Science.gov

Sample records for acute cold stress

  1. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  2. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation. PMID:26617279

  3. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  4. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  5. Acute Effects of Normobaric Hypoxia on Hand-Temperature Responses During and After Local Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Eiken, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Keramidas, Michail E, Roger Kölegård, Igor B. Mekjavic, and Ola Eiken. Acute effects of normobaric hypoxia on hand-temperature responses during and after local cold stress. High Alt Med Biol. 15:183–191, 2014.—The purpose was to investigate acute effects of normobaric hypoxia on hand-temperature responses during and after a cold-water hand immersion test. Fifteen males performed two right-hand immersion tests in 8°C water, during which they were inspiring either room air (Fio2: 0.21; AIR), or a hypoxic gas mixture (Fio2: 0.14; HYPO). The tests were conducted in a counterbalanced order and separated by a 1-hour interval. Throughout the 30-min cold-water immersion (CWI) and the 15-min spontaneous rewarming (RW) phases, finger-skin temperatures were measured continuously with thermocouple probes; infrared thermography was also employed during the RW phase to map all segments of the hand. During the CWI phase, the average skin temperature (Tavg) of the fingers did not differ between the conditions (AIR: 10.2±0.5°C, HYPO: 10.0±0.5°C; p=0.67). However, Tavg was lower in the HYPO than the AIR RW phase (AIR: 24.5±3.4°C; HYPO: 22.0±3.8°C; p=0.002); a response that was alike in all regions of the immersed hand. Accordingly, present findings suggest that acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia does not aggravate the cold-induced drop in hand temperature of normothermic males. Still, hypoxia markedly impairs the rewarming responses of the hand. PMID:24666109

  6. Modulatory effects on Drosophila larva hearts: room temperature, acute and chronic cold stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yue Chen; Yocom, Emily; Sifers, Jacob; Uradu, Henry; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-10-01

    Ectothermic animals are susceptible to temperature changes such as cold shock with seasons. To survive through a cold shock or season, ectotherms have developed unique strategies. Our interest is focusing on the modulation of physiological functions during cold shock and prolonged cold exposure in the fruit fly. We use Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to investigate cardiac function in response to modulators (5-HT-serotonin, Ach-acetylcholine, OA-octopamine, DA-dopamine and a cocktail of modulators) in acute cold shock and chronic cold shock conditions. Semi-intact larvae are used to provide direct access to the modulators of known concentration in a defined saline. The results show that 10 µM 5HT is the only modulator which maintains heart rate for larva raised at 21 °C and then exposed to acute cold shock (10 °C). The modulators 1 µM OA, 10 µM 5HT, 1 mM Ach, 10 µM Ach and a cocktail of modulators (at 10 µM) increased the heart rate significantly in larvae which were cold conditioned (10 °C for 10 days). HPLC analysis indicated both OA and 5-HT decreased in chronic cold conditioning. The larvae maintain heart function in the cold which may be contributed by low circulating levels of modulators. The larval heart responds better to 5-HT, OA, and Ach in conditioned cold than for acute cold, suggesting some acclimation to cold. PMID:27209390

  7. Effect of acute transdermal estrogen administration on basal, mental stress and cold pressor-induced sympathetic responses in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sofowora, Gbemiga G; Singh, Iqbal; He, Huai B; Wood, Alastair J J; Stein, C Michael

    2005-06-01

    Administration of estrogen has vascular effects through poorly defined mechanisms that may include sympathetic withdrawal. To define the effects of acute estrogen administration on sympathetic responses, nineteen healthy postmenopausal women (age 54+/-2 years) were studied after application of a placebo or estrogen patch for 36 hours, in random order. A p-value, adjusted for multiple comparisons, of <0.017 was used to determine statistical significance. Heart rate, blood pressure, and norepinephrine spillover were measured at rest, during mental stress (Stroop test), and during a cold pressor test. Estrogen did not attenuate basal or stimulated hemodynamic responses significantly. The increase in mean arterial pressure after the Stroop test (5.9+/-1.2mm/ Hg on placebo vs 6.1+/-1.6mm/Hg on estrogen, p=0.9) and after the cold pressor test (12.6+/-2.4mm/Hg on placebo vs 13.0+/-2.2 mm/Hg on estrogen, p=0.8) did not differ. Basal, mental stress and cold pressor-stimulated norepinephrine spillover were not significantly affected by short-term estrogen administration. Norepinephrine spillover tended to be higher after estrogen (1296.2+/-238 ng/min) than placebo (832.5+/-129 ng/min) (p=0.02) at baseline and after the Stroop test (1881.1+/-330 ng/min vs 1014.6+/-249 ng/min) (p=0.02). Acute transdermal estrogen administration did not attenuate norepinephrine spillover or sympathetically mediated hemodynamic responses. PMID:15944868

  8. Oxidative status in testis and epididymal sperm parameters after acute and chronic stress by cold-water immersion in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Erika Cecilia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Arenas-Ríos, Edith; Aragón-Martínez, Andrés; Ibarra-Arias, Juan Antonio; del Socorro I Retana-Márquez, María

    2015-06-01

    Stress is associated with detrimental effects on male reproductive function. It is known that stress increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the male reproductive tract. High ROS levels may be linked to low sperm quality and male infertility. However, it is still not clear if ROS are generated by stress in the testis. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of oxidative stress induced by cold-water immersion stress in the testis of adult male rats and its relation with alterations in cauda epididymal sperm. Adult male rats were exposed to acute stress or chronic stress by cold-water immersion. Rats were sacrificed at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours immediately following acute stress exposure, and after 20, 40, and 50 days of chronic stress. ROS production increased only at 6 hours post-stress, while the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and sperm parameters were not modified in the testis. Corticosterone increased immediately after acute stress, whereas testosterone was not modified. After chronic stress, testicular absolute weight decreased; in addition, ROS production and LPO increased at 20, 40, and 50 days. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased throughout the duration of chronic stress and the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased at 40 and 50 days, and increased at 20 days. The expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and CAT were not modified, but the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx-4) decreased at 20 days. Motility, viability, and sperm count decreased, while abnormal sperm increased with chronic stress. These results suggest that during acute stress there is a redox state regulation in the testis since no deleterious effect was observed. In contrast, equilibrium redox is lost during chronic stress, with low enzyme activity but without modifying their expression. In addition, corticosterone increased

  9. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview. PMID:24944030

  10. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  11. Cold induces acute stress but heat is ultimately more deleterious for the reef-building coral Acropora yongei

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Goericke, Ralf; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change driven increases in intensity and frequency of both hot and cold extreme events contribute to coral reef decline by causing widespread coral bleaching and mortality. Here, we show that hot and cold temperature changes cause distinct physiological responses on different time scales in reef-building corals. We exposed the branching coral Acropora yongei in individual aquaria to a ± 5°C temperature change. Compared to heat-treated corals, cold-treated corals initially show greater declines in growth and increases in photosynthetic pressure. However, after 2–3 weeks, cold-treated corals acclimate and show improvements in physiological state. In contrast, heat did not initially harm photochemical efficiency, but after a delay, photosynthetic pressure increased rapidly and corals experienced severe bleaching and cessation of growth. These results suggest that short-term cold temperature is more damaging for branching corals than short-term warm temperature, whereas long-term elevated temperature is more harmful than long-term depressed temperature. PMID:22355753

  12. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  13. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis. PMID:23471256

  14. Systemic Cold Stress Adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Valledor, Luis; Furuhashi, Takeshi; Hanak, Anne-Mette; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is one of the most important model organisms nowadays phylogenetically situated between higher plants and animals (Merchant et al. 2007). Stress adaptation of this unicellular model algae is in the focus because of its relevance to biomass and biofuel production. Here, we have studied cold stress adaptation of C. reinhardtii hitherto not described for this algae whereas intensively studied in higher plants. Toward this goal, high throughput mass spectrometry was employed to integrate proteome, metabolome, physiological and cell-morphological changes during a time-course from 0 to 120 h. These data were complemented with RT-qPCR for target genes involved in central metabolism, signaling, and lipid biosynthesis. Using this approach dynamics in central metabolism were linked to cold-stress dependent sugar and autophagy pathways as well as novel genes in C. reinhardtii such as CKIN1, CKIN2 and a hitherto functionally not annotated protein named CKIN3. Cold stress affected extensively the physiology and the organization of the cell. Gluconeogenesis and starch biosynthesis pathways are activated leading to a pronounced starch and sugar accumulation. Quantitative lipid profiles indicate a sharp decrease in the lipophilic fraction and an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids suggesting this as a mechanism of maintaining membrane fluidity. The proteome is completely remodeled during cold stress: specific candidates of the ribosome and the spliceosome indicate altered biosynthesis and degradation of proteins important for adaptation to low temperatures. Specific proteasome degradation may be mediated by the observed cold-specific changes in the ubiquitinylation system. Sparse partial least squares regression analysis was applied for protein correlation network analysis using proteins as predictors and Fv/Fm, FW, total lipids, and starch as responses. We applied also Granger causality analysis and revealed correlations between proteins and

  15. Locus coeruleus mediates cold stress-induced polycystic ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernuci, Marcelo P; Szawka, Raphael E; Helena, Cleyde V V; Leite, Cristiane M; Lara, Hernán E; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A

    2008-06-01

    Previous reports about the rat ovary have shown that cold stress promotes ovarian morphological alterations related to a polycystic ovary (PCO) condition through activation of the ovarian sympathetic nerves. Because the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is activated by cold stress and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway, this study aimed to evaluate the LC's role in cold stress-induced PCO in rats. Ovarian morphology and endocrine and sympathetic functions were evaluated after 8 wk of chronic intermittent cold stress (4 C, 3 h/d) in rats with or without LC lesion. The effect of acute and chronic cold stress upon the LC neuron activity was confirmed by Fos protein expression in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons. Cold stress induced the formation of follicular cysts, type III follicles, and follicles with hyperthecosis alongside increased plasma estradiol and testosterone levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and reduced ovulation. Considering estradiol release in vitro, cold stress potentiated the ovarian response to human chorionic gonadotropin. Ovarian norepinephrine (NE) was not altered after 8 wk of stress. However, LC lesion reduced NE activity in the ovary of cold-stressed rats, but not in controls, and prevented all the cold stress effects evaluated. Cold stress increased the number of Fos/tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the LC, but this effect was more pronounced for acute stress as compared with chronic stress. These results show that cold stress promotes PCO in rats, which apparently depends on ovarian NE activity that, under this condition, is regulated by the noradrenergic nucleus LC. PMID:18308852

  16. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means. PMID:8049001

  17. Aging affects the cardiovascular responses to cold stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kari L.; Wilson, Thad E.; Sauder, Charity L.; Gao, Zhaohui; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress is greater with age, we measured physiological responses to 20 min of superficial skin cooling, via water-perfused suit, in 12 younger [25 ± 1 (SE) yr old] and 12 older (65 ± 2 yr old) adults. We found that superficial skin cooling elicited an increase in blood pressure from resting levels (pressor response; P < 0.05) in younger and older adults. However, the magnitude of this pressor response (systolic and mean blood pressure) was more than twofold higher in older adults (P < 0.05 vs. younger adults). The magnitude of the pressor response was similar at peripheral (brachial) and central (estimated in the aorta) measurement sites. Regression analysis revealed that aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of central arterial stiffness obtained before cooling, was the best predictor of the increased pressor response to superficial skin cooling in older adults, explaining ∼63% of its variability. These results indicate that there is a greater pressor response to non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress with age in humans that may be mediated by increased levels of central arterial stiffness. PMID:19679742

  18. Cold stress as it affects animal production.

    PubMed

    Young, B A

    1981-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of all livestock in North America are raised in regions where the mean January temperature is below 0 C. The effects of cold conditions on productivity and efficiency of feed conversion by swine, dairy and beef cattle are reviewed. Swine are rather cold-susceptible and are therefore usually kept in heated housing when raised in colder regions. Lactating or fattening cattle are extremely cold-hardy and rarely experience climatic conditions below their lower critical temperature. Despite the absence of a challenge to homothermy in cattle, there are marked seasonal fluctuations in the cattle's level and efficiency of production which probably arise from hormonal and adaptive changes occurring as a consequence of mild cold stress. Primary among these changes are an increase resting metabolic rate, and hence an increased energy requirement for maintenance, and an increased rate of passage of digesta, which results in reduced digestive efficiency. With cold there is stimulation of appetite, which may partially counteract the reduced level of production but not the reduced efficiency of utilization of dietary energy. PMID:7240034

  19. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  20. Investigation of the Strawberry Acute Cold Response through Transcriptome Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) is a valuable perennial crop, yet in most growing regions cold temperature stress can dramatically impinge on fresh fruit production. In the interest of long-term crop improvement it is important to understand the molecular response of strawberry to cold, a...

  1. Acute Painful Stress and Inflammatory Mediator Production

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Charles A.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Compton, Peggy; Goldberg, Alyssa; Witarama, Tuff; Kotlerman, Jenny; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory pathways may be activated under conditions of painful stress, which is hypothesized to worsen the pain experience and place medically-vulnerable populations at risk for increased morbidity. Objectives To evaluate the effects of pain and subjective pain-related stress on pro-inflammatory activity. Methods A total of 19 healthy control subjects underwent a single standard cold-pressor pain test (CPT) and a no-pain control condition. Indicators of pain and stress were measured and related to inflammatory immune responses (CD811a, IL-1RA, and IL-6) immediately following the painful stimulus, and compared to responses under non-pain conditions. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were measured as indicators of sympathetic stimulation. Results CPT was clearly painful and generated an activation of the sympathetic nervous system. CD811a increased in both conditions, but with no statistically significant greater increase following CPT (p < .06). IL-1RA demonstrated a non-statistically significant increase following CPT (p < .07). The change in IL-6 following CPT differed significantly from the response seen in the control condition (p < .02). Conclusions These findings suggest that CP acute pain may affect proinflammatory pathways, possibly through mechanisms related to adrenergic activation. PMID:23407214

  2. Regulatory Networks in Pollen Development under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamal D.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress modifies anthers’ metabolic pathways to induce pollen sterility. Cold-tolerant plants, unlike the susceptible ones, produce high proportion of viable pollen. Anthers in susceptible plants, when exposed to cold stress, increase abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and reduce ABA catabolism. Increased ABA negatively regulates expression of tapetum cell wall bound invertase and monosaccharide transport genes resulting in distorted carbohydrate pool in anther. Cold-stress also reduces endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs), GA4 and GA7, in susceptible anthers by repression of the GA biosynthesis genes. Here, we discuss recent findings on mechanisms of cold susceptibility in anthers which determine pollen sterility. We also discuss differences in regulatory pathways between cold-stressed anthers of susceptible and tolerant plants that decide pollen sterility or viability. PMID:27066044

  3. Effects of cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Kondo, Takahito; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Tagami, Sei-Ichi; Kuroshima, Akihiro; Kawakami, Yoshikazu

    1991-06-01

    Effects of acute and chronic cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes were investigated. Blood from both cold-acclimated (CA) and cold-adapted (CG) rats had significantly lower concentrations of glutathione than blood from control animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased significantly in CA rats and tended to rise in CG rats. Activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes was inconsistent in that it tended to increase in CA rats but decreased significantly in CG rats. The results may imply that CG rats suffered deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, there were marked decreases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in acutely cold-exposed rats in conjunction with unchanged levels of glutathione. In all treatments the state of riboflavin metabolism was estimated to be adequate, since no increases were observed in the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient.

  4. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  5. Gene regulation during cold stress acclimation in plants.

    PubMed

    Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2010-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development and thus limits crop productivity. Diverse plant species tolerate cold stress to a varying degree, which depends on reprogramming gene expression to modify their physiology, metabolism, and growth. Cold signal in plants is transmitted to activate CBF-dependent (C-repeat/drought-responsive element binding factor-dependent) and CBF-independent transcriptional pathway, of which CBF-dependent pathway activates CBF regulon. CBF transcription factor genes are induced by the constitutively expressed ICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1) by binding to the CBF promoter. ICE1-CBF cold response pathway is conserved in diverse plant species. Transgenic analysis in different plant species revealed that cold tolerance can be significantly enhanced by genetic engineering CBF pathway. Posttranscriptional regulation at pre-mRNA processing and export from nucleus plays a role in cold acclimation. Small noncoding RNAs, namely micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are emerging as key players of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Cold stress-regulated miRNAs have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice. In this chapter, recent advances on cold stress signaling and tolerance are highlighted. PMID:20387039

  6. Cold stress regulation of gene expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Zhu, Jianhua; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2007-10-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Most temperate plants acquire freezing tolerance by a process called cold acclimation. Here, we focus on recent progress in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression that is critical for cold acclimation. Transcriptional regulation is mediated by the inducer of C-repeat binding factor (CBF) expression 1 (ICE1), the CBF transcriptional cascade and CBF-independent regulons during cold acclimation. ICE1 is negatively regulated by ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis and positively regulated by SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) E3 ligase-catalyzed sumoylation. Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export and small RNA-directed mRNA degradation, also play important roles in cold stress responses. PMID:17855156

  7. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature. PMID:21325235

  8. Pharmacological characterization of standard analgesics on oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Nakamura, Saki; Miyake, Takahito; So, Kanako; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Tokuyama, Shogo; Narita, Minoru; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an acute peripheral neuropathy triggered by cold in almost all patients during or within hours after its infusion. We recently reported that a single administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hypersensitivity 2 h after the administration in mice. In this study, we examined whether standard analgesics relieve the oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity. Gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate significantly inhibited and morphine and milnacipran decreased the acute cold hypersensitivity, while diclofenac and amitriptyline had no effects. These results suggest that gabapentin, tramadol, mexiletine, and calcium gluconate are effective against oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24671055

  9. Rice and cold stress: methods for its evaluation and summary of cold tolerance-related quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cold stress adversely affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and productivity, and has so far determined its geographical distribution. Dissecting cold stress-mediated physiological changes and understanding their genetic causes will facilitate the breeding of rice for cold tolerance. Here, we review recent progress in research on cold stress-mediated physiological traits and metabolites, and indicate their roles in the cold-response network and cold-tolerance evaluation. We also discuss criteria for evaluating cold tolerance and evaluate the scope and shortcomings of each application. Moreover, we summarize research on quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to cold stress at the germination, seedling, and reproductive stages that should provide useful information to accelerate progress in breeding cold-tolerant rice. PMID:25279026

  10. Cold Stress Effects on Exposure Tolerance and Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Cold weather can have deleterious effects on health, tolerance, and performance. This paper will review the physiological responses and external factors that impact cold tolerance and physical performance. Tolerance is defined as the ability to withstand cold stress with minimal changes in physiological strain. Physiological and pathophysiological responses to short-term (cold shock) and long-term cold water and air exposure are presented. Factors (habituation, anthropometry, sex, race, and fitness) that influence cold tolerance are also reviewed. The impact of cold exposure on physical performance, especially aerobic performance, has not been thoroughly studied. The few studies that have been done suggest that aerobic performance is degraded in cold environments. Potential physiological mechanisms (decreases in deep body and muscle temperature, cardiovascular, and metabolism) are discussed. Likewise, strength and power are also degraded during cold exposure, primarily through a decline in muscle temperature. The review also discusses the concept of thermoregulatory fatigue, a reduction in the thermal effector responses of shivering and vasoconstriction, as a result of multistressor factors, including exhaustive exercise. PMID:26756639

  11. Changes in ventricular function during emotional stress and cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kiess, M.C.; Moore, R.A.; Dimsdale, J.; Alpert, N.M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with cardiac disease frequently develop symptoms with emotional stress or cold exposure. To investigate the effects of these stresses in normal subjects, an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST) (previously reported to measure EFs which correlate well with gamma camera measurements) was employed to record sequential 2 minute time activity curves from the left ventricles of 6 healthy men (ages 19-24) during a control period and during a 30 minute stress interview with a psychiatrist. Four of the subjects were also monitored in a cold room (1/sup 0/C) for 20 min. In addition to the left ventricular time-activity curve, heart rate (HR), and BP (cuff) were recorded. All subjects had increases in HR, BP and EF during the stress interview. Cold, however, produced decreases in HR and EF and an increase in BP. The results (mean +- SD) are tabulated. End-systolic and end-diastolic counts and hence volume decreased during the interview and increased during cold exposure. The results suggest that (1) ambulatory changes in ventricular function can be measured with the VEST, and (2) significant changes in cardiovascular physiology are seen in normal subjects during a stress interview and exposure to cold.

  12. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment. PMID:20504303

  13. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  14. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B.; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  15. Acute psychological stress reduces plasma triglyceride clearance.

    PubMed

    Stoney, Catherine M; West, Sheila G; Hughes, Joel W; Lentino, Lisa M; Finney, Montenique L; Falko, James; Bausserman, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Acute stress elevates blood lipids, with the largest increases among men and postmenopausal women. The mechanisms for the effect are unknown, but may be due to altered lipid metabolism. This study investigated if acute stress induces transient reductions in triglyceride clearance in middle-aged men and women, and determined if gender and menopause affect triglyceride metabolism. Of the 35 women, half were premenopausal, and half were naturally postmenopausal; men (n = 35) were age matched. Clearance of an intravenously administered fat emulsion was assessed twice: once during a nonstress session, and again during a stress-testing session. During the stress session, a battery of behavioral stressors (serial subtraction, speech, mirror tracing, and Stroop) were performed for 40 min. The clearance rate of exogenous fat was significantly diminished during the stress, relative to the nonstress session. Women had more efficient clearance, relative to men, but there were no effects of menopausal status. The diminished ability to clear an intravenous fat emulsion during stress suggests one mechanism for stress-induced elevations in lipids. PMID:12206298

  16. A rabbit ear model for cold stress testing.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Gordon, S; Holden, M B; Smith, B P; Russell, G B; Koman, L A

    1994-01-01

    A rabbit ear model resembling the human digit was studied to determine the vascular response of the rabbit ear to a cold stress. Following moderate cooling (10 minutes at 5 degrees - 8 degrees C), auricular blood flow and cutaneous perfusion were reduced. This decrease was reversed by 30 minutes of warming. The response in the rabbit ear to cold stress is similar to that of normal human digits. The similarities between the control of the circulation in human digits and rabbit ears may result from the similarities in digital and auricular vascular receptors and receptor subtypes. Verification of the rabbit model provides an experimental method for obtaining important data regarding digital pathophysiology and the treatment of cold intolerance. Further study with this model will provide clinically relevant information regarding the pathophysiology of digital thermoregulatory abnormalities. PMID:7830538

  17. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  18. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  19. Effects of Cold Pressor Stress on the Human Startle Response

    PubMed Central

    Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  20. Intermittent cold stress enhances features of atherosclerotic plaque instability in apolipoprotein E‑deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Tang, Bing; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Yongjian; Ma, Shuangtao

    2014-10-01

    The cold weather is associated with an increased occurrence of acute coronary events. However, the mechanisms underlying cold‑induced myocardial infarctions have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, 20 male, eight week‑old, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)‑deficient mice were subjected to either control conditions or intermittent cold exposure for eight weeks. Mice in the cold group were placed in a cold room at 4˚C for 4 h per day, while the mice in the control group were kept in a room at 24˚C. Cold‑exposed mice did not significantly differ from control mice in body weight, fasting glucose concentration and plasma lipid levels, including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein and high‑density lipoprotein. The hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections of the aortic root demonstrated increased plaque size in the cold group compared with the control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, cold‑treated mice exhibited significantly decreased plaque collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell deposition and increased macrophage and lymphocyte content (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which are typical features of atherosclerotic plaque instability. Additionally, the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP‑9 and MMP‑14 were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)‑1 expression was decreased (P<0.05) following exposure to a cold environment. The present study demonstrated that chronic intermittent cold stress may increase atherosclerotic plaque size and promote plaque instability in ApoE‑deficient mice by altering the balance of MMPs and TIMPs. These findings may provide mechanistic insights into sudden cardiac death in cold environments. PMID:25109747

  1. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein mediates airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion through a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yang; Haiqiao, Wu; Xie, Wenyao; Huaping, Huang; Zhong, Han; Xiangdong, Zhou; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M

    2016-09-01

    Acute or chronic cold exposure exacerbates chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a cold-shock protein and is induced by various environmental stressors, such as hypothermia and hypoxia. In this study, we showed that CIRP gene and protein levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD and in rats with chronic airway inflammation compared with healthy subjects. Similarly, inflammatory cytokine production and MUC5AC secretion were up-regulated in rats following cigarette smoke inhalation. Cold temperature-induced CIRP overexpression and translocation were shown to be dependent on arginine methylation in vitro. CIRP overexpression promoted stress granule (SG) assembly. In the cytoplasm, the stability of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs was increased through specific interactions between CIRP and mediator mRNA 3'-UTRs; these interactions increased the mRNA translation, resulting in MUC5AC overproduction in response to cold stress. Conversely, CIRP silencing and a methyltransferase inhibitor (adenosine dialdehyde) promoted cytokine mRNA degradation and inhibited the inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion. These findings indicate that cold temperature can induce an airway inflammatory response and excess mucus production via a CIRP-mediated increase in mRNA stability and protein translation. PMID:27477308

  2. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  3. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  4. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  5. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII. PMID:26360248

  6. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent research in rodents found that exposure to stress led to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress responses, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, one day later participants in the stress group (n = 27) demonstrated significantly less

  7. Acute posttraumatic stress: nonacceptance of early intervention.

    PubMed

    Weisaeth, L

    2001-01-01

    Psychological resistance may be of considerable importance in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) population, considering that researchers in the field of traumatic stress are frequently unsuccessful in achieving high response rates, that many subjects suffering from PTSD never seek help, and that dropouts from therapy are frequent. This article presents data on the main complaints reported in the acute aftermath of an industrial disaster by 246 employees who had been exposed to the disaster. The dominant concerns were symptomatic complaints related to posttraumatic stress reactions rather than external problems. Sleep disturbance, anxiety/fear responses, and physical symptoms were reported by individuals with complaints in the acute phase as most problematic, while irritability and depressive symptoms appeared very infrequently among the reported main complaints. A high specificity and sensitivity were achieved in predicting later PTSD (as defined by DSM-III criteria) by applying early response variables: thus, there were few false-positives and false-negatives. There was a considerable overlap between the PTSD predictors and the main symptom complaints. From a prevention point of view, this should be advantageous, since it would bring the right people to seek help. However, in a significant proportion of the acutely distressed, the reluctance to seek help was motivated by the very symptoms that predicted PTSD. Even a relatively high rate of subjects agreeing to be screened (82.8%) would have lost 42% of those who qualified for a diagnosis of PTSD, and more than half of the subjects with severe outcomes would not have been included. For primary and secondary prevention, the findings suggest that early screening and outreach should be very active. PMID:11495094

  8. Neural models on temperature regulation for cold-stressed animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present review evaluates several assumptions common to a variety of current models for thermoregulation in cold-stressed animals. Three areas covered by the models are discussed: signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS), portions of the CNS involved, and the arrangement of neurons within networks. Assumptions in each of these categories are considered. The evaluation of the models is based on the experimental foundations of the assumptions. Regions of the nervous system concerned here include the hypothalamus, the skin, the spinal cord, the hippocampus, and the septal area of the brain.

  9. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system. PMID:25250721

  10. Effect of repetitive acute cold exposures during the last phase of broiler embryogenesis on cold resistance through the life span.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Rusal, M; Giloh, M; Yahav, S

    2009-03-01

    The time just before hatch is critical, because the embryo shifts toward internal and external pipping. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effect of repeated acute reductions of the incubation temperature during the last phase of broiler embryogenesis on posthatch cold tolerance and on the development of ascites syndrome. Fertile eggs were incubated at 37.8 degrees C and 56% RH. At 18 and 19 d of incubation, 3 treatments were conducted, comprising 2 or 3 exposures to 15 degrees C for 30 or 60 min each. During these cold exposures, egg temperature was measured by infrared thermography to determine sensible heat loss from the eggs. At hatch, BW and body temperature were measured. At 3 and 14 d of age, chicks were challenged by cold exposure to 10 degrees C for 3 h. From 14 d of age onward, three-quarters of the chicks were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the others were raised under regular conditions. The sensible heat loss from the eggs was 512 +/- 66 cal and 718 +/- 126 cal for 30 and 60 min of cold exposure, respectively. No effect of treatment on hatchability was observed, but body temperature and BW were greater to significantly greater in the treated chicks. Cold challenges at 3 and 14 d of age revealed a relative thermoregulatory advantage of embryos exposed to cold for 60 min. Under AIC, fewer treated chickens than controls developed ascites. At 38 d of age, BW and relative breast muscle weight were numerically to significantly greater in the treated chicks than in the control chicks when both were raised under regular conditions, whereas no differences were observed among the chicks raised under AIC. Repeated brief acute cold exposures during the last phase of embryogenesis appeared to improve the ability of growing broilers to withstand low ambient temperatures during their life span. Moreover, chickens treated during embryogenesis improved their performance under regular growth conditions. PMID:19211536

  11. Syndecan-1 Is Required to Maintain Intradermal Fat and Prevent Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wollny, Damian; Clark, Rod J.; Roopra, Avtar; Colman, Ricki J.; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Shedd, Timothy A.; Nelson, David W.; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Alexander, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostatic temperature regulation is fundamental to mammalian physiology and is controlled by acute and chronic responses of local, endocrine and nervous regulators. Here, we report that loss of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1, causes a profoundly depleted intradermal fat layer, which provides crucial thermogenic insulation for mammals. Mice without syndecan-1 enter torpor upon fasting and show multiple indicators of cold stress, including activation of the stress checkpoint p38α in brown adipose tissue, liver and lung. The metabolic phenotype in mutant mice, including reduced liver glycogen, is rescued by housing at thermoneutrality, suggesting that reduced insulation in cool temperatures underlies the observed phenotypes. We find that syndecan-1, which functions as a facultative lipoprotein uptake receptor, is required for adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Intradermal fat shows highly dynamic differentiation, continuously expanding and involuting in response to hair cycle and ambient temperature. This physiology probably confers a unique role for Sdc1 in this adipocyte sub-type. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone rescues Sdc1−/− intradermal adipose tissue, placing PPARγ downstream of Sdc1 in triggering adipocyte differentiation. Our study indicates that disruption of intradermal adipose tissue development results in cold stress and complex metabolic pathology. PMID:25101993

  12. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), super oxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and heat stress

  13. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress.

  14. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  15. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  16. Brahma Rasayana enhances in vivo antioxidant status in cold-stressed chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramnath, V.; Rekha, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Materials and Methods: Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 ± 10C and relative humidity of 40 ± 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days). The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR) supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally) during cold stress was also studied. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and serum reduced glutathione (GSH) in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT) and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Conclusions: Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress. PMID:20442818

  17. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Andy; Tseng, Te-Ming; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Burgos, Nilda Roma

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1) classify the subspecies (ssp.) grouping (japonica or indica) of 21 accessions; 2) evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3) analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and cultivated

  18. Analysis of Stress-Responsive Gene Expression in Cultivated and Weedy Rice Differing in Cold Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Caroline Borges; Basu, Supratim; Pereira, Andy; Tseng, Te-Ming; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Burgos, Nilda Roma

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars show impairment of growth in response to environmental stresses such as cold at the early seedling stage. Locally adapted weedy rice is able to survive under adverse environmental conditions, and can emerge in fields from greater soil depth. Cold-tolerant weedy rice can be a good genetic source for developing cold-tolerant, weed-competitive rice cultivars. An in-depth analysis is presented here of diverse indica and japonica rice genotypes, mostly weedy rice, for cold stress response to provide an understanding of different stress adaptive mechanisms towards improvement of the rice crop performance in the field. We have tested a collection of weedy rice genotypes to: 1) classify the subspecies (ssp.) grouping (japonica or indica) of 21 accessions; 2) evaluate their sensitivity to cold stress; and 3) analyze the expression of stress-responsive genes under cold stress and a combination of cold and depth stress. Seeds were germinated at 25°C at 1.5- and 10-cm sowing depth for 10d. Seedlings were then exposed to cold stress at 10°C for 6, 24 and 96h, and the expression of cold-, anoxia-, and submergence-inducible genes was analyzed. Control plants were seeded at 1.5cm depth and kept at 25°C. The analysis revealed that cold stress signaling in indica genotypes is more complex than that of japonica as it operates via both the CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways, implicated through induction of transcription factors including OsNAC2, OsMYB46 and OsF-BOX28. When plants were exposed to cold + sowing depth stress, a complex signaling network was induced that involved cross talk between stresses mediated by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways to circumvent the detrimental effects of stresses. The experiments revealed the importance of the CBF regulon for tolerance to both stresses in japonica and indica ssp. The mechanisms for cold tolerance differed among weedy indica genotypes and also between weedy indica and cultivated

  19. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  20. Changes in free amino acid levels in sour orange leaves in response to cold stress and during recovery from cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, we reported that potted sour orange trees recovering from cold stress attracted more Asian citrus psyllid than the control plants continuously kept under warm condition. In parallel studies, cold treated plants were shown to have relatively increased amounts of ninhydrin positi...

  1. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  2. Variations in mental performance under moderate cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. M.; Panwar, M. R.

    1987-03-01

    Effects of moderate cold stress on reasoning ability, associative learning and critical flicker frequncy of Indian subjects were studied by exposing them to 25‡C,. 20‡C, 15‡C and 10‡C for three hours. A second set of experiments was also conducted to confirm the conclusions of the first by using the same temperatures and duration of exposure. However, not only the sample used in the second case was larger and different but also the mental functions tested were numerical ability, running memory and mental alertness. It has been concluded that there is a significant impairment of simple cognitive functions at 15‡C which is 10‡C lower than their most comfortable temperature of 25‡C.

