As hypothesized based on preclinical findings, stress, particularly the threat-of-shock condition, impaired reward responsiveness. Regression analyses indicate that self-report measures of anhedonia predicted stress-induced hedonic deficits even after controlling for anxiety symptoms. Conclusions These findings indicate that acute stress reduces reward responsiveness, particularly in individuals with anhedonic symptoms. Stress-induced hedonic deficit is a promising candidate mechanism linking stressful experiences to depression. PMID:16806107

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rat brain regions upon chlorpyrifos toxicity and cold stress: an interactive study.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Poojary, Annappa

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent energy depletion are the major causes of oxidative stress resulting to bring alterations in the ionic homeostasis causing loss of cellular integrity. Our previous studies have shown the age-associated interactive effects in rat central nervous system (CNS) upon co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cold stress leading to macromolecular oxidative damage. The present study elucidates a possible mechanism by which CPF and cold stress interaction cause(s) mitochondrial dysfunction in an age-related manner. In this study, the activity levels of Krebs cycle enzymes and electron transport chain (ETC) protein complexes were assessed in the isolated fraction of mitochondria. CPF and cold stress (15 and 20 °C) exposure either individually or in combination decreased the activity level of Krebs cycle enzymes and ETC protein complexes in discrete regions of rat CNS. The findings confirm that cold stress produces significant synergistic effect in CPF intoxicated aging rats. The synergism between CPF and cold stress at 15 °C caused a higher depletion of respiratory enzymes in comparison with CPF and cold stress alone and together at 20 °C indicating the extent of deleterious functional alterations in discrete regions of brain and spinal cord (SC) which may result in neurodegeneration and loss in neuronal metabolic control. Hence, co-exposure of CPF and cold stress is more dangerous than exposure of either alone. Among the discrete regions studied, the cerebellum and medulla oblongata appears to be the most susceptible regions when compared to cortex and SC. Furthermore, the study reveals a gradual decrease in sensitivity to CPF toxicity as the rat matures.

  13. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio metschnikovii under cold stress using a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juntao; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yinghui; Li, Zhengyi; Zhao, Liqing; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Jing; Feng, Liping; Liang, Chengzhu; Xu, Biao; Gu, Peiming; Ye, Xiwen

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio metschnikovii is a food-borne pathogen found in seafood worldwide. We studied the global proteome responses of V. metschnikovii under cold stress by nano-flow ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A total of 2066 proteins were identified, among which 288 were significantly upregulated and 572 were downregulated. Functional categorization of these proteins revealed distinct differences between cold-stressed and control cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was also performed to determine the mRNA expression levels of seventeen cold stress-related genes. The results of this study should improve our understanding of the metabolic activities of cold-adapted bacteria and will facilitate a better systems-based understanding of V. metschnikovii.

  14. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0+/-0.1 degrees C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  15. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0 {+-} 0.1 {sup o}C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4 h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  16. Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Signals Enhance Plant’s Tolerance to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Wu, Zi-Li; Feng, Ling-Yang; Dong, Li-Hua; Song, An-Jun; Yuan, Ming; Chen, Yang-Er; Zeng, Jian; Chen, Guang-Deng; Yuan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) signals and plant’s tolerance to cold stress is investigated. Arabidopsis seedlings grown for 3 weeks were pretreated with 2 mM glutamate (Glu) and 2 mM MgCl2 for 48 h at room temperature to induce Mg-Proto IX accumulation. Then cold stress was performed at 4°C for additional 72 h. Glu + MgCl2 pre-treatments alleviated the subsequent cold stress significantly by rising the leaf temperature through inducing Mg-Proto IX signals. The protective role of Glu + MgCl2 treatment was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling, and cyanide-resistant respiration. And the enhancement of cold-responsive gene expression was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling and ABA signaling, but not in the mutant of cyanide-resistant respiration. Cold stress promoted cyanide-resistant respiration and leaf total respiration exponentially, which could be further induced by the Glu + MgCl2 treatment. Mg-Proto IX signals also activate antioxidant enzymes and increase non-enzymatic antioxidants [glutathione but not ascorbic acid (AsA)] to maintain redox equilibrium during the cold stress. PMID:27803706

  17. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis. PMID:27468828

  18. Feasibility of Using Gamma Irradiation for Inactivation of Starvation-, Heat-, and Cold-Stressed Salmonella in Tahini.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Abubakar, Salisu A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Holy, Murad A

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella continues to be the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and recently has been involved in infections related to edible seeds and their products, including tahini. This study investigated the (i) effectiveness of using gamma irradiation to inactivate starvation- and heat- or cold-stressed Salmonella in tahini, (ii) effect of storage on the sensitivity of stressed Salmonella to irradiation, and (iii) effect of irradiation on the chemical and physical characteristics of tahini. Tahini samples were inoculated with a cocktail of unstressed or stressed (starvation and heat or cold stress) Salmonella isolates and then exposed after storage at 21°C for 0, 7, and 30 days to gamma irradiation for up to 2.0 kGy. Additionally, the effect of irradiation on the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini were assessed. The initial level of unstressed and starvation- and heat-stressed Salmonella in tahini decreased by ca. 4.6 log CFU/g after exposure to 2.0 kGy, while cold-stressed cultures decreased by 4.5 log after exposure to 0.6 kGy. Irradiation doses of 1.0 kGy after 7 days of storage or 0.75 kGy after 30 days of storage decreased the populations of the unstressed and starvation- and heatstressed Salmonella by ca. 3.4 or 2.6 log, respectively. The D10-value of the unstressed Salmonella was 0.43 kGy. Starvation and heat stresses showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the calculated D10-value, whereas cold stress significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the D10-value to 0.14 kGy. Preirradiation storage for 7 and 30 days significantly decreased the D10-value to 0.31 and 0.28 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy did not significantly affect the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini when compared with nonirradiated samples. Therefore, this study lays the foundation for using irradiation as an effective means for minimizing the risk of Salmonella in tahini without compromising its quality.

  19. Feasibility of Using Gamma Irradiation for Inactivation of Starvation-, Heat-, and Cold-Stressed Salmonella in Tahini.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Abubakar, Salisu A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Holy, Murad A

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella continues to be the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and recently has been involved in infections related to edible seeds and their products, including tahini. This study investigated the (i) effectiveness of using gamma irradiation to inactivate starvation- and heat- or cold-stressed Salmonella in tahini, (ii) effect of storage on the sensitivity of stressed Salmonella to irradiation, and (iii) effect of irradiation on the chemical and physical characteristics of tahini. Tahini samples were inoculated with a cocktail of unstressed or stressed (starvation and heat or cold stress) Salmonella isolates and then exposed after storage at 21°C for 0, 7, and 30 days to gamma irradiation for up to 2.0 kGy. Additionally, the effect of irradiation on the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini were assessed. The initial level of unstressed and starvation- and heat-stressed Salmonella in tahini decreased by ca. 4.6 log CFU/g after exposure to 2.0 kGy, while cold-stressed cultures decreased by 4.5 log after exposure to 0.6 kGy. Irradiation doses of 1.0 kGy after 7 days of storage or 0.75 kGy after 30 days of storage decreased the populations of the unstressed and starvation- and heatstressed Salmonella by ca. 3.4 or 2.6 log, respectively. The D10-value of the unstressed Salmonella was 0.43 kGy. Starvation and heat stresses showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the calculated D10-value, whereas cold stress significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the D10-value to 0.14 kGy. Preirradiation storage for 7 and 30 days significantly decreased the D10-value to 0.31 and 0.28 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy did not significantly affect the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini when compared with nonirradiated samples. Therefore, this study lays the foundation for using irradiation as an effective means for minimizing the risk of Salmonella in tahini without compromising its quality. PMID:27296600

  20. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-03-29

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function.

  1. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  2. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  3. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  4. ACUTE MENTAL STRESS AND HEMOSTASIS: WHEN PHYSIOLOGY BECOMES VASCULAR HARM

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the sympathoadrenal medullary system activates both the coagulation and fibrinolysis system resulting in net hypercoagulability. The evolutionary interpretation of this physiology is that stress-hypercoagulability protects a healthy organism from excess bleeding should injury occur in fight-or-flight situations. In turn, acute mental stress, negative emotions and psychological trauma also are triggering factors of atherothrombotic events and possibly of venous thromboembolism. Individuals with pre-existent atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial anticoagulant function are the most vulnerable to experience onset of acute coronary events within two hours of intense emotions. A range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress and negative affect) might critically intensify and prolong stress-induced hypercoagulability. In contrast, several pharmacological compounds, dietary flavanoids, and positive affect mitigate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Studies are needed to investigate whether attenuation of stress-hypercoagulability through medications and biobehavioral interventions reduce the risk of thrombotic incidents in at-risk populations. PMID:25861135

  5. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  6. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat. PMID:27483696

  7. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    PubMed

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  8. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Andrea H; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers.

  9. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Andrea H.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers. PMID:24904331

  10. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress.

  11. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  12. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  13. Uncoupling Protein 1 and Sarcolipin Are Required to Maintain Optimal Thermogenesis, and Loss of Both Systems Compromises Survival of Mice under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Leslie A; Bal, Naresh C; Kozak, Leslie P; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-05-01

    The importance of brown adipose tissue as a site of nonshivering thermogenesis has been well documented. Emerging studies suggest that skeletal muscle is also an important site of thermogenesis especially when brown adipose tissue function is lacking. We recently showed that sarcolipin (SLN), an uncoupler of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) pump, could contribute to heat production in skeletal muscle. In this study, we sought to understand how loss of UCP1 or SLN is compensated during cold exposure and whether they are both necessary for thermogenesis. Toward this goal, we generated a UCP1;SLN double knock-out (DKO) mouse model and challenged the single and DKO mice to acute and long-term cold exposures. Results from this study show that there is up-regulation of SLN expression in UCP1-KO mice, and loss of SLN is compensated by increased expression of UCP1 and browning of white adipose tissue. We found that the DKO mice were viable when reared at thermoneutrality. When challenged to acute cold, the DKO were extremely cold-sensitive and became hypothermic. Paradoxically, the DKO mice were able to survive gradual cold challenge, but these mice lost significant weight and depleted their fat stores, despite having higher caloric intake. These studies suggest that UCP1 and SLN are required to maintain optimal thermogenesis and that loss of both systems compromises survival of mice under cold stress. PMID:25825499

  14. Genome-Wide Survey of Cold Stress Regulated Alternative Splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana with Tiling Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Leviatan, Noam; Alkan, Noam; Leshkowitz, Dena; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in expanding the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes. It is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can increase protein diversity and affect mRNA stability. Alternative splicing is often regulated in a tissue-specific and stress-responsive manner. Cold stress, which adversely affects plant growth and development, regulates the transcription and splicing of plant splicing factors. This can affect the pre-mRNA processing of many genes. To identify cold regulated alternative splicing we applied Affymetrix Arabidopsis tiling arrays to survey the transcriptome under cold treatment conditions. A novel algorithm was used for detection of statistically relevant changes in intron expression within a transcript between control and cold growth conditions. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a number of randomly selected genes confirmed the changes in splicing patterns under cold stress predicted by tiling array. Our analysis revealed new types of cold responsive genes. While their expression level remains relatively unchanged under cold stress their splicing pattern shows detectable changes in the relative abundance of isoforms. The majority of cold regulated alternative splicing introduced a premature termination codon (PTC) into the transcripts creating potential targets for degradation by the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) process. A number of these genes were analyzed in NMD-defective mutants by RT-PCR and shown to evade NMD. This may result in new and truncated proteins with altered functions or dominant negative effects. The results indicate that cold affects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression. PMID:23776682

  15. Global Analysis of Transcriptome Responses and Gene Expression Profiles to Cold Stress of Jatropha curcas L.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhurong; Wang, Shasha; Gong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance) that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE) are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. Results In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs) were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C) for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. Conclusions This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of crucial genes for

  16. Transcriptome profiling of Vitis amurensis, an extremely cold-tolerant Chinese wild Vitis species, reveals candidate genes and events that potentially connected to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weirong; Li, Ruimin; Zhang, Ningbo; Ma, Fuli; Jiao, Yuntong; Wang, Zhenping

    2014-11-01

    Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an exceptional wild-growing Vitis (grape) species that can safely survive a wide range of cold conditions, but the underlying cold-adaptive mechanism associated with gene regulation is poorly investigated. We have analyzed the physiochemical and transcriptomic changes caused by cold stress in a cold-tolerant accession, 'Heilongjiang seedling', of Chinese wild V. amurensis. We statistically determined that a total of 6,850 cold-regulated transcripts were involved in cold regulation, including 3,676 up-regulated and 3,174 down-regulated transcripts. A global survey of messenger RNA revealed that skipped exon is the most prevalent form of alternative spicing event. Importantly, we found that the total splicing events increased with the prolonged cold stress. We also identified thirty-eight major TF families that were involved in cold regulation, some of which were previously unknown. Moreover, a large number of candidate pathways for the metabolism or biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were found to be regulated by cold, which is of potential importance in coordinating cold tolerance with growth and development. Several heat shock proteins and heat shock factors were also detected to be intensively cold-regulated. Furthermore, we validated the expression profiles of 16 candidates using qRT-PCR to further confirm the accuracy of the RNA-seq data. Our results provide a genome-wide view of the dynamic changes in the transcriptome of V. amurensis, in which it is evident that various structural and regulatory genes are crucial for cold tolerance/adaptation. Moreover, our robust dataset advances our knowledge of the genes involved in the complex regulatory networks of cold stress and leads to a better understanding of cold tolerance mechanisms in this extremely cold-tolerant Vitis species.

  17. The effects of cold exposure on leukocytes, hormones and cytokines during acute exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Dominique D; Gagnon, Sheila S; Rintamäki, Hannu; Törmäkangas, Timo; Puukka, Katri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22°C (NT), and in 0°C (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4±0.2°C whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5±1.4°C and 9.3±2.5°C respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse

  18. Acute stress cardiomyopathy and deaths associated with electronic weapons.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Cihan; Otahbachi, Mohammad; Miller, Elizabeth; Bagdure, Satish; Nugent, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    Deaths associated with the use of electronic weapons almost always occur in young men involved in either civil disturbances or criminal activity. These situations are associated with high levels of circulating catecholamines and frequently associated with drug intoxication. The mechanism for these deaths is unclear. Clinical studies indicate that these high voltage electrical pulses do not cause cardiac arrhythmia. Acute stress cardiomyopathy provides an alternative explanation for deaths associated with electronic weapons and may provide a better explanation for the usual time course associated with taser deaths. Patients with acute stress cardiomyopathy usually have had an emotional or physical stress, have high circulating levels of catecholamines, present with an acute coronary syndrome but have normal coronary vessels without significant thrombus formation. They have unusual left ventricular dysfunction with so-called apical ballooning. This presentation has been attributed to the direct effects of catecholamines on myocardial cell function. Alternative explanations include vasospasm in the coronary microcirculation and/or acute thrombosis followed by rapid thrombolysis. Similar events could occur during the high stress situations associated with the use of electronic weapons. These events also likely explain restraint-related deaths which occur in independent of any use of electronic weapons. Forensic pathologists have the opportunity to provide important details about the pathogenesis of these deaths through histological studies and careful evaluation of coronary vessels.

  19. The Conspiracy of Autophagy, Stress and Inflammation in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jason C.; Crawford, Howard C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with alcohol abuse, gallstones and bacterial infection. Its basic etiology is tissue destruction accompanied by an innate inflammatory response, which induces epithelial stress pathways. Recent studies have focused on some of the integral cellular pathways shared between multiple pancreatitis models that also suggest new approaches to detection and treatment. Recent findings Several models of pancreatitis have been associated with stress responses, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress together with the induction of a defective autophagic pathway. Recent evidence reinforces the critical role of these cellular processes in pancreatitis. A member of the the Toll-Like Receptor family, TLR4, which is known to contribute to disease pathology in many models of experimental pancreatitis, has been found to be a promising target for treatment of pancreatitis. Interestingly, a direct activator of TLR4,, the bacterial cell wall component in Gram negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS), contributes to the onset and severity of disease when combined with additional stressors, such as chronic alcohol feeding, however recent studies have shown that acute infection of mice with live bacteria is alone sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis. Summary In the last several months, the convergent roles of acinar cell stress, autophagy and proinflammatory signaling initiated by the toll-like receptors have been emphatically reinforced in the onset of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25003605

  20. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  1. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  2. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  3. A Polyamine-Deficient Diet Prevents Oxaliplatin-Induced Acute Cold and Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Jérémy; Bayet-Robert, Mathilde; Pereira, Bruno; Daulhac, Laurence; Eschalier, Alain; Pezet, Denis; Moulinoux, Jacques-Philippe; Balayssac, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxaliplatin is an anticancer drug used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer, but it can also cause painful peripheral neuropathies. The pathophysiology of these neuropathies has not been yet fully elucidated, but may involve spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, particularly the NR2B subunit. As polyamines are positive modulators of NMDA-NR2B receptors and mainly originate from dietary intake, the modulation of polyamines intake could represent an interesting way to prevent/modulate neuropathic pain symptoms by opposing glutamate neurotransmission. Methods The effect of a polyamine deficient diet was investigated in an animal model of oxaliplatin-induced acute pain hypersensitivity using behavioral tests (mechanical and cold hypersensitivity). The involvement of spinal glutamate neurotransmission was monitored by using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based metabolomic approach and by assessing the expression and phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. Results A 7-day polyamine deficient diet totally prevented oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia. Oxaliplatin-induced pain hypersensitivity was not associated with an increase in NR2B subunit expression or phosphorylation, but with an increase of glutamate level in the spinal dorsal horn which was completely prevented by a polyamine deficient diet. As a validation that the oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity could be due to an increased activity of the spinal glutamate system, an intrathecal administration of the specific NR2B antagonist, ifenprodil, totally reversed oxaliplatin-induced mechanical and cold hypersensitivity. Conclusion A polyamine deficient diet could represent a promising and valuable nutritional therapy to prevent oxaliplatin-induced acute pain hypersensitivity. PMID:24204988

  4. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  5. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  6. Identification of Upregulated Genes under Cold Stress in Cold-Tolerant Chickpea Using the cDNA-AFLP Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dinari, Ali; Niazi, Ali; Afsharifar, Ali Reza; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature injury is one of the most significant causes of crop damage worldwide. Cold acclimatization processes improve the freezing tolerance of plants. To identify genes of potential importance for acclimatzation to the cold and to elucidate the pathways that regulate this process, global transcriptome expression of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L), a species of legume, was analyzed using the cDNA-AFLP technique. In total, we generated 4800 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) using cDNA-AFLP in conjunction with 256 primer combinations. We only considered those cDNA fragments that seemed to be up-regulated during cold acclimatization. Of these, 102 TDFs with differential expression patterns were excised from gels and re-amplified by PCR. Fifty-four fragments were then cloned and sequenced. BLAST search of the GenBank non-redundant (nr) sequence database demonstrated that 77 percent of the TDFs belonged to known sequences with putative functions related to metabolism (31), transport (10), signal transduction pathways (15) and transcription factors (21). The last group of expressed transcripts showed homology to genes of unknown function (22). To further analyze and validate our cDNA-AFLP experiments, the expression of 9 TDFs during cold acclimatzatiion was confirmed using real time RT-PCR. The results of this research show that cDNA-AFLP is a powerful technique for investigating the expression pattern of chickpea genes under low-temperature stress. Moreover, our findings will help both to elucidate the molecular basis of low-temperature effects on the chickpea genome and to identify those genes that could increase the cold tolerance of the chickpea plant. PMID:23341906

  7. Global Transcriptome Profiles of 'Meyer' Zoysiagrass in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shanjun; Du, Zhenlin; Gao, Fei; Ke, Xiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Jianxiu; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    A long green period is essential for a turfgrass species with high ornamental value and a wide area of use. Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp. Willd.) are perennial turfgrass species popular in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, possessing many properties necessary to be economically useful turfgrass. They do not have a long green period because of cold sensitivity. A main focus in zoysiagrass research is to develop cold tolerant cultivars. Understanding the cold response in zoysiagrass is a fundamental area of research. In the present study, ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a widely cultivated variety in the genus, is used. We employed RNA-Seq to investigate genome-wide gene expression profiles in leaves under cold stress (4°C). Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 206 million high-quality paired-end reads from three libraries (0 h, 2 h, and 72 h cold treatment at 4°C). After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 46,412 unigenes were generated with an average length of 998 bp and an N50 of 1,522 bp. A total of 25,644 (55.2%) unigenes were annotated by alignment with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and KOG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. A total of 756 DEGs were identified between 0h and 2h-cold treatment, with 522 up-regulated and 234 down-regulated; and 5327 DEGs were identified between 0h and 72h-cold treatment, with 2453 up-regulated and 2874 down-regulated. The expression profile of 15 DEGs selected randomly was confirmed with qRT-PCR. The results suggest that cold stress can induce desiccation and oxidative stress, inhibit photosynthesis and substance transport. In response to the stress, genes involved in proline synthesis, in starch hydrolysis, in methionine and ascorbic acid metabolism, in SOD activity, and in DREBs response pathway were up-regulated. GA metabolism, ABA and JA stimulus response were affected under cold exposure. This is

  8. Cold stress improves the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 to survive freezing.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Bae, Dong-Won; Lim, Kwangsei; Griffiths, Mansel W; Oh, Sejong

    2014-11-17

    The stress resistance of bacteria is affected by the physiological status of the bacterial cell and environmental factors such as pH, salts and temperature. In this study, we report on the stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. The cold stress response of the cold-shock protein genes (cspC, cspL and cspP) and ATPase activities were then evaluated. The cold stress was adjusted to 5 °C when the bacteria were growing at the mid-exponential phase. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) and a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer. Only 56% of the L. plantarum L67 cells without prior exposure to cold stress survived after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. However, 78% of the L. plantarum L67 cells that were treated with cold stress at 5 °C for 6 h survived after freeze-thaw conditions. After applying cold stress to the culture for 6h, the cells were then stored for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C separately. The cold-stressed culture of L. plantarum L67 showed an 8% higher viability than the control culture. After applying cold stress for 6h, the transcript levels of two genes (cspP and cspL) were up-regulated 1.4 (cspP) and 1.2 (cspL) times compared to the control. However, cspC was not up-regulated. A proteomic analysis showed that the proteins increased after a reduction of the incubation temperature to 5 °C. The importance of the expression of 13 other relevant proteins was also determined through the study. The exposure of L. plantarum cells to low temperatures aids their ability to survive through subsequent freeze-thaw processes and lyophilization.

  9. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  10. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PMID:19123763

  11. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    PubMed

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men.

  12. Cold tolerance in thiourea primed capsicum seedlings is associated with transcript regulation of stress responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Manoj, Kamble; Kumari, Maya; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-12-01

    Benefits of seed priming in seedling establishment and tolerance to subsequent stress exposure are well reported. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the priming mediated benefits are not much discovered. Results of our earlier experiments established that thiourea (TU) seed priming imparts cold tolerance to capsicum seedlings. Therefore, to understand molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated cold stress tolerance, quantitative transcript expression of stress responsive genes involved in transcript regulation (CaCBF1A, CaCBF1B, Zinc Finger protein, CaWRKY30), osmotic adjustment (PROX1, P5CS, Osmotin), antioxidant defence (CAT2, APX, GST, GR1, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, Fe SOD), signaling (Annexin), movement of solutes and water (CaPIP1), and metabolite biosynthesis through phenylpropanoid pathway (CAH) was studied in response to cold (4 °C; 4 and 24 h) stress in seedlings grown from the TU primed, hydroprimed and unsoaked seeds. The transcript expression of CaWRKY30, PROX1, Osmotin, Cu/Zn SOD and CAH genes was either higher or induced earlier on cold exposure in thiourea priming than that of hydroprimed and unsoaked over the respective unstressed controls. The results thus suggest that the TU priming modulate expression of these genes thereby imparting cold tolerance in capsicum seedlings.

  13. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Sänger, Jessica; Bechtold, Laura; Schoofs, Daniela; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wascher, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information toward the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol. In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter. By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection. PMID:25346669

  14. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-05-20

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention.

  15. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Rima A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B.; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30–40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention. PMID:26010485

  16. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects.

    PubMed

    Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-01-01

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention. PMID:26010485

  17. Effects of cold stress and Salmonella Heidelberg infection on bacterial load and immunity of chickens.

    PubMed

    Borsoi, Anderlise; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete Serrano; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the effects of cold stress (19 ± 1°C, 6 h /day, from the first to the seventh day of life) applied to specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. On experimental Day 1 (ED1), chicks were divided into four groups: C (not infected and kept under thermoneutral condition); CS (not infected and cold stressed); PC (Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) infected and kept under thermoneutral condition) and PCS (SH infected and cold stressed). High concentrations of corticosterone were found in the cold stressed birds on ED7 and ED21, with a greater increase in birds of the PCS group. Stress or non-stressed SH-infected birds had high levels of norepinephrine on ED21. On ED21, an increased percentage and number of SH were found in birds of the PCS group. On ED7, a decrease in macrophages presenting MHCII, CD8(+) and CD8(+) γδ cells was observed in the chickens of the CS group. Decrease was observed in CD3(+) cells in the birds of the PCS group and increase in macrophages presenting MHCII cells and of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in chickens of the CS group on ED21. There was a decrease in CD8(+) γδ cells in birds of the CS group on ED21 and in the CD3(+) and CD8(+)cell numbers in chickens of the PCS group on ED21. Our results suggest that cold stress applied to chickens in the first 7 days of life increases both the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system activities, leading to long-term immune cell dysfunction, thus allowing increased SH invasion and persistence within the birds' body.

  18. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. )

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  19. Fasting can protect young and middle-aged Drosophila melanogaster flies against a severe cold stress.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2013-10-01

    Flies were starved with water before being subjected to various severe stresses (heat, cold, fungal infection, hydrogen peroxide) immediately after starvation or after a delay. Starvation of young and middle-aged flies increased resistance to a long cold stress (0 °C for up to 48 h), mainly if there was a 2-6 h delay between starvation and the cold stress, but positive effects in old flies were hardly observed. No positive effect was observed on resistance to the other stresses and starvation rather decreased resistance to them. It thus seems that fasting increases frailty but also puts at play mechanisms increasing resistance to cold. Starvation also increased learning scores but this could be linked to decreased positive phototaxis tendencies, and not to a better learning ability. Starvation appears to be a mild stress with limited hormetic effects, but studying the mechanisms of these effects is of interest because fasting is maybe of therapeutic value in human beings.

  20. Responses of Jatropha curcas seedlings to cold stress: photosynthesis-related proteins and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming-Juan; Yang, Ping-Fang; Shen, Shi-Hua

    2007-11-01

    Photosynthesis-related proteins and PSII functions of Jatropha curcas seedlings under cold stress were studied using proteomic and chlorophyll fluorescence approaches. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence measurement indicated that electron transport flux per reaction center (ET(o)/RC) and performance index (PI(ABS)) were relatively sensitive to low temperature, especially at early stage of cold stress. The increase in O-J phase and decrease in J-I phase of chlorophyll fluorescence transient indicated a protection mechanism of J. curcas to photoinhibition at early stage of cold stress. Eight photosynthesis-related proteins significantly changed during cold stress were identified using liquid chromatography MS/MS. Results of correlation analyses between photosynthesis-related proteins and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters indicated that (1) ATP synthase and Rieske FeS protein were significantly correlated with electron transport of reaction center in PSII; (2) precursor for 33-kDa protein was positively correlated with fluorescence quenching of the O-J and J-I phases and PI(ABS) during cold stress, which implies that it might be related to multiple process in PSII; (3) contrary correlations were found between F(J) - F(o) and two enzymes in the Calvin cycle, and the relations between these proteins and PSII function were unclear. The combined study using proteomic approaches and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements indicated that the early-stage (0-12 h) acclimation of PSII and the late-stage (after 24 h) H(2)O(2) scavenging might be involved in the cold response mechanisms of J. curcas seedlings.

  1. Gene Expression Analysis of Cold and Freeze Stress in Baker's Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Vargas, Sonia; Estruch, Francisco; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    We used mRNA differential display to assess yeast gene expression under cold or freeze shock stress conditions. We found both up- and down-regulation of genes, although repression was more common. We identified and sequenced several cold-induced genes exhibiting the largest differences. We confirmed, by Northern blotting, the specificity of the response for TPI1, which encodes triose-phosphate isomerase; ERG10, the gene for acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase; and IMH1, which encodes a protein implicated in protein transport. These genes also were induced under other stress conditions, suggesting that this cold response is mediated by a general stress mechanism. We determined the physiological significance of the cold-induced expression change of these genes in two baker's yeast strains with different sensitivities to freeze stress. The mRNA level of TPI1 and ERG10 genes was higher in freeze-stressed than in control samples of the tolerant strain. In contrast, both genes were repressed in frozen cells of the sensitive strain. Next, we examined the effects of ERG10 overexpression on cold and freeze-thaw tolerance. Growth of wild-type cells at 10°C was not affected by high ERG10 expression. However, YEpERG10 transformant cells exhibited increased freezing tolerance. Consistent with this, cells of an erg10 mutant strain showed a clear phenotype of cold and freeze sensitivity. These results give support to the idea that a cause-and-effect relationship between differentially expressed genes and cryoresistance exists in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and open up the possibility of design strategies to improve the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast. PMID:12039763

  2. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  3. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well.

  4. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well. PMID:25504198

  5. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  6. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish.

  7. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, including igfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  8. The insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...

  9. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level. PMID:26867623

  10. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods: We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Results: Values for TAG and MDA (P < 0.001), as well as for H2O2 (P < 0.001), increased significantly following milk shake consumption, with values higher at 4 hours compared with 2 hours post consumption for TAG and H2O2 (P < 0.05). TEAC was unaffected by the milk shake consumption. Coffee had no impact on TAG, MDA, H2O2, or TEAC, with no condition or interaction effects noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress. PMID:23935371

  11. From the Lab Bench: Why the heat and cold stresses on tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column is written to provide information on why cattle that graze toxic endophyte infected tall fescue are vulnerable to both heat and cold stress. Peer reviewed research conducted by scientists at the USDA-ARS Forage-Animal Production Research Unit demonstrated that ergot alkaloids produced by t...

  12. Dehydrin expression as a potential diagnostic tool for cold stress in white clover.

    PubMed

    Vaseva, Irina Ivanova; Anders, Iwona; Yuperlieva-Mateeva, Bistra; Nenkova, Rosa; Kostadinova, Anelia; Feller, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Cold acclimation is important for crop survival in environments undergoing seasonal low temperatures. It involves the induction of defensive mechanisms including the accumulation of different cryoprotective molecules among which are dehydrins (DHN). Recently several sequences coding for dehydrins were identified in white clover (Trifolium repens). This work aimed to select the most responsive to cold stress DHN analogues in search for cold stress diagnostic markers. The assessment of dehydrin transcript accumulation via RT-PCR and immunodetection performed with three antibodies against the conserved K-, Y-, and S-segment allowed to outline different dehydrin types presented in the tested samples. Both analyses confirmed that YnKn dehydrins were underrepresented in the controls but exposure to low temperature specifically induced their accumulation. Strong immunosignals corresponding to 37-40 kDa with antibodies against Y- and K-segment were revealed in cold-stressed leaves. Another 'cold-specific' band at position 52-55 kDa was documented on membranes probed with antibodies against K-segment. Real time RT-qPCR confirmed that low temperatures induced the accumulation of SKn and YnSKn transcripts in leaves and reduced their expression in roots. Results suggest that a YnKn dehydrin transcript with GenBank ID: KC247805 and the immunosignal at 37-40 kDa, obtained with antibodies against Y- and K-segment are reliable markers for cold stress in white clover. The assessment of SKn (GenBank ID: EU846208) and YnSKn (GenBank ID: KC247804) transcript levels in leaves could serve as additional diagnostic tools.

  13. Comparison of heat and cold stress to assess thermoregulatory dysfunction in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Becker, P; Padnos, B

    2000-12-01

    How borderline impairment of thyroid function can affect thermoregulation is an important issue because of the antithyroidal properties of a many environmental toxicants. This study compared the efficacy of heat and cold stress to identify thermoregulatory deficits in rats subjected to borderline and overt hypothyroidism via subchronic exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU). After 3 wk of exposure to PTU in the drinking water (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 mg/l), rats were subjected to a heat stress challenge (34 degrees C for 2.5 h). After one more week of PTU treatment, the same rats were subjected to a cold stress challenge (7 degrees C for 2.5 h). Core temperature (T(c)) was monitored by radiotelemetry. Baseline T(c) during the light phase was reduced by treatment with 25 mg/l PTU. The rate of rise and overall increase in T(c) during heat stress was attenuated by PTU doses of 10 and 25 mg/l. Cold stress resulted in a 1.0 degrees C increase in T(c) regardless of PTU treatment. The rate of rise in T(c) during the cold stress challenge was similar in all PTU treatment groups. There was a dose-related decrease in serum thyroxine (T(4)) at PTU doses >/=5 mg/l. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) was reduced at PTU doses of 5 and 25 mg/l. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was marginally elevated by PTU treatment. Overall, heat stress was more effective than cold stress for detecting a thermoregulatory deficit in borderline (i.e., 10 mg/l PTU) and overtly hypothyroid rats (i.e., 25 mg/l PTU). A significant thermoregulatory deficit is manifested with a 78% decrease in serum T(4). A thermoregulatory deficit is more correlated with a reduction in serum T(4) compared with T(3). Serum levels of TSH are unrelated to thermoregulatory response to heat and cold stress. PMID:11080070

  14. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  15. [Effects of cold-shock on tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Li; Xia, Ya-Zhen; Liu, Jin; Shi, Xiao-Dan; Sun, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    High temperature stress (HTS) is one of the major limiting factors that affect the quality of intensively cultured seedlings in protected facilitates during hot season. Increasing the cross adaptive response of plant induced by temperature stress is an effective way to improve plant stress resistance. In order to explore the alleviating effect of cold-shock intensity on tomato seedlings under HTS, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treatments every day with 5 °C, 10 °C, and 15 °C for 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min, respectively, in an artificial climate chamber. The effect of single appropriate cold-shock on the gene expression of small heat shock proteins LeHSP 23.8 and CaHSP18 was investigated. The results showed that hypocotyl elongation and plant height of tomato seedlings were restrained by cold-shock treatment before HTS was met. The alleviating effect of tomato seedlings under HTS by cold-shock varied greatly with levels and durations of temperature. The membrane lipids in the leaf of tomato seedlings were subjected to peroxidation injury in the cold-shock treatment at 5 °C, in which the penetration of cell membrane was increased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme was inhibited. The alleviating effect to HTS by cold-shock was decreased with the increasing cold-shock duration at 10 °C, however, a reverse change was found at 15 °C. The results indicated that cross adaptive response of tomato seedling could be induced with a moderate cold-shock temperature for a proper duration before HTS was met. The optimum cold-shock treatment was at 10 °C for 10 min per day, under which, the dry mass, healthy index, activities of protective enzymes (including SOD, POD and CAT) in leaves of tomato seedlings were significantly increased, the contents of proline and soluble protein were enhanced, relative conductivity and malondialdehyde concentration were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of Le-HSP23.8 and CaHSP18 were increased compared

  16. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. Results In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p < 0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. Conclusions A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted

  17. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  19. Cold-stress responses in the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microbes growing at subzero temperatures encounter numerous growth constraints. However, fungi that inhabit cold environments can grow and decompose organic compounds under subzero temperatures. Thus, understanding the cold-adaptation strategies of fungi under extreme environments is critical for elucidating polar-region ecosystems. Here, I report that two strains of the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis exhibited distinct growth characteristics under subzero conditions: SK-4 grew efficiently, whereas TKG1-2 did not. I analysed the metabolite responses elicited by cold stress in these two M. blollopis strains by using capillary electrophoresis–time-of-flight mass spectrometry. M. blollopis SK-4, which grew well under subzero temperatures, accumulated high levels of TCA-cycle metabolites, lactic acid, aromatic amino acids and polyamines in response to cold shock. Polyamines are recognized to function in cell-growth and developmental processes, and aromatic amino acids are also known to improve cell growth at low temperatures. By contrast, in TKG1-2, which did not grow efficiently, cold stress strongly induced the metabolites of the TCA cycle, but other metabolites were not highly accumulated in the cell. Thus, these differences in metabolite responses could contribute to the distinct abilities of SK-4 and TKG1-2 cells to grow under subzero temperature conditions. PMID:27493768

  20. Cold-stress responses in the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masaharu

    2016-07-01

    Microbes growing at subzero temperatures encounter numerous growth constraints. However, fungi that inhabit cold environments can grow and decompose organic compounds under subzero temperatures. Thus, understanding the cold-adaptation strategies of fungi under extreme environments is critical for elucidating polar-region ecosystems. Here, I report that two strains of the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis exhibited distinct growth characteristics under subzero conditions: SK-4 grew efficiently, whereas TKG1-2 did not. I analysed the metabolite responses elicited by cold stress in these two M. blollopis strains by using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. M. blollopis SK-4, which grew well under subzero temperatures, accumulated high levels of TCA-cycle metabolites, lactic acid, aromatic amino acids and polyamines in response to cold shock. Polyamines are recognized to function in cell-growth and developmental processes, and aromatic amino acids are also known to improve cell growth at low temperatures. By contrast, in TKG1-2, which did not grow efficiently, cold stress strongly induced the metabolites of the TCA cycle, but other metabolites were not highly accumulated in the cell. Thus, these differences in metabolite responses could contribute to the distinct abilities of SK-4 and TKG1-2 cells to grow under subzero temperature conditions. PMID:27493768

  1. Genetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of cold-stressed Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in cultured intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jigna; Desai, Prerak T; Weimer, Bart C

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella encounters various stresses in the environment and in the host during infection. The effects of cold (5°C, 48 h), peroxide (5 mM H2O2, 5 h) and acid stress (pH 4.0, 90 min) were tested on pathogenicity of Salmonella. Prior exposure of Salmonella to cold stress significantly (P < 0.05) increased adhesion and invasion of cultured intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. This increased Salmonella-host cell association was also correlated with significant induction of several virulence-associated genes, implying an increased potential of cold-stressed Salmonella to cause an infection. In Caco-2 cells infected with cold-stressed Salmonella, genes involved in the electron transfer chain were significantly induced, but no simultaneous significant increase in expression of antioxidant genes that neutralize the effect of superoxide radicals or reactive oxygen species was observed. Increased production of caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 was confirmed during host cell infection with cold-stressed Salmonella. Further, a prophage gene, STM2699, induced in cold-stressed Salmonella and a spectrin gene, SPTAN1, induced in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells were found to have a significant contribution in increased adhesion and invasion of cold-stressed Salmonella in epithelial cells.

  2. Fasting and other mild stresses with hormetic effects in Drosophila melanogaster can additively increase resistance to cold.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2015-08-01

    Mild stresses can have various positive effects in animal models and human beings. Previous studies have shown that fasting, i.e. a short starvation period with water ad lib, increases resistance to a severe cold stress in flies (percentage of survivors 3 days after being kept at 0 °C). Only a few studies have combined two mild stresses with hormetic effects in an attempt to obtain additive effects. Fasting was combined in the same flies with either a hypergravity, cold or heat stress and resistance to cold was observed. When each mild stress had positive effects on this trait (fasting, cold, and hypergravity in males only), their combination had additive effects. However, when one of the mild stresses had no positive effect or even a negative effect (heat), combining it with fasting did not increase the positive effect of fasting or even decreased it.

  3. Sustained low abscisic acid levels increase seedling vigor under cold stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mega, Ryosuke; Meguro-Maoka, Ayano; Endo, Akira; Shimosaka, Etsuo; Murayama, Seiji; Nambara, Eiji; Seo, Mitsunori; Kanno, Yuri; Abrams, Suzanne R; Sato, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced abscisic acid (ABA) is mainly catabolized by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8ox), which also strictly regulates endogenous ABA levels. Although three members of the ABA8ox gene family are conserved in rice, it is not clear which stressors induce expression of these genes. Here, we found that OsABA8ox1 was induced by cold stress within 24 h and that OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3 were not. In contrast, OsABA8ox2 and OsABA8ox3 were ABA-inducible, but OsABA8ox1 was not. OsABA8ox1, OsABA8ox2, and OsABA8ox3 restored germination of a cyp707a1/a2/a3 triple mutant of Arabidopsis to rates comparable to those of the wild type, indicating that OsABA8ox1, OsABA8ox2, and OsABA8ox3 function as ABA-catabolic genes in vivo. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing OsABA8ox1 showed decreased levels of ABA and increased seedling vigor at 15 °C. These results indicate that sustained low levels of ABA lead to increased seedling vigor during cold stress. On the other hand, excessively low endogenous ABA levels caused reduced drought and cold tolerance, although some of the transgenic rice lines expressing OsABA8ox1 at moderate levels did not show these harmful effects. Adequate regulation of endogenous ABA levels is thought to be crucial for maintaining seedling vigor under cold stress and for cold and drought tolerance in rice.

  4. Effects of L-citrulline diet on stress-induced cold hypersensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Narita, Kazuki; Chiba, Kotaro; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Morita, Masahiko; Morishita, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background: L-citrulline is an amino acid discovered in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae) and is a known component of the nitric oxide (NO) cycle that plays an important role in adjusting blood circulation and supplying NO and a key component of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of L-citrulline on a newly established stress-induced cold hypersensitivity mouse model. Materials and Methods: When normal mice were forced to swim in water at 25°C for 15 min, their core body temperature dropped to 28.9°C, and then quickly recovered to normal temperature after the mice were transferred to a dry cage at room temperature (25°C). A 1-h immobilization before swimming caused the core body temperature to drop to ca. 24.1°C (4.8°C lower than normal mice), and the speed of core body temperature recovery dropped to 57% of the normal control. We considered this delay in recovery from hypothermia to be a sign of stress-induced cold hypersensitivity. Similar cold hypersensitivity was induced by administration of 50 mM L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, a NO synthesis inhibitor. Results: In this study, we showed that recovery speed from the stress-induced hypothermia remarkably improved in mice fed a 1% L-citrulline-containing diet for 20 days. Furthermore, the nonfasting blood level of L-arginine and L-citrulline increased significantly in the L-citrulline diet group, and higher serum nitrogen oxide levels were observed during recovery from the cold. Conclusions: These results suggested that oral L-citrulline supplementation strengthens vascular endothelium function and attenuates stress-induced cold hypersensitivity by improving blood circulation. PMID:25276066

  5. Residual Stress Analysis of Cold-Sprayed Copper Coatings by Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenya; Yang, Kang; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhou, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis on the residual stress evolution of cold-sprayed copper coatings on Cu and Al substrates was performed. To investigate the influences of particle velocity, temperature and material combination on the final residual stresses, an integrated frame of calculation was proposed based on the simulation results obtained from the developed thermo-mechanically coupled Eulerian model. In a single Cu splat, generally speaking, the maximum residual stress and plastic deformation are concentrated at the outside contact zone rather than at the center point of initial impact. The action of friction shear between the particle and substrate during impacting should be considered as one of the essential factors on the final residual stress. And the states of residual stresses can vary significantly depending on the material combination, particle velocity, and temperature. In a single pass Cu coating, the residual stress fluctuates across the coating and there exists both compressive stress and tensile stress within the coating. At a certain range of impacting velocities, the resultant residual stresses increase with the increase of particle velocity. The present simulated results are related to the reported experiments by others, showing that the residual stress states and stress change trend are different from some of the reported results.

  6. The impact of unintentional pediatric trauma: a review of pain, acute stress, and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Kant, Alexis J; Kim, Seok Hyeon

    2008-04-01

    This article reviews current research on acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from pediatric simple (i.e., single, unpredictable, and unintentional) physical injury and how pain may act as both a trigger and a coexisting symptom. Although several studies have explored predictors of ASD and PTSD, as well as the relationship between these conditions in adults, there is less research on ASD and PTSD in children and adolescents. This review highlights the importance of early detection of pain and acute stress symptoms resulting from pediatric unintentional physical injury in the hopes of preventing long-term negative outcomes, such as the potential development of PTSD and associated academic, social, and psychological problems.

  7. Intermittent cold water swim stress increases immobility and interferes with escape performance in rat.

    PubMed

    Christianson, John P; Drugan, Robert C

    2005-11-30

    The behavioral consequences of intermittent, 5 s cold-water swims (15 degrees C) or confinement were assessed 24 h after stress in a 5 min forced swim test or an instrumental swim escape test (SET). The SET was conducted with temporal and instrumental parameters similar to the shock-motivated shuttle escape test. The tests detected significantly increased immobility in the forced swim test and increased latency to escape in the SET. These results extend previous findings with intermittent swim stress and provide evidence that intermittent swim stress produces behavioral deficits similar to other stress models. This new model may be a useful tool for exploring the physiological mechanisms underlying the stress response.

  8. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  9. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  10. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  11. Impact of environmental stress desiccation, acidity, alkalinity, heat or cold on antibiotic susceptibility of Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Elabedeen, Noor A Zain; Jaradat, Ziad W; Shaker, Reyad R; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Tarazi, Yaser H; Holley, Richard A

    2011-03-30

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that has been implicated in severe forms of meningitis, septicemia or necrotizing colitis in pre-term neonates. Although illness outbreaks (primarily associated with powdered infant formula, PIF) caused by this pathogen are rare, the case-fatality rate may reach 50%. Successful treatment of C. sakazakii infection is reliant upon clinical use of antibiotics (AB) such as ampicillin. Recent reports showed increased resistance of C. sakazakii to broad-spectrum antibiotics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extreme pH (3.5 for 30 min or 11.25 for 5 min), cold (4°C for 24h), heat (55°C for 5 min), and desiccation (cells were dried at 40°C for 2h and held at 21°C for 4 d) stresses on susceptibility of five isolated strains of C. sakazakii to streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, tilmicosin, florfenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. All unstressed strains of C. sakazakii were sensitive to streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, but were moderately resistant or resistant to the rest. Exposing cells to alkaline or acidic stress did not change their sensitivity toward streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin or ciprofloxacin, but their resistance toward the other AB was increased. Cells stressed by desiccation showed increased sensitivity toward streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ampicillin and doxycycline, but showed resistance toward the others. Cold-stressed cells were more sensitive to streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin compared with heat-stressed cells, but both heat and cold-stressed cells showed increased resistance toward all the other AB. Results obtained will help in understanding the effect of environmental stresses during processing on C. sakazakii susceptibility to AB. PMID:21402424

  12. [Effect of training on treadmill performance, aerobic capacity and body reactions to acute cold exposure].