  3. Chronic restraint stress induces mechanical and cold allodynia, and enhances inflammatory pain in rat: Relevance to human stress-associated painful pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bardin, L; Malfetes, N; Newman-Tancredi, A; Depoortère, R

    2009-12-28

    Whereas acute stress often results in analgesia, chronic stress can trigger hyperalgesia/allodynia. This influence of long-term stress on nociception is relevant to numerous painful pathologies, such as fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by diffuse muscular pain (hyperalgesia) and/or tenderness (allodynia). Hence, there is a need for pre-clinical models integrating a chronic-stress dimension to the study of pain. Here, we assessed the effects of protracted/intermittent stress produced by daily, 1h restraint periods in cylinders, 4 days/week over 5 weeks, on eight models of hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. This type of stress potentiated chemical hyperalgesia in the formalin model (160 and 76% increase of pain score above controls, during the early and late phases, respectively). It also produced thermal allodynia in response to cold (paw acetone test: 200% increase of allodynia score during week 3-5) and heat (42 degrees C tail immersion test: 15% decrease of withdrawal threshold, from week 2 onward). This stress also resulted in mechanical allodynia in the von Frey filaments model (60% decrease in threshold during week 2-5). However, such a stress regimen had no influence in the Randall-Selitto test of mechanical hyperalgesia, and in the tail immersion models of cold (4 degrees C) or hot (48 degrees C) thermal hyperalgesia, as well as cold (15 degrees C) allodynia. This model of prolonged/intermittent restraint stress may be useful in investigating the mechanisms linking stress and pain, and provide an assay to assess the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs targeted against painful pathologies with a strong stress component, including but not restricted to FM. PMID:19616033

  4. Thermoregulatory disorders and illness related to heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, William P

    2016-04-01

    Thermoregulation is a vital function of the autonomic nervous system in response to cold and heat stress. Thermoregulatory physiology sustains health by keeping body core temperature within a degree or two of 37°C, which enables normal cellular function. Heat production and dissipation are dependent on a coordinated set of autonomic responses. The clinical detection of thermoregulatory impairment provides important diagnostic and localizing information in the evaluation of disorders that impair thermoregulatory pathways, including autonomic neuropathies and ganglionopathies. Failure of neural thermoregulatory mechanisms or exposure to extreme or sustained temperatures that overwhelm the body's thermoregulatory capacity can also result in potentially life-threatening departures from normothermia. Hypothermia, defined as a core temperature of <35.0°C, may present with shivering, respiratory depression, cardiac dysrhythmias, impaired mental function, mydriasis, hypotension, and muscle dysfunction, which can progress to cardiac arrest or coma. Management includes warming measures, hydration, and cardiovascular support. Deaths from hypothermia are twice as frequent as deaths from hyperthermia. Hyperthermia, defined as a core temperature of >40.5°C, may present with sweating, flushing, tachycardia, fatigue, lightheadedness, headache, and paresthesia, progressing to weakness, muscle cramps, oliguria, nausea, agitation, hypotension, syncope, confusion, delirium, seizures, and coma. Mental status changes and core temperature distinguish potentially fatal heat stroke from heat exhaustion. Management requires the immediate reduction of core temperature. Ice water immersion has been shown to be superior to alternative cooling measures. Avoidance of thermal risk and early recognition of cold or heat stress are the cornerstones of preventive therapy. PMID:26794588

  5. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

  6. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes. PMID:23793998

  7. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals. PMID:23478289

  8. The effect of cold stress on lymphocyte proliferation in fetal ethanol-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Giberson, P K; Kim, C K; Hutchison, S; Yu, W; Junker, A; Weinberg, J

    1997-11-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure and stress have each been shown to have significant effects on the immune system. This study examined the possible interactive effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and exposure to stress later in life on the immune system. Differential vulnerability to these challenges in female and male offspring was assessed. At 5 to 6 months of age, female and male offspring from prenatal ethanol-exposed (E), pair-red (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) conditions were exposed to 0, 1 or 3 days of cold (4 degrees C). At the end of the cold period, the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes to the mitogens concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) was assessed. The data demonstrate a significant interactive effect between prenatal ethanol exposure and cold stress in female offspring. After 1 day of cold stress, E females had significantly increased PWM-induced lymphocyte proliferation compared with PF and C females, and significantly increased Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation compared with PF females. There were no differences in PWM or Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation among E, PF, and C females after 0 or 3 days of cold stress, nor among E, PF, and C males on any test day. Regardless of prenatal treatment, females exposed to 1 or 3 days of cold had significantly greater basal plasma corticosterone levels than females not exposed to cold. In contrast, only E males exposed to 1 or 3 days of cold had significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone levels, compared with E males not exposed to cold; PF and C males showed no significant change in basal corticosterone after cold stress. These data demonstrate that, in response to the challenge of cold stress, changes in lymphocyte proliferation to PWM and Con A may occur selectively in E females. Moreover, the interactive effects of prenatal ethanol and cold stress may result in enhanced rather than suppressed immune responsiveness. PMID:9394116

  9. Auxin Response in Arabidopsis under Cold Stress: Underlying Molecular Mechanisms[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Kyohei; Uemura, Matsuo; Tsurumi, Seiji; Rahman, Abidur

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mechanistic basis of cold temperature stress and the role of the auxin response, we characterized root growth and gravity response of Arabidopsis thaliana after cold stress, finding that 8 to 12 h at 4°C inhibited root growth and gravity response by ∼50%. The auxin-signaling mutants axr1 and tir1, which show a reduced gravity response, responded to cold treatment like the wild type, suggesting that cold stress affects auxin transport rather than auxin signaling. Consistently, expression analyses of an auxin-responsive marker, IAA2-GUS, and a direct transport assay confirmed that cold inhibits root basipetal (shootward) auxin transport. Microscopy of living cells revealed that trafficking of the auxin efflux carrier PIN2, which acts in basipetal auxin transport, was dramatically reduced by cold. The lateral relocalization of PIN3, which has been suggested to mediate the early phase of root gravity response, was also inhibited by cold stress. Additionally, cold differentially affected various protein trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inhibition of protein trafficking by cold is independent of cellular actin organization and membrane fluidity. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of cold stress on auxin is linked to the inhibition of intracellular trafficking of auxin efflux carriers. PMID:20040541

  10. Effect of season on peripheral resistance to localised cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Harimura, Y.; Tochihara, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Ohnaka, T.; Matsui, J.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect that seasonal changes have on the effect of localised cold stress on peripheral temperatures using the foot immersion method with a cold water bath. The subjects were six males and four females. The data were obtained in April, July, October and January. Skin temperature of the right index finger, the forehead, the arm, the cheek, the second toe and the instep were measured before, during and after the immersion of the feet in water at 15°C for 10 mins, as well as oxygen consumption before immersion of the feet. The average finger temperature was highest during foot immersion in the summer, next highest in the winter, then spring, and the lowest during foot immersion in the autumn. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period in the autumn tended to be lower than in other seasons. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period affected the temperature change of the finger during the immersion period. The rate of increase of the toe temperature and the foot temperature during post-immersion in the summer and the spring were greater than those in the autumn and winter. Oxygen consumption during the pre-immersion period in the autumn was significantly lower than in the other seasons (p<0.001 or 0.010). Cooling the feet caused no significant changes in the temperatures the cheek, forehead or forearm. The cheek temperature in the summer and autumn was cooler than corresponding temperatures taken in the winter and spring.

  11. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915

  12. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23–71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). Results There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5–6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Conclusion Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems. PMID:23301005

  13. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  14. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Eric D; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  15. The effects of acute and chronic stress on diabetes control.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2012-10-23

    Stress is an important contributor to pathological conditions in humans. Hormonal changes that occur during acute and chronic stress situations can affect glucose homeostasis in both healthy people and in those with diabetes. Several studies have reported a negative effect of acute stress on maintenance of blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The effect of stress on glycemic control in people with diabetes may be related to a direct effect of stress hormones on blood glucose levels and an indirect effect of stress on patient behaviors related to diabetes treatment and monitoring and meal and exercise plans. In contrast, there is no clear evidence that stressful life events promote the development of diabetes in children or in adults. Stress hyperglycemia, the development of hyperglycemia during acute illness, represents another interesting connection between the stress system and glucose homeostasis. A large body of evidence supports an association between stress hyperglycemia and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Interestingly, there is some evidence supporting a beneficial effect of insulin in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. Finally, stress can influence the development of type 2 diabetes indirectly by promoting obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23092890

  16. The expression of thioredoxin-1 in acute epinephrine stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jin-Jing; Zeng, Xian-Si; Li, Kun; Ma, Li-Fang; Chen, Lei; Song, Xin-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Stress, a state of perceived threat to homeostasis, regulates a panel of important physiological functions. The human mind and body respond to stress by activating the sympathetic nervous system and secreting the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in the "fight-or-flight" response. However, the protective mechanism of acute stress is still unknown. In the present study, an acute stress mouse model was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of epinephrine (0.2 mg kg(-1)) for 4 h. Epinephrine treatment induced heat shock 70(Hsp70) expression in the stress responsive tissues, such as the cortex, hippocampus, thymus, and kidney. Further, the expression of thioredoxin-1(Trx-1), a cytoprotective protein, was also upregulated in these stress responsive tissues. In addition, the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor of Trx-1, was increased after treatment with epinephrine. The block of CREB activation by H89 inhibited the acute epinephrine stress-induced Trx-1 and Hsp70 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that acute stimuli of epinephrine induced Trx-1 expression through activating CREB and may represent a protective role against stress. PMID:27511023

  17. An Antihistamine Decongestant in the Prevention of Acute Otitis Media in Children with Colds

    PubMed Central

    Brownoff, R.; Hutchison, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Most clinical drug trials relating to acute otitis media have evaluated medications in terms of treatment. In this randomized double-blind, cross-over study, the effectiveness of an antihistamine decongestant in the prevention of AOM was investigated, rather than the treatment. The medication/placebo was started at the onset of a cold and continued throughout its duration. No treatment effect was evident in the results obtained with 308 children who completed the eight-month study. However, the results indicated a strong relationship between colds and AOM, and a trend toward higher occurrence of AOM in children under four years of age. PMID:21233997

  18. An Antihistamine Decongestant in the Prevention of Acute Otitis Media in Children with Colds

    PubMed Central

    Brownoff, R.; Hutchison, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Most clinical drug trials relating to acute otitis media have evaluated medications in terms of treatment. In this randomized double-blind, cross-over study, the effectiveness of an antihistamine decongestant in the prevention of AOM was investigated, rather than the treatment. The medication/placebo was started at the onset of a cold and continued throughout its duration. No treatment effect was evident in the results obtained with 308 children who completed the eight-month study. However, the results indicated a strong relationship between colds and AOM, and a trend toward higher occurrence of AOM in children under four years of age. PMID:21253110

  19. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as ''cold'' lesions on bone scan: a report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    ''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.

  20. Acute Stress Modulates Risk Taking in Financial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions. Although a goal for researchers is to elucidate stress-coping mechanisms to facilitate decision-making processes, it is important to first understand the interaction between the state created by a stressful environment and how decisions are performed in such environments. The objective of this experiment was to probe the impact of exposure to acute stress on financial decision-making and examine the particular influence of stress on decisions with a positive or negative valence. Participants’ choices exhibited a stronger reflection effect when participants were under stress than when they were in the no-stress control phase. This suggests that stress modulates risk taking, potentially exacerbating behavioral bias in subsequent decision making. Consistent with dual-process approaches, decision makers fall back on automatized reactions to risk under the influence of disruptive stress. PMID:19207694

  1. The effects of acute cold exposure on morphology and gene expression in the heart of neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Ohtsuka, Akira; Kanai, Yukio; Hirabayashi, Miho

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure induces an increase in blood flow and blood pressure, and long-term exposure to cold causes cardiac hypertrophy. Neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) are highly sensitive to cold exposure, because their capacity for thermogenesis is immature until 1 week after hatching. Hence, we hypothesized that the heart of chicks at around 1 week of age acutely responds to cold environment. To investigate the effect of acute (24 h) and long-term (2 weeks) cold on the heart of chicks, 7-day-old chicks were exposed to cold temperature (4 °C) or kept warm (30 °C). Chicks exposed to the cold showed cardiac hypertrophy with marked left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation and wall thickening. On the other hand, long-term cold exposure (2 weeks from 7-day-old) induced an increase in total ventricular mass, but not in LV morphological parameters. Then, we investigated the details of acute cardiac hypertrophy in chicks. Electron microscopy revealed that cardiomyocytes in the hypertrophied LV had enlarged mitochondria with less dense cristae. Although the mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase in the LV of the cold-exposed chicks significantly increased, the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation did not change in response to cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and function under physiological cardiac hypertrophy, increased in LV of cold-exposed chicks. The study found that acute cold exposure to neonatal chicks induces LV hypertrophy. However, these results suggest that acute cold exposure to chicks might induce both adaptive and maladaptive responses of the LV. PMID:26733397

  2. Comparative photosynthetic and metabolic analyses reveal mechanism of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass by exogenous melatonin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Xie, Yan; Amombo, Erick; Liu, Ao; Gitau, Margaret Mukami; Khaldun, A B M; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been reported to participate in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of melatonin in the cold-sensitive (S) and the cold-tolerant (T) bermudagrass genotypes' response to cold stress. The genotypes were treated with 100 μM melatonin and exposed to 4 °C temperature for 3 days. In both genotypes, cold stress increased the endogenous melatonin levels, and more prominently in T than S. Physiological responses indicated that exogenous melatonin triggered antioxidant activities in both genotypes, while it alleviated cell damage in the T genotype response to cold stress. Melatonin treatment under cold stress increased fluorescence curve levels for both genotypes, and higher in T than S genotypes. In both genotypes, the alterations in photosynthetic fluorescence parameters after melatonin treatment highlighted the participation of melatonin in improving photosystem response to cold stress, particularly for the cold-tolerant genotype. The metabolic analyses revealed the alterations of 44 cold-responsive metabolites in the two genotypes, mainly including carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids. After exogenous melatonin treatment under cold condition, there was high accumulation of metabolites in the cold-tolerant regimes than their cold-sensitive counterparts. Collectively, the present study revealed differential modulations of melatonin between the cold-sensitive and the cold-tolerant genotypes in response to cold stress. This was mainly by impacting antioxidant system, photosystem II, as well as metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26807934

  3. Changes in acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampus under cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Fatranska, M.; Budai, D.; Gulya, K; Kvetnansky, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim was to study the mechanism of the previously established decrease in acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the rat hippocampus under cold stress. Male rats were exposed for 14 days to cold (5/degree/C) or kept (controls) at room temperature (24/degree/C). Acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptor binding were investigated in the hippocampus. Cold exposure resulted in a decrease of ACh concentration in the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, the potassium-evoked release of ACh from hippocampal slices was increased and an increase of maximal binding capacity of (/sup 3/H)(-) quinuclidinyl benzilate in the dorsal hippocampus of cold exposed animals was also observed. Thus the decrease of hippocampal ACh concentration under cold exposure is probably due to its increased release. On balance then, our results demonstrate that cold stress in the rat induces significant activation of the hippocampal cholinergic system.

  4. Supplemental fat for dairy calves during mild cold stress.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Da Silva, D N L; LaBerge, R J; Schefers, J; Kertz, A

    2014-05-01

    Eighty-one Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy calves fed calf milk replacer (CMR) were used to determine response to increasing amounts of supplemental fat during mild cold stress. Calves (n=27) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low fat [LF; 28% crude protein:15% fat milk replacer (28:15 MR)]; (2) medium fat [MF; 28:15 MR+113 g/d of commercial fat supplement (FS)]; (3) high fat (HF; 28:15 MR+227 g/d of FS). The MF and HF calves received FS from d 2 to 21, and all calves were fed LF from d 22 to 49. The CMR was fed at 1.4% of birth body weight (BBW) from d 1 to 10, at 1.8% of BBW from d 11 to 42, and at 0.9% of BBW from d 43 to 49. Calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in hutches until d 56. The CMR was reconstituted to 13% solids. Calves were fed a commercial starter grain (19.2% crude protein on a dry matter basis) ad libitum and offered warm water after CMR feeding. Calves were fed CMR twice daily at 0630 and 1730 h in hutches bedded with straw. Starter intake, CMR intake, and ambient temperature were measured daily, and body weight (BW), hip height, and body length were measured weekly. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Calf BBW averaged 42.0 ± 1.0 kg, total serum protein averaged 5.8 ± 0.1mg/dL, and birth ambient temperature averaged 5.0 ± 1.1°C. Feeding FS increased metabolizable energy intake (MEI) over maintenance but decreased efficiency of conversion of BW gain:MEI. Starter intake by LF calves was greatest until the beginning of weaning, after which starter intake was similar among treatments. Because of higher starter intake, total MEI was similar among treatments. Feed efficiency through d 49 was greater for calves fed MF and HF. Average daily gain during fat supplementation was greater for MF and HF than for LF. Lack of increase in BW gain and feed efficiency between MF and HF treatments indicated that HF did not result in advantages

  5. The effect of adrenomedullin and cold stress on interleukin-6 levels in some rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, N C; Yurekli, M

    2010-01-01

    Stress known to stimulate sympathetic activity, as well as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA), produces a significant increase in adrenomedullin (AdM) levels, suggesting a regulatory or protective role for AdM in countering HPA activation that follows a variety of stressors. Stressors can modulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a potent activator of the HPA and appears to play a pathogenic role in conditions related to stress. In the present study, we investigated the administration of AdM on IL-6 levels in cold exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups as control, adrenomedullin treatment, cold stress and cold stress+adrenomedullin-treated groups. In the adrenomedullin-treated group, animals received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of adrenomedullin (2000 ng/kg body weight) once a day for a week. For the cold stress exposure the rats were kept in separate cages at 10°C for a week. Control group rats were kept in laboratory conditions. The concentration of IL-6 was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. When compared to control, IL-6 levels increased significantly in the cold stress- and adrenomedullin-treated groups (P < 0·05). Administration of AdM in addition to cold stress decreased IL-6 levels in lung and liver, but increased in brain and heart when compared to control (P < 0·05). The results suggest that cold stress may induce increase of rat proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and adrenomedullin may play a regulatory or protective role for cold stress. PMID:20456410

  6. Effect of acute cold exposure on the mobilization of intramuscular glycogen and triglycerides in the rat.

    PubMed

    Górski, J; Kuryliszyn, A; Wereszczyńska, U

    1981-01-01

    Male Wistar rats, 300-360 g of body weight, were exposed to cold (1 degree) for 3 and 24 h. The levels of glycogen and triglycerides (TG) were estimated in "white" and "red" portions of the quadriceps muscle (FG and POG muscles respectively) in the soleus muscle (SO muscle), and in the heart muscle. It was found that 3 h cold exposure decreased significantly the glycogen level only in the heart muscle and had no effect in the other muscles examined. Exposure to cold for 24 h reduced the glycogen level in FG and FOG muscles, and lowered further the heart glycogen level. No change of glycogen level during cold exposure was observed in SO muscle. The level of TG in each examined muscle was significantly reduced already after 3 h of cold exposure. After 24 h it remained further unchanged in FG and FOG muscles whereas in SO and heart muscles a partial recovery of TG occurred. It is concluded that in warm-acclimatized rats the intramuscular TG play an important role as a local source of free fatty acids during the first period of acute exposure to cold. PMID:7348527

  7. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which "oxidation-reduction process" was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189. PMID:26941746

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which “oxidation-reduction process” was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189. PMID:26941746

  9. CANDIDATE REGULATORS OF THE COLD STRESS RESPONSE GENE REGULON OF RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional regulatory network is an important component of the mechanisms that define the adaptive responses of plants to cold stress. In cold-acclimating plants, the centerpiece of such network is the CBF/DREB family of AP2-type transcription factors. In non-acclimating plants like rice, the n...

  10. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PMID:24852131

  11. Effect of banana on cold stress test & peak expiratory flow rate in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, C; Bairy, K L; Rao, N M; Udupa, E G

    1999-07-01

    The effect of banana on cold stress induced hypertension, peak expiratory flow rate and plasma ACE activity in healthy human volunteers was tested. Systolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.025) and mean arterial blood pressure (P < 0.005) were significantly decreased during cold stress after banana treatment compared to controls subjected to cold stress. There was no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity after banana treatment. Banana decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:10709336

  12. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Halabian, Raheleh; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Masroori, Nasser; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  13. Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Under Acute Stress: The Role of Trait Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job) or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance). They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards, and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises stressful situations interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low trait perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high trait perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision-making. PMID:22833731

  14. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  15. Identification of differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus of chicken during cold stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Wang, M; Geng, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    In order to discover the mechanism of cold stress and identify differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus during cold stress, 4 weeks of age Huainan partridge chickens, Chinese indigenous breed, were chosen for 24 h cold stress and then hypothalamus were isolated and labeled by reverse transcription reaction for cDNA. Labeled cDNA were hybridized with cDNA microarray. After scanning and image processing, the different gene expression profiling of hypothalamus and normal control was investigated. The differentially expressed genes included 334 down-regulated genes and 543 up-regulated genes. In these differentially regulated genes, myosin heavy chain polypeptide 11 (MYH11), light chain polypeptide 9 (MYL9) and tenascin-Y (TNXB), etc., which involved in muscle activity were significantly down-regulated. Genes like cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (NPY5R), hypocretin receptor 2 (HCRTR2) and hypocretin neuropeptide precursor (HCRT) which responsible for regulation of feeding behavior were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes responsible for lipid synthesis, like apolipoprotein (APOB) and agouti related protein homolog (AGRP), were also up-regulated. Through pathway analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomics, during 24 h cold stress, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was firstly initiated in chickens for stimulation of central nervus for feed intake. Adipocytokine signaling pathway was in high activation for supplementation of body energy. Jak-STAT, Ca(2+) signaling pathway and other biological reactions were also initiated in response to cold stress. The biological pathways participated in cold stress would provide important information for clarify the mechanism of cold stress and the differentially expressed genes would give much help for screening of candidate genes in breeding of cold stress resistant lines. PMID:24407606

  16. Acute toxicity of dispersed crude oil on the cold-water copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Elusive implications of lipid content.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida B; Olsen, Anders J; Salaberria, Iurgi; Nordtug, Trond

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, acute toxicity data were used from two previously reported studies where cold-water copepods were exposed to mechanically dispersed (MD) and chemically (CD) dispersed oil. In one of these studies, concentration-dependent mortality was observed, whereas no apparent relationship between exposure concentration and mortality was found in the other. The only marked difference between the studies is that copepods in the first experiment displayed a lower lipid sac volume (on average) than in the second one. In this study additional biometric data on lipid content were utilized and observed effects and toxicokinetics modeling applied in order to investigate whether differences in sensitivity between copepod cohorts might be explained by differences in lipid content. Results suggest that although a considerable lipid sac might retard toxicokinetics, the observed differences in lipid volume are not sufficient to explain differences in toxicity. Further, there are no apparent indications that acute toxic stress leads to lipid depletion, or that acute increased mortality rate selectively affects lipid-poor individuals. It is conceivable that other potential explanations exist, but the causal relationship between lipid content and increased mortality frequency remains elusive. PMID:27484137

  17. Physiological and Molecular Mechanism of Nitric Oxide (NO) Involved in Bermudagrass Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jibiao; Chen, Ke; Amombo, Erick; Hu, Zhengrong; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-01-01

    Bermudagrass is widely utilized in parks, lawns, and golf courses. However, cold is a key factor limiting resource use in bermudagrass. Therefore, it is meaningful to study the mechanism of bermudagrass response to cold. Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial signal molecule with multiple biological functions. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NO play roles in bermudagrass response to cold. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as NO donor, while 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramentylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-xide (PTIO) plus NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were applied as NO inhibitor. Wild bermudagrass was subjected to 4 °C in a growth chamber under different treatments (Control, SNP, PTIO + L-NAME). The results indicated lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage (EL), higher value for chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities after SNP treatment than that of PTIO plus L-NAME treatments under cold stress. Analysis of Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence transient displayed that the OJIP transient curve was higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. The values of photosynthetic fluorescence parameters were higher after treatment with SNP than that of treated with PTIO plus L-NAME under cold stress. Expression of cold-responsive genes was altered under cold stress after treated with SNP or PTIO plus L-NAME. In summary, our findings indicated that, as an important strategy to protect bermudagrass against cold stress, NO could maintain the stability of cell membrane, up-regulate the antioxidant enzymes activities, recover process of photosystem II (PSII) and induce the expression of cold-responsive genes. PMID:26177459

  18. Transcriptional profiling of Petunia seedlings reveals candidate regulators of the cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Ning, Luyun; Zhang, Junwei; Bao, Manzhu; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petunias are important ornamentals with the capacity for cold acclimation. So far, there is limited information concerning gene regulation and signaling pathways associated with the cold stress response in petunias. A custom-designed petunia microarray representing 24816 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in petunia seedlings subjected to cold at 2°C for 0.5 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 5 d. A total of 2071 transcripts displayed differential expression patterns under cold stress, of which 1149 were up-regulated and 922 were down-regulated. Gene ontology enrichment analysis demarcated related biological processes, suggesting a possible link between flavonoid metabolism and plant adaptation to low temperatures. Many novel stress-responsive regulators were revealed, suggesting that diverse regulatory pathways may exist in petunias in addition to the well-characterized CBF pathway. The expression changes of selected genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided the petunia genes on the array into 65 modules that showed high co-expression and identified stress-specific hub genes with high connectivity. Our identification of these transcriptional responses and groups of differentially expressed regulators will facilitate the functional dissection of the molecular mechanism in petunias responding to environment stresses and extend our ability to improve cold tolerance in plants. PMID:25784921

  19. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks. PMID:26642742

  20. Acute nonhypothermic exposure to cold impedes motor skill performance in video gaming compared to thermo-neutral and hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew M; Crowther, Robert G; Morton, R Hugh; Polman, Remco C

    2011-02-01

    The study examined whether or not acute exposure to unfamiliar hot or cold conditions impairs performance of highly skilled coordinative activities and whether prior physical self-efficacy beliefs were associated with task completion. Nineteen volunteers completed both Guitar Hero and Archery activities as a test battery using the Nintendo Wii console in cold (2 degrees C), neutral (20 degrees C), and hot (38 degrees C) conditions. Participants all completed physical self-efficacy questionnaires following experimental familiarization. Performances of both Guitar Hero and Archery significantly decreased in the cold compared with the neutral condition. The cold trial was also perceived as the condition requiring both greater concentration and effort. There was no association between performance and physical self-efficacy. Performance of these coordinative tasks was compromised by acute (nonhypothermic) exposure to cold; the most likely explanation is that the cold condition presented a greater challenge to attentional processes as a form of environmental distraction. PMID:21466095

  1. ACUTE MENTAL STRESS AND HEMOSTASIS: WHEN PHYSIOLOGY BECOMES VASCULAR HARM

    PubMed Central

    von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the sympathoadrenal medullary system activates both the coagulation and fibrinolysis system resulting in net hypercoagulability. The evolutionary interpretation of this physiology is that stress-hypercoagulability protects a healthy organism from excess bleeding should injury occur in fight-or-flight situations. In turn, acute mental stress, negative emotions and psychological trauma also are triggering factors of atherothrombotic events and possibly of venous thromboembolism. Individuals with pre-existent atherosclerosis and impaired endothelial anticoagulant function are the most vulnerable to experience onset of acute coronary events within two hours of intense emotions. A range of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors (e.g., chronic stress and negative affect) might critically intensify and prolong stress-induced hypercoagulability. In contrast, several pharmacological compounds, dietary flavanoids, and positive affect mitigate the acute prothrombotic stress response. Studies are needed to investigate whether attenuation of stress-hypercoagulability through medications and biobehavioral interventions reduce the risk of thrombotic incidents in at-risk populations. PMID:25861135

  2. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  3. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems. PMID:24351762

  4. Comparative analysis of gene expression in response to cold stress in diverse rice genotypes.

    PubMed

    Moraes de Freitas, Gabriela Peres; Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Braga, Eugenia Bolacel; Pereira, Andy

    2016-02-26

    Cold stress is a major factor affecting rice (Oryza sativa) growth and productivity, limiting its distribution worldwide. Rice production is affected primarily due to its vulnerability to cold stress at seedling stage, as well as reproductive stage leading to spikelet sterility. We report here the analysis of 21 diverse rice genotypes from the USDA mini-core collection for cold tolerance and categorized their tolerance levels on the basis of reduction in growth measured by root and shoot length. The screening identified 12 cold tolerant genotypes from which six tolerant genotypes were characterized at the vegetative stage for cold tolerance and gas-exchange parameters. Two tolerant and two sensitive genotypes were used further for gene expression analysis. Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP) genes showed a clear difference in expression between cold tolerant and sensitive genotypes suggesting that they are good candidates for engineering cold tolerance in rice. Nipponbare was identified as a cold tolerant genotype with stress tolerance mechanism potentially operating via both ABA dependent and independent pathways. PMID:26855133

  5. EATING BEHAVIOR IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE STRESS.

    PubMed

    Mocanu, Veronica; Bontea, Amalia; Anton-Păduraru, Dana-teodora

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a medical and social problem with a dramatically increasing prevalence. It is important to take action since childhood to prevent and treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infantile obesity affects all body systems starting in childhood and continuing to adulthood. Understanding the impact of stressors on weight status may be especially important for preventing obesity. The relationship between stress, eating behavior and obesity is not fully understood. However, there is evidence that stress causes disorders in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, system that regulates both stress and feeding responses. Also, the response is different depending on the type of stressors. Chronic stress, especially when people live in a palatable food environment, induces HPA stimulation, excess glucocorticoids, insulin resistance, which lead to inhibition of lipid mobilization, accumulation of triglyceride and retention of abdominal fat. PMID:27483696

  6. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0 {+-} 0.1 {sup o}C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4 h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  7. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis. PMID:27468828

  8. Feasibility of Using Gamma Irradiation for Inactivation of Starvation-, Heat-, and Cold-Stressed Salmonella in Tahini.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Abubakar, Salisu A; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Holy, Murad A

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella continues to be the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and recently has been involved in infections related to edible seeds and their products, including tahini. This study investigated the (i) effectiveness of using gamma irradiation to inactivate starvation- and heat- or cold-stressed Salmonella in tahini, (ii) effect of storage on the sensitivity of stressed Salmonella to irradiation, and (iii) effect of irradiation on the chemical and physical characteristics of tahini. Tahini samples were inoculated with a cocktail of unstressed or stressed (starvation and heat or cold stress) Salmonella isolates and then exposed after storage at 21°C for 0, 7, and 30 days to gamma irradiation for up to 2.0 kGy. Additionally, the effect of irradiation on the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini were assessed. The initial level of unstressed and starvation- and heat-stressed Salmonella in tahini decreased by ca. 4.6 log CFU/g after exposure to 2.0 kGy, while cold-stressed cultures decreased by 4.5 log after exposure to 0.6 kGy. Irradiation doses of 1.0 kGy after 7 days of storage or 0.75 kGy after 30 days of storage decreased the populations of the unstressed and starvation- and heatstressed Salmonella by ca. 3.4 or 2.6 log, respectively. The D10-value of the unstressed Salmonella was 0.43 kGy. Starvation and heat stresses showed no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the calculated D10-value, whereas cold stress significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the D10-value to 0.14 kGy. Preirradiation storage for 7 and 30 days significantly decreased the D10-value to 0.31 and 0.28 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy did not significantly affect the color, peroxide, p-anisidine, and acid values of tahini when compared with nonirradiated samples. Therefore, this study lays the foundation for using irradiation as an effective means for minimizing the risk of Salmonella in tahini without compromising its quality. PMID:27296600

  9. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  10. Repeated, but Not Acute, Stress Suppresses Inflammatory Plasma Extravasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strausbaugh, Holly J.; Dallman, Mary F.; Levine, Jon D.

    1999-12-01

    Clinical findings suggest that inflammatory disease symptoms are aggravated by ongoing, repeated stress, but not by acute stress. We hypothesized that, compared with single acute stressors, chronic repeated stress may engage different physiological mechanisms that exert qualitatively different effects on the inflammatory response. Because inhibition of plasma extravasation, a critical component of the inflammatory response, has been associated with increased disease severity in experimental arthritis, we tested for a potential repeated stress-induced inhibition of plasma extravasation. Repeated, but not single, exposures to restraint stress produced a profound inhibition of bradykinin-induced synovial plasma extravasation in the rat. Experiments examining the mechanism of inhibition showed that the effect of repeated stress was blocked by adrenalectomy, but not by adrenal medullae denervation, suggesting that the adrenal cortex mediates this effect. Consistent with known effects of stress and with mediation by the adrenal cortex, restraint stress evoked repeated transient elevations of plasma corticosterone levels. This elevated corticosterone was necessary and sufficient to produce inhibition of plasma extravasation because the stress-induced inhibition was blocked by preventing corticosterone synthesis and, conversely, induction of repeated transient elevations in plasma corticosterone levels mimicked the effects of repeated stress. These data suggest that repetition of a mild stressor can induce changes in the physiological state of the animal that enable a previously innocuous stressor to inhibit the inflammatory response. These findings provide a potential explanation for the clinical association between repeated stress and aggravation of inflammatory disease symptoms and provide a model for study of the biological mechanisms underlying the stress-induced aggravation of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  11. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  12. Cold plasma treatment enhances oilseed rape seed germination under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Chunlei, Zhang; Yuanhua, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation levels and osmotic-adjustment products of oilseed rape under drought stress were investigated in a drought-sensitive (Zhongshuang 7) and drought-tolerant cultivar (Zhongshuang 11). Results showed that, under drought stress, cold plasma treatment significantly improved the germination rate by 6.25% in Zhongshuang 7, and 4.44% in Zhongshuang 11. Seedling growth characteristics, including shoot and root dry weights, shoot and root lengths, and lateral root number, significantly increased after cold plasma treatment. The apparent contact angle was reduced by 30.38% in Zhongshuang 7 and 16.91% in Zhongshuang 11. Cold plasma treatment markedly raised superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by 17.71% and 16.52% in Zhongshuang 7, and by 13.00% and 13.21% in Zhongshuang 11. Moreover, cold plasma treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar and protein contents, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in seedlings. Our results suggested that cold plasma treatment improved oilseed rape drought tolerance by improving antioxidant enzyme activities, increasing osmotic-adjustment products, and reducing lipid peroxidation, especially in the drought-sensitive cultivar (Zhongshuang 7). Thus, cold plasma treatment can be used in an ameliorative way to improve germination and protect oilseed rape seedlings against damage caused by drought stress. PMID:26264651

  13. Uncoupling Protein 1 and Sarcolipin Are Required to Maintain Optimal Thermogenesis, and Loss of Both Systems Compromises Survival of Mice under Cold Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Leslie A.; Bal, Naresh C.; Kozak, Leslie P.; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    The importance of brown adipose tissue as a site of nonshivering thermogenesis has been well documented. Emerging studies suggest that skeletal muscle is also an important site of thermogenesis especially when brown adipose tissue function is lacking. We recently showed that sarcolipin (SLN), an uncoupler of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump, could contribute to heat production in skeletal muscle. In this study, we sought to understand how loss of UCP1 or SLN is compensated during cold exposure and whether they are both necessary for thermogenesis. Toward this goal, we generated a UCP1;SLN double knock-out (DKO) mouse model and challenged the single and DKO mice to acute and long-term cold exposures. Results from this study show that there is up-regulation of SLN expression in UCP1-KO mice, and loss of SLN is compensated by increased expression of UCP1 and browning of white adipose tissue. We found that the DKO mice were viable when reared at thermoneutrality. When challenged to acute cold, the DKO were extremely cold-sensitive and became hypothermic. Paradoxically, the DKO mice were able to survive gradual cold challenge, but these mice lost significant weight and depleted their fat stores, despite having higher caloric intake. These studies suggest that UCP1 and SLN are required to maintain optimal thermogenesis and that loss of both systems compromises survival of mice under cold stress. PMID:25825499

  14. Acute stress affects the physiology and behavior of allergic mice.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Shome, G P; Hulbert, L E; Krebs, N; Wachtel, M; McGlone, J J

    2009-09-01

    Physical and psychological stressors have been implicated in acute asthma exacerbation. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of forced swimming stress (FST) on allergic pulmonary inflammation in BALB/c mice. Eighty female mice were allocated to one of four treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of two levels of allergy and two levels of stress. The effects of stress and allergy were assessed by examination of cytokines and leukocyte differentials in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, corticosterone and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the plasma, leukocyte differentials in the peripheral blood, natural killer cytotoxicity, and histopathology of the lungs. Behavior was recorded during the FST. Stress and allergy increased plasma corticosterone in mice. Allergy increased IgE concentrations and pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-4 was greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice and stressed, non-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and 6 (IL-6) were greater among allergic stressed and non-stressed mice compared with non-allergic mice. Interleukin-5 and 6 were reduced among stressed-allergic mice compared with non-stressed, allergic mice. Stress and allergy shifted mice towards a T-helper 2 response as shown by increased interleukin-4. Stress reduced IL-5 and IL-6 in allergic mice but not non-allergic mice. Pulmonary inflammation was not reduced among allergic stressed mice in spite of elevated glucocorticoids. Mice induced to be allergic responded to FST differently than non-allergic mice. Our findings suggest that stress induces a differential response among allergic and non-allergic mice. PMID:19527741

  15. Genome-Wide Survey of Cold Stress Regulated Alternative Splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana with Tiling Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Leviatan, Noam; Alkan, Noam; Leshkowitz, Dena; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in expanding the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes. It is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can increase protein diversity and affect mRNA stability. Alternative splicing is often regulated in a tissue-specific and stress-responsive manner. Cold stress, which adversely affects plant growth and development, regulates the transcription and splicing of plant splicing factors. This can affect the pre-mRNA processing of many genes. To identify cold regulated alternative splicing we applied Affymetrix Arabidopsis tiling arrays to survey the transcriptome under cold treatment conditions. A novel algorithm was used for detection of statistically relevant changes in intron expression within a transcript between control and cold growth conditions. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a number of randomly selected genes confirmed the changes in splicing patterns under cold stress predicted by tiling array. Our analysis revealed new types of cold responsive genes. While their expression level remains relatively unchanged under cold stress their splicing pattern shows detectable changes in the relative abundance of isoforms. The majority of cold regulated alternative splicing introduced a premature termination codon (PTC) into the transcripts creating potential targets for degradation by the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) process. A number of these genes were analyzed in NMD-defective mutants by RT-PCR and shown to evade NMD. This may result in new and truncated proteins with altered functions or dominant negative effects. The results indicate that cold affects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression. PMID:23776682

  16. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  17. Suppression of Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL78 increases tolerance to cold stress and decreases tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek

    2013-08-19

    AtATL78 is an Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays revealed that AtATL78 was up-regulated by cold stress and down-regulated by drought. AtATL78 was localized at the plasma-membrane. Suppression of AtATL78 increased tolerance to cold stress but decreased tolerance to drought. Our data suggests that AtATL78 is a negative regulator of cold stress response and a positive regulator of drought stress response in Arabidopsis. These results further suggest that AtATL78 plays opposing roles in cold and drought stress responses. PMID:23831064

  18. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  19. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  20. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  1. Effects of chronic plus acute prolonged stress on measures of coping style, anxiety, and evoked HPA-axis reactivity.