    PubMed

    Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V; Kuznetsova, O V; Son'kin, V D

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold is able to stimulate an increase in the amount of body fat brown or beige, which can manifest itself in increasing lactate utilization during exercise and increase the reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used are: ramp test, regional acute cold exposure, measurement of gas exchange, lactate and glucose in the blood, heart rate, and heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging, statistical methods of results analysis. Workout 10 physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of the persona VO2max for 30 minutes 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in test work duration but VO2max on average changed little. The increase in power of anaerobic threshold was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate in progress of ramp test. Lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, significantly increased work efficiency at a test load. Not revealed noticeable changes in the condition and response to a standard functional tests of autonomic systems, as judged by heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1 minute cooling of the feet in ice water) is not changed after a cycle of training--either in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.), or the dynamics of the skin temperature in areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm the previously expressed (2010) hypothesis about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if under

  13. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  14. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  15. Overexpression of cold-inducible wheat galactinol synthase confers tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Shimosaka, Etsuo; Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2015-12-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is considered to be a key regulator of the biosynthesis of Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Accumulation of RFOs has been reported to play a role in protection against abiotic stresses. We identified two cDNAs encoding galactinol synthase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which we designated as TaGolS1 and TaGolS2. Expression of the two TaGolS genes was induced by cold stress but not by drought, heat stress or ABA treatment in wheat. We generated transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) constitutively overexpressing TaGolS1 or TaGolS2. These transgenic plants accumulated significantly higher levels of galactinol and raffinose than did wild-type plants and exhibited enhanced cold-stress tolerance. The results demonstrate the involvement of galactinol and raffinose in the development of chilling stress in rice and indicate that the genetic modification of the biosynthesis of RFOs by transformation with GolS genes could be an effective method for enhancing chilling-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26719738

  16. Overexpression of cold-inducible wheat galactinol synthase confers tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic rice

    PubMed Central

    Shimosaka, Etsuo; Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2015-01-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is considered to be a key regulator of the biosynthesis of Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Accumulation of RFOs has been reported to play a role in protection against abiotic stresses. We identified two cDNAs encoding galactinol synthase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which we designated as TaGolS1 and TaGolS2. Expression of the two TaGolS genes was induced by cold stress but not by drought, heat stress or ABA treatment in wheat. We generated transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) constitutively overexpressing TaGolS1 or TaGolS2. These transgenic plants accumulated significantly higher levels of galactinol and raffinose than did wild-type plants and exhibited enhanced cold-stress tolerance. The results demonstrate the involvement of galactinol and raffinose in the development of chilling stress in rice and indicate that the genetic modification of the biosynthesis of RFOs by transformation with GolS genes could be an effective method for enhancing chilling-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26719738

  17. Effects of Mycoplasma anatis and cold stress on hatching success and growth of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.

    1995-01-01

    We inoculated game-farm mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs and 1-day-old birds with Mycoplasma anatis to determine its effect on hatching success and growth rates of ducklings. Inoculations of eggs reduced hatching success, hatchling size, and duckling growth rates, compared to controls. Intratracheal inoculations of 1-day-old birds did not affect growth rates. Hatchlings and 1-day-old ducklings grew much slower for the first 7 to 10 days when raised at 17 to 19 C, compared to controls raised at 30 to 35 C. The effect of cold stress on growth was greater than the effect of M. anatis infection; we found no synergistic effects between cold stress and M. anatis infection.

  18. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test.

    PubMed

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y; Soward, Alan

    2016-05-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health.

  19. Gene expression profiling of potato responses to cold, heat, and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Rensink, Willem Albert; Iobst, Stacey; Hart, Amy; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Liu, Jia; Buell, C Robin

    2005-10-01

    In order to identify genes involved in abiotic stress responses in potato, seedlings were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to cold (4 degrees C), heat (35 degrees C), or salt (100 mM NaCl) stress for up to 27 h. Using an approximately 12,000 clone potato cDNA microarray, expression profiles were captured at three time points following initiation of the stress (3, 9, and 27 h) from two different tissues, roots and leaves. A total of 3,314 clones could be identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in response to at least one stress condition. The genes represented by these clones encode transcription factors, signal transduction factors, and heat-shock proteins which have been associated with abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis and rice, suggesting similar response pathways function in potato. These stress-regulated clones could be separated into either stress-specific or shared-response clones, suggesting the existence of general response pathways as well as more stress-specific pathways. In addition, we identified expression profiles which are indicative for the type of stress applied to the plants. PMID:15856349

  20. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  1. Cloning and expression analysis of HSP70 gene from mangrove plant Kandelia obovata under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jiao; Wang, You-Shao; Zhou, Qiao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), the primary member of the HSPs that play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, a hsp70 gene of Kandelia obovata (KoHsp70) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length of KoHsp70 was 2255 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 118 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 178 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1959 bp. The ORF (KoHSP70) was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 652 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight (MW) of 71.40 kDa and a pI of 5.16. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the KoHSP70 contained three conserved regions of HSP70 family, a bipartite nuclear localization signal sequences (NLS), an ATP/GTP-binding site motif and a cytoplasmic characteristic motif (EEVD). Homology analysis indicated that KoHSP70 shared 96.0 % identity with the known HSP70 (Gossypium hirsutum). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the KoHSP70 was hydrophilic and had no signal peptide or transmembrane region. The mRNA expression of KoHsp70 kept relatively stable at first and then increased significantly after 48 h cold stress, and reached the highest level at 168 h after cold treatment. The results indicated that the KoHsp70 was a stress-inducible gene that might play a role in cold stress-protective response and in coping with environmental and biological stresses for K. obovata. This study provided a basis to further study the mechanism of anti-adverseness and expression characteristics under stress conditions of K. obovata. PMID:25980488

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of HSP70 gene from mangrove plant Kandelia obovata under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jiao; Wang, You-Shao; Zhou, Qiao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), the primary member of the HSPs that play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, a hsp70 gene of Kandelia obovata (KoHsp70) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length of KoHsp70 was 2255 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 118 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 178 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1959 bp. The ORF (KoHSP70) was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 652 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight (MW) of 71.40 kDa and a pI of 5.16. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the KoHSP70 contained three conserved regions of HSP70 family, a bipartite nuclear localization signal sequences (NLS), an ATP/GTP-binding site motif and a cytoplasmic characteristic motif (EEVD). Homology analysis indicated that KoHSP70 shared 96.0 % identity with the known HSP70 (Gossypium hirsutum). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the KoHSP70 was hydrophilic and had no signal peptide or transmembrane region. The mRNA expression of KoHsp70 kept relatively stable at first and then increased significantly after 48 h cold stress, and reached the highest level at 168 h after cold treatment. The results indicated that the KoHsp70 was a stress-inducible gene that might play a role in cold stress-protective response and in coping with environmental and biological stresses for K. obovata. This study provided a basis to further study the mechanism of anti-adverseness and expression characteristics under stress conditions of K. obovata.

  3. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  4. Diffusion limitations and metabolic factors associated with inhibition and recovery of photosynthesis following cold stress in Elymus nutans Griseb.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Gates, Roger N; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the effects of cold stress (5°C) and re-warming (25°C) on gas exchange, photosystem II, key photosynthetic enzyme activities, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolite concentrations in two Elymus nutans genotypes differing in cold resistance (DX, cold-tolerant and ZD, cold-sensitive). Cold stress led to irreversible reductions in photosynthetic rate. This reduction was accompanied by declining stomatal and mesophyll conductance (gs and gm), transpiration rate (Tr) and photochemical efficiency in both genotypes, however there were smaller decreases in DX than in ZD. Cold-tolerant DX maintained higher photosynthetic enzyme activities and transcript levels, as well as higher reducing sugar concentrations and sucrose accumulation. The relationship between Pn and internal leaf CO2 concentration (Pn/Ci curve) during cold and re-warming was analyzed to estimate the relative influence of stomatal and non-stomatal components on photosynthesis. Stomatal limitation, non-stomatal limitation, and CO2 compensation point (CP) increased in both genotypes under cold stress, but to a lesser extent in DX. Maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) declined, but DX had significantly higher levels of Pmax and CE than ZD. Following cold-stress recovery, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), apparent electron transport rate (ETR), Rubisco activity, Rubisco activation state and CE in DX resumed to the control levels. In contrast, Pn, Pmax, gs, gm, and Tr recovered only partially for DX, suggesting that incomplete recovery of photosynthesis in DX may be mainly related to diffusion limitations. Higher Rubisco large subunit (RbcL) and Rubisco activase (RCA) transcript levels, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, and carbohydrate accumulation contributed to higher photosynthetic recovery in DX. These results indicate that the maintenance of higher Pn and Pmax under cold stress and recovery in cold-tolerant DX could be

  5. Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes and their association with cold and freezing stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-10-15

    Flavonoids including anthocyanins provide flower and leaf colors, as well as other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is part of an important step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins. This study characterized 12 DFR genes of Brassica rapa and investigated their association with anthocyanin coloration, as well as cold and freezing stress in several genotypes of B. rapa. Comparison of sequences of these genes with DFR gene sequences from other species revealed a high degree of homology. Constitutive expression of the genes in several pigmented and non-pigmented lines of B. rapa demonstrated correlation with anthocyanin accumulation for BrDFR8 and 9. Conversely, BrDFR2, 4, 8 and 9 only showed very high responses to cold stress in pigmented B. rapa samples. BrDFR1, 3, 5, 6 and 10 responded to cold and freezing stress treatments, regardless of pigmentation. BrDFRs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold and freezing stress. Thus, the above results suggest that these genes are associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold and/or freezing stress resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well. These findings may also facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stresses.

  6. Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes and their association with cold and freezing stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-10-15

    Flavonoids including anthocyanins provide flower and leaf colors, as well as other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is part of an important step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins. This study characterized 12 DFR genes of Brassica rapa and investigated their association with anthocyanin coloration, as well as cold and freezing stress in several genotypes of B. rapa. Comparison of sequences of these genes with DFR gene sequences from other species revealed a high degree of homology. Constitutive expression of the genes in several pigmented and non-pigmented lines of B. rapa demonstrated correlation with anthocyanin accumulation for BrDFR8 and 9. Conversely, BrDFR2, 4, 8 and 9 only showed very high responses to cold stress in pigmented B. rapa samples. BrDFR1, 3, 5, 6 and 10 responded to cold and freezing stress treatments, regardless of pigmentation. BrDFRs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold and freezing stress. Thus, the above results suggest that these genes are associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold and/or freezing stress resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well. These findings may also facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stresses. PMID:25108127

  7. Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, M. B.; Newborn, M. A.; Balog, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a thermal analysis simulated the quench using appropriate thermal boundary conditions and temperature dependent material properties. Second, a structural analysis used the thermal history and a temperature and strain-rate dependent constitutive model to predict the stresses after quenching. Third, the structural analysis was continued to simulate the multiple cold compressions of the stress relief process. Experimentally, the residual stresses in the forgings were mapped using the contour method, which involved cutting the forgings using wire EDM and then measuring the contour of the cut surface using a CMM. Multiple cuts were used to map different stress components. The results show a spatially periodic variation of stresses that results from the periodic nature of the cold work stress relief process. The results compare favorably with the finite element prediction of the stresses.

  8. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT.

  9. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT. PMID:26154819

  10. Cold pressor stress induces opposite effects on cardioceptive accuracy dependent on assessment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schulz, André; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Sütterlin, Stefan; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus

    2013-04-01

    Interoception depends on visceral afferent neurotraffic and central control processes. Physiological arousal and organ activation provide the biochemical and mechanical basis for visceral afferent neurotraffic. Perception of visceral symptoms occurs when attention is directed toward body sensations. Clinical studies suggest that stress contributes to the generation of visceral symptoms. However, during stress exposure attention is normally shifted away from bodily signals. Therefore, the net effects of stress on interoception remain unclear. We, therefore, investigated the impact of the cold pressor test or a control intervention (each n=21) on three established laboratory paradigms to assess cardioceptive accuracy (CA): for the Schandry-paradigm, participants were asked to count heartbeats, while during the Whitehead-tasks subjects were asked to rate whether a cardiac sensation appeared simultaneously with an auditory or visual stimulus. CA was increased by stress when attention was focused on visceral sensations (Schandry), while it decreased when attention was additionally directed toward external stimuli (visual Whitehead). Explanations for these results are offered in terms of internal versus external deployment of attention, as well as specific effects of the cold pressor on the cardiovascular system.

  11. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  12. The effect of cold ischemia time on delayed graft function and acute rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sert, Ismail; Colak, Hulya; Tugmen, Cem; Dogan, Sait Murat; Karaca, Cezmi

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of cold ischemia time (CIT) on delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection (AR) among deceased donor kidney transplant recipients. The medical records of 111 patients who underwent kidney transplantation from deceased donors between November 1994 and July 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. DGF was observed in 54% of the patients and the prevalence of AR in the first year after transplantation was 9.9%. The incidence of DGF was higher among patients with longer CIT. There was no correlation between CIT and AR episodes. Higher body weight of recipients and donors, history of prior blood transfusion and advanced donor age were related with DGF. Patients with DGF had higher serum creatinine levels at the first, third and fifth years. There was a negative correlation between recipient body weight and creatinine clearance at the first year. CIT has an important role in the development of DGF as a modifiable risk factor. Moreover, donors with advanced age and higher body weight as well as recipients with higher body weight and history of blood transfusions are at risk for the development of DGF. Prevention of DGF may help to improve graft function at the first, third and fifth years and shorten the hospital stay.

  13. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  14. Cold stress promoting a psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas fragi P121 producing trehaloase.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan-Zhen; Huang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Yang; He, Wei; Fang, Wen-Wan

    2016-08-01

    A newly isolated Pseudomonas fragi P121 strain in a soil sample taken from the Arctic Circle is able to produce trehalose. The P121 strain was able to grow at temperatures ranging from 4 to 25 °C, had an optimum pH of 6.5, and an optimum salt concentration of 2 %. The P121 strain had a survival rate of 29.1 % after being repeatedly frozen and thawed five times, and a survival rate of 78.9 % when placed in physiological saline for 15 days at 20 °C after cold shock, which is far higher than the type strain Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973. The P121 strain could produce 2.89 g/L trehalose, which was 18.6 % of dry cell weight within 52 h in a 25 L fermention tank using the malt extract prepared from barley as medium at 15 °C, while only 11.8 % of dry cell weight at 20 °C. These results suggested that cold stress promoted the strain producing trehalose. It is the first reported cold-tolerant bacterium that produces trehalose, which may protect cells against the cold environment. PMID:27339315

  15. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  16. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  17. Effect of acute cold exposure and insulin hypoglycemia on plasma thyrotropin levels by IRMA in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Martino, E; Bukovská, M; Langer, P

    1988-12-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) levels in plasma were estimated with the aid of immunoradiometric assay in two groups of healthy male subjects aged 21-22 years in two experiments: 1. acute (30 min) exposure to 4 degrees C in a cold room; 2. insulin (0.01 U per kg i.v.) hypoglycemia at room temperature and at 55 degrees C. Immediately after cold exposure a decrease of TSH level was found (P less than 0.01), while no changes were observed during 30 min exposure. After insulin injection a significant decrease (P less than 0.05 to less than 0.001) of TSH level was found at 45 to 120 min irrespectively of the ambient temperature. In addition, increased levels of noradrenaline and decreased levels of growth hormone after cold exposure are presented. PMID:3243203

  18. Exogenous 5-Aminolevulenic Acid Promotes Seed Germination in Elymus nutans against Oxidative Damage Induced by Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Sun, Yongfang; Chu, Xitong; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    The protective effects of 5-aminolevulenic acid (ALA) on germination of Elymus nutans Griseb. seeds under cold stress were investigated. Seeds of E. nutans (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) were pre-soaked with various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg l−1) of ALA for 24 h before germination under cold stress (5°C). Seeds of ZD were more susceptible to cold stress than DX seeds. Both seeds treated with ALA at low concentrations (0.1–1 mg l−1) had higher final germination percentage (FGP) and dry weight at 5°C than non-ALA-treated seeds, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (5–25 mg l−1) brought about a dose dependent decrease. The highest FGP and dry weight of germinating seeds were obtained from seeds pre-soaked with 1 mg l−1 ALA. After 5 d of cold stress, pretreatment with ALA provided significant protection against cold stress in the germinating seeds, significantly enhancing seed respiration rate and ATP synthesis. ALA pre-treatment also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA), total glutathione, and total ascorbate concentrations, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), whereas decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•−) release in both germinating seeds under cold stress. In addition, application of ALA increased H+-ATPase activity and endogenous ALA concentration compared with cold stress alone. Results indicate that ALA considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator could effectively protect E. nutans seeds from cold-induced oxidative damage during germination without any adverse effect. PMID:25207651

  19. Exogenous 5-aminolevulenic acid promotes seed germination in Elymus nutans against oxidative damage induced by cold stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Sun, Yongfang; Chu, Xitong; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    The protective effects of 5-aminolevulenic acid (ALA) on germination of Elymus nutans Griseb. seeds under cold stress were investigated. Seeds of E. nutans (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) were pre-soaked with various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) of ALA for 24 h before germination under cold stress (5°C). Seeds of ZD were more susceptible to cold stress than DX seeds. Both seeds treated with ALA at low concentrations (0.1-1 mg l(-1)) had higher final germination percentage (FGP) and dry weight at 5°C than non-ALA-treated seeds, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (5-25 mg l(-1)) brought about a dose dependent decrease. The highest FGP and dry weight of germinating seeds were obtained from seeds pre-soaked with 1 mg l(-1) ALA. After 5 d of cold stress, pretreatment with ALA provided significant protection against cold stress in the germinating seeds, significantly enhancing seed respiration rate and ATP synthesis. ALA pre-treatment also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA), total glutathione, and total ascorbate concentrations, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), whereas decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•-) release in both germinating seeds under cold stress. In addition, application of ALA increased H+-ATPase activity and endogenous ALA concentration compared with cold stress alone. Results indicate that ALA considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator could effectively protect E. nutans seeds from cold-induced oxidative damage during germination without any adverse effect. PMID:25207651

  20. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Low Temperature-Treated Phlox subulata and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanting; Zhou, Aimin; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Huanwei; Liang, Ming; Han, Hui; Zuo, Yuhu

    2015-01-01

    Phlox subulata, a perennial herbaceous flower, can survive during the winter of northeast China, where the temperature can drop to −30 °C, suggesting that P. subulata is an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation in plants. However, little is known about the gene expression profile of P. subulata under cold stress. Here, we examined changes in cold stress-related genes in P. subulata. We sequenced three cold-treated (CT) and control (CK) samples of P. subulata. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment of the obtained reads, 99,174 unigenes were generated. Based on similarity searches with known proteins in public protein databases, 59,994 unigenes were functionally annotated. Among all differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 8302, 10,638 and 11,021 up-regulated genes and 9898, 17,876, and 12,358 down-regulated genes were identified after treatment at 4, 0, and −10 °C, respectively. Furthermore, 3417 up-regulated unigenes were expressed only in CT samples. Twenty major cold-related genes, including transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes, osmoregulation proteins, and Ca2+ and ABA signaling components, were identified, and their expression levels were estimated. Overall, this is the first transcriptome sequencing of this plant species under cold stress. Studies of DEGs involved in cold-related metabolic pathways may facilitate the discovery of cold-resistance genes. PMID:25938968

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Low Temperature-Treated Phlox subulata and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanting; Zhou, Aimin; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Huanwei; Liang, Ming; Han, Hui; Zuo, Yuhu

    2015-04-29

    Phlox subulata, a perennial herbaceous flower, can survive during the winter of northeast China, where the temperature can drop to -30 °C, suggesting that P. subulata is an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation in plants. However, little is known about the gene expression profile of P. subulata under cold stress. Here, we examined changes in cold stress-related genes in P. subulata. We sequenced three cold-treated (CT) and control (CK) samples of P. subulata. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment of the obtained reads, 99,174 unigenes were generated. Based on similarity searches with known proteins in public protein databases, 59,994 unigenes were functionally annotated. Among all differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 8302, 10,638 and 11,021 up-regulated genes and 9898, 17,876, and 12,358 down-regulated genes were identified after treatment at 4, 0, and -10 °C, respectively. Furthermore, 3417 up-regulated unigenes were expressed only in CT samples. Twenty major cold-related genes, including transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes, osmoregulation proteins, and Ca²⁺ and ABA signaling components, were identified, and their expression levels were estimated. Overall, this is the first transcriptome sequencing of this plant species under cold stress. Studies of DEGs involved in cold-related metabolic pathways may facilitate the discovery of cold-resistance genes.

  3. The impact of acute temperature stress on hemocytes of invasive and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus californianus): DNA damage, membrane integrity, apoptosis and signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cui-Luan; Somero, George N

    2012-12-15

    We investigated the effects of acute heat stress and cold stress on cell viability, lysosome membrane stability, double- and single-stranded DNA breakage, and signaling mechanisms involved in cellular homeostasis and apoptosis in hemocytes of native and invasive mussels, Mytilus californianus and Mytilus galloprovincialis, respectively. Both heat stress (28, 32°C) and cold stress (2, 6°C) led to significant double- and single-stranded breaks in DNA. The type and extent of DNA damage were temperature and time dependent, as was caspase-3 activation, an indicator of apoptosis, which may occur in response to DNA damage. Hemocyte viability and lysosomal membrane stability decreased significantly under heat stress. Western blot analyses of hemocyte extracts with antibodies for proteins associated with cell signaling and stress responses [including members of the phospho-specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family c-JUN NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK, and apoptosis executor caspase-3] revealed that heat and cold stress induced a time-dependent activation of JNK, p38-MAPK and caspase-3 and that these signaling and stress responses differed between species. The thermal limits for activation of cell signaling processes linked to the repair of stress-induced damage may help determine cellular thermal tolerance limits. Our results show similarities in responses to cold and heat stress and suggest causal linkages between levels of DNA damage at both extremes of temperature and downstream regulatory responses, including induction of apoptosis. Compared with M. californianus, M. galloprovincialis might have a wider temperature tolerance due to a lower amount of single- and double-stranded DNA damage, faster signaling activation and transduction, and stronger repair ability against temperature stress.

  4. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  5. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000), in a…

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  9. Dysfunctional cognitive appraisal and psychophysiological reactivity in acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Elsesser, Karin; Freyth, Claudia; Lohrmann, Thomas; Sartory, Gudrun

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the extent of dysfunctional appraisal as measured with the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) and physiological responses to trauma-related material in patients with acute stress disorder (ASD; N=44) in comparison to participants without trauma exposure (N=27). Heart-rate (HR), skin conductance responses (SCR), and viewing time were recorded in response to - for trauma victims - idiosyncratically trauma-relevant and control pictures. ASD patients evidenced greater dysfunctional appraisal than control participants with regard to the PTCI scales Self and World and also an accelerative HR reaction and greater SCRs to trauma-relevant pictures. Among patients, PTCI was highly correlated with ASD severity while PTCI World was positively correlated with resting HR and depression. Amplitude of the HR reaction to trauma-related pictures was negatively correlated with viewing time. Results suggest that dysfunctional appraisal and autonomic reactivity are only loosely related in ASD.

  10. Effect of Acute Surgical Stress on Serum Ghrelin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kontoravdis, Nikolaos; Vassilikostas, George; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pappas, Apostolos; Seretis, Charalampos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Koronakis, Nikolaos; Chrysikos, John; Karanikas, George; Manouras, Ioannis; Legakis, Ioanis; Voros, Dionysios

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is an appetite hormone that influences the gastrointestinal function and regulates energy metabolism. Growing evidence also suggests that this hormone plays a central role in immune modulation. Each surgical operation is followed by a series of inflammatory and metabolic changes that constitute the stress response. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of stress during different types of abdominal surgery in ghrelin serum levels. Methods An overall of 25 patients were prospectively allocated in two groups based on the type of surgical operation. Group A (n = 10) patients were scheduled to undergo cholecystectomy, whereas Group B (n = 15) patients underwent colectomy. Serum ghrelin concentrations were evaluated in each patient preoperatively, after the induction of general anesthesia and tracheal intubation, one and five hours after the beginning of surgery and the morning of the first and second postoperative day. Results In both groups serum ghrelin concentrations reached their peak level at 24 hr (Group A: 8.4 ± 3.4 ng/mL; Group B: 7.4 ± 1.8 ng/mL) and these values were significantly higher than those in the preoperative period (Group A: 5.0 ±1.5 ng/mL; Group B: 4.8 ± 0.6 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Forty eight hours after surgery the levels of ghrelin returned to their preoperative status. Patients’ gender, age, ASA score and type of surgical procedure did not influence the serum ghrelin levels. Conclusions Serum ghrelin concentration appears to elevate in response to surgical stress. Future studies are needed to improve comprehension of the mechanisms underlying responses of this hormone to acute surgical stress and to evaluate their possible clinical implications.

  11. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 10(6); intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions.

  12. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  13. How acute is the acute stress response? Baseline corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin levels change 24h after an acute stressor in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Malisch, Jessica L; Satterlee, Daniel G; Cockrem, John F; Wada, Haruka; Breuner, Creagh W

    2010-01-15

    Changes in plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) capacity can alter free plasma concentration and tissue availability of glucocorticoids (GC) and hence alter the organismal response to stress. However, CBG change in response to stress has not been extensively studied. While it is clear that chronic stress can causes CBG decline and in some species acute stressors can reduce CBG during the 30-60 min of the stressor, more long-term changes in CBG following an acute stressor has received less attention. Here we investigated corticosterone (CORT: the primary GC in birds) and CBG levels 24h after an acute stressor in a unique study system: Japanese quail divergently selected for CORT reactivity to acute stress. Using this model, we examined the interaction of selected CORT reactivity with CBG response to determine if CBG shows a delayed decline in response to an acute stressor and if that decline varies by selected genetic background. We found lowered CBG capacity, elevated total CORT and free CORT 24h after acute stress in all three quail groups. These results demonstrate for the first time in an avian species that exposure to an acute stressor can affect CBG and CORT 24h later.

  14. Computer Models of Stress, Allostasis, and Acute and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The past century has seen a profound shift in diseases of humankind. Acute, unifactorial diseases are being replaced increasingly by multifactorial disorders that arise from complex interactions among genes, environment, concurrent morbidities and treatments, and time. According to the concept of allostasis, there is no single, ideal set of steady-state conditions in life. Allostasis reflects active, adaptive processes that maintain apparent steady states, via multiple, interacting effectors regulated by homeostatic comparators “homeostats.” Stress can be defined as a condition or state in which a sensed discrepancy between afferent information and a setpoint for response leads to activation of effectors, reducing the discrepancy. “Allostatic load” refers to the consequences of sustained or repeated activation of mediators of allostasis. From the analogy of a home temperature control system, the temperature can be maintained at any of a variety of levels (allostatic states) by multiple means (effectors), regulated by a comparator thermostat (homeostat). Stress might exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load. This presentation describes models of homeostatic systems that incorporate negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, environmental influences, intrinsic obsolescence, and destabilizing positive feedback loops. These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multi-system disorders and failures. PMID:19120114

  15. On the reliability of neutron diffraction for residual stress measurement in cold-drawn steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Mompean, F.; Hofmann, M.; Atienza, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    Residual strains were measured in the ferrite phase of pearlitic steel rods along the radial, axial and hoop directions. Two samples with different initial diameters were subjected to one drawing pass (using same drawing parameters) with 20% section reduction and measured in two different neutron diffraction instruments. The results show that the residual strain state is very similar in both cases, regardless of the diameter of the initial rod. This means that the final residual strain-stress state is unique and it is related to the cold-drawing process parameters. In addition, the results show the reliability of strain scanning with different neutron instruments and experimental conditions.

  16. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p < .001). Results suggest that DM tasks could compete with cognitive resources after acute stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders. PMID:27644414

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28.

  18. CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2 (CRF2) and CRF3 Regulate Lateral Root Development in Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin; Cho, Chuloh; Lee, Mi Rha; Van Binh, Nguyen; Kim, Jungmook

    2016-08-01

    Lateral roots (LRs) are a major determinant of the root system architecture in plants, and developmental plasticity of LR formation is critical for the survival of plants in changing environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, genetic pathways have been identified that regulate LR branching in response to numerous environmental cues, including some nutrients, salt, and gravity. However, it is not known how genetic components are involved in the LR adaptation response to cold. Here, we demonstrate that CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2 (CRF2) and CRF3, encoding APETALA2 transcription factors, play an important role in regulating Arabidopsis LR initiation under cold stress. Analysis of LR developmental kinetics demonstrated that both CRF2 and CRF3 regulate LR initiation. crf2 and crf3 single mutants exhibited decreased LR initiation under cold stress compared with the wild type, and the crf2 crf3 double mutants showed additively decreased LR densities compared with the single mutants. Conversely, CRF2 or CRF3 overexpression caused increased LR densities. CRF2 was induced by cold via a subset of the cytokinin two-component signaling (TCS) pathway, whereas CRF3 was upregulated by cold via TCS-independent pathways. Our results suggest that CRF2 and CRF3 respond to cold via TCS-dependent and TCS-independent pathways and control LR initiation and development, contributing to LR adaptation to cold stress. PMID:27432872

  19. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  20. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  1. Stress-induced microcracking and cooperative motion of cold dusty plasma liquids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; I, Lin

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the microresponse of the quasi-two-dimensional dusty plasma liquid around freezing to the shear force from a laser beam through the center of the liquid cluster. It is found that the cold liquid can be viewed as a patchwork of crystalline ordered domains (CODs) which are solidlike but can be cracked and rearranged by weak thermal agitation and external stress, through COD rotations and drifting. Under weak external stress comparable to thermal agitation, the laser zone is not the preferred region mastering cracking initiation. CODs in the laser zone can either break locally, or sustain and propagate the stress to remote regions for cracking, in the form of intermittent bursts. The COD rotation and drifting induced by the persistent torques and momentum from the stress causes the formation of the center shear band with a higher longitudinal speed. Increasing stress can enhance cracking initiation around the shear zone and then spread to other remote regions. It deteriorates the local structural order and causes strong shear banding dominated by longitudinal cooperative hopping. PMID:24827183

  2. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    PubMed

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest. PMID:26123388

  3. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    PubMed

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest.

  4. The acute effect of cold air exercise in determination of exercise-induced bronchospasm in apparently healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    Carey, Daniel G; Aase, Katelyn A; Pliego, German J

    2010-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the acute effects for both cold and warm air running on pulmonary function testing and the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Subjects (n = 12, 8 men, 4 women) were distance runners (25.91 +/- 4.91 milesxwk) with mean age 30.2 +/- 5.1 years, mean height 179.0 +/- 11.5 cm, and mean weight 77.1 +/- 15.7 kg. Subjects first performed a maximal oxygen test on a motor-driven treadmill to assess Vo2max and maximal heart rate (MHR). On 2 subsequent days and within a 1-week time period, subjects ran 8 minutes in random order either on an outside 478.2-m course or on the treadmill at 6% grade. Speed was adjusted under both conditions to elicit 85-95% of MHR achieved on the Vo2max test. All tests were conducted in the month of January to maximize the potential for a cold climate. Pulmonary function test was performed immediately prerun, immediately postrun, and at 5, 10, 18, and 30 minutes postrun. There was no significant difference in any of the pulmonary function tests over time for cold vs. warm running (p > 0.05). Also, the pattern of change over time for the pulmonary function variables was not significantly different by condition (p > 0.05). Although group comparisons were not significant over time and for any variable between the 2 conditions, 7 of our subjects (58.3%) at some point postexercise exhibited a change that would be considered a positive response and diagnostic of EIB. Cold running produced significantly more positive responses (75%) than warm running (25%) (p = 0.001). It is concluded that healthy individuals need not be concerned about the acute effects of cold air exercise on the lungs. Also, physicians need to be vigilant in prescribing medications and should use strict, objective criteria when doing so.

  5. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species.

  6. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  7. Reproducibility of exercise-induced modulation of cardiovascular responses to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Rashed, H M; Leventhal, G; Madu, E C; Reddy, R; Cardoso, S

    1997-04-01

    The modulation of cardiovascular responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) as produced by exercise was studied in 13 volunteers. The reproducibility of the measurements selected for the study, i.e. heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), blood flow (BF) and skin temperature (ST), was investigated through repeat experiments in the fall of 1994 and the winter of 1995. HR was monitored before, during and after a 10-min period of bicycling at 70% of reserve HR. BP, cutaneous BF and ST were measured before and after exercise. Two CPTs (hand into ice-cold water for 1 min) were performed: one preceding exercise and another at 3 min after exercise. The results obtained allow us to conclude that in non-hypertensive volunteers (1) the pronounced cardiovascular responses (ST, BF and BP) induced by CPT are reproducible (p > 0.2) when compared to basal level values and (2) cardiovascular responses to cold stress are significantly attenuated by exercise (p < 0.03). Our study, therefore, supports and validates the use of our coupled exercise-CPT method in ongoing epidemiological studies attempting to identify individuals at risk for the development of hypertension as well as those most likely to benefit from preventative exercise programs.

  8. Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress: A longitudinal study of Chinese children exposed to the Lushan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiling; Zhang, Yuqing; Wei, Chuguang; Liu, Zhengkui; Hannak, Walter

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children who experienced the Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China, and assessed the ability of ASD to predict PTSD. The Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) was used to assess acute stress reaction within weeks of the trauma. The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA-PTSD) for children was administered at intervals of 2, 6, and 12 months after the earthquake to 197 students who experienced the Lushan earthquake at the Longxing Middle School. The results demonstrated that 28.4% of the children suffered from ASD, but only a small percentage of the population went on to develop PTSD. Among all of the students, 35.0% of those who met the criteria for ASD were diagnosed with PTSD at the 12-month interval. The severity of ASD symptoms correlated with later PTSD symptoms.

  9. Hope against the cold: individual differences in trait hope and acute pain tolerance on the cold pressor task.

    PubMed

    Snyder, C R; Berg, Carla; Woodward, Julia T; Gum, Amber; Rand, Kevin L; Wrobleski, Kristin K; Brown, Jill; Hackman, Ashley

    2005-04-01

    Hope theory (see Snyder, 1994) is presented as a useful framework for understanding reactions to pain. In Study 1, persons scoring higher on the trait Hope Scale (Snyder, Harris et al., 1991) kept their hands in the freezing water (of a cold pressor task) for significantly longer. In Study 2, the higher-hope males, and not females, as measured by both trait and state hope (Snyder, Sympson et al., 1996), recognized the onset of the pain threshold significantly later. Moreover, in Study 2, results showed that individual differences measures of optimism, self-efficacy, depression, and positive and negative affects did not relate to the pain onset and tolerance variables. The implications of hope as related to the pain process and related research are discussed.

  10. The long bones of neonatal rats stressed by cold, heat, and noise exhibit increased fluctuating asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Gest, T R; Siegel, M I; Anistranski, J

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stress agents on the magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry in long bone measurements, data from litters of rats conceived and born in cold (10 degrees C), heat (33 degrees C), and noise (random protocol) were compared to data on control animals born at room temperature (22 degrees C). All animals were sacrificed at birth, and right and left femoral lengths were recorded. Correlation coefficients calculated for right and left femora were transformed to Hotelling's z* values which were then compared using the test of homogeneity of correlation coefficients. The magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry was found to be significantly (p less than .05) greater in the femora of animals in the three stressed groups. PMID:3803996

  11. Mechanosensitive ion channel MscL controls ionic fluxes during cold and heat stress in Synechocystis.

    PubMed

    Bachin, Dmitry; Nazarenko, Lyudmila V; Mironov, Kirill S; Pisareva, Tatiana; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Los, Dmitry A

    2015-06-01

    Calcium plays an essential role in a variety of stress responses of eukaryotic cells; however, its function in prokaryotes is obscure. Bacterial ion channels that transport Ca(2+) are barely known. We investigated temperature-induced changes in intracellular concentration of Ca(2+), Na(+) and K(+) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and its mutant that is defective in mechanosensitive ion channel MscL. Concentration of cations rapidly and transiently increased in wild-type cells in response to cold and heat treatments. These changes in ionic concentrations correlated with the changes in cytoplasmic volume that transiently decreased in response to temperature treatments. However, no increase in ionic concentrations was observed in the MscL-mutant cells. It implies that MscL functions as a non-specific ion channel, and it participates in regulation of cell volume under temperature-stress conditions.

  12. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  13. Important roles of drought- and cold-inducible genes for galactinol synthase in stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Taji, Teruaki; Ohsumi, Chieko; Iuchi, Satoshi; Seki, Motoaki; Kasuga, Mie; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2002-02-01

    Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulating during seed development are thought to play a role in the desiccation tolerance of seeds. However, the functions of RFO in desiccation tolerance have not been elucidated. Here we examine the functions of RFO in Arabidopsis thaliana plants under drought- and cold-stress conditions, based on the analyses of function and expression of genes involved in RFO biosynthesis. Sugar analysis showed that drought-, high salinity- and cold-treated Arabidopsis plants accumulate a large amount of raffinose and galactinol, but not stachyose. Raffinose and galactinol were not detected in unstressed plants. This suggests that raffinose and galactinol are involved in tolerance to drought, high salinity and cold stresses. Galactinol synthase (GolS) catalyses the first step in the biosynthesis of RFO from UDP-galactose. We identified three stress-responsive GolS genes (AtGolS1, 2 and 3) among seven Arabidopsis GolS genes. AtGolS1 and 2 were induced by drought and high-salinity stresses, but not by cold stress. By contrast, AtGolS3 was induced by cold stress but not by drought or salt stress. All the GST fusion proteins of GST-AtGolS1, 2 and 3 expressed in Escherichia coli had galactinol synthase activities. Overexpression of AtGolS2 in transgenic Arabidopsis caused an increase in endogenous galactinol and raffinose, and showed reduced transpiration from leaves to improve drought tolerance. These results show that stress-inducible galactinol synthase plays a key role in the accumulation of galactinol and raffinose under abiotic stress conditions, and that galactinol and raffinose may function as osmoprotectants in drought-stress tolerance of plants.

  14. Review of VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline on management of acute stress and interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Watson, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the recommendations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/Department of Defense (DOD) VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress that pertain to acute stress and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder, including screening and early interventions for acute stress states in various settings. Recommended interventions during the first 4 days after a potentially traumatic event include attending to safety and basic needs and providing access to physical, emotional, and social resources. Psychological first aid is recommended for management of acute stress, while psychological debriefing is discouraged. Further medical and psychiatric assessment and provision of brief, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy are warranted if clinically significant distress or functional impairment persists or worsens after 2 days or if the criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder are met. Follow-up monitoring and rescreening are endorsed for at least 6 months for everyone who experiences significant acute posttraumatic stress. Four interventions that illustrate early intervention principles contained in the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline are described.

  15. Entrainment of the mouse circadian clock by sub-acute physical and psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuriki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of acute stress on the peripheral circadian system are not well understood in vivo. Here, we show that sub-acute stress caused by restraint or social defeat potently altered clock gene expression in the peripheral tissues of mice. In these peripheral tissues, as well as the hippocampus and cortex, stressful stimuli induced time-of-day-dependent phase-advances or -delays in rhythmic clock gene expression patterns; however, such changes were not observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, i.e. the central circadian clock. Moreover, several days of stress exposure at the beginning of the light period abolished circadian oscillations and caused internal desynchronisation of peripheral clocks. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythmicity showed habituation and disappeared with long-term exposure to repeated stress. These findings suggest that sub-acute physical/psychological stress potently entrains peripheral clocks and causes transient dysregulation of circadian clocks in vivo.

  16. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals. PMID:23482380

  17. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  18. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  19. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making.

  20. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  1. Protective role of vitamins E and C against oxidative stress caused by intermittent cold exposure in aging rat's frontoparietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Asha Devi, S; Manjula, K R; Subramanyam, M V V

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the role of vitamins E and C in combating oxidative stress (OS) caused by intermittent cold exposure (ICE) in the frontoparietal cortex (FPC) of adult (3 months), late-adult (12 months), middle-aged (18 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats. Each age group was divided into sub-groups, control (CON), cold-exposed at 5°C (C5), control supplementees (CON+S) and cold-exposed supplementees (C5+S). The supplement was a daily dose of 400mg vitamin C and 50I.U.of vitamin E/kg body weight. Cold exposure lasted 2h/day for 4 weeks. All age groups except the old showed an increase in the final body mass in the cold-exposed. The feeding efficiency was higher in the cold-exposed irrespective of age. OS as reflected in age-related increased levels of hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyl, advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde showed further increase with ICE in the FPC. However, vitamins E and C supplementation attenuated the ICE-induced OS. ICE depleted the levels of tissue vitamins E and C while supplementation resulted in increased levels. Further age emerged as a significant factor in ICE-induced stress and also the response to vitamins E and C supplementation. Behavioral studies are underway to examine the findings on ICE-induced oxidative injury in the FPC, and the prospects for using vitamins E and C in cold exposures in the aged.

  2. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], p<.001). In the think anything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  3. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  4. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  5. Variations of physiological and innate immunological responses in goldfish (Carassius auratus) subjected to recurrent acute stress.

    PubMed

    Eslamloo, Khalil; Akhavan, Sobhan R; Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Henry, Morgane A

    2014-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of repeated acute stress on the physiological status and non-specific immune response of goldfish, Carassius auratus. The acute stress was a succession of a 3 min-chasing period followed by a 2 min-air exposure. The goldfish in triplicate tanks were subjected 3 times daily to this stress for one (S3) or three (S9) days. A separate group of unstressed fish was used as control for each sampling time. Blood samples were collected 12, 48 and 120 h after the last stress procedure. Variations of globulin levels, plasma anti-protease and bactericidal activities were not significant in the present study. The haematological parameters and plasma total protein and albumin strongly declined in S9 fish 12 h post-stress compared to control fish. However, plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels in both S3 and S9 transiently increased compared to the control fish. Similarly, plasma peroxidase activity transiently increased in both stressed groups 12 h after stress. An increase in plasma lysozyme and complement activities suggested a hormesis-like effect with one-day acute stress improving the immunological response of goldfish while an extension of the stress period to three days impaired physiology and immunity for up to 5 days. This study revealed that recurrent acute stress could immunosuppress goldfish as usually expected of chronic stress.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei'ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  7. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei'ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  8. Effect of cold stress on broilers selected for resistance or susceptibility to ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Kidd, B D; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B

    2003-09-01

    Genetic selection for an ascites-resistant line of broilers is seen as a permanent solution to the ascites problem. Ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible lines have been developed using sire family selection based on mortality data taken from siblings reared in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level). The relaxed line is representative of the original commercial pureline stock randomly mated with no artificial selection pressure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences between the lines when reared in floor pens and subjected to an ascites-inducing cold stress. Seven hundred eighty three straight run broilers were reared in floor pens at local elevation (390 m above sea level). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Birds were brooded at 32 C during the first week. The second week birds were maintained at 30 degrees C. Cold stress was applied for the remaining 4 wk at 14 degrees C. Mortalities were necropsied daily to determine cause of death. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. At 6 wk, five birds per pen were bled, and half the survivors in each pen (8 to 15 birds) were killed, necropsied, and scored for ascites. Blood gases, clinical chemistries, and blood cell counts were taken. Liver, spleen, split heart, and lung weights were recorded. Body weights were not different among the resistant, susceptible, and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was better in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Ascites incidence, as measured by mortality and lesion score at necropsy, was higher in the susceptible and relaxed lines when compared to the resistant line; 18.8, 12.7, and 1.6% respectively (P < 0.001). Susceptible and relaxed lines showed more right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with the resistant line (P < 0.05). The results show that under severe cold stress at local altitude (390 m above sea level), the ascites-resistant line was growing as rapidly as the other

  9. Evaluation of Residual Stress Development at the Interface of Plasma Electrolytically Oxidized and Cold-Worked Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asquith, David; Yerokhin, Aleksey; James, Neil; Yates, John; Matthews, Allan

    2013-10-01

    Fatigue failure in hard oxide-coated aluminum is usually driven by rapid short crack propagation from the interface through the substrate; mitigation of this is possible by introducing interfacial compressive stresses. Combining cold work with hard oxide coating can improve their performance under conditions of simultaneous wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Three-dimensional strain fields in an aluminum alloy with combined cold work and PEO coating have been measured and mechanisms for stress redistribution presented. These comprise material consumption, expansive growth of oxide layers, and local annealing.

  10. Perceived Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Reward-Related Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses to Acute Stress in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329

  11. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  12. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  13. Cold hardiness in relation to trace metal stress in the freeze-avoiding beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre A; Kristiansen, Erlend; Hansen, Bjørn H; Andersen, Rolf A; Zachariassen, Karl E

    2006-08-01

    The antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a family of proteins characterised by their ability to inhibit the growth of ice. These proteins have evolved as a protection against lethal freezing in freeze avoiding species. Metal stress has been shown to reduce the cold hardening in invertebrates, but no study has investigated how this type of stress affects the production of AFPs. This study demonstrates that exposure to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) reduces the normal developmental increase in AFP levels in Tenebrio molitor larvae reared under summer conditions. Exposure to winter conditions, however stimulated the production of AFPs in the metal exposed larvae, and raised the concentrations of AFPs to normal winter levels. The reduced level of AFPs in metal-stressed animals acclimated to summer conditions seems to arise from alterations in the normal gene expression of AFPs. The results indicate that metal exposure may cause freeze avoiding insects to become more susceptible to lethal freezing, as they enter the winter with lowered levels of AFPs. Such an effect cannot be revealed by ordinary toxicological tests, but may nevertheless be of considerable ecological importance. PMID:16806256

  14. Cold hardiness in relation to trace metal stress in the freeze-avoiding beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre A; Kristiansen, Erlend; Hansen, Bjørn H; Andersen, Rolf A; Zachariassen, Karl E

    2006-08-01

    The antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a family of proteins characterised by their ability to inhibit the growth of ice. These proteins have evolved as a protection against lethal freezing in freeze avoiding species. Metal stress has been shown to reduce the cold hardening in invertebrates, but no study has investigated how this type of stress affects the production of AFPs. This study demonstrates that exposure to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) reduces the normal developmental increase in AFP levels in Tenebrio molitor larvae reared under summer conditions. Exposure to winter conditions, however stimulated the production of AFPs in the metal exposed larvae, and raised the concentrations of AFPs to normal winter levels. The reduced level of AFPs in metal-stressed animals acclimated to summer conditions seems to arise from alterations in the normal gene expression of AFPs. The results indicate that metal exposure may cause freeze avoiding insects to become more susceptible to lethal freezing, as they enter the winter with lowered levels of AFPs. Such an effect cannot be revealed by ordinary toxicological tests, but may nevertheless be of considerable ecological importance.