    PubMed

    Roth, Megan K; Bingham, Brian; Shah, Aparna; Joshi, Ankur; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to psychological trauma is the precipitating factor for PTSD. In addition, a history of chronic or traumatic stress exposure is a predisposing risk factor. We have developed a Chronic plus Acute Prolonged Stress (CAPS) treatment for rats that models some of the characteristics of stressful events that can lead to PTSD in humans. We have previously shown that CAPS enhances acute fear responses and impairs extinction of conditioned fear. Further, CAPS reduced the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex. In this study we examined the effects of CAPS exposure on behavioral stress coping style, anxiety-like behaviors, and acute stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CAPS treatment, consisting of chronic intermittent cold stress (4 °C, 6 h/day, 14 days) followed on day 15 by a single 1-h session of sequential acute stressors (social defeat, immobilization, swim). After CAPS or control treatment, different groups were tested for shock probe defensive burying, novelty suppressed feeding, or evoked activation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release by an acute immobilization stress. CAPS resulted in a decrease in active burying behavior and an increase in immobility in the shock probe test. Further, CAPS-treated rats displayed increases in the latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test, despite an increase in food intake in the home cage. CAPS treatment also reduced the HPA response to a subsequent acute immobilization stress. These results further validate CAPS treatment as a rat model of relevance to PTSD, and together with results reported previously, suggest that CAPS impairs fear extinction, shifts coping behavior from an active to a more passive strategy, increases anxiety, and alters HPA reactivity, resembling many aspects of human PTSD. PMID:22842072

  2. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Graves, James L; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2015-12-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  3. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  4. Dynamics of telomerase activity in response to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lin, Jue; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Puterman, E; Karan, Lori; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase activity plays an essential role in cel0l survival, by lengthening telomeres and promoting cell growth and longevity. It is now possible to quantify the low levels of telomerase activity in human leukocytes. Low basal telomerase activity has been related to chronic stress in people and to chronic glucocorticoid exposure in vitro. Here we test whether leukocyte telomerase activity changes under acute psychological stress. We exposed 44 elderly women, including 22 high stress dementia caregivers and 22 matched low stress controls, to a brief laboratory psychological stressor, while examining changes in telomerase activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At baseline, caregivers had lower telomerase activity levels than controls, but during stress telomerase activity increased similarly in both groups. Across the entire sample, subsequent telomerase activity increased by 18% one hour after the end of the stressor (p<0.01). The increase in telomerase activity was independent of changes in numbers or percentages of monocytes, lymphocytes, and specific T cell types, although we cannot fully rule out some potential contribution from immune cell redistribution in the change in telomerase activity. Telomerase activity increases were associated with greater cortisol increases in response to the stressor. Lastly, psychological response to the tasks (greater threat perception) was also related to greater telomerase activity increases in controls. These findings uncover novel relationships of dynamic telomerase activity with exposure to an acute stressor, and with two classic aspects of the stress response -- perceived psychological stress and neuroendocrine (cortisol) responses to the stressor. PMID:20018236

  5. Global Transcriptome Profiles of 'Meyer' Zoysiagrass in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shanjun; Du, Zhenlin; Gao, Fei; Ke, Xiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Jianxiu; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    A long green period is essential for a turfgrass species with high ornamental value and a wide area of use. Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp. Willd.) are perennial turfgrass species popular in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones, possessing many properties necessary to be economically useful turfgrass. They do not have a long green period because of cold sensitivity. A main focus in zoysiagrass research is to develop cold tolerant cultivars. Understanding the cold response in zoysiagrass is a fundamental area of research. In the present study, ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), a widely cultivated variety in the genus, is used. We employed RNA-Seq to investigate genome-wide gene expression profiles in leaves under cold stress (4°C). Using the Illumina sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 206 million high-quality paired-end reads from three libraries (0 h, 2 h, and 72 h cold treatment at 4°C). After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 46,412 unigenes were generated with an average length of 998 bp and an N50 of 1,522 bp. A total of 25,644 (55.2%) unigenes were annotated by alignment with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and KOG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. A total of 756 DEGs were identified between 0h and 2h-cold treatment, with 522 up-regulated and 234 down-regulated; and 5327 DEGs were identified between 0h and 72h-cold treatment, with 2453 up-regulated and 2874 down-regulated. The expression profile of 15 DEGs selected randomly was confirmed with qRT-PCR. The results suggest that cold stress can induce desiccation and oxidative stress, inhibit photosynthesis and substance transport. In response to the stress, genes involved in proline synthesis, in starch hydrolysis, in methionine and ascorbic acid metabolism, in SOD activity, and in DREBs response pathway were up-regulated. GA metabolism, ABA and JA stimulus response were affected under cold exposure. This is

  6. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics. PMID:23488143

  7. Cold stress improves the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 to survive freezing.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Bae, Dong-Won; Lim, Kwangsei; Griffiths, Mansel W; Oh, Sejong

    2014-11-17

    The stress resistance of bacteria is affected by the physiological status of the bacterial cell and environmental factors such as pH, salts and temperature. In this study, we report on the stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. The cold stress response of the cold-shock protein genes (cspC, cspL and cspP) and ATPase activities were then evaluated. The cold stress was adjusted to 5 °C when the bacteria were growing at the mid-exponential phase. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) and a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer. Only 56% of the L. plantarum L67 cells without prior exposure to cold stress survived after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. However, 78% of the L. plantarum L67 cells that were treated with cold stress at 5 °C for 6 h survived after freeze-thaw conditions. After applying cold stress to the culture for 6h, the cells were then stored for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C separately. The cold-stressed culture of L. plantarum L67 showed an 8% higher viability than the control culture. After applying cold stress for 6h, the transcript levels of two genes (cspP and cspL) were up-regulated 1.4 (cspP) and 1.2 (cspL) times compared to the control. However, cspC was not up-regulated. A proteomic analysis showed that the proteins increased after a reduction of the incubation temperature to 5 °C. The importance of the expression of 13 other relevant proteins was also determined through the study. The exposure of L. plantarum cells to low temperatures aids their ability to survive through subsequent freeze-thaw processes and lyophilization. PMID:25261832

  8. Roller Burnishing - A Cold Working Tool to Reduce Weld Induced Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect

    John Martin

    2002-02-19

    The possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in regions of tensile residual stress introduced by weld deposited material has been a concern where environmental effects can reduce component life. Roller burnishing, a form of mechanical cold-working, has been considered as a means of providing for residual stress state improvements. This paper provides a computational evaluation of the roller burnishing process to address the permanent deformation needed to introduce a desirable residual stress state. The analysis uses a series of incrementally applied pressure loadings and finite element methodology to simulate the behavior of a roller burnishing tool. Various magnitudes of applied pressure loadings coupled with different size plates and boundary conditions are examined to assess the degree and depth of the residual compressive stress state after cold working. Both kinematic and isotropic hardening laws are evaluated.

  9. Cold tolerance in thiourea primed capsicum seedlings is associated with transcript regulation of stress responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Manoj, Kamble; Kumari, Maya; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-12-01

    Benefits of seed priming in seedling establishment and tolerance to subsequent stress exposure are well reported. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the priming mediated benefits are not much discovered. Results of our earlier experiments established that thiourea (TU) seed priming imparts cold tolerance to capsicum seedlings. Therefore, to understand molecular mechanisms underlying priming mediated cold stress tolerance, quantitative transcript expression of stress responsive genes involved in transcript regulation (CaCBF1A, CaCBF1B, Zinc Finger protein, CaWRKY30), osmotic adjustment (PROX1, P5CS, Osmotin), antioxidant defence (CAT2, APX, GST, GR1, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, Fe SOD), signaling (Annexin), movement of solutes and water (CaPIP1), and metabolite biosynthesis through phenylpropanoid pathway (CAH) was studied in response to cold (4 °C; 4 and 24 h) stress in seedlings grown from the TU primed, hydroprimed and unsoaked seeds. The transcript expression of CaWRKY30, PROX1, Osmotin, Cu/Zn SOD and CAH genes was either higher or induced earlier on cold exposure in thiourea priming than that of hydroprimed and unsoaked over the respective unstressed controls. The results thus suggest that the TU priming modulate expression of these genes thereby imparting cold tolerance in capsicum seedlings. PMID:23053959

  10. Adaptation of Grapevine Flowers to Cold Involves Different Mechanisms Depending on Stress Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Mélodie; Jeanson, Etienne; Celiz, Vanessa; Clément, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine flower development and fruit set are influenced by cold nights in the vineyard. To investigate the impact of cold stress on carbon metabolism in the inflorescence, we exposed the inflorescences of fruiting cuttings to chilling and freezing temperatures overnight and measured fluctuations in photosynthesis and sugar content. Whatever the temperature, after the stress treatment photosynthesis was modified in the inflorescence, but the nature of the alteration depended on the intensity of the cold stress. At 4°C, photosynthesis in the inflorescence was impaired through non-stomatal limitations, whereas at 0°C it was affected through stomatal limitations. A freezing night (−3°C) severely deregulated photosynthesis in the inflorescence, acting primarily on photosystem II. Cold nights also induced accumulation of sugars. Soluble carbohydrates increased in inflorescences exposed to −3°C, 0°C and 4°C, but starch accumulated only in inflorescences of plants treated at 0 and −3°C. These results suggest that inflorescences are able to cope with cold temperatures by adapting their carbohydrate metabolism using mechanisms that are differentially induced according to stress intensity. PMID:23071684

  11. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  12. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  13. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, including igfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  14. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, includingigfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  15. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. )

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  16. Severe physical exertion, oxidative stress, and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nikunj R; Iqbal, M Bilal; Barlow, Andrew; Bayliss, John

    2011-11-01

    We report the case of a 27-year-old male athlete presenting with severe dyspnoea 24 hours after completing an "Ironman Triathlon." Subsequent chest radiology excluded pulmonary embolus but confirmed an acute lung injury (ALI). Echocardiography corroborated a normal brain natriuretic peptide level by demonstrating good biventricular systolic function with no regional wall motion abnormalities. He recovered well, without requiring ventilatory support, on supplemental oxygen therapy and empirical antibiotics. To date, ALI following severe physical exertion has never been described. Exercise is a form of physiological stress resulting in oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In its extreme form, there is potential for an excessive oxidative stress response--one that overwhelms the body's protective antioxidant mechanisms. As our case demonstrated, oxidative stress secondary to severe physical exertion was the most likely factor in the pathogenesis of ALI. Further studies are necessary to explore the pathological consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Although unproven as of yet, further research may be needed to demonstrate if antioxidant therapy can prevent or ameliorate potential life-threatening complications in the acute setting. PMID:22064719

  17. Proteomic analysis of cross protection provided between cold and osmotic stress in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Joseph R; Buntyn, Joe O; Posadas, Gabriel; Nanduri, Bindu; Pendarvis, Ken; Donaldson, Janet R

    2014-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, foodborne pathogen responsible for approximately 28% of all food-related deaths each year in the United States. L. monocytogenes infections are linked to the consumption of minimally processed ready-to-eat (RTE) products such as cheese, deli meats, and cold-smoked finfish products. L. monocytogenes is resistant to stresses commonly encountered in the food-processing environment, including low pH, high salinity, oxygen content, and various temperatures. The purpose of this study was to determine if cells habituated at low temperatures would result in cross-protective effects against osmotic stress. We found that cells exposed to refrigerated temperatures prior to a mild salt stress treatment had increased survival in NaCl concentrations of 3%. Additionally, the longer the cells were pre-exposed to cold temperatures, the greater the increase in survival in 3% NaCl. A proteomics analysis was performed in triplicate in order to elucidate mechanisms involved in cold-stress induced cross protection against osmotic stress. Proteins involved in maintenance of the cell wall and cellular processes, such as penicillin binding proteins and osmolyte transporters, and processes involving amino acid metabolism, such as osmolyte synthesis, transport, and lipid biosynthesis, had the greatest increase in expression when cells were exposed to cold temperatures prior to salt. By gaining a better understanding of how this pathogen adapts physiologically to various environmental conditions, improvements can be made in detection and mitigation strategies. PMID:24564473

  18. Metallothionein differentially affects the host response to Listeria infection both with and without an additional stress from cold-restraint.

    PubMed

    Emeny, Rebecca T; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Mondal, Tapan; Lynes, Michael A; Lawrence, David A

    2015-11-01

    Acute stress alters anti-bacterial defenses, but the neuroimmunological mechanisms underlying this association are not yet well understood. Metallothionein (MT), a cysteine-rich protein, is a stress response protein that is induced by a variety of chemical, biological, and psychological stressors, and MT has been shown to influence immune activities. We investigated MT's role in the management of anti-bacterial responses that occur during stress, using a C57BL/6 (B6) strain that has targeted disruptions of the Mt1 and Mt2 genes (B6-MTKO), and a B6 strain that has additional copies of Mt (B6-MTTGN). The well-characterized listeriosis model was used to examine immune mechanisms that are altered by a 1-h stress treatment (cold-restraint, CR) administered just prior to bacterial infection. Intriguingly, MT gene doses both greater and lower than that of wild-type (WT) B6 mice were associated with improved host defenses against Listeria monocytogenes (LM). This augmented protection was diminished by CR stress in the MTKO mice, but transgenic mice with additional MT copies had no CR stress-induced increase in their listerial burden. During the transition from innate to adaptive immunity, on day 3 after infection, oxidative burst and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometric methods, and cytokine transcription was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. MT gene expression and CR-stress affected the expression of IL-6 and TNFα. Additionally, these genetic and environmental modulations altered the generation of ROS responses as well as the number of apoptotic cells in livers and spleens. Although the level of MT altered the listerial response, MT expression was equally elevated by listerial infection with or without CR stress. These results indicate the ability of MT to regulate immune response mechanisms and demonstrate that increased amounts of MT can eliminate the immunosuppression induced by CR. PMID:26267326

  19. Transcriptome Changes for Arabidopsis in Response to Salt, Osmotic, and Cold Stress1[w

    PubMed Central

    Kreps, Joel A.; Wu, Yajun; Chang, Hur-Song; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xun; Harper, Jeff F.

    2002-01-01

    To identify genes of potential importance to cold, salt, and drought tolerance, global expression profiling was performed on Arabidopsis plants subjected to stress treatments of 4°C, 100 mm NaCl, or 200 mm mannitol, respectively. RNA samples were collected separately from leaves and roots after 3- and 27-h stress treatments. Profiling was conducted with a GeneChip microarray with probe sets for approximately 8,100 genes. Combined results from all three stresses identified 2,409 genes with a greater than 2-fold change over control. This suggests that about 30% of the transcriptome is sensitive to regulation by common stress conditions. The majority of changes were stimulus specific. At the 3-h time point, less than 5% (118 genes) of the changes were observed as shared by all three stress responses. By 27 h, the number of shared responses was reduced more than 10-fold (< 0.5%), consistent with a progression toward more stimulus-specific responses. Roots and leaves displayed very different changes. For example, less than 14% of the cold-specific changes were shared between root and leaves at both 3 and 27 h. The gene with the largest induction under all three stress treatments was At5g52310 (LTI/COR78), with induction levels in roots greater than 250-fold for cold, 40-fold for mannitol, and 57-fold for NaCl. A stress response was observed for 306 (68%) of the known circadian controlled genes, supporting the hypothesis that an important function of the circadian clock is to “anticipate” predictable stresses such as cold nights. Although these results identify hundreds of potentially important transcriptome changes, the biochemical functions of many stress-regulated genes remain unknown. PMID:12481097

  20. RDM4 modulates cold stress resistance in Arabidopsis partially through the CBF-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Yanping; Cao, Minjie; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Hu, Yuanlei; Deng, Xin; He, Xin-Jian; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-03-01

    The C-REPEAT-BINDING FACTOR (CBF) pathway has important roles in plant responses to cold stress. How the CBF genes themselves are activated after cold acclimation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized cold tolerance of null mutant of RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 4 (RDM4), which encodes a protein that associates with RNA polymerases Pol V and Pol II, and is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis. The results showed that dysfunction of RDM4 reduced cold tolerance, as evidenced by decreased survival and increased electrolyte leakage. Mutation of RDM4 resulted in extensive transcriptomic reprogramming. CBFs and CBF regulon genes were down-regulated in rdm4 but not nrpe1 (the largest subunit of PolV) mutants, suggesting that the role of RDM4 in cold stress responses is independent of the RdDM pathway. Overexpression of RDM4 constitutively increased the expression of CBFs and regulon genes and decreased cold-induced membrane injury. A great proportion of genes affected by rdm4 overlapped with those affected by CBFs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results suggested that RDM4 is important for Pol II occupancy at the promoters of CBF2 and CBF3. We present evidence of a considerable role for RDM4 in regulating gene expression at low temperature, including the CBF pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:26522658

  1. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  2. The insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...

  3. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well. PMID:25504198

  4. Chromatin changes in response to drought, salinity, heat, and cold stresses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Myong; Sasaki, Taku; Ueda, Minoru; Sako, Kaori; Seki, Motoaki

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin regulation is essential to regulate genes and genome activities. In plants, the alteration of histone modification and DNA methylation are coordinated with changes in the expression of stress-responsive genes to adapt to environmental changes. Several chromatin regulators have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stress-responsive gene networks under abiotic stress conditions. Specific histone modification sites and the histone modifiers that regulate key stress-responsive genes have been identified by genetic and biochemical approaches, revealing the importance of chromatin regulation in plant stress responses. Recent studies have also suggested that histone modification plays an important role in plant stress memory. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the regulation and alteration of histone modification (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation) in response to the abiotic stresses, drought, high-salinity, heat, and cold in plants. PMID:25784920

  5. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level. PMID:26867623

  6. True stress-strain curves of cold worked stainless steel over a large range of strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Kawakubo, Masahiro

    2014-08-01

    True stress-strain curves for cold worked stainless steel were obtained over a range of strains that included a large strain exceeding the strain for the tensile strength (post-necking strain). A specified testing method was used to obtain the stress-strain curves in air at room temperature. The testing method employed the digital image correlation (DIC) technique and iterative finite element analyses (FEA) and was referred to as IFD (Iteration FEA procedure based on DIC measurement) method. Although hourglass type specimens have been previously used for the IFD method, in this study, plate specimens with a parallel gage section were used to obtain accurate yield and tensile strengths together with the stress-strain curves. The stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain were successfully obtained by the IFD method, and it was shown that the stress-strain curves for different degrees of cold work collapsed onto a single curve when the offset strain was considered. It was also shown that the Swift type constitutive equation gave good regression for the true stress-strain curves including the post-necking strain regardless of the degree of cold work, although the Ramberg-Osgood type constitutive equation showed poor fit. In the regression for the Swift type constitutive equation, the constant for power law could be assumed to be nS = 0.5.

  7. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  8. From the Lab Bench: Why the heat and cold stresses on tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column is written to provide information on why cattle that graze toxic endophyte infected tall fescue are vulnerable to both heat and cold stress. Peer reviewed research conducted by scientists at the USDA-ARS Forage-Animal Production Research Unit demonstrated that ergot alkaloids produced by t...

  9. Comparison of heat and cold stress to assess thermoregulatory dysfunction in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Becker, P; Padnos, B

    2000-12-01

    How borderline impairment of thyroid function can affect thermoregulation is an important issue because of the antithyroidal properties of a many environmental toxicants. This study compared the efficacy of heat and cold stress to identify thermoregulatory deficits in rats subjected to borderline and overt hypothyroidism via subchronic exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU). After 3 wk of exposure to PTU in the drinking water (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 mg/l), rats were subjected to a heat stress challenge (34 degrees C for 2.5 h). After one more week of PTU treatment, the same rats were subjected to a cold stress challenge (7 degrees C for 2.5 h). Core temperature (T(c)) was monitored by radiotelemetry. Baseline T(c) during the light phase was reduced by treatment with 25 mg/l PTU. The rate of rise and overall increase in T(c) during heat stress was attenuated by PTU doses of 10 and 25 mg/l. Cold stress resulted in a 1.0 degrees C increase in T(c) regardless of PTU treatment. The rate of rise in T(c) during the cold stress challenge was similar in all PTU treatment groups. There was a dose-related decrease in serum thyroxine (T(4)) at PTU doses >/=5 mg/l. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) was reduced at PTU doses of 5 and 25 mg/l. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was marginally elevated by PTU treatment. Overall, heat stress was more effective than cold stress for detecting a thermoregulatory deficit in borderline (i.e., 10 mg/l PTU) and overtly hypothyroid rats (i.e., 25 mg/l PTU). A significant thermoregulatory deficit is manifested with a 78% decrease in serum T(4). A thermoregulatory deficit is more correlated with a reduction in serum T(4) compared with T(3). Serum levels of TSH are unrelated to thermoregulatory response to heat and cold stress. PMID:11080070

  10. Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Comorbidity Between Acute Stress and Cocaine Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Kupchik, Yonatan; Gipson, Cassandra D; Brown, Robyn M; Spencer, Sade; Bollati, Flavia; Esparza, Maria A; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Cancela, Liliana M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining if the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate mediated synaptic currents, and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined if acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport, and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  11. Glutamatergic mechanisms of comorbidity between acute stress and cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Keller, C; Kupchik, Y M; Gipson, C D; Brown, R M; Spencer, S; Bollati, F; Esparza, M A; Roberts-Wolfe, D J; Heinsbroek, J A; Bobadilla, A-C; Cancela, L M; Kalivas, P W

    2016-08-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining whether the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress, and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate-mediated synaptic currents and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined whether acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  12. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip; Everaerd, Walter

    2009-04-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity and experience in healthy young men. Autobiographical memories were elicited by neutral and negative cue words, with instructions to recall either recent or remote memories. No effect of psychosocial stress was found on memory specificity or experience, but cortisol increases tended to be related to less specific, recent memories elicited by neutral cue words, especially when participants were physically aroused during memory retrieval. These results indicate that autobiographical memories are fairly resistant to an acute stressor in healthy young men, but that endogenous cortisol increases might be related to autobiographical memory retrieval. More research into the relation between endogenous cortisol increases and autobiographic memory retrieval is needed, especially in stress-related disorders. PMID:19156564

  13. [Effects of cold-shock on tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Li; Xia, Ya-Zhen; Liu, Jin; Shi, Xiao-Dan; Sun, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    High temperature stress (HTS) is one of the major limiting factors that affect the quality of intensively cultured seedlings in protected facilitates during hot season. Increasing the cross adaptive response of plant induced by temperature stress is an effective way to improve plant stress resistance. In order to explore the alleviating effect of cold-shock intensity on tomato seedlings under HTS, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treatments every day with 5 °C, 10 °C, and 15 °C for 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min, respectively, in an artificial climate chamber. The effect of single appropriate cold-shock on the gene expression of small heat shock proteins LeHSP 23.8 and CaHSP18 was investigated. The results showed that hypocotyl elongation and plant height of tomato seedlings were restrained by cold-shock treatment before HTS was met. The alleviating effect of tomato seedlings under HTS by cold-shock varied greatly with levels and durations of temperature. The membrane lipids in the leaf of tomato seedlings were subjected to peroxidation injury in the cold-shock treatment at 5 °C, in which the penetration of cell membrane was increased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme was inhibited. The alleviating effect to HTS by cold-shock was decreased with the increasing cold-shock duration at 10 °C, however, a reverse change was found at 15 °C. The results indicated that cross adaptive response of tomato seedling could be induced with a moderate cold-shock temperature for a proper duration before HTS was met. The optimum cold-shock treatment was at 10 °C for 10 min per day, under which, the dry mass, healthy index, activities of protective enzymes (including SOD, POD and CAT) in leaves of tomato seedlings were significantly increased, the contents of proline and soluble protein were enhanced, relative conductivity and malondialdehyde concentration were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of Le-HSP23.8 and CaHSP18 were increased compared

  14. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data. PMID:18612855

  15. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. Results In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p < 0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. Conclusions A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted

  16. Memory and executive dysfunctions associated with acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Geneviève; Doyon, Julien; Brunet, Alain

    2010-05-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in its chronic form has been associated with a number of neurocognitive impairments involving emotionally neutral stimuli. It remains unknown whether such impairments also characterize acute PTSD. In the present investigation, neurocognitive functions were examined in trauma exposed individuals with (n=21) and without (n=16) acute PTSD, as well as in a group of individuals never exposed to trauma (n=17) using specific and standardized tasks such as the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Aggie's Figure Learning Test, the Autobiographical Memory Interview, the D2 test, the Stroop task, the digit and visual span tasks of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, the Trail Making Test, the Tower of London and the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A number of deficits in the cognitive domains of memory, high-level attentional resources, executive function and working memory were found in the group with a diagnosis of acute PTSD only and not among the other groups. The findings, which point to the possibility of disturbed fronto-temporal system function in trauma-exposed individuals with acute PTSD, are particularly relevant for the early clinical management of this disorder. PMID:20381880

  17. Cold-stress responses in the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microbes growing at subzero temperatures encounter numerous growth constraints. However, fungi that inhabit cold environments can grow and decompose organic compounds under subzero temperatures. Thus, understanding the cold-adaptation strategies of fungi under extreme environments is critical for elucidating polar-region ecosystems. Here, I report that two strains of the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis exhibited distinct growth characteristics under subzero conditions: SK-4 grew efficiently, whereas TKG1-2 did not. I analysed the metabolite responses elicited by cold stress in these two M. blollopis strains by using capillary electrophoresis–time-of-flight mass spectrometry. M. blollopis SK-4, which grew well under subzero temperatures, accumulated high levels of TCA-cycle metabolites, lactic acid, aromatic amino acids and polyamines in response to cold shock. Polyamines are recognized to function in cell-growth and developmental processes, and aromatic amino acids are also known to improve cell growth at low temperatures. By contrast, in TKG1-2, which did not grow efficiently, cold stress strongly induced the metabolites of the TCA cycle, but other metabolites were not highly accumulated in the cell. Thus, these differences in metabolite responses could contribute to the distinct abilities of SK-4 and TKG1-2 cells to grow under subzero temperature conditions. PMID:27493768

  18. Cold-stress responses in the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masaharu

    2016-07-01

    Microbes growing at subzero temperatures encounter numerous growth constraints. However, fungi that inhabit cold environments can grow and decompose organic compounds under subzero temperatures. Thus, understanding the cold-adaptation strategies of fungi under extreme environments is critical for elucidating polar-region ecosystems. Here, I report that two strains of the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis exhibited distinct growth characteristics under subzero conditions: SK-4 grew efficiently, whereas TKG1-2 did not. I analysed the metabolite responses elicited by cold stress in these two M. blollopis strains by using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. M. blollopis SK-4, which grew well under subzero temperatures, accumulated high levels of TCA-cycle metabolites, lactic acid, aromatic amino acids and polyamines in response to cold shock. Polyamines are recognized to function in cell-growth and developmental processes, and aromatic amino acids are also known to improve cell growth at low temperatures. By contrast, in TKG1-2, which did not grow efficiently, cold stress strongly induced the metabolites of the TCA cycle, but other metabolites were not highly accumulated in the cell. Thus, these differences in metabolite responses could contribute to the distinct abilities of SK-4 and TKG1-2 cells to grow under subzero temperature conditions. PMID:27493768

  19. HOS1-mediated activation of FLC via chromatin remodeling under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2013-01-01

    The Arabidopsis E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE 1 (HOS1) has been shown to act as a negative regulator of cold responses by degrading the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 (ICE1) transcription factor through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Notably, loss-of-function hos1 mutants exhibit early flowering, and the transcript level of the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is downregulated in the mutants. However, it is largely unknown how HOS1 regulates FLC transcription. We found that HOS1 activates FLC transcription by inhibiting the activity of histone deacetylase 6 (HDA6) under cold stress. Cold temperatures induce the binding of HOS1 to FLC chromatin in an FVE-dependent manner. Cold-activated HOS1 promotes the dissociation of HDA6 from FLC chromatin, and the cold effects disappear in both hos1 and fve mutants. It is therefore clear that HOS1 regulates FLC transcription via chromatin remodeling, providing new insights into the signaling crosstalks between cold response and flowering time control. PMID:24390058

  20. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  1. Residual Stress Analysis of Cold-Sprayed Copper Coatings by Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenya; Yang, Kang; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhou, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis on the residual stress evolution of cold-sprayed copper coatings on Cu and Al substrates was performed. To investigate the influences of particle velocity, temperature and material combination on the final residual stresses, an integrated frame of calculation was proposed based on the simulation results obtained from the developed thermo-mechanically coupled Eulerian model. In a single Cu splat, generally speaking, the maximum residual stress and plastic deformation are concentrated at the outside contact zone rather than at the center point of initial impact. The action of friction shear between the particle and substrate during impacting should be considered as one of the essential factors on the final residual stress. And the states of residual stresses can vary significantly depending on the material combination, particle velocity, and temperature. In a single pass Cu coating, the residual stress fluctuates across the coating and there exists both compressive stress and tensile stress within the coating. At a certain range of impacting velocities, the resultant residual stresses increase with the increase of particle velocity. The present simulated results are related to the reported experiments by others, showing that the residual stress states and stress change trend are different from some of the reported results.

  2. Genetic Mechanisms Underlying the Pathogenicity of Cold-Stressed Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Cultured Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jigna; Desai, Prerak T.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella encounters various stresses in the environment and in the host during infection. The effects of cold (5°C, 48 h), peroxide (5 mM H2O2, 5 h) and acid stress (pH 4.0, 90 min) were tested on pathogenicity of Salmonella. Prior exposure of Salmonella to cold stress significantly (P < 0.05) increased adhesion and invasion of cultured intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. This increased Salmonella-host cell association was also correlated with significant induction of several virulence-associated genes, implying an increased potential of cold-stressed Salmonella to cause an infection. In Caco-2 cells infected with cold-stressed Salmonella, genes involved in the electron transfer chain were significantly induced, but no simultaneous significant increase in expression of antioxidant genes that neutralize the effect of superoxide radicals or reactive oxygen species was observed. Increased production of caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 was confirmed during host cell infection with cold-stressed Salmonella. Further, a prophage gene, STM2699, induced in cold-stressed Salmonella and a spectrin gene, SPTAN1, induced in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells were found to have a significant contribution in increased adhesion and invasion of cold-stressed Salmonella in epithelial cells. PMID:25192993

  3. Fasting and other mild stresses with hormetic effects in Drosophila melanogaster can additively increase resistance to cold.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2015-08-01

    Mild stresses can have various positive effects in animal models and human beings. Previous studies have shown that fasting, i.e. a short starvation period with water ad lib, increases resistance to a severe cold stress in flies (percentage of survivors 3 days after being kept at 0 °C). Only a few studies have combined two mild stresses with hormetic effects in an attempt to obtain additive effects. Fasting was combined in the same flies with either a hypergravity, cold or heat stress and resistance to cold was observed. When each mild stress had positive effects on this trait (fasting, cold, and hypergravity in males only), their combination had additive effects. However, when one of the mild stresses had no positive effect or even a negative effect (heat), combining it with fasting did not increase the positive effect of fasting or even decreased it. PMID:25864076

  4. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  5. Metabonomics Approach to Assessing the Metabolism Variation and Endoexogenous Metabolic Interaction of Ginsenosides in Cold Stress Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jingcheng; Jia, Zhiying; Liu, Yumin; Xie, Xie; Wang, Chongchong; Jia, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic profiling technology, a massive information provider, has promoted the understanding of the metabolism of multicomponent medicines and its interactions with endogenous metabolites, which was previously a challenge in clarification. In this study, an untargeted GC/MS-based approach was employed to investigate the urinary metabolite profile in rats with oral administration of ginsenosides and the control group. Significant changes of urinary metabolites contents were observed in the total ginsenosides group, revealing the impact of ginsenosides as indicated by the up- or down-regulation of several pathways involving neurotransmitter-related metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acids β-oxidation, and intestinal microflora metabolites. Meanwhile, a targeted UPLC-QQQ/MS-based metabonomic approach was developed to investigate the changes of urinary ginsenoside metabolites during the process of acute cold stress. Metabolic analysis indicated that upstream ginsenosides (rg1, re, and rf) increased significantly, whereas downstream ginsenosides (ck, ppd, and ppt) decreased correspondingly after cold exposure. Finally, the relationships between ginsenosides and significantly changed metabolites were investigated by correlation analysis. PMID:27150950

  6. Immobilization and cold stress affect sympatho-adrenomedullary system and pituitary-adrenocortical axis of rats exposed to long-term isolation and crowding.