  15. Stress analysis of asymmetrical cold rolling of clad sheet using the slab method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. M.; Tzou, G. Y.

    1996-10-01

    An analytical model for general asymmetrical cold rolling of clad sheet bonded before rolling was proposed to explore the plastic deformation behavior of the clad sheet using the slab method. The model allowed easy calculation of the neutral points between the upper and lower rolls and the clad sheet; rolling pressure distribution along the contact interface of the roll, horizontal stresses in the component layers of the clad sheet, shear stresses at the interface of the clad sheet, and rolling force. These characteristics as affected by various rolling conditions (e.g., thickness ratio and shear yield stress ratio of the raw clad sheet, roll speed ratio, reduction, frictional coefficient, roll radius ratio, etc.) were analyzed systematically. This approach yielded complete forms for the rolling pressure distribution, rolling force, and rolling torque. Moreover, the computational time required by this analytical model is about 1/20 to 1/25 of that required by the RUNGE KUTTA numerical method under the same rolling conditions.

  16. Composition of transgenic Volvariella volvacea tolerant to cold stress is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang

    2009-03-25

    Transgenic Volvariella volvacea strains, which are tolerant to cold stress, were generated by the stable insertion of antifreeze protein gene isolated from budworm into the genome of a conventional variety V23 of V. volvacea. As a part of the safety assessment program, transgenic V. volvacea strains were compared to a nontransgenic near-isogenic V. volvacea strain V23 grown contemporaneously by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, 5'-nucleotides, nucleic acid, and antinutrients such as tannin and cyanide in V. volvacea strains harvested at egg-shaped stage. Results of the comparisons indicate that these transgenic strains are compositionally equivalent to the conventional control.

  17. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Moench, Kelly M.; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  18. Dynamic transcriptome analysis reveals AP2/ERF transcription factors responsible for cold stress in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Chunfang; Hu, Kaining; Xian, Shuanshi; Liu, Chunqing; Fan, Jianchun; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2016-06-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor (TF) superfamily plays an important regulatory role in signal transduction of the plant responses to various stresses including low temperature. Significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of cold resistance in Brassica napus, an important oilseed crop. However, comprehensive studies on the induction and activity of these TFs under low temperature have been lacking. In this study, 132 AP2/ERF genes were identified by transcriptome sequencing of rapeseed leaves exposed to 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h of low (4 °C) temperature stress. The genes were classified into 4 subfamilies (AP2, DREB, ERF, and RAV) and 13 subgroups, among which the DREB subfamily and ERF subfamily contained 114 genes, no genes were assigned to soloist or DREB A3 subgroups. One hundred and eighteen genes were located on chromosomes A1 to C9. GO functional analysis and promoter sequence analysis revealed that these genes are involved in many molecular pathways that may enhance cold resistance in plants, such as the low-temperature responsiveness, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethylene-responsiveness pathways. Their expression patterns revealed dynamic control at different times following initiation of cold stress; the RAV and DREB subfamilies were expressed at the early stage of cold stress, whereas the AP2 subfamily was expressed later. Quantitative PCR analyses of 13 cold-induced AP2/ERF TFs confirmed the accuracy of above results. This study is the first dynamic analysis of the AP2/ERF TFs responsible for cold stress in rapeseed. These findings will serve as a reference for future functional research on transcription in rapeseed. PMID:26728151

  19. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    PubMed

    Brazaitis, Marius; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Steponaviciute, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2014-01-01

    Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20) or slow cooling (SC; n = 20) responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re) decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re) did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force) and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition) performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α), markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone) and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine) were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min) with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C) in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group) showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of specific

  20. Two Strategies for Response to 14°C Cold-Water Immersion: Is there a Difference in the Response of Motor, Cognitive, Immune and Stress Markers?

    PubMed Central

    Brazaitis, Marius; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Steponaviciute, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2014-01-01

    Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20) or slow cooling (SC; n = 20) responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the Tre decreased to a set point of 35.5°C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the Tre did not decrease to the set point of 35.5°C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14°C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force) and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition) performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α), markers of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone) and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine) were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative–hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic–insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14°C cold water—which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min) with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5°C vs 36.2°C) in the FC group compared with the SC group—induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group) showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of

  1. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  2. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genes Commonly Induced by Botrytis cinerea Infection, Cold, Drought and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Mahmoud, Bassam; Awwad, Falah; Al-Rawashdeh, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic

  3. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses.

  4. Overexpression of pigeonpea stress-induced cold and drought regulatory gene (CcCDR) confers drought, salt, and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-09-01

    A potent cold and drought regulatory protein-encoding gene (CcCDR) was isolated from the subtractive cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. CcCDR was induced by different abiotic stress conditions in pigeonpea. Overexpression of CcCDR in Arabidopsis thaliana imparted enhanced tolerance against major abiotic stresses, namely drought, salinity, and low temperature, as evidenced by increased biomass, root length, and chlorophyll content. Transgenic plants also showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and reducing sugars under stress conditions. Furthermore, CcCDR-transgenic plants showed enhanced relative water content, osmotic potential, and cell membrane stability, as well as hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) as compared with control plants. Localization studies confirmed that CcCDR could enter the nucleus, as revealed by intense fluorescence, indicating its possible interaction with various nuclear proteins. Microarray analysis revealed that 1780 genes were up-regulated in CcCDR-transgenics compared with wild-type plants. Real-time PCR analysis on selected stress-responsive genes, involved in ABA-dependent and -independent signalling networks, revealed higher expression levels in transgenic plants, suggesting that CcCDR acts upstream of these genes. The overall results demonstrate the explicit role of CcCDR in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multifunctional CcCDR seems promising as a prime candidate gene for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in diverse plants. PMID:24868035

  5. Overexpression of pigeonpea stress-induced cold and drought regulatory gene (CcCDR) confers drought, salt, and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-09-01

    A potent cold and drought regulatory protein-encoding gene (CcCDR) was isolated from the subtractive cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. CcCDR was induced by different abiotic stress conditions in pigeonpea. Overexpression of CcCDR in Arabidopsis thaliana imparted enhanced tolerance against major abiotic stresses, namely drought, salinity, and low temperature, as evidenced by increased biomass, root length, and chlorophyll content. Transgenic plants also showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and reducing sugars under stress conditions. Furthermore, CcCDR-transgenic plants showed enhanced relative water content, osmotic potential, and cell membrane stability, as well as hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) as compared with control plants. Localization studies confirmed that CcCDR could enter the nucleus, as revealed by intense fluorescence, indicating its possible interaction with various nuclear proteins. Microarray analysis revealed that 1780 genes were up-regulated in CcCDR-transgenics compared with wild-type plants. Real-time PCR analysis on selected stress-responsive genes, involved in ABA-dependent and -independent signalling networks, revealed higher expression levels in transgenic plants, suggesting that CcCDR acts upstream of these genes. The overall results demonstrate the explicit role of CcCDR in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multifunctional CcCDR seems promising as a prime candidate gene for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in diverse plants.

  6. Acute stress regulates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Sheng; Li, Feng-Peng; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Bao-Jun; Qu, Fang; Wen, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yang; Lin, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Restraint stress modulates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated the effect of 1 h restraint on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and increase in paw volume (PV) of the injected paw induced by BV. SPFR was measured immediately after BV injection, and PWMT and PV were measured 2 h before BV and 2-8 h after BV. The results showed that acute restraint inhibited significantly the SPFR but failed to affect mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, stress enhanced significantly inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the effects of pretreatment with capsaicin locally applied to the sciatic nerve, systemic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and systemic naloxone were examined on the antinociception and proinflammation produced by acute restraint stress. Local capsaicin pretreatment inhibited BV-induced nociception and inflammatory edema, and had additive effects with stress on nociception but reduced stress enhancement of edema. Systemic 6-OHDA treatment attenuated the proinflammatory effect of stress, but did not affect the antinociceptive effect. Systemic naloxone pretreatment eliminated the antinociceptive effect of stress, but did not affect proinflammation. Taken together, our data indicate that acute restraint stress contributes to antinociception via activating an endogenous opioid system, while sympathetic postganglionic fibers may contribute to enhanced inflammation in the BV pain model.

  7. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  8. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  9. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood. PMID:25924202

  10. Identification of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis plantlets: effect of cold stress on cysteine nitrosylation level.

    PubMed

    Puyaubert, Juliette; Fares, Abasse; Rézé, Nathalie; Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    S-nitrosylation is a nitric oxide (NO)-based post-translational modification regulating protein function and signalling. We used a combination between the biotin switch method and labelling with isotope-coded affinity tag to identify endogenously S-nitrosylated peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins extracted from plantlets. The relative level of S-nitrosylation in the identified peptides was compared between unstressed and cold-stress seedlings. We thereby detected 62 endogenously nitrosylated peptides out of which 20 are over-nitrosylated following cold exposure. Taken together these data provide a new repertoire of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis with cysteine S-nitrosylation site. Furthermore they highlight the quantitative modification of the S-nitrosylation status of specific cysteine following cold stress.

  11. Simulation of a cold-stressed finger including the effects of wind, gloves, and cold-induced vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, A; Bellomo, S; Stroschein, L A; Gonzalez, R R; Pandolf, K B

    1998-06-01

    The thermal response of fingers exposed to cold weather conditions has been simulated. Energy balance equations were formulated, in a former study, for the tissue layers and the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessels. The equations were solved by a finite difference scheme using the Thomas algorithm and the method of alternating directions. At this stage of development the model does not include any autonomic control functions. Model simulations assumed an electrical heating element to be embedded in the glove layers applied on the finger. A 1.3 W power input was calculated for maintaining finger temperatures at their pre-cold exposure level in a 0 degree C environment. Alternate assumptions of nutritional (low) and basal (high) blood flows in the finger demonstrated the dominance of this factor in maintaining finger temperatures at comfortable levels. Simulated exposures to still and windy air, at 4.17 m/s (15 km/h), indicated the profound chilling effects of wind on fingers in cold environments. Finally, the effects of variable blood flow in the finger, known as "cold-induced vasodilatation," were also investigated. Blood flow variations were assumed to be represented by periodic, symmetric triangular waves allowing for gradual opening-closing cycles of blood supply to the tip of the finger. Results of this part of the simulation were compared with measured records of bare finger temperatures. Good conformity was obtained for a plausible pattern of change in blood flow, which was assumed to be provided in its entirety to the tip of the finger alone.

  12. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in overwintering larvae of cold-hardy goldenrod gall insects

    PubMed

    Joanisse; Storey

    1996-01-01

    Antioxidant and pro-oxidant systems were studied in overwintering larvae of two cold-hardy gall insect species, the freeze-tolerant fly Eurosta solidaginis and the freeze-avoiding moth Epiblema scudderiana. An increase in the levels of the oxidized form of glutathione suggested slight oxidative stress in both species during the winter. Freeze-tolerant Eurosta solidaginis larvae generally had decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in the winter, indicating that these larvae do not face increased challenge from oxidative stress during the numerous freeze-thaw events they experience. Instead, existing defences must be sufficient to prevent any damage. By contrast, increased winter activities of antioxidant enzymes in freeze-avoiding Epiblema scudderiana suggest that these larvae must defend against the formation of reactive oxygen species. This may result from the oxidative nature of winter metabolism in these larvae, as well as a dependence on lipid oxidation as their fuel over this season. Xanthine dehydrogenase activity decreased dramatically in both species during the autumn, reducing the potential for the formation of the pro-oxidant xanthine oxidase. Indeed, xanthine oxidase activity fell to undetectable levels by winter in Epiblema scudderiana and was not detectable at any time in Eurosta solidaginis.

  13. Avalanche structural rearrangement through cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi; Wang, Wen; I, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the spatiotemporal dynamical behaviors of the avalanche structural rearrangement through micro-cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids, and the kinetic origins for their different spatial and temporal classifications. The crystalline ordered domains can be cracked or temporarily sustain and transfer the weak stress to remote regions for cracking-healing. It is found that cracking sites form a fractal network with cluster size following power law distribution in the x y t space. The histograms of the persistent times for sustaining regional ordered and disordered structure, the temporal cracking burst width, and quiescent time between two bursts all follow power law decays with fast descending tails. Cracking can be classified into a single temporal burst with simple line like spatial patterns and the successive cracking fluctuation with densely packed cracking clusters. For an ordered region, whether the Burgers vectors of the incoming dislocations from the boundary allow direct dislocation reduction is the key for the above two classifications through cracking a large ordered domain into medium scale corotating ordered domains or small patches. The low regional structural order at the end of a cracking burst can be regarded as an alarm for predicting the short quiescent period before the next cracking burst.

  14. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Beth A.; Kohl, Krista L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N=479) between the ages of 8 to 17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and one month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01), and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, re-experiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), re-experiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's rho = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery. PMID:24337685

  15. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  16. Sex steroid levels temporarily increase in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Billig, Håkan; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-06-01

    It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin along with significantly increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as a response to the stressor. Thus, even though the HPG axis and the production of sex steroids may be inhibited during prolonged periods of stress, the sex steroid levels may increase in the initial phase of acute psychosocial stress.

  17. Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Function via Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N.; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioral stress normally triggers a complex, multi-level response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca2+-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca2+) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  18. Evolution of Pre- and Post-Copulatory Traits in Male Drosophila melanogaster as a Correlated Response to Selection for Resistance to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karan; Samant, Manas Arun; Tom, Megha Treesa; Prasad, Nagaraj Guru

    2016-01-01

    Background In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits. Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior. Therefore, it is expected that the adaptation to cold stress will involve changes in pre- and post-copulatory traits. Such evolution of reproductive traits in response to cold stress is not well studied. Methods We selected replicate populations of D. melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. Over 37–46 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits such as mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency, male fertility, fitness (progeny production) and sperm competitive ability in male flies subjected to cold shock and those not subjected to cold shock. Results We found that post cold shock, the males from the selected populations had a significantly lower mating latency along with, higher mating frequency, fertility, sperm competitive ability and number of progeny relative to the control populations. Conclusion While most studies of experimental evolution of cold stress resistance have documented the evolution of survivorship in response to selection, our study clearly shows that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid changes in the pre- and post-copulatory traits. Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions. PMID:27093599

  19. Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-10-01

    Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry.

  20. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH.

    PubMed

    Engeland, William C; Yoder, J Marina; Karsten, Carley A; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  1. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, William C.; Yoder, J. Marina; Karsten, Carley A.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  2. Infusion of glucose and lipids at physiological rates causes acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Song, Weiwei; Duan, Xunbao; Cheung, Peter; Kresge, Karen; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim

    2011-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been implicated as a cause for obesity-related insulin resistance; however, what causes ER stress in obesity has remained uncertain. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that macronutrients can cause acute (ER) stress in rat liver. Examined were the effects of intravenously infused glucose and/or lipids on proximal ER stress sensor activation (PERK, eIF2-α, ATF4, Xbox protein 1 (XBP1s)), unfolded protein response (UPR) proteins (GRP78, calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), stress kinases (JNK, p38 MAPK) and insulin signaling (insulin/receptor substrate (IRS) 1/2 associated phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)) in rat liver. Glucose and/or lipid infusions, ranging from 23.8 to 69.5 kJ/4 h (equivalent to between ~17% and ~50% of normal daily energy intake), activated the proximal ER stress sensor PERK and ATF6 increased the protein abundance of calnexin, calreticulin and PDI and increased two GRP78 isoforms. Glucose and glucose plus lipid infusions induced comparable degrees of ER stress, but only infusions containing lipid activated stress kinases (JNK and p38 MAPK) and inhibited insulin signaling (PI3K). In summary, physiologic amounts of both glucose and lipids acutely increased ER stress in livers 12-h fasted rats and dependent on the presence of fat, caused insulin resistance. We conclude that this type of acute ER stress is likely to occur during normal daily nutrient intake.

  3. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Alejandra; Jaffé, Erica H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ. PMID:21785597

  4. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  5. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  6. A Finite Element Evaluation of Residual Stress in a Thread Form Generated by a Cold-Rolling Process

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.A.

    1999-02-26

    This paper presents a finite element evaluation of residual stress in a thread form generated by a cold rolling process. Included in this evaluation area mesh development study, methodology sensitivity studies, and the effects of applied loads on the stress in a rolled thread root. A finite element analysis of the thread forming process using implicit modeling methodology, incremental large deformation, elastic-plastic material properties, and adaptive meshing techniques was performed. Results of the study indicate the axial component of the residual stress in the thread root of the fastener is highly compressive. Results also indicate that a rolled threaded fastener loaded to an average tensile stress equal to yield through the cross-section will retain compressive stresses in the thread root. This compressive stress state will be advantageous when evaluating fasteners for fatigue and environmental concerns.

  7. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials.

  8. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  9. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  10. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  11. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  12. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  13. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    PubMed Central

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  14. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  15. DeepSAGE Based Differential Gene Expression Analysis under Cold and Freeze Stress in Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Saurabh; Sharma, Prakash C.

    2015-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), an important plant species of Indian Himalayas, is well known for its immense medicinal and nutritional value. The plant has the ability to sustain growth in harsh environments of extreme temperatures, drought and salinity. We employed DeepSAGE, a tag based approach, to identify differentially expressed genes under cold and freeze stress in seabuckthorn. In total 36.2 million raw tags including 13.9 million distinct tags were generated using Illumina sequencing platform for three leaf tissue libraries including control (CON), cold stress (CS) and freeze stress (FS). After discarding low quality tags, 35.5 million clean tags including 7 million distinct clean tags were obtained. In all, 11922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 6539 up regulated and 5383 down regulated genes were identified in three comparative setups i.e. CON vs CS, CON vs FS and CS vs FS. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis were performed to assign gene ontology term to DEGs and ascertain their biological functions. DEGs were mapped back to our existing seabuckthorn transcriptome assembly comprising of 88,297 putative unigenes leading to the identification of 428 cold and freeze stress responsive genes. Expression of randomly selected 22 DEGs was validated using qRT-PCR that further supported our DeepSAGE results. The present study provided a comprehensive view of global gene expression profile of seabuckthorn under cold and freeze stresses. The DeepSAGE data could also serve as a valuable resource for further functional genomics studies aiming selection of candidate genes for development of abiotic stress tolerant transgenic plants. PMID:25803684

  16. Transcriptome analysis of newly classified bZIP transcription factors of Brassica rapa in cold stress response.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Indeok; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-09-01

    Plant bZIP transcription factors play crucial roles in biological processes. In this study, 136 putative bZIP transcription members were identified in Brassica rapa. The bZIP family can be divided into nine groups according to the specific amino acid rich domain in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana. To screen the cold stress responsive BrbZIP genes, we evaluated whether the transcription patterns of the BrbZIP genes were enhanced by cold treatment in the inbred lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, by microarray data analysis and qRT-PCR. The expression level of six genes increased significantly in Kenshin, but these genes were unchanged in Chiifu. These findings suggest that the six genes that encoded proteins containing N-rich regions might be involved in cold stress response. The results presented herein provide valuable information regarding the molecular basis of the bZIP transcription factors and their potential function in regulation growth and development, particularly in cold stress response.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of newly classified bZIP transcription factors of Brassica rapa in cold stress response.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Indeok; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-09-01

    Plant bZIP transcription factors play crucial roles in biological processes. In this study, 136 putative bZIP transcription members were identified in Brassica rapa. The bZIP family can be divided into nine groups according to the specific amino acid rich domain in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana. To screen the cold stress responsive BrbZIP genes, we evaluated whether the transcription patterns of the BrbZIP genes were enhanced by cold treatment in the inbred lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, by microarray data analysis and qRT-PCR. The expression level of six genes increased significantly in Kenshin, but these genes were unchanged in Chiifu. These findings suggest that the six genes that encoded proteins containing N-rich regions might be involved in cold stress response. The results presented herein provide valuable information regarding the molecular basis of the bZIP transcription factors and their potential function in regulation growth and development, particularly in cold stress response. PMID:25075938

  18. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  19. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  20. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  1. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  2. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Showkat A.; Bhushan, Bharat; Sheikh, Sajad A.; Chandrasekar, T.; Godara, Asu Singh; Bharti, Pranay; Japheth, K. Puhle

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana) calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg) of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %), hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl). Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l), albumin (g/l), globulin (g/l), albumin globulin ratio (A:G) and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml), thyroxine (T4, ng/ml) and cortisol (ng/ml) were also estimated. Results: The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01). The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of PCV and Hb and the differences were found to be significant (p<0.05) on 45th day for PCV and highly significant (p<0.01) on 60th day for PCV and on 45th day for Hb. The values of TSP and albumin were comparatively higher in calves of G1 as compared to G2 and the differences were highly significant (p<0.01) on 45th day for both TSP and albumin and significant (p<0.05) on 60th day for albumin. Significantly (p<0.01) higher values of cortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45th day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05) on 15 and 30th day and highly significant (p<0.01) on 45th day of the study

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of scd1 gene from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Dong Ling; Yu, Da Hui; Lv, Chang Huan; Luo, Hui Yu; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-08-15

    Desaturation of fatty acids is an important adaptation mechanism to maintain membrane fluidity under cold stress. To comprehend the mechanism of adaptation to low temperatures in fish, we investigated stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) endocrine expression in the process of cold acclimation from 15°C to 7°C in Larimichthys crocea. The cDNA and genomic sequences of scd1 were cloned and characterized and named as Lcscd1. The cDNA encoded an iron-containing protein of 337 amino acids with functional motifs. The full-length genome sequence of Lcscd1 was composed of 2556 nucleotides, including five exons and four introns. Tissue expression profiles by qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that Lcscd1 was highly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain. The expression of Lcscd1 mRNA in the liver was firstly down-regulated from 15°C to 11°C, and then up-regulated until the first day of 7°C, followed by a decline until the last day. In the brain, the expression showed no significant change from 15°C to 9°C, but then significantly increased until the last day of 7°C. SCD1 protein expression in the liver decreased from 15°C to the first day of 7°C, and then gradually recovered to the starting level. In the brain, SCD1 protein expression maintained rising trends in the whole process. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis showed that SCD1 was localized in fat granules, mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum of hepatic cells, but only in mitochondria of encephalic cells. The results above suggested that SCD1 expression was responsive to both cold and starvation stresses in the liver, but only to cold stress in the brain. In conclusion, these findings suggested that SCD1 may be involved in fish adaptation to cold stress.

  4. Glucocorticoids Protect Against the Delayed Behavioral and Cellular Effects of Acute Stress on the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajnish P.; Anilkumar, Shobha; McEwen, Bruce; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2013-01-01

    Background A single episode of acute immobilization stress has previously been shown to trigger a delayed onset of anxiety-like behavior and spinogenesis in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats. Spurred on by a seemingly paradoxical observation in which even a modest increase in corticosterone (CORT), caused by a single vehicle injection before stress, could dampen the delayed effects of stress, we hypothesized a protective role for glucocorticoids against stress. Methods We tested this hypothesis by analyzing how manipulations in CORT levels modulate delayed increase in anxiety-like behavior of rats on the elevated plus-maze 10 days after acute stress. We also investigated the cellular correlates of different levels of anxiety under different CORT conditions by quantifying spine density on Golgi-stained BLA principal neurons. Results CORT in drinking water for 12 hours preceding acute stress prevented delayed increase in anxiety rather than exacerbating it. Conversely, vehicle injection failed to prevent the anxiogenic effect of stress in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats. However, when CORT was restored in adrenalectomized rats by injection, the delayed anxiogenic effect of stress was once again blocked. Finally, high and low anxiety states were accompanied by high and low levels of BLA spine density. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the presence of elevated levels of CORT at the time of acute stress confers protection against the delayed enhancing effect of stress on BLA synaptic connectivity and anxiety-like behavior. These observations are consistent with clinical reports on the protective effects of glucocorticoids against the development of posttraumatic symptoms triggered by traumatic stress. PMID:22572034

  5. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  6. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress.

  7. Clinical and statistical evaluation of the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in the cold inland area of Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, K; Shibata, J; Yamamura, K

    1989-07-01

    We made a clinical and statistical evaluation of the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction with respect to the relation between its occurrence and the meterology of the cold inland area of Hokkaido (the Kamikawa Basin) over a period of 10 years (1976-1985). A total of 581 cases were studied. Monthly fluctuation of incidence was not found to be statistically significant. A cold period in the Kamikawa Basin was defined in this study as the period when ordinary mean atmospheric temperatures were below 0 degree C (from 7 Nov. to 16 Apr.). Canonical discriminant analysis was applied to 10 meterological factors between the days with occurrences and those without occurrences (245 days vs 245 days) in the cold periods of the investigated 10 years, and between the days with outdoor occurrences and those without occurrences (37 days vs 37 days). In order to compare the regional difference, this analysis was done on the same 10 factors for the cold periods over 3 years in Yamagata (46 days vs 46 days). The F values of 0.0003, 0.0155 and 0.0098 respectively in the above 3 analyses were small (much less than F 1(9) (0.25) = 1.51). A circadian rhythm of 2 cycles/day was recognized concerning the time of occurrence by power spectral analysis of the data of 562 patients for whom the time of the onset of myocardial infarction was known. Subdividing the patients into 2 groups according to physical activity just before the occurrence, the group who experienced an occurrence at rest showed a rhythm of 1 cycle/day, and the group who experienced an occurrence on effort showed a rhythm of 2 cycles/day. Therefore, the 10 meterological factors could not discriminate the probabilities between the days with occurrences and the days without occurrences of myocardial infarction in the cold periods. On the other hand, it was suggested that biological intrinsic rhythm participates in triggering the occurrence of myocardial infarction.

  8. ‘Cross-adaptation’: habituation to short repeated cold-water immersions affects the response to acute hypoxia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lunt, Heather C; Barwood, Martin J; Corbett, Jo; Tipton, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation to an environmental stressor is usually studied in isolation, yet these stressors are often encountered in combination in the field, an example being cold and hypoxia at altitude. There has been a paucity of research in this area, although work with rodents indicates that habituation to repeated short cold exposures has a cross-adaptive effect during hypoxia. The present study tested the hypothesis that cross-adaptation is also possible with humans. Thirty-two male volunteers were exposed to 10 min bouts of normoxic and hypoxic ( 0.12) rest and exercise (100 W on a recumbent cycle ergometer). These were repeated after a 96 h interval, during which participants completed six, 5 min immersions in either cold (12°C, CW) or thermoneutral water (35°C, TW). Venous blood samples were taken immediately after each bout, for determination of catecholamine concentrations. A three-lead ECG was recorded throughout and the final 5 min of each bout was analysed for heart rate variability using fast fourier transformations (and displayed as log transformed data (ln)). In comparison with the first hypoxic exercise exposure, the second exposure of the CW group resulted in an increased ln high frequency (ln HF) power (P < 0.001) and reduced adrenaline (P < 0.001) and noradrenaline concentrations (P < 0.001). Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations were lower in the CW group during the second hypoxic exercise compared to the TW group (P = 0.042 and P = 0.003), but ln HF was not. When separated into hypoxic sensitive and hypoxic insensitive subgroups, ln HF was higher in the hypoxic sensitive CW group during the second hypoxic exercise than in any of the other subgroups. Cold habituation reduced the sympathetic response (indicated by the reduced catecholamine concentrations) and elevated the parasympathetic activity (increased ln HF power) to hypoxic exercise. These data suggest a generic autonomic cross-adaptive effect between cold habituation and exposure to acute

  9. Acute restraint stress induces rapid and prolonged changes in erythrocyte and hippocampal redox status.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou; Bradley, Adrian J; Anderson, Stephen T; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2013-11-01

    The onset and consequential changes in reduction-oxidation (redox) status that take place in response to short-term stress have not been well defined. This study utilized erythrocytes and neural tissue from male Wistar rats to demonstrate the rapid redox alterations that occur following an acute restraining stress. Serial blood samples collected from catheterized animals were used to measure prolactin, corticosterone, glucose, general oxidative status, and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios. Restraint increased prolactin concentration by approximately 300% at 30 min and rapidly returned to baseline values by 120 min of stress. Baseline blood glucose and corticosterone increased during stress exposure by approximately 25% and 150% respectively. Over the experimental period, the erythrocytic oxidative status of restrained animals increased by approximately 10% per hour which persisted after stress exposure, while changes in the glutathione redox couple were not observed until 120 min following the onset of stress. Application of restraint stress increased hippocampal oxidative status by approximately 17% while no change was observed in the amygdala. It was concluded that while endocrine and metabolic markers of stress rapidly increase and habituate to stress exposure, redox status continues to change following stress in both peripheral and neural tissue. Studies with longer post-restraint times and the inclusion of several brain regions should further elucidate the consequential redox changes induced by acute restraint stress.

  10. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when ...

  11. Personal and situational factors that predict coping strategies for acute stress among basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H; Porter, A

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the ways in which coping style and situational appraisals are related to the consistency of using approach and avoidance coping strategies for skilled Australian basketball referees (n = 133) after three game-related stressful events. The events, 'making a mistake', 'aggressive reactions by coaches or players' and 'presence of important others', were determined from previous research on sources of acute stress among basketball officials. Our findings indicated that: referees exhibited consistent avoidance, but not approach, coping styles; they used more avoidance than approach strategies; and they perceived stress to be positively correlated with approach, and negatively associated with avoidance, coping strategies. These findings suggest that individual differences exist in perceptions of stress (i.e. situational appraisals), controllability and coping styles among moderately and highly skilled basketball referees. The implications for teaching cognitive and behavioural strategies for effective coping with acute stress in basketball officiating are discussed.

  12. Neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuates warm-, but not cold-water swim stress-induced analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Zi-long; Tang, Hong-zhu; Ren, Hui; Wang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to a neuropeptide family including two receptors (NPFF(1) and NPFF(2)). NPFF system has been reported to play important roles in pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of NPFF related peptides and their receptors in swim stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Nociceptive test was performed in mice stressed by forced swimming in water at 15 °C (cold water swimming) or 32 °C (warm water swimming). Warm water swimming produced a naloxone-mediated antinociceptive effect. This warm water swim SIA was dose-dependently antagonized by i.c.v. injection of NPFF and two related peptides (3-30 nmol), NPVF and dNPA, which exhibited the highest selectivities for NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors, respectively. Moreover, the selective NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 (30 nmol) was inactive by itself, but prevented the effects of NPFF and related peptides. Cold-water swimming produced a wilder analgesic effect that was blocked by MK-801, but not naloxone. However, NPFF system failed to modify the cold water swim stress-induced analgesia. These findings demonstrated that NPFF and related peptides attenuated opioid-mediated form of SIA via NPFF receptors in the brain, but not non-opioid swim stress-induced analgesia. These data further support an anti-opioid character of NPFF system.

  13. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  14. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  15. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  16. Brain vasopressin V(1) receptors contribute to enhanced cardiovascular responses to acute stress in chronically stressed rats and rats with myocardial infarcton.

    PubMed

    Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska-Sadowska, Ewa; Dobruch, Jakub; Gomolka, Ryszard; Puchalska, Liana

    2010-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the role of central vasopressin 1 receptors (V(1)R) in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters in chronically stressed infarcted rats and sham-operated rats under resting conditions and during exposure to acute alarming stress. The experiments were performed on four groups of conscious sham-operated and four groups of infarcted rats subjected to intraventricular infusion of either vehicle or a V(1)R antagonist (V(1)RANT). Two groups of infarcted and two groups of sham-operated rats were subjected to mild chronic stressing. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR) were determined under resting conditions and after exposure to acute stress (air jet). During vehicle infusion, MABP and HR increases in response to acute stress in the infarcted rats not subjected to chronic stress, and in the infarcted and sham-operated chronically stressed rats, were significantly greater than in the sham-operated rats not exposed to chronic stress. However, MABP and HR responses to acute stress in the chronically stressed infarcted rats and chronically stressed sham-operated rats did not differ. V(1)RANT abolished differences in cardiovascular responses to acute stress between the experimental groups. Resting cardiovascular parameters were not affected by any of the experimental treatments. It is concluded that chronic stressing enhances the pressor and tachycardic responses to acute stress in the sham-operated rats but does not further intensify these responses in infarcted rats.The results provide evidence that central V(1)Rs are involved in potentiation of cardiovascular responses to acute stress in chronically stressed rats, infarcted rats, and chronically stressed infarcted rats.

  17. Genomic effects of cold and isolation stress on magnocellular vasopressin mRNA-containing cells in the hypothalamus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Angulo, J A; Ledoux, M; McEwen, B S

    1991-06-01

    We assessed the effects of cold and isolation stress on arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. Vasopressin mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization histochemistry at the cellular level. In posterior magnocellular neurons of the PVN isolation stress for 7 or 14 days increased vasopressin mRNA levels 28 and 29%, respectively, compared to group-housed controls. No significant alterations in vasopressin gene expression were observed in the SON after 7 or 14 days of isolation stress. Scattered magnocellular AVP mRNA-expressing cells of the medial parvocellular PVN showed increases of 19 and 34% after 7 and 14 days of isolation, respectively. We also studied the effect of cold or combined cold and isolation stress on vasopressin gene expression in the PVN and SON. Cold stress for 3 h daily for 4 consecutive days increased AVP mRNA levels in the posterior magnocellular PVN by 15%. Cold-isolated animals showed an increase of 21%. No significant effect on AVP mRNA levels in the SON was observed. In contrast to the posterior magnocellular PVN, cold or cold-isolation stress increased AVP mRNA in magnocellular neurons of the medial parvocellular region of the PVN by 25 and 43%, respectively, relative to control rats. These results suggest that psychological and metabolic stress may be added to the list of stressors that activate the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

  18. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  19. Divergent responses of inflammatory mediators within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gandhi, Chaitanya P; Gray, J Megan; Morena, Maria; Hassan, Kowther I; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    There is now a growing body of literature that indicates that stress can initiate inflammatory processes, both in the periphery and brain; however, the spatiotemporal nature of this response is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress on changes in mRNA and protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory mediators across a broad temporal range, in key corticolimbic brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex). mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed immediately following 30min or 120min of acute restraint stress and protein levels were examined 0h through 24h post-termination of 120min of acute restraint stress using both multiplex and ELISA methods. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to acute psychological stress results in an increase in the protein level of several inflammatory mediators in the amygdala while concomitantly producing a decrease in the protein level of multiple inflammatory mediators within the medial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of changes seemed largely restricted to the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, with stress producing few changes in the mRNA or protein levels of inflammatory mediators within the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Consistent with previous research, stress resulted in a general elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators within the circulation. These data indicate that neuroinflammatory responses to stress do not appear to be generalized across brain structures and exhibit a high degree of spatiotemporal specificity. Given the impact of inflammatory signaling on neural excitability and emotional behavior, these data may provide a platform with which to explore the importance of inflammatory signaling within the prefrontocortical-amygdala circuit in the regulation of the neurobehavioral responses to stress.

  20. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  1. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  2. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  3. Cold-induced changes in stress hormone and steroidogenic transcript levels in cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), a fish capable of metabolic depression.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Hori, Tiago S; Hall, Jennifer R; Rise, Matthew L; Gamperl, A Kurt

    2015-12-01

    The cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) is a fish with a wide latitudinal distribution that is capable of going into metabolic depression during the winter months, and thus, represents a unique model to investigate the impacts of cold temperatures on the stress response. In this study, we measured resting (pre-stress) plasma cortisol levels in 10 °C and 0 °C acclimated cunner from Newfoundland, and both catecholamine and cortisol levels after they were given a standardized handling stress (i.e. 1 min air exposure). In addition, we cloned and characterized cDNAs for several key genes of the cortisol-axis [cytochrome P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) most likely to be an ortholog of the teleost GR2], determined the tissue distribution of their transcripts, and measured their constitutive (i.e. pre-stress) transcript levels in individuals acclimated to both temperatures. In cunner acclimated to 0 °C, post-stress epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were much lower (by approximately 9- and 5-fold, respectively) compared to 10 °C acclimated fish, and these fish had relatively low resting cortisol levels (~15 ngml(-1)) and showed a typical post-stress response. In contrast, those acclimated to 10 °C had quite high resting cortisol levels (~75 ngml(-1)) that actually decreased (to ~20 ngml(-1)) post-stress before returning to pre-stress levels. Finally, fish acclimated to 10 °C had higher P450scc transcript levels in the head kidney and lower levels of GR transcript in both the head kidney and liver. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) temperature has a profound effect on the stress response of this species; and (2) although the ancestors of this species inhabited warm waters (i.e. they are members of the family Labridae), populations of cunner from colder regions may show signs of stress at temperatures as low as 10 °C.

  4. Cold-induced changes in stress hormone and steroidogenic transcript levels in cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), a fish capable of metabolic depression.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Hori, Tiago S; Hall, Jennifer R; Rise, Matthew L; Gamperl, A Kurt

    2015-12-01

    The cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) is a fish with a wide latitudinal distribution that is capable of going into metabolic depression during the winter months, and thus, represents a unique model to investigate the impacts of cold temperatures on the stress response. In this study, we measured resting (pre-stress) plasma cortisol levels in 10 °C and 0 °C acclimated cunner from Newfoundland, and both catecholamine and cortisol levels after they were given a standardized handling stress (i.e. 1 min air exposure). In addition, we cloned and characterized cDNAs for several key genes of the cortisol-axis [cytochrome P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) most likely to be an ortholog of the teleost GR2], determined the tissue distribution of their transcripts, and measured their constitutive (i.e. pre-stress) transcript levels in individuals acclimated to both temperatures. In cunner acclimated to 0 °C, post-stress epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were much lower (by approximately 9- and 5-fold, respectively) compared to 10 °C acclimated fish, and these fish had relatively low resting cortisol levels (~15 ngml(-1)) and showed a typical post-stress response. In contrast, those acclimated to 10 °C had quite high resting cortisol levels (~75 ngml(-1)) that actually decreased (to ~20 ngml(-1)) post-stress before returning to pre-stress levels. Finally, fish acclimated to 10 °C had higher P450scc transcript levels in the head kidney and lower levels of GR transcript in both the head kidney and liver. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) temperature has a profound effect on the stress response of this species; and (2) although the ancestors of this species inhabited warm waters (i.e. they are members of the family Labridae), populations of cunner from colder regions may show signs of stress at temperatures as low as 10 °C. PMID:26188716

  5. Mental health response to acute stress following wilderness disaster.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Amanda R

    2010-12-01

    Expedition physicians should be prepared to respond to traumatic stress disorders following wilderness disasters. Stress disorder symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoiding stimuli associated with the traumatic event, and increased physical arousal. These symptoms can also be seen in healthy individuals, and should only lead to disorder diagnosis when they cause distress or impairment. Treatment options for stress disorders include observation, psychological interventions, and medication. Approximately half of those with diagnosable stress disorders will return to nondiagnosable status over time without therapeutic intervention. Psychological interventions with empirical support concentrate on providing either noninvasive support in the short term, such as psychological first aid (PFA), or more long-term controlled re-experiencing of the precipitating trauma, such as many exposure-based therapies. Exposure-based treatments can result in temporary increases in symptoms before long-term gains are realized, so they are not recommended for wilderness settings. Medications to treat stress disorders include benzodiazepines, propranolol, and antidepressant medications. Benzodiazepines are often carried in wilderness first aid kits, but they provide very limited stress disorder symptom relief. Propranolol is being explored as a method of preventing traumatic stress disorders, but the data are not currently conclusive. Antidepressant medications are a good long-term strategy for stress disorder treatment, but they are of limited utility in wilderness settings as they are unlikely to be included in expedition medical kits and require approximately 4 weeks of administration for symptom reduction. Recommendations for wilderness treatment of stress disorders focus on increasing knowledge of stress disorder diagnosis and PFA.

  6. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  7. Clinical studies of the vibration syndrome using a cold stress test measuring finger temperature.

    PubMed

    Gautherie, M

    1995-01-01

    Since nine years multicentre, transversal and longitudinal clinical studies on hand-arm, vibration-exposed patients are being performed in cooperation with French occupational medicine centers and social security institutions. These studies are based upon current clinical assessment and standardized, temperature-measuring cooling tests. Data acquisition uses a portable, 10-channel, micro-processor-based temperature recorder and miniature thermal sensors. Temperature is monitored at the ten finger tips continuously, before, during and after a cold stress performed in strictly controlled conditions. Data from examinations performed at outlying sites are transferred through the telephonic network to a central processing unit. Data analysis uses a specific, expert-type software procedure based upon previous clinical studies on (i) 238 "normal" subjects, and (ii) 3,046 patients with vascular disturbances of the upper extremities of various etiologies. This procedure includes a staging process which assigns each finger a class representing the degree of severity of the abnormalities of response to cold ("dysthermia") related to vascular disorders. All data processing is fully automatic and results in a printed examination report. To date, over 1,623 vibration-exposed forestry, building and mechanical workers were examined. Sixty-three per cent of patients had received high dose of vibration (daily use of chain saws, air hammers, ballast tampers over many years). Typical white finger attacks or only neurological symptoms were found in 36% and 23% of patients respectively. The rate of sever dysthermia was much higher in patients with white finger attacks (83%) than in patients without (32%). In 90% of the vibration-exposed patients, the severity of dysthermia has differed greatly from one finger to another and between hands, while in non-exposed patients with primary Raynaud syndrome the dysthermia are generally similar for all fingers but the thumbs. Of 208 forestry

  8. Hypoxic cutaneous vasodilation is sustained during brief cold stress and is not affected by changes in CO2.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Grant H; Fieger, Sarah M; Minson, Christopher T; Halliwill, John R

    2010-04-01

    Hypoxia decreases core body temperature in animals and humans during cold exposure. In addition, hypoxia increases skin blood flow in thermoneutral conditions, but the impact of hypoxic vasodilation on vasoconstriction during cold exposure is unknown. In this study, skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as red blood cell flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline (n = 7). Subjects were exposed to four different conditions in the steady state (normoxia and poikilocapnic, isocapnic, and hypercapnic hypoxia) and were cooled for 10 min using a water-perfused suit in each condition. CVC increased during all three hypoxic exposures (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline), and the magnitude of these steady-state responses was not affected by changes in end-tidal CO(2) levels. During poikilocapnic and hypercapnic hypoxia, cold exposure reduced CVC to the same levels observed during normoxic cooling (P > 0.05 vs. normoxia), whereas CVC remained elevated throughout cold exposure during isocapnic hypoxia (P < 0.05 vs. normoxia). The magnitude of vasoconstriction during cold stress was similar in all conditions (P > 0.05). Thus the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during steady-state hypoxia is not affected by CO(2) responses. In addition, the magnitude of reflex vasoconstriction is not altered by hypoxia, such that the upward shift in skin blood flow (hypoxic vasodilation) is maintained during whole body cooling.

  9. Hyperventilation and cold-pressor stress echocardiography combined with automated functional imaging non-invasively detected vasospastic angina

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Mizukoshi, Kei; Kou, Seisyou; Takai, Manabu; Izumo, Masaki; Shimozato, Takashi; Hayashi, Akio; Ohtaki, Eiji; Nobuoka, Sachihiko; Miyake, Fumihiko

    2010-01-01

    A 47-year-old male presented with chest discomfort while sleeping. The patient was suspected of having vasospastic angina (VSA) and underwent hyperventilation and cold-pressor stress echocardiography. No chest pain, ECG changes or decreased wall motion was found. However, automated function imaging (AFI) showed decreased peak systolic strain at the apex and postsystolic shortening at both the apex and inferior wall, which was not found before the test. The provocation test revealed 99% stenosis in the right coronary artery #2 at a dose of 50 μg acetylcholine and 90% stenosis in the left coronary artery #8 at a dose of 100 μg. The patient was thus diagnosed as having VSA. The present case demonstrates the usefulness of AFI combined with hyperventilation and cold-pressor stress echocardiography as a screening examination for VSA. PMID:22798093

  10. Hyperventilation and cold-pressor stress echocardiography combined with automated functional imaging non-invasively detected vasospastic angina.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Mizukoshi, Kei; Kou, Seisyou; Takai, Manabu; Izumo, Masaki; Shimozato, Takashi; Hayashi, Akio; Ohtaki, Eiji; Nobuoka, Sachihiko; Miyake, Fumihiko

    2010-11-29

    A 47-year-old male presented with chest discomfort while sleeping. The patient was suspected of having vasospastic angina (VSA) and underwent hyperventilation and cold-pressor stress echocardiography. No chest pain, ECG changes or decreased wall motion was found. However, automated function imaging (AFI) showed decreased peak systolic strain at the apex and postsystolic shortening at both the apex and inferior wall, which was not found before the test. The provocation test revealed 99% stenosis in the right coronary artery #2 at a dose of 50 μg acetylcholine and 90% stenosis in the left coronary artery #8 at a dose of 100 μg. The patient was thus diagnosed as having VSA. The present case demonstrates the usefulness of AFI combined with hyperventilation and cold-pressor stress echocardiography as a screening examination for VSA.

  11. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress - which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population - are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  12. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia.