    PubMed

    Dronjak, Sladjana; Gavrilović, Ljubica; Filipović, Dragana; Radojcić, Marija B

    2004-05-01

    Changes in plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), as well as in cytosol glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) in hippocampus of adult rat males exposed to two long-term types of psychosocial stress, both under basal conditions and in response to immobilization and cold as heterotypic additional stressor were studied. Long-term isolation produced a significant elevation of basal plasma ACTH and CORT levels, but did not affect that of NA and A, while long-term crowding conditions did not elevate the basal plasma levels of these hormones. Long-term isolation of rats exposed to 2 h of immobilization or cold led to a significant elevation of plasma NA, A and CORT in comparison with the controls. Long-term crowding conditions and exposure of animals to immobilization or cold also resulted in an increased plasma NA, A and CORT levels, but to a lesser extent in comparison with the long-term isolation. At the same time, plasma ACTH was significantly more elevated in long-term crowded than in long-term isolated rats. Both kinds of long-term psychosocial stresses (isolation and crowding) had similar but less pronounced effects on cytosol GR and Hsp 70 concentrations in hippocampus comparing to acute immobilization and cold stress. It seems that long-term psychosocial stresses attenuate the effects of an additional stress on hippocampal GR and Hsp 70 concentrations. These data suggest that individual housing of rats appear to act as a stronger stressor than crowding conditions. When the animals suffering a long-term isolation were exposed to either acute immobilization or cold, a stronger activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system (SAS) was recorded in comparison with that found in the long-term crowded group subjected to short-term immobilization or cold. No significant differences in the activity of hypotalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were observed between long

  7. [Effect of training on treadmill performance, aerobic capacity and body reactions to acute cold exposure].

    PubMed

    Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V; Kuznetsova, O V; Son'kin, V D

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold is able to stimulate an increase in the amount of body fat brown or beige, which can manifest itself in increasing lactate utilization during exercise and increase the reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used are: ramp test, regional acute cold exposure, measurement of gas exchange, lactate and glucose in the blood, heart rate, and heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging, statistical methods of results analysis. Workout 10 physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of the persona VO2max for 30 minutes 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in test work duration but VO2max on average changed little. The increase in power of anaerobic threshold was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate in progress of ramp test. Lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, significantly increased work efficiency at a test load. Not revealed noticeable changes in the condition and response to a standard functional tests of autonomic systems, as judged by heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1 minute cooling of the feet in ice water) is not changed after a cycle of training--either in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.), or the dynamics of the skin temperature in areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm the previously expressed (2010) hypothesis about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if under

  8. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health. PMID:27226918

  9. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude. PMID:15072717

  10. Overexpression of cold-inducible wheat galactinol synthase confers tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Shimosaka, Etsuo; Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2015-12-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is considered to be a key regulator of the biosynthesis of Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Accumulation of RFOs has been reported to play a role in protection against abiotic stresses. We identified two cDNAs encoding galactinol synthase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which we designated as TaGolS1 and TaGolS2. Expression of the two TaGolS genes was induced by cold stress but not by drought, heat stress or ABA treatment in wheat. We generated transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) constitutively overexpressing TaGolS1 or TaGolS2. These transgenic plants accumulated significantly higher levels of galactinol and raffinose than did wild-type plants and exhibited enhanced cold-stress tolerance. The results demonstrate the involvement of galactinol and raffinose in the development of chilling stress in rice and indicate that the genetic modification of the biosynthesis of RFOs by transformation with GolS genes could be an effective method for enhancing chilling-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26719738

  11. Overexpression of cold-inducible wheat galactinol synthase confers tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic rice

    PubMed Central

    Shimosaka, Etsuo; Ozawa, Kenjirou

    2015-01-01

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) is considered to be a key regulator of the biosynthesis of Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Accumulation of RFOs has been reported to play a role in protection against abiotic stresses. We identified two cDNAs encoding galactinol synthase from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which we designated as TaGolS1 and TaGolS2. Expression of the two TaGolS genes was induced by cold stress but not by drought, heat stress or ABA treatment in wheat. We generated transgenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) constitutively overexpressing TaGolS1 or TaGolS2. These transgenic plants accumulated significantly higher levels of galactinol and raffinose than did wild-type plants and exhibited enhanced cold-stress tolerance. The results demonstrate the involvement of galactinol and raffinose in the development of chilling stress in rice and indicate that the genetic modification of the biosynthesis of RFOs by transformation with GolS genes could be an effective method for enhancing chilling-stress tolerance in rice. PMID:26719738

  12. Effects of osmotic pressure, acid, or cold stresses on antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Osaili, Tareq M; Shaker, Reyad R; Olaimat, Amin N; Jaradat, Ziad W; Zain Elabedeen, Noor A; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a variety of foods has increased in many countries. L. monocytogenes has many physiological adaptations that enable survival under a wide range of environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of osmotic (2, 4, 6, 12% NaC), pH (6, 5.5, 5.0) and cold (4 °C) stresses on susceptibility of three isolates of L. monocytogenes towards different antibiotics. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tested antibiotics against unstressed (control), stressed or post-stressed L. monocytogenes isolates (an ATCC strain and a meat and dairy isolate) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Unstressed cells of L. monocytogenes were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. In general, when L. monocytogenes cells were exposed to salt, cold and pH stresses, their antibiotic resistance increased as salt concentration increased to 6 or 12%, as pH was reduced to pH 5 or as temperature was decreased to 10 °C. Results showed that both meat and dairy isolates were more resistant than the ATCC reference strain. Use of sub-lethal stresses in food preservation systems may stimulate antibiotic resistance responses in L. monocytogenes strains. PMID:25475279

  13. Acute Stress Alters Auditory Selective Attention in Humans Independent of HPA: A Study of Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Elling, Ludger; Steinberg, Christian; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christan; Bölte, Jens; Junghofer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM). However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such “paracorticoidal” stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. Methodology/Principal Findings The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd) and mismatch negativity (MMN) were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occuring 4–7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8–11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP) occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. Conclusions/Significance Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence on cognition

  14. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Chester A.; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone. PMID:23055093

  15. Translation suppression promotes stress granule formation and cell survival in response to cold shock

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Sarah; Cherkasova, Valeria; Bankhead, Peter; Bukau, Bernd; Stoecklin, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Cells respond to different types of stress by inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequent assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic aggregates that contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Global translation is regulated through the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and the mTOR pathway. Here we identify cold shock as a novel trigger of SG assembly in yeast and mammals. Whereas cold shock–induced SGs take hours to form, they dissolve within minutes when cells are returned to optimal growth temperatures. Cold shock causes eIF2α phosphorylation through the kinase PERK in mammalian cells, yet this pathway is not alone responsible for translation arrest and SG formation. In addition, cold shock leads to reduced mitochondrial function, energy depletion, concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, prevents the formation of SGs and strongly reduces cellular survival in a translation-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that cells actively suppress protein synthesis by parallel pathways, which induce SG formation and ensure cellular survival during hypothermia. PMID:22875991

  16. Effects of Mycoplasma anatis and cold stress on hatching success and growth of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.

    1995-01-01

    We inoculated game-farm mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs and 1-day-old birds with Mycoplasma anatis to determine its effect on hatching success and growth rates of ducklings. Inoculations of eggs reduced hatching success, hatchling size, and duckling growth rates, compared to controls. Intratracheal inoculations of 1-day-old birds did not affect growth rates. Hatchlings and 1-day-old ducklings grew much slower for the first 7 to 10 days when raised at 17 to 19 C, compared to controls raised at 30 to 35 C. The effect of cold stress on growth was greater than the effect of M. anatis infection; we found no synergistic effects between cold stress and M. anatis infection.

  17. Gene expression profiling of potato responses to cold, heat, and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Rensink, Willem Albert; Iobst, Stacey; Hart, Amy; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Liu, Jia; Buell, C Robin

    2005-10-01

    In order to identify genes involved in abiotic stress responses in potato, seedlings were grown under controlled conditions and subjected to cold (4 degrees C), heat (35 degrees C), or salt (100 mM NaCl) stress for up to 27 h. Using an approximately 12,000 clone potato cDNA microarray, expression profiles were captured at three time points following initiation of the stress (3, 9, and 27 h) from two different tissues, roots and leaves. A total of 3,314 clones could be identified as significantly up- or down-regulated in response to at least one stress condition. The genes represented by these clones encode transcription factors, signal transduction factors, and heat-shock proteins which have been associated with abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis and rice, suggesting similar response pathways function in potato. These stress-regulated clones could be separated into either stress-specific or shared-response clones, suggesting the existence of general response pathways as well as more stress-specific pathways. In addition, we identified expression profiles which are indicative for the type of stress applied to the plants. PMID:15856349

  18. The interaction of acute and chronic stress impairs model-based behavioral control.

    PubMed

    Radenbach, Christoph; Reiter, Andrea M F; Engert, Veronika; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-03-01

    It is suggested that acute stress shifts behavioral control from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free strategies. Recent findings indicate that interindividual differences in the cortisol stress response influence model-based decision-making. Although not yet investigated in humans, animal studies show that chronic stress also shifts decision-making toward more habitual behavior. Here, we ask whether acute stress and individual vulnerability factors, such as stress reactivity and previous exposure to stressful life events, impact the balance between model-free and model-based control systems. To test this, 39 male participants (21-30 years old) were exposed to a potent psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) and a control condition in a within-subjects design before they performed a sequential decision-making task which evaluates the balance between the two systems. Physiological and subjective stress reactivity was assessed before, during, and after acute stress exposure. By means of computational modeling, we demonstrate that interindividual variability in stress reactivity predicts impairments in model-based decision-making. Whereas acute psychosocial stress did not alter model-based behavioral control, we found chronic and acute stress to interact in their detrimental effect on decision-making: subjects with high but not low chronic stress levels as indicated by stressful life events exhibited reduced model-based control in response to acute psychosocial stress. These findings emphasize that stress reactivity and chronic stress play an important role in mediating the relationship between stress and decision-making. Our results might stimulate new insights into the interplay between chronic and acute stress, attenuated model-based control, and the pathogenesis of various psychiatric diseases. PMID:25662093

  19. Spectral characteristics of heart period variability during cold face stress and shock avoidance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B H; Thayer, J F; Tyrrell, R A

    1996-06-01

    Spectral analysis of heart period variability was used to examine autonomic cardiac control in several tasks used in experimental and clinical assessments of autonomic nervous system function. Cardiovascular measures were recorded in healthy humans during quiet rest, reaction time shock-avoidance, cold face stress, and combined shock-avoidance/cold face stress. Shock-avoidance was characterized by sympathetic beta-adrenergic dominance, as evidenced by (1) shorter heart periods, (2) less high-frequency spectral power, (3) elevated low-frequency power, (4) increased ratios of low- to high-frequency power, and (5) a steep regression line fitted to the log-log plot of the power spectra. Cold face stress yielded (1) longer heart periods, (2) more high-frequency power, (3) decreased low-frequency spectral power, and (4) a flat regression slope, indicating vagal dominance. Quiet rest appeared as mildly vagal, with less total spectral power, and the combination task elicited a mixed vagal-sympathetic pattern. These results are discussed in the context of (1) the autonomic underpinnings of low-frequency power, (2) the autonomic effects of facial cooling, and (3) the utility of spectral analysis of heart period variability during autonomic challenge tasks for basic research and clinical application. PMID:8832123

  20. Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes and their association with cold and freezing stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-10-15

    Flavonoids including anthocyanins provide flower and leaf colors, as well as other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is part of an important step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins. This study characterized 12 DFR genes of Brassica rapa and investigated their association with anthocyanin coloration, as well as cold and freezing stress in several genotypes of B. rapa. Comparison of sequences of these genes with DFR gene sequences from other species revealed a high degree of homology. Constitutive expression of the genes in several pigmented and non-pigmented lines of B. rapa demonstrated correlation with anthocyanin accumulation for BrDFR8 and 9. Conversely, BrDFR2, 4, 8 and 9 only showed very high responses to cold stress in pigmented B. rapa samples. BrDFR1, 3, 5, 6 and 10 responded to cold and freezing stress treatments, regardless of pigmentation. BrDFRs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold and freezing stress. Thus, the above results suggest that these genes are associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold and/or freezing stress resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well. These findings may also facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stresses. PMID:25108127

  1. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT. PMID:26154819

  2. Cold pulse and rotation reversals with turbulence spreading and residual stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, F.; Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Xu, G. S.; Yan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Transport modeling based on inclusion of turbulence spreading and residual stresses shows internal rotation reversals and polarity reversal of cold pulses, with a clear indication of nonlocal transport effects due to fast spreading in the turbulence intensity field. The effects of turbulence spreading and residual stress are calculated from the gradient of the turbulence intensity. In the model presented in this paper, the flux is carried by the turbulence intensity field, which in itself is subject to radial transport effects. The pulse polarity inversion and the rotation profile reversal positions are close to the radial location of the stable/unstable transition. Both effects have no direct explanation within the framework of classical transport modeling, where the fluxes are related directly to the linear growth rates, the turbulence intensity profile is not considered and the corresponding residual stress is absent. Our simulations are in qualitative agreement with measurements from ohmically heated plasmas. Rotation reversal at a finite radius is found in situations not displaying saturated confinement, which we identify as situations where the plasma is nearly everywhere unstable. As an additional and new effect, the model predicts a perturbation of the velocity profile following a cold pulse from the edge. This allows direct experimental confirmation of both the existence of residual stress caused by turbulence intensity profiles and fundamental ideas of transport modeling presented here.

  3. Traumatic Memories in Acute Stress Disorder: An Analysis of Narratives before and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative reactions in acute stress disorder purportedly impede encoding and organization of traumatic memories and consequently impair the individual's ability to retrieve trauma-related details. A qualitative examination was conducted on trauma narratives of individuals with acute stress disorder (N = 15) prior to cognitive behavior…

  4. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000), in a…

  5. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  6. Cold-pressor stress after learning enhances familiarity-based recognition memory in men.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-h and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  7. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  8. Cold stress promoting a psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudomonas fragi P121 producing trehaloase.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan-Zhen; Huang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Yang; He, Wei; Fang, Wen-Wan

    2016-08-01

    A newly isolated Pseudomonas fragi P121 strain in a soil sample taken from the Arctic Circle is able to produce trehalose. The P121 strain was able to grow at temperatures ranging from 4 to 25 °C, had an optimum pH of 6.5, and an optimum salt concentration of 2 %. The P121 strain had a survival rate of 29.1 % after being repeatedly frozen and thawed five times, and a survival rate of 78.9 % when placed in physiological saline for 15 days at 20 °C after cold shock, which is far higher than the type strain Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973. The P121 strain could produce 2.89 g/L trehalose, which was 18.6 % of dry cell weight within 52 h in a 25 L fermention tank using the malt extract prepared from barley as medium at 15 °C, while only 11.8 % of dry cell weight at 20 °C. These results suggested that cold stress promoted the strain producing trehalose. It is the first reported cold-tolerant bacterium that produces trehalose, which may protect cells against the cold environment. PMID:27339315

  9. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  10. Effect of acute cold exposure and insulin hypoglycemia on plasma thyrotropin levels by IRMA in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Martino, E; Bukovská, M; Langer, P

    1988-12-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) levels in plasma were estimated with the aid of immunoradiometric assay in two groups of healthy male subjects aged 21-22 years in two experiments: 1. acute (30 min) exposure to 4 degrees C in a cold room; 2. insulin (0.01 U per kg i.v.) hypoglycemia at room temperature and at 55 degrees C. Immediately after cold exposure a decrease of TSH level was found (P less than 0.01), while no changes were observed during 30 min exposure. After insulin injection a significant decrease (P less than 0.05 to less than 0.001) of TSH level was found at 45 to 120 min irrespectively of the ambient temperature. In addition, increased levels of noradrenaline and decreased levels of growth hormone after cold exposure are presented. PMID:3243203

  11. Exogenous 5-Aminolevulenic Acid Promotes Seed Germination in Elymus nutans against Oxidative Damage Induced by Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juanjuan; Sun, Yongfang; Chu, Xitong; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    The protective effects of 5-aminolevulenic acid (ALA) on germination of Elymus nutans Griseb. seeds under cold stress were investigated. Seeds of E. nutans (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) were pre-soaked with various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg l−1) of ALA for 24 h before germination under cold stress (5°C). Seeds of ZD were more susceptible to cold stress than DX seeds. Both seeds treated with ALA at low concentrations (0.1–1 mg l−1) had higher final germination percentage (FGP) and dry weight at 5°C than non-ALA-treated seeds, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (5–25 mg l−1) brought about a dose dependent decrease. The highest FGP and dry weight of germinating seeds were obtained from seeds pre-soaked with 1 mg l−1 ALA. After 5 d of cold stress, pretreatment with ALA provided significant protection against cold stress in the germinating seeds, significantly enhancing seed respiration rate and ATP synthesis. ALA pre-treatment also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA), total glutathione, and total ascorbate concentrations, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), whereas decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•−) release in both germinating seeds under cold stress. In addition, application of ALA increased H+-ATPase activity and endogenous ALA concentration compared with cold stress alone. Results indicate that ALA considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator could effectively protect E. nutans seeds from cold-induced oxidative damage during germination without any adverse effect. PMID:25207651

  12. Exogenous 5-aminolevulenic acid promotes seed germination in Elymus nutans against oxidative damage induced by cold stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Sun, Yongfang; Chu, Xitong; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    The protective effects of 5-aminolevulenic acid (ALA) on germination of Elymus nutans Griseb. seeds under cold stress were investigated. Seeds of E. nutans (Damxung, DX and Zhengdao, ZD) were pre-soaked with various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) of ALA for 24 h before germination under cold stress (5°C). Seeds of ZD were more susceptible to cold stress than DX seeds. Both seeds treated with ALA at low concentrations (0.1-1 mg l(-1)) had higher final germination percentage (FGP) and dry weight at 5°C than non-ALA-treated seeds, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (5-25 mg l(-1)) brought about a dose dependent decrease. The highest FGP and dry weight of germinating seeds were obtained from seeds pre-soaked with 1 mg l(-1) ALA. After 5 d of cold stress, pretreatment with ALA provided significant protection against cold stress in the germinating seeds, significantly enhancing seed respiration rate and ATP synthesis. ALA pre-treatment also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AsA), total glutathione, and total ascorbate concentrations, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), whereas decreased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•-) release in both germinating seeds under cold stress. In addition, application of ALA increased H+-ATPase activity and endogenous ALA concentration compared with cold stress alone. Results indicate that ALA considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator could effectively protect E. nutans seeds from cold-induced oxidative damage during germination without any adverse effect. PMID:25207651

  13. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Low Temperature-Treated Phlox subulata and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanting; Zhou, Aimin; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Huanwei; Liang, Ming; Han, Hui; Zuo, Yuhu

    2015-01-01

    Phlox subulata, a perennial herbaceous flower, can survive during the winter of northeast China, where the temperature can drop to −30 °C, suggesting that P. subulata is an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation in plants. However, little is known about the gene expression profile of P. subulata under cold stress. Here, we examined changes in cold stress-related genes in P. subulata. We sequenced three cold-treated (CT) and control (CK) samples of P. subulata. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment of the obtained reads, 99,174 unigenes were generated. Based on similarity searches with known proteins in public protein databases, 59,994 unigenes were functionally annotated. Among all differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 8302, 10,638 and 11,021 up-regulated genes and 9898, 17,876, and 12,358 down-regulated genes were identified after treatment at 4, 0, and −10 °C, respectively. Furthermore, 3417 up-regulated unigenes were expressed only in CT samples. Twenty major cold-related genes, including transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes, osmoregulation proteins, and Ca2+ and ABA signaling components, were identified, and their expression levels were estimated. Overall, this is the first transcriptome sequencing of this plant species under cold stress. Studies of DEGs involved in cold-related metabolic pathways may facilitate the discovery of cold-resistance genes. PMID:25938968

  14. The Role of Cold Work in Eddy Current Residual Stress Measurements in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2006-03-06

    Recently, it was shown that eddy current methods can be adapted to residual stress measurement in shot-peened nickel-base superalloys. However, experimental evidence indicates that the piezoresistivity effect is simply not high enough to account for the observed apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) increase. At the same time, X-ray diffraction data indicates that 'cold work' lingers even when the residual stress is fully relaxed and the excess AECC is completely gone. It is impossible to account for both observations with a single coherent explanation unless we assume that instead of a single 'cold work' effect, there are two varieties of cold work; type-A and type-B. Type-A cold work (e.g., changes in the microscopic homogeneity of the material) is not detected by X-ray diffraction as it does not significantly affect the beam width, but causes substantial conductivity change and exhibits strong thermal relaxation. Type-B cold work (e.g., dislocations) is detected by X-ray, but causes little or no conductivity change and exhibits weak thermal relaxation. Based on the assumption of two separate cold-work variables and that X-ray diffraction results indicate the presence of type-B, but not type-A, all observed phenomena can be explained. If this working hypothesis is proven right, the separation of residual stress and type-A cold work is less critical because they both relax much earlier and much faster than type-B cold work.

  15. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release

    PubMed Central

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  18. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress.

    PubMed

    Lomborg, S R; Nielsen, L R; Heegaard, P M H; Jacobsen, S

    2008-10-01

    Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin concentrations were obtained before (0-sample) and at 8, 24 and 48 hours after the start of transportation. Upon arrival the animals gave the impression of being anxious, and they appeared to have difficulty coping with isolation and with being tied on the slippery floors of the research stable. Serum concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P < 0.01 and 0.05 at 48 hours, respectively). Additionally, the animals had transient neutrophilia at 8 and 24 hours (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that SAA and haptoglobin may serve as markers of stress in adult cattle. PMID:18461465

  19. Computer Models of Stress, Allostasis, and Acute and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The past century has seen a profound shift in diseases of humankind. Acute, unifactorial diseases are being replaced increasingly by multifactorial disorders that arise from complex interactions among genes, environment, concurrent morbidities and treatments, and time. According to the concept of allostasis, there is no single, ideal set of steady-state conditions in life. Allostasis reflects active, adaptive processes that maintain apparent steady states, via multiple, interacting effectors regulated by homeostatic comparators “homeostats.” Stress can be defined as a condition or state in which a sensed discrepancy between afferent information and a setpoint for response leads to activation of effectors, reducing the discrepancy. “Allostatic load” refers to the consequences of sustained or repeated activation of mediators of allostasis. From the analogy of a home temperature control system, the temperature can be maintained at any of a variety of levels (allostatic states) by multiple means (effectors), regulated by a comparator thermostat (homeostat). Stress might exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load. This presentation describes models of homeostatic systems that incorporate negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, environmental influences, intrinsic obsolescence, and destabilizing positive feedback loops. These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multi-system disorders and failures. PMID:19120114

  20. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  1. Ethylene response factor Sl-ERF.B.3 is responsive to abiotic stresses and mediates salt and cold stress response regulation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Klay, Imen; Pirrello, Julien; Riahi, Leila; Bernadac, Anne; Cherif, Ameur; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bouzid, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Sl-ERF.B.3 (Solanum lycopersicum ethylene response factor B.3) gene encodes for a tomato transcription factor of the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family. Our results of real-time RT-PCR showed that Sl-ERF.B.3 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which is induced by cold, heat, and flooding, but downregulated by salinity and drought. To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. This inhibition was significantly enhanced in shoots but reduced in roots, leading to an increased root to shoot ratio. Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. All these results suggest that Sl-ERF.B.3 gene is involved in plant response to abiotic stresses and may play a role in the layout of stress symptoms under cold stress and in growth regulation under salinity. PMID:25215313

  2. Putrescine as a signal to modulate the indispensable ABA increase under cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Juan C; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F

    2009-01-01

    Polyamines have been found to correlate frequently with biotic and abiotic insults, and their functional involvement in the plant responses to several stresses has been shown genetically with both gain and loss of function mutations. In spite of a large body of physiological and genetic data, the mode of action for polyamines at the molecular level still remains elusive. We have recently performed a detailed integrated analysis of polyamine metabolism under cold stress by means of metabolic studies, quantitative gene expression analyses, and gene inactivations, to characterize in more detail the role of polyamines in response to low temperature. Our data show a unique accumulation profile for putrescine compared to other polyamines, with a progressive increase upon cold stress treatment coincident with a similar transcriptional upregulation for the two arginine decarboxylase genes ADC1 and ADC2. Loss of function mutants adc1 and adc2 display reduced freezing tolerance and alterations in ABA content and ABA-dependent signalling pathways under low temperature, compared to wild type plants. Phenotypical reverse complementation tests for both adc and ABA-defective mutants support our conclusion that putrescine modulates ABA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level in response to low temperature thus uncovering a novel mode of action for polyamines as regulators of hormone biosynthesis. PMID:19721755

  3. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. PMID:26551431

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. PMID:23218453

  5. DNA methylation and physio-biochemical analysis of chickpea in response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Rakei, Aida; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Ranjbar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress (CS) signals are translated into physiological changes as products of direct and/or indirect of gene expression regulated by different factors like DNA methylation. In this study, some of these factors were comparatively studied in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold-tolerant genotype, and ILC533, cold susceptible one) under control (23 °C) and days 1, 3, and 6 after exposing the seedlings to CS (4 °C). Under CS, tolerant genotype prevented H2O2 accumulation which led to a decrease in damage indices (malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage index) compared to susceptible one. The significant activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase) along with a significant proportion of change in DNA methylation/demethylation patterns were often effective factors in preserving cell against cold-induced oxidative stress. Chickpea cells in response to CS changed access to their genome as the number of bands without change from day 1 to day 6 of exposure to CS particularly in tolerant genotype was decreased. During CS, the methylation level was higher compared to demethylation (29.05 vs 19.79 %) in tolerant genotype and (27.92 vs 22.09 %) in susceptible one. However, for prolonged periods of CS, changes in demethylated bands in tolerant genotype were higher than that of in susceptible one (9.24 vs 4.13 %), indicating higher potential for activation of CS responsive genes. Such a status along with higher activity of antioxidants and less damage indices could be related to cold tolerance (CT) mechanisms in chickpea. Sequencing analysis confirmed the important role of some specific DNA sequences in creating CT with possible responsive components involved in CS. Thus, dynamic assessment using multi-dimensional approaches allows us to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events in creating CT, to comprehend better the

  6. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    PubMed

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P < 0.005). Significant decreases in skin temperature, sweat rate, heart rate, and heat storage was also noted in the HI vs. the CO trials. Tolerance time in the HI exposure were longer than in the CO exposure (only 12 subjects in the CO trial endured the entire heat exposure session, as opposed to all 17 subjects in the HI group). It is concluded that hand immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods. PMID:18478254

  7. Entrainment of the mouse circadian clock by sub-acute physical and psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuriki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of acute stress on the peripheral circadian system are not well understood in vivo. Here, we show that sub-acute stress caused by restraint or social defeat potently altered clock gene expression in the peripheral tissues of mice. In these peripheral tissues, as well as the hippocampus and cortex, stressful stimuli induced time-of-day-dependent phase-advances or -delays in rhythmic clock gene expression patterns; however, such changes were not observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, i.e. the central circadian clock. Moreover, several days of stress exposure at the beginning of the light period abolished circadian oscillations and caused internal desynchronisation of peripheral clocks. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythmicity showed habituation and disappeared with long-term exposure to repeated stress. These findings suggest that sub-acute physical/psychological stress potently entrains peripheral clocks and causes transient dysregulation of circadian clocks in vivo. PMID:26073568

  8. CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2 (CRF2) and CRF3 Regulate Lateral Root Development in Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin; Cho, Chuloh; Lee, Mi Rha; Van Binh, Nguyen; Kim, Jungmook

    2016-08-01

    Lateral roots (LRs) are a major determinant of the root system architecture in plants, and developmental plasticity of LR formation is critical for the survival of plants in changing environmental conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, genetic pathways have been identified that regulate LR branching in response to numerous environmental cues, including some nutrients, salt, and gravity. However, it is not known how genetic components are involved in the LR adaptation response to cold. Here, we demonstrate that CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2 (CRF2) and CRF3, encoding APETALA2 transcription factors, play an important role in regulating Arabidopsis LR initiation under cold stress. Analysis of LR developmental kinetics demonstrated that both CRF2 and CRF3 regulate LR initiation. crf2 and crf3 single mutants exhibited decreased LR initiation under cold stress compared with the wild type, and the crf2 crf3 double mutants showed additively decreased LR densities compared with the single mutants. Conversely, CRF2 or CRF3 overexpression caused increased LR densities. CRF2 was induced by cold via a subset of the cytokinin two-component signaling (TCS) pathway, whereas CRF3 was upregulated by cold via TCS-independent pathways. Our results suggest that CRF2 and CRF3 respond to cold via TCS-dependent and TCS-independent pathways and control LR initiation and development, contributing to LR adaptation to cold stress. PMID:27432872

  9. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  10. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  11. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  12. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  13. Mechanosensitive ion channel MscL controls ionic fluxes during cold and heat stress in Synechocystis.

    PubMed

    Bachin, Dmitry; Nazarenko, Lyudmila V; Mironov, Kirill S; Pisareva, Tatiana; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Los, Dmitry A

    2015-06-01

    Calcium plays an essential role in a variety of stress responses of eukaryotic cells; however, its function in prokaryotes is obscure. Bacterial ion channels that transport Ca(2+) are barely known. We investigated temperature-induced changes in intracellular concentration of Ca(2+), Na(+) and K(+) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 and its mutant that is defective in mechanosensitive ion channel MscL. Concentration of cations rapidly and transiently increased in wild-type cells in response to cold and heat treatments. These changes in ionic concentrations correlated with the changes in cytoplasmic volume that transiently decreased in response to temperature treatments. However, no increase in ionic concentrations was observed in the MscL-mutant cells. It implies that MscL functions as a non-specific ion channel, and it participates in regulation of cell volume under temperature-stress conditions. PMID:26023201

  14. The long bones of neonatal rats stressed by cold, heat, and noise exhibit increased fluctuating asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Gest, T R; Siegel, M I; Anistranski, J

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of stress agents on the magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry in long bone measurements, data from litters of rats conceived and born in cold (10 degrees C), heat (33 degrees C), and noise (random protocol) were compared to data on control animals born at room temperature (22 degrees C). All animals were sacrificed at birth, and right and left femoral lengths were recorded. Correlation coefficients calculated for right and left femora were transformed to Hotelling's z* values which were then compared using the test of homogeneity of correlation coefficients. The magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry was found to be significantly (p less than .05) greater in the femora of animals in the three stressed groups. PMID:3803996

  15. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cassava is an important tropical root crop adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and acid soils. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava. The development of microarray technology has accelerated the study of global transcription profiling under certain conditions. Results A 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing 20,840 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in apical shoots of cassava subjected to cold at 7°C for 0, 4 and 9 h. A total of 508 transcripts were identified as early cold-responsive genes in which 319 sequences had functional descriptions when aligned with Arabidopsis proteins. Gene ontology annotation analysis identified many cold-relevant categories, including 'Response to abiotic and biotic stimulus', 'Response to stress', 'Transcription factor activity', and 'Chloroplast'. Various stress-associated genes with a wide range of biological functions were found, such as signal transduction components (e.g., MAP kinase 4), transcription factors (TFs, e.g., RAP2.11), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes (e.g., catalase 2), as well as photosynthesis-related genes (e.g., PsaL). Seventeen major TF families including many well-studied members (e.g., AP2-EREBP) were also involved in the early response to cold stress. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis uncovered many important pathways, such as 'Plant hormone signal transduction' and 'Starch and sucrose metabolism'. Furthermore, the expression changes of 32 genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Importantly, most of the tested stress-responsive genes were primarily expressed in mature leaves, stem cambia, and fibrous roots rather than apical buds and young leaves. As a response to cold stress in cassava, an increase in transcripts and

  16. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  17. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material. PMID:16388863

  18. Phosphoproteome dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under heat shock and cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Kanshin, Evgeny; Kubiniok, Peter; Thattikota, Yogitha; D'Amours, Damien; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells and organisms to survive and function through changes in temperature evolved from their specific adaptations to nonoptimal growth conditions. Responses to elevated temperatures have been studied in yeast and other model organisms using transcriptome profiling and provided valuable biological insights on molecular mechanisms involved in stress tolerance and adaptation to adverse environment. In contrast, little is known about rapid signaling events associated with changes in temperature. To gain a better understanding of global changes in protein phosphorylation in response to heat and cold, we developed a high temporal resolution phosphoproteomics protocol to study cell signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method allowed for quantitative analysis of phosphodynamics on 2,777 phosphosites from 1,228 proteins. The correlation of kinetic profiles between kinases and their substrates provided a predictive tool to identify new putative substrates for kinases such as Cdc28 and PKA. Cell cycle analyses revealed that the increased phosphorylation of Cdc28 at its inhibitory site Y19 during heat shock is an adaptive response that delays cell cycle progression under stress conditions. The cellular responses to heat and cold were associated with extensive changes in phosphorylation on proteins implicated in transcription, protein folding and degradation, cell cycle regulation and morphogenesis. PMID:26040289

  19. Daily photosynthetic and C-export patterns in winter wheat leaves during cold stress and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Leonardos, Evangelos D.; Savitch, Leonid V.; Huner, Norman P. A.; Oquist, Gunnar; Grodzinski, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Diurnal patterns of whole-plant and leaf gas exchange and 14C-export of winter wheat acclimated at 20 and 5 degrees C were determined. The 5 degrees C-acclimated plants had lower relative growth rates, smaller biomass and leaf area, but larger specific leaf weight than 20 degrees C plants. Photosynthetic rates in 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves were similar; however, daytime export from 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves was 45% lower. Photosynthesis and export remained steady in 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves during the daytime. By comparison, photosynthesis in 5 degrees C-stressed leaves (20 degrees C-acclimated plants exposed to 5 degrees C 12 h before and during measurements) declined from 70 to 50% of the 20 degrees C-acclimated leaves during the daytime, while export remained constant at 35% of the 20 degrees C-acclimated and 60% of the 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves. At high light and CO2, photosynthesis and export increased in both 20 degrees C and 5 degrees C-acclimated leaves, but rates in 5 degrees C-stressed leaves remained unchanged. At all conditions daytime export was greater than nighttime export. Taken together, during cold acclimation photosynthesis was upregulated, whereas export was only partially increased. We suggest that this reflects a requirement of cold-acclimated plants to both sustain an increased leaf metabolic demand while concomitantly supporting translocation of photoassimilates to overwintering sinks. PMID:12675742

  20. Acute exposure to cold rapidly increases the number of nucleotide binding sites, but not proton conductance, in BAT mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Studies on the effect of acute cold exposure of rats on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity have produced equivocal results. Therefore, the authors have reexamined the response of BAT mitochondria to abrupt changes in environmental temperature. /sup 3/H-GDP binding to BAT mitochondria increased more than 2-fold in 20 min when rats were moved from 27/sup 0/C to 4/sup 0/C. When rats housed at 4/sup 0/C for 2 h were returned to 27/sup 0/C, GDP binding decreased sharply in 20 min and returned to control levels in 2 h. On the other hand, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance, as measured by passive swelling in isotonic K-acetate of KCl buffers, was unaffected by brief cold exposure but more than doubled in rats kept at 4/sup 0/C for 10 days. The authors conclude that GDP-inhibitable swelling may be more indicative of uncoupling protein concentration whereas thermogenic activity is more appropriately indicated by GDP binding. GDP binding to BAT mitochondria from warm and acutely cold treated rats was not altered by prior swelling of the mitochondria nor by freeze-thawing the mitochondria before assay. Therefore, alterations of the number of GDP binding sites may not be a result of conformational changes of the mitochondril membrane.