    PubMed

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress--which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population--are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  13. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  14. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating behavior. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor in 29 of these women. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. PMID:22579988

  15. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  16. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  17. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    PubMed Central

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  18. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field. PMID:24904597

  19. History of chronic stress modifies acute stress-evoked fear memory and acoustic startle in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeltzer, Sarah N; Vollmer, Lauren L; Rush, Jennifer E; Weinert, Mychal; Dolgas, Charles M; Sah, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Chronicity of trauma exposure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, exposure to multiple traumas on a chronic scale leads to worse outcomes than acute events. The rationale for the current study was to investigate the effects of a single adverse event versus the same event on a background of chronic stress. We hypothesized that a history of chronic stress would lead to worse behavioral outcomes than a single event alone. Male rats (n = 14/group) were exposed to either a single traumatic event in the form of electric foot shocks (acute shock, AS), or to footshocks on a background of chronic stress (chronic variable stress-shock, CVS-S). PTSD-relevant behaviors (fear memory and acoustic startle responses) were measured following 7 d recovery. In line with our hypothesis, CVS-S elicited significant increases in fear acquisition and conditioning versus the AS group. Unexpectedly, CVS-S elicited reduced startle reactivity to an acoustic stimulus in comparison with the AS group. Significant increase in FosB/ΔFosB-like immunostaining was observed in the dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex of CVS-S rats. Assessments of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress-regulatory transmitter associated with chronic PTSD, revealed selective reduction in the hippocampus of CVS-S rats. Collectively, our data show that cumulative stress potentiates delayed fear memory and impacts defensive responding. Altered neuronal activation in forebrain limbic regions and reduced NPY may contribute to these phenomena. Our preclinical studies support clinical findings reporting worse PTSD outcomes stemming from cumulative traumatization in contrast to acute trauma.

  20. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  1. Reduction of oxidative stress does not affect recovery of myocardial function: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Biagioli, B.; Borrelli, E.; Maccherini, M.; Bellomo, G.; Lisi, G.; Giomarelli, P.; Sani, G.; Toscano, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare oxidative stress after cardiac surgery in patients treated with two different methods of myocardial protection: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia. To correlate oxidative stress with postoperative myocardial dysfunction. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double blind, trial. SETTING: Institutional centre of cardiovascular surgery. PATIENTS: 20 patients were selected for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) on the following basis: stable angina, ejection fraction > 50%, double or triple vessel disease, no previous CABG or associated disease. Patients were randomised to two groups of 10 patients each. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent CABG with one of two different methods of myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass. CBC group: intermittent cold blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass; WBC group: continuous warm blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The index of oxidative stress used was the alteration of whole blood and plasma glutathione redox status. Samples were collected from the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before anaesthesia (T1), before aortic unclamping (T2), 15 minutes (T3), and 30 minutes (T4) after unclamping. Haemodynamic parameters were measured with thermodilution techniques. RESULTS: Oxidised glutathione and glutathione-cysteine mixed disulphide significantly increased in the coronary sinus plasma in the CBC group, and the overall redox balance of glutathione was decreased (P < 0.01) at T2-T4 versus T1, and compared with the WBC group. Comparable results were obtained for coronary sinus blood. There was no correlation between postoperative haemodynamic measurements and oxidative stress markers. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress was significant in patients undergoing CABG using cold blood cardioplegia, while the warm technique minimised the effects of ischaemia. However

  2. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions.

  3. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  4. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  5. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  6. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  7. Effects of acute and chronic immobilization stress on rat Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marić, D; Kostić, T; Kovacević, R

    1996-06-01

    In rats, acute immobilization (IMO) stress (2 h) induced a fall in the serum androgen concentrations (T+DHT) without detectable changes in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values. In vitro studies, using a suspension of Leydig cells from adult rat testis, demonstrated that acute stress inhibited conversion of progesterone (P) or 17hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) to T while conversion of androstendione (delta 4 A) was not affected. Acute IMO reduced activity of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) and decreased basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone and androgen production. Chronic IMO stress (2 h daily for 10 days) induced a decrease in serum androgen level with decline in serum LH values. In vitro, hCG-stimulated progesterone and androgen production by suspension of Leydig cells, as well as conversion of P and 17OHP to T were not significantly altered. Our data demonstrates that acute IMO stress impaired testicular steroidogenesis primarily at the testicular level (decreasing the activity of certain enzymes), while chronic IMO stress exerts the effect mainly on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis; reduced serum LH levels elicit a decrease in serum androgen levels.

  8. Acute Psychological Stress Results in the Rapid Development of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wenjun; Messina, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the roles of chronic stress and depression as an independent risk factor for decreased insulin sensitivity and the development of diabetes have been increasingly recognized. However, an understanding and the mechanisms linking insulin resistance and acute psychological stress are very limited. We hypothesized that acute psychological stress may cause the development of insulin resistance, which may be a risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis in a well-established mouse model using 180 episodes of inescapable foot shock (IES), followed by a behavioral escape test. In this study, mice that received IES treatment were tested for acute insulin resistance by measuring glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. When compared to normal and sham mice, mice that were exposed to IES resulting in escape failure (defined as IES with behavioral escape failure) displayed elevated blood glucose levels in both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Furthermore, mice with IES exposure and behavioral escape failure exhibited impaired hepatic insulin signaling via the insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/Akt pathway, without affecting similar pathways in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and brain. Additionally, a rise in murine growth-related oncogene KC/GRO was associated with impaired glucose metabolism in IES mice, suggesting a mechanism by which psychological stress by IES may influence glucose metabolism. The present results indicate that psychological stress induced by IES can acutely alter hepatic responsiveness to insulin and affect whole-body glucose metabolism. PMID:23444388

  9. Impact of acute guanfacine administration on stress and cue reactivity in cocaine-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Brady, Kathleen T.; McRae-Clark, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress and drug-paired cues increase drug craving and noradrenergic activity in cocaine-dependent individuals, thus medications that attenuate noradrenergic activity may be effective therapeutic treatment options for cocaine-dependent individuals. Objectives To examine the impact of acute administration of the α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine on responses to multiple risk factors for relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, cocaine-dependent individuals (N=84), were randomized to receive either 2 mg guanfacine (n=50) or placebo (n=34). Within each treatment arm, subjects were randomized to either a stress (guanfacine n=26; placebo n=15) or a no-stress (guanfacine n=24; placebo n=19) group. Participants in the stress group performed the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjects in each group were exposed to a neutral cue and then to cocaine-related cues. Plasma cortisol and subjective responses were compared between the four groups. Results The no-stress guanfacine group reported greater craving in response to cocaine-cues as compared to the neutral cue (p<0.001). The guanfacine stress group reported greater subjective stress at the neutral cue than at baseline (p=0.032). The cocaine-cue increased subjective stress in the guanfacine (p<0.001) no-stress group. There were no effects of guanfacine on cortisol levels in either the stress or no stress groups (all p>0.70). Conclusion This study found no effects of a single 2 mg dose of guanfacine on reactivity to stress and cues alone or on the interaction of stress and drug cues. In cocaine-dependent individuals an acute 2 mg dose of guanfacine may not be an effective therapeutic treatment strategy. PMID:25140866

  10. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. PMID:26803527

  11. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine.

  12. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism modulates inflammatory cytokine responses during acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Ohira, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are important mediators of various stress-related modulations of immune function. A major genetic factor determining inter-individual differences in stress reactivity is polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) transporter (5HTT) gene. A short (S) variant, compared with a long (L) variant, of the promoter region of the 5HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) has been related to emotional and stress hyper-reactivity. The present study examined whether the 5HTTLPR can modulate responses of inflammatory cytokines under acute stress. Nine Japanese male participants carrying two copies of the S alleles and nine Japanese males carrying S and L alleles underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Inflammatory cytokines, endocrine parameters, heart rate and subjective stress were measured before, during and after the task. The participants carrying the SS alleles, but not those carrying the SL alleles, showed a significant increase of IL-1β immediately after TSST. This hyper-reactivity to acute stress in individuals with the SS alleles was also observed in their heart rate and cortisol levels. These results suggest that the S allele of the 5HTTLPR is consistently associated with stress reactivity in multi-level stress-related biological systems. PMID:26349674

  13. A novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from Populus euphratica, confers both drought and cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhuan; Xue, Bin; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-11-22

    Populus species are the most important timber trees over the Northern hemisphere. Most of them are cold- and drought-sensitive except the Populus euphratica Oliv. Here, a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) gene cloned from P. euphratica, designated as PeCPK10, was rapidly induced by salt, cold, and drought stresses. The protein encoded by PeCPK10 was localized within the nucleus and cytosol, which may be important for its specific regulation in cellular functions. To elucidate the physiological functions of PeCPK10, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PeCPK10. The results showed that PeCPK10-transgenic lines experienced better growth than vector control plants when treated with drought. Stronger abscisic acid-induced promotion of stomatal closing has been showed in transgenic lines. Particularly, overexpression of PeCPK10 showed enhanced freezing tolerance. Constitutive expression of PeCPK10 enhanced the expression of several abscisic acid-responsive genes and multiple abiotic stress-responsive genes such as RD29B and COR15A. Accordingly, a positive regulator responsive to cold and drought stresses in P. euphratica is proposed. PMID:24177011

  14. Plastid ribosomal protein S5 is involved in photosynthesis, plant development, and cold stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junxiang; Yuan, Hui; Yang, Yong; Fish, Tara; Lyi, Sangbom M.; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Zhang, Lugang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Plastid ribosomal proteins are essential components of protein synthesis machinery and have diverse roles in plant growth and development. Mutations in plastid ribosomal proteins lead to a range of developmental phenotypes in plants. However, how they regulate these processes is not fully understood, and the functions of some individual plastid ribosomal proteins remain unknown. To identify genes responsible for chloroplast development, we isolated and characterized a mutant that exhibited pale yellow inner leaves with a reduced growth rate in Arabidopsis. The mutant (rps5) contained a missense mutation of plastid ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5), which caused a dramatically reduced abundance of chloroplast 16S rRNA and seriously impaired 16S rRNA processing to affect ribosome function and plastid translation. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that the rps5 mutation suppressed the expression of a large number of core components involved in photosystems I and II as well as many plastid ribosomal proteins. Unexpectedly, a number of proteins associated with cold stress responses were greatly decreased in rps5, and overexpression of the plastid RPS5 improved plant cold stress tolerance. Our results indicate that RPS5 is an important constituent of the plastid 30S subunit and affects proteins involved in photosynthesis and cold stress responses to mediate plant growth and development. PMID:27006483

  15. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in young white leghorn cockerels by downregulation of avian uncoupling protein.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, A; Akiba, Y; Toyomizu, M

    2007-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species-induced damage of cells and molecules is one of the mechanisms responsible for the decline in an animal's performance due to heat stress. Mitochondria are the main producers of cellular superoxide, a process that is sensitive to proton motive force, and this superoxide production can be decreased by mild uncoupling. We studied the effects of heat stress on the production of mitochondrial superoxide as well as heat stress effects on the expression of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) and avian A nucleotide translocator (avANT) in skeletal muscles of chicks and young cockerels. Male White Leghorn (Julia) chicks at 16 d and cockerels at 87 d of age were exposed to acute heat stress, 34 degrees C for 18 h, or kept at moderate ambient temperature (25 and 21 degrees C, respectively). There was no difference in mitochondrial superoxide production between heat-exposed and control chicks, whereas significant differences were observed in the case of young cockerels. Greater substrate-independent superoxide production was found in muscle mitochondria from heat-stressed young cockerels. In chicks, neither avUCP nor avANT transcript expression was changed by heat exposure, whereas in young cockerels avUCP transcript was decreased, but avANT transcript level was not changed. Thus, in heat-stressed young cockerels, increased mitochondrial superoxide production was accompanied by downregulation of avUCP. Taken together, these results suggest that exposure of young cockerels to heat stress stimulates mitochondrial superoxide production, possibly via downregulation of avUCP. Chicks with persistent avUCP expression, on the other hand, are relatively better adapted to high temperature. It can be assumed that appropriate expression of avUCP may alleviate overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide and could help birds adapt to oxidative stress resulting from acute heat stress.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  19. Deficiency of antinociception and excessive grooming induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-14

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  20. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  1. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  2. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    PubMed

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  3. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  4. Crucial roles of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein SOAR1 in Arabidopsis response to drought, salt and cold stresses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Mei, Chao; Liang, Shan; Yu, Yong-Tao; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Whereas several mitochondrial/chloroplast pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been reported to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, no nucleus-localized PPR protein has been found to play role in these processes. In the present experiment, we provide evidence that a cytosol-nucleus dual-localized PPR protein SOAR1, functioning to negatively regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seed germination and postgermination growth, is a crucial, positive regulator of plant response to abiotic stresses. Downregulation of SOAR1 expression reduces, but upregulation of SOAR1 expression enhances, ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, and plant tolerance to multiple, major abiotic stresses including drought, high salinity and low temperature. Interestingly and importantly, the SOAR1-overexpression lines display strong abilities to tolerate drought, salt and cold stresses, with surprisingly high resistance to salt stress in germination and postgermination growth of seeds that are able to potentially germinate in seawater, while no negative effect on plant growth and development was observed. So, the SOAR1 gene is likely useful for improvement of crops by transgenic manipulation to enhance crop productivity in stressful conditions. Further experimental data suggest that SOAR1 likely regulates plant stress responses at least partly by integrating ABA-dependent and independent signaling pathways, which is different from the ABI2/ABI1 type 2C protein phosphatase-mediated ABA signaling. These findings help to understand highly complicated stress and ABA signalling network. PMID:26093896

  5. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  6. Interleukin-18 expression in pig salivary glands and salivary content changes during acute immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Y; Minagawa, Y; Nakane, T; Shibahara, T; Yoshikawa, T; Omata, Y

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been considered a promising marker of stress responses. In this study, to evaluate IL-18 as a noninvasive stress marker in pigs, we investigated the expression of IL-18 in porcine salivary glands and its presence in saliva, and its dynamics during acute immobilization stress in pigs. IL-18 mRNA was detected robustly in the pig salivary glands by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of IL-18 protein expression revealed that the expression patterns differed among the three types of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland). IL-18 was also detected in pig saliva by ELISA, and a diurnal rhythm with a peak in the afternoon was observed. The IL-18 concentration in saliva was significantly increased during a 60-min acute immobilization stress in thirteen 5-month-old pigs. These results are the first evidence of a stress-related change of IL-18 in pig saliva. Salivary IL-18 may thus become a useful noninvasive marker for the evaluation of acute stress in pigs.

  7. Differential changes in platelet reactivity induced by acute physical compared to persistent mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Katharina; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Kandler, Christina; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Malik, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Semenitz, Barbara; Humpel, Christian; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also contain adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory compounds, as well as most of the serotonin outside the central nervous system. Dysbalance in the serotonin pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Thus, changes in platelet aggregation and content of bioactive compounds are of interest when investigating physiological stress-related mental processes as well as stress-related psychiatric diseases such as depression. In the present study, a characterization of platelet reactivity in acute physical and persistent mental stress was performed (aggregation, serotonin and serotonin 2A-receptor, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9), platelet/endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). Acute physical stress increased platelet aggregability while leaving platelet content of bioactive compounds unchanged. Persistent mental stress led to changes in platelet content of bioactive compounds and serotonin 2A-receptor only. The values of most bioactive compounds correlated with each other. Acute physical and persistent mental stress influences platelets through distinct pathways, leading to differential changes in aggregability and content of bioactive compounds. PMID:26192713

  8. Transcriptome profiling and validation of gene based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in sorghum genotypes with contrasting response to cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a versatile cereal crop, with excellent heat and drought tolerance. However, it is susceptible to early-season cold stress (12-15 °C) which seriously limits stand-establishment and seedling growth. To gain further insight on the molecular mechanism of cold tolerance in sorghum we perform...

  9. Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Geng, Z Y

    2015-11-01

    Cold stress triggers an anti-oxidative response in animals regulated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2-like, NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. To identify chicken Nrf2-regulated genes, 3 genetically related experimental groups (EG) with 40 Huainan partridge chickens in each group were chosen. The chickens were maintained at 20°C environmental temperature from 5 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 10 chickens from each EG were still maintained at 20°C as control, and the other 30 chickens from each EG were exposed to 6 ± 2°C. Liver samples were collected from the control and from chickens exposed to 6 ± 2°C for 12, 24, and 72 h for co-immuno-precipitation (CoIP) analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiment in liver cells treated with Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were carried out. A de novo motif was discovered which closely matched the core Nrf2 consensus binding motif. Genes involved in de novo motif discovery were further analyzed for their enrichment in the anti-oxidative response pathway and the lipid anabolism pathway. There were 14 genes found which are related to oxidative stress. To examine the downstream factors of the 14 responsive genes, one of them, UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase), was further analyzed by CoIP experiment and nano LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It was detected that fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, 127 AA) might be the potential UGT1A1 downstream interaction proteins. In conclusion, it is proposed that chickens under cold stress generate anti-oxidative stress and thus trigger the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which further up-regulates the expression of L-FABP to inactivate lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and promote fatty acid storage against the cold environment. PMID:26453599

  10. Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Geng, Z Y

    2015-11-01

    Cold stress triggers an anti-oxidative response in animals regulated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2-like, NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. To identify chicken Nrf2-regulated genes, 3 genetically related experimental groups (EG) with 40 Huainan partridge chickens in each group were chosen. The chickens were maintained at 20°C environmental temperature from 5 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 10 chickens from each EG were still maintained at 20°C as control, and the other 30 chickens from each EG were exposed to 6 ± 2°C. Liver samples were collected from the control and from chickens exposed to 6 ± 2°C for 12, 24, and 72 h for co-immuno-precipitation (CoIP) analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiment in liver cells treated with Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were carried out. A de novo motif was discovered which closely matched the core Nrf2 consensus binding motif. Genes involved in de novo motif discovery were further analyzed for their enrichment in the anti-oxidative response pathway and the lipid anabolism pathway. There were 14 genes found which are related to oxidative stress. To examine the downstream factors of the 14 responsive genes, one of them, UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase), was further analyzed by CoIP experiment and nano LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It was detected that fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, 127 AA) might be the potential UGT1A1 downstream interaction proteins. In conclusion, it is proposed that chickens under cold stress generate anti-oxidative stress and thus trigger the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which further up-regulates the expression of L-FABP to inactivate lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and promote fatty acid storage against the cold environment.

  11. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  12. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  13. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25250589

  14. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  15. Contribution of infralimbic cortex in the cardiovascular response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia Camargos de Figueirêdo; Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Santos, Robson A S; DiMicco, Joseph A; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2012-09-15

    The infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (IL) modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine function via projections to subcortical structures involved in the response to stress. We evaluated the contribution of the IL to the cardiovascular response evoked by acute stress. Under anesthesia (80 mg/kg ketamine-11.5 mg/kg xylazine), rats were implanted with telemetry probes or arterial lines for recording heart rate and blood pressure. Guide cannulas were implanted to target the IL for microinjection of muscimol (100 pmol/100 nl), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (6 pmol/100 nl), or vehicle (100 nl). Microinjection of muscimol, an agonist of GABA(A) receptors, into the IL had no effect on stress-evoked cardiovascular and thermogenic changes in any of the paradigms evaluated (cage switch, restraint plus air-jet noise, or air-jet stress). However, microinjection of the excitatory amino acid NMDA into the IL attenuated the pressor and tachycardic response to air-jet stress. Pretreatment with the selective NMDA antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5, 100 pmol/100 nl) blocked the effect of NMDA on the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress. We conclude that 1) the IL region is not tonically involved in cardiovascular or thermogenic control during stress or under baseline conditions, and 2) activation of NMDA receptors in the IL can suppress the cardiovascular response to acute stress exposure.

  16. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2013-06-15

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications.

  17. Overexpression of a novel cold-responsive transcript factor LcFIN1 from sheepgrass enhances tolerance to low temperature stress in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Li, Xiaoxia; Jia, Junting; Zhao, Pincang; Liu, Panpan; Liu, Zhujiang; Ge, Liangfa; Chen, Shuangyan; Qi, Dongmei; Deng, Bo; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Liu, Gongshe; Cheng, Liqin

    2016-03-01

    As a perennial forage crop broadly distributed in eastern Eurasia, sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel) is highly tolerant to low-temperature stress. Previous report indicates that sheepgrass is able to endure as low as -47.5 °C,allowing it to survive through the cold winter season. However, due to the lack of sufficient studies, the underlying mechanism towards the extraordinary low-temperature tolerance is unclear. Although the transcription profiling has provided insight into the transcriptome response to cold stress, more detailed studies are required to dissect the molecular mechanism regarding the excellent abiotic stress tolerance. In this work, we report a novel transcript factor LcFIN1 (L. chinensis freezing-induced 1) from sheepgrass. LcFIN1 showed no homology with other known genes and was rapidly and highly induced by cold stress, suggesting that LcFIN1 participates in the early response to cold stress. Consistently, ectopic expression of LcFIN1 significantly increased cold stress tolerance in the transgenic plants, as indicated by the higher survival rate, fresh weight and other stress-related indexes after a freezing treatment. Transcriptome analysis showed that numerous stress-related genes were differentially expressed in LcFIN1-overexpressing plants, suggesting that LcFIN1 may enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance by transcriptional regulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and CHIP-qPCR showed that LcCBF1 can bind to the CRT/DRE cis-element located in the promoter region of LcFIN1, suggesting that LcFIN1 is directly regulated by LcCBF1. Taken together, our results suggest that LcFIN1 positively regulates plant adaptation response to cold stress and is a promising candidate gene to improve crop cold tolerance.

  18. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  19. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  20. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  1. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  2. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  3. Stressful Presentations: Mild Cold Stress in Laboratory Mice Influences Phenotype of Dendritic Cells in Naïve and Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Spangler, Haley M.; Povinelli, Benjamin J.; Farren, Matthew R.; Lee, Kelvin P.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to model immune responses. The goals of this report are to 1) briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiological stress and 2) to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent to mice housed at the required standard ambient temperatures to influence baseline DCs properties in naïve and tumor-bearing mice. As recent data from our group shows that CD8+ T cell function is significantly altered by chronic mild cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8+ T cell activation, we wondered whether housing temperature may also be influencing DC function. Here we report that there are several significant phenotypical and functional differences among DC subsets in naïve and tumor-bearing mice housed at either standard housing temperature or at a thermoneutral ambient temperature, which significantly reduces the extent of cold stress. The new data presented here strongly suggests that, by itself, the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties and functions of DCs. Therefore differences in basal levels of stress due to housing should be taken into consideration when interpreting experiments designed to evaluate the impact of additional variables, including other stressors on DC function. PMID:24575090

  4. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  5. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  6. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  7. Increase of peripheral type benzodiazepine binding sites in kidney and olfactory bulb in acutely stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Novas, M L; Medina, J H; Calvo, D; De Robertis, E

    1987-03-17

    Fifteen minutes after the initiation of swimming stress in the rat we observed a 50% increase in the number of [3H]RO 5-4864 binding sites in kidney and a 37% increase in the olfactory bulb, without change in affinity. The binding in heart and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after the stress. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on both the action of an acute stress in central benzodiazepine receptors and the possible modulation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of the kidney by adrenocortical hormones.