  1. Mapping regulatory genes as candidates for cold and drought stress tolerance in barley.

    PubMed

    Tondelli, A; Francia, E; Barabaschi, D; Aprile, A; Skinner, J S; Stockinger, E J; Stanca, A M; Pecchioni, N

    2006-02-01

    Cereal crop yield is greatly affected in many growing areas by abiotic stresses, mainly low temperature and drought. In order to find candidates for the tolerance genes for these stresses, 13 genes encoding for transcription factors and upstream regulators were screened by amplification and SSCP on six parental genotypes of three barley mapping populations ('Nure' x 'Tremois', 'Proctor' x 'Nudinka', and 'Steptoe' x 'Morex'), and mapped as newly developed STS, SNP, and SSCP markers. A new consensus function map was then drawn using the three maps above, including 16 regulatory candidate genes (CGs). The positions of barley cold and drought tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) presently described in the literature were added to the consensus map to find positional candidates from among the mapped genes. A cluster of six HvCBF genes co-mapped with the Fr-H2 cold tolerance QTL, while no QTLs for the same trait were positioned on chromosome 7H, where two putative barley regulators of CBF expression, ICE1 and FRY1, found by homology search, were mapped in this work. These observations suggest that CBF gene(s) themselves, rather than their two regulators, are at present the best candidates for cold tolerance. Four out of 12 drought tolerance QTLs of the consensus map are associated with regulatory CGs, on chromosomes 2H, 5H, and 7H, and two QTLs with effector genes, on chromosomes 5H and 6H. The results obtained could be used to guide MAS applications, allowing introduction into an ideal genotype of favourable alleles of tolerance QTLs. PMID:16315028

  2. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals. PMID:23482380

  3. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], p<.001). In the think anything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  4. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  5. Cold Water Immersion is Acutely Detrimental but Increases Performance Post-12 h in Rugby Players.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C A; da Mota, G R; Marocolo, M

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of cold water immersion on recovery of performance (i. e., the ability of repetitively performing a physical test) in rugby players acutely and 12 h later. 8 male rugby union players (23±4.7 years; 176.9±4.5 cm; 87.5±8.6 kg) performed a rugby-specific exercise protocol (40 min) followed by recovery strategies: cold water immersion (8.9±0.6°C; 9 min with 1 min out of water, repeated twice) or control (players remained seated for 20 min) in a random order. The players underwent performance tests (countermovement and 30 s continuous jumps and agility T) at 4 time points: at baseline, immediately after rugby-specific exercise, post-recovery strategies and 12 h later. The performance of the agility and countermovement jump test were not different between cold water immersion and control immediately post rugby-specific exercises and 12 h thereafter. However, the 30 s continuous jump test performance decreased immediately but increased 12 h later after cold water immersion compared with control. Perception of recovery was better in the cold water immersion group compared with controls post 12 h exercise. Cold water immersion improves 30 s continuous jump performance, total quality recovery and seems to be an easy and practical tool for coaches and players, especially during congested periods of the season when fast recovery (~12 h) for the following activity is essential. PMID:27136509

  6. Oligo-microarray analysis and identification of stress-immune response genes from manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposure to heat and cold stresses.

    PubMed

    Menike, Udeni; Lee, Youngdeuk; Oh, Chulhong; Wickramaarachchi, W D N; Premachandra, H K A; Park, Se Chang; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2014-10-01

    Thermal stress regulates the complex system of gene expression and downstream biochemical and physiological responses in aquatic species. To identify genes involved in heat stress responses in manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), microarray analysis was conducted using clam transcriptome generated by pyrosequencing of cDNA library. Manila clams were exposed to heat (30 ± 1 °C) and cold (4 ± 1 °C) stresses and compared with control animals (18 ± 1 °C). Heat stressed animals have changed greater number of transcripts (8,306) than cold stress (7,573). Results of both heat and cold exposure has shown that over 2-fold up-regulated or down regulated (>2-or <2-fold) transcripts were higher at 24 h than at 6 h. It suggests that silent and constitutive express genes can activate at critical stage of thermal stress which could be between 6 and 24 h post stresses. We identified wide range of stress-immune response genes such as transcription factors, heat shock proteins, antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, inflammatory and apoptosis related genes, cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, and IFN regulatory proteins. Histological results revealed that non-specific cellular alterations such as lesions, hypertrophy, and necrosis in stressed gills could be due to decrease of gas exchange rate which may cause hypoxia. PMID:25024045

  7. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  8. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei'ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  9. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  10. Inhibition of food intake induced by acute stress in rats is due to satiation effects.

    PubMed

    Calvez, J; Fromentin, G; Nadkarni, N; Darcel, N; Even, P; Tomé, D; Ballet, N; Chaumontet, C

    2011-10-24

    Acute mild stress induces an inhibition of food intake in rats. In most studies, the cumulative daily food intake is measured but this only provides a quantitative assessment of ingestive behavior. The present study was designed to analyze the reduction in food intake induced by acute stress and to understand which behavioral and central mechanisms are responsible for it. Two different stressors, restraint stress (RS) and forced swimming stress (FSS), were applied acutely to male Wistar rats. We first measured corticosterone and ACTH in plasma samples collected immediately after acute RS and FSS in order to validate our stress models. We measured food intake after RS and FSS and determined meal patterns and behavioral satiety sequences. The expressions of CRF, NPY and POMC in the hypothalamus were also determined immediately after acute RS and FSS. The rise in corticosterone and ACTH levels after both acute RS and FSS validated our models. Furthermore, we showed that acute stress induced a reduction in cumulative food intake which lasted the whole day for RS but only for the first hour after FSS. For both stressors, this stress-induced food intake inhibition was explained by a decrease in meal size and duration, but there was no difference in ingestion speed. The behavioral satiety sequence was preserved after RS and FSS but grooming was markedly increased, which thus competed with, and could reduce, other behaviors, including eating. Lastly, we showed that RS induced an increase in hypothalamic POMC expression. These results suggest that acute stress may affect ingestive behavior by increasing satiation and to some extent by enhancing grooming, and this may be due to stimulation of the hypothalamic POMC neurons. PMID:21787797

  11. Effect of cold stress on broilers selected for resistance or susceptibility to ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Kidd, B D; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B

    2003-09-01

    Genetic selection for an ascites-resistant line of broilers is seen as a permanent solution to the ascites problem. Ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible lines have been developed using sire family selection based on mortality data taken from siblings reared in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level). The relaxed line is representative of the original commercial pureline stock randomly mated with no artificial selection pressure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences between the lines when reared in floor pens and subjected to an ascites-inducing cold stress. Seven hundred eighty three straight run broilers were reared in floor pens at local elevation (390 m above sea level). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Birds were brooded at 32 C during the first week. The second week birds were maintained at 30 degrees C. Cold stress was applied for the remaining 4 wk at 14 degrees C. Mortalities were necropsied daily to determine cause of death. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. At 6 wk, five birds per pen were bled, and half the survivors in each pen (8 to 15 birds) were killed, necropsied, and scored for ascites. Blood gases, clinical chemistries, and blood cell counts were taken. Liver, spleen, split heart, and lung weights were recorded. Body weights were not different among the resistant, susceptible, and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was better in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Ascites incidence, as measured by mortality and lesion score at necropsy, was higher in the susceptible and relaxed lines when compared to the resistant line; 18.8, 12.7, and 1.6% respectively (P < 0.001). Susceptible and relaxed lines showed more right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with the resistant line (P < 0.05). The results show that under severe cold stress at local altitude (390 m above sea level), the ascites-resistant line was growing as rapidly as the other

  12. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Moench, Kelly M.; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  13. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. PMID:27155256

  14. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Moench, Kelly M; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  15. Evaluation of Residual Stress Development at the Interface of Plasma Electrolytically Oxidized and Cold-Worked Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asquith, David; Yerokhin, Aleksey; James, Neil; Yates, John; Matthews, Allan

    2013-10-01

    Fatigue failure in hard oxide-coated aluminum is usually driven by rapid short crack propagation from the interface through the substrate; mitigation of this is possible by introducing interfacial compressive stresses. Combining cold work with hard oxide coating can improve their performance under conditions of simultaneous wear, corrosion, and fatigue. Three-dimensional strain fields in an aluminum alloy with combined cold work and PEO coating have been measured and mechanisms for stress redistribution presented. These comprise material consumption, expansive growth of oxide layers, and local annealing.

  16. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  17. Cold hardiness in relation to trace metal stress in the freeze-avoiding beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre A; Kristiansen, Erlend; Hansen, Bjørn H; Andersen, Rolf A; Zachariassen, Karl E

    2006-08-01

    The antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a family of proteins characterised by their ability to inhibit the growth of ice. These proteins have evolved as a protection against lethal freezing in freeze avoiding species. Metal stress has been shown to reduce the cold hardening in invertebrates, but no study has investigated how this type of stress affects the production of AFPs. This study demonstrates that exposure to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) reduces the normal developmental increase in AFP levels in Tenebrio molitor larvae reared under summer conditions. Exposure to winter conditions, however stimulated the production of AFPs in the metal exposed larvae, and raised the concentrations of AFPs to normal winter levels. The reduced level of AFPs in metal-stressed animals acclimated to summer conditions seems to arise from alterations in the normal gene expression of AFPs. The results indicate that metal exposure may cause freeze avoiding insects to become more susceptible to lethal freezing, as they enter the winter with lowered levels of AFPs. Such an effect cannot be revealed by ordinary toxicological tests, but may nevertheless be of considerable ecological importance. PMID:16806256

  18. Prolonged physical inactivity leads to a drop in toe skin temperature during local cold stress.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of a prolonged period of recumbency on the toe temperature responses during cold-water foot immersion. Ten healthy males underwent 35 days of horizontal bed rest. The right foot of the subjects was assigned as the experimental (EXP) foot. To prevent bed rest-induced vascular deconditioning in the left control foot (CON), a sub-atmospheric vascular pressure countermeasure regimen was applied on the left lower leg for 4 × 10 min every second day. On the first (BR-1) and the last (BR-35) day of the bed rest, subjects performed two 30 min foot immersion tests in 8 °C water, one with the EXP foot and the other with the CON foot. The tests were conducted in counter-balanced order and separated by at least a 15 min interval. At BR-35, the average skin temperature of the EXP foot was lower than at BR-1 (-0.8 °C; P = 0.05), a drop that was especially pronounced in the big toe (-1.6 °C; P = 0.05). In the CON foot, the average skin temperature decreased by 0.6 °C in BR-35, albeit the reduction was not statistically significant (P = 0.16). Moreover, the pressure countermeasure regimen ameliorated immersion-induced thermal discomfort for the CON foot (P = 0.05). Present findings suggest that severe physical inactivity exaggerates the drop in toe skin temperature during local cold stress, and thus might constitute a potential risk factor for local cold injury. PMID:24552380

  19. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  20. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  1. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  2. Composition of transgenic Volvariella volvacea tolerant to cold stress is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang

    2009-03-25

    Transgenic Volvariella volvacea strains, which are tolerant to cold stress, were generated by the stable insertion of antifreeze protein gene isolated from budworm into the genome of a conventional variety V23 of V. volvacea. As a part of the safety assessment program, transgenic V. volvacea strains were compared to a nontransgenic near-isogenic V. volvacea strain V23 grown contemporaneously by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, 5'-nucleotides, nucleic acid, and antinutrients such as tannin and cyanide in V. volvacea strains harvested at egg-shaped stage. Results of the comparisons indicate that these transgenic strains are compositionally equivalent to the conventional control. PMID:19245205

  3. Dynamic transcriptome analysis reveals AP2/ERF transcription factors responsible for cold stress in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Chunfang; Hu, Kaining; Xian, Shuanshi; Liu, Chunqing; Fan, Jianchun; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2016-06-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor (TF) superfamily plays an important regulatory role in signal transduction of the plant responses to various stresses including low temperature. Significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of cold resistance in Brassica napus, an important oilseed crop. However, comprehensive studies on the induction and activity of these TFs under low temperature have been lacking. In this study, 132 AP2/ERF genes were identified by transcriptome sequencing of rapeseed leaves exposed to 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h of low (4 °C) temperature stress. The genes were classified into 4 subfamilies (AP2, DREB, ERF, and RAV) and 13 subgroups, among which the DREB subfamily and ERF subfamily contained 114 genes, no genes were assigned to soloist or DREB A3 subgroups. One hundred and eighteen genes were located on chromosomes A1 to C9. GO functional analysis and promoter sequence analysis revealed that these genes are involved in many molecular pathways that may enhance cold resistance in plants, such as the low-temperature responsiveness, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethylene-responsiveness pathways. Their expression patterns revealed dynamic control at different times following initiation of cold stress; the RAV and DREB subfamilies were expressed at the early stage of cold stress, whereas the AP2 subfamily was expressed later. Quantitative PCR analyses of 13 cold-induced AP2/ERF TFs confirmed the accuracy of above results. This study is the first dynamic analysis of the AP2/ERF TFs responsible for cold stress in rapeseed. These findings will serve as a reference for future functional research on transcription in rapeseed. PMID:26728151

  4. Two Strategies for Response to 14°C Cold-Water Immersion: Is there a Difference in the Response of Motor, Cognitive, Immune and Stress Markers?

    PubMed Central

    Brazaitis, Marius; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Steponaviciute, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2014-01-01

    Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20) or slow cooling (SC; n = 20) responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the Tre decreased to a set point of 35.5°C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the Tre did not decrease to the set point of 35.5°C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14°C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force) and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition) performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α), markers of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone) and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine) were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative–hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic–insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14°C cold water—which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min) with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5°C vs 36.2°C) in the FC group compared with the SC group—induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group) showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of

  5. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses. PMID:20457576

  6. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses. PMID:20457576

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals genes commonly induced by Botrytis cinerea infection, cold, drought and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sham, Arjun; Al-Azzawi, Ahmed; Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Mahmoud, Bassam; Awwad, Falah; Al-Rawashdeh, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Genes Commonly Induced by Botrytis cinerea Infection, Cold, Drought and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Salma; Al-Mahmoud, Bassam; Awwad, Falah; Al-Rawashdeh, Ahmed; Iratni, Rabah; AbuQamar, Synan

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways controlling biotic and abiotic stress responses may interact synergistically or antagonistically. To identify the similarities and differences among responses to diverse stresses, we analyzed previously published microarray data on the transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to infection with Botrytis cinerea (a biotic stress), and to cold, drought, and oxidative stresses (abiotic stresses). Our analyses showed that at early stages after B. cinerea inoculation, 1498 genes were up-regulated (B. cinerea up-regulated genes; BUGs) and 1138 genes were down-regulated (B. cinerea down-regulated genes; BDGs). We showed a unique program of gene expression was activated in response each biotic and abiotic stress, but that some genes were similarly induced or repressed by all of the tested stresses. Of the identified BUGs, 25%, 6% and 12% were also induced by cold, drought and oxidative stress, respectively; whereas 33%, 7% and 5.5% of the BDGs were also down-regulated by the same abiotic stresses. Coexpression and protein-protein interaction network analyses revealed a dynamic range in the expression levels of genes encoding regulatory proteins. Analysis of gene expression in response to electrophilic oxylipins suggested that these compounds are involved in mediating responses to B. cinerea infection and abiotic stress through TGA transcription factors. Our results suggest an overlap among genes involved in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding components of the cyclopentenone signaling pathway in response to biotic and abiotic stresses suggest that the oxylipin signal transduction pathway plays a role in plant defense. Identifying genes that are commonly expressed in response to environmental stresses, and further analyzing the functions of their encoded products, will increase our understanding of the plant stress response. This information could identify targets for genetic

  9. An experimental test of the capture-restraint protocol for estimating the acute stress response.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Jesse J; Norris, D Ryan; Newman, Amy E M

    2013-01-01

    Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoids (GCs) modulate behavior and are key in directing energy reserves. The capture-restraint protocol was developed to experimentally stimulate and quantify the magnitude of the acute stress response by comparing baseline GC levels with those collected after restraining a subject for a period of time, typically 30 min. This protocol has been used extensively in the field and lab, yet few studies have investigated whether it parallels hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation under natural acute stressors. We examined the hypothesis that acute stress from the capture-restraint protocol accurately mimics the adrenocortical response induced by a natural acute stressor. Using wild-caught rock pigeons Columba livia in a repeated-measures design, we compared plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations at baseline, after exposure to acute capture-restraint (30 min in a cloth bag), after tethering in a harness (30 min), and after a real but nonlethal attack by a predatory raptor. As found in previous studies, the capture-restraint treatment significantly increased CORT levels of pigeons compared with baseline. However, we also found that when pigeons were exposed to an attack by a raptor, their CORT levels were more than twice as high compared with the capture-restraint treatment. Our results provide evidence that an authentic acute stressor can activate the HPA axis to a greater extent than the capture-restraint protocol and also suggest that real predation attempts can have a significant effect on acute stress levels of wild birds. PMID:23434787

  10. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Beth A.; Kohl, Krista L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N=479) between the ages of 8 to 17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and one month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01), and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, re-experiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), re-experiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's rho = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery. PMID:24337685

  11. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  12. Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioural stress normally triggers a complex, multilevel response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca(2+)-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  13. A post-translational modification of the photosystem II subunit CP29 protects maize from cold stress.

    PubMed

    Bergantino, E; Dainese, P; Cerovic, Z; Sechi, S; Bassi, R

    1995-04-14

    The resistance of maize plants to cold stress has been associated with the appearance of a new chlorophyll a/b binding protein in the thylakoid membrane following chilling treatment in the light. The cold-induced protein has been isolated, characterized by amino acid sequencing, and pulse labeled with radioactive precursors, showing that it is the product of post-translational modification by phosphorylation of the minor chlorophyll a/b protein CP29 rather than the product of a cold-regulated gene or an unprocessed CP29 precursor. We show here that the CP29 kinase activity displays unique characteristics differing from previously described thylakoid kinases and is regulated by the redox state of a quinonic site. Finally, we show that maize plants unable to perform phosphorylation have enhanced sensitivity to cold-induced photoinhibition. PMID:7721743

  14. Abiotic stress of ambient cold temperature regulates the host receptivity to pathogens by cell surfaced sialic acids.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Cheol; Joo, Su-Yeon; Chung, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Choi, Hee-Jin; Bae, Sung-Jin; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-07-29

    Ambient cold temperature, as an abiotic stress, regulates the survival, stability, transmission, and infection of pathogens. However, the effect of cold temperature on the host receptivity to the pathogens has not been fully studied. In this study, the expression of terminal α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids were increased in murine lung tissues, especially bronchial epithelium, by exposure to cold condition. The expression of several sialyltransferases were also increased by exposure to cold temperature. Furthermore, in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, the expressions of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids, and mRNA levels of sialyltransferases were increased in the low temperature condition at 33 °C. On the other hand, the treatment of Lith-Gly, a sialyltransferase inhibitor, blocked the cold-induced expression of sialic acids on surface of BEAS-2B cells. The binding of influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) toward BEAS-2B cells cultured at low temperature condition was increased, compared to 37 °C. In contrast, the cold-increased HA binding was blocked by treatment of lithocholicglycine and sialyl-N-acetyl-D-lactosamines harboring α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyl motive. These results suggest that the host receptivity to virus at cold temperature results from the expressions of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialic acids through the regulation of sialyltransferase expression. PMID:27181350

  15. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH.

    PubMed

    Engeland, William C; Yoder, J Marina; Karsten, Carley A; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  16. Phase-Dependent Shifting of the Adrenal Clock by Acute Stress-Induced ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, William C.; Yoder, J. Marina; Karsten, Carley A.; Kofuji, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal cortex has a molecular clock that generates circadian rhythms in glucocorticoid production, yet it is unclear how the clock responds to acute stress. We hypothesized that stress-induced ACTH provides a signal that phase shifts the adrenal clock. To assess whether acute stress phase shifts the adrenal clock in vivo in a phase-dependent manner, mPER2:LUC mice on a 12:12-h light:dark cycle underwent restraint stress for 15 min or no stress at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2 (early subjective day) or at ZT16 (early subjective night). Adrenal explants from mice stressed at ZT2 showed mPER2:LUC rhythms that were phase-advanced by ~2 h, whereas adrenals from mice stressed at ZT16 showed rhythms that were phase-delayed by ~2 h. The biphasic response was also observed in mice injected subcutaneously either with saline or with ACTH at ZT2 or ZT16. Blockade of the ACTH response with the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, prevented restraint stress-induced phase shifts in the mPER2:LUC rhythm both at ZT2 and at ZT16. The finding that acute stress results in a phase-dependent shift in the adrenal mPER2:LUC rhythm that can be blocked by dexamethasone indicates that stress-induced effectors, including ACTH, act to phase shift the adrenal clock rhythm. PMID:27445984

  17. Identification of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis plantlets: effect of cold stress on cysteine nitrosylation level.

    PubMed

    Puyaubert, Juliette; Fares, Abasse; Rézé, Nathalie; Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    S-nitrosylation is a nitric oxide (NO)-based post-translational modification regulating protein function and signalling. We used a combination between the biotin switch method and labelling with isotope-coded affinity tag to identify endogenously S-nitrosylated peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins extracted from plantlets. The relative level of S-nitrosylation in the identified peptides was compared between unstressed and cold-stress seedlings. We thereby detected 62 endogenously nitrosylated peptides out of which 20 are over-nitrosylated following cold exposure. Taken together these data provide a new repertoire of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis with cysteine S-nitrosylation site. Furthermore they highlight the quantitative modification of the S-nitrosylation status of specific cysteine following cold stress. PMID:24388526

  18. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Alejandra; Jaffé, Erica H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ. PMID:21785597

  19. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  20. Avalanche structural rearrangement through cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi; Wang, Wen; I, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the spatiotemporal dynamical behaviors of the avalanche structural rearrangement through micro-cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids, and the kinetic origins for their different spatial and temporal classifications. The crystalline ordered domains can be cracked or temporarily sustain and transfer the weak stress to remote regions for cracking-healing. It is found that cracking sites form a fractal network with cluster size following power law distribution in the x y t space. The histograms of the persistent times for sustaining regional ordered and disordered structure, the temporal cracking burst width, and quiescent time between two bursts all follow power law decays with fast descending tails. Cracking can be classified into a single temporal burst with simple line like spatial patterns and the successive cracking fluctuation with densely packed cracking clusters. For an ordered region, whether the Burgers vectors of the incoming dislocations from the boundary allow direct dislocation reduction is the key for the above two classifications through cracking a large ordered domain into medium scale corotating ordered domains or small patches. The low regional structural order at the end of a cracking burst can be regarded as an alarm for predicting the short quiescent period before the next cracking burst.

  1. Effects of neonatal undernutrition and cold stress on behavior and biochemical brain parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Villescas, R; Ostwald, R; Morimoto, H; Bennett, E L

    1981-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of neonatal undernutrition (U) and cold stress (S) on the behavioral and cerebral development of postweaning rats. A severe U was imposed by feeding dams a low protein diet. Postweaning all pups were fed a control diet. S consisted of daily exposure to 5 degrees for 3 minutes from day 2 to 11. Behavioral data show that U animals, stressed (S) + nonstressed (NS), exhibited a significant deficit in reversal learning of T-maze at 21 days, an enhanced passive avoidance response, but no difference in active-avoidance at 35 days when compared to controls of the same age. S had no effect on behavior development. At death (110 days), the brains were dissected into five sections and assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholinesterase (ChE) activities. Brain weights of U animals (NS + S) were significantly lower in all sections except dorsal cortex (DC). AChE and ChE activities were significantly higher in all sections (except DC) of U animals relative to controls. S resulted in lower cerebellar weight and ChE:AChE ratios in some sections. Our results suggest a delayed behavioral maturation in U animals and an association between early postweaning behavior and brain parameters in adult rehabilitated animals. PMID:7241231

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Stolon Cold Stress Response between the C4 Perennial Grass Species Zoysia japonica and Zoysia metrella

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Jiping; Song, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongxiao; Liu, Jianxiu; Guo, Zhongren; Hua, Yuelou

    2013-01-01

    Zoysiagrass, the most cold-tolerant grass among the warm-season turfgrasses, is often used as a model species for isolating cellular components related to cold stress. To understand the proteomic responses to cold stress in zoysiagrass stolons, we extracted stolon proteins from Zoysiajaponica, cv. Meyer (cold-tolerant) and Z. metrella, cv. Diamond (cold-sensitive), which were grown with or without cold treatment. Approximately 700 proteins were resolved on 2-DE gels, and 70 protein spots were differentially accumulated. We further observed that 45 of the identified proteins participate in 10 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. A significantly greater number of proteins accumulated in the Meyer than in the Diamond and 15 increased proteins were detected only in the Meyer cultivar under cold stress. Furthermore, we propose a cold stress-responsive protein network composed of several different functional components that exhibits a balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging, accelerated protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, reduced protein folding, enhanced photosynthesis, abundant energy supply and enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and nucleotides. Generally, the cold-tolerant Meyer cultivar showed a greater ROS scavenging ability, more abundant energy supply and increased photosynthesis and protein synthesis than did the cold-sensitive Diamond cultivar, which may partly explain why Meyer is more cold tolerant. PMID:24086619

  3. Acute restraint stress and corticosterone transiently disrupts novelty preference in an object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Torres-Berrio, Angélica; González-Martínez, Lina; Múnera, Alejandro; Lamprea, Marisol R

    2015-09-15

    The object recognition task is a procedure based on rodents' natural tendency to explore novel objects which is frequently used for memory testing. However, in some instances novelty preference is replaced by familiarity preference, raising questions regarding the validity of novelty preference as a pure recognition memory index. Acute stress- and corticosterone administration-induced novel object preference disruption has been frequently interpreted as memory impairment; however, it is still not clear whether such effect can be actually attributed to either mnemonic disruption or altered novelty seeking. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task and subjected to either acute stress or corticosterone administration to evaluate the effect of stress or corticosterone on an object recognition task. Acute stress was induced by restraining movement for 1 or 4h, ending 30 min before the sample trial. Corticosterone was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before the test trial which was performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial. Four-hour, but not 1-h, stress induced familiar object preference during the test trial performed 1h after the sample trial; however, acute stress had no effects on the test when performed 24h after sample trial. Systemic administration of corticosterone before the test trial performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial also resulted in familiar object preference. However, neither acute stress nor corticosterone induced changes in locomotor behaviour. Taken together, such results suggested that acute stress probably does not induce memory retrieval impairment but, instead, induces an emotional arousing state which motivates novelty avoidance. PMID:25986403

  4. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  5. Evolution of Pre- and Post-Copulatory Traits in Male Drosophila melanogaster as a Correlated Response to Selection for Resistance to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karan; Samant, Manas Arun; Tom, Megha Treesa; Prasad, Nagaraj Guru

    2016-01-01

    Background In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits. Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior. Therefore, it is expected that the adaptation to cold stress will involve changes in pre- and post-copulatory traits. Such evolution of reproductive traits in response to cold stress is not well studied. Methods We selected replicate populations of D. melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. Over 37–46 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits such as mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency, male fertility, fitness (progeny production) and sperm competitive ability in male flies subjected to cold shock and those not subjected to cold shock. Results We found that post cold shock, the males from the selected populations had a significantly lower mating latency along with, higher mating frequency, fertility, sperm competitive ability and number of progeny relative to the control populations. Conclusion While most studies of experimental evolution of cold stress resistance have documented the evolution of survivorship in response to selection, our study clearly shows that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid changes in the pre- and post-copulatory traits. Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions. PMID:27093599

  6. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  7. The evolution of the painful sensitivity in acute and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Cristea, A; Ciobanu, A; Stoenescu, M; Rusei, I

    1994-01-01

    The clinical research was made on two groups of young volunteer students. We considered stress consisting in chronic informational overexposure during the examination session and the acute stress from their emotions before a hard examination. The painful sensitivity was analysed by measuring the retraction time of the finger from water at 55 degrees C. The experimental research was made on a group of 100 male mice. The acute stress was performed by subjecting each mouse to swim (behavioral despair test). Painful sensitivity was determined by the test of the hot plate heated at 50 degrees C. Individuals with hyper (H) and hypo (h) painful sensitivity were selected for the tests. In chronic stress, the results proved increased painful sensitivity (hyperalgia) more important at "h" compared to "H" (p < 0.05). In acute stress decreased painful sensitivity (stress analgesia) was noticed more significant at "H" compared to h" (p < 0.05). All these results suggested that the extreme "H" and "h" are two different stress behaviors with opposite mechanisms involved in stress analgesia. This hypothesis is related with studies which demonstrate the involvement in stress analgesia of non-opioid monoaminergic mechanisms together with the opioid mechanisms (Lewis, 1980). PMID:8640371

  8. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and died when managed by a traditional protocol for acute myocardial infarction/coronary artery disease, irrespective of his known aortic stenosis. Conclusion Intense mental stress poses a considerable risk, particularly to patients with significant aortic stenosis. As described here, it can precipitate acute pulmonary edema. Importantly, effective management of acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in patients with known aortic stenosis requires its distinction from acute pulmonary edema caused by an acute myocardial infarction. Treatment options include primarily urgent rhythm and/or rate control, as well as cautious vasodilation. PMID:20062645

  9. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  10. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  11. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  12. Chronic stress increases the opioid-mediated inhibition of the pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute stress in pigs.

    PubMed

    Janssens, C J; Helmond, F A; Loyens, L W; Schouten, W G; Wiegant, V M

    1995-04-01

    The role of endogenous opioid mechanisms in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to acute stress was investigated in a longitudinal study in cyclic female pigs before and after exposure to chronic stress (long term tethered housing). Challenge of loose-housed pigs with acute nose-sling stress for 15 min induced an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, evidenced by a transient increase in plasma ACTH (peak height above basal, 98 +/- 12 pg/ml; mean +/- SEM) and cortisol (54 +/- 3 ng/ml) concentrations. Pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg BW, iv bolus) increased the challenge-induced ACTH and cortisol responses to 244 +/- 36 pg/ml and 65 +/- 5 ng/ml, respectively. This indicates that during acute nose-sling stress, endogenous opioid systems are activated that inhibit the pituitary-adrenocortical response. After exposure of the pigs to chronic stress (10-11 weeks of tethered housing), the challenge-induced ACTH response was attenuated, whereas the cortisol response remained unchanged, suggesting an increased adrenocortical sensitivity to circulating ACTH. In addition, pretreatment with naloxone induced a greater increment in the ACTH and cortisol responses in tethered pigs than in loose-housed pigs. As no such changes were found in control animals housed loose during the entire experimental period, this indicates that the impact of opioid systems had increased due to chronic stress. The increased impact of opioid systems during chronic stress may prevent excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responses to acute stressors and, thus, may be of adaptive value. PMID:7895656

  13. Glucocorticoids Protect Against the Delayed Behavioral and Cellular Effects of Acute Stress on the Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rajnish P.; Anilkumar, Shobha; McEwen, Bruce; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2013-01-01

    Background A single episode of acute immobilization stress has previously been shown to trigger a delayed onset of anxiety-like behavior and spinogenesis in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats. Spurred on by a seemingly paradoxical observation in which even a modest increase in corticosterone (CORT), caused by a single vehicle injection before stress, could dampen the delayed effects of stress, we hypothesized a protective role for glucocorticoids against stress. Methods We tested this hypothesis by analyzing how manipulations in CORT levels modulate delayed increase in anxiety-like behavior of rats on the elevated plus-maze 10 days after acute stress. We also investigated the cellular correlates of different levels of anxiety under different CORT conditions by quantifying spine density on Golgi-stained BLA principal neurons. Results CORT in drinking water for 12 hours preceding acute stress prevented delayed increase in anxiety rather than exacerbating it. Conversely, vehicle injection failed to prevent the anxiogenic effect of stress in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats. However, when CORT was restored in adrenalectomized rats by injection, the delayed anxiogenic effect of stress was once again blocked. Finally, high and low anxiety states were accompanied by high and low levels of BLA spine density. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the presence of elevated levels of CORT at the time of acute stress confers protection against the delayed enhancing effect of stress on BLA synaptic connectivity and anxiety-like behavior. These observations are consistent with clinical reports on the protective effects of glucocorticoids against the development of posttraumatic symptoms triggered by traumatic stress. PMID:22572034

  14. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress. PMID:21645264

  15. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  16. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation), and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation) where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25530986

  17. Transitory activation of the central and ovarian norepinephrine systems during cold stress-induced polycystic ovary in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Barros, P; Kalil, B; Leoni, G B; Del Bianco-Borges, B; Franci, C R; Szawka, R E; Lara, H E; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-01-01

    Cold stress-induced ovarian sympathetic activation is associated with the development of ovarian cysts in rats. Although we have hypothesised that polycystic ovary (PCO) features induced by cold stress, as prevented by lesion of the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), were a result of the increased activity of the ovarian norepinephrine (NE) system, this was not evident after 8 weeks of stress. In the present study, we investigated the temporal changes in LC and ovarian NE activities and steroid secretion in rats exposed to single (SS) or repeated (RS) cold stress. SS and 4 week (4W)-RS but not 8 week (8W)-RS increased c-Fos expression in the LC and ovarian NE release. Plasma oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels tended to increase in 4W-RS and were elevated in 8W-RS rats, which displayed PCO morphology. β-adrenergic receptor agonist increased steroid hormone release from the ovary of unstressed (US) but not from 8W-RS rats. To determine whether increased activity of noradrenergic system during the initial 4 weeks of RS would be sufficient to promote PCO, rats were exposed to 4 weeks of cold stress and kept in ambient temperature for the next 4 weeks (4W-RS/4W-US). Accordingly, PCO morphology, increased steroid secretion and decreased ovulation rate were found in 4W-RS/4W-US rats, strengthening the hypothesis that the initial increase in NE release triggers the development of PCO. The correlated activity of LC neurones and ovarian noradrenergic terminals and the induction of PCO in 4W-RS/4W-US rats provide functional evidence for a major role of NE in disrupting follicular development and causing the long-lasting endocrine abnormalities found in stress-induced PCO. PMID:22882492

  18. DeepSAGE Based Differential Gene Expression Analysis under Cold and Freeze Stress in Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Saurabh; Sharma, Prakash C.