  8. Massive presence of the Escherichia coli 'major cold-shock protein' CspA under non-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Brandi, A; Spurio, R; Gualerzi, C O; Pon, C L

    1999-03-15

    The most characteristic event of cold-shock activation in Escherichia coli is believed to be the de novo synthesis of CspA. We demonstrate, however, that the cellular concentration of this protein is > or = 50 microM during early exponential growth at 37 degrees C; therefore, its designation as a major cold-shock protein is a misnomer. The cspA mRNA level decreases rapidly with increasing cell density, becoming virtually undetectable by mid-to-late exponential growth phase while the CspA level declines, although always remaining clearly detectable. A burst of cspA expression followed by a renewed decline ensues upon dilution of stationary phase cultures with fresh medium. The extent of cold-shock induction of cspA varies as a function of the growth phase, being inversely proportional to the pre-existing level of CspA which suggests feedback autorepression by this protein. Both transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls regulate cspA expression under non-stress conditions; transcription of cspA mRNA is under the antagonistic control of DNA-binding proteins Fis and H-NS both in vivo and in vitro, while its decreased half-life with increasing cell density contributes to its rapid disappearance. The cspA mRNA instability is due to its 5' untranslated leader and is counteracted in vivo by the cold-shock DeaD box RNA helicase (CsdA). PMID:10075935

  9. Short UV-B Exposure Stimulated Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Antioxidants and Reduced Oxidative Stress of Cold-Stored Mangoes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhifang; Zheng, Yaoqi; Qiu, Rongrong; Yang, Yanjun; Xu, Mingfeng; Ye, Yu; Xu, Maojun

    2015-12-30

    The effects of UV-B irradiation on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant compound contents, antioxidative enzyme activities, and oxidative damage of cold-stored mangoes were examined. Superoxide anion production rate, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ion leakage level and malondialdehyde content of the cold-stored fruit preradiated with 5 KJ m(-2) UV-B for 4 h were significantly decreased as compared with control fruit. The activities of ROS generating enzymes remained unchanged in UV-B-irradiated mangoes as compared to the control, but superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, ascorbate and polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities of the cold-stored mangoes were significantly enhanced by UV-B. The UV-B-enhanced antioxidant compounds and antioxidative enzymes were highly correlated with the reduced-ROS levels in UV-B-irradiated mangoes. The data indicated that a short UV-B exposure reduced oxidative stress and alleviated oxidative damage of the cold-stored mangoes by triggering both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems although ROS generation in the fruit was not affected.

  10. Stress and parental care: Prolactin responses to acute stress throughout the breeding cycle in a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Riou, Samuel; Chastel, Olivier; Lacroix, André; Hamer, Keith C

    2010-08-01

    While the role of corticosterone in mediating the response of birds to acute stress is well established, it has recently been proposed that a decrease in prolactin levels following stress may complement corticosterone in redirecting resources away from breeding activities and towards behaviors promoting immediate survival. Here, for the first time, we detail changes in the prolactin stress response of birds throughout the breeding cycle. We then discuss the modulation of the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses over successive stages of breeding, differing in reproductive value and parental effort. In a long-lived Procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus, we found that prolactin levels decreased in response to acute stress during incubation and mid chick-rearing but increased in response to stress during late chick-rearing and in non parenting birds, a pattern similar to that previously described for mammals. The high corticosterone stress response in pre-breeders was consistent with predictions based on reproductive value, but a similar response during late chick-rearing was not. This probably reflected foraging effort and a heightened importance of the parents' own nutritional status at this stage of the season, in advance of post-breeding migration. We also found that baseline prolactin levels were maintained at high levels during chick-rearing and were only slightly lower during late chick-rearing and in failed breeders and non-breeders. These data suggest that prolactin may play a role in nestling care long beyond the brooding phase, that this is not due to birds spending long periods away from the colony and that prolactin secretion may be necessary for nest-guarding behavior.

  11. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  12. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  13. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  14. Accumulation of acidic SK₃ dehydrins in phloem cells of cold- and drought-stressed plants of the Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Szabala, Bartosz Mieczyslaw; Fudali, Sylwia; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2014-04-01

    The role of acidic SK(n) dehydrins in stress tolerance of important crop and model species of the Solanaceae remains unknown. We have previously shown that the acidic SK₃ dehydrin DHN24 from Solanum sogarandinum is constitutively expressed and its expression is associated with cold acclimation. Here we found that DHN24 is specifically localized to phloem cells of vegetative organs of non-acclimated plants. More precise localization of DHN24 revealed that it is primarily found in sieve elements (SEs) and companion cells (CCs) of roots and stems. In cold-acclimated plants, DHN24 is mainly present in all cell types of the phloem. Dhn24 transcripts are also predominantly localized to phloem cells of cold-acclimated stems. Immunoelectron microscopy localized DHN24 to the cytosol and close to organelle membranes of phloem cells, the lumen with phloem protein filaments, parietal cytoplasm of SEs and the nucleoplasm of some nuclei. Cell fractionation experiments revealed that DHN24 was detected in the cytosolic, nuclear and microsomal fractions. We also determined whether homologous members of the acidic subclass dehydrins from Capsicum annuum and Lycopersicon chilense share the characteristics of DHN24. We showed that they are also constitutively expressed, but their protein level is upregulated preferentially by drought stress. Immunofluorescent localization revealed that they are detected in SEs and CCs of unstressed plants and throughout the phloem in drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that one of the primary roles of DHN24 and its homologs may be the protection of the phloem region from adverse effects of abiotic stresses.

  15. A global profiling of uncapped mRNAs under cold stress reveals specific decay patterns and endonucleolytic cleavages in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background mRNA degradation is a critical factor in determining mRNA abundance and enables rapid adjustment of gene expression in response to environmental stress. The involvement of processing bodies in stress response suggests a role for decapping-mediated mRNA degradation. However, little is known about the role of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions. Results Here, we perform a global study of uncapped mRNAs, via parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE), under cold stress in Brachypodium distachyon. Enrichment analysis indicates that degradation products detected by PARE are mainly generated by the decapping pathway. Endonucleolytic cleavages are detected, uncovering another way of modulating gene expression. PARE and RNA-Seq analyses identify four types of mRNA decay patterns. Type II genes, for which light-harvesting processes are over-represented in gene ontology analyses, show unchanged transcript abundance and altered uncapped transcript abundance. Uncapping-mediated transcript stability of light harvesting-related genes changes significantly in response to cold stress, which may allow rapid adjustments in photosynthetic activity in response to cold stress. Transcript abundance and uncapped transcript abundance for type III genes changes in opposite directions in response to cold stress, indicating that uncapping-mediated mRNA degradation plays a role in regulating gene expression. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first global analysis of mRNA degradation under environmental stress conditions in Brachypodium distachyon. We uncover specific degradation and endonucleolytic cleavage patterns under cold stress, which will deepen our understanding of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions, as well as the cold stress response mechanism in monocots. PMID:24000894

  16. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  17. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  18. Abducted by the illness: a qualitative study of traumatic stress in individuals with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nissim, Rinat; Zimmermann, Camilla; Minden, Mark; Rydall, Anne; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Gagliese, Lucia; Schimmer, Aaron; Rodin, Gary

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia. The goal of the present qualitative study was to understand this traumatic stress, as perceived by patients. Participants were 43 patients with acute leukemia in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked in serial interviews about their experience of diagnosis and treatment. A total of 65 interviews were analyzed utilizing the grounded theory method. Our findings provide insight into the traumatic experience of the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial psychological response to this trauma. Patients coped by surrendering control to the medical team, in whom they felt great trust. Patients also expressed a strong preference for limited information, with a preference to avoid discussions about overall prognosis. These results may inform interventions to relieve traumatic stress in this high risk population.

  19. Abducted by the illness: A qualitative study of traumatic stress in individuals with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Rinat; Zimmermann, Camilla; Minden, Mark; Rydall, Anne; Yuen, Dora; Mischitelle, Ashley; Gagliese, Lucia; Schimmer, Aaron; Rodin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of traumatic stress are common in acute leukemia. The goal of the present qualitative study was to understand this traumatic stress, as perceived by patients. Participants were 43 patients with acute leukemia in Toronto, Canada. Participants were asked in serial interviews about their experience of diagnosis and treatment. A total of 65 interviews were analyzed utilizing the grounded theory method. Our findings provide insight into the traumatic experience of the diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial psychological response to this trauma. Patients coped by surrendering control to the medical team, in whom they felt great trust. Patients also expressed a strong preference for limited information, with a preference to avoid discussions about overall prognosis. These results may inform interventions to relieve traumatic stress in this high risk population. PMID:23352641

  20. Adrenal response to acute stress in mammillary medial nuclei lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Perassi, N I

    1993-01-01

    In view of the inhibitory influence of Mammillary Medial Nuclei, pars lateralis (MMN) on corticoadrenal activity, experiments were conducted in order to determine whether these nuclei are involved in the control of adrenal response to ether stress. In bilateral MMN lesioned rats, prestress plasma corticosterone concentration (C) is significantly higher than that in sham lesioned animals. Acute stress produced a significant C increase in both, sham and lesioned rats, being this increase lower in lesioned animals. After exposure to ether vapors. adrenal concentration of norepinephrine was similar in lesioned and control animals. Whereas, adrenal epinephrine concentration was significantly higher in lesioned rats than that found in the sham lesioned ones. This study demonstrates that the integrity of MMN is not essential for adrenal response to acute stress.

  1. Acute stress increases neuropsin mRNA expression in the mouse hippocampus through the glucocorticoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akiko; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Komai, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    Stress affects synaptic plasticity and may alter various types of behaviour, including anxiety or memory formation. In the present study, we examined the effects of acute stress (1 h restraint with or without tail-shock) on mRNA levels of a plasticity-related serine protease neuropsin (NP) in the hippocampus using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that NP mRNA expression was dramatically increased shortly after exposure to the acute restraint tail-shock stress and remained at high level for at least 24 h. The level of NP mRNA would be correlated to the elevated plasma concentration of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) and to the stress intensity. Application of CORT either onto primary cultured hippocampal neurons (5 nM) or in vivo to adrenalectomized (ADX) mice (10 mg/kg B.W., s.c.) mimicked the effect of stress and significantly elevated NP mRNA. These results suggest that the upregulation of NP mRNA after stress is CORT-dependent and point to a role for neuropsin in stress-induced neuronal plasticity.

  2. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress. PMID:18997672

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation on cold flat rolling processes of DC04 sheets with special focus on residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Mehner, T.; Binotsch, C.; Sieber, M.; Awiszus, B.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    The process of cold flat rolling is a widespread industrial technique to manufacture semi-finished products, e.g., for the automotive or homewares industry. Basic knowledge of the process regarding dimensioning and adjustment of defined characteristics is already state of the art. However, a detailed consideration and analysis with respect to local inhomogeneous residual stresses in several process steps mostly remains disregarded. A broad understanding of the process due to the distribution of residual stresses in the workpiece and the direction of the stress tensors allows for a definition of the characteristics of the workpiece even before the actual manufacturing process. For that purpose, it is necessary to perform numerical investigations by means of the finite element analysis (FEA) of cold flat rolling processes. Within this contribution, several approaches for the calibration of the FEA with the real flat rolling process will be addressed and discussed. To ensure that the numerical consideration provides realistic results, this calibration is indispensable. General parameters such as geometry, height reduction, rolling temperature, process time, and the rolling speed are considered as well as a photogrammetric survey, and calculated residual stresses with results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) will be compared. In the course of the experiments, a good agreement between the stress results of the FEA and the XRD was found in the center of the specimen. In combination with the allocation of the stress orientations, the agreement close to the edges is also fine. Some issues that cause differences between the FEA and the experiment are dis-cussed.

  4. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ≤ 150 (μl/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 100 μl/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 50μl/l.

  5. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ??? 150 ??l/l without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 100 ??l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 50 ??l/l.

  6. Dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production in rats after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S; Alekseeva, I V; Koplik, E V; Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Gapparov, M M G

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production were studied in rats demonstrating passive and active behavior in the open field test at different time after exposure to acute emotional stress caused by 12-h immobilization during dark hours. The most pronounced changes in behavior and heat production followed by disturbances in circadian rhythms of these parameters were detected within the first 2 days after stress. In contrast to behaviorally active rats, the most significant decrease in locomotor activity and heat production of passive animals subjected to emotional stress was observed during dark hours. Circadian rhythms of behavior and heat production in rats tended to recover on day 3 after immobilization stress. These data illustrate the specificity of metabolic and behavioral changes reflecting the shift of endogenous biological rhythms in individuals with different prognostic resistance to stress at different terms after exposure to negative emotiogenic stimuli. PMID:24906959

  7. [Clinical manifestation of acute pancreatitis in children with caustic ingestion injury - the role of oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Brankov, O; Shivachev, Kh; Drebov, R; Dumanov, K

    2007-01-01

    For a 10 years period (1996-2005) 66 children with severe caustic injuries of the esophagus and stomach were admitted at the Department of Pediatric Surgery. Subject of this article are 17 children with clinical, laboratory and intraoperative proven acute pancreatitis. The patients were admitted at the clinic 12 hours to 12 days after the ingestion of the corrosive agent. Fifteen of them underwent surgery and different surgical procedures were performed - gastric resection, transhiatal esophagectomy, gastrectomy, gastrostomy. In all patients were found elevated levels of alpha-amilase in blood serum and urine as well as elevated CRP in blood serum. Clinically manifested acute pancreatitis was diagnosed on ultrasound studies and laparotomy. The newest theories about the genesis of acute pancreatitis emphasize on the role of oxidative stress. Experimental models suggest that burn trauma (thermal or chemical) cause critical increase of free oxygen radicals and lipid peroxydation products in the tissue of the damaged organ and the bloodstream. The local tissue damage leads to release of inflammatory mediators which enter the bloodstream and cause distant organs damage of - lung, liver, kidneys and pancreas. In this preliminary report the authors discuss the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in children with acute corrosive ingestion injury of the esophagus and stomach. We call this phenomenon " caustic " oxidative stress. This is the first scientific report on this topic in the reviewed literature.

  8. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Child Acute Stress Measures in Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Montaño, Zorash; Kohser, Kristen L.; Cuadra, Anai; Muñoz, Cynthia; Armstrong, F. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers need tools for accurate early assessment of children’s acute stress reactions and acute stress disorder (ASD). There is a particular need for independently validated Spanish-language measures. The current study reports on 2 measures of child acute stress (a self-report checklist and a semi-structured interview), describing the development of the Spanish version of each measure and psychometric evaluation of both the Spanish and English versions. Children between the ages of 8 to 17 years who had experienced a recent traumatic event completed study measures in Spanish (n = 225) or in English (n = 254). Results provide support for reliability (internal consistency of the measures in both languages ranges from .83 to .89; cross-language reliability of the checklist is .93) and for convergent validity (with later PTSD symptoms, and with concurrent anxiety symptoms). Comparing checklist and interview results revealed a strong association between severity scores within the Spanish and English samples. Checklist-interview differences in evaluating the presence of ASD appear to be linked to different content coverage for dissociation symptoms. Future studies should further assess the impact of differing assessment modes, content coverage, and the use of these measures in children with diverse types of acute trauma exposure in English- and Spanish-speaking children. PMID:23371337

  9. Differential Effects of Acute Stress on Anticipatory and Consummatory Phases of Reward Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Poornima; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goer, Franziska; Greve, Douglas; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/‘wanting’ during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/‘liking’ during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption) x Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post-hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this

  10. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions.

  11. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. PMID:26263516

  12. Arabidopsis Bax inhibitor-1 promotes sphingolipid synthesis during cold stress by interacting with ceramide-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Minoru; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Ogawa, Yoshie; Iwabuchi, Mitsuru; Nakasone, Akari; Shimamoto, Ko; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2014-07-01

    Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a widely conserved cell death suppressor localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our previous results revealed that Arabidopsis BI-1 (AtBI-1) interacts with not only Arabidopsis cytochrome b 5 (Cb5), an electron transfer protein, but also a Cb5-like domain (Cb5LD)-containing protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid 2-hydroxylase 1, which 2-hydroxylates sphingolipid fatty acids. We have now found that AtBI-1 binds Arabidopsis sphingolipid Δ8 long-chain base (LCB) desaturases AtSLD1 and AtSLD2, which are Cb5LD-containing proteins. The expression of both AtBI-1 and AtSLD1 was increased by cold exposure. However, different phenotypes were observed in response to cold treatment between an atbi-1 mutant and a sld1sld2 double mutant. To elucidate the reasons behind the difference, we analyzed sphingolipids and found that unsaturated LCBs in atbi-1 were not altered compared to wild type, whereas almost all LCBs in sld1sld2 were saturated, suggesting that AtBI-1 may not be necessary for the desaturation of LCBs. On the other hand, the sphingolipid content in wild type increased in response to low temperature, whereas total sphingolipid levels in atbi-1 were unaltered. In addition, the ceramide-modifying enzymes AtFAH1, sphingolipid base hydroxylase 2 (AtSBH2), acyl lipid desaturase 2 (AtADS2) and AtSLD1 were highly expressed under cold stress, and all are likely to be related to AtBI-1 function. These findings suggest that AtBI-1 contributes to synthesis of sphingolipids during cold stress by interacting with AtSLD1, AtFAH1, AtSBH2 and AtADS2.

  13. The first histological demonstration of pancreatic oxidative stress in human acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Telek, G; Regöly-Mérei, J; Kovács, G C; Simon, L; Nagy, Z; Hamar, J; Jakab, F

    2001-01-01

    Necrotizing acute pancreatitis is associated with an inflammatory explosion involving numerous pro-inflammatory mediator cascades and oxidative stress. Acinar oxygen free radical production aggravates pancreatic tissue damage, and promotes cellular adhesion molecule upregulation resulting in leukocyte adherence and activation. The cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry combined with reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy allows the "in situ" histological demonstration of oxygen free radical formation in live tissues. Here we present a case report, where oxidative stress is demonstrated on a histological level for the first time in human acute pancreatitis. A 44-year-old male patient suffering from acute exacerbation of his chronic pancreatitis developed a pancreato-pleural fistula with amylase-rich left pleural exudate causing respiratory compromise. Subsequent to an urgent thoracic decompression a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy was performed with the closure of abdomino-thoracic fistula. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient pancreatico-cutaneous fistula, which healed after conservative treatment. To carry out cerium capture oxygen free radical histochemistry the resected pancreas specimen was readily perfused with cerium-chloride solution through the arteries on the resection surface. Frozen sections were cut, E-, P-selectin, ICAM and VCAM were labeled by immunofluorescence. The tumor-free margin of an identically treated pancreas carcinoma specimen served as a control. Intrapancreatic oxidative stress and cellular adhesion molecule expression were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Numerous pancreatic acini and neighboring capillaries showed oxygen free radical-derived cerium-perhy-droxide depositions corresponding to strong local oxidative stress. Acinar cytoplasmic reflectance signals suggested xanthine-oxidase as a source of oxygen free radicals. These areas presented considerably increased

  14. Psychophysiological stress, elevated intraocular pressure, and acute closed-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shily, B G

    1987-11-01

    The literature suggests that stress may play a part in the precipitation of acute closed-angle glaucoma because intraocular pressure (IOP) can be affected by the emotional state of the patient. This study considers this evidence in light of what is known concerning the possible relations between psychophysiological stress and elevated IOP. Two common threads run through these observations. The first is the suggestion that stress is a significant factor in the etiology of acute closed-angle glaucoma. The second is a growing suspicion concerning the role of stress in open-angle glaucoma. There is some evidence that glaucoma induction is associated with psychophysiological stress. The role of psychosomatic factors in precipitating angle closure in eyes with an anatomically narrow angle and in raising the IOP in eyes with open angles has been noted in the literature. The implication is that stress reduction might prevent angle closure and reduce the IOP. Suggested methods for achieving these results include biofeedback, meditation, and relaxation exercises.

  15. Hostility and Physiological Responses to Acute Stress in People With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Ruth A.; Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Carvalho, Livia A.; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Hostility is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and one of the mechanisms may involve heightened reactivity to mental stress. However, little research has been conducted in populations at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between hostility and acute stress responsivity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 140 individuals (median age [standard deviation] 63.71 [7.00] years) with Type 2 diabetes took part in laboratory-based experimental stress testing. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline, during two stress tasks, and 45 and 75 minutes later. Cynical hostility was assessed using the Cook Medley Cynical Hostility Scale. Results Participants with greater hostility scores had heightened increases in IL-6 induced by the acute stress tasks (B = 0.082, p = .002), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, household income, time of testing, medication, and baseline IL-6. Hostility was inversely associated with cortisol output poststress (B = −0.017, p = .002), independent of covariates. No associations between hostility and blood pressure or heart rate responses were observed. Conclusions Hostile individuals with Type 2 diabetes may be susceptible to stress-induced increases in inflammation. Further research is needed to understand if such changes increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:25886832

  16. Effect of short-term cold stress on oxidative damage and transcript accumulation of defense-related genes in chickpea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Shahandashti, Seyyedeh-Sanam; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Khazaei, Mona; Talei, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Seyyedeh-Sanaz

    2014-08-15

    Cold stress affects many plant physiological and biochemical components and induces cascades of alterations in metabolic pathways, amongst them the membrane fatty acid compositions, the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the regulation of gene expression. The present work aimed to characterize the changes of some of these factors in both cold acclimated (CA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to identify the role of the acclimation process in adjusting plant responses to severe cold stress. The results showed an increase in the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) ratio compared to saturated fatty acids, which was more obvious in CA plants. Defense enzymes had an important role in CA plants to create greater cold tolerance compared to NA ones in the cases of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. During cold stress, a high transcription level of CaCAT and CaSOD genes was detected in CA plants, but a low transcription of CaLOX gene was observed in CA plants compared to NA plants, which might have prevented the decline of UFAs (confirmed by double bond index (DBI) data). Moreover, the transcription level of the Carubisco gene, as an energy producing agent, was higher in CA plants than in NA plants and the transcription of the Catubulin gene, as a crucial substance of cell cytoskeleton, showed a decreasing trend in both CA and NA plants, but this decline was greater in NA plants. These responses showed the possible targets of cold stress as chloroplast and signal transduction to balance stress programs. The above results indicate the crucial role of FA compositions in creating cold tolerance in susceptible chickpea plants with possible responsive components and the possible interactions in protein and transcript levels even in facing extreme cold stress. PMID:24972025

  17. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol.

  18. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2−/− mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2−/− mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2−/− mice behavioral rigidity. PMID:25610381

  19. Activation of the immune system incurs energetic costs but has no effect on the thermogenic performance of house sparrows during acute cold challenge.

    PubMed

    King, Marisa O; Swanson, David L

    2013-06-01

    Trade-offs between the immune system and other condition-dependent life-history traits (reproduction, predator avoidance and somatic growth) have been well documented in both birds and mammals. However, no studies have examined the impact of immune activation on thermoregulatory performance during acute cold exposure. Because of their high surface-area-to-volume ratios, small birds incur high energetic costs associated with thermoregulation during cold exposure. Consequently, we predicted that the immune system and the thermoregulatory system would compete for energetic resources. To test this, we immunologically challenged adult house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with 5 mg kg(-1) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an acute phase response and measured both resting (RMR; minimum metabolic rate) and summit ( ; maximal metabolic rate during cold exposure) metabolic rates. We found that birds injected with LPS had significantly higher RMR and than birds injected with phosphate-buffered saline, indicating that LPS-treated birds were able to support the cost of both immune activation and thermoregulation under conditions eliciting maximal thermogenic performance. These results suggest that, in the absence of a pathogen, birds that experience short-term activation of the immune system have higher energetic costs during cold exposure, but immune activation does not compromise maximum thermoregulatory performance.

  20. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 da