    2015-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), an important plant species of Indian Himalayas, is well known for its immense medicinal and nutritional value. The plant has the ability to sustain growth in harsh environments of extreme temperatures, drought and salinity. We employed DeepSAGE, a tag based approach, to identify differentially expressed genes under cold and freeze stress in seabuckthorn. In total 36.2 million raw tags including 13.9 million distinct tags were generated using Illumina sequencing platform for three leaf tissue libraries including control (CON), cold stress (CS) and freeze stress (FS). After discarding low quality tags, 35.5 million clean tags including 7 million distinct clean tags were obtained. In all, 11922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 6539 up regulated and 5383 down regulated genes were identified in three comparative setups i.e. CON vs CS, CON vs FS and CS vs FS. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis were performed to assign gene ontology term to DEGs and ascertain their biological functions. DEGs were mapped back to our existing seabuckthorn transcriptome assembly comprising of 88,297 putative unigenes leading to the identification of 428 cold and freeze stress responsive genes. Expression of randomly selected 22 DEGs was validated using qRT-PCR that further supported our DeepSAGE results. The present study provided a comprehensive view of global gene expression profile of seabuckthorn under cold and freeze stresses. The DeepSAGE data could also serve as a valuable resource for further functional genomics studies aiming selection of candidate genes for development of abiotic stress tolerant transgenic plants. PMID:25803684

  19. DeepSAGE based differential gene expression analysis under cold and freeze stress in seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Saurabh; Sharma, Prakash C

    2015-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), an important plant species of Indian Himalayas, is well known for its immense medicinal and nutritional value. The plant has the ability to sustain growth in harsh environments of extreme temperatures, drought and salinity. We employed DeepSAGE, a tag based approach, to identify differentially expressed genes under cold and freeze stress in seabuckthorn. In total 36.2 million raw tags including 13.9 million distinct tags were generated using Illumina sequencing platform for three leaf tissue libraries including control (CON), cold stress (CS) and freeze stress (FS). After discarding low quality tags, 35.5 million clean tags including 7 million distinct clean tags were obtained. In all, 11922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 6539 up regulated and 5383 down regulated genes were identified in three comparative setups i.e. CON vs CS, CON vs FS and CS vs FS. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis were performed to assign gene ontology term to DEGs and ascertain their biological functions. DEGs were mapped back to our existing seabuckthorn transcriptome assembly comprising of 88,297 putative unigenes leading to the identification of 428 cold and freeze stress responsive genes. Expression of randomly selected 22 DEGs was validated using qRT-PCR that further supported our DeepSAGE results. The present study provided a comprehensive view of global gene expression profile of seabuckthorn under cold and freeze stresses. The DeepSAGE data could also serve as a valuable resource for further functional genomics studies aiming selection of candidate genes for development of abiotic stress tolerant transgenic plants. PMID:25803684

  20. Transcriptome analysis of newly classified bZIP transcription factors of Brassica rapa in cold stress response.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Indeok; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-09-01

    Plant bZIP transcription factors play crucial roles in biological processes. In this study, 136 putative bZIP transcription members were identified in Brassica rapa. The bZIP family can be divided into nine groups according to the specific amino acid rich domain in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana. To screen the cold stress responsive BrbZIP genes, we evaluated whether the transcription patterns of the BrbZIP genes were enhanced by cold treatment in the inbred lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, by microarray data analysis and qRT-PCR. The expression level of six genes increased significantly in Kenshin, but these genes were unchanged in Chiifu. These findings suggest that the six genes that encoded proteins containing N-rich regions might be involved in cold stress response. The results presented herein provide valuable information regarding the molecular basis of the bZIP transcription factors and their potential function in regulation growth and development, particularly in cold stress response. PMID:25075938

  1. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  2. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  3. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  4. Cold temperature stress and predation effects on corals: their possible roles in structuring a nonreefal coral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Ryan Ho Leung; Ang, Put

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of Drupella corallivory in Hong Kong was observed to be higher following colder winters. A correlation between colder winter and increased corallivory could therefore be suggested, and a hypothesis that corals stressed by low temperature are preferred by corallivores was proposed. This study tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of both low (14 °C) and elevated (32 °C) temperatures on the coral Acropora valida and the consequences of these exposures on corallivory by the gastropod Drupella rugosa using a prey-choice experimental strategy. The low temperature (14 °C) tested represents the mean lowest sea surface temperature (SST) recorded in winter in Hong Kong, and the elevated temperature (32 °C) tested represents the mean highest SST in summer. These temperatures do not occur every year. Experimental results showed that A. valida was sensitive to low, but not to elevated, temperature stress. Only the cold stressed corals showed paler tissue and coral decay after the one-week temperature treatment. The results of the prey-choice experiment also showed that cold stressed corals were preferentially attacked by the gastropods. Low-temperature stress also exerted effects on D. rugosa as the cold stressed gastropods were less responsive and sensitive than the normal gastropods in detecting prey. However, when both A. valida and D. rugosa were exposed to the same level of low-temperature stress, the impact was more detrimental to the coral than to the gastropod. Given that nonreefal coral communities like those in Hong Kong are periodically experiencing winter low temperatures, these differences in the response to low-temperature stress and the subsequent selective predation effect may prevent such fast-growing coral species such as A. valida from dominating and thereby contribute to the shaping of the coral community structure.

  5. Genome-wide alterations in hippocampal 5-hydroxymethylcytosine links plasticity genes to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Papale, Ligia A; Zhang, Qi; Madrid, Andy; Chen, Li; Chopra, Pankaj; Keleş, Sündüz; Jin, Peng; Alisch, Reid S

    2016-02-01

    Environmental stress is among the most important contributors to increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. While even acute stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, we found a hippocampal increase of 5hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) following acute stress, warranting a deeper investigation of stress-related 5hmC levels. Here we used an established chemical labeling and affinity purification method coupled with high-throughput sequencing technology to generate the first genome-wide profile of hippocampal 5hmC following exposure to acute restraint stress and a one-hour recovery. This approach found a genome-wide disruption in 5hmC associated with acute stress response, primarily in genic regions, and identified known and potentially novel stress-related targets that have a significant enrichment for neuronal ontological functions. Integration of these data with hippocampal gene expression data from these same mice found stress-related hydroxymethylation correlated to altered transcript levels and sequence motif predictions indicated that 5hmC may function by mediating transcription factor binding to these transcripts. Together, these data reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain and represent a critical step toward understanding stress-related epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression and can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26598390

  6. Overcoming the effects of acute stress through good teamwork practices

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, D.K. ); Gaddy, C.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Two recent industry studies have taken a look at operators in stressful situations. In the context of severe-accident management, Mumaw et al. discussed four approaches to training operators for severe accidents: (1) training for knowledge or procedural skills; (2) training decision makers about goals and plans; (3) training to avoid cognitive biases; and (4) training within a realistic setting. These four approaches address directly the cognitive skills important for decision making. These types of training can also address indirectly the effects of stress on performance. First, effects of stress on decision making, such as reduced working memory, can be addressed by training cognitive skills. Second, exposure to realistically stressful situations can reduce the novelty and uncertainty, which is a primary cause of stress reactions. In a second study reported by Desaulniers, the stress of requalification exams was the focus. Desaulniers concluded that repeated changes in the exam process, inconsistency in interpretation of examiner guidelines, and some content and grading practices resulted in undue stress for the operators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff actions to remedy these sources of undue stress were described.

  7. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  8. The effects of cold stress on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Król, A; Amarowicz, R; Weidner, S

    2015-09-15

    According to some estimates, a 70% increase in crop yield could be achieved if the environmental conditions were close to the optimum ones for a given plant, which is why the identification and control of adverse environmental effects is a top priority in many countries worldwide. This paper contains a discussion of the changes in selected elements of the secondary metabolism in the leaves of two grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) with a different degree of tolerance to cold stress during prolonged and constant low temperature stress. The analyses have shown that the more-tolerant variety was characterized by a higher content of phenolic compounds, better radical-scavenging capacity and stronger reducing power. However, the cold stress caused a decrease in the concentration of the phenolics and decreased the scavenging capacity in the leaves of both varieties. Four phenolic acids have been identified in the extracts from the leaves of both grapevines: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and a caffeic acid derivative. Caffeic acid appeared in the highest concentrations in all the leaf extracts. Additionally, it has been noted that in the leaves of the varieties susceptible and tolerant to cold stress, the prolonged exposure to low temperature caused a considerable reduction of the content of all identified phenolic acids. The results of the analyses have demonstrated large differences in the functioning of the secondary metabolism in response to the same stressor. PMID:26555272

  9. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  10. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress - which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population - are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  11. Acute Stress Induces Selective Alterations in Cost/Benefit Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Naghmeh; Gray, Megan; Viau, Victor; Floresco, Stan B

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress can exert beneficial or detrimental effects on different forms of cognition. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, and some of the hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these effects. Effort-based decision-making was assessed where rats chose between a low effort/reward (1 press=2 pellets) or high effort/reward option (4 pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over 4 blocks of trials (2, 5, 10, and 20 lever presses). Restraint stress for 1 h decreased preference for the more costly reward and induced longer choice latencies. Control experiments revealed that the effects on decision-making were not mediated by general reductions in motivation or preference for larger rewards. In contrast, acute stress did not affect delay-discounting, when rats chose between a small/immediate vs larger/delayed reward. The effects of stress on decision-making were not mimicked by treatment with physiological doses of corticosterone (1–3 mg/kg). Blockade of dopamine receptors with flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg) before restraint did not attenuate stress-induced effects on effort-related choice, but abolished effects on choice latencies. These data suggest that acute stress interferes somewhat selectively with cost/benefit evaluations concerning effort costs. These effects do not appear to be mediated solely by enhanced glucocorticoid activity, whereas dopaminergic activation may contribute to increased deliberation times induced by stress. These findings may provide insight into impairments in decision-making and anergia associated with stress-related disorders, such as depression. PMID:22569506

  12. Adaptive response of vascular endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress magnitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Friedman, Morton H

    2012-02-15

    The adaptation of vascular endothelial cells to shear stress alteration induced by global hemodynamic changes, such as those accompanying exercise or digestion, is an essential component of normal endothelial physiology in vivo. An understanding of the transient regulation of endothelial phenotype during adaptation to changes in mural shear will advance our understanding of endothelial biology and may yield new insights into the mechanism of atherogenesis. In this study, we characterized the adaptive response of arterial endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress magnitude in well-defined in vitro settings. Porcine endothelial cells were preconditioned by a basal level shear stress of 15 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) at 1 Hz for 24 h, after which an acute increase in shear stress to 30 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) was applied. Endothelial permeability nearly doubled after 40-min exposure to the elevated shear stress and then decreased gradually. Transcriptomics studies using microarray techniques identified 86 genes that were sensitive to the elevated shear. The acute increase in shear stress promoted the expression of a group of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative genes. The adaptive response of the global gene expression profile is triphasic, consisting of an induction period, an early adaptive response (ca. 45 min) and a late remodeling response. Our results suggest that endothelial cells exhibit a specific phenotype during the adaptive response to changes in shear stress; this phenotype is different than that of fully adapted endothelial cells. PMID:22140046

  13. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. PMID:26799371

  14. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  15. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    PubMed Central

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  16. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  17. Acute Stress Increases Sex Differences in Risk Seeking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Decisions involving risk often must be made under stressful circumstances. Research on behavioral and brain differences in stress responses suggest that stress might have different effects on risk taking in males and females. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, participants played a computer game designed to measure risk taking (the Balloon Analogue Risk Task) fifteen minutes after completing a stress challenge or control task. Stress increased risk taking among men but decreased it among women. Conclusions/Significance Acute stress amplifies sex differences in risk seeking; making women more risk avoidant and men more risk seeking. Evolutionary principles may explain these stress-induced sex differences in risk taking behavior. PMID:19568417

  18. Cold-induced changes in stress hormone and steroidogenic transcript levels in cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), a fish capable of metabolic depression.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Hori, Tiago S; Hall, Jennifer R; Rise, Matthew L; Gamperl, A Kurt

    2015-12-01

    The cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) is a fish with a wide latitudinal distribution that is capable of going into metabolic depression during the winter months, and thus, represents a unique model to investigate the impacts of cold temperatures on the stress response. In this study, we measured resting (pre-stress) plasma cortisol levels in 10 °C and 0 °C acclimated cunner from Newfoundland, and both catecholamine and cortisol levels after they were given a standardized handling stress (i.e. 1 min air exposure). In addition, we cloned and characterized cDNAs for several key genes of the cortisol-axis [cytochrome P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) most likely to be an ortholog of the teleost GR2], determined the tissue distribution of their transcripts, and measured their constitutive (i.e. pre-stress) transcript levels in individuals acclimated to both temperatures. In cunner acclimated to 0 °C, post-stress epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were much lower (by approximately 9- and 5-fold, respectively) compared to 10 °C acclimated fish, and these fish had relatively low resting cortisol levels (~15 ngml(-1)) and showed a typical post-stress response. In contrast, those acclimated to 10 °C had quite high resting cortisol levels (~75 ngml(-1)) that actually decreased (to ~20 ngml(-1)) post-stress before returning to pre-stress levels. Finally, fish acclimated to 10 °C had higher P450scc transcript levels in the head kidney and lower levels of GR transcript in both the head kidney and liver. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) temperature has a profound effect on the stress response of this species; and (2) although the ancestors of this species inhabited warm waters (i.e. they are members of the family Labridae), populations of cunner from colder regions may show signs of stress at temperatures as low as 10 °C. PMID:26188716

  19. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Teresa

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study's aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses' occupational stress in Ireland. PMID:25072339

  20. Acute Psychological Stress Results in the Rapid Development of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wenjun; Messina, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the roles of chronic stress and depression as an independent risk factor for decreased insulin sensitivity and the development of diabetes have been increasingly recognized. However, an understanding and the mechanisms linking insulin resistance and acute psychological stress are very limited. We hypothesized that acute psychological stress may cause the development of insulin resistance, which may be a risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis in a well-established mouse model using 180 episodes of inescapable foot shock (IES), followed by a behavioral escape test. In this study, mice that received IES treatment were tested for acute insulin resistance by measuring glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. When compared to normal and sham mice, mice that were exposed to IES resulting in escape failure (defined as IES with behavioral escape failure) displayed elevated blood glucose levels in both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Furthermore, mice with IES exposure and behavioral escape failure exhibited impaired hepatic insulin signaling via the insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/Akt pathway, without affecting similar pathways in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and brain. Additionally, a rise in murine growth-related oncogene KC/GRO was associated with impaired glucose metabolism in IES mice, suggesting a mechanism by which psychological stress by IES may influence glucose metabolism. The present results indicate that psychological stress induced by IES can acutely alter hepatic responsiveness to insulin and affect whole-body glucose metabolism. PMID:23444388

  1. Longitudinal platelet reactivity to acute psychological stress among older men and women.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Roepke, Susan K; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Ziegler, Michael G; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2009-09-01

    Platelet reactivity to acute stress is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, little research exists to provide systematic methodological foundations needed to generate strong longitudinal research designs. Study objectives were: 1) to evaluate whether markers of platelet function increase in response to an acute psychological stress test among older adults, 2) to establish whether reactivity remains robust upon repeated administration (i.e. three occasions approximately 1 year apart), and 3) to evaluate whether two different acute speech stress tasks elicit similar platelet responses. The 149 subjects (mean age 71 years) gave a brief impromptu speech on one of two randomly assigned topics involving interpersonal conflict. Blood samples drawn at baseline and post-speech were assayed using flow cytometry for platelet responses on three outcomes (% aggregates, % P-selectin expression, and % fibrinogen receptor expression). Three-level hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significant stress-induced increases in platelet activation on all outcomes (p < 0.001). No significant habituation on any measure was found. Additional reactivity differences were associated with male gender, history of myocardial infarction, and use of aspirin, statins, and antidepressants. The results demonstrate that laboratory acute stress tests continued to produce robust platelet reactivity on three activation markers among older adults over 3 years. PMID:19096987

  2. A temperature induced lipocalin gene from Medicago falcata (MfTIL1) confers tolerance to cold and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    He, Xueying; Sambe, Mame Abdou Nahr; Zhuo, Chunliu; Tu, Qinghua; Guo, Zhenfei

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-induced lipocalins (TIL) are plasmalemma-localized proteins and responsive to environmental stresses. Physiological functions of MfTIL1 from Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang. (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with cold and drought tolerance, were investigated in this study. MfTIL1 expression was greatly induced by 4-96 h of cold treatment, while transcript levels of the orthologs in Medicago truncatula, a model legume plant with lower cold tolerance than falcata, were reduced or not altered within 48-96 h. MfTIL1 expression was not responsive to dehydration and salinity. Compared to the wild type, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfTIL1 had lower temperature (LT50) that resulted in 50 % lethal and elevated survival rate in response to freezing, elevated F v/F m and decreased ion leakage after treatments with chilling, high light and methyl viologen (MV). H2O2 and O2 (-) were less accumulated in transgenic plants than in the wild type after treatments with chilling, high light and MV, while antioxidant enzyme activities showed no difference between the two types of plants prior to or following treatments. Higher transcript levels of NtDREB3 and NtDREB4 genes were observed in transgenic plants than in the wild type under non-stressed conditions, but higher transcript levels of NtDREB1, NtDREB2, NtDREB4 and NtCOR15a genes under chilling conditions. It is suggested that MfTIL1 plays an important role in plant tolerance to cold and oxidative stress through promoted scavenging of reactive oxygen species and up-regulating expression of multiple cold responsive genes. PMID:25744207

  3. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. PMID:25934571

  4. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Barber, Beth A; Kohl, Krista L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2014-03-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01) and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, reexperiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), reexperiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's ρ = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery. PMID:24337685

  5. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  6. Reduction of oxidative stress does not affect recovery of myocardial function: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Biagioli, B.; Borrelli, E.; Maccherini, M.; Bellomo, G.; Lisi, G.; Giomarelli, P.; Sani, G.; Toscano, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare oxidative stress after cardiac surgery in patients treated with two different methods of myocardial protection: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia. To correlate oxidative stress with postoperative myocardial dysfunction. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double blind, trial. SETTING: Institutional centre of cardiovascular surgery. PATIENTS: 20 patients were selected for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) on the following basis: stable angina, ejection fraction > 50%, double or triple vessel disease, no previous CABG or associated disease. Patients were randomised to two groups of 10 patients each. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent CABG with one of two different methods of myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass. CBC group: intermittent cold blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass; WBC group: continuous warm blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The index of oxidative stress used was the alteration of whole blood and plasma glutathione redox status. Samples were collected from the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before anaesthesia (T1), before aortic unclamping (T2), 15 minutes (T3), and 30 minutes (T4) after unclamping. Haemodynamic parameters were measured with thermodilution techniques. RESULTS: Oxidised glutathione and glutathione-cysteine mixed disulphide significantly increased in the coronary sinus plasma in the CBC group, and the overall redox balance of glutathione was decreased (P < 0.01) at T2-T4 versus T1, and compared with the WBC group. Comparable results were obtained for coronary sinus blood. There was no correlation between postoperative haemodynamic measurements and oxidative stress markers. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress was significant in patients undergoing CABG using cold blood cardioplegia, while the warm technique minimised the effects of ischaemia. However

  7. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions. PMID:25307930

  8. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  9. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  10. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  11. Effects of acute handling stress on cerebral monoaminergic neurotransmitters in juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Weber, R A; Pérez Maceira, J J; Aldegunde, M J; Peleteiro, J B; García Martín, L O; Aldegunde, M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis were subjected for short periods to two different types of handling-related stress: air exposure stress and net handling stress. The S. senegalensis were sacrificed 2 and 24 h after the stress events and the levels of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and their respective major metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were measured in three brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and optic tectum) and compared with those in control, non-stressed S. senegalensis. Neither type of stress caused any significant alteration of serotoninergic activity (5-HIAA:5-HT ratio) or NA levels. Dopaminergic activity (DOPAC:DA ratio) was lower in stressed fish in all of the brain regions studied. For both air exposure stress and net handling stress, DA levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control S. senegalensis. In addition, the higher DA levels after net handling stress were always significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed after acute air exposure stress, except in the telencephalon after 24 h. The significantly lower DOPAC:DA ratio (P < 0.05) in all of the brain regions studied was only observed in response to net handling stress. PMID:26387448

  12. Transcriptional expression levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to acute thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Farcy, Émilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During the annual cycle, oysters are exposed to seasonal slow changes in temperature, but during emersion at low tide on sunny summer days, their internal temperature may rise rapidly, resulting in acute heat stress. We experimentally exposed oysters to a 1-h acute thermal stress and investigated the transcriptional expression level of some genes involved in cell stress defence mechanisms, including chaperone proteins (heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp72 and Hsp90 (HSP)), regulation of oxidative stress (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT)), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase sigma, cytochrome P450 and multidrug resistance (MDR1)) and regulation of the cell cycle (p53). Gene mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as their ratio to actin mRNA, used as a reference. Of the nine genes studied, HSP, MT and MDR1 mRNA levels increased in response to thermal stress. We compared the responses of oysters exposed to acute heat shock in summer and winter and observed differences in terms of magnitude and kinetics. A larger increase was observed in September, with recovery within 48 h, whereas in March, the increase was smaller and lasted more than 2 days. The results were also compared with data obtained from the natural environment. Though the functional molecule is the protein and information at the mRNA level only has limitations, the potential use of mRNAs coding for cell stress defence proteins as early sensitive biomarkers is discussed. PMID:19002605

  13. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  14. Differential changes in platelet reactivity induced by acute physical compared to persistent mental stress.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, Katharina; Koudouovoh-Tripp, Pia; Kandler, Christina; Hochstrasser, Tanja; Malik, Peter; Giesinger, Johannes; Semenitz, Barbara; Humpel, Christian; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Platelets are important in hemostasis, but also contain adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory and immune-modulatory compounds, as well as most of the serotonin outside the central nervous system. Dysbalance in the serotonin pathways is involved in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Thus, changes in platelet aggregation and content of bioactive compounds are of interest when investigating physiological stress-related mental processes as well as stress-related psychiatric diseases such as depression. In the present study, a characterization of platelet reactivity in acute physical and persistent mental stress was performed (aggregation, serotonin and serotonin 2A-receptor, P-selectin, CD40 ligand, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9), platelet/endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and platelet factor 4 (PF-4). Acute physical stress increased platelet aggregability while leaving platelet content of bioactive compounds unchanged. Persistent mental stress led to changes in platelet content of bioactive compounds and serotonin 2A-receptor only. The values of most bioactive compounds correlated with each other. Acute physical and persistent mental stress influences platelets through distinct pathways, leading to differential changes in aggregability and content of bioactive compounds. PMID:26192713

  15. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  16. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  17. Plastid ribosomal protein S5 is involved in photosynthesis, plant development, and cold stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junxiang; Yuan, Hui; Yang, Yong; Fish, Tara; Lyi, Sangbom M; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Zhang, Lugang; Li, Li

    2016-04-01

    Plastid ribosomal proteins are essential components of protein synthesis machinery and have diverse roles in plant growth and development. Mutations in plastid ribosomal proteins lead to a range of developmental phenotypes in plants. However, how they regulate these processes is not fully understood, and the functions of some individual plastid ribosomal proteins remain unknown. To identify genes responsible for chloroplast development, we isolated and characterized a mutant that exhibited pale yellow inner leaves with a reduced growth rate in Arabidopsis. The mutant (rps5) contained a missense mutation of plastid ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5), which caused a dramatically reduced abundance of chloroplast 16S rRNA and seriously impaired 16S rRNA processing to affect ribosome function and plastid translation. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that the rps5 mutation suppressed the expression of a large number of core components involved in photosystems I and II as well as many plastid ribosomal proteins. Unexpectedly, a number of proteins associated with cold stress responses were greatly decreased in rps5, and overexpression of the plastid RPS5 improved plant cold stress tolerance. Our results indicate that RPS5 is an important constituent of the plastid 30S subunit and affects proteins involved in photosynthesis and cold stress responses to mediate plant growth and development. PMID:27006483

  18. Plastid ribosomal protein S5 is involved in photosynthesis, plant development, and cold stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junxiang; Yuan, Hui; Yang, Yong; Fish, Tara; Lyi, Sangbom M.; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Zhang, Lugang; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Plastid ribosomal proteins are essential components of protein synthesis machinery and have diverse roles in plant growth and development. Mutations in plastid ribosomal proteins lead to a range of developmental phenotypes in plants. However, how they regulate these processes is not fully understood, and the functions of some individual plastid ribosomal proteins remain unknown. To identify genes responsible for chloroplast development, we isolated and characterized a mutant that exhibited pale yellow inner leaves with a reduced growth rate in Arabidopsis. The mutant (rps5) contained a missense mutation of plastid ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5), which caused a dramatically reduced abundance of chloroplast 16S rRNA and seriously impaired 16S rRNA processing to affect ribosome function and plastid translation. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that the rps5 mutation suppressed the expression of a large number of core components involved in photosystems I and II as well as many plastid ribosomal proteins. Unexpectedly, a number of proteins associated with cold stress responses were greatly decreased in rps5, and overexpression of the plastid RPS5 improved plant cold stress tolerance. Our results indicate that RPS5 is an important constituent of the plastid 30S subunit and affects proteins involved in photosynthesis and cold stress responses to mediate plant growth and development. PMID:27006483

  19. Cold Drawn Steel Wires-Processing, Residual Stresses and Ductility-Part I: Metallography and Finite Element Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Phelippeau,A.; Pommier, S.; Tsakalakos, T.; Clavel, M.; Prioul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cold drawing steel wires lead to an increase of their mechanical strength and to a drop of their ductility. The increase of their mechanical strength has long been related to the reduction of the various material scales by plastic deformation, but the mechanisms controlling their elongation to failure have received relatively little attention. It is usually found that heavily deformed materials show a tendency to plastic strain localization and necking. However, in this paper it is shown that, though the steel wires are plastically deformed up to strain levels as high as 3.5, a significant capability of plastic deformation is preserved in as-drawn wires. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the existence of residual stresses inside the wire. Finite element analyses have been conducted in order to show that residual stresses, inherited from the drawing process, are sufficient to produce a significant hardening effect during a post-drawing tensile test, without introducing any hardening in the local material behavior. The main conclusion of this paper is that once the material has lost its hardening capabilities, residual stresses, inherited from the process, control the elongation of cold drawn wires. The finite element method allowed also the determination of the residual stress field that would lead to the best agreement between the simulated and the experimental stress strain curve of as-drawn wires.

  20. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p < 0.001). Acute prepubertal immobilization stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group. PMID:26930799

  1. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  2. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  3. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  4. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  5. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  6. Baroreflex sensitivity is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Truijen, Jasper; Davis, Shyrin C.A.T.; Stok, Wim J.; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Westerloo, David J.; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute psychological stress challenges the cardiovascular system with an increase in BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and reduced BRS (baroreflex sensitivity). β-adrenergic blockade enhances BRS during rest, but its effect on BRS during acute psychological stress is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that BRS is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade. Twenty healthy novice male bungee jumpers were randomized and studied with (PROP, n=10) or without (CTRL, n=10) propranolol. BP and HR responses and BRS [cross-correlation time-domain (BRSTD) and cross-spectral frequency-domain (BRSFD) analysis] were evaluated from 30 min prior up to 2 h after the jump. HR, cardiac output and pulse pressure were lower in the PROP group throughout the study. Prior to the bungee jump, BRS was higher in the PROP group compared with the CTRL group [BRSTD: 28 (24–42) compared with 17 (16–28) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; BRSFD: 27 (20–34) compared with 14 (9–19) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; values are medians (interquartile range)]. BP declined after the jump in both groups, and post-jump BRS did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, during acute psychological stress, BRS is higher in healthy subjects treated with non-selective β-adrenergic blockade with significantly lower HR but comparable BP. PMID:20828371

  7. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  8. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  9. [Ischemic stroke as reaction to an acute stressful event].

    PubMed

    Ibrahimagić, Omer C; Sinanović, Osman; Cickusić, Amra; Smajlović, Dzevdet

    2005-01-01

    The period following ischemic stroke can be considered as a reaction to a stressful event. Changes in cortisol secretion are one of the indicators of stress reaction. The aim of the study was to determine morning serum levels of cortisol in stroke patients within 48 hours and 15 days of ischemic stroke onset. Study group included 40 patients, 20 of them were females, mean age 65.3 +/- 10.3 years. The patients did not receive any corticosteroid agents or spironolactone, and did not suffer from Cushing's or Addison's syndrome. Ischemic stroke was verified by computed tomography of the brain. The fluorometric method with DELFIA Cortisol immunoassay was used to determine morning serum cortisol levels. Reference values of the measured hormone were 201-681 nmol/l. The mean level of serum cortisol within 48 hours of stroke was 560.9 +/- 318.9 nmol/l, and on day 15 it was 426.2 +/- 159.3 nmol/l, i.e. significantly lower (p < 0.02). On the first measurement, the level of serum cortisol was elevated in 32%, and on the second measurement in only 7.5% patients, which was also significantly lower (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the stress reaction in ischemic stroke patients was more pronounced within the first 48 hours of stroke onset. Judging from the morning cortisol levels, the reaction to stress was considerably less pronounced 15 days after stroke onset. PMID:15875466

  10. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  11. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  12. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  13. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters. PMID:23812778

  14. Ethanol effect on activation and maintenance of cold stress response in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Kelleher, S A; Eichen, P A

    1996-07-01

    Rats at thermoneutral ambient temperature (Ta) exhibit change in thermoregulatory response to ethanol (EtOH) from 2 to 15 days of age. In the present study, rats at 2-3, 8-9, and 14-15 days of age were administered either saline or EtOH (4 g/kg b.wt.;IP) using two different routines to determine EtOH effect on specific cold defense mechanisms. Injection of EtOH in the first routine occurred after exposure to cold Ta, to determine effect on maintenance of cold thermogenesis. EtOH-induced metabolic depression increased from 3 to 8 days of age, with little change after this time. Injection of EtOH in the second routine was at thermoneutral Ta, followed at 20 min postinjection by rapid exposure to cold Ta to determine effect on activation of cold thermogenesis. EtOH-treatment delayed onset of cold thermogenesis at 2-3 and 14-15 days of age, and completely eliminated 8-9-day-old response to cold Ta. Rats exposed to cold Ta at 2-3 days of age exhibited a slower rate of EtOH absorption and lower blood EtOH concentration than rats in the older groups, to explain some age differences in EtOH response. PMID:8743629

  15. Crucial roles of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein SOAR1 in Arabidopsis response to drought, salt and cold stresses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shang-Chuan; Mei, Chao; Liang, Shan; Yu, Yong-Tao; Lu, Kai; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2015-07-01

    Whereas several mitochondrial/chloroplast pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been reported to regulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, no nucleus-localized PPR protein has been found to play role in these processes. In the present experiment, we provide evidence that a cytosol-nucleus dual-localized PPR protein SOAR1, functioning to negatively regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in seed germination and postgermination growth, is a crucial, positive regulator of plant response to abiotic stresses. Downregulation of SOAR1 expression reduces, but upregulation of SOAR1 expression enhances, ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening, and plant tolerance to multiple, major abiotic stresses including drought, high salinity and low temperature. Interestingly and importantly, the SOAR1-overexpression lines display strong abilities to tolerate drought, salt and cold stresses, with surprisingly high resistance to salt stress in germination and postgermination growth of seeds that are able to potentially germinate in seawater, while no negative effect on plant growth and development was observed. So, the SOAR1 gene is likely useful for improvement of crops by transgenic manipulation to enhance crop productivity in stressful conditions. Further experimental data suggest that SOAR1 likely regulates plant stress responses at least partly by integrating ABA-dependent and independent signaling pathways, which is different from the ABI2/ABI1 type 2C protein phosphatase-mediated ABA signaling. These findings help to understand highly complicated stress and ABA signalling network. PMID:26093896

  16. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  17. Sex-specific variation in brown-headed cowbird immunity following acute stress: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Angelier, Frédéric; O'Loghlen, Adrian L; Rothstein, Stephen I; Wingfield, John C

    2012-09-01

    There is some discrepancy in the literature regarding whether acute stress is immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive. Studies of domesticated (laboratory and food) animals and humans typically indicate that acute stress is immunostimulatory, whereas studies of non-domesticated species document both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive results. Few studies have examined the mechanisms responsible for changes in immune activity in species other than those classically used in laboratory research. We examined the effect of both acute stress and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) on the bactericidal capacity (BC) of blood plasma from captive, wild-caught brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) to determine if CORT is responsible for changes in levels of immune activity. We conducted "stress tests" in which we handled birds to elicit a stress response and then measured the birds' total CORT and BC at 30 or 90 min post-stressor. We also conducted non-invasive tests in which we administered exogenous CORT by injecting it into mealworms that were fed to the cowbirds remotely. Total, free, and bound CORT levels, corticosteroid binding globulins (CBGs), and BC at 7 or 90 min post-mealworm ingestion were measured. Both males and females exhibited significant increases in total CORT following handling stress and the administration of exogenous CORT. Experimental males and females also exhibited a significant increase in CBG capacity at 7 min post-mealworm ingestion compared to controls. Male cowbirds exhibited a significant decline in their BC following both handling stress and the administration of exogenous CORT whereas female cowbirds exhibited no decline under either condition. Female CBG levels were not different than those of males, suggesting that differences in BC could be due to differences between the sexes in the number of corticosteroid receptors which, along with CBGs, regulate the stress response. Female cowbirds may modulate their stress response as an adaptive

  18. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    PubMed

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. PMID:25240268

  19. Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Geng, Z Y

    2015-11-01

    Cold stress triggers an anti-oxidative response in animals regulated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2-like, NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. To identify chicken Nrf2-regulated genes, 3 genetically related experimental groups (EG) with 40 Huainan partridge chickens in each group were chosen. The chickens were maintained at 20°C environmental temperature from 5 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 10 chickens from each EG were still maintained at 20°C as control, and the other 30 chickens from each EG were exposed to 6 ± 2°C. Liver samples were collected from the control and from chickens exposed to 6 ± 2°C for 12, 24, and 72 h for co-immuno-precipitation (CoIP) analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiment in liver cells treated with Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were carried out. A de novo motif was discovered which closely matched the core Nrf2 consensus binding motif. Genes involved in de novo motif discovery were further analyzed for their enrichment in the anti-oxidative response pathway and the lipid anabolism pathway. There were 14 genes found which are related to oxidative stress. To examine the downstream factors of the 14 responsive genes, one of them, UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase), was further analyzed by CoIP experiment and nano LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It was detected that fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, 127 AA) might be the potential UGT1A1 downstream interaction proteins. In conclusion, it is proposed that chickens under cold stress generate anti-oxidative stress and thus trigger the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which further up-regulates the expression of L-FABP to inactivate lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and promote fatty acid storage against the cold environment. PMID:26453599

  20. UVH6, a plant homolog of the human/yeast TFIIH transcription factor subunit XPD/RAD3, regulates cold-stress genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The UVH6 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana is predicted to function in transcription regulation, based on known activities of its human and yeast homologs. In this study, we show that UVH6-1 mutants are ultra-sensitive to cold and suggest that this defect results from reduced expression of cold-stress...

  1. Evolution of pre- and post-copulatory traits in female Drosophila melanogaster as a correlated response to selection for resistance to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karan; Prasad, Nagaraj Guru

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to low temperatures reduces gamete viability and fecundity in females of insect species like Drosophila. Hence, adaptation to cold stress can in principle involve modifications in reproductive traits in females. Studies on resistance to cold stress have mostly addressed the evolution of adult survivorship post cold shock. Very few studies have addressed the evolution of reproductive traits in females in response to cold stress. We have successfully selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. After 50 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits i.e. mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency and progeny production in female flies exposed to cold shock or control conditions. Post cold shock, females from the selected populations were better at recovery in terms of mating latency, mating success, and progeny production relative to females from the control populations. Performance of the two types of females was not different under control conditions. These findings clearly indicate that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid modification of the reproductive traits. PMID:27317621

  2. The Cold Signaling Attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 Activates FLOWERING LOCUS C Transcription via Chromatin Remodeling under Short-Term Cold Stress in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Sangmin; To, Taiko Kim; Kim, Jong-Myong; Seki, Motoaki; Park, Chung-Mo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to short-term cold stress delays flowering by activating the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cold signaling attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (HOS1) negatively regulates cold responses. Notably, HOS1-deficient mutants exhibit early flowering, and FLC expression is suppressed in the mutants. However, it remains unknown how HOS1 regulates FLC expression. Here, we show that HOS1 induces FLC expression by antagonizing the actions of FVE and its interacting partner histone deacetylase 6 (HDA6) under short-term cold stress. HOS1 binds to FLC chromatin in an FVE-dependent manner, and FVE is essential for the HOS1-mediated activation of FLC transcription. HOS1 also interacts with HDA6 and inhibits the binding of HDA6 to FLC chromatin. Intermittent cold treatments induce FLC expression by activating HOS1, which attenuates the activity of HDA6 in silencing FLC chromatin, and the effects of intermittent cold are diminished in hos1 and fve mutants. These observations indicate that HOS1 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor for FLC regulation under short-term cold stress. PMID:24220632

  3. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  4. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  5. Effect of the acute crowding stress on the rat brown adipose tissue metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Cvijic, Gordana; Petrovic, Natasa; Davidovic, Vukosava

    2005-12-01

    Our previous results have shown that metabolic and thermal stressors influence interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) metabolic activity by increasing oxygen consumption and, consequently, altering the toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidative system activity. Since there is not enough evidence about the effect of psychosocial stressors on these processes, we studied the effect of acute crowding stress on the IBAT and hypothalamic monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity as well as IBAT antioxidative enzymes, manganese (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT), as the relevant indicators of IBAT metabolic alternations under the stress exposure and the returning of animals to control conditions. The results indicated that acute crowding stress did not change the hypothalamic and IBAT MAO activities, the generation of ROS and, consequently, the IBAT CuZnSOD and CAT activities. However, all three antioxidative enzymes were affected only after the recovery period. It seems that peripheral overheating of rats during acute crowding changes the stress nature, by becoming more thermal than psychosocial and by suppression the hypothalamic efferent pathways involved in the IBAT thermogenesis regulation. However, it seems that returning of the animals to the control conditions after the stress termination causes the reactivation of IBAT thermogenesis with tendency to normalise the body temperature. PMID:16309937

  6. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2013-06-15

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications. PMID:23399403

  7. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  8. Overexpression of a novel cold-responsive transcript factor LcFIN1 from sheepgrass enhances tolerance to low temperature stress in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Li, Xiaoxia; Jia, Junting; Zhao, Pincang; Liu, Panpan; Liu, Zhujiang; Ge, Liangfa; Chen, Shuangyan; Qi, Dongmei; Deng, Bo; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Liu, Gongshe; Cheng, Liqin

    2016-03-01

    As a perennial forage crop broadly distributed in eastern Eurasia, sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel) is highly tolerant to low-temperature stress. Previous report indicates that sheepgrass is able to endure as low as -47.5 °C,allowing it to survive through the cold winter season. However, due to the lack of sufficient studies, the underlying mechanism towards the extraordinary low-temperature tolerance is unclear. Although the transcription profiling has provided insight into the transcriptome response to cold stress, more detailed studies are required to dissect the molecular mechanism regarding the excellent abiotic stress tolerance. In this work, we report a novel transcript factor LcFIN1 (L. chinensis freezing-induced 1) from sheepgrass. LcFIN1 showed no homology with other known genes and was rapidly and highly induced by cold stress, suggesting that LcFIN1 participates in the early response to cold stress. Consistently, ectopic expression of LcFIN1 significantly increased cold stress tolerance in the transgenic plants, as indicated by the higher survival rate, fresh weight and other stress-related indexes after a freezing treatment. Transcriptome analysis showed that numerous stress-related genes were differentially expressed in LcFIN1-overexpressing plants, suggesting that LcFIN1 may enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance by transcriptional regulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and CHIP-qPCR showed that LcCBF1 can bind to the CRT/DRE cis-element located in the promoter region of LcFIN1, suggesting that LcFIN1 is directly regulated by LcCBF1. Taken together, our results suggest that LcFIN1 positively regulates plant adaptation response to cold stress and is a promising candidate gene to improve crop cold tolerance. PMID:26234381

  9. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  10. Traumatic bereavement, acute dissociation, and posttraumatic stress: 14 years after the MS Estonia disaster.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Filip K; Eriksson, Nils-Gustaf; Hultman, Christina M; Lundin, Tom

    2011-04-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed to examine posttraumatic stress in survivors 14 years after a ferry disaster, and estimate short- and long-term changes in stress associated with traumatic bereavement and acute dissociation. There were 852 people who perished in the disaster, 137 survived. The 51 Swedish survivors were surveyed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) at 3 months, 1, 3, and 14 years (response rates 82%, 65%, 51%, and 69%). Symptoms decreased from 3 months to 1 year; no change was found thereafter. After 14 years, 27% reported significant symptoms. Traumatic bereavement, but not acute dissociation, was associated with long-term symptom elevation. Chronic posttraumatic stress can persist in a minority of survivors, and traumatic bereavement appears to hinder recovery. PMID:21442665

  11. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to no, mild (10), or severe (100) acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep/wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep/wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders. PMID

  12. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress. PMID:18997672

  13. FEMALE RESPONSES TO ACUTE AND REPEATED RESTRAINT STRESS DIFFER FROM THOSE IN MALES

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jaidee K.; Fernandez, Almendra A.; Gosselink, Kristin L.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress is implicated in diseases which differentially affect men and women. This study investigated how the activation of neuronal subpopulations contributes to changes in neuroendocrine regulation that predispose members of each sex to stress-related health challenges. Adult male and female rats were restrained in single (acute) or 14 consecutive daily (repeated) 30 min sessions; brain sections were immunohistochemically stained for Fos, arginine vasopressin (AVP) or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH). Acute restraint increased the number of PVH cells expressing Fos, with greater increases in males than females. Habituated responses were seen following repeated stress in both sexes, with no sex differences between groups. No sex differences were found in the number of neurons co-expressing Fos and AVP. Absolute counts of cellular Fos and GR co-localization mirrored Fos expression. In contrast, when doubly-labeled cells were normalized to staining for Fos alone, females showed greater numbers of Fos- and GR-positive cells than males after both acute and repeated stress. These data demonstrate that sex-specific stress responses are evident at the level of neuronal activation, and may contribute to different consequences of chronic stress in females versus males. Females may be more sensitive to glucocorticoid negative feedback, suggesting that sex-dependent differences in the efficiency of initiating and terminating stress responses may exist. Understanding the neural and endocrine pathways that mediate these functions in males and females will inform targeted therapeutic strategies to alleviate stress and the sex-specific afflictions with which it is associated. PMID:21453715

  14. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

  15. Dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production in rats after acute stress.

    PubMed

    Pertsov, S S; Alekseeva, I V; Koplik, E V; Sharanova, N E; Kirbaeva, N V; Gapparov, M M G

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of locomotor activity and heat production were studied in rats demonstrating passive and active behavior in the open field test at different time after exposure to acute emotional stress caused by 12-h immobilization during dark hours. The most pronounced changes in behavior and heat production followed by disturbances in circadian rhythms of these parameters were detected within the first 2 days after stress. In contrast to behaviorally active rats, the most significant decrease in locomotor activity and heat production of passive animals subjected to emotional stress was observed during dark hours. Circadian rhythms of behavior and heat production in rats tended to recover on day 3 after immobilization stress. These data illustrate the specificity of metabolic and behavioral changes reflecting the shift of endogenous biological rhythms in individuals with different prognostic resistance to stress at different terms after exposure to negative emotiogenic stimuli. PMID:24906959

  16. Massive presence of the Escherichia coli 'major cold-shock protein' CspA under non-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Brandi, A; Spurio, R; Gualerzi, C O; Pon, C L

    1999-03-15

    The most characteristic event of cold-shock activation in Escherichia coli is believed to be the de novo synthesis of CspA. We demonstrate, however, that the cellular concentration of this protein is > or = 50 microM during early exponential growth at 37 degrees C; therefore, its designation as a major cold-shock protein is a misnomer. The cspA mRNA level decreases rapidly with increasing cell density, becoming virtually undetectable by mid-to-late exponential growth phase while the CspA level declines, although always remaining clearly detectable. A burst of cspA expression followed by a renewed decline ensues upon dilution of stationary phase cultures with fresh medium. The extent of cold-shock induction of cspA varies as a function of the growth phase, being inversely proportional to the pre-existing level of CspA which suggests feedback autorepression by this protein. Both transcriptional and post-transcriptional controls regulate cspA expression under non-stress conditions; transcription of cspA mRNA is under the antagonistic control of DNA-binding proteins Fis and H-NS both in vivo and in vitro, while its decreased half-life with increasing cell density contributes to its rapid disappearance. The cspA mRNA instability is due to its 5' untranslated leader and is counteracted in vivo by the cold-shock DeaD box RNA helicase (CsdA). PMID:10075935

  17. Short UV-B Exposure Stimulated Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Antioxidants and Reduced Oxidative Stress of Cold-Stored Mangoes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhifang; Zheng, Yaoqi; Qiu, Rongrong; Yang, Yanjun; Xu, Mingfeng; Ye, Yu; Xu, Maojun

    2015-12-30

    The effects of UV-B irradiation on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant compound contents, antioxidative enzyme activities, and oxidative damage of cold-stored mangoes were examined. Superoxide anion production rate, hydrogen peroxide concentration, ion leakage level and malondialdehyde content of the cold-stored fruit preradiated with 5 KJ m(-2) UV-B for 4 h were significantly decreased as compared with control fruit. The activities of ROS generating enzymes remained unchanged in UV-B-irradiated mangoes as compared to the control, but superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, ascorbate and polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities of the cold-stored mangoes were significantly enhanced by UV-B. The UV-B-enhanced antioxidant compounds and antioxidative enzymes were highly correlated with the reduced-ROS levels in UV-B-irradiated mangoes. The data indicated that a short UV-B exposure reduced oxidative stress and alleviated oxidative damage of the cold-stored mangoes by triggering both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems although ROS generation in the fruit was not affected. PMID:26641945

  18. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Child Acute Stress Measures in Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Montaño, Zorash; Kohser, Kristen L.; Cuadra, Anai; Muñoz, Cynthia; Armstrong, F. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers need tools for accurate early assessment of children’s acute stress reactions and acute stress disorder (ASD). There is a particular need for independently validated Spanish-language measures. The current study reports on 2 measures of child acute stress (a self-report checklist and a semi-structured interview), describing the development of the Spanish version of each measure and psychometric evaluation of both the Spanish and English versions. Children between the ages of 8 to 17 years who had experienced a recent traumatic event completed study measures in Spanish (n = 225) or in English (n = 254). Results provide support for reliability (internal consistency of the measures in both languages ranges from .83 to .89; cross-language reliability of the checklist is .93) and for convergent validity (with later PTSD symptoms, and with concurrent anxiety symptoms). Comparing checklist and interview results revealed a strong association between severity scores within the Spanish and English samples. Checklist-interview differences in evaluating the presence of ASD appear to be linked to different content coverage for dissociation symptoms. Future studies should further assess the impact of differing assessment modes, content coverage, and the use of these measures in children with diverse types of acute trauma exposure in English- and Spanish-speaking children. PMID:23371337

  19. Identification of a MYB3R gene involved in drought, salt and cold stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Liu, Changlai; Dong, Hansong

    2011-10-10

    Abiotic stress seriously affects crop growth and productivity. To better understand the mechanisms plant uses to cope with drought, cold and salt stress, it is necessary to isolate and characterize important regulators response to these stresses. In this study, we cloned a MYB gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and designated it as TaMYB3R1 based on its conserved three repeats in MYB domain. The sequence of TaMYB3R1 protein shares high identity to other plant MYB3R proteins. Subcellular localization experiment in onion epidermal cells proved that TaMYB3R1 localized in the nucleus. Trans-activation essays in yeast cells confirmed that TaMYB3R1 was a transcriptional activator, and only C-terminal region was able to activate the expression of β-galactosidase. DNA-binding test showed the MSA cis element-binding activity of TaMYB3R1. After exogenous application of phytohormone ABA, the expression of TaMYB3R1 was induced, and its transcripts accumulated up to 24h; this is also the case for MeJA treatment, but after it peaked at 4h, it decreased to low levels. However, either SA or ET had no obvious effect on the expression of TaMYB3R1. Furthermore, the TaMYB3R1 was initially expressed at low levels and was gradually induced following treatment with salt, and continued to increase up to 72 h. This was similar for the cold treatment. In contrast, the peak appeared at 6h of the PEG treatment, and then gradually decreased to low levels. Our results suggest that TaMYB3R1 is potentially involved in wheat response to drought, salt and cold stress. PMID:21763408

  20. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. RESULTS: Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. CONCLUSION: Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent. PMID:25152590

  1. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ??? 150 ??l/l without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 100 ??l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 50 ??l/l.

  2. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ≤ 150 (μl/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 100 μl/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 50μl/l.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation on cold flat rolling processes of DC04 sheets with special focus on residual stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Mehner, T.; Binotsch, C.; Sieber, M.; Awiszus, B.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    The process of cold flat rolling is a widespread industrial technique to manufacture semi-finished products, e.g., for the automotive or homewares industry. Basic knowledge of the process regarding dimensioning and adjustment of defined characteristics is already state of the art. However, a detailed consideration and analysis with respect to local inhomogeneous residual stresses in several process steps mostly remains disregarded. A broad understanding of the process due to the distribution of residual stresses in the workpiece and the direction of the stress tensors allows for a definition of the characteristics of the workpiece even before the actual manufacturing process. For that purpose, it is necessary to perform numerical investigations by means of the finite element analysis (FEA) of cold flat rolling processes. Within this contribution, several approaches for the calibration of the FEA with the real flat rolling process will be addressed and discussed. To ensure that the numerical consideration provides realistic results, this calibration is indispensable. General parameters such as geometry, height reduction, rolling temperature, process time, and the rolling speed are considered as well as a photogrammetric survey, and calculated residual stresses with results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) will be compared. In the course of the experiments, a good agreement between the stress results of the FEA and the XRD was found in the center of the specimen. In combination with the allocation of the stress orientations, the agreement close to the edges is also fine. Some issues that cause differences between the FEA and the experiment are dis-cussed.

  4. Hostility and Physiological Responses to Acute Stress in People With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Ruth A.; Lazzarino, Antonio I.; Carvalho, Livia A.; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Hostility is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and one of the mechanisms may involve heightened reactivity to mental stress. However, little research has been conducted in populations at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between hostility and acute stress responsivity in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A total of 140 individuals (median age [standard deviation] 63.71 [7.00] years) with Type 2 diabetes took part in laboratory-based experimental stress testing. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and salivary cortisol were assessed at baseline, during two stress tasks, and 45 and 75 minutes later. Cynical hostility was assessed using the Cook Medley Cynical Hostility Scale. Results Participants with greater hostility scores had heightened increases in IL-6 induced by the acute stress tasks (B = 0.082, p = .002), independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking, household income, time of testing, medication, and baseline IL-6. Hostility was inversely associated with cortisol output poststress (B = −0.017, p = .002), independent of covariates. No associations between hostility and blood pressure or heart rate responses were observed. Conclusions Hostile individuals with Type 2 diabetes may be susceptible to stress-induced increases in inflammation. Further research is needed to understand if such changes increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:25886832

  5. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2−/− mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2−/− mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2−/− mice behavioral rigidity. PMID:25610381

  6. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  7. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. PMID:26263516

  8. Innate immunity and testosterone rapidly respond to acute stress, but is corticosterone at the helm?

    PubMed

    Davies, S; Noor, S; Carpentier, E; Deviche, P

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a stressor, vertebrates can rapidly increase the secretion of glucocorticoids, which is thought to improve the chances of survival. Concurrent changes in other physiological systems, such as the reproductive endocrine or innate immune systems, have received less attention, particularly in wild vertebrates. It is often thought that glucocorticoids directly modulate immune performance during a stress response, but, in many species, androgens also rapidly respond to stress. However, to our knowledge, no study has simultaneously examined the interactions between the glucocorticoid, androgen, and innate immune responses to stress in a wild vertebrate. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that the change in plasma corticosterone (CORT) in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma testosterone (T) and innate immune performance (estimated by the capacity of plasma to agglutinate and lyse foreign cells) in the Abert's Towhee (Melozone aberti). Furthermore, to broaden the generality of the findings, we compared male and female towhees, as well as males from urban and non-urban populations. Acute stress increased plasma CORT, decreased plasma T in males, and decreased innate immune performance, but the increase in CORT during stress was not correlated with the corresponding decreases in either plasma T or innate immunity. By contrast, the plasma T stress response was positively correlated with the innate immune stress response. Collectively, our results challenge the proposition that the glucocorticoid stress response is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma T, a key reproductive hormone, and innate immunity, as estimated by agglutination and lysis. PMID:27188192

  9. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  10. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    PubMed

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  11. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C.; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals. PMID:24478326

  12. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-11-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals. PMID:24478326

  13. [Hormonal markers of stress in acute cerebrovascular pathology].

    PubMed

    Miralles, F; Sanz, R; Martin, R; Falip, R; Antem, M; Matías-Guiu, J

    1995-01-01

    Various studies carried out over the last decade have shown that high glucose levels in the blood foster ischaemic brain damage associated with a worse evolution of such pathologies. The aim of the study we performed was to try to shed some light on whether stress in these patients raised their glucose levels adding to a worsening of the patient's clinical picture. We studied 318 consecutive patients suffering from stroke. We determined fasting glucose levels, prolactin and cortisol within the first few hours of hospitalization and afterwards at seven to ten days and again at one month after the stroke. Clinical severity was evaluated using Toronto and Mathew neurological scales and the degree of incapacity was measured using the Barthel functional scale on the three aforementioned occasions and Rankin's modified scale six and twelve months after the stroke. Clinical severity the first hours after stroke was significantly related to glucose levels, such relationship not being observed with prolactin and cortisol. Nor did we observe any significant association between glucose and these hormones. Likewise the anxiety scale had no relationship with any hormone. Studying medium and long term functional incapacity, glucose significantly correlated with the Rankin scale although with low dependence, such a relationship not being found either with prolactin or cortisol. Our work would seem to indicate that blood glucose behaviour is independent of prolactin and cortisol levels since we found no such relationship between them. PMID:8556609

  14. Effect of short-term cold stress on oxidative damage and transcript accumulation of defense-related genes in chickpea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Shahandashti, Seyyedeh-Sanam; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Khazaei, Mona; Talei, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Seyyedeh-Sanaz

    2014-08-15

    Cold stress affects many plant physiological and biochemical components and induces cascades of alterations in metabolic pathways, amongst them the membrane fatty acid compositions, the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the regulation of gene expression. The present work aimed to characterize the changes of some of these factors in both cold acclimated (CA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to identify the role of the acclimation process in adjusting plant responses to severe cold stress. The results showed an increase in the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) ratio compared to saturated fatty acids, which was more obvious in CA plants. Defense enzymes had an important role in CA plants to create greater cold tolerance compared to NA ones in the cases of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. During cold stress, a high transcription level of CaCAT and CaSOD genes was detected in CA plants, but a low transcription of CaLOX gene was observed in CA plants compared to NA plants, which might have prevented the decline of UFAs (confirmed by double bond index (DBI) data). Moreover, the transcription level of the Carubisco gene, as an energy producing agent, was higher in CA plants than in NA plants and the transcription of the Catubulin gene, as a crucial substance of cell cytoskeleton, showed a decreasing trend in both CA and NA plants, but this decline was greater in NA plants. These responses showed the possible targets of cold stress as chloroplast and signal transduction to balance stress programs. The above results indicate the crucial role of FA compositions in creating cold tolerance in susceptible chickpea plants with possible responsive components and the possible interactions in protein and transcript levels even in facing extreme cold stress. PMID:24972025

  15. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT AND COLD STRESS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES AND OTHER TOXICANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in laboratory rodents maintained under comfortable environmental conditions. However, exposure to toxicants as well as some drugs can occur under stressful conditions during rest or while exercising. Heat stress can exa...

  16. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p<0.001) were found in the patients as compared to those in controls, and significant depletions were found in the levels of serum vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition as compared to those in controls. After supplementation of antioxidants for one month, the levels of malondialdehyde were found to be decreased significantly (p<0.001) and zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase capacity levels were increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, there was a non–significant (p>0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  17. Stress management as a component of occupational therapy in acute care settings.

    PubMed

    Affleck, A; Bianchi, E; Cleckley, M; Donaldson, K; McCormack, G; Polon, J

    1984-01-01

    The recent explosion of stress literature in the medical community has created a new awareness of "stress" as a potentially destructive force in itself. Contributing the physical and psychological dysfunction, stress has now been linked with a wide range of diagnoses including cancer, cardiac disease and arthritis. The importance of incorporating stress management activities into daily life is increasingly apparent. Occupational therapists concerned with patients' ability to achieve health enhancing independent living skills are in a key position to help patients master stress management skills and incorporate them into activities of daily living. This article will explore the incorporation of stress management into occupational therapy programming for a variety of acute care patients. It will review the components of stress, the stress cycle, the relaxation response, the occupational therapy role based on a model of human occupation, and will review current programs through case study of four patients: one diagnosed with cancer (leukemia), one with anorexia nervosa, one with chronic pain and the fourth, a patient in medical intensive care. PMID:23947299

  18. Acute stress symptoms during the second Lebanon war in a random sample of Israeli citizens.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Miri; Yahav, Rivka

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Israel during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey was conducted in July 2006 of a random sample of 235 residents of northern Israel, who were subjected to missile attacks, and of central Israel, who were not subjected to missile attacks. Results indicate that ASS scores were higher in the northern respondents; 6.8% of the northern sample and 3.9% of the central sample met ASD criteria. Appearance of each symptom ranged from 15.4% for dissociative to 88.4% for reexperiencing, with significant differences between northern and central respondents only for reexperiencing and arousal. A low ASD rate and a moderate difference between areas subjected and not subjected to attack were found. PMID:18302184

  19. Factor structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (Harvey & Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, in a sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees relocated to a Red Cross emergency shelter in Austin, Texas. Results indicated that the proposed four-factor structure did not fit the data well. However, an alternate 2-factor model did fit the data well. This model included a second-order Distress factor (onto which the Reexperiencing, Arousal, and Avoidance factors loaded strongly) that was positively correlated with the Dissociation factor. Implications for the ASD construct and its measurement are discussed. PMID:20528054

  20. Pathogenesis of acute avian malaria. II. Anemia mediated by a cold-active autohemagglutinin from the blood of chickens with acute Plasmodium gallinaceum infection.

    PubMed

    Soni, J L; Cox, H W

    1975-03-01

    A cold-active hemagglutinin for trypsinized human type "O" erythrocytes (CAH) from blood of chickens with acute Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria was found to be associated with 19 S and 7 S globulin fractions of malarious chicken blood, but cleavage with 2-mercaptoethanol indicated that it was primarily of the IgM class of antibody. In serologic tests CAH reacted with trypsinized erythrocytes, and anti-chicken globulin. It did not react with other of the antigens or antibodies detected in the blood of malarious chickens. When the absorbed and eluted CAH was injected into normal chickens it produced an anaphylactic-like shock and caused a 25% reduction in red blood cell counts within 48 hours. Plasma samples collected during this interval showed signs of hemolysis. Reactions of blood cells from the recipient birds with fluorescein conjugated anti-chicken globulin indicated that CAH reacted with erythrocytes. The absence of fluorescent activity 3 days after injection suggested that these erythrocytes had been removed from the circulation. When normal chickens were injected with trypsinized autologous blood cells, CAH was detected within 3 days. The agglutination test again was active at temperatures below 22 degrees C and was negative when tested at 37 degrees C. In these birds the appearance of CAH was accompanied by reductions in red blood cell counts and by hemolysis. The results of these experiments suggest that CAH was not stimulated by plasmodial parasite antigen, but rather by autoantigens, which appear to be common to heterologous animal species, and which were in some manner expressed by the presence of the intracellular parasites, or by trypsin treatment. The experiments further suggest that this autohemagglutinin was partially causal of malarial anemia. The presence of other anemia factor(s) was indicated by anemia following injection of plasma that had been absorbed free of CAH. PMID:804265

  1. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Annealed and Cold Worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C Concentrated Salt Environments

    SciTech Connect

    P. Andresen

    2000-11-08

    Stress corrosion crack growth studies have been performed on annealed and cold worked Titanium Grade 7 and Alloy 22 in 110 C, aerated, concentrated, high pH salt environments characteristic of concentrated ground water. Following a very careful transition from fatigue precracking conditions to SCC conditions, the long term behavior under very stable conditions was monitored using reversing dc potential drop. Titanium Grade 7 exhibited continuous crack growth under both near-static and complete static loading conditions. Alloy 22 exhibited similar growth rates, but was less prone to maintain stable crack growth as conditions approached fully static loading.

  2. Critical job events, acute stress, and strain: a multiple interrupted time series.

    PubMed

    Eden, D

    1982-12-01

    A critical job event (CJE) is defined as a time-bounded peak of performance demand made on the individual as an integral part of his job. Though such events are an important source of acute job stress and are amenable to longitudinal study, relevant research has been scant. In the present study, the effects of acute objective stress on subjective stress and on psychological and physiological strain were assessed among 39 first-year nursing students in an interrupted time series with multiple replications. Strain was measured five times, twice in anticipation of CJE interspersed by three low-stress occasions. The CJEs were providing the first comprehensive patient care and the final exam in nursing. A consistently confirmatory pattern of significantly rising and falling strain was found for anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate: qualitative overload and serum uric acid changed as predicted four times out of five. CJE research can redress past overemphasis on chronic organizational stress and strengthen causal interpretation. PMID:10257633

  3. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation. PMID:26414625

  4. The psychological effects of Intifada Al Aqsa: acute stress disorder and distress in Palestinian-Israeli students.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Naiera; Ginzburg, Karni; Lev-Shalem, Liat; Solomon, Zahava

    2005-01-01

    The study assesses the effects of exposure to nationality-related and personal stressful events, threat appraisal and coping strategies on level of distress of Palestinian Israeli students. One hundred forty-eight Palestinian Israeli students filled out a battery of questionnaires that tapped their exposure to stressful life events, terrorism and political related violence, their primary and secondary appraisals, and coping strategies. Level of distress was evaluated by (1) acute stress disorder, and (2) psychiatric symptomatology. Results reveal relatively low exposure to terrorism-related traumatic events, yet considerable exposure (35.8%) to nationality-related stressful events during the last two years. Twenty-five percent of the students suffered from acute stress disorder, and their levels of psychiatric symptomatology exceeded norms for the general population. Primary appraisal processes and emotion-focused coping strategies made unique contribution to the respondents' level of (1) acute stress disorder and (2) psychiatric symptomatology. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:16342606

  5. Oxidative stress in acute human poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides; a case control study.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Akram; Solhi, Hasan; Mashayekhi, Farideh Jalali; Susanabdi, Alireza; Rezaie, Ali; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2005-07-01

    Free radicals play an important role in toxicity of pesticides and environmental chemicals. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPIs) may induce oxidative stress leading to generation of free radicals and alteration in antioxidant system. To complete the previous surveys, this study was conducted to evaluate the existence of oxidative stress, balance between total antioxidant capacity and oxygen free radicals in patients with acute OPI exposure. In this case control study, a total of 22 acute OPI poisoning patients were included and blood samples were analyzed for lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, total thiol groups, and cholinesterase levels. The results showed significant lipid peroxidation accompanied with decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity, total thiols, and cholinesterase activity. A significant correlation existed between cholinesterase depression and reduced total antioxidant capacity. It is concluded that oxygen free radicals and their related interactions like lipid peroxidation are present in acute OPI poisoning. Use of antioxidants may be beneficial in treatment of OPIs acute poisoning which remains to be elucidated by further clinical trials. PMID:21783573

  6. Transcriptomic Profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant pad2.1 in Response to Combined Cold and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Datta, Riddhi; Hazra, Saptarshi; Sultana, Asma; Mukhopadhyay, Ria; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of glutathione (GSH) in stress tolerance, defense response and antioxidant signaling is an established fact. In this study transcriptome analysis of pad2.1, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, after combined osmotic and cold stress treatment has been performed to explore the intricate position of GSH in the stress and defense signaling network in planta. Microarray data revealed the differential regulation of about 1674 genes in pad2.1 amongst which 973 and 701 were significantly up- and down-regulated respectively. Gene enrichment, functional pathway analysis by DAVID and MapMan analysis identified various stress and defense related genes viz. members of heat shock protein family, peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), NBS-LRR type resistance protein etc. as down-regulated. The expression pattern of the above mentioned stress and defense related genes and APETALA were also validated by comparative proteomic analysis of combined stress treated Col-0 and pad2.1. Functional annotation noted down-regulation of UDP-glycosyl transferase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase 8, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (CAD4), ACC synthase and ACC oxidase which are the important enzymes of phenylpropanoid, lignin and ethylene (ET) biosynthetic pathway respectively. Since the only difference between Col-0 (Wild type) and pad2.1 is the content of GSH, so, this study suggested that in addition to its association with specific stress responsive genes and proteins, GSH provides tolerance to plants by its involvement with phenylpropanoid, lignin and ET biosynthesis under stress conditions. PMID:25822199

  7. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    PubMed

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. PMID:27321755

  8. Response and habituation of pro and anti inflammatory gene expression to repeated acute stress

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Christine M.; Wang, Diana; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Thoma, Myriam V.; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute stress induces increases in plasma inflammatory mediators, which do not habituate to repeated stress. Inflammation is a risk factor for age-related illnesses, highlighting the need to understand factors controlling inflammation. No studies have examined changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression in response to repeated acute stress in humans. Methods RNA was isolated from peripheral blood before, 30 and 120 minutes after exposure of n=32 healthy human participants to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on two days. Gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and IκB was measured repeatedly on both days. We further assessed leukocyte numbers, plasma IL-6, and salivary cortisol. Results Stress induced IL-6 (F=44.7; p<0.001) and cortisol responses (F=18.6; p<0.001). Cortisol responses habituated (F=5.1, p=0.003), but IL-6 responses did not (n.s.). All genes increased in response to initial stress (IL-6: F=3.8; p=0.029; IL-1β: F=7.1; p=0.008; NF-κB: F=5.1; p=0.009; IκB; F=4.7; p=0.013) and showed habituation to repeated stress (IL-6: t=2.3; p=0.03; IL-1β: t=3.9; p=0.001; NF-κB: t=2.1; p=0.041; IκB: t=3.1; p=0.005). Day 1 responses of IL-1β and IκB were not explained by changes in leukocyte populations, but IL-6 and NF-κB, as well as most day 2 changes were not independent of leukocyte populations. Conclusions Stress response and habituation of pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression as found here might indicate that even on an intracellular level, inflammatory responses to acute stress are adaptive in that they respond to initial, but habituate to repeated, similar stress. Future studies will need to test whether non-habituation is predictive of disease. PMID:25683696

  9. Effect of dissolved oxygen content on stress corrosion cracking of a cold worked 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Litao; Wang, Jianqiu

    2014-03-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth tests of a cold worked nuclear grade 316L stainless steel were conducted in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environment containing various dissolved oxygen (DO) contents but no dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth rate (CGR) increased with increasing DO content in the simulated PWR primary water. The fracture surface exhibited typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) characteristics.

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated N-glycan degradation of cold-upregulated glycoproteins in response to chilling stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Dinghe; She, Jessica; Li, Jianming; Zhu, Jian-Kang; She, Yi-Min

    2016-10-01

    N-glycosylation has a great impact on glycoprotein structure, conformation, stability, solubility, immunogenicity and enzyme activity. Structural characterization of N-glycoproteome has been challenging but can provide insights into the extent of protein folding and surface topology. We describe a highly sensitive proteomics method for large-scale identification and quantification of glycoproteins in Arabidopsis through (15) N-metabolic labeling, selective enrichment of glycopeptides, data-dependent MS/MS analysis and automated database searching. In-house databases of Arabidopsis glycoproteins and glycopeptides containing Asn-X-Ser/Thr/Cys motifs were constructed by reducing 20% and 90% of the public database size, respectively, to enable a rapid analysis of large datasets for comprehensive identification and quantification of glycoproteins and heterogeneous N-glycans in a complex mixture. Proteome-wide analysis identified c. 100 stress-related N-glycoproteins, of which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins were examined to be up-regulated. Quantitative measurements provided a molecular signature specific to glycoproteins for determining the degree of plant stress at low temperature. Structural N-glycoproteomics following time-course cold treatments revealed the stress-responsive degradation of high-mannose type N-glycans in ER in response to chilling stress, which may aid in elucidating the cellular mechanisms of protein relocation, transport, trafficking, misfolding and degradation under stress conditions. PMID:27558752

  11. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted. PMID:25976524

  12. Effect of Poly(γ-glutamic acid) on the Physiological Responses and Calcium Signaling of Rape Seedlings (Brassica napus L.) under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Ding, Yan; Tang, Bao; Zhang, Yunxia; Li, Huashan; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) is a potential plant growth regulator that may be an effective cryoprotectant that prevents crops from damage during cold weather. In this study, the effects of γ-PGA on the physiological responses of rape seedlings subject to cold stress were investigated using hydroponic experiments. We determined that the malondialdehyde content was decreased by 33.4% and the proline content was increased by 62.5% by γ-PGA after 144 h under cold stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities were also evidently enhanced after treatment with γ-PGA. These responses counteracted increases in the fresh weight and chlorophyll content of rape seedlings, which increased by 24.5 and 50.9%, respectively, after 144 h, which meant that growth inhibition caused by cold was mitigated by γ-PGA. Our results also showed that γ-PGA also regulated Ca(2+) concentrations in the cytoplasm and calcium-dependent protein kinases, which are associated with cold resistance. In conclusion, we suggest that the Ca(2+)/CPKs signal pathway is involved in the γ-PGA-mediated enhancement of cold resistance in rape seedlings. PMID:26585291

  13. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response. PMID:26196459

  14. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  15. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis in response to cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide and is cultivated on all of the continents except Antarctica. However, low temperatures can limit the geographical locations and productivity of grapes. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding th...

  16. Engineering carpel-specific cold stress tolerance: a case study in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freezing temperatures during winter generally do not injure floral buds of horticulturally important crops. Entry into dormancy coupled with cold acclimation provides adequate protection unless the temperatures are exceptionally low. This measure of protection is lost in spring when the floral bud...

  17. Overexpression of a bHLH1 Transcription Factor of Pyrus ussuriensis Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance and Increases Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cong; Huang, Xiao-San; Li, Kong-Qing; Yin, Hao; Li, Lei-Ting; Yao, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in arrays of physiological and biochemical processes. However, knowledge concerning the functions of bHLHs in cold tolerance remains poorly understood. In this study, a PubHLH1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. PubHLH1 was upregulated by cold, salt, and dehydration, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PubHLH1 had the transactivational activity and localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of PubHLH1 in transgenic tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress. The transgenic lines had higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll, higher proline contents, lower electrolyte leakages and MDA when compared with wild type (WT). In addition, transcript levels of eight genes associated with ROS scavenging, regulation, and stress defense were higher in the transgenic plants relative to the WT under the chilling stress. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PubHLH1 played a key role in cold tolerance and, at least in part, contributed to activation of stress-responsive genes. PMID:27092159

  18. Overexpression of a bHLH1 Transcription Factor of Pyrus ussuriensis Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance and Increases Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cong; Huang, Xiao-San; Li, Kong-Qing; Yin, Hao; Li, Lei-Ting; Yao, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in arrays of physiological and biochemical processes. However, knowledge concerning the functions of bHLHs in cold tolerance remains poorly understood. In this study, a PubHLH1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. PubHLH1 was upregulated by cold, salt, and dehydration, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PubHLH1 had the transactivational activity and localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of PubHLH1 in transgenic tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress. The transgenic lines had higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll, higher proline contents, lower electrolyte leakages and MDA when compared with wild type (WT). In addition, transcript levels of eight genes associated with ROS scavenging, regulation, and stress defense were higher in the transgenic plants relative to the WT under the chilling stress. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PubHLH1 played a key role in cold tolerance and, at least in part, contributed to activation of stress-responsive genes. PMID:27092159

  19. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Putri, Mirasari; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A.; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Tsushima, Yoshito; and others

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36{sup −/−} mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue {sup 125}I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue {sup 18}F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36{sup −/−} mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is

  20. Effects of acute stress on cardiac endocannabinoids, lipogenesis, and inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, James; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objective Trauma exposure can precipitate acute/post-traumatic stress responses (AS/PTSD) and disabling cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Identifying acute stress-related physiologic changes that may increase CVD risk could inform development of early CVD-prevention strategies. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response and stress-related cardiovascular function. We examine stress-related endocannabinoid system (ECS) activity and its association with cardiovascular biochemistry/function following acute stress. Methods Rodents (n=8-16/group) were exposed to predator odor or saline; elevated plus maze (EPM), blood pressure (BP), serum and cardiac tissue ECS markers, and lipid metabolism were assessed at 24h and 2wks post-exposure. Results At 24h the predator odor group demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and had (a) elevated serum markers of cardiac failure/damage (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP]: 275.1 vs. 234.6, p=0.007; troponin-I: 1.50 vs. 0.78, p=0.076), lipogenesis (triacylglycerols [TAG]: 123.5 vs. 85.93, p=0.018), and inflammation (stearoyl delta-9 desaturase activity [SCD-16]: 0.21 vs. 0.07, p<0.001); (b) significant decrease in cardiac endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, 2-AG: 29.90 vs. 65.95, p<0.001) and fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE: oleoylethanolamide, OEA: 114.3 vs. 125.4, p=0.047; palmitoylethanolamide, PEA: 72.96 vs. 82.87, p=0.008); and (c) increased cardiac inflammation (IL-1β/IL-6 ratio: 19.79 vs.13.57, p=0.038; TNF-α/IL-6 ratio: 1.73 vs. 1.03, p=0.019) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]: 7.81 vs. 7.05, p=0.022), that were associated with cardiac steatosis (higher TAG: 1.09 vs. 0.72, p<0.001). Cardiac lipogenesis persisted, and elevated BP emerged two weeks after exposure. Conclusions Acute psychological stress elicits ECS-related cardiac responses associated with persistent, potentially-pathological changes in rat cardiovascular biochemistry

  1. Suppressed proliferation and apoptotic changes in the rat dentate gyrus after acute and chronic stress are reversible.

    PubMed

    Heine, Vivi M; Maslam, Suharti; Zareno, Jessica; Joëls, Marian; Lucassen, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Acute stress suppresses new cell birth in the hippocampus in several species. Relatively little is known, however, on how chronic stress affects the turnover, i.e. proliferation and apoptosis, of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) cells, and whether the stress effects are lasting. We investigated how 3 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress would influence the structural dynamic plasticity of the rat DG, and studied newborn cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, volume and cell number in 10-week-old animals. To study lasting effects, another group of animals was allowed to recover for 3 weeks. Based on two independent parameters, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki-67 immunocytochemistry, our results show that both chronic and acute stress decrease new cell proliferation rate. The reduced proliferation after acute stress normalized within 24 h. Interestingly, chronically stressed animals showed recovery after 3 weeks, albeit with still fewer proliferating cells than controls. Apoptosis, by contrast, increased after acute but decreased after chronic stress. These results demonstrate that, although chronic stress suppresses proliferation and apoptosis, 3 weeks of recovery again normalized most of these alterations. This may have important implications for our understanding of the reversibility of stress-related hippocampal volume changes, such as occur, for example, in depression. PMID:14750971

  2. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Putri, Mirasari; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A A; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Hiroshi; Abumrad, Nada A; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36(-/-) mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36(-/-) mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue (125)I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue (18)F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36(-/-) mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36(-/-) mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36(-/-) mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. PMID:25596128

  3. Expression of Selected Ginkgo biloba Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fuliang; Cheng, Hua; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Linling; Xu, Feng; Yu, Wanwen; Yuan, Honghui

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa), 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, GbHSP17 showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 may play important roles in Ginkgo leaf development and photosynthesis, and GbHSP17 may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three GbHSPs were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of GbHSP70, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP17, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment caused up-regulation of GbHSP70 primarily. PMID:22754330

  4. Cumulative Adversity Sensitizes Neural Response to Acute Stress: Association with Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Tsou, Kristen A; Ansell, Emily B; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative adversity (CA) increases stress sensitivity and risk of adverse health outcomes. However, neural mechanisms underlying these associations in humans remain unclear. To understand neural responses underlying the link between CA and adverse health symptoms, the current study assessed brain activity during stress and neutral-relaxing states in 75 demographically matched, healthy individuals with high, mid, and low CA (25 in each group), and their health symptoms using the Cornell Medical Index. CA was significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (P=0.01) in all participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results indicated significant associations between CA scores and increased stress-induced activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, striatum, right amygdala, hippocampus, and temporal regions in all 75 participants (p<0.05, whole-brain corrected). In addition to these regions, the high vs low CA group comparison revealed decreased stress-induced activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the high CA group (p<0.01, whole-brain corrected). Specifically, hypoactive medial OFC and hyperactive right hippocampus responses to stress were each significantly associated with greater adverse health symptoms (p<0.01). Furthermore, an inverse correlation was found between activity in the medial OFC and right hippocampus (p=0.01). These results indicate that high CA sensitizes limbic–striatal responses to acute stress and also identifies an important role for stress-related medial OFC and hippocampus responses in the effects of CA on increasing vulnerability to adverse health consequences. PMID:24051900

  5. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H; Juszczak, Grzegorz R

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples. PMID:26556046

  6. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs. PMID:24932962

  7. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS ON VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVEL CAUSED BY ACUTE INFORMATIONAL STRESS.

    PubMed

    Matitaishvili, T; Domianidze, T; Emukhvari, N; Khananashvili, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our research was to study behavioral indices of rats standing on various hierarchical level in the conditions of acute informational stress as well as their resistance to stress taking into account their social status. The Animal's behavior has been studied in conflict and agonist conditions against the background of high food and thirst motivation. After determination of hierarchical relations the stressing procedure of two active avoidance reactions was performed simultaneously during one trial (14 days). During the experiment, behavioral indices of rats induced by stressing procedure were registered. We used "open field" test in order to assess animals' emotional state. The studies performed by us demonstrated behavioral characteristics of animals standing on various hierarchical level. The obtained results showed that after stressing all the animals of the group under stressogenic influence of equal strength, behavior of rats did nor reliably differ in conflict situations. Dominants standing on high hierarchical level remained active in both conflict situations. The impact of stress on their behavior was less detected. Dominant animal maintained its hierarchical status. Submissive rats were more greatly influenced by stress. The obtained results confirmed that dominant animals were characterized with more comprehensively developed self-regulating mechanisms of brain. PMID:27119838

  8. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, Adrian M.; Goscik, Joanna; Majewska, Alicja; Swiergiel, Artur H.; Juszczak, Grzegorz R.

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1), injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf) and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20). The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4), Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples. PMID:26556046

  9. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage has been said to play an important role in pulmonary injury, which is associated with the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to identify biomarkers to determine the oxidative stress in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) using ...

  10. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. PMID:26174323

  11. WRKY76 is a rice transcriptional repressor playing opposite roles in blast disease resistance and cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yokotani, Naoki; Sato, Yuko; Tanabe, Shigeru; Chujo, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Takafumi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko

    2013-11-01

    OsWRKY76 encodes a group IIa WRKY transcription factor of rice. The expression of OsWRKY76 was induced within 48h after inoculation with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), and by wounding, low temperature, benzothiadiazole, and abscisic acid. Green fluorescent protein-fused OsWRKY76 localized to the nuclei in rice epidermal cells. OsWRKY76 showed sequence-specific DNA binding to the W-box element in vitro and exhibited W-box-mediated transcriptional repressor activity in cultured rice cells. Overexpression of OsWRKY76 in rice plants resulted in drastically increased susceptibility to M. oryzae, but improved tolerance to cold stress. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of OsWRKY76 suppresses the induction of a specific set of PR genes and of genes involved in phytoalexin synthesis after inoculation with blast fungus, consistent with the observation that the levels of phytoalexins in the transgenic rice plants remained significantly lower than those in non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, overexpression of OsWRKY76 led to the increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes such as peroxidase and lipid metabolism genes. These results strongly suggest that OsWRKY76 plays dual and opposing roles in blast disease resistance and cold tolerance. PMID:24043853

  12. WRKY76 is a rice transcriptional repressor playing opposite roles in blast disease resistance and cold stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    OsWRKY76 encodes a group IIa WRKY transcription factor of rice. The expression of OsWRKY76 was induced within 48h after inoculation with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), and by wounding, low temperature, benzothiadiazole, and abscisic acid. Green fluorescent protein-fused OsWRKY76 localized to the nuclei in rice epidermal cells. OsWRKY76 showed sequence-specific DNA binding to the W-box element in vitro and exhibited W-box-mediated transcriptional repressor activity in cultured rice cells. Overexpression of OsWRKY76 in rice plants resulted in drastically increased susceptibility to M. oryzae, but improved tolerance to cold stress. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of OsWRKY76 suppresses the induction of a specific set of PR genes and of genes involved in phytoalexin synthesis after inoculation with blast fungus, consistent with the observation that the levels of phytoalexins in the transgenic rice plants remained significantly lower than those in non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, overexpression of OsWRKY76 led to the increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes such as peroxidase and lipid metabolism genes. These results strongly suggest that OsWRKY76 plays dual and opposing roles in blast disease resistance and cold tolerance. PMID:24043853

  13. Acute Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Stress Triggers an Inflammatory Response in the Myocardium via NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation with Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury. PMID:26770647

  14. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies. PMID:25098933

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated CXCR3 pathway mediates inflammation and neuronal injury in acute glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Y; Liu, H; Xu, Z; Yokota, H; Narayanan, S P; Lemtalsi, T; Smith, S B; Caldwell, R W; Caldwell, R B; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    Acute glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in East Asia. The mechanisms underlying retinal neuronal injury induced by a sudden rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that the activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, which mediates the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, has a critical role in a mouse model of acute glaucoma. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCL10 and CXCR3 were significantly increased after IOP-induced retinal ischemia. Blockade of the CXCR3 pathway by deleting CXCR3 gene significantly attenuated ischemic injury-induced upregulation of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and E-selectin), inhibited the recruitment of microglia/monocyte to the superficial retina, reduced peroxynitrite formation, and prevented the loss of neurons within the ganglion cell layer. In contrast, intravitreal delivery of CXCL10 increased leukocyte recruitment and retinal cell apoptosis. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with chemical chaperones partially blocked ischemic injury-induced CXCL10 upregulation, whereas induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced CXCL10 expression in retina and primary retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, deleting CXCR3 attenuated ER stress-induced retinal cell death. In conclusion, these results indicate that ER stress-medicated activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway has an important role in retinal inflammation and neuronal injury after high IOP-induced ischemia. PMID:26448323

  16. A brief retrospective method for identifying longitudinal trajectories of adjustment following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Anthony D; Bonanno, George A; Sinan, Beyza

    2015-06-01

    Research increasingly indicates that prototypical trajectories of resilience, recovery, delayed, and chronic distress characterize reactions to acute adversity. However, trajectory research has been limited by the practical and methodological difficulties of obtaining pre-event and longitudinal data. In two studies, we employed a novel method in which trained interviewers provided a graphical depiction of prototypical stress trajectories to participants and asked them to select the one that best described their experience. In Study 1, self-identified trajectories from 21 high-exposure survivors of the September 11th World Trade Center attacks distinguished variation in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms at 7 and 18 months, and were consistent with trajectories based on longitudinal outcomes and friend/relative ratings. In Study 2, we examined self-identified trajectories from 115 bereaved spouses at 1.5 to 3 years. Persons who identified a resilient trajectory, compared with recovery and chronic distress trajectories, had fewer interviewer-rated symptoms of grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder were rated as functioning more effectively by friends, reported higher life satisfaction, and had fewer somatic complaints. The present results provide initial evidence for the construct validity of a cross-sectional and less demanding method for identifying acute stress trajectories. PMID:25288824

  17. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  18. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  19. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (P<0.05). In the knee extensor protocol a non-significant trend for the opposite effect was noted. The augmentation index increased significantly during the arithmetic, short static and fatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  20. The Effects of Hemodynamic Shear Stress on Stemness of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, Andrew; Triantafillu, Ursula; Kim, Yonghyun (John)

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been identified as the root cause of tumors generated from cancer cell populations. This is because these CSCs are drug-resistant and have the ability to self-renew and differentiate. Current methods of culturing CSCs require much time and money, so cancer cell culture protocols, which maximize yield of CSCs are needed. It was hypothesized that the quantity of Acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells (LSCs) would increase after applying shear stress to the leukemia cells based on previous studies with breast cancer in bioreactors. The shear stress was applied by pumping the cells through narrow tubing to mimic the in vivo bloodstream environment. In support of the hypothesis, shear stress was found to increase the amount of LSCs in a given leukemia population. This work was supported by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  1. Stress-responsive gene ICE1 from Vitis amurensis increases cold tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chang; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Junpeng; Qin, Yang; Huang, Jinfeng; Wang, Yan; Cai, Binhua; Wang, Bailin; Tao, Jianmin

    2013-10-01

    We report the identification of the inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) from Vitis amurensis, an upstream transcription factor that regulates the transcription of CBF-like genes. The structure of the basic helix-loop-helix domain of VaICE1 is closely related to that of ICE1 in woody plants. This gene is strongly induced in leaves, roots, stems, and petioles by cold temperature. With longer duration of exposure to cold treatments, the expression patterns of organs exhibit differences, which are not observed in normal condition. Transgenic tobacco over-expressing VaICE1 has higher chilling tolerance and survival ability by improving the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, as well as the chlorophyll yield. PMID:23968929

  2. Cold Responsive Gene Expression Profiling of Sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum with Functional Analysis of a Cold Inducible Saccharum Homolog of NOD26-Like Intrinsic Protein to Salt and Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Won; Benatti, Thiago R.; Marconi, Thiago; Yu, Qingyi; Solis-Gracia, Nora; Mora, Victoria; da Silva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of sugarcane hybrid CP72-1210 (cold susceptible) and Saccharum spontaneum TUS05-05 (cold tolerant) using Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS) from SUCEST-FUN Database showed that a total of 35,340 and 34,698 SAS genes, respectively, were expressed before and after chilling stress. The analysis revealed that more than 600 genes are differentially expressed in each genotype after chilling stress. Blast2Go annotation revealed that the major difference in gene expression profiles between CP72-1210 and TUS05-05 after chilling stress are present in the genes related to the transmembrane transporter activity. To further investigate the relevance of transmembrane transporter activity against abiotic stress tolerance, a S. spontaneum homolog of a NOD26-like major intrinsic protein gene (SspNIP2) was selected for functional analysis, of which expression was induced after chilling stress in the cold tolerant TUS05-05. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that SspNIP2 expression was increased ~2.5 fold at 30 minutes after cold treatment and stayed induced throughout the 24 hours of cold treatment. The amino acid sequence analysis of the cloned SspNIP2 confirmed the presence of six transmembrane domains and two NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) motifs, signature features of major intrinsic protein families. Amino acid analysis confirmed that four amino acids, comprising the ar/R (aromatic residue/arginine) region responsible for the substrate specificity among MIPs, are conserved among monocot silicon transporters and SspNIP2. Salinity stress test on SspNIP2 transgenic tobacco plants resulted in more vigorous transgenic lines than the non-transgenic tobacco plants, suggesting some degree of tolerance to salt stress conferred by SspNIP2. SspNIP2-transgenic plants, exposed to 2 weeks of water stress without irrigation, developed various degrees of water stress symptom. The water stress test confirmed that the SspNIP2 transgenic lines had lower evapotranspiration rates than non

  3. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  4. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Wu, Qingyu; Sprague, Stuart A; Park, Jungeun; Oh, Myungmin; Rajashekar, C B; Koiwa, Hisashi; Nakata, Paul A; Cheng, Ninghui; Hirschi, Kendal D; White, Frank F; Park, Sunghun

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing power of glutathione to reduce disulfide bonds of substrate proteins and maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we report that tomato expressing Arabidopsis GRX gene AtGRXS17 conferred tolerance to chilling stress without adverse effects on growth and development. AtGRXS17-expressing tomato plants displayed lower ion leakage, higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and increased accumulation of soluble sugar compared with wild-type plants after the chilling stress challenge. Furthermore, chilling tolerance was correlated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced H2O2 accumulation. At the same time, temporal expression patterns of the endogenous C-repeat/DRE-binding factor 1 (SlCBF1) and CBF mediated-cold regulated genes were not altered in AtGRXS17-expressing plants when compared with wild-type plants, and proline concentrations remained unchanged relative to wild-type plants under chilling stress. Green fluorescent protein -AtGRXS17 fusion proteins, which were initially localized in the cytoplasm, migrated into the nucleus during chilling stress, reflecting a possible role of AtGRXS17 in nuclear signaling of chilling stress responses. Together, our findings demonstrate that genetically engineered tomato plants expressing AtGRXS17 can enhance chilling tolerance and suggest a genetic engineering strategy to improve chilling tolerance without yield penalty across different crop species. PMID:26623076

  5. Tomato expressing Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 confers tolerance to chilling stress via modulating cold responsive components

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying; Wu, Qingyu; Sprague, Stuart A; Park, Jungeun; Oh, Myungmin; Rajashekar, C B; Koiwa, Hisashi; Nakata, Paul A; Cheng, Ninghui; Hirschi, Kendal D; White, Frank F; Park, Sunghun

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is a production constraint of tomato, a tropical origin, chilling-sensitive horticultural crop. The development of chilling tolerant tomato thus has significant potential to impact tomato production. Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous oxidoreductases, which utilize the reducing power of glutathione to reduce disulfide bonds of substrate proteins and maintain cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we report that tomato expressing Arabidopsis GRX gene AtGRXS17 conferred tolerance to chilling stress without adverse effects on growth and development. AtGRXS17-expressing tomato plants displayed lower ion leakage, higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and increased accumulation of soluble sugar compared with wild-type plants after the chilling stress challenge. Furthermore, chilling tolerance was correlated with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced H2O2 accumulation. At the same time, temporal expression patterns of the endogenous C-repeat/DRE-binding factor 1 (SlCBF1) and CBF mediated-cold regulated genes were not altered in AtGRXS17-expressing plants when compared with wild-type plants, and proline concentrations remained unchanged relative to wild-type plants under chilling stress. Green fluorescent protein -AtGRXS17 fusion proteins, which were initially localized in the cytoplasm, migrated into the nucleus during chilling stress, reflecting a possible role of AtGRXS17 in nuclear signaling of chilling stress responses. Together, our findings demonstrate that genetically engineered tomato plants expressing AtGRXS17 can enhance chilling tolerance and suggest a genetic engineering strategy to improve chilling tolerance without yield penalty across different crop species. PMID:26623076

  6. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision Making Under Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. PMID:26546080

  7. Hippocampal increase of 5-hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene following acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Douglas B.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Cengiz, Pelin; Alisch, Reid S.

    2015-01-01

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, 5-hmC was functionally linked to learning and cognition and these studies revealed an accumulation of 5-hmC in the prefrontal cortex of mice undergoing fear extinction. These studies led us to hypothesize a role for 5-hmC in response to stress. To test this hypothesis, we combined immunohistochemistry, tandem mass spectrometry, and tet-assisted sodium bisulfite sequencing (TAB-seq) analyses on tissue and DNA from the hippocampus of 7-week old male mice exposed to a single thirty-minute restraint stress. After first identifying that the broad neuronal distribution of 5-hmC is not disrupted by acute stress, we used TAB-seq to find a stress-induced increase of 5-hmC in the 3’UTR of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1). Nr3c1 has a well-defined role in the stress pathway and these data suggest that 5-hmC contributes to these processes. Together, these data indicate that a deeper investigation of stress-related 5-hmC levels may reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain. PMID:25746451

  8. Hippocampal increase of 5-hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Papale, Ligia A; Kintner, Douglas B; Sabat, Grzegorz; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A; Cengiz, Pelin; Alisch, Reid S

    2015-06-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, 5-hmC was functionally linked to learning and cognition and these studies revealed an accumulation of 5-hmC in the prefrontal cortex of mice undergoing fear extinction. These studies led us to hypothesize a role for 5-hmC in response to stress. To test this hypothesis, we combined immunohistochemistry, tandem mass spectrometry, and tet-assisted sodium bisulfite sequencing (TAB-seq) analyses on tissue and DNA from the hippocampus of 7-week old male mice exposed to a single 30-min restraint stress. After first identifying that the broad neuronal distribution of 5-hmC is not disrupted by acute stress, we used TAB-seq to find a stress-induced increase of 5-hmC in the 3'UTR of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1). Nr3c1 has a well-defined role in the stress pathway and these data suggest that 5-hmC contributes to these processes. Together, these data indicate that a deeper investigation of stress-related 5-hmC levels may reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain. PMID:25746451

  9. Acute stress reduces intraparenchymal lung natural killer cells via beta-adrenergic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kanemi, O; Zhang, X; Sakamoto, Y; Ebina, M; Nagatomi, R

    2005-01-01

    There are lines of evidence that natural killer (NK) cells are sensitive to physical and psychological stress. Alterations in the immune system including NK cells are known to differ among tissues and organs. The effect of stress on the lung immune system, however, has not been well documented in spite of the fact that the lungs always confront viral or bacterial attacks as well as tumour cell metastasis. In this study, we intended to investigate the effect of restraint stress on lung lymphocytes including NK cells. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2 h restraint stress. The concentration of plasma epinephrine significantly rose immediately after the release from restraint as compared to home-cage control mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the numbers of most lymphocyte subsets including NK cells were decreased in the lungs and blood but not in the spleen, immediately after restraint stress. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the number of NK cells was decreased in the intraparenchymal region of the lungs, while the number of alveolar macrophages did not change. The decrease in the number of NK cells in the lungs and blood was reversed by the administration of propranolol, a nonselective beta adrenergic antagonist. Taken together, our findings suggest that acute stress reduces the number of intraparenchymal lung NK cells via activation of beta adrenergic receptors. PMID:15606610

  10. Opioid activity in behavioral and heart rate responses of tethered pigs to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Loijens, L W S; Janssens, C J J G; Schouten, W G P; Wiegant, V M

    2002-04-15

    In a longitudinal experiment, effects of long-term tether housing on heart rate and behavioral responses to an acute stressor (a 15-min challenge with a nosesling) were investigated in pigs. The animals were challenged during loose housing and again after 10-11 weeks of tether housing. To detect possible changes in endogenous opioid systems modifying these responses, the pigs were pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg body weight, iv). In response to the nosesling challenge, the animals showed pronounced resistance behavior and a sharp rise in heart rate. Following this initial phase of resistance, the heart rate dropped to prechallenge levels or below this line, and the pigs seemed to become sedated. Pretreatment with naloxone increased the heart rate response in animals that were long-term tether housed (n=12). No such effect was found in the control group (n=5) that was loose-housed during the entire experiment, indicating that the impact of endogenous opioid systems mitigating heart rate responses to acute stress had increased as a result of long-term tether housing. Changes in the effect of naloxone on the behavioral response were not found. Adaptive changes in opioid systems may prevent excessive physiological reactions to acute stress and, thus, may serve as a coping mechanism. PMID:12020727

  11. Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Yin, Lianhong; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Zheng, Lingli; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the effects of dioscin against alcohol-, carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage have been found. However, the activity of it against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced acute liver injury remained unknown. In the present study, dioscin markedly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and decreased the levels of MDA, iNOS and NO. Mechanism study showed that dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IκBα, p50 and p65 through regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway to rehabilitate inflammation. In addition, dioscin markedly up-regulated the expression levels of SIRT1, HO-1, NQO1, GST and GCLM through increasing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 against oxidative stress. Furthermore, dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of FasL, Fas, p53, Bak, Caspase-3/9, and upregulated Bcl-2 level through decreasing IRF9 level against apoptosis. In conclusion, dioscin showed protective effect against DMN-induced acute liver injury via ameliorating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as a new candidate for the treatment of acute liver injury in the future. PMID:27317992

  12. The effect of acute stress and long-term corticosteroid administration on plasma metabolites in an urban and desert songbird.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Rodriguez, Natalie S; Sweazea, Karen L; Deviche, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In response to stressful stimuli, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can result in transition to the "emergency life history stage." A key adaptive characteristic of this life history stage is the mobilization of energy stores. However, few data are available on the metabolic response to acute stress in wild-caught, free-ranging birds. We quantified the effect of acute capture and restraint stress on plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and uric acid in free-ranging Abert's towhees Melozone aberti. Furthermore, birds were caught from urban and desert localities of Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate potential effects of urban versus desert habitats on the corticosterone (CORT) and metabolic response to acute stress. Complementing work on free-ranging birds, captive towhees received CORT-filled Silastic capsules to investigate the response of urban and desert conspecifics to long-term CORT administration. We quantified the effect of CORT administration on baseline plasma glucose and uric acid, liver and pectoralis muscle glycogen stores, kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C, a key gluconeogenic enzyme), and body mass. Acute stress increased plasma CORT and glucose and decreased plasma uric acid but had no effect on plasma free fatty acid. There was no difference between urban and desert localities in body mass, fat scores, and the response to acute stress. CORT administration decreased body mass but had no effect on glucose and uric acid, pectoral muscle glycogen, or kidney PEPCK-C. However, liver glycogen of CORT-treated urban birds increased compared with corresponding controls, whereas glycogen decreased in CORT-treated desert birds. This study suggests that Abert's towhees principally mobilize glucose during acute stress but urban and desert towhees do not differ in their CORT and metabolic response to acute stress or long-term CORT administration. PMID:23303320

  13. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant–pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed. PMID:24478784

  14. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter selectively matches metabolic output to acute contractile stress in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Robert N.; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A.; Vagnozzi, Ronald J.; Sargent, Michelle A.; York, Allen J.; Zhang, Jianyi; Bers, Donald M.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In the heart, augmented Ca2+ fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca2+ loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca2+ overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU). Here we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca2+ uptake, augmented ATP production and MPTP opening upon acute Ca2+ challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca2+ after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed-up for 30 minutes. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca2+ loading underlying a “fight-or-flight” response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production. PMID:26119742

  15. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Selectively Matches Metabolic Output to Acute Contractile Stress in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jennifer Q; Lu, Xiyuan; Correll, Robert N; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Sargent, Michelle A; York, Allen J; Zhang, Jianyi; Bers, Donald M; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2015-07-01

    In the heart, augmented Ca(2+) fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Here, we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca(2+) uptake, with impaired ATP production, and inhibited MPTP opening upon acute Ca(2+) challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice, and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca(2+) after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed up for 30 min. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading underlying a "fight-or-flight" response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production. PMID:26119742

  16. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05) during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05), which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638

  17. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  18. Immune status influences fear and anxiety responses in mice after acute stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah M; Sand, Joseph; Francis, T Chase; Nagaraju, Anitha; Michael, Kerry C; Keegan, Achsah D; Kusnecov, Alexander; Gould, Todd D; Tonelli, Leonardo H

    2014-05-01

    Significant evidence suggests that exposure to traumatic and/or acute stress in both mice and humans results in compromised immune function that in turn may affect associated brain processes. Additionally, recent studies in mouse models of immune deficiency have suggested that adaptive immunity may play a role during traumatic stress exposure and that impairments in lymphocyte function may contribute to increased susceptibility to various psychogenic stressors. However, rodent studies on the relationship between maladaptive stress responses and lymphocyte deficiency have been complicated by the fact that genetic manipulations in these models may also result in changes in CNS function due to the expression of targeted genes in tissues other than lymphocytes, including the brain. To address these issues we utilized mice with a deletion of recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2), which has no confirmed expression in the CNS; thus, its loss should result in the absence of mature lymphocytes without altering CNS function directly. Stress responsiveness of immune deficient Rag2(-/-) mice on a BALB/c background was evaluated in three different paradigms: predator odor exposure (POE), fear conditioning (FC) and learned helplessness (LH). These models are often used to study different aspects of stress responsiveness after the exposure to an acute stressor. In addition, immunoblot analysis was used to assess hippocampal BDNF expression under both stressed and non-stressed conditions. Subsequent to POE, Rag2(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced acoustic startle response compared to BALB/c mice; no significant differences in behavior were observed in either FC or LH. Furthermore, analysis of hippocampal BDNF indicated that Rag2(-/-) mice have elevated levels of the mature form of BDNF compared to BALB/c mice. Results from our studies suggest that the absence of mature lymphocytes is associated with increased resilience to stress exposure in the POE and does not affect behavioral

  19. Rising to the Challenge: Acute Stress Appraisals and Selection Centre Performance in Applicants to Postgraduate Specialty Training in Anaesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin J.; Gale, Thomas C. E.; McGrath, John S.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an…

  20. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  1. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a potent modulator of the mammalian brain. The highly conserved stress hormone response influences many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, a region important for memory function. The effect of acute stress on the unique population of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) that resides in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We found that acute stress increased hippocampal cell proliferation and astrocytic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression. The effect of acute stress occurred independent of basolateral amygdala neural input and was mimicked by treating isolated NPCs with conditioned media from corticosterone-treated primary astrocytes. Neutralization of FGF2 revealed that astrocyte-secreted FGF2 mediated stress-hormone-induced NPC proliferation. 2 weeks, but not 2 days, after acute stress, rats also showed enhanced fear extinction memory coincident with enhanced activation of newborn neurons. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for brief stress on the hippocampus and improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of the brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00362.001 PMID:23599891

  2. The hidden cost of housing practices: using noninvasive imaging to quantify the metabolic demands of chronic cold stress of laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    David, John M; Chatziioannou, Arion F; Taschereau, Richard; Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory mice routinely are housed at 20 to 22 °C-well below the murine thermoneutral zone of 29 to 34 °C. Chronic cold stress requires greater energy expenditure to maintain core body temperature and can lead to the failure of mouse models to emulate human physiology. We hypothesized that mice housed at ambient temperatures of 20 to 22 °C are chronically cold-stressed, have greater energy expenditure, and have high glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue. To test our hypotheses, we used indirect calorimetry to measure energy expenditure and substrate utilization in C57BL/6J and Crl:NU-Foxn1(nu) nude mice at routine vivarium (21 °C), intermediate (26 °C), and heated (31 °C) housing temperatures. We also examined the activation of interscapular brown adipose tissue, the primary site of nonshivering thermogenesis, via thermography and glucose uptake in this region by using positron emission tomography. Energy expenditure of mice was significantly higher at routine vivarium temperatures compared with intermediate and heated temperatures and was associated with a shift in metabolism toward glucose utilization. Brown adipose tissue showed significant activation at routine vivarium and intermediate temperatures in both hirsuite and nude mice. Crl:NU-Foxn1(nu) mice experienced greater cold stress than did C57BL/6J mice. Our data indicate mice housed under routine vivarium conditions are chronically cold stress. This novel use of thermography can measure cold stress in laboratory mice housed in vivaria, a key advantage over classic metabolic measurement tools. Therefore, thermography is an ideal tool to evaluate novel husbandry practices designed to alleviate murine cold stress. PMID:24210014

  3. The Hidden Cost of Housing Practices: Using Noninvasive Imaging to Quantify the Metabolic Demands of Chronic Cold Stress of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Chatziioannou, Arion F; Taschereau, Richard; Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory mice routinely are housed at 20 to 22 °C—well below the murine thermoneutral zone of 29 to 34 °C. Chronic cold stress requires greater energy expenditure to maintain core body temperature and can lead to the failure of mouse models to emulate human physiology. We hypothesized that mice housed at ambient temperatures of 20 to 22 °C are chronically cold-stressed, have greater energy expenditure, and have high glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue. To test our hypotheses, we used indirect calorimetry to measure energy expenditure and substrate utilization in C57BL/6J and Crl:NU-Foxn1nu nude mice at routine vivarium (21 °C), intermediate (26 °C), and heated (31 °C) housing temperatures. We also examined the activation of interscapular brown adipose tissue, the primary site of nonshivering thermogenesis, via thermography and glucose uptake in this region by using positron emission tomography. Energy expenditure of mice was significantly higher at routine vivarium temperatures compared with intermediate and heated temperatures and was associated with a shift in metabolism toward glucose utilization. Brown adipose tissue showed significant activation at routine vivarium and intermediate temperatures in both hirsuite and nude mice. Crl:NU-Foxn1nu mice experienced greater cold stress than did C57BL/6J mice. Our data indicate mice housed under routine vivarium conditions are chronically cold stress. This novel use of thermography can measure cold stress in laboratory mice housed in vivaria, a key advantage over classic metabolic measurement tools. Therefore, thermography is an ideal tool to evaluate novel husbandry practices designed to alleviate murine cold stress. PMID:24210014

  4. Freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint: adaptationist perspectives on the acute stress response spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bracha, H Stefan

    2004-09-01

    This article reviews the existing evolutionary perspectives on the acute stress response habitual faintness and blood-injection-injury type-specific phobia (BIITS phobia). In this article, an alternative evolutionary perspective, based on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, is proposed. Specifically, that fear-induced faintness (eg, fainting following the sight of a syringe, blood, or following a trivial skin injury) is a distinct Homo sapiens-specific extreme-stress survival response to an inescapable threat. The article suggests that faintness evolved in response to middle paleolithic intra-group and inter-group violence (of con-specifics) rather than as a pan-mammalian defense response, as is presently assumed. Based on recent literature, freeze, flight, fight, fright, faint provides a more complete description of the human acute stress response sequence than current descriptions. Faintness, one of three primary physiological reactions involved in BIITS phobia, is extremely rare in other phobias. Since heritability estimates are higher for faintness than for fears or phobias, the author suggests that trait-faintness may be a useful complement to trait-anxiety as an endophenotype in research on the human fear circuitry. Some implications for the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as well as for clinical, health services, and transcriptomic research are briefly discussed. PMID:15337864

  5. Effect of Acute Mental Stress on Heart Rate and QT Variability in Postmyocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Magrì, Damiano; Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Quaglione, Raffaele; Dell'Armi, Annalaura; Mitra, Marilena; Velitti, Stefania; Di Barba, Daniele; Lizio, Andrea; Maisto, Damiana; Barillà, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally charged events are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this study we assessed RR and QT variability index (QTVI) at baseline during anger recall test (AR). We calculated QTVI from a 5-min ECG recording and from a 10-beats segment around the presumed maximum sympathetic activation in thirty post-myocardial infarction patients under β-blocker therapy and 10 controls underwent. In all groups, the low-frequency component of RR and SBP increased during AR. In all recordings, the QTVI calculated on a 5-min ECG recording and the QTVI10 beats were higher in patients than in controls (P < 0.05). The QTVI during AR remained unchanged from baseline within each group. Conversely, during AR, the QTVI10 beats in controls diminished significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline whereas in patients remained unchanged. The inability to buffer an acute stress-induced increase in sympathetic activity could explain why events charged with acute stress are associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias in this setting of patients and support the role of cognitive behavior stress management strategies. PMID:22844616

  6. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = -0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25257356

  7. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT