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Sample records for acute cold stress

  1. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  2. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  3. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  4. Acute cold stress improved the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines of Chinese soft-shelled turtle against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuobing; Chen, Bojian; Yuan, Lin; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, is widely cultured in East and Southeast Asian countries. It frequently encounters the stress of abrupt temperature changes, which leads to mass death in most cases. However, the mechanism underlying the stress-elicited death remains unknown. We have suspected that the stress impaired the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, which could result in the mass death, as we noticed that there was a clinical syndrome of infection in dead turtles. To test our hypothesis, we first performed bioinformatic annotation of several pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-12β) of Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Then, we treated the turtles in six groups, injected with Aeromonas hydrophila before acute cold stress (25 °C) and controls, after acute cold stress (15 °C) and controls as well as after the temperature was restored to 25 °C and controls, respectively. Subsequently, real-time PCR for several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-8 and IFNγ) was performed to assess the turtle immune function in spleen and intestine, 24 hours after the injection. We found that the mRNA expression levels of the immune molecules were all enhanced after acute cold stress. This change disappeared when the temperature was restored back to 25 °C. Our results suggest that abrupt temperature drop did not suppress the immune function of Chinese soft-shelled turtle in response to germ challenge after abrupt temperature drop. In contrast, it may even increase the expression of various cytokines at least, within a short time after acute cold stress.

  5. Influence of acute copper deficiency, cold-restraint stress and the H2 blocker ranitidine on the severity of acute gastric mucosal lesions and lipid peroxidation in rats.

    PubMed

    Velinov, H; Mileva, M; Nachev, C

    2001-09-01

    Acute copper deficiency produces disturbances in the microcirculation and structure of extracellular matrix proteins, causes an increase in mast cell population, which is followed by an increased content of their degranulation products, produces disturbances in histamine metabolism and decreases the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. These pathogenic mechanisms are similar to the processes underlying stress ulcer formation. The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine, a drug with the highest application for stress ulcer prophylaxis, has the ability to helate the copper ion and to influence its tissue distribution and the processes of generation and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to determine the interrelation between the disturbances of copper homeostasis, stress ulcers and ranitidine, we investigated the impact of a short-term diet with powdered milk in combination with cold-restraint stress with or without ranitidine on the severity of acute gastric mucosal lesions, copper content, lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the stomachs of rats.

  6. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview.

  7. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) causes sepsis-associated acute lung injury via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Yang, Weng-Lang; Brenner, Max; Bolognese, Alexandra Cerutti; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), released into the circulation during sepsis, causes lung injury via an as yet unknown mechanism. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesized that CIRP causes ALI via induction of ER stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied the lungs of wild-type (WT) and CIRP knockout (KO) mice at 20 h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). WT mice had significantly more severe ALI than CIRP KO mice. Lung ER stress markers (BiP, pIRE1α, sXBP1, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12) were increased in septic WT mice, but not in septic CIRP KO mice. Effector pathways downstream from ER stress – apoptosis, NF-κB (p65), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), neutrophil chemoattractants (MIP-2, KC), neutrophil infiltration (MPO activity), lipid peroxidation (4-HNE), and nitric oxide (iNOS) – were significantly increased in WT mice, but only mildly elevated in CIRP KO mice. ER stress markers were increased in the lungs of healthy WT mice treated with recombinant murine CIRP, but not in the lungs of TLR4 KO mice. This suggests CIRP directly induces ER stress via TLR4 activation. In summary, CIRP induces lung ER stress and downstream responses to cause sepsis-associated ALI. PMID:28128330

  8. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) causes sepsis-associated acute lung injury via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Yang, Weng-Lang; Brenner, Max; Bolognese, Alexandra Cerutti; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-27

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), released into the circulation during sepsis, causes lung injury via an as yet unknown mechanism. Since endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with acute lung injury (ALI), we hypothesized that CIRP causes ALI via induction of ER stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied the lungs of wild-type (WT) and CIRP knockout (KO) mice at 20 h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). WT mice had significantly more severe ALI than CIRP KO mice. Lung ER stress markers (BiP, pIRE1α, sXBP1, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12) were increased in septic WT mice, but not in septic CIRP KO mice. Effector pathways downstream from ER stress - apoptosis, NF-κB (p65), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), neutrophil chemoattractants (MIP-2, KC), neutrophil infiltration (MPO activity), lipid peroxidation (4-HNE), and nitric oxide (iNOS) - were significantly increased in WT mice, but only mildly elevated in CIRP KO mice. ER stress markers were increased in the lungs of healthy WT mice treated with recombinant murine CIRP, but not in the lungs of TLR4 KO mice. This suggests CIRP directly induces ER stress via TLR4 activation. In summary, CIRP induces lung ER stress and downstream responses to cause sepsis-associated ALI.

  9. Cold Stress and Urinary Frequency.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2012-03-01

    There have been few studies regarding the onset of urinary sensations and frequent urination induced by sudden whole-body cooling. In this article, we review the relationship between cold stress and urinary frequency based mainly on our previous studies. A recent study showed that cold stress induces bladder overactivity in conscious rats, and these effects were mediated, at least in part, by α1A -adrenergic receptor (AR) and α1D -AR. Another study suggested that the resiniferatoxin-sensitive nerves present in the urinary bladder may also be involved in the regulation of detrusor activity associated with cold stress. The mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family consists of 28 channels subdivided into five different classes: TRPV (vanilloid), TRPC (canonical), TRPM (melastatin), TRPML (mucolipin), and TRPA (ankyrin). TRP channels function as multifunctional sensors at the cellular level. They can be activated by physical (voltage, heat, cold, mechanical stress) or chemical stimuli and binding of specific ligands. In 2002, it was reported that a nonselective cation channel, TRPM8, could be activated by both menthol and thermal stimuli (8-28 °C). We demonstrated the presence of TRPM8 in the skin from the legs and back of rats by immunofluorescence staining and that stimulation of this receptor by menthol causes urinary frequency. There have been other reports demonstrating roles of TRPM8 not related to its thermosensory function. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of cold stress-induced urinary frequency, and the roles of TRPM8 in the micturition control system.

  10. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  11. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  12. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  13. Cold urticaria associated with acute serologic toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miralles López, J C; López Andreu, F R; Sánchez-Gascón, F; López Rodríguez, C; Negro Alvarez, J M

    2005-01-01

    Cold urticaria is defined as a urticarial and/or angioedematous reaction of the skin to contact with cold objects, water or air. Types of urticaria associated with infectious diseases, such as mononucleosis, rubeola, varicella, syphilis, hepatitis, and HIV infection have been reported. We present the case of a patient who developed cold urticaria associated with acute serologic toxoplasmosis. The patient was a 34-year-old man who for the previous 2 months had presented cutaneous pruritus accompanied by several papular lesions in parts of the skin exposed to cold as well as those in contact with cold water. The result of an "ice-cube test" was positive. Serologic tests for Toxoplasma gondii showed an IgG level of 68 UI/ml and were positive for IgM, while a test for cryoglobulins was positive. One month later cryoglobulins were negative and a serologic test for T. gondii showed an IgG concentration of 75 UI/ml and positive IgM. Three months later cryoglobulins were still negative, IgG for T. gondii was 84 UI/ml, and IgM was positive. After 6 months cryoglobulins were still negative, IgG level was 68 UI/ml and IgM was still slightly positive. In the final evaluation, 14 months later, IgG level was 32 UI/ml and IgM was negative. The patient continues to present clinical manifestations of cold urticaria, although he has experienced some improvement and his tolerance to cold has increased after treatment with cetirizine.

  14. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  15. Acute cooling of the body surface and the common cold.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R

    2002-09-01

    There is a widely held belief that acute viral respiratory infections are the result of a "chill" and that the onset of a respiratory infection such as the common cold is often associated with acute cooling of the body surface, especially as the result of wet clothes and hair. However, experiments involving inoculation of common cold viruses into the nose, and periods of cold exposure, have failed to demonstrate any effect of cold exposure on susceptibility to infection with common cold viruses. Present scientific opinion dismisses any cause-and-effect relationship between acute cooling of the body surface and common cold. This review proposes a hypothesis; that acute cooling of the body surface causes reflex vasoconstriction in the nose and upper airways, and that this vasoconstrictor response may inhibit respiratory defence and cause the onset of common cold symptoms by converting an asymptomatic subclinical viral infection into a symptomatic clinical infection.

  16. Assessment of cold stress in outdoor work.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H; Virokannas, H

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of cold stress in working life was done in 13, mainly outdoor, occupations and 143 workers using local temperatures, body cooling and thermal sensations. The subjects in the study were young, healthy men and they wore the type of winter clothing generally used in those ambient temperatures (+6...-29 degrees C), for in a work load of from 112 to 480 W. Local temperatures on finger skin indicated that manual dexterity was often reduced in outdoor work. A risk of frostbite was frequently found on the cheek and the wind chill index predicted the risk quite well. Body cooling was often temporarily too high when measured by heat debt and mean skin temperature. Thermal sensations were cool or cold occasionally in 28% of the workers interviewed. The insulation of clothing worn was often lower than the IREQmin-value recommends. The results showed that in outdoor work in winter time cold stress frequently reduced (70%) working ability at least for a short period. Mean skin temperature seems to be, in practice, a useful indicator for body cooling and the IREQmin-value was suitable, especially in light work, to indicate body cooling. A very sensitive factor for the expression of cold stress was finger temperature, at least as an indicator of finger dexterity. Due to the adverse health effects found the cold stress should also be evaluated more systematically in occupational health and safety with health examinations, with protective clothing and technical preventive means.

  17. Acute pancreatitis: The stress factor

    PubMed Central

    Binker, Marcelo G; Cosen-Binker, Laura I

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas that may cause life-threatening complications. Etiologies of pancreatitis vary, with gallstones accounting for the majority of all cases, followed by alcohol. Other causes of pancreatitis include trauma, ischemia, mechanical obstruction, infections, autoimmune, hereditary, and drugs. The main events occurring in the pancreatic acinar cell that initiate and propagate acute pancreatitis include inhibition of secretion, intracellular activation of proteases, and generation of inflammatory mediators. Small cytokines known as chemokines are released from damaged pancreatic cells and attract inflammatory cells, whose systemic action ultimately determined the severity of the disease. Indeed, severe forms of pancreatitis may result in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, characterized by a progressive physiologic failure of several interdependent organ systems. Stress occurs when homeostasis is threatened, and stressors can include physical or mental forces, or combinations of both. Depending on the timing and duration, stress can result in beneficial or harmful consequences. While it is well established that a previous acute-short-term stress decreases the severity of experimentally-induced pancreatitis, the worsening effects of chronic stress on the exocrine pancreas have received relatively little attention. This review will focus on the influence of both prior acute-short-term and chronic stress in acute pancreatitis. PMID:24914340

  18. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  19. Increased abundance of frost mRNA during recovery from cold stress is not essential for cold tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Udaka, H; Percival-Smith, A; Sinclair, B J

    2013-10-01

    Frost (Fst) is a candidate gene associated with the response to cold in Drosophila melanogaster because Fst mRNA accumulation increases during recovery from low temperature exposure. We investigated the contribution of Fst expression to chill-coma recovery time, acute cold tolerance and rapid cold hardening (RCH) in adult D. melanogaster by knocking down Fst mRNA expression using GAL4/UAS-mediated RNA interference. In this experiment, four UAS-Fst and one tubulin-GAL4 lines were used. We predicted that if Fst is essential for cold tolerance phenotypes, flies with low Fst mRNA levels should be less cold tolerant than flies with normal levels of cold-induced Fst mRNA. Cold-induced Fst abundance and recovery time from chill-coma were not negatively correlated in male or female flies. Survival of 2 h exposures to sub-zero temperatures in Fst knockdown lines was not lower than that in a control line. Moreover, a low temperature pretreatment increased survival of severe cold exposure in flies regardless of Fst abundance level during recovery from cold stress, suggesting that Fst expression is not essential for RCH. Thus, cold-induced Fst accumulation is not essential for cold tolerance measured as chill-coma recovery time, survival to acute cold stress and RCH response in adult D. melanogaster.

  20. Investigation of the Strawberry Acute Cold Response through Transcriptome Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) is a valuable perennial crop, yet in most growing regions cold temperature stress can dramatically impinge on fresh fruit production. In the interest of long-term crop improvement it is important to understand the molecular response of strawberry to cold, a...

  1. Stress and acute respiratory infection

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, N.M.; Douglas, R.M.; Ryan, P.

    1986-09-01

    To examine the relationship between stress and upper respiratory tract infection, 235 adults aged 14-57 years, from 94 families affiliated with three suburban family physicians in Adelaide, South Australia, participated in a six-month prospective study. High and low stress groups were identified by median splits of data collected from the Life Events Inventory, the Daily Hassles Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire, which were administered both before and during the six months of respiratory diary data collection. Using intra-study stress data, the high stress group experienced significantly more episodes (mean of 2.71 vs. 1.56, p less than 0.0005) and symptom days (mean of 29.43 vs. 15.42, p = 0.005) of respiratory illness. The two groups were almost identical with respect to age, sex, occupational status, smoking, passive smoking, exposure to air pollution, family size, and proneness to acute respiratory infection in childhood. In a multivariate model with total respiratory episodes as the dependent variable, 21% of the variance was explained, and two stress variables accounted for 9% of the explained variance. Significant, but less strong relationships were also identified between intra-study stress variables and clinically definite episodes and symptom days in both clinically definite and total respiratory episodes. Pre-study measures of stress emphasized chronic stresses and were less strongly related to measures of respiratory illness than those collected during the study. However, significantly more episodes (mean of 2.50 vs. 1.75, p less than 0.02) and symptom days (mean of 28.00 vs. 17.06, p less than 0.03) were experienced in the high stress group. In the multivariate analyses, pre-study stress remained significantly associated with total respiratory episodes nd symptom days in total and ''definite'' respiratory episodes.

  2. Regulatory Networks in Pollen Development under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kamal D.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Cold stress modifies anthers’ metabolic pathways to induce pollen sterility. Cold-tolerant plants, unlike the susceptible ones, produce high proportion of viable pollen. Anthers in susceptible plants, when exposed to cold stress, increase abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and reduce ABA catabolism. Increased ABA negatively regulates expression of tapetum cell wall bound invertase and monosaccharide transport genes resulting in distorted carbohydrate pool in anther. Cold-stress also reduces endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs), GA4 and GA7, in susceptible anthers by repression of the GA biosynthesis genes. Here, we discuss recent findings on mechanisms of cold susceptibility in anthers which determine pollen sterility. We also discuss differences in regulatory pathways between cold-stressed anthers of susceptible and tolerant plants that decide pollen sterility or viability. PMID:27066044

  3. Cold acclimation allows Drosophila flies to maintain mitochondrial functioning under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Renault, David; Roussel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C). We compared organelle responses between cold-susceptible and cold-acclimated phenotypes. Continuous exposure to low temperature provoked temporal declines in the rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Respiratory control ratios (RCRs) suggested that mitochondria were not critically uncoupled. Nevertheless, after 3 days of continuous cold stress, a sharp decline in the mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate was observed in control flies when they were assayed at low temperature. This change was associated with reduced survival capacity in control flies. In contrast, cold-acclimated flies exhibited high survival and maintained higher rates of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and coupling (i.e., higher RCRs). Adaptive changes due to cold acclimation observed in the whole organism were thus manifested in isolated mitochondria. Our observations suggest that cold tolerance is linked to the ability to maintain bioenergetics capacity under cold stress.

  4. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making.

    PubMed

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Raio, Candace M; Gottesman, Sarah P; Lackovic, Sandra F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  5. Exposure to acute stress is associated with attenuated sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Al'Absi, Mustafa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hooker, Stephanie; Wittmers, Larry; Cragin, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of stress on taste perception. Participants (N = 38; 21 women) completed two laboratory sessions: one stress (public speaking, math, and cold pressor) and one control rest session. The taste perception test was conducted at the end of each session and included rating the intensity and pleasantness of sweet, salty, sour, and savory solutions at suprathreshold concentrations. Cardiovascular, hormonal, and mood measures were collected throughout the sessions. Participants showed the expected changes in cardiovascular, hormonal, and mood measures in response to stress. Reported intensity of the sweet solution was significantly lower on the stress day than on the rest day. Cortisol level poststress predicted reduced intensity of salt and sour, suggesting that stress-related changes in adrenocortical activity were related to reduced taste intensity. Results indicate that acute stress may alter taste perception, and ongoing research investigates the extent to which these changes mediate effects of stress on appetite.

  6. Anoxic stress and rapid cold hardening enhance cold tolerance of the migratory locust.

    PubMed

    Cui, Feng; Wang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Hanying; Kang, Le

    2014-10-01

    Anoxia and rapid cold hardening (RCH) can increase the cold tolerance of many animals. However, mechanisms underlying these two kinds of stresses remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship of acclimation to cold stress with acclimation to anoxic stress in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. RCH at 0°C for 3h promoted the survival of cold stress-exposed locusts. Anoxic hypercapnia (CO2 anoxic treatment) for 40 min exerted an effect similar to that of RCH. Anoxic hypercapnia within 1h can all promote the cold hardiness of locusts. We investigated the transcript levels of six heat shock protein (Hsp) genes, namely, Hsp20.5, Hsp20.6, Hsp20.7, Hsp40, Hsp70, and Hsp90. Four genes, namely, Hsp90, Hsp40, Hsp20.5, and Hsp20.7, showed differential responses to RCH and anoxic hypercapnia treatments. Under cold stress, locusts exposed to the two regimens showed different responses for Hsp90, Hsp20.5, and Hsp20.7. However, the varied responses disappeared after recovery from cold stress. Compared with the control group, the transcript levels of six Hsp genes were generally downregulated in locusts subjected to anoxic hypercapnia or/and RCH. These results indicate that anoxic stress and RCH have different mechanisms of regulating the transcription of Hsp family members even if the two treatments exerted similar effects on cold tolerance of the migratory locust. However, Hsps may not play a major role in the promotion of cold hardiness by the two treatments.

  7. Improvement of cold resistance and performance of broilers by acute cold exposure during late embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinder, D; Ruzal, M; Giloh, M; Druyan, S; Piestun, Y; Yahav, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to fine-tune previous acute cold exposure treatments of broiler embryos during late embryogenesis to improve lifelong cold resistance and performance. Six hundred Cobb hatching eggs were incubated under standard conditions and then exposed to 3 treatments: control; cold treatment in which embryos were exposed to 15°C for 30 min on d 18 and 19 of incubation (30 × 2); and cold treatment similar to 30 × 2 but with 60-min exposures (60 × 2). Egg shell temperature (T(egg)) and heart rate (HR) were monitored pre- and posttreatment. Upon hatching, hatchability, body weight, and body temperature were recorded. From 14 to 35 d of age, three quarters of the chickens in each treatment were raised under ascites-inducing conditions (AIC) and the remaining birds were raised under standard brooding conditions (SBC). The T(egg) and HR decreased significantly in response to increased exposure time on d 18 of incubation. On d 19 of incubation, before the second cold exposure, the 30 × 2 group showed greater T(egg) and HR than the controls, and during the second exposure they maintained these parameters better than the 60 × 2 embryos. No treatment effect on hatchability was observed. At 35 d of age ascites incidence among 30 × 2 chickens under AIC was significantly less than that among the controls (P < 0.01), and body weight of these chickens under either SBC or AIC was significantly higher than that of the controls. Under SBC relative breast muscle weight was significantly higher in 60 × 2 chickens, whereas the relative heart weight was higher in both cold-treated groups than in the controls. It can be concluded that repeated short acute cold exposures during late embryogenesis significantly reduced ascites incidence and improved growth rate under either SBC or AIC. These results may be related to a prenatal epigenetic adaptation of the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems to low ambient temperature.

  8. Upregulation of uncoupling protein Ucp2 through acute cold exposure increases post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongfa; Kang, Ning; Gong, Hongmei; Luo, Yan; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Ji, Xiaoping; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in sperm damage during cryopreservation. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling has been shown to reduce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus mitigate oxidative stress. Uncoupling protein (Ucp2) regulates mitochondrial uncoupling and can be induced by temperature fluctuation. In the present study, we explored a novel approach of acute cold exposure on Ucp2 activation and its association with oxidative damage and post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish. Our study revealed that acute cold exposure of zebrafish at 18 °C for 24 h led to significant increase of ucp2 mRNA and Ucp2 protein in zebrafish fresh sperm as well as thawed sperm after cryopreservation. Although cold exposure had no effect on fresh sperm quality except for decreasing lipid peroxidation, sperm collected from cold-exposed zebrafish exhibited higher resistance to cryodamage, which was demonstrated by increased post-thaw motility, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased ATP production, and ultimately increased fertilization success. However, except for reduced lipid peroxidation, we did not observe any significant ROS reduction associated with increased Ucp2 activation in cold-exposed group, suggesting mechanisms other than mitochondrial uncoupling could have contributed to cold exposure associated benefits in post-thaw sperm survival. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that acute cold exposure prior to sperm cryopreservation is beneficial for post-thaw sperm survival in zebrafish, and this novel approach may be used to improve post-thaw sperm quality for other aquatic species.

  9. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  10. The cold driver: Cold stress while driving results in dangerous behavior.

    PubMed

    Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J

    2016-10-01

    Cool vehicle cabin temperatures can induce short-term non-hypothermic cold stress. The current study created a cold condition to examine the impact of cold stress on driving behavior. Forty-four participants drove a high-fidelity driving simulator during a thermal neutral or local torso cooled condition. Participants performed additional tasks to assess attention, psychomotor vigilance, and manual dexterity. Skin temperature was significantly lower in the cold condition while internal temperature was unaffected. Participants who had higher subjective ratings of cold followed lead vehicles closer and started to brake later. Participants in the cold condition followed the lead car 22% (0.82s) closer and started braking 20% (2.35s) later when approaching a stop sign during the car-following task. No change in attention, psychomotor vigilance, or dexterity was observed. The current results suggest that cold environmental conditions can contribute to dangerous driving behaviors. Measures of cold perception were also shown to predict changes in driving behavior.

  11. Perceived Control Alters the Effect of Acute Stress on Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, Jamil P.; Kim, Eunbin S.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2015-01-01

    We often encounter setbacks while pursuing our goals. Success requires that we cope with these negative outcomes and choose to persist in spite of them. For example, learners may be more likely to continue a course after failing an assessment if they control their emotional reactions to the setback and study harder. However, the ability to effectively cope with the negative emotion inherent in such setbacks can be compromised by acute stress present in daily life (e.g., struggles in the household), which can subsequently lead to problems with persisting with a goal. The present study examined whether increasing the perception of control over setbacks (e.g., belief that a setback was caused by a correctable mistake rather than uncontrollable factors) can guard against the influence of a prior acute stressor on reactions to setbacks. Participants underwent a socially-evaluated cold water stress or a non-stress control procedure. Afterwards, they performed a behavioral task designed to measure persistence through controllable and uncontrollable setbacks. We observed that exposure to an acute stressor led to a detrimental effect on decision making by decreasing persistence behavior. Importantly, we also observed that the perception of control protected against the effect of preexisting stress and helped promote persistence. That is, stress impaired persistence through uncontrollable setbacks, but the impairment was alleviated by presenting setbacks as controllable. The findings demonstrate a potential avenue for improving the maintenance of goals aimed at behavior change, which can be susceptible to effects of stress. PMID:26726915

  12. Acute stress reduces speech fluency.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Tony W; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline S; Duff, Melissa C

    2014-03-01

    People often report word-finding difficulties and other language disturbances when put in a stressful situation. There is, however, scant empirical evidence to support the claim that stress affects speech productivity. To address this issue, we measured speech and language variables during a stressful Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as during a less stressful "placebo" TSST (Het et al., 2009). Compared to the non-stressful speech, participants showed higher word productivity during the TSST. By contrast, participants paused more during the stressful TSST, an effect that was especially pronounced in participants who produced a larger cortisol and heart rate response to the stressor. Findings support anecdotal evidence of stress-impaired speech production abilities.

  13. Acute emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2007-07-18

    Episodes of acute emotional stress can have significant adverse effects on the heart. Acute emotional stress can produce left ventricular contractile dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, or disturbances of cardiac rhythm. Although these abnormalities are often only transient, their consequences can be gravely damaging and sometimes fatal. Despite the many descriptions of catastrophic cardiovascular events in the setting of acute emotional stress, the anatomical substrate and physiological pathways by which emotional stress triggers cardiovascular events are only now being characterized, aided by the advent of functional neuroimaging. Recent evidence indicates that asymmetric brain activity is particularly important in making the heart more susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias. Lateralization of cerebral activity during emotional stress may stimulate the heart asymmetrically and produce areas of inhomogeneous repolarization that create electrical instability and facilitate the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with ischemic heart disease who survive an episode of sudden cardiac death in the setting of acute emotional stress should receive a beta-blocker. Nonpharmacological approaches to manage emotional stress in patients with and without coronary artery disease, including social support, relaxation therapy, yoga, meditation, controlled slow breathing, and biofeedback, are also appropriate to consider and merit additional investigation in randomized trials.

  14. Transcriptome Response Mediated by Cold Stress in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Calzadilla, Pablo I.; Maiale, Santiago J.; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Escaray, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Lotus genus are important as agricultural forage sources under marginal environmental conditions given their high nutritional value and tolerance of various abiotic stresses. However, their dry matter production is drastically reduced in cooler seasons, while their response to such conditions is not well studied. This paper analyzes cold acclimation of the genus by studying Lotus japonicus over a stress period of 24 h. High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to identify and classify 1077 differentially expressed genes, of which 713 were up-regulated and 364 were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were principally related to lipid, cell wall, phenylpropanoid, sugar, and proline regulation, while down-regulated genes affected the photosynthetic process and chloroplast development. Together, a total of 41 cold-inducible transcription factors were identified, including members of the AP2/ERF, NAC, MYB, and WRKY families; two of them were described as putative novel transcription factors. Finally, DREB1/CBFs were described with respect to their cold stress expression profiles. This is the first transcriptome profiling of the model legume L. japonicus under cold stress. Data obtained may be useful in identifying candidate genes for breeding modified species of forage legumes that more readily acclimate to low temperatures. PMID:27066029

  15. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by up-regulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12 hours or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the level of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila, nevertheless also caused significant reductions in lifespan for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. PMID:23142766

  16. Preadaptation to Cold Stress in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Increases Survival during Subsequent Acid Stress Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jigna; Desai, Prerak T.; Chen, Dong; Stevens, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis. Salmonella encounters multiple abiotic stresses during pathogen elimination methods used in food processing, and these stresses may influence its subsequent survivability within the host or in the environment. Upon ingestion, Salmonella is exposed to gastrointestinal acidity, a first line of the host innate defense system. This study tested the hypothesis that abiotic stresses encountered during food processing alter the metabolic mechanisms in Salmonella that enable survival and persistence during subsequent exposure to the host gastrointestinal acidic environment. Out of the four different abiotic stresses tested, viz., cold, peroxide, osmotic, and acid, preadaptation of the log-phase culture to cold stress (5°C for 5 h) significantly enhanced survival during subsequent acid stress (pH 4.0 for 90 min). The gene expression profile of Salmonella preadapted to cold stress revealed induction of multiple genes associated with amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress, and DNA repair, while only a few of the genes in the above-mentioned stress response and repair pathways were induced upon exposure to acid stress alone. Preadaptation to cold stress decreased the NAD+/NADH ratio and hydroxyl (OH·) radical formation compared with those achieved with the exposure to acid stress alone, indicating alteration of aerobic respiration and the oxidative state of the bacteria. The results from this study suggest that preadaptation to cold stress rescues Salmonella from the deleterious effect of subsequent acid stress exposure by induction of genes involved in stress response and repair pathways, by modification of aerobic respiration, and by redox modulation. PMID:24056458

  17. Effects of cold pressor stress on the human startle response.

    PubMed

    Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress.

  18. Effects of Cold Pressor Stress on the Human Startle Response

    PubMed Central

    Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schulz, André; Oitzl, Melly S.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Both emotion and attention are known to influence the startle response. Stress influences emotion and attention, but the impact of stress on the human startle response remains unclear. We used an established physiological stressor, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), to induce stress in a non-clinical human sample (24 student participants) in a within-subjects design. Autonomic (heart rate and skin conductance) and somatic (eye blink) responses to acoustic startle probes were measured during a pre-stress baseline, during a three minutes stress intervention, and during the subsequent recovery period. Startle skin conductance and heart rate responses were facilitated during stress. Compared to baseline, startle eye blink responses were not affected during the intervention but were diminished afterwards. These data describe a new and unique startle response pattern during stress: facilitation of autonomic stress responses but no such facilitation of somatic startle eye blink responses. The absence of an effect of stress on startle eye blink responsiveness may illustrate the importance of guaranteeing uninterrupted visual input during periods of stress. PMID:23166784

  19. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-07-20

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.

  20. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B.; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  1. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment. PMID:20504303

  2. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  3. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  4. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  5. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII.

  6. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII. PMID:26360248

  7. Investigation of Stress Intensity Factor for Overloaded Holes and Cold-Expanded Holes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    analysis of repairs to fuselage skin lap-joints, wing planks and bulkhead frames. More recently he has been involved with structural and mechanical...overload stress max  peak residual hoop stress at hole boundary R radial stress at cold-worked hole T tangential stress at cold-worked hole vm

  8. Acute psychological stress-induced water intoxication.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagarika; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Asaduzzaman, S; Peters, John R

    2005-01-01

    Excessive water drinking is a recognised feature of schizophrenia. We present here a case of excessive water drinking precipitated by acute psychological stress. A 52-year-old woman, with no previous mental health problems, was found in a state of altered consciousness and was profoundly hyponatraemic. She had consumed excess amount of water due to severe mental stress. She was treated with hypertonic saline followed by fluid restrictions. The water intoxication had caused brain damage which led to behavioural changes and impaired cognition. We describe the pathophysiology of water intoxication.

  9. Estimation of cold stress effect on dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouček, J.; Letkovičová, M.; Kovalčuj, K.

    1991-03-01

    Twelve crossbred heifers (Slovak Spotted x Holstein-Friesian) were housed in an open, uninsulated barn with straw bedding and a concrete-floored yard. Minimum temperatures inside the barn were as low as -19°C. The average milk yield decreased as the temperatures approached these minima. Compared with the temperate conditions, the feed intake and blood levels of glucose and free fatty acids increased. The level of sodium declined significantly during the second cold period. Correlations and regressions between milk yield and biochemical parameters were calculated, and the results indicate that the concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triiodothyronine and the haematocrit values may serve to predict milk production during periods of cold stress, or in lactations of 305 days.

  10. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress.

  11. Cold defence responses: the role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Blagojevic, Dusko P; Grubor-Lajsic, Gordana N; Spasic, Mihajlo B

    2011-01-01

    Low temperatures provoke increased production of heat accompanied by increased respiration, oxygen consumption and the production of partially reduced oxygen species called ROS. ROS induce different forms of cellular oxidative damage, disturb the redox state and can change the activity of several metabolic enzymes. Organisms have developed a functionally connected set of anti-oxidant enzymes and low molecular mass compounds (together termed the ADS) that metabolise primary ROS. If ROS production within cells overwhelms the ADS, oxidative damage arises and oxidative stress can occur. Short-term cold exposure in endotherms leads to oxidative stress. As cold exposure persists organisms develop adaptive changes toward reducing ROS production and increasing the ADS. In contrast, heterotherms and ectotherms as a normal part of their over-wintering strategy slow down metabolism, oxygen consumption and subsequently cause ROS production. Increased baseline activity of key anti-oxidant enzymes as well as 'secondary' enzymatic defence and/or glutathione levels in preparation for a putative oxidative stressful situation arising from tissue re-oxygenation seems to be the preferred evolutionary adaptation of such animals exposed to low environmental temperatures.

  12. Adaptation to cold swim stress-induced hypothermia: Absence of Pavlovian conditional tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kokkinidis, L

    1986-01-01

    Mice subjected to cold swim stress developed pronounced hypothermia. Exposure to warm water swim, however, had little or no effect on body temperature. After repeated exposure to cold swim, the stress-induced hypothermia was attenuated. The finding that cold swim resulted in hypothermia, whereas warm swim had no effect in this respect, provided a useful experimental design by which to assess the role of conditioning factors in the adaptation to the thermic effects of cold swim. In two subsequent experiments, mice received cold swim either in a familiar environment or in a novel environment. Adaptation to the thermic effects of cold swim was observed when mice were tested in the distinctive environment, regardless of the environmental cues previously paired with repeated exposure to the cold swim stress. These findings suggest that contextual cues were not of primary importance in the development of tolerance to the thermic effects of cold swim stress.

  13. Unstressing intemperate models: how cold stress undermines mouse modeling.

    PubMed

    Karp, Christopher L

    2012-06-04

    Mus musculus enjoys pride of place at the center of contemporary biomedical research. Despite being the current model system of choice for in vivo mechanistic analysis, mice have clear limitations. The literature is littered with examples of therapeutic approaches that showed promise in mouse models but failed in clinical trials. More generally, mice often provide poor mimics of the human diseases being modeled. Available data suggest that the cold stress to which laboratory mice are ubiquitously subjected profoundly affects mouse physiology in ways that impair the modeling of human homeostasis and disease. Experimental attention to this key, albeit largely ignored, environmental variable is likely to have a broad transformative effect on biomedical research.

  14. Neural models on temperature regulation for cold-stressed animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The present review evaluates several assumptions common to a variety of current models for thermoregulation in cold-stressed animals. Three areas covered by the models are discussed: signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS), portions of the CNS involved, and the arrangement of neurons within networks. Assumptions in each of these categories are considered. The evaluation of the models is based on the experimental foundations of the assumptions. Regions of the nervous system concerned here include the hypothalamus, the skin, the spinal cord, the hippocampus, and the septal area of the brain.

  15. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent research in rodents found that exposure to stress led to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress responses, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, one day later participants in the stress group (n = 27) demonstrated significantly less

  16. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly

  17. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione–glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin–oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+–NADH (and NADP–NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686

  18. THE ETIOLOGY OF ACUTE UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION (COMMON COLD).

    PubMed

    Long, P H; Doull, J A; Bourn, J M; McComb, E

    1931-03-31

    Experimental upper respiratory infections similar to "common colds" were transmitted singly and in series through two and four passages in nine out of fifteen persons, by intransal inoculations with bacteria-free filtrates of nasopharyngeal washings obtained from individuals ill with natural "colds." These observations conform with those reported by previous workers and lend further support to the view that the incitant of the "common cold" is a filtrable virus.

  19. Visualized analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juntao; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yinghui; Tang, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Chengzhu; Jia, Zhen; Zhao, Liqing

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common foodborne bacterial pathogen, which survives in cold environments and is sometimes difficult to culture. Fatty acid analysis under cold stress was conducted for several V. parahaemolyticus strains using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the results were compared with those of the controls. All the fatty acid profiles obtained were visualized by multidimensional scaling (MDS) and self-organized map (SOM). It was observed that the fatty acid profiles of V. parahaemolyticus substantially changed under cold stress. The percentage of methyl palmitate remarkably decreased and that of methyl palmitoleate (except for two strains) and methyl oleate increased. These findings demonstrate the role of fatty acids in cold stress. The changes in the fatty acid profiles illustrated by MDS and SOM could differentiate strains under cold stress from the controls and can potentially lead to a method of detecting injured cold-stressed V. parahaemolyticus.

  20. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration.

  1. Identification and expression analysis of cold and freezing stress responsive genes of Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Cho, Yong-Gu; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-10

    Cold and freezing stress is a major environmental constraint to the production of Brassica crops. Enhancement of tolerance by exploiting cold and freezing tolerance related genes offers the most efficient approach to address this problem. Cold-induced transcriptional profiling is a promising approach to the identification of potential genes related to cold and freezing stress tolerance. In this study, 99 highly expressed genes were identified from a whole genome microarray dataset of Brassica rapa. Blast search analysis of the Brassica oleracea database revealed the corresponding homologous genes. To validate their expression, pre-selected cold tolerant and susceptible cabbage lines were analyzed. Out of 99 BoCRGs, 43 were differentially expressed in response to varying degrees of cold and freezing stress in the contrasting cabbage lines. Among the differentially expressed genes, 18 were highly up-regulated in the tolerant lines, which is consistent with their microarray expression. Additionally, 12 BoCRGs were expressed differentially after cold stress treatment in two contrasting cabbage lines, and BoCRG54, 56, 59, 62, 70, 72 and 99 were predicted to be involved in cold regulatory pathways. Taken together, the cold-responsive genes identified in this study provide additional direction for elucidating the regulatory network of low temperature stress tolerance and developing cold and freezing stress resistant Brassica crops.

  2. Variations in mental performance under moderate cold stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V. M.; Panwar, M. R.

    1987-03-01

    Effects of moderate cold stress on reasoning ability, associative learning and critical flicker frequncy of Indian subjects were studied by exposing them to 25‡C,. 20‡C, 15‡C and 10‡C for three hours. A second set of experiments was also conducted to confirm the conclusions of the first by using the same temperatures and duration of exposure. However, not only the sample used in the second case was larger and different but also the mental functions tested were numerical ability, running memory and mental alertness. It has been concluded that there is a significant impairment of simple cognitive functions at 15‡C which is 10‡C lower than their most comfortable temperature of 25‡C.

  3. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  4. Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system.

  5. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Melissa S.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals. PMID:23478289

  6. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals.

    PubMed

    Roth, Melissa S; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2013-01-01

    Widespread temperature stress has caused catastrophic coral bleaching events that have been devastating for coral reefs. Here, we evaluate whether coral fluorescence could be utilized as a noninvasive assessment for coral health. We conducted cold and heat stress treatments on the branching coral Acropora yongei, and found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) concentration and fluorescence decreased with declining coral health, prior to initiation of bleaching. Ultimately, cold-treated corals acclimated and GFP concentration and fluorescence recovered. In contrast, heat-treated corals eventually bleached but showed strong fluorescence despite reduced GFP concentration, likely resulting from the large reduction in shading from decreased dinoflagellate density. Consequently, GFP concentration and fluorescence showed distinct correlations in non-bleached and bleached corals. Green fluorescence was positively correlated with dinoflagellate photobiology, but its closest correlation was with coral growth suggesting that green fluorescence could be used as a physiological proxy for health in some corals.

  7. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  8. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.

  9. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  10. Prompt protein glycosylation during acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Henle, K J; Kaushal, G P; Nagle, W A; Nolen, G T

    1993-08-01

    Constitutive patterns of protein synthesis and protein glycosylation are severely disrupted by acute heat stress. Stressed cells respond by preferential synthesis of specific proteins, e.g., the well-known family of heat shock proteins. We observed another response that rapidly occurs during heating periods as short as 10 min at 45 degrees C. During that period, CHO cells began to glycosylate specific proteins, designated as "prompt" stress glycoproteins (P-SG), while constitutive protein glycosylation ceased. Labeling of P-SGs showed a dose response with time and with temperature and appeared regardless of the label used (D-[3H]mannose or D-[3H]glucose). On SDS-PAGE, the major P-SG was characterized by M(r) approximately 67 kDa (P-SG67) and pI = 5.1. Other less prominent P-SGs appeared at M(r) 160, 100, 64, 60, and 47 kDa; incorporated label showed little turnover during 24 h at 37 degrees C. Prompt glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, and label incorporated into P-SGs was sensitive to N-glycosidase F, but not to O-glycosidase. Analysis of enzymatically digested P-SG67 indicated that label had been incorporated into both high-mannose (Man9GlcNAc) and complex-type oligosaccharides. Brefeldin A did not eliminate P-SG67 labeling, but caused the further appearance of novel, Brefeldin-associated P-SGs. Labeling of P-SG67 oligosaccharides occurred without significant concomitant protein synthesis, suggesting that addition of labeled oligosaccharides largely occurred on mature, rather than nascent proteins. The functional significance of prompt glycosylation remains to be defined, but we propose that this novel phenomenon is an integral part of the cellular heat stress response.

  11. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  12. Combining three mild stresses in Drosophila melanogaster flies does not have a more positive effect on resistance to a severe cold stress than combining two mild stresses.

    PubMed

    Le Bourg, Éric

    2017-04-01

    Among other positive effects, mild stresses can increase resistance to severe stresses. Previous studies combining two mild stresses showed that when each mild stress had positive effects their combination had more positive effects than each mild stress. The present study tested whether combining three mild stresses could still provide positive additive effects, or whether this combination has negative effects because it is no longer a mild stress but rather a strong stress with negative effects. Flies were subjected to either fasting, hypergravity for one or two weeks, or cold shocks, to combinations of two or of the three mild stresses, and survival to a severe cold stress was observed at 13 or 20 days of age. Positive effects of each mild stress and of combining two stresses could be observed, but combining the three stresses provided a similar survival or a lower survival than the combination of two stresses. Thus, combining three stresses was not more efficient than combining two stresses.

  13. Transcriptional regulatory networks in cellular responses and tolerance to dehydration and cold stresses.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, high salinity, and low temperature. Expression of a variety of genes is induced by these stresses in various plants. The products of these genes function not only in stress tolerance but also in stress response. In the signal transduction network from perception of stress signals to stress-responsive gene expression, various transcription factors and cis-acting elements in the stress-responsive promoters function for plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Recent progress has been made in analyzing the complex cascades of gene expression in drought and cold stress responses, especially in identifying specificity and cross talk in stress signaling. In this review article, we highlight transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to drought and cold stresses, with particular emphasis on the role of transcription factors and cis-acting elements in stress-inducible promoters.

  14. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses reveal a response mechanism to cold stress in Santalum album L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Niu, Meiyun; Li, Mingzhi; He, Chunmei; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Songjun; Duan, Jun; Ma, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) is an economically important plant species because of its ability to produce highly valued perfume oils. Little is known about the mechanisms by which S. album adapts to low temperatures. In this study, we obtained 100,445,724 raw reads by paired-end sequencing from S. album leaves. Physiological and transcriptomic changes in sandalwood seedlings exposed to 4 °C for 0–48 h were characterized. Cold stress induced the accumulation of malondialdehyde, proline and soluble carbohydrates, and increased the levels of antioxidants. A total of 4,424 differentially expressed genes were responsive to cold, including 3,075 cold-induced and 1,349 cold-repressed genes. When cold stress was prolonged, there was an increase in the expression of cold-responsive genes coding for transporters, responses to stimuli and stress, regulation of defense response, as well as genes related to signal transduction of all phytohormones. Candidate genes in the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway were identified, eight of which were significantly involved in the cold stress response. Gene expression analyses using qRT-PCR showed a peak in the accumulation of SaCBF2 to 4, 50-fold more than control leaves and roots following 12 h and 24 h of cold stress, respectively. The CBF-dependent pathway may play a crucial role in increasing cold tolerance. PMID:28169358

  15. Memantine effects on liver and adrenal gland of rats exposed to cold stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Memantine attenuates heart stress due cold stress, however, no study focused its effects on liver and adrenal gland. We evaluated its effects on lipid depletion in adrenal gland and glycogen depletion in liver of rats exposed to cold stress. Methods Male rats divided into 4 groups: 1)Control (CON); 2)Memantine (MEM); 3)Induced cold stress (IH) and; 4)Induced cold stress memantine (IHF). Memantine were administrated by gavage (20 mg/kg/day) during eight days. Cold stress were performed during 4 hours once at - 8°C. Lipid and glycogen depletion were presented as its intensity levels. Results Rats exposed to cold stress presented the highest glycogen (p < 0.001) and lipid depletion (p < 0.001) in liver and adrenal gland, respectively. We noted that memantine significantly reduced lipid depletion in adrenal gland and glycogen depletion in liver. Conclusion Memantine prevented glycogen depletion in liver and lipid depletion in adrenal gland of rats under a cold stress condition. PMID:21255456

  16. [Acute myocardial infarction complicated by acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Mbaye, Alassane; Kagambega, Larissa Justine; Dioum, Momar; Diagne-Sow, Dior; Kane, Moussa; Diack, Bouna; Kane, Abdoul

    2013-06-23

    Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We describe the case of a diabetic patient who presented with an anterior myocardial infarction complicated by an acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography, requiring five days' hospitalisation. Coronarography could not be performed because of inadequate medical facilities.

  17. Comparative photosynthetic and metabolic analyses reveal mechanism of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass by exogenous melatonin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengrong; Fan, Jibiao; Xie, Yan; Amombo, Erick; Liu, Ao; Gitau, Margaret Mukami; Khaldun, A B M; Chen, Liang; Fu, Jinmin

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has been reported to participate in plant development and abiotic stress responses. The main objective of this study was to investigate the role of melatonin in the cold-sensitive (S) and the cold-tolerant (T) bermudagrass genotypes' response to cold stress. The genotypes were treated with 100 μM melatonin and exposed to 4 °C temperature for 3 days. In both genotypes, cold stress increased the endogenous melatonin levels, and more prominently in T than S. Physiological responses indicated that exogenous melatonin triggered antioxidant activities in both genotypes, while it alleviated cell damage in the T genotype response to cold stress. Melatonin treatment under cold stress increased fluorescence curve levels for both genotypes, and higher in T than S genotypes. In both genotypes, the alterations in photosynthetic fluorescence parameters after melatonin treatment highlighted the participation of melatonin in improving photosystem response to cold stress, particularly for the cold-tolerant genotype. The metabolic analyses revealed the alterations of 44 cold-responsive metabolites in the two genotypes, mainly including carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids. After exogenous melatonin treatment under cold condition, there was high accumulation of metabolites in the cold-tolerant regimes than their cold-sensitive counterparts. Collectively, the present study revealed differential modulations of melatonin between the cold-sensitive and the cold-tolerant genotypes in response to cold stress. This was mainly by impacting antioxidant system, photosystem II, as well as metabolic homeostasis.

  18. Changes in acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampus under cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Fatranska, M.; Budai, D.; Gulya, K; Kvetnansky, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim was to study the mechanism of the previously established decrease in acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the rat hippocampus under cold stress. Male rats were exposed for 14 days to cold (5/degree/C) or kept (controls) at room temperature (24/degree/C). Acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptor binding were investigated in the hippocampus. Cold exposure resulted in a decrease of ACh concentration in the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, the potassium-evoked release of ACh from hippocampal slices was increased and an increase of maximal binding capacity of (/sup 3/H)(-) quinuclidinyl benzilate in the dorsal hippocampus of cold exposed animals was also observed. Thus the decrease of hippocampal ACh concentration under cold exposure is probably due to its increased release. On balance then, our results demonstrate that cold stress in the rat induces significant activation of the hippocampal cholinergic system.

  19. Peritraumatic versus persistent dissociation in acute stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Panasetis, Paula; Bryant, Richard A

    2003-12-01

    The DSM-IV definition of acute stress disorder (ASD) regards dissociation that occurs during a trauma (peritraumatic dissociation) comparably to persistent dissociation. This study investigated the relative contributions of peritraumatic dissociation and persistent dissociation to acute posttraumatic stress reactions. Civilian trauma (N = 53) survivors with either acute stress disorder (ASD), subclinical ASD, or no ASD were administered modified versions of the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire that indexed both dissociation during the trauma and dissociation at the time of assessment. Persistent dissociation was more strongly associated with ASD severity and intrusive symptoms than peritraumatic dissociation. These results are consistent with the proposition that persistent, rather than peritraumatic, dissociation is associated with posttraumatic psychopathology.

  20. σB-Dependent and σB-Independent Mechanisms Contribute to Transcription of Listeria monocytogenes Cold Stress Genes during Cold Shock and Cold Growth▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yvonne C.; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The role of the stress response regulator σB (encoded by sigB) in directing the expression of selected putative and confirmed cold response genes was evaluated using Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic ΔsigB mutant, which were either cold shocked at 4°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth for up to 30 min or grown at 4°C in BHI for 12 days. Transcript levels of the housekeeping genes rpoB and gap, the σB-dependent genes opuCA and bsh, and the cold stress genes ltrC, oppA, and fri were measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Transcriptional start sites for ltrC, oppA, and fri were determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. Centrifugation was found to rapidly induce σB-dependent transcription, which necessitated the use of centrifugation-independent protocols to evaluate the contributions of σB to transcription during cold shock. Our data confirmed that transcription of the cold stress genes ltrC and fri is at least partially σB dependent and experimentally identified a σB-dependent ltrC promoter. In addition, our data indicate that (i) while σB activity is induced during 30 min of cold shock, this cold shock does not induce the transcription of σB-dependent or -independent cold shock genes; (ii) σB is not required for L. monocytogenes growth at 4°C in BHI; and (iii) transcription of the putative cold stress genes opuCA, fri, and oppA is σB independent during growth at 4°C, while both bsh and ltrC show growth phase and σB-dependent transcription during growth at 4°C. We conclude that σB-dependent and σB-independent mechanisms contribute to the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive and grow at low temperatures. PMID:17675428

  1. SigmaB-dependent and sigmaB-independent mechanisms contribute to transcription of Listeria monocytogenes cold stress genes during cold shock and cold growth.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yvonne C; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The role of the stress response regulator sigma(B) (encoded by sigB) in directing the expression of selected putative and confirmed cold response genes was evaluated using Listeria monocytogenes 10403S and an isogenic DeltasigB mutant, which were either cold shocked at 4 degrees C in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth for up to 30 min or grown at 4 degrees C in BHI for 12 days. Transcript levels of the housekeeping genes rpoB and gap, the sigma(B)-dependent genes opuCA and bsh, and the cold stress genes ltrC, oppA, and fri were measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Transcriptional start sites for ltrC, oppA, and fri were determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. Centrifugation was found to rapidly induce sigma(B)-dependent transcription, which necessitated the use of centrifugation-independent protocols to evaluate the contributions of sigma(B) to transcription during cold shock. Our data confirmed that transcription of the cold stress genes ltrC and fri is at least partially sigma(B) dependent and experimentally identified a sigma(B)-dependent ltrC promoter. In addition, our data indicate that (i) while sigma(B) activity is induced during 30 min of cold shock, this cold shock does not induce the transcription of sigma(B)-dependent or -independent cold shock genes; (ii) sigma(B) is not required for L. monocytogenes growth at 4 degrees C in BHI; and (iii) transcription of the putative cold stress genes opuCA, fri, and oppA is sigma(B) independent during growth at 4 degrees C, while both bsh and ltrC show growth phase and sigma(B)-dependent transcription during growth at 4 degrees C. We conclude that sigma(B)-dependent and sigma(B)-independent mechanisms contribute to the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive and grow at low temperatures.

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which "oxidation-reduction process" was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189.

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Provides Novel Insights into Cold Stress Responses in Petunia Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Huilin; Ning, Luyun; Li, Bei; Bao, Manzhu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major adverse environmental factor that impairs petunia growth and development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of cold stress adaptation of petunia plants, a quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ technology was performed to detect the effects of cold stress on protein expression profiles in petunia seedlings which had been subjected to 2°C for 5 days. Of the 2430 proteins whose levels were quantitated, a total of 117 proteins were discovered to be differentially expressed under low temperature stress in comparison to unstressed controls. As an initial study, 44 proteins including well known and novel cold-responsive proteins were successfully annotated. By integrating the results of two independent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses, seven common GO terms were found of which “oxidation-reduction process” was the most notable for the cold-responsive proteins. By using the subcellular localization tool Plant-mPLoc predictor, as much as 40.2% of the cold-responsive protein group was found to be located within chloroplasts, suggesting that the chloroplast proteome is particularly affected by cold stress. Gene expression analyses of 11 cold-responsive proteins by real time PCR demonstrated that the mRNA levels were not strongly correlated with the respective protein levels. Further activity assay of anti-oxidative enzymes showed different alterations in cold treated petunia seedlings. Our investigation has highlighted the role of antioxidation mechanisms and also epigenetic factors in the regulation of cold stress responses. Our work has provided novel insights into the plant response to cold stress and should facilitate further studies regarding the molecular mechanisms which determine how plant cells cope with environmental perturbation. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002189. PMID:26941746

  4. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23–71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). Results There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5–6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Conclusion Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems. PMID:23301005

  5. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as ''cold'' lesions on bone scan: a report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    ''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.

  6. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Halabian, Raheleh; Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Masroori, Nasser; Ebrahimi, Majid; Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  7. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  8. Vortioxetine restores reversal learning impaired by 5-HT depletion or chronic intermittent cold stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ashley; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Morilak, David A

    2014-10-01

    Current treatments for depression, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are only partially effective, with a high incidence of residual symptoms, relapse, and treatment resistance. Loss of cognitive flexibility, a component of depression, is associated with dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex. Reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility, is impaired by chronic stress, a risk factor for depression, and the stress-induced impairment in reversal learning is sensitive to chronic SSRI treatment, and is mimicked by serotonin (5-HT) depletion. Vortioxetine, a novel, multimodal-acting antidepressant, is a 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, a 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and inhibits the 5-HT transporter. Using adult male rats, we first investigated the direct effects of vortioxetine, acting at post-synaptic 5-HT receptors, on reversal learning that was compromised by 5-HT depletion using 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), effectively eliminating any contribution of 5-HT reuptake blockade. PCPA induced a reversal learning impairment that was alleviated by acute or sub-chronic vortioxetine administration, suggesting that post-synaptic 5-HT receptor activation contributes to the effects of vortioxetine. We then investigated the effects of chronic dietary administration of vortioxetine on reversal learning that had been compromised in intact animals exposed to chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress, to assess vortioxetine's total pharmacological effect. CIC stress impaired reversal learning, and chronic vortioxetine administration prevented the reversal-learning deficit. Together, these results suggest that the direct effect of vortioxetine at 5-HT receptors may contribute to positive effects on cognitive flexibility deficits, and may enhance the effect of 5-HT reuptake blockade.

  9. The effect of cold stress on the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, C; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is a physical environmental stressor with significant effect on the poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cold stress as a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. The experimental challenge model included an oral inoculation with 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens. Birds were either challenged or not as described above, and either exposed or not to repeated cold stress (15°C for 12 h/day for 4 days). From each bird, intestinal gross lesions were scored and intestinal digesta pH and viscosity were measured. C. perfringens was counted in the caecum. The statistical analysis and evaluation of the experimental data revealed that the cold stress in challenged birds significantly increased the incidence and the severity of necrotic enteritis lesions (Ρ ≤ 0.05), while causing no lesions in unchallenged birds. Moreover, the cold stress caused a significant increase (Ρ ≤ 0.05) in the pH and C. perfringens counts in the caeca. The study provides evidence that cold stress increased the susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental model and thus should be regarded as a physical environmental stressor that could significantly affect the welfare, health and intestinal ecosystem of broiler chicks.

  10. Comparative proteomic identification of the hemocyte response to cold stress in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lanfen; Wang, Anli; Wu, Yingxia

    2013-03-27

    To understand molecular responses of crustacean hemocytes to cold stress, flow cytometer analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic approach were used to investigate altered proteins in hemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei during cold stress treatment. Through flow cytometer analysis, 13°C for 24h post-cold stress was selected as the suitable temperature and condition for cold stress treatment. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis revealed that 6 forms of 6 proteins were significantly up-regulated, including three enzymes (cystathionase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1) and one immune-related protein (oncoprotein nm23), whereas 24 forms of 3 proteins were significantly down-regulated in the treated shrimp (hemocyanin, hemocyte transglutaminase and transketolase). There were 20 spots identified as hemocyanin meaning that it may play important roles in environmental regulation in shrimp. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR confirmed that the levels of transcription of the hemocyanin, partial mRNA for hemocyanin, cystathionase, glyoxalase 1 and oncoprotein nm23 genes were found to relate well with that of their translation products after cold stress treated, while only the levels of hemocyte transglutaminase transcripts were not corresponded with that of their translation products. Further investigation of these data may lead to better understanding of the molecular responses of crustacean hemocytes to cold stress.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of Petunia seedlings reveals candidate regulators of the cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Ning, Luyun; Zhang, Junwei; Bao, Manzhu; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Petunias are important ornamentals with the capacity for cold acclimation. So far, there is limited information concerning gene regulation and signaling pathways associated with the cold stress response in petunias. A custom-designed petunia microarray representing 24816 genes was used to perform transcriptome profiling in petunia seedlings subjected to cold at 2°C for 0.5 h, 2 h, 24 h, and 5 d. A total of 2071 transcripts displayed differential expression patterns under cold stress, of which 1149 were up-regulated and 922 were down-regulated. Gene ontology enrichment analysis demarcated related biological processes, suggesting a possible link between flavonoid metabolism and plant adaptation to low temperatures. Many novel stress-responsive regulators were revealed, suggesting that diverse regulatory pathways may exist in petunias in addition to the well-characterized CBF pathway. The expression changes of selected genes under cold and other abiotic stress conditions were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided the petunia genes on the array into 65 modules that showed high co-expression and identified stress-specific hub genes with high connectivity. Our identification of these transcriptional responses and groups of differentially expressed regulators will facilitate the functional dissection of the molecular mechanism in petunias responding to environment stresses and extend our ability to improve cold tolerance in plants. PMID:25784921

  12. Acute and post-traumatic stress disorder after spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Bowles, S V; James, L C; Solursh, D S; Yancey, M K; Epperly, T D; Folen, R A; Masone, M

    2000-03-15

    When a spontaneous abortion is followed by complicated bereavement, the primary care physician may not consider the diagnosis of acute stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The major difference between these two conditions is that, in acute stress disorder, symptoms such as dissociation, reliving the trauma, avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma and increased arousal are present for at least two days but not longer than four weeks. When the symptoms persist beyond four weeks, the patient may have post-traumatic stress disorder. The symptoms of distress response after spontaneous abortion include psychologic, physical, cognitive and behavioral effects; however, patients with distress response after spontaneous abortion often do not meet the criteria for acute or post-traumatic stress disorder. After spontaneous abortion, as many as 10 percent of women may have acute stress disorder and up to 1 percent may have post-traumatic stress disorder. Critical incident stress debriefing, which may be administered by trained family physicians or mental health practitioners, may help patients who are having a stress disorder after a spontaneous abortion.

  13. Comparative analysis of gene expression in response to cold stress in diverse rice genotypes.

    PubMed

    Moraes de Freitas, Gabriela Peres; Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Braga, Eugenia Bolacel; Pereira, Andy

    2016-02-26

    Cold stress is a major factor affecting rice (Oryza sativa) growth and productivity, limiting its distribution worldwide. Rice production is affected primarily due to its vulnerability to cold stress at seedling stage, as well as reproductive stage leading to spikelet sterility. We report here the analysis of 21 diverse rice genotypes from the USDA mini-core collection for cold tolerance and categorized their tolerance levels on the basis of reduction in growth measured by root and shoot length. The screening identified 12 cold tolerant genotypes from which six tolerant genotypes were characterized at the vegetative stage for cold tolerance and gas-exchange parameters. Two tolerant and two sensitive genotypes were used further for gene expression analysis. Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP) genes showed a clear difference in expression between cold tolerant and sensitive genotypes suggesting that they are good candidates for engineering cold tolerance in rice. Nipponbare was identified as a cold tolerant genotype with stress tolerance mechanism potentially operating via both ABA dependent and independent pathways.

  14. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems. PMID:24351762

  15. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  16. Proteomic analysis of Vibrio metschnikovii under cold stress using a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juntao; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yinghui; Li, Zhengyi; Zhao, Liqing; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Jing; Feng, Liping; Liang, Chengzhu; Xu, Biao; Gu, Peiming; Ye, Xiwen

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio metschnikovii is a food-borne pathogen found in seafood worldwide. We studied the global proteome responses of V. metschnikovii under cold stress by nano-flow ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A total of 2066 proteins were identified, among which 288 were significantly upregulated and 572 were downregulated. Functional categorization of these proteins revealed distinct differences between cold-stressed and control cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was also performed to determine the mRNA expression levels of seventeen cold stress-related genes. The results of this study should improve our understanding of the metabolic activities of cold-adapted bacteria and will facilitate a better systems-based understanding of V. metschnikovii.

  17. Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Signals Enhance Plant's Tolerance to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Wu, Zi-Li; Feng, Ling-Yang; Dong, Li-Hua; Song, An-Jun; Yuan, Ming; Chen, Yang-Er; Zeng, Jian; Chen, Guang-Deng; Yuan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) signals and plant's tolerance to cold stress is investigated. Arabidopsis seedlings grown for 3 weeks were pretreated with 2 mM glutamate (Glu) and 2 mM MgCl2 for 48 h at room temperature to induce Mg-Proto IX accumulation. Then cold stress was performed at 4°C for additional 72 h. Glu + MgCl2 pre-treatments alleviated the subsequent cold stress significantly by rising the leaf temperature through inducing Mg-Proto IX signals. The protective role of Glu + MgCl2 treatment was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling, and cyanide-resistant respiration. And the enhancement of cold-responsive gene expression was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling and ABA signaling, but not in the mutant of cyanide-resistant respiration. Cold stress promoted cyanide-resistant respiration and leaf total respiration exponentially, which could be further induced by the Glu + MgCl2 treatment. Mg-Proto IX signals also activate antioxidant enzymes and increase non-enzymatic antioxidants [glutathione but not ascorbic acid (AsA)] to maintain redox equilibrium during the cold stress.

  18. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0+/-0.1 degrees C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  19. Mg-Protoporphyrin IX Signals Enhance Plant’s Tolerance to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Wu, Zi-Li; Feng, Ling-Yang; Dong, Li-Hua; Song, An-Jun; Yuan, Ming; Chen, Yang-Er; Zeng, Jian; Chen, Guang-Deng; Yuan, Shu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) signals and plant’s tolerance to cold stress is investigated. Arabidopsis seedlings grown for 3 weeks were pretreated with 2 mM glutamate (Glu) and 2 mM MgCl2 for 48 h at room temperature to induce Mg-Proto IX accumulation. Then cold stress was performed at 4°C for additional 72 h. Glu + MgCl2 pre-treatments alleviated the subsequent cold stress significantly by rising the leaf temperature through inducing Mg-Proto IX signals. The protective role of Glu + MgCl2 treatment was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling, and cyanide-resistant respiration. And the enhancement of cold-responsive gene expression was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling and ABA signaling, but not in the mutant of cyanide-resistant respiration. Cold stress promoted cyanide-resistant respiration and leaf total respiration exponentially, which could be further induced by the Glu + MgCl2 treatment. Mg-Proto IX signals also activate antioxidant enzymes and increase non-enzymatic antioxidants [glutathione but not ascorbic acid (AsA)] to maintain redox equilibrium during the cold stress. PMID:27803706

  20. Comparative transcriptomics of rice plants under cold, iron, and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Arge, Luis Willian Pacheco; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silveira, Solange Ferreira da Silveira; Farias, Daniel da Rosa; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel

    2016-09-01

    Abiotic stresses such as salinity, iron toxicity, and low temperatures are the main limiting factors of rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. The elucidation of the genes involved in responses to these stresses is extremely important to understand the mechanisms that confer tolerance, as well as for the development of cultivars adapted to these conditions. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to compare the transcriptional profile of rice leaves (cv. BRS Querência) in stage V3, exposed to cold, iron, and salt stresses for 24 h. A range of 41 to 51 million reads was aligned, in which a total range of 88.47 to 89.21 % was mapped in the reference genome. For cold stress, 7905 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were observed, 2092 for salt and 681 for iron stress; 370 of these were common to the three DEG stresses. Functional annotation by software MapMan demonstrated that cold stress usually promoted the greatest changes in the overall metabolism, and an enrichment analysis of overrepresented gene ontology (GO) terms showed that most of them are contained in plastids, ribosome, and chloroplasts. Saline stress induced a more complex interaction network of upregulated overrepresented GO terms with a relatively low number of genes compared with cold stress. Our study demonstrated a high number of differentially expressed genes under cold stress and a greater relationship between salt and iron stress levels. The physiological process most affected at the molecular level by the three stresses seems to be photosynthesis.

  1. Processed aconite root prevents cold-stress-induced hypothermia and immuno-suppression in mice.

    PubMed

    Makino, Toshiaki; Kato, Keita; Mizukami, Hajime

    2009-10-01

    Processed aconite root (PA) is a crude drug used in traditional Chinese or Japanese medicine to generate heat in interior body and dispel cold. We evaluated the effects of PA on hypothermia and reduction in the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in mice exposed to chronic cold stress. Male mice were reared at 4 degrees C, and powdered PA was administered for 10 d as a food additive. Core body temperature of mice significantly decreased by approximately 1 degrees C after rearing in a cold environment, and PA administration significantly restored the reduction in core body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. After 10 d, splenic NK-cell activity of cold-stressed mice was significantly reduced, and the reduction was dose-dependently recovered by PA administration. An aconitine-type alkaloid fraction prepared from PA was ineffective when administered to cold-stressed mice, and the thermogenic effect on hypothermic mice was present in the fraction containing low-molecular-weight compounds without alkaloids. In cold-stressed mice, the weight of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 level in BAT increased, whereas the weight of white adipose tissue decreased. The increase in UCP-1 level in BAT of cold-stressed mice was further augmented by PA treatment. These results indicate that PA exhibited a thermogenic effect on hypothermia induced by cold stress in mice by additional upregulation of UCP-1 level in BAT, which was already enhanced by hypothermia, and that the active ingredients present in PA are non-alkaloidal low-molecular-weight compounds.

  2. Acute nonhypothermic exposure to cold impedes motor skill performance in video gaming compared to thermo-neutral and hot conditions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew M; Crowther, Robert G; Morton, R Hugh; Polman, Remco C

    2011-02-01

    The study examined whether or not acute exposure to unfamiliar hot or cold conditions impairs performance of highly skilled coordinative activities and whether prior physical self-efficacy beliefs were associated with task completion. Nineteen volunteers completed both Guitar Hero and Archery activities as a test battery using the Nintendo Wii console in cold (2 degrees C), neutral (20 degrees C), and hot (38 degrees C) conditions. Participants all completed physical self-efficacy questionnaires following experimental familiarization. Performances of both Guitar Hero and Archery significantly decreased in the cold compared with the neutral condition. The cold trial was also perceived as the condition requiring both greater concentration and effort. There was no association between performance and physical self-efficacy. Performance of these coordinative tasks was compromised by acute (nonhypothermic) exposure to cold; the most likely explanation is that the cold condition presented a greater challenge to attentional processes as a form of environmental distraction.

  3. A review of acute stress disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Friedman, Matthew J; Spiegel, David; Ursano, Robert; Strain, James

    2011-09-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into DSM-IV to describe acute stress reactions (ASRs) that occur in the initial month after exposure to a traumatic event and before the possibility of diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to identify trauma survivors in the acute phase who are high risk for PTSD. This review considers ASD in relation to other diagnostic approaches to acute stress responses, critiques the evidence of the predictive power of ASD, and discusses ASD in relation to Adjustment Disorder. The evidence suggests that ASD does not adequately identify most people who develop PTSD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary considerations to be considered for DSM-5. It is proposed that ASD be limited to describing severe ASRs (that are not necessarily precursors of PTSD). The evidence suggests that the current emphasis on dissociation may be overly restrictive and does not recognize the heterogeneity of early posttraumatic stress responses. It is proposed that ASD may be better conceptualized as the severity of acute stress responses that does not require specific clusters to be present.

  4. TRPM8, but not TRPA1, is required for neural and behavioral responses to acute noxious cold temperatures and cold-mimetics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Wendy M; Bifolck-Fisher, Amber; Bautista, Diana M; McKemy, David D

    2010-08-01

    Somatosensory neurons detect environmental stimuli, converting external cues into neural activity that is relayed first to second-order neurons in the spinal cord. The detection of cold is proposed to be mediated by the ion channels TRPM8 and TRPA1. However, there is significant debate regarding the role of each channel in cold-evoked pain, complicating their potential as drug targets for conditions such as cold allodynia and hyperalgesia. To address this debate, we generated mice lacking functional copies of both channels and examined behaviors and neural activity in response to painful cold and noxious cooling compounds. Whereas normal mice display a robust preference for warmth over cold, both TRPM8-null (TRPM8(-/-)) and TRPM8/TRPA1 double-knockout mice (DKO) display no preference until temperatures reach the extreme noxious range. Additionally, in contrast to wildtype mice that avoid touching cold surfaces, mice lacking TRPM8 channels display no such avoidance and explore noxious cold surfaces, even at 5 degrees C. Furthermore, nocifensive behaviors to the cold-mimetic icilin are absent in TRPM8(-/-) and DKO mice, but are retained in TRPA1-nulls (TRPA1(-/-)). Finally, neural activity, measured by expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, evoked by hindpaw stimulation with noxious cold, menthol, or icilin is reduced in TRPM8(-/-) and DKO mice, but not in TRPA1(-/-) animals. Thus our results show that noxious cold signaling is exclusive to TRPM8, mediating neural and behavioral responses to cold and cold-mimetics, and that TRPA1 is not required for acute cold pain in mammals.

  5. Different effects of tianeptine pretreatment in rats exposed to acute stress and repeated severe stress.

    PubMed

    Kasar, M; Mengi, M; Yildirim, E A; Yurdakos, E

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aim to discuss the relationship between stress and learning and emotionality in an experimental model using two different stress conditions: acute stress (single restraint stress for 20 min) and repeated severe stress (6-h daily restraint for 21 days). We studied the effects of tianeptine, which has been suggested to have anxiolytic and cognition-enhancing effects under stressful conditions. After acute stress, the increase in the duration of immobility (F = 5.753 and 3.664) in the open field and holeboard tests and the decrease in rearing (F = 3.891) in the holeboard test were significant when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Results for repeated severe stress showed that in both the open field and holeboard tests the decrease in rearing (F = 4.494 and 4.530, respectively), increase in the duration of immobility (F = 6.069 and 4.742, respectively) and decrease in head dips (F = 4.938) in the holeboard test were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The group pretreated with tianeptine showed no significant difference from controls for either acute or repeated severe stress conditions. In the Morris water maze test, acute stress led to a prolongation of average escape latency, which indicated a spatial learning deficit. Treatment with tianeptine prior to acute stress prevented this spatial deficit. Repeated severe stress also led to spatial learning deficits in rats, but this deficit was not prevented by treatment with tianeptine. Our study demonstrates that pretreatment with tianeptine had different effects on stress-induced spatial learning deficits under acute and repeated stress conditions, while the effects on emotionality and anxiety-like behavior were similar. The mechanisms implicated in stress-induced emotional and memory deficits will be discussed.

  6. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in response to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  7. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  8. Genome-Wide Survey of Cold Stress Regulated Alternative Splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana with Tiling Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Leviatan, Noam; Alkan, Noam; Leshkowitz, Dena; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in expanding the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes. It is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can increase protein diversity and affect mRNA stability. Alternative splicing is often regulated in a tissue-specific and stress-responsive manner. Cold stress, which adversely affects plant growth and development, regulates the transcription and splicing of plant splicing factors. This can affect the pre-mRNA processing of many genes. To identify cold regulated alternative splicing we applied Affymetrix Arabidopsis tiling arrays to survey the transcriptome under cold treatment conditions. A novel algorithm was used for detection of statistically relevant changes in intron expression within a transcript between control and cold growth conditions. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a number of randomly selected genes confirmed the changes in splicing patterns under cold stress predicted by tiling array. Our analysis revealed new types of cold responsive genes. While their expression level remains relatively unchanged under cold stress their splicing pattern shows detectable changes in the relative abundance of isoforms. The majority of cold regulated alternative splicing introduced a premature termination codon (PTC) into the transcripts creating potential targets for degradation by the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) process. A number of these genes were analyzed in NMD-defective mutants by RT-PCR and shown to evade NMD. This may result in new and truncated proteins with altered functions or dominant negative effects. The results indicate that cold affects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression. PMID:23776682

  9. Genome-wide survey of cold stress regulated alternative splicing in Arabidopsis thaliana with tiling microarray.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, Noam; Alkan, Noam; Leshkowitz, Dena; Fluhr, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in expanding the potential informational content of eukaryotic genomes. It is an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that can increase protein diversity and affect mRNA stability. Alternative splicing is often regulated in a tissue-specific and stress-responsive manner. Cold stress, which adversely affects plant growth and development, regulates the transcription and splicing of plant splicing factors. This can affect the pre-mRNA processing of many genes. To identify cold regulated alternative splicing we applied Affymetrix Arabidopsis tiling arrays to survey the transcriptome under cold treatment conditions. A novel algorithm was used for detection of statistically relevant changes in intron expression within a transcript between control and cold growth conditions. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a number of randomly selected genes confirmed the changes in splicing patterns under cold stress predicted by tiling array. Our analysis revealed new types of cold responsive genes. While their expression level remains relatively unchanged under cold stress their splicing pattern shows detectable changes in the relative abundance of isoforms. The majority of cold regulated alternative splicing introduced a premature termination codon (PTC) into the transcripts creating potential targets for degradation by the nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD) process. A number of these genes were analyzed in NMD-defective mutants by RT-PCR and shown to evade NMD. This may result in new and truncated proteins with altered functions or dominant negative effects. The results indicate that cold affects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of gene expression.

  10. [Role of the antioxidant system in response of Escherichia coli bacteria to cold stress].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, G V; Zakirova, O N; Oktiabr'skiĭ, O N

    2001-01-01

    The response of aerobically grown Escherichia coli cells to the cold shock induced by the rapid lowering of growth temperature from 37 to 20 degrees C was found to be basically the same as the oxidative stress response. The enhanced sensitivity of cells deficient in two superoxide dismutases, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD, and the increased expression of the Mn-SOD gene, sodA, in response to cold stress were interpreted as both oxidative and cold stresses are due to a rise in the intracellular level of superoxide anion. The long-term cultivation of E. coli at 20 degrees C was also accompanied by the typical oxidative stress response reactions--an enhanced expression of the Mn-SOD and catalase HPI genes and a decrease in the intracellular level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and in the GSH/GSSG ratio.

  11. Suppression of Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtATL78 increases tolerance to cold stress and decreases tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woo Taek

    2013-08-19

    AtATL78 is an Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. RT-PCR and promoter-GUS assays revealed that AtATL78 was up-regulated by cold stress and down-regulated by drought. AtATL78 was localized at the plasma-membrane. Suppression of AtATL78 increased tolerance to cold stress but decreased tolerance to drought. Our data suggests that AtATL78 is a negative regulator of cold stress response and a positive regulator of drought stress response in Arabidopsis. These results further suggest that AtATL78 plays opposing roles in cold and drought stress responses.

  12. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy.

  13. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    PubMed

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  14. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion

    PubMed Central

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Fiebach, Christian J.

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect. PMID:24834024

  15. Residual stresses and durability in cold drawn eutectoid steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atienza, J. M.; Elices, M.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Caballero, L.; Valiente, A.

    2007-04-01

    Prestressing steel wires have excellent mechanical properties but there is a need to improve their durability in aggressive environments. In this work, the influence of residual stresses on the environmentally assisted cracking of these wires is studied. A good correlation has been found between residual stresses at the surface of the wires and the time to rupture during stress corrosion test proposed by the International Federation of Prestressing. Wires with the same microstructure, surface quality and mechanical properties show very different behaviour in aggressive environments depending on their residual stress state. Research shows that environmentally assisted cracking can be improved significantly by acting on the surface residual stresses produced by wire drawing. In addition, in this study a post-drawing treatment to generate compressive residual stresses at the surface of the wires is proposed.

  16. The Effects of Cold Exposure on Leukocytes, Hormones and Cytokines during Acute Exercise in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Dominique D.; Gagnon, Sheila S.; Rintamäki, Hannu; Törmäkangas, Timo; Puukka, Katri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22°C (NT), and in 0°C (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4±0.2°C whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5±1.4°C and 9.3±2.5°C respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse

  17. Investigation of the Effect of Mechanical Stress on Cold Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    photos were used later to obtain an estimate of the actual surface area of the fracture. 31 IV. Results and Discussion Deuterium Uptake in Samples Table...against cold fusion. It would require about 885 trials to verify Jones’ result at the 95% confidence level. One trial provides only about a 50 % confidence...Table 5 shows the results of these measurements for the selected photos. 04 Table 5. Lineal Roughness of Fracture Surface Plane No. 1 2

  18. Cold stress increases reactive oxygen species formation via TRPA1 activation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Cui, Haiyang; Ma, Zhuang

    2016-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for lung damage during inhalation of cold air. However, the mechanism of the ROS production induced by cold stress in the lung is still unclear. In this work, we measured the changes of ROS and the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 to 5 °C) exposure of A549 cell resulted in an increase of ROS and [Ca(2+)]c, which was completely attenuated by removing Ca(2+) from medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of ROS and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Moreover, HC-030031, a TRPA1 selective antagonist, significantly inhibited the enhanced ROS and [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data demonstrated that TRPA1 activation played an important role in the enhanced production of ROS induced by cold stress in A549 cell.

  19. Cold stress improves the ability of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 to survive freezing.

    PubMed

    Song, Sooyeon; Bae, Dong-Won; Lim, Kwangsei; Griffiths, Mansel W; Oh, Sejong

    2014-11-17

    The stress resistance of bacteria is affected by the physiological status of the bacterial cell and environmental factors such as pH, salts and temperature. In this study, we report on the stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. The cold stress response of the cold-shock protein genes (cspC, cspL and cspP) and ATPase activities were then evaluated. The cold stress was adjusted to 5 °C when the bacteria were growing at the mid-exponential phase. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) and a matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer. Only 56% of the L. plantarum L67 cells without prior exposure to cold stress survived after four consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. However, 78% of the L. plantarum L67 cells that were treated with cold stress at 5 °C for 6 h survived after freeze-thaw conditions. After applying cold stress to the culture for 6h, the cells were then stored for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C separately. The cold-stressed culture of L. plantarum L67 showed an 8% higher viability than the control culture. After applying cold stress for 6h, the transcript levels of two genes (cspP and cspL) were up-regulated 1.4 (cspP) and 1.2 (cspL) times compared to the control. However, cspC was not up-regulated. A proteomic analysis showed that the proteins increased after a reduction of the incubation temperature to 5 °C. The importance of the expression of 13 other relevant proteins was also determined through the study. The exposure of L. plantarum cells to low temperatures aids their ability to survive through subsequent freeze-thaw processes and lyophilization.

  20. Converging, Synergistic Actions of Multiple Stress Hormones Mediate Enduring Memory Impairments after Acute Simultaneous Stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Molet, Jenny; Lauterborn, Julie C; Trieu, Brian H; Bolton, Jessica L; Patterson, Katelin P; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-11-02

    Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines. Combined application of the stress hormones corticosterone and CRH recapitulated the physiological and structural defects provoked by acute stresses. Mechanistically, corticosterone and CRH, via their cognate receptors, acted synergistically on the spine-actin regulator RhoA, promoting its deactivation and degradation, respectively, and destabilizing spines. Accordingly, blocking the receptors of both hormones, but not each alone, rescued memory. Therefore, the synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH at hippocampal synapses underlie memory impairments after concurrent and perhaps also single, severe acute stresses, with potential implications to spatial memory dysfunction in, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder.

  1. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  2. Gene and protein expression of Drosophila Starvin during cold stress and recovery from chill coma.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Hoffmann, Ary

    2010-05-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the sole member of the Bcl-2-associated anthanogene (BAG)-family proteins, called Starvin (Stv), has only been recently described. BAG proteins regulate a large range of physiological processes including life/death cell balance and stress response. The role of Stv has been poorly studied in the context of abiotic stress and particularly during and after cold stress. In this study we investigated the temporal expression of Stv gene and protein in adult flies during both the cold stress (up to 9 h at 0 degrees C) and the subsequent recovery phase (up to 8 h at 25 degrees C). Because BAG proteins can regulate positively and negatively the function of Hsp70/Hsc70, we also checked whether Stv expression was related to Hsp70 and Hsc70. Stv mRNA and Stv protein both showed a similar expression pattern: no modulation during the cold period followed by a significant up-regulation during the recovery period. A coordinated response of Stv and Hsp70 mRNA was observed, but not for Hsc70. Our findings indicate that Stv expression is part of a stress-induced program in D. melanogaster. It probably acts as a co-chaperone modulating the activity of Hsp70 chaperone machinery during recovery from cold stress. Finally our results support the suggestion that Stv and human BAG3 may be functional homologs.

  3. Seasonal variations in the responses of glycolytic intermediates of human erythrocytes to acute cold exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, H.; Yahata, T.; Yamashita, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1988-03-01

    Seven male students were studied to observe the effects of acute cold exposure (at 10°C for 60 min) on erythrocyte concentrations of glycolytic intermediates in summer and in winter. The subjects shivered slightly but frankly in both experiments. Significant decreases were observed in the concentrations of pyruvate and lactate during body cooling in summer, but not in winter. The lactate concentration remained significantly reduced 15 min after cold exposure. After 60 min of cold exposure in summer, a negative crossover point appeared to exist between phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate and erythrocyte pyruvate kinase activity showed a significant decrease. No seasonal difference was observed in the initial control values of the intermediates measured. From these results and the fact that glucose, pyruvate and lactate are evenly distributed between erythrocytes and plasma, it is likely that erythrocytes and skeletal muscles need less fuel substrate, glucose during cold exposure in winter than in summer, suggesting that an increased economy of energy for homeostasis is achieved.

  4. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    PubMed

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-03-29

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function.

  5. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    de Berker, Archy O.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  6. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  7. Roller Burnishing - A Cold Working Tool to Reduce Weld Induced Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect

    John Martin

    2002-02-19

    The possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in regions of tensile residual stress introduced by weld deposited material has been a concern where environmental effects can reduce component life. Roller burnishing, a form of mechanical cold-working, has been considered as a means of providing for residual stress state improvements. This paper provides a computational evaluation of the roller burnishing process to address the permanent deformation needed to introduce a desirable residual stress state. The analysis uses a series of incrementally applied pressure loadings and finite element methodology to simulate the behavior of a roller burnishing tool. Various magnitudes of applied pressure loadings coupled with different size plates and boundary conditions are examined to assess the degree and depth of the residual compressive stress state after cold working. Both kinematic and isotropic hardening laws are evaluated.

  8. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  9. Metabolic and ventilatory acclimatization to cold stress in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Arens, Jeremy R; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2005-01-01

    Passerines that overwinter in temperate climates undergo seasonal acclimatization that is characterized by metabolic adjustments that may include increased basal metabolic rate (BMR) and cold-induced summit metabolism (M(sum)) in winter relative to summer. Metabolic changes must be supported by equivalent changes in oxygen transport. While much is known about the morphology of the avian respiratory system, little is known about respiratory function under extreme cold stress. We examined seasonal variation in BMR, M(sum), and ventilation in seasonally acclimatized house sparrows from Wisconsin. BMR and M(sum) increased significantly in winter compared with summer. In winter, BMR increased 64%, and M(sum) increased 29% over summer values. The 64% increase in winter BMR is the highest recorded for birds. Metabolic expansibility (M(sum)/BMR) was 9.0 in summer and 6.9 in winter birds. The metabolic expansibility of 9.0 in summer is the highest yet recorded for birds. Ventilatory accommodation under helox cold stress was due to changes in breathing frequency (f), tidal volume, and oxygen extraction efficiency in both seasons. However, the only significant difference between summer and winter ventilation measures in helox cold stress was f. Mean f in helox cold stress for winter birds was 1.23 times summer values.

  10. Occupational role stress is associated with higher cortisol reactivity to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Kottwitz, Maria U; La Marca, Roberto; Semmer, Norbert K

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether occupational role stress is associated with differential levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to acute psychosocial stress. Forty-three medication-free nonsmoking men aged between 22 and 65 years (mean ± SEM: 44.5 ± 2) underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic in front of an audience. We assessed occupational role stress in terms of role conflict and role ambiguity (combined into a measure of role uncertainty) as well as further work characteristics and psychological control variables including time pressure, overcommitment, perfectionism, and stress appraisal. Moreover, we repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and blood pressure levels before and after stress exposure, and several times up to 60 min thereafter. Higher role uncertainty was associated with a more pronounced cortisol stress reactivity (p = .016), even when controlling for the full set of potential confounders (p < .001). Blood pressure stress reactivity was not associated with role uncertainty. Our findings suggest that occupational role stress in terms of role uncertainty acts as a background stressor that is associated with increased HPA-axis reactivity to acute stress. This finding may represent a potential mechanism regarding how occupational role stress may precipitate adverse health outcomes.

  11. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    PubMed

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  12. Modulation of alternative oxidase to enhance tolerance against cold stress of chickpea by chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Serkan; Genisel, Mucip; Turk, Hulya; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Demir, Yavuz

    2015-03-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX) is the enzyme responsible for the alternative respiratory pathway. This experiment was conducted to examine the influence on cold tolerance ability of chickpea (Cicer aurentium cv. Müfitbey) seedlings of AOX activator (pyruvate), AOX inhibitor (salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)) and an inhibitor of the cytochrome pathway of respiration (antimycin A) treatments. 5mM pyruvate, 2μM antimycin A and 4mM SHAM solutions were exogenously applied to thirteen-day-old chickpea leaves and then the seedlings were transferred to a different plant growth chamber arranged to 10/5°C (day/night) for 48h. Cold stress markedly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to controls. Pyruvate and antimycin A significantly increased the cold-induced increase in antioxidant activity but SHAM decreased it. Cold-induced increases in superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly reduced by pyruvate and antimycin A, but increased by SHAM treatment. Pyruvate and antimycin A application increased both the activity and protein expression of AOX in comparison to cold stress alone. However, SHAM significantly decreased activity of AOX but did not affect its expression. Total cellular respiration values (TCRV) supported the changes in activity and expression of AOX. While TCRV were increased by cold and pyruvate, they were significantly reduced by SHAM and especially antimycin A. These results indicate that pyruvate and antimycin A applications were effective in reducing oxidative stress by activating the alternative respiratory pathway as well as antioxidant activity. Furthermore, direct activation of AOX, rather than inhibition of the cytochrome pathway, was the most effective way to mitigate cold stress.

  13. Effects of cold stress and Salmonella Heidelberg infection on bacterial load and immunity of chickens.

    PubMed

    Borsoi, Anderlise; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete Serrano; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    We analysed the effects of cold stress (19 ± 1°C, 6 h /day, from the first to the seventh day of life) applied to specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. On experimental Day 1 (ED1), chicks were divided into four groups: C (not infected and kept under thermoneutral condition); CS (not infected and cold stressed); PC (Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) infected and kept under thermoneutral condition) and PCS (SH infected and cold stressed). High concentrations of corticosterone were found in the cold stressed birds on ED7 and ED21, with a greater increase in birds of the PCS group. Stress or non-stressed SH-infected birds had high levels of norepinephrine on ED21. On ED21, an increased percentage and number of SH were found in birds of the PCS group. On ED7, a decrease in macrophages presenting MHCII, CD8(+) and CD8(+) γδ cells was observed in the chickens of the CS group. Decrease was observed in CD3(+) cells in the birds of the PCS group and increase in macrophages presenting MHCII cells and of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in chickens of the CS group on ED21. There was a decrease in CD8(+) γδ cells in birds of the CS group on ED21 and in the CD3(+) and CD8(+)cell numbers in chickens of the PCS group on ED21. Our results suggest that cold stress applied to chickens in the first 7 days of life increases both the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system activities, leading to long-term immune cell dysfunction, thus allowing increased SH invasion and persistence within the birds' body.

  14. Cold stress affects H(+)-ATPase and phospholipase D activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muzi, Carlo; Camoni, Lorenzo; Visconti, Sabina; Aducci, Patrizia

    2016-11-01

    Low temperature is an environmental stress that greatly influences plant performance and distribution. Plants exposed to cold stress exhibit modifications of plasma membrane physical properties that can affect their functionality. Here it is reported the effect of low temperature exposure of Arabidopsis plants on the activity of phospholipase D and H(+)-ATPase, the master enzyme located at the plasma membrane. The H(+)-ATPase activity was differently affected, depending on the length of cold stress imposed. In particular, an exposure to 4 °C for 6 h determined the strong inhibition of the H(+)-ATPase activity, that correlates with a reduced association with the regulatory 14-3-3 proteins. A longer exposure first caused the full recovery of the enzymatic activity followed by a significant activation, in accordance with both the increased association with 14-3-3 proteins and induction of H(+)-ATPase gene transcription. Different time lengths of cold stress treatment were also shown to strongly stimulate the phospholipase D activity and affect the phosphatidic acid levels of the plasma membranes. Our results suggest a functional correlation between the activity of phospholipase D and H(+)-ATPase mediated by phosphatidic acid release during the cold stress response.

  15. Estrous cycle and cold stress in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Bucher, D.R.; Lukaski, H.C. )

    1991-03-11

    Female iron-deficient (ID) rats have plasma triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) concentrations similar to iron sufficient controls (CN) at 24C. Whether the apparently euthyroid ID female can thermoregulate when exposed to cold was studied to assess the interactive effects of iron deficiency and the female reproductive cycle. Rats were assigned to either ID (n = 60) or CN (n = 60) diets for a period of five weeks. The two groups were then subdivided into five groups, four based on stage of the estrous cycle and the fifth group was ovariectomized one week prior to sacrifice. Animals were exposed to 4C for 6 h. Following sacrifice, tissues were collected for analysis of thyroid hormone and iron status indices. There was an interactive effect of iron status and the estrous cycle on core temperature response to the cold. Plasma thyrozine (T{sup 4}) concentrations were unaffected by iron status or the estrous cycle, and plasma T{sub 3} concentrations were significantly lower in ID than CN rats. Thyroxine 5{prime} - deiodinase activity in the liver was significantly lower in ID animals than CN; this conforms with the plasma T{sub 3} findings. Brown adipose tissue deiodinase was not affected by either iron status or the estrous cycle. In conclusion, iron deficiency impairs thermoregulation in rats, and this effect is related to the ovarian cycle. However, brown adipose tissue does not appear specifically involved in this defect.

  16. Osmyb4 expression improves adaptive responses to drought and cold stress in transgenic apples.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Gemma; Biricolti, Stefano; Locatelli, Franca; Baldoni, Elena; Mattana, Monica

    2008-10-01

    Constitutive expression of the rice cold-inducible Osmyb4 gene in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants improves adaptive responses to cold and drought stress, most likely due to the constitutive activation of several stress-inducible pathways and to the accumulation of several compatible solutes (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose, proline, glycine betaine and some aromatic compounds). Although the Osmyb4 gene seems able to activate stress responsive pathways in different species, we previously reported that its specific effect on stress tolerance depends on the transformed species. In the present work, we report the effects of the Osmyb4 expression for improving the stress response in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) plants. Namely, we found that the ectopic expression of the Myb4 transcription factor improved physiological and biochemical adaptation to cold and drought stress and modified metabolite accumulation. Based on these results it may be of interest to use Osmyb4 as a tool for improving the productivity of woody perennials under environmental stress conditions.

  17. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  18. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-03-01

    The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.

  19. Anthocyanin biosynthesis for cold and freezing stress tolerance and desirable color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are divided into several structural classes, including anthocyanins, which provide flower and leaf colors and other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. This study characterized four anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes of Brassica rapa, a structural gene of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, and investigated their association with pigment formation, cold and freezing tolerance in B. rapa. Sequences of these genes were analyzed and compared with similar gene sequences from other species, and a high degree of homology with their respective functions was found. Organ-specific expression analysis revealed that these genes were only expressed in the colored portion of leaves of different lines of B. rapa. Conversely, B. rapa anthocyanidin synthase (BrANS) genes also showed responses to cold and freezing stress treatment in B. rapa. BrANSs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold stress. Thus, the above results suggest the association of these genes with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold-resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well.

  20. Metallothionein differentially affects the host response to Listeria infection both with and without an additional stress from cold-restraint.

    PubMed

    Emeny, Rebecca T; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Mondal, Tapan; Lynes, Michael A; Lawrence, David A

    2015-11-01

    Acute stress alters anti-bacterial defenses, but the neuroimmunological mechanisms underlying this association are not yet well understood. Metallothionein (MT), a cysteine-rich protein, is a stress response protein that is induced by a variety of chemical, biological, and psychological stressors, and MT has been shown to influence immune activities. We investigated MT's role in the management of anti-bacterial responses that occur during stress, using a C57BL/6 (B6) strain that has targeted disruptions of the Mt1 and Mt2 genes (B6-MTKO), and a B6 strain that has additional copies of Mt (B6-MTTGN). The well-characterized listeriosis model was used to examine immune mechanisms that are altered by a 1-h stress treatment (cold-restraint, CR) administered just prior to bacterial infection. Intriguingly, MT gene doses both greater and lower than that of wild-type (WT) B6 mice were associated with improved host defenses against Listeria monocytogenes (LM). This augmented protection was diminished by CR stress in the MTKO mice, but transgenic mice with additional MT copies had no CR stress-induced increase in their listerial burden. During the transition from innate to adaptive immunity, on day 3 after infection, oxidative burst and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometric methods, and cytokine transcription was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. MT gene expression and CR-stress affected the expression of IL-6 and TNFα. Additionally, these genetic and environmental modulations altered the generation of ROS responses as well as the number of apoptotic cells in livers and spleens. Although the level of MT altered the listerial response, MT expression was equally elevated by listerial infection with or without CR stress. These results indicate the ability of MT to regulate immune response mechanisms and demonstrate that increased amounts of MT can eliminate the immunosuppression induced by CR.

  1. Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Physical Assault Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elklit, Ask; Brink, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The authors' objective was to examine the ability of acute stress disorder (ASD) and other trauma-related factors in a group of physical assault victims in predicting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 6 months later. Subjects included 214 victims of violence who completed a questionnaire 1 to 2 weeks after the assault, with 128 participating…

  2. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  3. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  4. Role of cold and emotional stress in Raynaud's disease and scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R R; Ianni, P

    1983-11-19

    Research on the aetiology of Raynaud's disease and phenomenon has been hindered by the difficulty of provoking attacks in the laboratory. A study was therefore conducted in which digital and ambient temperatures, electrocardiograms, and stress ratings were obtained during ambulatory monitoring in patients with idiopathic Raynaud's disease, Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to scleroderma, and in normal subjects. In Raynaud's disease about one third of the vasospastic attacks were associated with tachycardia and increased stress ratings without declines in ambient temperature. In contrast, cold alone was enough to provoke most attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon in scleroderma. Chronically increased stress ratings in patients with scleroderma and increased muscle tension in anticipation of a cold stimulus suggest that these patients have different patterns of stress responses from those with Raynaud's disease.

  5. Radial Pressure Pulse and Heart Rate Variability in Heat- and Cold-Stressed Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chin-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Kao, Shung-Te; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wei, Ching-Chuan; Chen, Chiachung; Liao, Yin-Tzu; Chen, Fun-Jou

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of heat and cold stress on the radial pressure pulse (RPP) and heart rate variability (HRV). The subjects immersed their left hand into 45°C and 7°C water for 2 minutes. Sixty healthy subjects (age 25 ± 4 yr; 29 men and 31 women) were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent the supine temperature measurements of the bilateral forearms, brachial arterial blood pressure, HRV and RPP with a pulse analyzer in normothermic conditions, and thermal stresses. The power spectral low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV decreased in the heat test and increased in the cold test. The heat stress significantly reduced radial augmentation index (AIr) (P < .05), but the cold stress significantly increased AIr (P < .01). The spectral energy of RPP did not show any statistical difference in 0 ~ 10 Hz region under both conditions, but in the region of 10 ~ 50 Hz, there was a significant increase (P < .01) in the heat test and a significant decrease in the cold test (P < .01). The changes in AIr induced by heat and cold stress were significantly negatively correlated with the spectral energy in the region of 10 ~ 50 Hz (SE10−50 Hz) but not in the region of 0 ~ 10 Hz (SE0−10 Hz). The results demonstrated that the SE10−50 Hz, which only possessed a small percentage in total pulse energy, presented more physiological characteristics than the SE0−10 Hz under the thermal stresses. PMID:21113292

  6. The insect capa neuropeptides impact desiccation and cold stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Insects are so successful because of great resistance to environmental stress, yet little is known about how such responses may be mediated by the neuroendocrine system. Results: We provide evidence that the capability (capa) neuropeptide gene and peptide are critical mediators of desic...

  7. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  8. Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice: Salt, Cold, and Drought.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Almadanim, M Cecília; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the primary source of food for more than half of the world population. Most rice varieties are severely injured by abiotic stresses, with strong social and economic impact. Understanding rice responses to stress may help breeding for more tolerant varieties. However, papers dealing with stress experiments often describe very different experimental designs, thus making comparisons difficult. The use of identical setups is the only way to generate comparable data. This chapter is organized into three sections, describing the experimental conditions established at the Genomics of Plant Stress (GPlantS) unit of ITQB to assess the response of rice plants to three different abiotic stresses--high salinity, cold stress, and drought. All sections include a detailed description of the materials and methodology, as well as useful notes gathered from the GPlantS team's experience. We use rice seedlings as plants at this stage show high sensitivity to abiotic stresses. For the salt and cold stress assays we use hydroponic cultures, while for the drought assay plants are grown in soil and subjected to water withholding. All setups enable visual score determination and are suitable for sample collection along the imposition of stress. The proposed methodologies are simple and affordable to implement in most labs, allowing the discrimination of several rice genotypes at the molecular and phenotypic level.

  9. From the Lab Bench: Why the heat and cold stresses on tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column is written to provide information on why cattle that graze toxic endophyte infected tall fescue are vulnerable to both heat and cold stress. Peer reviewed research conducted by scientists at the USDA-ARS Forage-Animal Production Research Unit demonstrated that ergot alkaloids produced by t...

  10. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    PubMed

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress.

  11. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Sänger, Jessica; Bechtold, Laura; Schoofs, Daniela; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wascher, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    FOR THE SELECTION OF RELEVANT INFORMATION OUT OF A CONTINUOUS STREAM OF INFORMATION, WHICH IS A COMMON DEFINITION OF ATTENTION, TWO CORE MECHANISMS ARE ASSUMED: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information toward the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol. In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter. By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  12. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Sänger, Jessica; Bechtold, Laura; Schoofs, Daniela; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Wascher, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information toward the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol. In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter. By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection. PMID:25346669

  13. [Effects of cold-shock on tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Li; Xia, Ya-Zhen; Liu, Jin; Shi, Xiao-Dan; Sun, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    High temperature stress (HTS) is one of the major limiting factors that affect the quality of intensively cultured seedlings in protected facilitates during hot season. Increasing the cross adaptive response of plant induced by temperature stress is an effective way to improve plant stress resistance. In order to explore the alleviating effect of cold-shock intensity on tomato seedlings under HTS, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treatments every day with 5 °C, 10 °C, and 15 °C for 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min, respectively, in an artificial climate chamber. The effect of single appropriate cold-shock on the gene expression of small heat shock proteins LeHSP 23.8 and CaHSP18 was investigated. The results showed that hypocotyl elongation and plant height of tomato seedlings were restrained by cold-shock treatment before HTS was met. The alleviating effect of tomato seedlings under HTS by cold-shock varied greatly with levels and durations of temperature. The membrane lipids in the leaf of tomato seedlings were subjected to peroxidation injury in the cold-shock treatment at 5 °C, in which the penetration of cell membrane was increased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme was inhibited. The alleviating effect to HTS by cold-shock was decreased with the increasing cold-shock duration at 10 °C, however, a reverse change was found at 15 °C. The results indicated that cross adaptive response of tomato seedling could be induced with a moderate cold-shock temperature for a proper duration before HTS was met. The optimum cold-shock treatment was at 10 °C for 10 min per day, under which, the dry mass, healthy index, activities of protective enzymes (including SOD, POD and CAT) in leaves of tomato seedlings were significantly increased, the contents of proline and soluble protein were enhanced, relative conductivity and malondialdehyde concentration were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of Le-HSP23.8 and CaHSP18 were increased compared

  14. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alomari, Rima A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B.; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30–40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention. PMID:26010485

  15. Genome-scale cold stress response regulatory networks in ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low temperature leads to major crop losses every year. Although several studies have been conducted focusing on diversity of cold tolerance level in multiple phenotypically divergent Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) ecotypes, genome-scale molecular understanding is still lacking. Results In this study, we report genome-scale transcript response diversity of 10 A. thaliana ecotypes originating from different geographical locations to non-freezing cold stress (10°C). To analyze the transcriptional response diversity, we initially compared transcriptome changes in all 10 ecotypes using Arabidopsis NimbleGen ATH6 microarrays. In total 6061 transcripts were significantly cold regulated (p < 0.01) in 10 ecotypes, including 498 transcription factors and 315 transposable elements. The majority of the transcripts (75%) showed ecotype specific expression pattern. By using sequence data available from Arabidopsis thaliana 1001 genome project, we further investigated sequence polymorphisms in the core cold stress regulon genes. Significant numbers of non-synonymous amino acid changes were observed in the coding region of the CBF regulon genes. Considering the limited knowledge about regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target genes in the model plant A. thaliana, we have adopted a powerful systems genetics approach- Network Component Analysis (NCA) to construct an in-silico transcriptional regulatory network model during response to cold stress. The resulting regulatory network contained 1,275 nodes and 7,720 connections, with 178 transcription factors and 1,331 target genes. Conclusions A. thaliana ecotypes exhibit considerable variation in transcriptome level responses to non-freezing cold stress treatment. Ecotype specific transcripts and related gene ontology (GO) categories were identified to delineate natural variation of cold stress regulated differential gene expression in the model plant A. thaliana. The predicted

  16. Cold-stress responses in the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Microbes growing at subzero temperatures encounter numerous growth constraints. However, fungi that inhabit cold environments can grow and decompose organic compounds under subzero temperatures. Thus, understanding the cold-adaptation strategies of fungi under extreme environments is critical for elucidating polar-region ecosystems. Here, I report that two strains of the Antarctic basidiomycetous yeast Mrakia blollopis exhibited distinct growth characteristics under subzero conditions: SK-4 grew efficiently, whereas TKG1-2 did not. I analysed the metabolite responses elicited by cold stress in these two M. blollopis strains by using capillary electrophoresis–time-of-flight mass spectrometry. M. blollopis SK-4, which grew well under subzero temperatures, accumulated high levels of TCA-cycle metabolites, lactic acid, aromatic amino acids and polyamines in response to cold shock. Polyamines are recognized to function in cell-growth and developmental processes, and aromatic amino acids are also known to improve cell growth at low temperatures. By contrast, in TKG1-2, which did not grow efficiently, cold stress strongly induced the metabolites of the TCA cycle, but other metabolites were not highly accumulated in the cell. Thus, these differences in metabolite responses could contribute to the distinct abilities of SK-4 and TKG1-2 cells to grow under subzero temperature conditions. PMID:27493768

  17. Management of acute traumatic stress in nuclear and radiological emergencies.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Marina; Jordan, Osvaldo; Kuper, Enrique; Hernandez, Daniel; Galmarini, Martin; Ferraro, Augusto

    2010-06-01

    In order to effectively respond to and minimize the psychological impact following disasters, such as radio-nuclear ones, it is essential to understand the mechanisms involved in such conditions and how to prevent and treat the psychological impacts, including those related to acute traumatic stress and its consequences across life span. Radio-nuclear emergencies may cause psychological traumatic stress, with its potentially significant consequences in mental health, with both short and long-term effects, which extend beyond the individuals directly affected. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by human senses and most people are unaware of the magnitude of its effects, which could result in feelings of helplessness and vulnerability. Those situations with a high degree of uncertainty, regarding potential future health effects, are more psychologically traumatic than others. The present century has witnessed a steady increase in the number of publications concerning the mental health impact of traumatic events, showing the need of increasing the study of traumatic stress and its impact on mental health. A prompt, planned and effective response to manage disaster-induced acute traumatic stress may prevent the evolutionary reactions of traumatic stress into disorders or even chronic stress diseases that can appear after a nuclear or radiological emergency.

  18. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  19. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Al Khatib, Philipp; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2014-05-08

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva.

  20. Impaired defense of core temperature in aged humans during mild cold stress.

    PubMed

    Degroot, David W; Kenney, W Larry

    2007-01-01

    Aged humans often exhibit an impaired defense of core temperature during cold stress. However, research documenting this response has typically used small subject samples and strong cold stimuli. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of young and older subjects, matched for anthropometric characteristics, during mild cold stress. Thirty-six young (YS; 23 +/- 1 years, range 18-30) and 46 older (OS; 71 +/- 1 years, range 65-89) subjects underwent a slow transient cold air exposure from a thermoneutral baseline, during which esophageal (T(es)) and mean skin temperatures (T(sk)), O(2) consumption, and skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry) were measured. Cold exposure was terminated at the onset of visible sustained shivering. Net metabolic heat production (M(net)), heat debt, predicted change in midregion temperature (DeltaT(mid)), and tissue insulation (I(t)) were calculated. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure and expressed as percent change from baseline (DeltaCVC(%base)). There were no baseline group differences for T(es), but OS M(net) was lower (OS: 38.0 +/- 1.1; YS: 41.9 +/- 1.1 W . m(-2), P < 0.05). T(es) was well maintained in YS but fell progressively in OS (P < 0.01 for all timepoints after 35 min). The skin vasoconstrictor response to mild cold stress was attenuated in OS (42 +/- 3 vs. 53 +/- 4 DeltaCVC(%base), P < 0.01). There were no group differences for T(sk) or I(t), while M(net) remained lower in OS (P < 0.05). The DeltaT(mid) did not account for the drop in T(es) in OS. Healthy aged humans failed to maintain T(es); however, the mechanisms underlying this response are not clear.

  1. The role of 5-aminolevulinic acid in the response to cold stress in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Balestrasse, Karina B; Tomaro, María L; Batlle, Alcira; Noriega, Guillermo O

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the possibility of enhancing cold stress tolerance of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) by exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was investigated. ALA was added to the Hoagland solution at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 40 μM for 12 h. After ALA treatment, the plants were subjected to cold stress at 4°C for 48 h. ALA at low concentrations (5-10 μM) provided significant protection against cold stress compared to non-ALA-treated plants, enhancing chlorophyll content (Chl) as well as relative water content (RWC). Increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels was also prevented, whereas exposure to higher ALA concentrations (15-40 μM) brought about a dose dependent increase of these species, reaching a maximum of 117% in plants pre-treated with 40 μM ALA compared to controls. ALA pre-treatment also enhanced catalase (CAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activities. These findings indicate that HO-1 acts not only as the rate limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, but also as an antioxidant enzyme. The highest cold tolerance was obtained with 5 μM ALA pre-treatment. Results show that ALA, which is considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator, could be used effectively to protect soybean plants from the damaging effects of cold stress by enhancing the activity of heme proteins, e.g., catalase (CAT) and by promoting heme catabolism leading to the production of the highly antioxidant biliverdin and carbon monoxide, without any adverse effect on the plant growth.

  2. Feasibility of the Davidenkov method for investigation of hoop residual stresses in cold expanded cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, V. F.; Arlyapov, A. Yu; Boznak, A. O.; Ogol, I. I.; Kim, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    Cold expansion of holes in hollow cylinders is accompanied by raise of residual stresses in the bulk of the cylinder, the largest of which are hoop residual stresses. Since hoop residual stresses affect critical performance characteristics, assessment of their nature and magnitude is one of the most significant engineering tasks. The most wide spread mechanical methods to define magnitude of hoop residual stresses are G Sachs and N N Davidenkov methods. The paper presents result of experimental studies by Sachs and Davidenkov methods of hoop residual stresses generated in hollow cylinders made of carbon steel AISI 1050 after cold expansion. It is shown that the shape of curves of hoop residual stresses calculated by the mentioned methods, depending on the hoop residual strain generated on the outer surface of the cylinder, can differ (strain is elastic) or coincide (strain is elastic-plastic). It was established that the absolute values of the stresses defined by the mentioned methods in the area adjacent to the hole differ by an average of 15%, and in the area adjacent to the outer surface differ by an average of 20%.

  3. Metabolite Profiling of adh1 Mutant Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Wei, Yunzhu; Li, Gaopeng; Yue, Xiule; An, Lizhe

    2017-01-01

    As a result of global warming, vegetation suffers from repeated freeze-thaw cycles caused by more frequent short-term low temperatures induced by hail, snow, or night frost. Therefore, short-term freezing stress of plants should be investigated particularly in light of the current climatic conditions. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a central role in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes and it is a key enzyme in anaerobic fermentation. ADH1 responds to plant growth and environmental stress; however, the function of ADH1 in the response to short-term freezing stress remains unknown. Using real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, the expression level of ADH1 was analyzed at low temperature (4°C). The lethal temperature was calculated based on the electrolyte leakage tests for both ADH1 deletion mutants (adh1) and wild type (WT) plants. To further investigate the relationship between ADH1 and cold tolerance in plants, low-Mr polar metabolite analyses of Arabidopsis adh1 and WT were performed at cold temperatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This investigation focused on freezing treatments (cold acclimation group: −6°C for 2 h with prior 4°C for 7 d, cold shock group: −6°C for 2 h without cold acclimation) and recovery (23°C for 24 h) with respect to seedling growth at optimum temperature. The experimental results revealed a significant increase in ADH1 expression during low temperature treatment (4°C) and at a higher lethal temperature in adh1 compared to that in the WT. Retention time indices and specific mass fragments were used to monitor 263 variables and annotate 78 identified metabolites. From these analyses, differences in the degree of metabolite accumulation between adh1 and WT were detected, including soluble sugars (e.g., sucrose) and amino acids (e.g., asparagine). In addition, the correlation-based network analysis highlighted some metabolites, e.g., melibiose, fumaric acid, succinic acid, glycolic acid, and xylose, which

  4. Metabolite Profiling of adh1 Mutant Response to Cold Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuan; Liu, Lijun; Wei, Yunzhu; Li, Gaopeng; Yue, Xiule; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    As a result of global warming, vegetation suffers from repeated freeze-thaw cycles caused by more frequent short-term low temperatures induced by hail, snow, or night frost. Therefore, short-term freezing stress of plants should be investigated particularly in light of the current climatic conditions. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) plays a central role in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes and it is a key enzyme in anaerobic fermentation. ADH1 responds to plant growth and environmental stress; however, the function of ADH1 in the response to short-term freezing stress remains unknown. Using real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, the expression level of ADH1 was analyzed at low temperature (4°C). The lethal temperature was calculated based on the electrolyte leakage tests for both ADH1 deletion mutants (adh1) and wild type (WT) plants. To further investigate the relationship between ADH1 and cold tolerance in plants, low-Mr polar metabolite analyses of Arabidopsis adh1 and WT were performed at cold temperatures using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This investigation focused on freezing treatments (cold acclimation group: -6°C for 2 h with prior 4°C for 7 d, cold shock group: -6°C for 2 h without cold acclimation) and recovery (23°C for 24 h) with respect to seedling growth at optimum temperature. The experimental results revealed a significant increase in ADH1 expression during low temperature treatment (4°C) and at a higher lethal temperature in adh1 compared to that in the WT. Retention time indices and specific mass fragments were used to monitor 263 variables and annotate 78 identified metabolites. From these analyses, differences in the degree of metabolite accumulation between adh1 and WT were detected, including soluble sugars (e.g., sucrose) and amino acids (e.g., asparagine). In addition, the correlation-based network analysis highlighted some metabolites, e.g., melibiose, fumaric acid, succinic acid, glycolic acid, and xylose, which

  5. Salivary Markers of Inflammation in Response to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slavish, Danica C.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Engeland, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the ability to detect inflammatory markers in response to stress within naturally occurring social contexts and/or across multiple time points per day within individuals. Salivary collection is a less invasive process than current methods of blood collection and enables intensive naturalistic methodologies, such as those involving extensive repeated measures per day over time. Yet the reliability and validity of saliva-based to blood-based inflammatory biomarkers in response to stress remains unclear. We review and synthesize the published studies that have examined salivary markers of inflammation following exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Results from each study are reviewed by analyte (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, CRP) and stress type (social-cognitive and exercise-physical), after which methodological issues and limitations are addressed. Although the literature is limited, several inflammatory markers (including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) have been reliably determined from saliva and have increased significantly in response to stress across multiple studies, with effect sizes ranging from very small to very large. Although CRP from saliva has been associated with CRP in circulating blood more consistently than other biomarkers have been associated with their counterparts in blood, evidence demonstrating it reliably responds to acute stress is absent. Although the current literature is presently too limited to allow broad assertion that inflammatory biomarkers determined from saliva are valuable for examining acute stress responses, this review suggests that specific targets may be valid and highlights specific areas of need for future research. PMID:25205395

  6. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish.

  7. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, including igfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  8. Psychological acute stress measurement using a wireless adhesive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Nandakumar

    2015-01-01

    Stress management is essential in this modern civilization to maintain one's stress level low and reduce health risks, since stress is one of the primary causes leading to major chronic health disorders. The present study investigates the validity of stress index (SI) metric that objectively quantifies the psychological acute stress using a disposable adhesive biosensor worn on the chest called as HealthPatch(®). Eleven healthy volunteers (n=11) were attached with one HealthPatch sensor at left pectoralis major muscle along the cardiac axis to record modified Lead-II ECG. The subjects carried out a standard Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) protocol. During the study, the subjects filled out state anxiety form-Y1 of the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire (sSTAI); salivary samples were obtained for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol (sC) measurements; and the HealthPatch sensor data were wirelessly acquired. The data analyses revealed that sSTAI scores were significantly increased (P<0.001) due to TSST compared to the baseline. But, the changes in both sAA and sC measurements were not significant (P=0.281 and P=0.792, respectively). On the other hand, SI metric of HealthPatch showed significant (P<0.001) increase (~50%) during TSST, and shown to be sensitive to objectively track acute changes in psychological stress. Thus, HealthPatch biosensor can be valuable for continuous monitoring of psychological health and effective management of stress leading to healthy life.

  9. Acute stress elicited by bungee jumping suppresses human innate immunity.

    PubMed

    van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel P F L; Queiroz, Karla C S; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system.

  10. Acute Stress Elicited by Bungee Jumping Suppresses Human Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    van Westerloo, David J; Choi, Goda; Löwenberg, Ester C; Truijen, Jasper; de Vos, Alex F; Endert, Erik; Meijers, Joost C M; Zhou, Lu; Pereira, Manuel PFL; Queiroz, Karla CS; Diks, Sander H; Levi, Marcel; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although a relation between diminished human immunity and stress is well recognized both within the general public and the scientific literature, the molecular mechanisms by which stress alters immunity remain poorly understood. We explored a novel model for acute human stress involving volunteers performing a first-time bungee jump from an altitude of 60 m and exploited this model to characterize the effects of acute stress in the peripheral blood compartment. Twenty volunteers were included in the study; half of this group was pretreated for 3 d with the β-receptor blocking agent propranolol. Blood was drawn 2 h before, right before, immediately after and 2 h after the jump. Plasma catecholamine and cortisol levels increased significantly during jumping, which was accompanied by significantly reduced ex vivo inducibility of proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of coagulation and vascular endothelium. Kinome profiles obtained from the peripheral blood leukocyte fraction contained a strong noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction signature after jumping. In apparent agreement, jumping down-regulated Lck/Fyn and cellular innate immune effector function (phagocytosis). Pretreatment of volunteers with propranolol abolished the effects of jumping on coagulation and endothelial activation but left the inhibitory effects on innate immune function intact. Taken together, these results indicate that bungee jumping leads to a catecholamine-independent immune suppressive phenotype and implicate noncanonical glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction as a major pathway linking human stress to impaired functioning of the human innate immune system. PMID:21203694

  11. Acute Stress in Parents of Children Newly Diagnosed With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Pai, Ahna L.H.; Alderfer, Melissa; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Reilly, Anne; Kazak, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and subclinical symptoms of acute stress (SAS) may be a useful framework for understanding the psychological reactions of mothers and fathers of children newly diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy. Patients and Methods Mothers (N = 129) and fathers (N = 72) of 138 children newly diagnosed with cancer completed questionnaires assessing acute distress, anxiety, and family functioning. Demographic data were also gathered. Inclusion criteria were: a confirmed diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy in a child under the age of 18 years without prior chronic or life threatening illness and fluency in English or Spanish. Results Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to examine predictors of SAS. Fifty-one percent (N = 66) of mothers and 40% (N = 29) of fathers met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ASD. The majority of the sample reported experiencing at least one SAS. General anxiety, but not family functioning, was a strong predictor of SAS in both mothers and fathers even after controlling for demographic characteristics. Conclusions Immediately following their child’s diagnosis of cancer, most mothers and fathers experience SAS, with a subsample meeting criteria for ASD. More anxious parents are at heightened risk of more intense reactions. The findings support the need for evidence-based psychosocial support at diagnosis and throughout treatment for families who are at risk for acute distress reactions. PMID:17514742

  12. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  13. Promoter of a salinity and cold stress-induced MCM6 DNA helicase from pea.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hung Quang; Tran, Ngoc Quang; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2011-07-01

    The eukaryotic hetrohexameric mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) proteins complex provides DNA unwinding function during the DNA replication. The complex also functions as DNA replication licensing factor which ensures that the DNA in genome is replicated only once per cell division cycle. Recently, a single subunit MCM6 from pea has been shown to contain helicase and ATPase activities in vitro. Recently, the transcript of a single subunit was reported to be upregulated in pea plant in response to high salinity and cold stress and not with ABA, drought and heat stress. The first direct evidence that overexpression of single subunit MCM6 confers salinity stress tolerance without yield loss has also been reported. Here we report the promoter of the pea MCM6 single subunit that contains stress responsive elements which may be responsible for regulating the MCM6 under abiotic stress conditions.

  14. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods: We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Results: Values for TAG and MDA (P < 0.001), as well as for H2O2 (P < 0.001), increased significantly following milk shake consumption, with values higher at 4 hours compared with 2 hours post consumption for TAG and H2O2 (P < 0.05). TEAC was unaffected by the milk shake consumption. Coffee had no impact on TAG, MDA, H2O2, or TEAC, with no condition or interaction effects noted for any variable (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress. PMID:23935371

  15. Influence of acute stress on spatial tasks in humans.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anthony E; VanderKaay Tomasulo, Melissa M

    2011-07-06

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between stress and spatial performance in humans. In this study, participants were exposed to an acute laboratory stressor (Star Mirror Tracing Task) or a control condition (watching a nature video) and then performed two spatial tasks. In the first task, participants navigated through a virtual reality (VR) environment and then returned to the environment to make directional judgments relating to the learned targets. In the second task, perspective taking, participants made directional judgments to targets after imagined body rotations with respect to a map. Compared to the control condition, participants in the Stress condition showed increases in heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating sympathetic adrenal medulla (SAM) axis activation. Participants in the Stress condition also reported being more anxious, angry, frustrated, and irritated than participants in the Non-Stress condition. Salivary cortisol did not differ between conditions, indicating no significant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis involvement. In the VR task, memory encoding was unaffected as directional error was similar in both conditions; however, participants in the Stress condition responded more slowly, which may be due to increases in negative affect, SAM disruption in spatial memory retrieval through catecholamine release, or a combination of both factors. In the perspective taking task, participants were also slower to respond after stress, suggesting interference in the ability to adopt new spatial orientations. Additionally, sex differences were observed in that men had greater accuracy on both spatial tasks, but no significant Sex by Stress condition interactions were demonstrated.

  16. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2013-10-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity were measured at rest and in response to a psychological stress protocol comprising 5min each of a Stroop task, mirror tracing, and a speech task. Participants subsequently completed the Big Five Inventory to assess neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Those with higher neuroticism scores exhibited smaller cortisol and cardiovascular stress reactions, whereas participants who were less agreeable and less open had smaller cortisol and cardiac reactions to stress. These associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for a range of potential confounding variables. Thus, a negative personality disposition would appear to be linked to diminished stress reactivity. These findings further support a growing body of evidence which suggests that blunted stress reactivity may be maladaptive.

  17. Resilience as a correlate of acute stress disorder symptoms in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Rebecca E; Weber, Tania; Princip, Mary; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Schmid, Jean-Paul; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Myocardial infarction (MI) may be experienced as a traumatic event causing acute stress disorder (ASD). This mental disorder has an impact on the daily life of patients and is associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Trait resilience has been shown to be a protective factor for post-traumatic stress disorder, but its association with ASD in patients with MI is elusive and was examined in this study. Methods We investigated 71 consecutive patients with acute MI within 48 h of having stable haemodynamic conditions established and for 3 months thereafter. All patients completed the Acute Stress Disorder Scale and the Resilience Scale to self-rate the severity of ASD symptoms and trait resilience, respectively. Results Hierarchical regression analysis showed that greater resilience was associated with lower symptoms of ASD independent of covariates (b=−0.22, p<0.05). Post hoc analysis revealed resilience level to be inversely associated with the ASD symptom clusters of re-experiencing (b=−0.05, p<0.05) and arousal (b=−0.09, p<0.05), but not with dissociation and avoidance. Conclusions The findings suggest that patients with acute MI with higher trait resilience experience relatively fewer symptoms of ASD during MI. Resilience was particularly associated with re-experiencing and arousal symptoms. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of resilience as a potentially important correlate of ASD in the context of traumatic situations such as acute MI. These results emphasise the importance of identifying patients with low resilience in medical settings and to offer them adequate support. PMID:26568834

  18. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Translation suppression promotes stress granule formation and cell survival in response to cold shock

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Sarah; Cherkasova, Valeria; Bankhead, Peter; Bukau, Bernd; Stoecklin, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Cells respond to different types of stress by inhibition of protein synthesis and subsequent assembly of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic aggregates that contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes. Global translation is regulated through the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and the mTOR pathway. Here we identify cold shock as a novel trigger of SG assembly in yeast and mammals. Whereas cold shock–induced SGs take hours to form, they dissolve within minutes when cells are returned to optimal growth temperatures. Cold shock causes eIF2α phosphorylation through the kinase PERK in mammalian cells, yet this pathway is not alone responsible for translation arrest and SG formation. In addition, cold shock leads to reduced mitochondrial function, energy depletion, concomitant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of mTOR signaling. Compound C, a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK, prevents the formation of SGs and strongly reduces cellular survival in a translation-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that cells actively suppress protein synthesis by parallel pathways, which induce SG formation and ensure cellular survival during hypothermia. PMID:22875991

  20. Elevated Myocardial Oxygen Consumption During Cutaneous Cold Stress in Young Adult Overweight and Obese Africans

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Olatunji, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli (such as cold exposure) has been linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which in turn has been demonstrated to predict the development of future hypertension. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that enhanced change in myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) to cutaneous cold stress may be one potential mechanism that predisposes overweight/obese individuals in Africa to developing hypertension. The Rate-Pressure-Product (a non-invasive determinant of MVO2) was measured in normotensive young individuals aged between 18 and 25 years at baseline and during sympathetic activation elicited by cutaneous cold stimulation (CCS). Following CCS, there was a significant enhanced rate pressure product (RPP) change in overweight individuals (P = 0.019). Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis showed that body mass index, but not body weight had a significant influence on RPP variation following CCS. Thus, it can be concluded that normotensive overweight or obese individuals have an exaggerated RPP response to the CCS. However, exposure to cold may augment sympathetic reactivity in overweight/obese individuals, which may contribute to increased risk of developing myocardial dysfunction, even in young normotensive individuals. PMID:28299141

  1. Effects of Mycoplasma anatis and cold stress on hatching success and growth of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Thomas, C.B.; Sharp, P.

    1995-01-01

    We inoculated game-farm mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs and 1-day-old birds with Mycoplasma anatis to determine its effect on hatching success and growth rates of ducklings. Inoculations of eggs reduced hatching success, hatchling size, and duckling growth rates, compared to controls. Intratracheal inoculations of 1-day-old birds did not affect growth rates. Hatchlings and 1-day-old ducklings grew much slower for the first 7 to 10 days when raised at 17 to 19 C, compared to controls raised at 30 to 35 C. The effect of cold stress on growth was greater than the effect of M. anatis infection; we found no synergistic effects between cold stress and M. anatis infection.

  2. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey; Bloomer, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years. PMID:19144121

  3. Sleep Disturbance and Older Adults' Inflammatory Responses to Acute Stress

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Kathi L.; Ng, H. Mei; Suhr, Julie A.; France, Christopher R.; Marshall, Gailen D.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Moynihan, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Poor sleep diminishes mental and physical health. The objective of this study was to examine associations between sleep disturbance and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to acute mental stress in older adults. Design Observational study of community-dwelling, healthy older adults. Setting Participants completed the study in a clinical research laboratory of a mid-sized university. Participants Generally healthy, community-dwelling men and women 50 years of age and older. Measurements IL-6 and negative affect at rest and following a series of challenging cognitive tests; sleep quality; depressive symptoms; perceived stress; loneliness. Results Participants categorized as poor sleepers based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores had significantly larger IL-6 responses to the cognitive stressors compared to good sleepers. The association between poor sleep and heightened IL-6 response to acute stress was not explained by other psychosocial factors previously linked to immune dysregulation, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and loneliness. Conclusions Findings add to the growing evidence for poor sleep as an independent risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to effects of sleep disturbance due to significant age-related changes in both sleep and inflammatory regulation. PMID:22327621

  4. Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Comorbidity Between Acute Stress and Cocaine Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Kupchik, Yonatan; Gipson, Cassandra D; Brown, Robyn M; Spencer, Sade; Bollati, Flavia; Esparza, Maria A; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Cancela, Liliana M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining if the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate mediated synaptic currents, and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined if acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport, and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  5. Diffusion limitations and metabolic factors associated with inhibition and recovery of photosynthesis following cold stress in Elymus nutans Griseb.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juanjuan; Gates, Roger N; Xu, Yuefei; Hu, Tianming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the effects of cold stress (5°C) and re-warming (25°C) on gas exchange, photosystem II, key photosynthetic enzyme activities, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolite concentrations in two Elymus nutans genotypes differing in cold resistance (DX, cold-tolerant and ZD, cold-sensitive). Cold stress led to irreversible reductions in photosynthetic rate. This reduction was accompanied by declining stomatal and mesophyll conductance (gs and gm), transpiration rate (Tr) and photochemical efficiency in both genotypes, however there were smaller decreases in DX than in ZD. Cold-tolerant DX maintained higher photosynthetic enzyme activities and transcript levels, as well as higher reducing sugar concentrations and sucrose accumulation. The relationship between Pn and internal leaf CO2 concentration (Pn/Ci curve) during cold and re-warming was analyzed to estimate the relative influence of stomatal and non-stomatal components on photosynthesis. Stomatal limitation, non-stomatal limitation, and CO2 compensation point (CP) increased in both genotypes under cold stress, but to a lesser extent in DX. Maximum CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) declined, but DX had significantly higher levels of Pmax and CE than ZD. Following cold-stress recovery, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), apparent electron transport rate (ETR), Rubisco activity, Rubisco activation state and CE in DX resumed to the control levels. In contrast, Pn, Pmax, gs, gm, and Tr recovered only partially for DX, suggesting that incomplete recovery of photosynthesis in DX may be mainly related to diffusion limitations. Higher Rubisco large subunit (RbcL) and Rubisco activase (RCA) transcript levels, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, and carbohydrate accumulation contributed to higher photosynthetic recovery in DX. These results indicate that the maintenance of higher Pn and Pmax under cold stress and recovery in cold-tolerant DX could be

  6. [Effect of training on treadmill performance, aerobic capacity and body reactions to acute cold exposure].

    PubMed

    Iakushkin, A V; Akimov, E B; Andreev, R S; Kalenov, Iu N; Kozlov, A V; Kuznetsova, O V; Son'kin, V D

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to test the hypothesis that regular physical activity at the anaerobic threshold is able to stimulate an increase in the amount of body fat brown or beige, which can manifest itself in increasing lactate utilization during exercise and increase the reactivity in response to acute regional cooling. The methods used are: ramp test, regional acute cold exposure, measurement of gas exchange, lactate and glucose in the blood, heart rate, and heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during standard functional tests; infrared thermal imaging, statistical methods of results analysis. Workout 10 physically active volunteers (7 males and 3 females) on a treadmill at a speed corresponding to 75-80% of the persona VO2max for 30 minutes 3 times per week at a fixed ambient temperature 21-22°C for 6 weeks resulted in a significant (from 19 to 39%) increase in test work duration but VO2max on average changed little. The increase in power of anaerobic threshold was associated with a sharp slowdown in the accumulation of lactate in progress of ramp test. Lactate utilization rate during the recovery period, on the contrary, increased. In general, significantly increased work efficiency at a test load. Not revealed noticeable changes in the condition and response to a standard functional tests of autonomic systems, as judged by heart rate variability, blood pressure and respiration variability at rest and during orthostatic tests and imposed breathing rhythm. The functional response of the body to acute cold exposure (1 minute cooling of the feet in ice water) is not changed after a cycle of training--either in terms of metabolism (oxygen consumption, etc.), or the dynamics of the skin temperature in areas of most probable location of brown adipose tissue (BAT). These data do not confirm the previously expressed (2010) hypothesis about the function of BAT as a universal homeostatic instrument in the body. Probably, if under

  7. Cold-stress-induced modulation of antioxidant defence: role of stressed conditions in tissue injury followed by protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, E.; Gümüşlü, S.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of cold stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and examine protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in various tissues (brain, liver, kidney, heart and stomach). Twenty male Wistar rats (3 months old) weighing 220 +/- 20 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two groups of ten: the control group and the cold stress group. Cold stress was applied to the animals by maintaining them in a cold room (5 °C) for 15 min/day for 15 days. Blood samples were taken for measuring plasma corticosterone levels. Tissues were obtained from each rat for measuring the antioxidant enzyme activities, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Corticosterone levels were increased in the cold stress group. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the brains, livers and kidneys, whereas they decreased in the hearts and stomachs of rats in the cold stress group. Catalase activities were increased in the brains, livers, kidneys and hearts, whereas they decreased in the stomachs of rats in the cold stress group. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities were increased in the brain, liver, heart and stomach. Reduced glutathione levels were decreased, while levels of protein carbonyl, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased in all tissues of the cold stress group. These results lead us to conclude that cold stress can disrupt the balance in an oxidant/antioxidant system and cause oxidative damage to several tissues by altering the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation.

  8. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    PubMed

    Chowański, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  9. Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes and their association with cold and freezing stress in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2014-10-15

    Flavonoids including anthocyanins provide flower and leaf colors, as well as other derivatives that play diverse roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is part of an important step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins. This study characterized 12 DFR genes of Brassica rapa and investigated their association with anthocyanin coloration, as well as cold and freezing stress in several genotypes of B. rapa. Comparison of sequences of these genes with DFR gene sequences from other species revealed a high degree of homology. Constitutive expression of the genes in several pigmented and non-pigmented lines of B. rapa demonstrated correlation with anthocyanin accumulation for BrDFR8 and 9. Conversely, BrDFR2, 4, 8 and 9 only showed very high responses to cold stress in pigmented B. rapa samples. BrDFR1, 3, 5, 6 and 10 responded to cold and freezing stress treatments, regardless of pigmentation. BrDFRs were also shown to be regulated by two transcription factors, BrMYB2-2 and BrTT8, contrasting with anthocyanin accumulation and cold and freezing stress. Thus, the above results suggest that these genes are associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and cold and freezing stress tolerance and might be useful resources for development of cold and/or freezing stress resistant Brassica crops with desirable colors as well. These findings may also facilitate exploration of the molecular mechanism that regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and its response to abiotic stresses.

  10. Acute hypertension induces oxidative stress in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Roberta; Gentile, Maria T; Vecchione, Carmine; Distaso, Maria; Aretini, Alessandra; Fratta, Luigi; Russo, Giovanni; Echart, Cinara; Maffei, Angelo; De Simoni, Maria G; Lembo, Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Arterial hypertension is not only a major risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents, such as stroke and cerebral hemorrhage, but is also associated to milder forms of brain injury. One of the main causes of neurodegeneration is the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is also a common trait of hypertensive conditions, thus suggesting that such a mechanism could play a role even in the onset of hypertension-evoked brain injury. To investigate this issue, we have explored the effect of acute-induced hypertensive conditions on cerebral oxidative stress. To this aim, we have developed a mouse model of transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) between the two carotid arteries, which imposes acutely on the right brain hemisphere a dramatic increase in blood pressure. Our results show that hypertension acutely induced by aortic coarctation induces a breaking of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reactive astrocytosis through hyperperfusion, and evokes trigger factors of neurodegeneration such as oxidative stress and inflammation, similar to that observed in cerebral hypoperfusion. Moreover, the derived brain injury is mainly localized in selected brain areas controlling cognitive functions, such as the cortex and hippocampus, and could be a consequence of a defect in the BBB permeability. It is noteworthy to emphasize that, even if these latter events are not enough to produce ischemic/hemorrhagic injury, they are able to alter mechanisms fundamental for maintaining normal brain function, such as protein synthesis, which has a prominent role for memory formation and cortical plasticity.

  11. Quenching and Cold-Work Residual Stresses in Aluminum Hand Forgings : Contour Method Measurement and FEM Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, M. B.; Newborn, M. A.; Balog, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings does not fully relieve the stresses. This study measured and predicted the residual stress in 7050-T74 (solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially overaged) and 7050-T7452 (cold compressed prior to aging) hand forgings. The manufacturing process was simulated by finite element analysis. First, a thermal analysis simulated the quench using appropriate thermal boundary conditions and temperature dependent material properties. Second, a structural analysis used the thermal history and a temperature and strain-rate dependent constitutive model to predict the stresses after quenching. Third, the structural analysis was continued to simulate the multiple cold compressions of the stress relief process. Experimentally, the residual stresses in the forgings were mapped using the contour method, which involved cutting the forgings using wire EDM and then measuring the contour of the cut surface using a CMM. Multiple cuts were used to map different stress components. The results show a spatially periodic variation of stresses that results from the periodic nature of the cold work stress relief process. The results compare favorably with the finite element prediction of the stresses.

  12. Preconditioning stress prevents cold restraint stress-induced gastric lesions in rats: roles of COX-1, COX-2, and PLA2.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hatazawa, Ryo; Takahira, Yuka; Izumi, Nahoko; Filaretova, Ludmila; Takeuchi, Koji

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the protective effect of mild stress on gastric lesions induced by cold-restraint stress, especially concerning prostaglandins (PGs)/cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isozymes. Rats were exposed to severe stress (cold-restraint stress at 10 degrees C for 6 hr) or mild stress (cold-restraint stress at 10 degrees C for 30 min and kept at room temperature for 60 min) followed by severe stress. Severe stress induced gastric lesions, with a concomitant decrease in body temperature (BT). The ulcerogenic response was inhibited by atropine but worsened by indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib, although none of these agents had any effect on the change in BT. Mild stress suppressed the gastric ulceration and the decrease in BT induced by severe stress, and these effects were reversed by both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. The expression of COX-2 in the stomach was up-regulated from 4 hr after severe stress and this response was slightly expedited by mild stress. COX-2 was also expressed in the hypothalamus under normal and stressed conditions. Quinacrine (phospholipase A(2) inhibitor) attenuated the protective effect of mild stress on the ulceration and decrease in BT caused by severe stress. TA-0910 (TRH analogue) at a low dose also prevented the gastric ulceration and the decrease in BT induced by severe stress. These results suggest that mild stress protects against cold-restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration, and the effect is peripherally and centrally mediated by PGs derived from both COX-1 and COX-2 through the activation of phospholipase A(2). TRH may also be involved in the protective effect of mild stress, probably through regulation of the thermogenic system.

  13. Time kinetics of the endocrine response to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Richter, S D; Schürmeyer, T H; Schedlowski, M; Hädicke, A; Tewes, U; Schmidt, R E; Wagner, T O

    1996-05-01

    A first-time parachute jump was chosen as a model to evaluate the endocrine response to acute psychological stress. In 43 inexperienced tandem parachutists, blood was drawn continuously from 2 h before to 1 h after the jump and analyzed at 10-min intervals for plasma concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, GH, PRL, and TSH. In addition, heart rate was recorded throughout the experiment. There was a significant increase in heart rate and E concentrations during the jump itself. NE, cortisol, GH, PRL, and TSH peaked with a latency of 10-20 min. Apart from cortisol and TSH concentrations, which were still elevated 1 h after the stress event, plasma levels of the other endocrine variables normalized within 1 h following the jump. Statistically significant cross-correlations could be observed between E and NE (r = 0.60, no time lag) and between E and PRL (r = 0.58, 10-min time lag) only. Even in a very homogenous group of subjects and under well-controlled conditions, endocrine responses to acute psychological stress show considerable variations.

  14. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  15. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  16. Cold-Pressor Stress After Learning Enhances Familiarity-Based Recognition Memory in Men

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-hour and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event. PMID:23823181

  17. Cold-pressor stress after learning enhances familiarity-based recognition memory in men.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-h and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event.

  18. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  19. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  20. [Effect of mexicor on oxidative stress in acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Golikov, A P; Davydov, B V; Rudnev, D V; Klychnikova, E V; Bykova, N S; Riabinin, V A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Nikolaeva, N Iu; Golikov, P P

    2005-01-01

    Mexicor (5% solution and capsules) was used in 40 of 80 conventionally treated patients with acute myocardial infarction. The drug was given intravenously for 5 days, than intramuscularly (6-9 mg/kg) for 9 days and orally (0.1 mg t.i.d.) thereafter until discharge. Severity of oxidative stress was evaluated by K coefficient. Calculation of this coefficient required data on degree of oxidation of lipids in blood serum, serum levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin. These parameters as well as activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in erythrocytes were measured at admission, on days 2, 3, 7, 14 and at discharge. Mexicor treated compared with untreated (n=40) patients were characterized by diminished severity of oxidative stress at the account of lower levels of lipid peroxidation products and augmented compensatory potential of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  2. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106; intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions. PMID:25422634

  3. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    PubMed

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  4. Cross-tolerance and cross-talk in the cold: relating low temperatures to desiccation and immune stress in insects.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Ferguson, Laura V; Salehipour-shirazi, Golnaz; MacMillan, Heath A

    2013-10-01

    Multiple stressors, both abiotic and biotic, often are experienced simultaneously by organisms in nature. Responses to these stressors may share signaling pathways ("cross-talk") or protective mechanisms ("cross-tolerance"). Temperate and polar insects that must survive the winter experience low temperatures accompanied by additional abiotic stressors, such as low availability of water. Cold and desiccation have many similar effects at a cellular level, and we present evidence that the cellular mechanisms that protect against cold stress also protect against desiccation, and that the responses to cold and dehydration likely evolved as cross-tolerance. By contrast, there are several lines of evidence suggesting that low temperature stress elicits an upregulation of immune responses in insects (and vice versa). Because there is little mechanistic overlap between cold stress and immune stress at the cellular level, we suggest that this is cross-talk. Both cross-talk and cross-tolerance may be adaptive and likely evolved in response to synchronous stressors; however, we suggest that cross-talk and cross-tolerance may lead to different responses to changes in the timing and severity of multiple stress interactions in a changing world. We present a framework describing the potentially different responses of cross-tolerance and cross-talk to a changing environment and describe the nature of these impacts using interaction of cold-desiccation and cold-immunity in overwintering insects as an example.

  5. Putrescine as a signal to modulate the indispensable ABA increase under cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Juan C; López-Cobollo, Rosa; Alcázar, Rubén; Zarza, Xavier; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Salinas, Julio; Tiburcio, Antonio F

    2009-01-01

    Polyamines have been found to correlate frequently with biotic and abiotic insults, and their functional involvement in the plant responses to several stresses has been shown genetically with both gain and loss of function mutations. In spite of a large body of physiological and genetic data, the mode of action for polyamines at the molecular level still remains elusive. We have recently performed a detailed integrated analysis of polyamine metabolism under cold stress by means of metabolic studies, quantitative gene expression analyses, and gene inactivations, to characterize in more detail the role of polyamines in response to low temperature. Our data show a unique accumulation profile for putrescine compared to other polyamines, with a progressive increase upon cold stress treatment coincident with a similar transcriptional upregulation for the two arginine decarboxylase genes ADC1 and ADC2. Loss of function mutants adc1 and adc2 display reduced freezing tolerance and alterations in ABA content and ABA-dependent signalling pathways under low temperature, compared to wild type plants. Phenotypical reverse complementation tests for both adc and ABA-defective mutants support our conclusion that putrescine modulates ABA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level in response to low temperature thus uncovering a novel mode of action for polyamines as regulators of hormone biosynthesis. PMID:19721755

  6. Effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and cold stress on neutrophil function of bovine neonates.

    PubMed

    Woodard, L F; Eckblad, W P; Olson, D P; Bull, R C; Everson, D O

    1980-08-01

    The effects of maternal protein or calorie deprivation (or both) on the bactericidal activity of neutrophils and sera from newborn calves subjected to cold stress were studied. Nutritional deficiencies in the dam had little effect on in vitro bactericidal activity of neutrophils and base-line sera taken at birth. Neutrophils obtained at birth destroyed Staphylococcus aureus but not Escherichia coli when incubated with either unheated or heated autologous base-line sera. Heat treatment of base-line sera to inactivate complement did not alter bacterial growth. When incubated in the presence of autologous base-line sera, neutrophils from 3-day-old calves were no more active in the destruction of either bacterium than were neutrophils from newborn calves. However, addition of day 3 (immunoglobulin-containing) sera enabled day 3 neutrophils to destroy E coli (P < 0.0001). The increased destruction of E coli by day 3 neutrophils and day 3 sera was not affected by heat treatment of the sera. Maternal protein deficiency significantly increased (P < 0.05) destruction of E coli by day 3 neutrophils and sera. This effect was independent of energy levels. There were no differences observed in the bactericidal activity of neutrophils and sera taken from calves exposed to 1 C or 21 C environmental chambers for 3 days. Also, cold stress-nutritional stress interactions were not detected.

  7. Effect of acute cold exposure and insulin hypoglycemia on plasma thyrotropin levels by IRMA in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Martino, E; Bukovská, M; Langer, P

    1988-12-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) levels in plasma were estimated with the aid of immunoradiometric assay in two groups of healthy male subjects aged 21-22 years in two experiments: 1. acute (30 min) exposure to 4 degrees C in a cold room; 2. insulin (0.01 U per kg i.v.) hypoglycemia at room temperature and at 55 degrees C. Immediately after cold exposure a decrease of TSH level was found (P less than 0.01), while no changes were observed during 30 min exposure. After insulin injection a significant decrease (P less than 0.05 to less than 0.001) of TSH level was found at 45 to 120 min irrespectively of the ambient temperature. In addition, increased levels of noradrenaline and decreased levels of growth hormone after cold exposure are presented.

  8. Comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses provide integrated insight into osmotic, cold, and salt stress tolerance mechanisms in banana

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Juhua; Wang, Jiashui; Peng, Ming; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    The growth, development, and production of banana plants are constrained by multiple abiotic stressors. However, it remains elusive for the tolerance mechanisms of banana responding to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, we found that Fen Jiao (FJ) was more tolerant to osmotic, cold, and salt stresses than BaXi Jiao (BX) by phenotypic and physiological analyses. Comparative transcriptomic analyses highlighted stress tolerance genes that either specifically regulated in FJ or changed more than twofold in FJ relative to BX after treatments. In total, 933, 1644, and 133 stress tolerance genes were identified after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, respectively. Further integrated analyses found that 30 tolerance genes, including transcription factor, heat shock protein, and E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, could be commonly regulated by osmotic, cold, and salt stresses. Finally, ABA and ROS signaling networks were found to be more active in FJ than in BX under osmotic, cold, and salt treatments, which may contribute to the strong stress tolerances of FJ. Together, this study provides new insights into the tolerance mechanism of banana responding to multiple stresses, thus leading to potential applications in the genetic improvement of multiple abiotic stress tolerances in banana. PMID:28223714

  9. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP) and late stages (20-30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as "core cold-inducible" transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression

  10. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Somya; Raxwal, Vivek K.; Joshi, Bharat; Jagannath, Arun; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Goel, Shailendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h) or long (12 h) durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina's NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133,641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13,342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering along with Spearman correlation analysis identified that the differentially expressed genes segregated in two major clusters representing early (5–15 DAP) and late stages (20–30 DAP) of silique development. Further analysis led to the discovery of sub-clusters having similar patterns of gene expression. Two of the sub-clusters (one each from the early and late stages) comprised of genes that were inducible by both the durations of cold stress. Comparison of transcripts from these clusters led to identification of 283 transcripts that were commonly induced by cold stress, and were referred to as “core cold-inducible” transcripts. Additionally, we found that 689 and 100 transcripts were specifically up-regulated by cold stress in early and late stages, respectively. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs), transcription regulators (TRs) and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases only during early silique development. We validated the digital gene

  11. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  12. Intermittent whole-body cold immersion induces similar thermal stress but different motor and cognitive responses between males and females.

    PubMed

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Mickevičienė, Dalia; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the thermal responses and the responses of cognitive and motor functions to intermittent cold stress between males and females. The intermittent cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5°C or for a maximum of 170 min. Thermal response and motor and cognitive performance were monitored. During intermittent cold stress, body temperature variables decreased in all subjects (P < 0.001) and did not differ between sexes. The presence of fast and slow cooling types for participants with similar effect on physiological variables were observed; thus the different rate coolers were grouped together and were attributed only sex specific responses. Overall, TRE cooling rate and cold strain index did not differ between sexes. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) decreased after intermittent cold exposure only in males (P < 0.001), whereas changes in muscle electromyography (EMG) activity did not differ between sexes. The effects of intermittent cold stress on electrically evoked muscle properties, spinal (H-reflex), and supraspinal (V-waves) reflexes did not differ between sexes. Intermittent cold-induced cognitive perturbation of attention and memory task performance was greater in males (P < 0.05). Contrary to our expectations, the results of the present study indicated that males and females experience similar thermal stress induced by intermittent whole-body cold immersion. Although no sex-specific differences were observed in muscle EMG activity, involuntary muscle properties, spinal and supraspinal reflexes, some of the sex differences observed (e.g., lower isometric MVC and greater cognitive perturbation in males) support the view of sex-specific physiological responses to core temperature decrease.

  13. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    PubMed

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest.

  14. Stress-induced microcracking and cooperative motion of cold dusty plasma liquids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; I, Lin

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the microresponse of the quasi-two-dimensional dusty plasma liquid around freezing to the shear force from a laser beam through the center of the liquid cluster. It is found that the cold liquid can be viewed as a patchwork of crystalline ordered domains (CODs) which are solidlike but can be cracked and rearranged by weak thermal agitation and external stress, through COD rotations and drifting. Under weak external stress comparable to thermal agitation, the laser zone is not the preferred region mastering cracking initiation. CODs in the laser zone can either break locally, or sustain and propagate the stress to remote regions for cracking, in the form of intermittent bursts. The COD rotation and drifting induced by the persistent torques and momentum from the stress causes the formation of the center shear band with a higher longitudinal speed. Increasing stress can enhance cracking initiation around the shear zone and then spread to other remote regions. It deteriorates the local structural order and causes strong shear banding dominated by longitudinal cooperative hopping.

  15. TRPM8 in the negative regulation of TNFα expression during cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Pei; Yu, Xuan; Yan, Xiao-Jin; Lei, Fan; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-8 (TRPM8) reportedly plays a fundamental role in a variety of processes including cold sensation, thermoregulation, pain transduction and tumorigenesis. However, the role of TRPM8 in inflammation under cold conditions is not well known. Since cooling allows the convergence of primary injury and injury-induced inflammation, we hypothesized that the mechanism of the protective effects of cooling might be related to TRPM8. We therefore investigated the involvement of TRPM8 activation in the regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The results showed that TRPM8 expression in the mouse hypothalamus was upregulated when the ambient temperature decreased; simultaneously, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) was downregulated. The inhibitory effect of TRPM8 on TNFα was mediated by nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). Specifically, cold stress stimulated the expression of TRPM8, which promoted the interaction of TRPM8 and NFκB, thereby suppressing NFκB nuclear localization. This suppression consequently led to the inhibition of TNFα gene transcription. The present data suggest a possible theoretical foundation for the anti-inflammatory role of TRPM8 activation, providing an experimental basis that could contribute to the advancement of cooling therapy for trauma patients. PMID:28332601

  16. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species.

  17. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J.; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species. PMID:26855864

  18. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  19. Anti-oxidative responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) gill, liver and brain tissues upon acute cold shock.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su Mei; Liu, Jia-Hao; Shu, Li-Hsin; Chen, Ching Hsein

    2015-09-01

    The present study seeks to detect oxidative damage and to compare anti-oxidative responses among liver, gills and brain of adult zebrafish that were cooled from 28 °C (control) to 12 °C (treatment) for 0-24 h. The lipid peroxidation of liver, gill and brain tissues significantly increased at 1h after transfer, but reactive oxygen species in the treatment group increased significantly after 24 h as compared to the control. The fish were found to develop a cascading anti-oxidative mechanism beginning with an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD levels, followed by increased CAT and GPx mRNA expressions in the three tissue types. Both smtB and mt2 mRNAs increased in the hepatic and brain tissues following 1h of cold stress, but only smtB exhibited a significant increase in the gills at 1 h and 6 h after transfer to 12 °C. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis in the brain was not evident after cold shock, but liver and gills showed cellular apoptosis at 1-3 h, with another peak in the liver at 6 h after cold shock. The results suggest that the cold shock induced oxidative stress, and the enzymatic (SOD, GPx and CAT) and non-enzymatic (mt-2 and smt-B) mRNA expressions all play a role in the resulting anti-oxidation within 1-6 h of cold shock. A functional comparison showed that the brain had the most powerful antioxidant defense system of the three tissue types since it had the highest smtB mRNA expression and a lower level of cell apoptosis than the liver and gills after exposure to cold stress.

  20. Energy budget, oxidative stress and antioxidant in striped hamster acclimated to moderate cold and warm temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Xin; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wang, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2014-08-01

    The mechanism of the rate of living-free radical theory suggests that higher rate of oxidative metabolism results from greater rate of mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation, leading to a consequent increase in production of free radicals. However, the relation between metabolic rate and oxidative stress is tissue dependent in animals acclimated to cold temperatures. Here we examined oxidative stress, reflected by changes of antioxidant activity and other related markers, in striped hamsters acclimated to moderate cold (15°C), room (23°C) or warm temperature (30°C) for 6 weeks, by which either higher or lower metabolic rate was induced experimentally. Energy intake and the rate of metabolism and nonshivering thermogenesis were increased at 15°C, but decreased at 30°C compared with that at 23°C. Effects of temperatures on the markers of both oxidative stress and antioxidant activities were rarely significant. The percentages of positive correlation between the 11 tissues (brain, BAT, liver, heart, lung, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, caecum and skeletal muscle) were 14.5% (8/55) for catalase (CAT), 7.3% (4/55) for the capacity of inhibition of hydroxyl free radical (CIH), 5.5% (3/55) for activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1.8% (1/55) for total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), 4.3% (2/46) for H2O2 and 11.1% (4/36) for the capacity of inhibition of hydroxyl free radical (CIH). This indicated that the tissue-dependent changes of both oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were less consistent among the different tissues. Finally the data from this study were less consistent with the prediction of the mechanism of the rate of living-free radical theory.

  1. Effect of cold ambient temperature on palmar sweating response to vibration stress.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hideo; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Matoba, Tsunetaka

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the effect of cold ambient temperature on the palmar sweating response to vibration stress. Ten healthy, male subjects were exposed to eight ambient temperatures (5, 7, 10, 14, 18, 22, 24 and 28 degrees C). At each ambient temperature, each subject gripped the handle of a vibration generator with his left hand with a grasp strength of 49 N. This hand was then exposed to a 125-Hz sinusoidal vibration with an acceleration of 50 m/s(2) (rms) for 3 min at each ambient temperature. Palmar sweating and skin temperature were measured simultaneously on the palm and the fourth finger, respectively, of the subjects' right palm. The palmar sweating response showed a significant change among eight ambient temperatures. The palmar sweating measured at an ambient temperature of 5 degrees C was found to be significantly larger than those measured at 10, 14, 18, 22, 24 and 28 degrees C. Vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the palmar sweating response. Our results suggest that a cold environment plays a significant role in the palmar sweating response to vibration stress.

  2. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals.

  3. Traumatic Memories in Acute Stress Disorder: An Analysis of Narratives before and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative reactions in acute stress disorder purportedly impede encoding and organization of traumatic memories and consequently impair the individual's ability to retrieve trauma-related details. A qualitative examination was conducted on trauma narratives of individuals with acute stress disorder (N = 15) prior to cognitive behavior…

  4. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and…

  5. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  6. Effect of acute stress on auditory processing: a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Stress is an integral part of modern life. Although there is a large body of literature regarding the harmful effects of chronic stress on different aspects of human life, acute stress is the most common form of stress, resulting from the demands and pressures of the recent past and the anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. In spite of its pervasive nature, less attention has been paid to the impact of acute stress on sensory processing than to the consequences of chronic stress, particularly concerning auditory processing. In this systematic review, the impact of experimental acute stress on the auditory processing of healthy adults was investigated. The results revealed the adverse effects of acute physical and psychological stresses on auditory processing. According to the open field of research on stress and the auditory system and the high possibility of experiencing different types of acute stresses in various life environments, including testing places, it seems that more investigations are needed to identify and manage different types of acute stresses in both clinical and research situations.

  7. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana

    PubMed Central

    Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress. PMID:28253309

  8. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  9. Mimicking acute and chronic stress exposure in naive beef steers alters the acute phase response (APR) associated with vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of an acute versus chronic stress model on the APR associated with vaccination in naïve beef steers. Steers (n=32; 209 +/- 8 kg) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) Chronic stress (CHR), 0.5 mg/kg body weight dexamethasone...

  10. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Xu, Yunyuan; Huan, Qing; Chong, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species. PMID:19772667

  11. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on isolated islets' insulin release.

    PubMed

    Zardooz, Homeira; Zahediasl, Saleh; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Farrokhi, Babak; Nasiraei, Shiva; Kazeminezhad, Behrang; Gholampour, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control and stressed groups; each further was allocated into fed and fasted groups. Stress was induced by communication box for one (acute), fifteen and thirty (chronic) days. After islet isolation, their number, size and insulin output were assessed. Plasma corticosterone level was determined. In fasted animals, acute stress increased basal and post stress plasma corticosterone level, while 30 days stress decreased it compared to day 1. In fed rats, acute stress increased only post stress plasma corticosterone concentration, however, after 15 days stress, it was decreased compared to day 1. Acute stress did not change insulin output; however, the insulin output was higher in the fed acutely stressed rats at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose than fasted ones. Chronic stress increased insulin output on day 15 in the fasted animals but decreased it on day 30 in the fed animals at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose. In the fasted control rats insulin output was lower than fed ones. In the chronic stressed rats insulin output at 8.3 and 16.7 mM glucose was higher in the fasted than fed rats. The number of islets increased in the fasted rats following 15 days stress. This study indicated that the response of the isolated islets from acute and chronically stressed rats are different and depends on the feeding status.

  12. Acute exposure to cold rapidly increases the number of nucleotide binding sites, but not proton conductance, in BAT mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Studies on the effect of acute cold exposure of rats on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity have produced equivocal results. Therefore, the authors have reexamined the response of BAT mitochondria to abrupt changes in environmental temperature. /sup 3/H-GDP binding to BAT mitochondria increased more than 2-fold in 20 min when rats were moved from 27/sup 0/C to 4/sup 0/C. When rats housed at 4/sup 0/C for 2 h were returned to 27/sup 0/C, GDP binding decreased sharply in 20 min and returned to control levels in 2 h. On the other hand, GDP-inhibitable proton conductance, as measured by passive swelling in isotonic K-acetate of KCl buffers, was unaffected by brief cold exposure but more than doubled in rats kept at 4/sup 0/C for 10 days. The authors conclude that GDP-inhibitable swelling may be more indicative of uncoupling protein concentration whereas thermogenic activity is more appropriately indicated by GDP binding. GDP binding to BAT mitochondria from warm and acutely cold treated rats was not altered by prior swelling of the mitochondria nor by freeze-thawing the mitochondria before assay. Therefore, alterations of the number of GDP binding sites may not be a result of conformational changes of the mitochondril membrane.

  13. Computer Models of Stress, Allostasis, and Acute and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The past century has seen a profound shift in diseases of humankind. Acute, unifactorial diseases are being replaced increasingly by multifactorial disorders that arise from complex interactions among genes, environment, concurrent morbidities and treatments, and time. According to the concept of allostasis, there is no single, ideal set of steady-state conditions in life. Allostasis reflects active, adaptive processes that maintain apparent steady states, via multiple, interacting effectors regulated by homeostatic comparators “homeostats.” Stress can be defined as a condition or state in which a sensed discrepancy between afferent information and a setpoint for response leads to activation of effectors, reducing the discrepancy. “Allostatic load” refers to the consequences of sustained or repeated activation of mediators of allostasis. From the analogy of a home temperature control system, the temperature can be maintained at any of a variety of levels (allostatic states) by multiple means (effectors), regulated by a comparator thermostat (homeostat). Stress might exert adverse health consequences via allostatic load. This presentation describes models of homeostatic systems that incorporate negative feedback regulation, multiple effectors, effector sharing, environmental influences, intrinsic obsolescence, and destabilizing positive feedback loops. These models can be used to predict effects of environmental and genetic alterations on allostatic load and therefore on the development of multi-system disorders and failures. PMID:19120114

  14. Effect of prolonged nicotine infusion on response of rat catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes to restraint and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Yuan; Glazkova, Dina; Serova, Lidia; Sabban, Esther L

    2005-11-01

    There is a paradoxical relationship between nicotine and stress. To help elucidate their relationship on catecholamine biosynthesis, rats were infused with nicotine for 7-14 days before exposure to cold or restraint stress. Nicotine (5 mg/kg/day, 14 days) did not alter basal plasma corticosterone or its elevation with 24 h cold stress, but prevented corticosterone elevation following 2 h restraint stress. In adrenal medulla (AM), response of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), but not tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA, to both stressors was attenuated in nicotine-infused rats. In locus coeruleus (LC), restraint stress elevated TH and DBH mRNA in saline-, but not in nicotine-infused rats. Cold stress triggered a similar response of TH and DBH mRNAs in LC with and without nicotine infusion. With shorter nicotine infusion (8 mg/kg/day, 7 days), TH mRNA in AM was not induced by restraint stress on one (1x) or two (2x) consecutive days nor was DBH mRNA in AM or LC by 2x. The findings demonstrate that constant release of nicotine can modulate, or even prevent, some stress responses at the level of the HPA axis and gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in LC and AM.

  15. Effect of cold stress on broilers selected for resistance or susceptibility to ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Balog, J M; Kidd, B D; Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Anthony, N B

    2003-09-01

    Genetic selection for an ascites-resistant line of broilers is seen as a permanent solution to the ascites problem. Ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible lines have been developed using sire family selection based on mortality data taken from siblings reared in a hypobaric chamber (simulated 2,900 m above sea level). The relaxed line is representative of the original commercial pureline stock randomly mated with no artificial selection pressure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences between the lines when reared in floor pens and subjected to an ascites-inducing cold stress. Seven hundred eighty three straight run broilers were reared in floor pens at local elevation (390 m above sea level). Feed and water were available ad libitum. Birds were brooded at 32 C during the first week. The second week birds were maintained at 30 degrees C. Cold stress was applied for the remaining 4 wk at 14 degrees C. Mortalities were necropsied daily to determine cause of death. Birds and feed were weighed weekly. At 6 wk, five birds per pen were bled, and half the survivors in each pen (8 to 15 birds) were killed, necropsied, and scored for ascites. Blood gases, clinical chemistries, and blood cell counts were taken. Liver, spleen, split heart, and lung weights were recorded. Body weights were not different among the resistant, susceptible, and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Feed conversion was better in the resistant line when compared to the susceptible and relaxed lines (P < 0.05). Ascites incidence, as measured by mortality and lesion score at necropsy, was higher in the susceptible and relaxed lines when compared to the resistant line; 18.8, 12.7, and 1.6% respectively (P < 0.001). Susceptible and relaxed lines showed more right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with the resistant line (P < 0.05). The results show that under severe cold stress at local altitude (390 m above sea level), the ascites-resistant line was growing as rapidly as the other

  16. Ptcorp gene induced by cold stress was identified by proteomic analysis in leaves of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

    PubMed

    Long, Guiyou; Song, Jinyu; Deng, Ziniu; Liu, Jie; Rao, Liqun

    2012-05-01

    A proteomic approach was employed to investigate the cold stress-responsive proteins in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.), which is a well-known cold tolerant citrus relative and widely used as rootstock in China. Two-year-old potted seedlings were exposed to freezing temperature (-6°C) for 50 min (nonlethal) and 80 min (lethal), and the total proteins were isolated from leaves of the treated plants. Nine differentially accumulated proteins over 2-fold changes in abundance were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, a resistance protein induced by the nonlethal cold treatment (protein spot #2 from P. trifoliata) was selected as target sequence for degenerated primer design. By using the designed primers, a PCR product of about 700 bp size was amplified from P. trifoliata genomic DNA, which was further cloned and sequenced. A nucleotide sequence of 676 bp was obtained and named Ptcorp. Blast retrieval showed that Ptcorp shared 88% homology with an EST of cold acclimated Bluecrop (Vaccinium corymbosum) library (Accession number: CF811080), indicating that Ptcorp had association with cold acclimation. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Ptcorp gene was up-regulated by cold stress which was consistent with the former result of protein expression profile. As the resistance protein (NBS-LRR disease resistance protein family) gene was up-regulated by cold stress in trifoliate orange and satsuma mandarin, it may imply that NBS-LRR genes might be associated with cold resistance in citrus.

  17. Lower electrodermal activity to acute stress in caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder: an adaptive habituation to stress.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between parents of people with (n = 30) and without (n = 34) ASD (caregivers and non-caregivers, respectively). Caregivers showed lower EDA in response to acute stress than non-caregivers. They also presented higher trait anxiety, anger, depression, and somatic symptoms than non-caregivers. Higher EDA was related to a worse mood and more severe somatic symptoms only in caregivers. These results could reflect an adaptive habituation to stress and establish that high EDA in response to acute stress depends on caregivers' health.

  18. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Bean Histone Deacetylase 6 during Development and Cold Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Ligaba-Osena, Ayalew; Subramani, Mayavan; Brown, Adrianne; Melmaiee, Kalpalatha; Hossain, Khwaja

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important regulators of gene transcription thus controlling multiple cellular processes. Despite its essential role in plants, HDA6 is yet to be validated in common bean. In this study, we show that HDA6 is involved in plant development and stress response. Differential expression of HDA6 was determined in various tissues and the expression was seen to be upregulated with plant age (seedling < flowering < maturity). Higher expression was observed in flowers and pods than in stem, leaf, and root. Upregulation of HDA6 gene during cold stress implies its prominent role in abiotic stress. Furthermore, the HDA6 gene was isolated from three common bean genotypes and sequence analyses revealed homology with functionally characterized homologs in model species. The 53 kDa translated product was detected using an HDA6 specific antibody and recombinant protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli showed HDAC activity in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the agriculturally important crop common bean describing the functional characterization and biological role of HDA6. PMID:28127547

  19. Physio-biochemical and proteome analysis of chickpea in early phases of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Heidarvand, Leila; Maali-Amiri, Reza

    2013-03-15

    Intensive and short-term strategies can aid in more rapid screening with informative and reliable results for long-term investigations under cold stress (CS). The integration of cellular analysis of chickpea during 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12h CS supplied us with novel possible responsive components and the possible interactions embedded inside, still remaining a Maze. Seedlings showed a biphasic pattern of responses over time. The transitory phase happened after 8h, when cells are presumably experiencing a new stage of responses and setting the stage for long-term adjustments. Physio-biochemical analysis confirmed the direct effect of fatty acids composition, lipoxygenase activity and antioxidant systems in cell responses under CS. Also, proteome results using MALDI-TOF-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS were able to differentiate changes in early phases of CS. Two-dimensional gel analysis results showed the possible targets of CS as mitochondria, chloroplast, organelle-nucleus communications, storage resources, stress and defense, protein degradation and signal transduction that confirmed the cell intended to re-establish a new homeostasis, in energy and primary metabolites to adapt to long-term CS. Here we propose a time course dynamic assessing multi-dimensional approaches for CS studies as one of the first studies in short-term treatment to progressively fill in the gaps between physio-biochemical and molecular events and touch the cell architecture for a better comprehension of the nature of plant stress response.

  20. Cold and drought stress in combination with pyrene exposure: studies with Protaphorura armata (Collembola: Onychiuridae).

    PubMed

    Sjursen, Heidi; Holmstrup, Martin

    2004-02-01

    Adult survival of the springtail Protaphorura armata exposed to pyrene, a common soil pollutant, was investigated in combination with cold and drought stress, in three separate experiments. (1) A drought stress imposed subsequent to pyrene exposure in soil resulted in a significant decrease in springtail survival, when compared with controls exposed to pyrene and subsequently to 100% relative humidity. (2) A previous exposure to drought stress resulted in slightly improved survival of pyrene exposure at a concentration of 10mg/kg, but not at higher pyrene concentrations. When comparing tests 1 and 2, better survival was found in the latter test. When comparing the drought survival of springtails that had been previously exposed to pyrene with drought survival of springtails with no previous history of pyrene exposure, survival was significantly lower in the former. (3) Springtail survival of pyrene exposure was investigated at several temperatures. Springtails showed a significant improvement in survival at temperatures fluctuating between +1 degrees C and -1 degrees C in 12:12-h cycles, and at a constant -3 degrees C, at the highest pyrene concentration (300 mg/kg), while survival remained the same at all temperatures when springtails were exposed to lower pyrene concentrations. It is concluded that temperature and water availability are important factors when assessing the springtails' susceptibility to pyrene exposure.

  1. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  2. Antibody responses in protein-energy restricted beef cows and their cold stressed progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, D P; Bull, R C

    1986-01-01

    Antibody titers were measured in serum and colostral whey of pregnant beef cows immunized with tetanus toxoid and chicken red blood cells while being fed diets either restricted or nonrestricted in protein and/or metabolizable energy during the last 150 days of gestation. Serum antibody titers were also measured in the colostrum-fed, cold and noncold stressed progeny that were actively immunized with dinitrophenol conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. In general, there were no major or sustained differences in humoral immune responses to injection of tetanus toxoid or chicken red blood cells between cows fed diets that were adequate or restricted in protein or metabolizable energy. In the few cases where serum antibody titers to tetanus toxoid or chicken red blood cells differed (P less than 0.05) between adequately fed or restricted cows, the differences were no greater than twofold. Anti-chicken red blood cell titers were uniformly low (P less than 0.05) by a magnitude of two to threefold in colostral whey of cows restricted in protein and/or metabolizable energy when compared to titers in cows fed adequate amounts of protein and metabolizable energy. With one exception, neither maternal dietary restriction nor cold exposure had a major effect on the ability of the calves to absorb antitetanus toxoid and chicken red blood cell antibodies from colostrum. The humoral immune responses of all calves to injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin and dinitrophenol were similar in magnitude. PMID:3091232

  3. Effects of prenatal maternal stress by repeated cold environment on behavioral and emotional development in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tazumi, Tooru; Hori, Etsuro; Uwano, Teruko; Umeno, Katsumi; Tanebe, Kyoko; Tabuchi, Eiichi; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    It has been reported that many types of stresses, which caused physiological and psychological alterations in dams as prenatal maternal stress, affected behavioral and emotional traits of their offspring. However, effects of environmental temperature changes, which induce various stress responses in both animals and humans, have not been assessed as prenatal maternal stress. Repeated cold stress (RCS) is a type of chronic cold stress in which environmental temperature changes rapidly and frequently several times within a day. In the present study, to investigate effects of chronic maternal stress by the RCS on behavioral and emotional development of the rat offspring (prenatal RCS rats), the RCS stress was loaded to pregnant rats between day 9 and 19 after fertilization. The prenatal RCS rats showed similar locomotor activity in an open field to control rats that were borne by non-stressed pregnant rats. On the other hand, the prenatal RCS rats showed significantly higher startle responses than the control rats in a light enhanced startle paradigm. However, treatment of diazepam decreased the startle responses in the prenatal RCS rats to the same degree as those in the control rats. The results indicated that prenatal RCS affected emotional development of the rat offspring, but not locomotor activity. Comparison of the present results with the previous studies suggests that there might be unknown common mechanisms among different prenatal maternal stresses that induce similar behavioral developmental alteration.

  4. Two strategies for response to 14 °C cold-water immersion: is there a difference in the response of motor, cognitive, immune and stress markers?

    PubMed

    Brazaitis, Marius; Eimantas, Nerijus; Daniuseviciute, Laura; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Steponaviciute, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2014-01-01

    Here, we address the question of why some people have a greater chance of surviving and/or better resistance to cold-related-injuries in prolonged exposure to acute cold environments than do others, despite similar physical characteristics. The main aim of this study was to compare physiological and psychological reactions between people who exhibited fast cooling (FC; n = 20) or slow cooling (SC; n = 20) responses to cold water immersion. Individuals in whom the T(re) decreased to a set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were indicated as the FC group; individuals in whom the T(re) did not decrease to the set point of 35.5 °C before the end of the 170-min cooling time were classified as the SC group. Cold stress was induced using intermittent immersion in bath water at 14 °C. Motor (spinal and supraspinal reflexes, voluntary and electrically induced skeletal muscle contraction force) and cognitive (executive function, short term memory, short term spatial recognition) performance, immune variables (neutrophils, leucocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, IL-6, TNF-α), markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity (cortisol, corticosterone) and autonomic nervous system activity (epinephrine, norepinephrine) were monitored. The data obtained in this study suggest that the response of the FC group to cooling vs the SC group response was more likely an insulative-hypothermic response and that the SC vs the FC group displayed a metabolic-insulative response. The observations that an exposure time to 14 °C cold water--which was nearly twice as short (96-min vs 170-min) with a greater rectal temperature decrease (35.5 °C vs 36.2 °C) in the FC group compared with the SC group--induces similar responses of motor, cognitive, and blood stress markers were novel. The most important finding is that subjects with a lower cold-strain-index (SC group) showed stimulation of some markers of innate immunity and suppression of markers of specific

  5. Enhanced production of nitric oxide in A549 cells through activation of TRPA1 ion channel by cold stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Wang, Xu; Han, Yaling; Ma, Zhuang

    2014-08-31

    The respiratory epithelium is exposed to the external environment, and inhalation of cold air is common during the season of winter. In addition, the lung is a major source of nitric oxide (NO). However, the effect of cold stress on the production of NO is still unclear. In the present work, We measured the change of NO in single cell with DACF-DA and the change in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 °C to 5 °C) induced an increase of NO in A549 cell, which was completely abolished by applying an extracellular Ca(2+) free medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) channel agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of NO and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Additionally, TRPA1 inhibitor, Ruthenium red (RR) and camphor, significantly blocked the enhanced production of NO and the rise of [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data indicated that cold-induced TRPA1 activation was responsible for the enhanced production of NO in A549 cell.

  6. Polymer Prize Talk: Segmental Dynamics in Polymers : From Cold Melts to Aging and Stressed Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    Polymers are excellent glass formers. In the cold molten state they exhibit chemically-specific and strongly non-Arrenhius segmental relaxation which sets the time scale for the generic chain scale dynamics. In the amorphous solid or plastic state the temperature dependence of the alpha relaxation time changes, physical aging emerges, and a rich mechanical response occurs characterized by the dynamic yielding, strain softening and strain hardening processes. We have developed a statistical mechanical theory of activated segmental relaxation in cold melts by combining and extending methods of mode coupling, dynamic density functional and activated hopping theories. The approach is built on the concept of a confining nonequilibrium free energy which quantifies local dynamical constraints and the barrier hopping process. The localizing consequences of interchain caging forces are quantified by the amplitude of nanometer scale density fluctuations (compressibility) and backbone stiffness. Predictions for the kinetic glass and dynamic crossover temperatures, dynamic fragility, and thermal dependence of the segmental relaxation time are consistent with experiments. The theory has been generalized to treat alpha relaxation, physical aging, and nonlinear mechanical properties in the glass. The structural component of density fluctuations become (partially) frozen resulting in a crossover to Arrenhius relaxation. Physical aging is modeled based on a kinetic equation for collective density fluctuations. At intermediate time scales the relaxation time (shear modulus) grows as a power law (logarithmic) function of aging time with a temperature dependent exponent. Applied stress weakens dynamical constraints thereby accelerating relaxation and softening the elastic modulus. A constitutive equation has been constructed from which the temperature dependent dynamic yielding and mechanical response under constant strain rate, constant stress (creep), and other modes of deformation

  7. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making. PMID:27679566

  8. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  9. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  10. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-02

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus.

  11. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material.

  12. A specific group of genes respond to cold dehydration stress in cut Alstroemeria flowers whereas ambient dehydration stress accelerates developmental senescence expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Carol; Bramke, Irene; Breeze, Emily; Thornber, Sarah; Harrison, Elizabeth; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Stead, Tony; Rogers, Hilary

    2010-06-01

    Petal development and senescence entails a normally irreversible process. It starts with petal expansion and pigment production, and ends with nutrient remobilization and ultimately cell death. In many species this is accompanied by petal abscission. Post-harvest stress is an important factor in limiting petal longevity in cut flowers and accelerates some of the processes of senescence such as petal wilting and abscission. However, some of the effects of moderate stress in young flowers are reversible with appropriate treatments. Transcriptomic studies have shown that distinct gene sets are expressed during petal development and senescence. Despite this, the overlap in gene expression between developmental and stress-induced senescence in petals has not been fully investigated in any species. Here a custom-made cDNA microarray from Alstroemeria petals was used to investigate the overlap in gene expression between developmental changes (bud to first sign of senescence) and typical post-harvest stress treatments. Young flowers were stressed by cold or ambient temperatures without water followed by a recovery and rehydration period. Stressed flowers were still at the bud stage after stress treatments. Microarray analysis showed that ambient dehydration stress accelerates many of the changes in gene expression patterns that would normally occur during developmental senescence. However, a higher proportion of gene expression changes in response to cold stress were specific to this stimulus and not senescence related. The expression of 21 transcription factors was characterized, showing that overlapping sets of regulatory genes are activated during developmental senescence and by different stresses.

  13. Identification of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis plantlets: effect of cold stress on cysteine nitrosylation level.

    PubMed

    Puyaubert, Juliette; Fares, Abasse; Rézé, Nathalie; Peltier, Jean-Benoît; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2014-02-01

    S-nitrosylation is a nitric oxide (NO)-based post-translational modification regulating protein function and signalling. We used a combination between the biotin switch method and labelling with isotope-coded affinity tag to identify endogenously S-nitrosylated peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana proteins extracted from plantlets. The relative level of S-nitrosylation in the identified peptides was compared between unstressed and cold-stress seedlings. We thereby detected 62 endogenously nitrosylated peptides out of which 20 are over-nitrosylated following cold exposure. Taken together these data provide a new repertoire of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in Arabidopsis with cysteine S-nitrosylation site. Furthermore they highlight the quantitative modification of the S-nitrosylation status of specific cysteine following cold stress.

  14. Estimation of residual stress in cold rolled iron-disks using magnetic and ultrasonic methods and neutron diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.; Bokuchava, G.D.; Schreiber, J.

    1995-12-31

    Variation of internal stress states in cold rolled sheet metal can essentially influence the result of forming processes. Therefore it is important to control the forming process by a practicable in line testing method. For this purpose magnetic and ultrasonic nondestructive methods are available. However, it is necessary to calibrate these techniques. This paper describes a first step of such a calibration procedure making use of the neutron diffraction method. On the basis of the diffraction results an assessment of the magnetic and ultrasonic methods for the estimation of residual stress in the cold rolled iron-disks was made. Reasonable measuring concepts for practical applications to forming processes with cold rolled sheet metal are discussed.

  15. Effect of Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction on Fusion and Fission of Mitochondria and Apoptosis of Lymphocytes in Mice under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longyun; Chen, Huimin

    2017-01-01

    Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) can effectively alleviate the symptoms of the patients suffering from exogenous cold stress. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the effect of MGGD on the apoptosis of lymphocytes induced by cold stress in mice. The model mice were randomly divided into four groups: the normal control group (no handling mice), cold stress group, MGGD + cold stress group, and MGGD group. Lymphocytes of the mice were isolated from the peripheral blood. Electron microscopy analysis revealed cold stress resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. Accompanied with the change of morphology of mitochondria, ATP production and the activity of respiratory chain complex decreased in these cells. Western blot analysis showed that these cells expressed decreased fusion-related proteins Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), and optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1) and increased fission-related proteins dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fission 1 (Fis-1); our results also show that decreased mitochondrial fusion induces cell apoptosis during cold stress. Meanwhile, we found MGGD can inhibit cell apoptosis induced by cold stress through regulating expression level of Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1, Fis-1, and Opa-1. These findings are very significant for understanding how MGGD regulates cold-stress-induced cell apoptosis.

  16. Effect of Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction on Fusion and Fission of Mitochondria and Apoptosis of Lymphocytes in Mice under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) can effectively alleviate the symptoms of the patients suffering from exogenous cold stress. However, the curative mechanism has not been fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the effect of MGGD on the apoptosis of lymphocytes induced by cold stress in mice. The model mice were randomly divided into four groups: the normal control group (no handling mice), cold stress group, MGGD + cold stress group, and MGGD group. Lymphocytes of the mice were isolated from the peripheral blood. Electron microscopy analysis revealed cold stress resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. Accompanied with the change of morphology of mitochondria, ATP production and the activity of respiratory chain complex decreased in these cells. Western blot analysis showed that these cells expressed decreased fusion-related proteins Mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), and optic atrophy protein-1 (Opa-1) and increased fission-related proteins dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and fission 1 (Fis-1); our results also show that decreased mitochondrial fusion induces cell apoptosis during cold stress. Meanwhile, we found MGGD can inhibit cell apoptosis induced by cold stress through regulating expression level of Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1, Fis-1, and Opa-1. These findings are very significant for understanding how MGGD regulates cold-stress-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:28191022

  17. Simulation of a cold-stressed finger including the effects of wind, gloves, and cold-induced vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, A; Bellomo, S; Stroschein, L A; Gonzalez, R R; Pandolf, K B

    1998-06-01

    The thermal response of fingers exposed to cold weather conditions has been simulated. Energy balance equations were formulated, in a former study, for the tissue layers and the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessels. The equations were solved by a finite difference scheme using the Thomas algorithm and the method of alternating directions. At this stage of development the model does not include any autonomic control functions. Model simulations assumed an electrical heating element to be embedded in the glove layers applied on the finger. A 1.3 W power input was calculated for maintaining finger temperatures at their pre-cold exposure level in a 0 degree C environment. Alternate assumptions of nutritional (low) and basal (high) blood flows in the finger demonstrated the dominance of this factor in maintaining finger temperatures at comfortable levels. Simulated exposures to still and windy air, at 4.17 m/s (15 km/h), indicated the profound chilling effects of wind on fingers in cold environments. Finally, the effects of variable blood flow in the finger, known as "cold-induced vasodilatation," were also investigated. Blood flow variations were assumed to be represented by periodic, symmetric triangular waves allowing for gradual opening-closing cycles of blood supply to the tip of the finger. Results of this part of the simulation were compared with measured records of bare finger temperatures. Good conformity was obtained for a plausible pattern of change in blood flow, which was assumed to be provided in its entirety to the tip of the finger alone.

  18. Exploring Uncoupling Proteins and Antioxidant Mechanisms under Acute Cold Exposure in Brains of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Lucassen, Magnus; Schmidt, Maike M.; Dringen, Ralf; Abele, Doris; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to fluctuating temperatures accelerates the mitochondrial respiration and increases the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ectothermic vertebrates including fish. To date, little is known on potential oxidative damage and on protective antioxidative defense mechanisms in the brain of fish under cold shock. In this study, the concentration of cellular protein carbonyls in brain was significantly increased by 38% within 1 h after cold exposure (from 28°C to 18°C) of zebrafish (Danio rerio). In addition, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the mRNA level of catalase (CAT) were increased after cold exposure by about 60% (6 h) and by 60%–90% (1 and 24 h), respectively, while the specific glutathione content as well as the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione remained constant and at a very low level. In addition, cold exposure increased the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by about 50% and the mRNA level of the glucose transporter zglut3 in brain by 50%–100%. To test for an involvement of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the cold adaptation of zebrafish, five UCP members were annotated and identified (zucp1-5). With the exception of zucp1, the mRNA levels of the other four zucps were significantly increased after cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA levels of four of the fish homologs (zppar) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were increased after cold exposure. These data suggest that PPARs and UCPs are involved in the alterations observed in zebrafish brain after exposure to 18°C. The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure. PMID:21464954

  19. Exploring uncoupling proteins and antioxidant mechanisms under acute cold exposure in brains of fish.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Lucassen, Magnus; Schmidt, Maike M; Dringen, Ralf; Abele, Doris; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2011-03-25

    Exposure to fluctuating temperatures accelerates the mitochondrial respiration and increases the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ectothermic vertebrates including fish. To date, little is known on potential oxidative damage and on protective antioxidative defense mechanisms in the brain of fish under cold shock. In this study, the concentration of cellular protein carbonyls in brain was significantly increased by 38% within 1 h after cold exposure (from 28 °C to 18 °C) of zebrafish (Danio rerio). In addition, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the mRNA level of catalase (CAT) were increased after cold exposure by about 60% (6 h) and by 60%-90% (1 and 24 h), respectively, while the specific glutathione content as well as the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione remained constant and at a very low level. In addition, cold exposure increased the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by about 50% and the mRNA level of the glucose transporter zglut3 in brain by 50%-100%. To test for an involvement of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the cold adaptation of zebrafish, five UCP members were annotated and identified (zucp1-5). With the exception of zucp1, the mRNA levels of the other four zucps were significantly increased after cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA levels of four of the fish homologs (zppar) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were increased after cold exposure. These data suggest that PPARs and UCPs are involved in the alterations observed in zebrafish brain after exposure to 18°C. The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure.

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Stolon Cold Stress Response between the C4 Perennial Grass Species Zoysia japonica and Zoysia metrella

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Jiping; Song, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongxiao; Liu, Jianxiu; Guo, Zhongren; Hua, Yuelou

    2013-01-01

    Zoysiagrass, the most cold-tolerant grass among the warm-season turfgrasses, is often used as a model species for isolating cellular components related to cold stress. To understand the proteomic responses to cold stress in zoysiagrass stolons, we extracted stolon proteins from Zoysiajaponica, cv. Meyer (cold-tolerant) and Z. metrella, cv. Diamond (cold-sensitive), which were grown with or without cold treatment. Approximately 700 proteins were resolved on 2-DE gels, and 70 protein spots were differentially accumulated. We further observed that 45 of the identified proteins participate in 10 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. A significantly greater number of proteins accumulated in the Meyer than in the Diamond and 15 increased proteins were detected only in the Meyer cultivar under cold stress. Furthermore, we propose a cold stress-responsive protein network composed of several different functional components that exhibits a balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging, accelerated protein biosynthesis and proteolysis, reduced protein folding, enhanced photosynthesis, abundant energy supply and enhanced biosynthesis of carbohydrates and nucleotides. Generally, the cold-tolerant Meyer cultivar showed a greater ROS scavenging ability, more abundant energy supply and increased photosynthesis and protein synthesis than did the cold-sensitive Diamond cultivar, which may partly explain why Meyer is more cold tolerant. PMID:24086619

  1. Plasticity and stress tolerance override local adaptation in the responses of Mediterranean holm oak seedlings to drought and cold.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Pías, Beatriz; Lemos-Filho, José P; Valladares, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations of widely distributed species experience a broad range of environmental conditions that can be faced by phenotypic plasticity or ecotypic differentiation and local adaptation. The strategy chosen will determine a population's ability to respond to climate change. To explore this, we grew Quercus ilex (L.) seedlings from acorns collected at six selected populations from climatically contrasting localities and evaluated their response to drought and late season cold events. Maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), instantaneous water use efficiency (iWUE), and thermal tolerance to freeze and heat (estimated from chlorophyll fluorescence versus temperature curves) were measured in 5-month-old seedlings in control (no stress), drought (water-stressed), and cold (low suboptimal temperature) conditions. The observed responses were similar for the six populations: drought decreased A(max) and increased iWUE, and cold reduced A(max) and iWUE. All the seedlings maintained photosynthetic activity under adverse conditions (drought and cold), and rapidly increased their iWUE by closing stomata when exposed to drought. Heat and freeze tolerances were similarly high for seedlings from all the populations, and they were significantly increased by drought and cold, respectively; and were positively related to each other. Differences in seedling performance across populations were primarily induced by maternal effects mediated by seed size and to a lesser extent by idiosyncratic physiologic responses to drought and low temperatures. Tolerance to multiple stresses together with the capacity to physiologically acclimate to heat waves and cold snaps may allow Q. ilex to cope with the increasingly stressful conditions imposed by climate change. Lack of evidence of physiologic seedling adaptation to local climate may reflect opposing selection pressures to complex, multidimensional environmental conditions operating within the distribution range of this species.

  2. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  3. Avalanche structural rearrangement through cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Wang, Wen; I, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the spatiotemporal dynamical behaviors of the avalanche structural rearrangement through micro-cracking-healing in weakly stressed cold dusty plasma liquids, and the kinetic origins for their different spatial and temporal classifications. The crystalline ordered domains can be cracked or temporarily sustain and transfer the weak stress to remote regions for cracking-healing. It is found that cracking sites form a fractal network with cluster size following power law distribution in the xyt space. The histograms of the persistent times for sustaining regional ordered and disordered structure, the temporal cracking burst width, and quiescent time between two bursts all follow power law decays with fast descending tails. Cracking can be classified into a single temporal burst with simple line like spatial patterns and the successive cracking fluctuation with densely packed cracking clusters. For an ordered region, whether the Burgers vectors of the incoming dislocations from the boundary allow direct dislocation reduction is the key for the above two classifications through cracking a large ordered domain into medium scale corotating ordered domains or small patches. The low regional structural order at the end of a cracking burst can be regarded as an alarm for predicting the short quiescent period before the next cracking burst.

  4. Rubber Trees Demonstrate a Clear Retranslocation Under Seasonal Drought and Cold Stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuwu; Lan, Guoyu; Xia, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Having been introduced to the northern edge of Asian tropics, the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) has become deciduous in this climate with seasonal drought and cold stresses. To determine its internal nutrient strategy during leaf senescence and deciduous periods, we investigated mature leaf and senescent leaf nutrients, water-soluble soil nutrients and characteristics of soil microbiota in nine different ages of monoculture rubber plantations. Rubber trees demonstrate complicated retranslocation of N, P, and K during foliar turnover. Approximately 50.26% of leaf nutrients and 21.47% of soil nutrients were redistributed to the rubber tree body during the leaf senescence and withering stages. However, no significant changes in the structure- or function-related properties of soil microbes were detected. These nutrient retranslocation strategy may be important stress responses. In the nutrient retranslocation process, soil plays a dual role as nutrient supplier and nutrient "bank." Soil received the nutrients from abscised leaves, and also supplied nutrients to trees in the non-growth stage. Nutrient absorption and accumulation began before the leaves started to wither and fall.

  5. Rubber Trees Demonstrate a Clear Retranslocation Under Seasonal Drought and Cold Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuwu; Lan, Guoyu; Xia, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Having been introduced to the northern edge of Asian tropics, the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) has become deciduous in this climate with seasonal drought and cold stresses. To determine its internal nutrient strategy during leaf senescence and deciduous periods, we investigated mature leaf and senescent leaf nutrients, water-soluble soil nutrients and characteristics of soil microbiota in nine different ages of monoculture rubber plantations. Rubber trees demonstrate complicated retranslocation of N, P, and K during foliar turnover. Approximately 50.26% of leaf nutrients and 21.47% of soil nutrients were redistributed to the rubber tree body during the leaf senescence and withering stages. However, no significant changes in the structure- or function-related properties of soil microbes were detected. These nutrient retranslocation strategy may be important stress responses. In the nutrient retranslocation process, soil plays a dual role as nutrient supplier and nutrient “bank.” Soil received the nutrients from abscised leaves, and also supplied nutrients to trees in the non-growth stage. Nutrient absorption and accumulation began before the leaves started to wither and fall. PMID:28066467

  6. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders.

  7. Evolution of Pre- and Post-Copulatory Traits in Male Drosophila melanogaster as a Correlated Response to Selection for Resistance to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karan; Samant, Manas Arun; Tom, Megha Treesa; Prasad, Nagaraj Guru

    2016-01-01

    Background In Drosophila melanogaster the fitness of males depends on a broad array of reproductive traits classified as pre- and post-copulatory traits. Exposure to cold stress, can reduce sperm number, male mating ability and courtship behavior. Therefore, it is expected that the adaptation to cold stress will involve changes in pre- and post-copulatory traits. Such evolution of reproductive traits in response to cold stress is not well studied. Methods We selected replicate populations of D. melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. Over 37–46 generations of selection, we investigated pre- and post-copulatory traits such as mating latency, copulation duration, mating frequency, male fertility, fitness (progeny production) and sperm competitive ability in male flies subjected to cold shock and those not subjected to cold shock. Results We found that post cold shock, the males from the selected populations had a significantly lower mating latency along with, higher mating frequency, fertility, sperm competitive ability and number of progeny relative to the control populations. Conclusion While most studies of experimental evolution of cold stress resistance have documented the evolution of survivorship in response to selection, our study clearly shows that adaptation to cold stress involves rapid changes in the pre- and post-copulatory traits. Additionally, improved performances under stressful conditions need not necessarily trade-off with performance under benign conditions. PMID:27093599

  8. Endocrine consequences of an acute stress under different thermal conditions: A study of corticosterone, prolactin, and thyroid hormones in the pigeon (Columbia livia).

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Ruault, Stéphanie; Angelier, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    In the context of global change, the physiological and hormonal stress responses have received much attention because of their implications in terms of allostasis. However, most studies have focused on glucocorticoids only as the "common" response to stressors while neglecting other endocrine axes and hormones (e.g. prolactin, thyroid hormones) that play a crucial role in metabolic adjustments. Interestingly, the responsiveness of all these endocrine axes to stress may depend on the energetic context and this context-dependent stress response has been overlooked so far. In the wild, temperature can vary to a large extent within a short time window and ambient temperature may affect these metabolic-related endocrine axes, and potentially, their responsiveness to an acute stressor. Here, we explicitly tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of a standardized stress protocol on multiple hormonal responses in the rock pigeon (Columbia livia). We tested the effect of an acute restraint stress on (1) corticosterone levels, (2) prolactin levels, and (3) thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, thyroxine) in pigeons that were held either at cool temperature (experimental birds) or at room temperature (control birds) during the stress protocol. Although we found a significant influence of restraint stress on most hormone levels (corticosterone, prolactin, and thyroxine), triiodothyronine levels were not affected by the restraint stress. This demonstrates that stressors can have significant impact on multiple endocrine mechanisms. Importantly, all of these hormonal responses to stress were not affected by temperature, demonstrating that the exposure to cold temperature does not affect the way these hormone levels change in response to handling stress. This suggests that some endocrine responses to temperature decreases may be overridden by the endocrine responses to an acute restraint stress.

  9. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Quaedflieg, Conny W. E. M.; Merckelbach, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT) known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34) to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol) activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area. PMID:23671762

  10. Stress-inducible expression of barley Hva1 gene in transgenic mulberry displays enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Checker, Vibha G; Chhibbar, Anju K; Khurana, Paramjit

    2012-10-01

    Coping with different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses is the foundation of sustainable agriculture. Although conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection are being employed in mulberry (Morus indica L.) to develop better varieties, nonetheless the longer time periods required for these approaches necessitates the use of precise biotechnological approaches for sustainable agriculture. In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of mulberry, an important plant of the sericulture industry, an encoding late embryogenesis abundant gene from barley (HVA1) was introduced into mulberry plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic mulberry with barley Hva1 under a constitutive promoter actin1 was shown to enhance drought and salinity tolerance. Here, we report that overexpression of barley Hva1 also confers cold tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Further, barley Hva1 gene under control of a stress-inducible promoter rd29A can effectively negate growth retardation under non-stress conditions and confer stress tolerance in transgenic mulberry. Transgenic lines display normal morphology to enhanced growth and an increased tolerance against drought, salt and cold conditions as measured by free proline, membrane stability index and PSII activity. Protein accumulation was detected under stress conditions confirming inductive expression of HVA1 in transgenics. Investigations to assess stress tolerance of these plants under field conditions revealed an overall better performance than the non-transgenic plants. Enhanced expression of stress responsive genes such as Mi dnaJ and Mi 2-cysperoxidin suggests that Hva1 can regulate downstream genes associated with providing abiotic stress tolerance. The investigation of transgenic lines presented here demonstrates the acquisition of tolerance against drought, salt and cold stress in plants overexpressing barley Hva1, indicating that Arabidopsis rd29A promoter can function in mulberry.

  11. Catecholaminergic responses in vas deferens isolated from rats submitted to acute swimming stress.

    PubMed

    Chies, A B; Pereira, O C

    1995-09-01

    The study was performed to examine the responses to catecholamines in vas deferens isolated from rats submitted to acute swimming-induced stress. It was demonstrated that acute stress induces a significant subsensitivity of rat vas deferens to norepinephrine. This subsensitivity was inhibited when the experiment was carried out in the presence of either cocaine (10-5 M) or timolol (10-5 M). On the other hand, the rat vas deferens sensitivity to methoxamine was significantly increased by acute swimming-induced stress. Thus, despite acute swimming stress inducing a reduction in response to norepinephrine, the alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile response was increased. Additionally there were increases in neuronal uptake and beta2-adrenoceptor activity that opposes the alpha1-adrenoceptor activity. Integrated, these phenomena are responsible for the rat vas deferens subsensitivity to norepinephrine which may be involved in body homeostasis in stressogenic situations.

  12. Impact of acute stress on psychomotor bimanual performance during a simulated tumor resection task.

    PubMed

    Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad Abu Shadeque; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Christie, Sommer; Al-Zhrani, Gmaan; Marwa, Ibrahim; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman Jafar; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Severe bleeding during neurosurgical operations can result in acute stress affecting the bimanual psychomotor performance of the operator, leading to surgical error and an adverse patient outcome. Objective methods to assess the influence of acute stress on neurosurgical bimanual psychomotor performance have not been developed. Virtual reality simulators, such as NeuroTouch, allow the testing of acute stress on psychomotor performance in risk-free environments. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a simulated stressful virtual reality tumor resection scenario by utilizing NeuroTouch to answer 2 questions: 1) What is the impact of acute stress on bimanual psychomotor performance during the resection of simulated tumors? 2) Does acute stress influence bimanual psychomotor performance immediately following the stressful episode? METHODS Study participants included 6 neurosurgeons, 6 senior and 6 junior neurosurgical residents, and 6 medical students. Participants resected a total of 6 simulated tumors, 1 of which (Tumor 4) involved uncontrollable "intraoperative" bleeding resulting in simulated cardiac arrest and thus providing the acute stress scenario. Tier 1 metrics included extent of blood loss, percentage of tumor resected, and "normal" brain tissue volume removed. Tier 2 metrics included simulated suction device (sucker) and ultrasonic aspirator total tip path length, as well as the sum and maximum forces applied in using these instruments. Advanced Tier 2 metrics included efficiency index, coordination index, ultrasonic aspirator path length index, and ultrasonic aspirator bimanual forces ratio. All metrics were assessed before, during, and after the stressful scenario. RESULTS The stress scenario caused expected significant increases in blood loss in all participant groups. Extent of tumor resected and brain volume removed decreased in the junior resident and medical student groups. Sucker total tip path length increased in

  13. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  14. Detection of superoxide radicals in tomato plants exposed to salinity, drought, cold and heavy metal stress using CMC-G-SOD biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kocabay, Ozge; Emregul, Emel; Aydın, Semra Soydan; Aras, Sumer

    2013-10-01

    A novel highly sensitive electrochemical carboxymethylcellulose-gelatin-superoxide dismutase biosensor was used for the determination of superoxide radicals enhancement in tomato plants exposed to salinity, drought, cold and heavy metal stress. The variations in superoxide radicals depending on abiotic stress was determined using biosensor. The superoxide radical production with regard to control rapidly was increased in tomato plants exposed to salinity, drought, cold and heavy metal stress. The superoxide radical enhancement in tomato plants exposed to salinity, drought, cold and heavy metal stress was successfully determined using carboxymethylcellulose-gelatin-superoxide dismutase biosensor.

  15. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials.

  16. Older Thinopyrum intermedium (Poaceae) plants exhibit superior photosynthetic tolerance to cold stress and greater increases in two photosynthetic enzymes under freezing stress compared with young plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumar, Nikhil S.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of plant age on resource acquisition and stress tolerance processes is a largely unstudied subject in herbaceous perennials. In a field experiment, we compared rates of photosynthesis (A), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation capacity (V Cmax), maximum electron transport rate (J max), and triose phosphate utilization (TPU), as well as concentrations of Rubisco and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in 5-year-old and 2-year-old intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) under both optimal growing conditions and cold stress in early spring and autumn. This species is a relative of wheat undergoing domestication. An additional experiment compared photosynthetic rates in different cohorts at mid-season and under colder conditions. We hypothesized that photosynthetic capacity in older plants would be lower under favorable conditions but higher under cold stress. Our hypothesis was generally supported. Under cold stress, 5-year-old plants exhibited higher A, TPU, and temperature-adjusted V Cmax than younger plants, as well as 50% more SPS and 37% more Rubisco. In contrast, at mid-season, photosynthetic capacities in older plants were lower than in younger plants in one experiment, and similar in the other, independent of differences in water status. Both cohorts increased A, temperature-adjusted TPU and J max, [Rubisco], and [SPS] under cold stress, but changes were greater in older plants. Photosynthetic differences were largest at 1.2 ºC in very early spring, where older plants had 200% higher A and maintained up to 17% of their peak photosynthetic capacity. We find evidence of increased cold tolerance in older cohorts of wheatgrass, consistent with a growing body of research in woody perennials. PMID:27401911

  17. Attenuated metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity to cold stress in athletic subjects.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Gómez, J; Blanco, G; Negrín, C; Velasco, M

    1998-11-01

    We have previously reported a metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity to the cold pressor test (CPT) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The present study was designed to determine whether the state of physical training influences the cardiovascular responses to the CPT in normotensive subjects under metoclopramide (MTC) treatment. In 20 untrained subjects and 32 athletes (football players and runners), the blood pressure and heart rate responses to the CPT were studied after a 30-minute infusion of MTC (7.5 microg/kg per minute) and two placebo periods, before and after MTC, with 5% glucose solution. Under placebo conditions, the CPT produced significant increases of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the untrained subjects and the runners, but not in the football players (17.2, 17.8, and 6.5 mm Hg for untrained subjects, runners, and football players, respectively). The runners responded with a lesser increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during the CPT than did the others (15.8, 17.9, and 18.2 mm Hg for runners, untrained subjects, and football players, respectively). In the presence of MTC, the CPT induced a larger increase in blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the untrained subjects (21.4/24.1 mm Hg) than in the football players (10/18.7 mm Hg) and runners (18.7/13.9 mm Hg). MTC diminished the hyperreactivity responses to the CPT in the trained subjects (41 and 56% for football players and runners, respectively). Our conclusions are as follows: (1) Vascular responses to cold stress are attenuated in athletic subjects compared with untrained subjects. (2) The metoclopramide-induced vascular hyperreactivity, formerly reported for normotensive and hypertensive subjects, seems to be absent in trained subjects. (3) It is suggested that a probable dopaminergic system adaptation occurs during exercise.

  18. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  19. Overexpression of Ran gene from Lepidium latifolium L. (LlaRan) renders transgenic tobacco plants hypersensitive to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Vimlendu Bhushan; Grover, Atul; Singh, Sadhana; Pande, Veena; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2014-09-01

    Ran is a multifunctional small GTPase involved in important cellular activities like nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly, nuclear envelope formation, etc., but is also known to be differentially expressed in response to abiotic stress, particularly low temperature. We have over-expressed Lepidium latifolium (Fam. Brassicaceae) Ran gene in tobacco to study the response of the plants to cold stress (24 h; 4 °C). Transformation of the tobacco plants was verified using PCR targeting Ran gene and co-transformed selectable marker gene nptII. Segregation in Mendelian ratios was validated in five transgenic lines by germination of T1 and T2 seeds on moist filter papers containing 150 mg/l kanamycin. Higher levels of electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation pointed towards hypersensitivity of plants. Similarly, lesser proline accumulation compared to wild types also indicated susceptibility of plants to death under chilling conditions. Specific activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was also measured under stressed and control conditions. A variation was observed across the different lines, and four out of five lines showed lesser specific activity compared to wild type plants, thus indicating reduced capability of scavenging free radicals. In totality, a strong evidence on induced hypersensitivity to cold stress has been collected which may further be helpful in designing appropriate strategies for engineering crop plants for survival under cold stress conditions.

  20. Oxidative stress and Kawasaki disease: how is oxidative stress involved from the acute stage to the chronic stage?

    PubMed

    Yahata, Tomoyo; Hamaoka, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely related. Further, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathology of inflammation-based Kawasaki disease. An excessive in vivo production of reactive oxygen species increases oxidative stress in the body, which triggers an endless vicious spiral of inflammation reactions and reactive oxygen metabolites. This presumably forms diffuse vasculitis in the acute phase. Acute inflammation and oxidative stress can be rapidly controlled by treatments; however, they may remain for a long time. This has recently been identified as a problem in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease. Generally, the presence of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress impairs blood vessels, leading to the onset of atherosclerosis, which is a widely recognized risk. The current discussion focuses on whether the same is valid for blood vessels in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease.

  1. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Reactivity to Acute Stress: an Investigation into the Roles of Perceived Stress and Family Resources.

    PubMed

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J

    2017-02-08

    Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.

  2. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  3. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  4. Cold Stress and Nitrogen Deficiency Affected Protein Expression of Psychrotrophic Dyadobacter psychrophilus B2 and Pseudomonas jessenii MP1.

    PubMed

    Suyal, Deep C; Kumar, Saurabh; Yadav, Amit; Shouche, Yogesh; Goel, Reeta

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency and low temperature conditions are the prominent facet of Western Himalayan agro-ecosystems. A slight change in the environment alters the protein expression of the microorganisms. Therefore, proteomes of the two psychrotrophs Dyadobacter psychrophilus B2 and Pseudomonas jessenii MP1 were analyzed using two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS, to determine the physiological response of altitudinally different but indigenous microorganisms in response to cold stress under N depleting conditions. Functional assessment of 150 differentially expressed proteins from both the psychrotrophs revealed several mechanisms might be involved in cold stress adaptation, protein synthesis/modifications, energy metabolism, cell growth/maintenance, etc. In both the proteomes, abundance of the proteins related to energy production and stress were significantly increased while, proteins related to biosynthesis and energy consuming processes decreased. ATP synthase subunit alpha, beta, ATP-dependent Clp protease, Enolase, groL HtpG and N(2)-fixation sustaining protein CowN proteins were found to be expressed in both B2 and MP1, similarly to previously studied diazotrophs under low temperature N2 fixing conditions and therefore, can be considered as a biomarker for monitoring the nitrogen fixation in cold niches. Nevertheless, in both the diazotrophs, a good fraction of the proteins were related to hypothetical proteins which are still uncharacterized, thereby, suggesting the need for in-depth studies on cold adapted diazotrophs and their adaptive mechanisms.

  5. Cold Stress and Nitrogen Deficiency Affected Protein Expression of Psychrotrophic Dyadobacter psychrophilus B2 and Pseudomonas jessenii MP1

    PubMed Central

    Suyal, Deep C.; Kumar, Saurabh; Yadav, Amit; Shouche, Yogesh; Goel, Reeta

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency and low temperature conditions are the prominent facet of Western Himalayan agro-ecosystems. A slight change in the environment alters the protein expression of the microorganisms. Therefore, proteomes of the two psychrotrophs Dyadobacter psychrophilus B2 and Pseudomonas jessenii MP1 were analyzed using two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI–TOF–MS, to determine the physiological response of altitudinally different but indigenous microorganisms in response to cold stress under N depleting conditions. Functional assessment of 150 differentially expressed proteins from both the psychrotrophs revealed several mechanisms might be involved in cold stress adaptation, protein synthesis/modifications, energy metabolism, cell growth/maintenance, etc. In both the proteomes, abundance of the proteins related to energy production and stress were significantly increased while, proteins related to biosynthesis and energy consuming processes decreased. ATP synthase subunit alpha, beta, ATP-dependent Clp protease, Enolase, groL HtpG and N(2)-fixation sustaining protein CowN proteins were found to be expressed in both B2 and MP1, similarly to previously studied diazotrophs under low temperature N2 fixing conditions and therefore, can be considered as a biomarker for monitoring the nitrogen fixation in cold niches. Nevertheless, in both the diazotrophs, a good fraction of the proteins were related to hypothetical proteins which are still uncharacterized, thereby, suggesting the need for in-depth studies on cold adapted diazotrophs and their adaptive mechanisms. PMID:28352263

  6. Biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine as cold-stress response to low temperature in fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Wang, Qiyao; Gao, Xiating; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-01-01

    Fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a mesophile bacterium, is usually found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide that pose a constant stress to local organism by its fluctuation in salinity as well as notable temperature change. Though V. anguillarum is able to proliferate while maintain its pathogenicity under low temperature (5-18°C), so far, coldadaption molecular mechanism of the bacteria is unknown. In this study, V. anguillarum was found possessing a putative glycine betaine synthesis system, which is encoded by betABI and synthesizes glycine betaine from its precursor choline. Furthermore, significant up-regulation of the bet gene at the transcriptional level was noted in log phase in response to cold-stress. Moreover, the accumulation of betaine glycine was only found appearing at low growth temperatures, suggesting that response regulation of both synthesis system and transporter system are cold-dependent. Furthermore, in-frame deletion mutation in the two putative ABC transporters and three putative BCCT family transporters associated with glycine betaine uptake could not block cellular accumulation of betaine glycine in V. anguillarum under coldstress, suggesting the redundant feature in V. anguillarum betaine transporter system. These findings confirmed that glycine betaine serves as an effective cold stress protectant and highlighted an underappreciated facet of the acclimatization of V. anguillarum to cold environments.

  7. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food intake, increased heat production, and increased activity with sustained changes in body weight, behavior, and HPA reactivity. The effect of chronic psychological stress is more variable. In humans, chronic stress may cause weight gain in restrained eaters who show increased HPA reactivity to acute stress. This phenotype is difficult to replicate in rodent models where chronic psychological stress is more likely to cause weight loss than weight gain. An exception may be hamsters subjected to repeated bouts of social defeat or foot shock, but the data are limited. Recent reports on the food intake and body composition of subordinate members of group-housed female monkeys indicate that these animals have a similar phenotype to human stress-induced eaters, but there are a limited number of investigators with access to the model. Few stress experiments focus on energy balance, but more information on the phenotype of both humans and animal models during and after exposure to acute or chronic stress may provide novel insight into mechanisms that normally control body weight. PMID:25519732

  8. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  9. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress.

  10. The grapevine basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor positively modulates CBF-pathway and confers tolerance to cold-stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weirong; Zhang, Ningbo; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; Xiao, Dongming; Wang, Zhenping

    2014-08-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factors play diverse roles in plant physiological response and stress-adaptive regulation network. Here, we identified one grapevine bHLH transcription factor from a cold-tolerant accession 'Heilongjiang seedling' of Chinese wild Vitis amurensis (VabHLH1) as a transcriptional activator involved in cold stress. We also compared with its counterpart from a cold-sensitive Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (VvbHLH1). These two putative proteins are characterized by the presence of the identically conserved regions of 54 amino acid residues of bHLH signature domain, and shared 99.1% amino acid identity, whereas several stress-related cis-regulatory elements located in both promoter regions differed in types and positions. Expressions of two bHLHs in grapevine leaves were induced by cold stress, but evidently differ between two grapevine genotypes upon cold exposure. Two grapevine bHLH proteins were exclusively localized to the nucleus and exhibited strong transcriptional activation activities in yeast cells. Overexpression of either VabHLH1 or VvbHLH1 transcription factor did not affect the growth and development of transgenic Arabidopsis plants, but enhanced tolerance to cold stress. The improved tolerance in VabHLH1- or VvbHLH1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants is associated with multiple physiological and biochemical changes that occurred during the time-course cold stress. These most common changes include the evaluated levels of proline, decreased amounts of malondialdehyde and reduced membrane injury as reflected by electrolyte leakage. VabHLH1 and VvbHLH1 displayed overlapping, but not identical, roles in activating the corresponding CBF cold signaling pathway, especially in regulating the expression of CBF3 and RD29A. Our findings demonstrated that two grapevine bHLHs act as positive regulators of the cold stress response, modulating the level of COR gene expression, which in turn confer tolerance to cold

  11. Neuropeptide FF and related peptides attenuates warm-, but not cold-water swim stress-induced analgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Han, Zheng-lan; Fang, Quan; Wang, Zi-long; Tang, Hong-zhu; Ren, Hui; Wang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to a neuropeptide family including two receptors (NPFF(1) and NPFF(2)). NPFF system has been reported to play important roles in pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of NPFF related peptides and their receptors in swim stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Nociceptive test was performed in mice stressed by forced swimming in water at 15 °C (cold water swimming) or 32 °C (warm water swimming). Warm water swimming produced a naloxone-mediated antinociceptive effect. This warm water swim SIA was dose-dependently antagonized by i.c.v. injection of NPFF and two related peptides (3-30 nmol), NPVF and dNPA, which exhibited the highest selectivities for NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors, respectively. Moreover, the selective NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 (30 nmol) was inactive by itself, but prevented the effects of NPFF and related peptides. Cold-water swimming produced a wilder analgesic effect that was blocked by MK-801, but not naloxone. However, NPFF system failed to modify the cold water swim stress-induced analgesia. These findings demonstrated that NPFF and related peptides attenuated opioid-mediated form of SIA via NPFF receptors in the brain, but not non-opioid swim stress-induced analgesia. These data further support an anti-opioid character of NPFF system.

  12. Biophysical characterization of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus membrane during cold and osmotic stress and its relevance for cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Julie; Passot, Stéphanie; Dupont, Sébastien; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2017-02-01

    Freezing lactic acid bacteria often leads to cell death and loss of technological properties. Our objective was to provide an in-depth characterization of the biophysical properties of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus membrane in relation to its freeze resistance. Freezing was represented as a combination of cold and osmotic stress. This work investigated the relative incidence of increasing sucrose concentrations coupled or not with subzero temperatures without ice nucleation on the biological and biophysical responses of two strains with different membrane fatty acid compositions and freeze resistances. Following exposure of bacterial cells to the highest sucrose concentration, the sensitive strain exhibited a survival rate of less than 10 % and 5 h of acidifying activity loss. Similar biological activity losses were observed upon freeze-thawing and after osmotic treatment for each strain thus highlighting osmotic stress as the main source of cryoinjury. The direct measurement of membrane fluidity by fluorescence anisotropy was linked to membrane lipid organization characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Both approaches made it possible to investigate the specific contributions of the membrane core and the bilayer external surface to cell degradation caused by cold and osmotic stress. Cold-induced membrane rigidification had no significant implication on bacterial freeze-thaw resistance. Interactions between extracellular sucrose and membrane phospholipid headgroups under osmotic stress were also observed. Such interactions were more evident in the sensitive strain and when increasing sucrose concentration, thus suggesting membrane permeabilization. The relevance of biophysical properties for elucidating mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection is discussed.

  13. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, F.; Marcantoni, M.

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (tensile-strength tests) of the welded interface.

  14. Anticoagulation and antiplatelet effects of semax under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Grigorjeva, M E; Lyapina, L A

    2010-07-01

    The effects of semax on anticoagulant, fibrinolytic, and platelet components of the anticoagulation system were studied on albino rats under conditions of acute and chronic immobilization stress. Semax exhibited a protective antistress effect after repeated intranasal administration under conditions of hypercoagulation developing in response to immobilization stress of different degree. The effect manifested in stimulation of the anticoagulation system.

  15. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis mutants suggests a crosstalk between ABA, ethylene and GSH against combined cold and osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Hazra, Saptarshi; Datta, Riddhi; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene and abscisic acid in providing stress tolerance and defence response to plants is widely recognized. However, little is known about the cross-talk between glutathione with ethylene and abscisic acid to combat stress in planta. Here, transcriptome analysis of combined cold and osmotic stress treated Arabidopsis mutants were carried out to elucidate the crosstalk between the abscisic acid, ethylene and glutathione. Microarray experiment revealed the differential regulation of about 2313 and 4131 transcripts in ein2 (ethylene insensitive mutant) and aba1.6 (abscisic acid mutant) respectively. Functional analysis exposed common down-regulated stress and defence, secondary metabolite biosynthesis viz. phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonols, redox and transcription factors related genes in ein2, aba1.6 and pad2.1 (glutathione mutant) in response to combined stress treatment. The reduced glutathione content was less in stress treated mutants in comparison to Col-0. Again, selective down-regulated transcripts in stress treated mutants were noted up-regulated after glutathione feeding. Some of the important differentially expressed genes were also validated by comparative proteomics analysis of stress treated mutants. In summary, our results suggested the role of ethylene and abscisic acid in inducing stress-responsive genes and proteins by activating glutathione biosynthesis to combat abiotic stress conditions in plant system. PMID:27845361

  17. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress.

  18. Cold-induced changes in stress hormone and steroidogenic transcript levels in cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), a fish capable of metabolic depression.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Hori, Tiago S; Hall, Jennifer R; Rise, Matthew L; Gamperl, A Kurt

    2015-12-01

    The cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) is a fish with a wide latitudinal distribution that is capable of going into metabolic depression during the winter months, and thus, represents a unique model to investigate the impacts of cold temperatures on the stress response. In this study, we measured resting (pre-stress) plasma cortisol levels in 10 °C and 0 °C acclimated cunner from Newfoundland, and both catecholamine and cortisol levels after they were given a standardized handling stress (i.e. 1 min air exposure). In addition, we cloned and characterized cDNAs for several key genes of the cortisol-axis [cytochrome P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) most likely to be an ortholog of the teleost GR2], determined the tissue distribution of their transcripts, and measured their constitutive (i.e. pre-stress) transcript levels in individuals acclimated to both temperatures. In cunner acclimated to 0 °C, post-stress epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were much lower (by approximately 9- and 5-fold, respectively) compared to 10 °C acclimated fish, and these fish had relatively low resting cortisol levels (~15 ngml(-1)) and showed a typical post-stress response. In contrast, those acclimated to 10 °C had quite high resting cortisol levels (~75 ngml(-1)) that actually decreased (to ~20 ngml(-1)) post-stress before returning to pre-stress levels. Finally, fish acclimated to 10 °C had higher P450scc transcript levels in the head kidney and lower levels of GR transcript in both the head kidney and liver. Taken together, these results suggest that: (1) temperature has a profound effect on the stress response of this species; and (2) although the ancestors of this species inhabited warm waters (i.e. they are members of the family Labridae), populations of cunner from colder regions may show signs of stress at temperatures as low as 10 °C.

  19. Hypoxic cutaneous vasodilation is sustained during brief cold stress and is not affected by changes in CO2.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Grant H; Fieger, Sarah M; Minson, Christopher T; Halliwill, John R

    2010-04-01

    Hypoxia decreases core body temperature in animals and humans during cold exposure. In addition, hypoxia increases skin blood flow in thermoneutral conditions, but the impact of hypoxic vasodilation on vasoconstriction during cold exposure is unknown. In this study, skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as red blood cell flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline (n = 7). Subjects were exposed to four different conditions in the steady state (normoxia and poikilocapnic, isocapnic, and hypercapnic hypoxia) and were cooled for 10 min using a water-perfused suit in each condition. CVC increased during all three hypoxic exposures (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline), and the magnitude of these steady-state responses was not affected by changes in end-tidal CO(2) levels. During poikilocapnic and hypercapnic hypoxia, cold exposure reduced CVC to the same levels observed during normoxic cooling (P > 0.05 vs. normoxia), whereas CVC remained elevated throughout cold exposure during isocapnic hypoxia (P < 0.05 vs. normoxia). The magnitude of vasoconstriction during cold stress was similar in all conditions (P > 0.05). Thus the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during steady-state hypoxia is not affected by CO(2) responses. In addition, the magnitude of reflex vasoconstriction is not altered by hypoxia, such that the upward shift in skin blood flow (hypoxic vasodilation) is maintained during whole body cooling.

  20. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves.

    PubMed

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E

    1982-05-01

    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  1. Genetic predictors for acute experimental cold and heat pain sensitivity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H; Mittal, D P; Iadarola, M J; Dionne, R A

    2006-01-01

    Background The genetic contribution to pain sensitivity underlies a complex composite of parallel pain pathways, multiple mechanisms, and diverse inter‐individual pain experiences and expectations. Methods Variations for genes encoding receptors related to cold and heat sensation, such as transient receptor potential A subtype 1 (TRPA1), M subtype 8 (TRPM8), V subtype 1 (TRPV1), δ opioid receptor subtype 1 (OPRD1), catechol O‐methyltransferase (COMT), and fatty acid amide hydrolyase (FAAH), were investigated in four major ethnic populations. Results We defined 13 haplotype blocks in European Americans, seven blocks in African Americans, seven blocks in Hispanic subjects, and 11 blocks in Asian Americans. Further study in European American subjects found significant associations between short duration cold pain sensitivity and variations in TRPA1, COMT, and FAAH in a gender dependent manner. Our observations demonstrate that genetic variations in TRPA1, COMT, and FAAH contribute gender specifically to individual variations in short duration cold pain sensitivity in a European American cohort. Conclusions The effects of TRPA1 variations on experimental short duration heat pain sensitivity may contribute to inter‐individual variation in pain sensitivity in humans. PMID:16882734

  2. Symptoms of peritraumatic and acute traumatic stress among victims of an industrial disaster.

    PubMed

    Birmes, Philippe J; Brunet, Alain; Coppin-Calmes, Dominique; Arbus, Christophe; Coppin, Dominique; Charlet, Jean-Paul; Vinnemann, Nathalie; Juchet, Henri; Lauque, Dominique; Schmitt, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have examined peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, and acute stress disorder as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether these three predictors were associated with PTSD symptoms when considered simultaneously. Two-hundred victims of a factory explosion in Toulouse, France, were surveyed two and six months after the event with use of retrospective self-reports of peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, and acute stress disorder. A hierarchical multiple regression predicting PTSD symptoms six months posttrauma indicated that all three constructs explained unique variance, accounting for up to 62 percent. Peritraumatic distress and dissociation and acute stress disorder appear conceptually different from one another and show promise in identifying who is at risk of PTSD.

  3. The Effect of Acute Stress on Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sub; Noh, Chung Kyun; Lee, Kwang Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Little research has been done to evaluate the effect of stress in exacerbating the symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). We aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress on esophageal motility and GER parameters in healthy volunteers. Methods A total of 10 (M:F = 8:2, median age 34 years-old) healthy volunteers without any recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms participated in this study. They underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry with 10 wet swallows (Experiment I) and esophageal impedance-pH monitoring (Experiment II) in the basal period and in the stress period. In the stress period, either real stress or sham stress was given in a randomized cross-over design. The stress scores, symptom severity, and pulse rates were measured. Results The stress scores and the severity of nausea were significantly greater under real stress, compared with sham stress. The percentages of weak, failed, rapid, premature, and hyper-contractile contractions were not significantly altered during real stress and during sham stress, compared with the basal period. The median resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and distal contractile integral of esophageal contractions did not differ in the stress period, compared with the basal period. Contractile front velocity and distal latency of esophageal peristaltic contractions were significantly changed during real stress, which was not observed during sham stress. GER parameters were not significantly altered during real stress and during sham stress. Conclusion Although acute auditory and visual stress seems to affect esophageal body motility, it does not induce significant motor abnormalities or increase GER in healthy humans. PMID:28049863

  4. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  5. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  6. Acute restraint stress and corticosterone transiently disrupts novelty preference in an object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Torres-Berrio, Angélica; González-Martínez, Lina; Múnera, Alejandro; Lamprea, Marisol R

    2015-09-15

    The object recognition task is a procedure based on rodents' natural tendency to explore novel objects which is frequently used for memory testing. However, in some instances novelty preference is replaced by familiarity preference, raising questions regarding the validity of novelty preference as a pure recognition memory index. Acute stress- and corticosterone administration-induced novel object preference disruption has been frequently interpreted as memory impairment; however, it is still not clear whether such effect can be actually attributed to either mnemonic disruption or altered novelty seeking. Seventy-five adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task and subjected to either acute stress or corticosterone administration to evaluate the effect of stress or corticosterone on an object recognition task. Acute stress was induced by restraining movement for 1 or 4h, ending 30 min before the sample trial. Corticosterone was injected intraperitoneally 10 min before the test trial which was performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial. Four-hour, but not 1-h, stress induced familiar object preference during the test trial performed 1h after the sample trial; however, acute stress had no effects on the test when performed 24h after sample trial. Systemic administration of corticosterone before the test trial performed either 1 or 24h after the sample trial also resulted in familiar object preference. However, neither acute stress nor corticosterone induced changes in locomotor behaviour. Taken together, such results suggested that acute stress probably does not induce memory retrieval impairment but, instead, induces an emotional arousing state which motivates novelty avoidance.

  7. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    PubMed Central

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  8. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  9. Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and Cold Stress: Thermal Manikin, Biomedical Modeling, and Human Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    code) 2011 Journal Article-Journal of Occup and Env Hygiene Methods of Evaluating Protective Clothing Relative to Heat and cold Stress: Thermal...of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene , 8: 588–599 ISSN: 1545-9624 print / 1545-9632 online DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2011.613291 Methods of...increases insulation and reduces water vapor permeability, both of which 588 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene October 2011 D ow nl oa de

  10. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants. PMID:27253370

  11. The transcriptional regulatory network in the drought response and its crosstalk in abiotic stress responses including drought, cold, and heat

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops around the world. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in the drought response is important for improvement of drought tolerance using molecular techniques. In plants, abscisic acid (ABA) is accumulated under osmotic stress conditions caused by drought, and has a key role in stress responses and tolerance. Comprehensive molecular analyses have shown that ABA regulates the expression of many genes under osmotic stress conditions, and the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. Transcription factors (TFs) are master regulators of gene expression. ABRE-binding protein and ABRE-binding factor TFs control gene expression in an ABA-dependent manner. SNF1-related protein kinases 2, group A 2C-type protein phosphatases, and ABA receptors were shown to control the ABA signaling pathway. ABA-independent signaling pathways such as dehydration-responsive element-binding protein TFs and NAC TFs are also involved in stress responses including drought, heat, and cold. Recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress responses. The important roles of these TFs in crosstalk among abiotic stress responses will be discussed. Control of ABA or stress signaling factor expression can improve tolerance to environmental stresses. Recent studies using crops have shown that stress-specific overexpression of TFs improves drought tolerance and grain yield compared with controls in the field. PMID:24904597

  12. Cortisol response to acute stress in jundiá Rhamdia quelen acutely exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals.

    PubMed

    Cericato, Leonardo; Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves Machado; Fagundes, Michele; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Quevedo, Rosmari Mezzalira; Finco, Jovani; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Centenaro, Lucas; Pottker, Emanuele; Anziliero, Deniz; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to agrichemicals can have deleterious effects on fish, such as disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-inter-renal axis (HPI) that could impair the ability of fish to respond to stressors. In this study, fingerlings of the teleost jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) were used to investigate the effects of the commonly used agrichemicals on the fish response to stress. Five common agrichemicals were tested: the fungicide - tebuconazole, the insecticide - methyl-parathion, and the herbicides - atrazine, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate. Control fishes were not exposed to agrichemicals and standard stressors. In treatments 2-4, the fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)) of each agrichemical for 96 h, and at the end of this period, were subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus by chasing them with a pen net. In treatments 5-7 (16.6%, 33.3%, and 50% of the LC(50)), the fishes were exposed to the same concentrations of the agrichemicals without stress stimulus. Treatment 8 consisted of jundiás not exposed to agrichemicals, but was subjected to an acute stress-handling stimulus. Jundiás exposed to methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate presented a decreased capacity in exhibiting an adequate response to cope with stress and in maintaining the homeostasis, with cortisol level lower than that in the control fish (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that the acute exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of methyl-parathion, atrazine+simazine, and glyphosate exert a deleterious effect on the cortisol response to an additional acute stressor in the jundiá fingerlings.

  13. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  14. Effect of acute stress on sexual behavior in female rats: participation of the central angiotensinergic system.

    PubMed

    Cecconello, Ana Lúcia; Raineki, Charlis; Sebben, Vanise; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2010-03-05

    Stress might influence the reproductive behavior in females, and central angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide that plays a role in stress response and in the modulation of sexual behavior. The medial amygdala (MeA), an important structure that regulates this behavior, is strongly involved in stress response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus on sexual receptivity in female rats and the participation of Ang II and MeA in this effect. Adult female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycles were utilized. The acute stress protocol utilized was the restraint stress for 15 min on the night of proestrus. The participation of Ang II was evaluated by injecting Ang II and Ang II receptor antagonists (losartan and PD12319) into the MeA. The lordosis quotient was recorded. The stress or the microinjection of Ang II into the MeA significantly reduced sexual behavior. The blockade of AT(1) or AT(2) receptors in the MeA prevented the effect of stress and the effect of Ang II microinjection into this nucleus on sexual receptivity. We concluded that acute restraint stress on the night of proestrus reduces sexual behavior in rats, and this effect is mediated by both AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the MeA.

  15. Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2007-09-01

    Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

  16. Diazepam blocks striatal lipid peroxidation and improves stereotyped activity in a rat model of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Márquez-Valadez, Berenice; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Escobar-Briones, Carolina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Alvarez-Ruiz, Yarummy; Maldonado, Perla D; Santana, Ricardo A; Santamaría, Abel; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the effect of a single dose of diazepam was tested on different markers of oxidative damage in the striatum of rats in an acute model of immobilization (restraint) stress. In addition, the locomotor activity was measured at the end of the restraint period. Immobilization was induced to animals for 24 hr, and then, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity and content, and mitochondrial function were all estimated in striatal tissue samples. Corticosterone levels were measured in serum. Diazepam was given to rats as a pre-treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min. before the initiation of stress. Our results indicate that acute stress produced enhanced striatal levels of lipid peroxidation (73% above the control), decreased superoxide dismutase activity (54% below the control), reduced levels of mitochondrial function (35% below the control) and increased corticosterone serum levels (86% above the control). Pre-treatment of stressed rats with diazepam decreased the striatal lipid peroxidation levels (68% below the stress group) and improved mitochondrial function (18% above the stress group), but only mild preservation of superoxide dismutase activity was detected (17% above the stress group). In regard to the motor assessment, only the stereotyped activity was increased in the stress group with respect to control (46% above the control), and this effect was prevented by diazepam administration (30% below the stress group). The preventive actions of diazepam in this acute model of stress suggest that drugs exhibiting anxiolytic and antioxidant properties might be useful for the design of therapies against early acute phases of physic stress.

  17. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  19. Transcriptome profiling and validation of gene based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in sorghum genotypes with contrasting response to cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a versatile cereal crop, with excellent heat and drought tolerance. However, it is susceptible to early-season cold stress (12-15 °C) which seriously limits stand-establishment and seedling growth. To gain further insight on the molecular mechanism of cold tolerance in sorghum we perform...

  20. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation), and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation) where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25530986

  1. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters.

  2. Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible.

    PubMed

    Flouris, A D; Friesen, B J; Carlson, M J; Casa, D J; Kenny, G P

    2015-06-01

    Immediate treatment with cold water immersion (CWI) is the gold standard for exertional heatstroke. In the field, however, treatment is often delayed due to delayed paramedic response and/or inaccurate diagnosis. We examined the effect of treatment (reduction of rectal temperature to 37.5 °C) delays of 5, 20, and 40 min on core cooling rates in eight exertionally heat-stressed (40.0 °C rectal temperature) individuals. We found that rectal temperature was elevated above baseline (P < 0.05) at the end of all delay periods (5 min: 40.08 ± 0.32; 20 min: 39.92 ± 0.40; 40 min: 39.57 ± 0.29 °C). Mean arterial pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) below baseline (92 ± 1.8 mm Hg) after all delay periods (5 min: 75 ± 2.6; 20 min: 74 ± 1.7; 40 min: 70 ± 2.1 mm Hg; P > 0.05). Rectal core cooling rates were similar among conditions (5 min: 0.20 ± 0.01; 20 min: 0.17 ± 0.02; 40 min: 0.17 ± 0.01 °C/min; P > 0.05). The rectal temperature afterdrop following CWI was similar across conditions (5 min: 35.95; 20 min: 35.61; 40 min: 35.87 °C; P > 0.05). We conclude that the effectiveness of 2 °C CWI as a treatment for exertional heat stress remains high even when applied with a delay of 40 min. Therefore, our results support that CWI is the most appropriate treatment for exertional heatstroke as it is capable of quickly reversing hyperthermia even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay.

  3. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

  4. Cold stress initiates the Nrf2/UGT1A1/L-FABP signaling pathway in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Li, R; Geng, Z Y

    2015-11-01

    Cold stress triggers an anti-oxidative response in animals regulated by Nrf2 (nuclear factor 2-like, NFE2L2) binding to deoxyribonucleic acid-regulatory sequences near stress-responsive genes. To identify chicken Nrf2-regulated genes, 3 genetically related experimental groups (EG) with 40 Huainan partridge chickens in each group were chosen. The chickens were maintained at 20°C environmental temperature from 5 wk of age. At 6 wk of age, 10 chickens from each EG were still maintained at 20°C as control, and the other 30 chickens from each EG were exposed to 6 ± 2°C. Liver samples were collected from the control and from chickens exposed to 6 ± 2°C for 12, 24, and 72 h for co-immuno-precipitation (CoIP) analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing experiment in liver cells treated with Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) were carried out. A de novo motif was discovered which closely matched the core Nrf2 consensus binding motif. Genes involved in de novo motif discovery were further analyzed for their enrichment in the anti-oxidative response pathway and the lipid anabolism pathway. There were 14 genes found which are related to oxidative stress. To examine the downstream factors of the 14 responsive genes, one of them, UGT1A1 (UDP glucuronosyltransferase), was further analyzed by CoIP experiment and nano LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It was detected that fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, 127 AA) might be the potential UGT1A1 downstream interaction proteins. In conclusion, it is proposed that chickens under cold stress generate anti-oxidative stress and thus trigger the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, which further up-regulates the expression of L-FABP to inactivate lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane and promote fatty acid storage against the cold environment.

  5. Effect of Bacopa Monniera on Cold Stress Induced Neurodegeneration in Hippocampus of Wistar Rats: A Histomorphometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathi, P; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bacopa monniera/ Brahmi,is used over centuries in Ayurvedic medicine for memory development, learning, concentration and other mental illnesses such as nervousness and poor cognition. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi, BM) on cold stress induced histological changes in hippocampus of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Total 24 male rats divided into four groups were used (n=6) for this study. Group I was control in which rats were kept under ideal laboratory conditions, Group II was given 40 mg/kg of BM extract, Group III was cold water swim stress in which rats were forced to swim in the cold water maintained at 18±2oC till it started to sink for a period of one month and Group IV in which cold water swim stress given for a month followed by oral administration of BM extracts 40mg/kg treatment for a month. The whole study was carried out for a period of 60 d. The animals were sacrificed next day and their brains dissected out for histomorphometric analysis. The diameter, packing density and total number of neurons were calculated from stained histological section by using micrometry in the CA-1 region of the hippocampus. Statistical Analysis: The analysis and plotting of graphs were carried out using Sigma Plot 12 (Systat Software Inc., USA). Values are expressed as Mean ± SEM (n = 6). One way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keul’s multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant. Results: The results showed that there is no significant difference in the diameter of the cells between the groups but total number of the cells in Group II was statistically significant when compared with the others groups. Student–Newman–Keuls method showed that Group II and Group IV are statistically significant when compared to Group III (p<0.05). Conclusion: Results indicates that when BM extracts administered orally

  6. Being a grump only makes things worse: a transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Vinski, Melaina T.; Watter, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high-stress or low-stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task as a measure of mind-wandering behavior. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high-stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind-wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter) immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood. PMID:24273520

  7. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  8. Rigid patterns of effortful choice behavior after acute stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hart, Evan E; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Conoscenti, Michael A; Minor, Thomas R; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala, are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here, we assessed effort-based decision making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone. In these animals, we also probed levels of polysialyted neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a marker of structural plasticity, in medial frontal cortex and amygdala. We found that animals that consistently worked for high magnitude rewards continued to do so, even after acute shock stress. We also found that PSA-NCAM was increased in both regions after effortful choice experience but not after shock stress alone. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing broad literature on cognitive effects of stress and in the context of how acute stress may bias effortful decisions to a rigid pattern of responding.

  9. The estrous cycle of the ewe is resistant to disruption by repeated, acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2010-06-01

    Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected twice to a "layered stress" paradigm consisting of sequential, hourly application of isolation, restraint, blindfold, and predator cues. This reduced the LH pulse amplitude but did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 3, different acute stressors were given sequentially within the follicular phase: food denial plus unfamiliar noises and forced exercise, layered stress, exercise around midnight, and transportation. This, too, did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 4, variable acute psychosocial stress was given every 1-2 days for two entire estrous cycles; this did not disrupt any parameter of the cycle monitored. Lastly, experiment 5 examined whether the psychosocial stress paradigms of experiment 4 would disrupt the cycle and estrous behavior if sheep were metabolically stressed by chronic food restriction. Thirty percent of the food-restricted ewes exhibited deterioration of estrous cycle parameters followed by cessation of cycles and failure to express estrous behavior. However, disruption was not more evident in ewes that also encountered psychosocial stress. Collectively, these findings indicate the estrous cycle of sheep is remarkably resistant to disruption by acute bouts of psychosocial stress applied intermittently during either a single follicular phase or repeatedly over two estrous cycles.

  10. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  11. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  12. Genome-wide alterations in hippocampal 5-hydroxymethylcytosine links plasticity genes to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sisi; Papale, Ligia A.; Zhang, Qi; Madrid, Andy; Chen, Li; Chopra, Pankaj; Keleş, Sündüz; Jin, Peng; Alisch, Reid S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stress is among the most important contributors to increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. While even acute stress alters gene expression, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a novel environmentally sensitive DNA modification that is highly enriched in post-mitotic neurons and is associated with active transcription of neuronal genes. Recently, we found a hippocampal increase of 5hmC in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (Nr3c1) following acute stress, warranting a deeper investigation of stress-related 5hmC levels. Here, we used an established chemical labeling and affinity purification method coupled with high-throughput sequencing technology to generate the first genome-wide profile of hippocampal 5hmC following exposure to acute restraint stress and a one-hour recovery. This approach found a genome-wide disruption in 5hmC associated with acute stress response, primarily in genic regions, and identified known and potentially novel stress-related targets that have a significant enrichment for neuronal ontological functions. Integration of these data with hippocampal gene expression data from these same mice found stress-related hydroxymethylation correlated to altered transcript levels and sequence motif predictions indicated that 5hmC may function by mediating transcription factor binding to these transcripts. Together, these data reveal an environmental impact on this newly discovered epigenetic mark in the brain and represent a critical step toward understanding stress-related epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression and can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26598390

  13. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers.

    PubMed

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The present study compared neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure in current smokers, ex-smokers, and those who had never smoked in a large community sample. Salivary cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and frequency components of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured at rest and during exposure to a battery of three standardized stress tasks in 480 male and female participants from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. Current smokers had significantly lower cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate reactions to stress. They also exhibited smaller changes in the low frequency band of blood pressure variability compared to ex- and never smokers. There were no group differences in stress related changes in overall heart rate variability as measured by the root mean square of successive interbeat interval differences or in the high frequency band of heart rate variability. In all cases, effects remained significant following statistical adjustment for a host of variables likely to be associated with reactivity and/or smoking. In secondary analyses, there were no significant associations between lifetime cigarette consumption or current consumption and stress reactivity. In conclusion, compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers, current smokers exhibited attenuated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Among smokers and ex-smokers, there is no evidence that lifetime exposure was associated with physiological reactions to acute stress, nor that current levels of cigarette consumption were associated with reactivity. It is possible, then, that

  14. Management of Heat and Cold Stress -- Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel (Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels medicaux de I’OTAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management of Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels...Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels médicaux de...NATO Nations and allied forces. RTO-TR-MSG-187 ES - 1 Gestion des Contraintes Thermiques (Chaleur et Froid) – Conseils aux Personnels Médicaux de

  15. Behavioral Predictors of Acute Stress Symptoms During Intense Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    peritraumatic dissociative symptoms (PDS; i.e., per- ceptual disconnectedness) and that general troops who endorsed symptoms of dissociation at baseline were...also more likely to dissociate under stress. Furthermore, self-reported peritraumatic symptoms were significantly lower in elite Special Forces per... peritraumatic dissociative states (PDS) and quantified the link between PDS and the subsequent psychological impact of stressful events during

  16. Models and Methods to Investigate Acute Stress Responses in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Arsenault, Ryan; Napper, Scott; Griebel, Philip

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation within the livestock industry and throughout society that animal stress is an important issue that must be addressed. With implications for animal health, well-being, and productivity, minimizing animal stress through improved animal management procedures and/or selective breeding is becoming a priority. Effective management of stress, however, depends on the ability to identify and quantify the effects of various stressors and determine if individual or combined stressors have distinct biological effects. Furthermore, it is critical to determine the duration of stress-induced biological effects if we are to understand how stress alters animal production and disease susceptibility. Common stress models used to evaluate both psychological and physical stressors in cattle are reviewed. We identify some of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding responses to specific stressors and propose more integrated methodologies and approaches to measuring these responses. These approaches are based on an increased knowledge of both the metabolic and immune effects of stress. Finally, we speculate on how these findings may impact animal agriculture, as well as the potential application of large animal models to understanding human stress. PMID:26633525

  17. Stressful presentations: mild cold stress in laboratory mice influences phenotype of dendritic cells in naïve and tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kokolus, Kathleen M; Spangler, Haley M; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Farren, Matthew R; Lee, Kelvin P; Repasky, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to model immune responses. The goals of this report are to 1) briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiological stress and 2) to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent to mice housed at the required standard ambient temperatures to influence baseline DCs properties in naïve and tumor-bearing mice. As recent data from our group shows that CD8(+) T cell function is significantly altered by chronic mild cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8(+) T cell activation, we wondered whether housing temperature may also be influencing DC function. Here we report that there are several significant phenotypical and functional differences among DC subsets in naïve and tumor-bearing mice housed at either standard housing temperature or at a thermoneutral ambient temperature, which significantly reduces the extent of cold stress. The new data presented here strongly suggests that, by itself, the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties and functions of DCs. Therefore differences in basal levels of stress due to housing should be taken into consideration when interpreting experiments designed to evaluate the impact of additional variables, including other stressors on DC function.

  18. Prenatal cortisol exposure predicts infant cortisol response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2013-03-01

    Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure.

  19. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  20. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning. PMID:27065926

  1. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions.

    PubMed

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  2. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity.

  3. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.

  4. History of chronic stress modifies acute stress-evoked fear memory and acoustic startle in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schmeltzer, Sarah N; Vollmer, Lauren L; Rush, Jennifer E; Weinert, Mychal; Dolgas, Charles M; Sah, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Chronicity of trauma exposure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, exposure to multiple traumas on a chronic scale leads to worse outcomes than acute events. The rationale for the current study was to investigate the effects of a single adverse event versus the same event on a background of chronic stress. We hypothesized that a history of chronic stress would lead to worse behavioral outcomes than a single event alone. Male rats (n = 14/group) were exposed to either a single traumatic event in the form of electric foot shocks (acute shock, AS), or to footshocks on a background of chronic stress (chronic variable stress-shock, CVS-S). PTSD-relevant behaviors (fear memory and acoustic startle responses) were measured following 7 d recovery. In line with our hypothesis, CVS-S elicited significant increases in fear acquisition and conditioning versus the AS group. Unexpectedly, CVS-S elicited reduced startle reactivity to an acoustic stimulus in comparison with the AS group. Significant increase in FosB/ΔFosB-like immunostaining was observed in the dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex of CVS-S rats. Assessments of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress-regulatory transmitter associated with chronic PTSD, revealed selective reduction in the hippocampus of CVS-S rats. Collectively, our data show that cumulative stress potentiates delayed fear memory and impacts defensive responding. Altered neuronal activation in forebrain limbic regions and reduced NPY may contribute to these phenomena. Our preclinical studies support clinical findings reporting worse PTSD outcomes stemming from cumulative traumatization in contrast to acute trauma.

  5. Metabolic Changes in Masseter Muscle of Rats Submitted to Acute Stress Associated with Exodontia

    PubMed Central

    Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Fernandes, Fernanda Silva; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has shown that stress may be associated with alterations in masticatory muscle functions. Morphological changes in masticatory muscles induced by occlusal alterations and associated with emotional stress are still lacking in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute stress on metabolic activity and oxidative stress of masseter muscles of rats subjected to occlusal modification through morphological and histochemical analyses. In this study, adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: a group with extraction and acute stress (E+A); group with extraction and without stress (E+C); group without extraction and with acute stress (NO+A); and control group without both extraction and stress (NO+C). Masseter muscles were analyzed by Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Diaphorase (NADH) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) techniques. Statistical analyses and two-way ANOVA were applied, followed by Tukey-Kramer tests. In the SDH test, the E+C, E+A and NO+A groups showed a decrease in high desidrogenase activities fibers (P < 0.05), compared to the NO+C group. In the NADH test, there was no difference among the different groups. In the ROS test, in contrast, E+A, E+C and NO+A groups showed a decrease in ROS expression, compared to NO+C groups (P < 0.05). Modified dental occlusion and acute stress - which are important and prevalent problems that affect the general population - are important etiologic factors in metabolic plasticity and ROS levels of masseter muscles. PMID:26053038

  6. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    PubMed Central

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  7. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions.

  8. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    PubMed

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  9. Accumulation of acidic SK₃ dehydrins in phloem cells of cold- and drought-stressed plants of the Solanaceae.

    PubMed

    Szabala, Bartosz Mieczyslaw; Fudali, Sylwia; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2014-04-01

    The role of acidic SK(n) dehydrins in stress tolerance of important crop and model species of the Solanaceae remains unknown. We have previously shown that the acidic SK₃ dehydrin DHN24 from Solanum sogarandinum is constitutively expressed and its expression is associated with cold acclimation. Here we found that DHN24 is specifically localized to phloem cells of vegetative organs of non-acclimated plants. More precise localization of DHN24 revealed that it is primarily found in sieve elements (SEs) and companion cells (CCs) of roots and stems. In cold-acclimated plants, DHN24 is mainly present in all cell types of the phloem. Dhn24 transcripts are also predominantly localized to phloem cells of cold-acclimated stems. Immunoelectron microscopy localized DHN24 to the cytosol and close to organelle membranes of phloem cells, the lumen with phloem protein filaments, parietal cytoplasm of SEs and the nucleoplasm of some nuclei. Cell fractionation experiments revealed that DHN24 was detected in the cytosolic, nuclear and microsomal fractions. We also determined whether homologous members of the acidic subclass dehydrins from Capsicum annuum and Lycopersicon chilense share the characteristics of DHN24. We showed that they are also constitutively expressed, but their protein level is upregulated preferentially by drought stress. Immunofluorescent localization revealed that they are detected in SEs and CCs of unstressed plants and throughout the phloem in drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that one of the primary roles of DHN24 and its homologs may be the protection of the phloem region from adverse effects of abiotic stresses.

  10. Effect of neonatal handling on adult rat spatial learning and memory following acute stress.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, A; Pondiki, S; Kitraki, E; Diamantopoulou, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Raftogianni, A; Stylianopoulou, F

    2008-03-01

    Brief neonatal handling permanently alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function resulting in increased ability to cope with stress. Since stress is known to affect cognitive abilities, in the present study we investigated the effect of brief (15 min) handling on learning and memory in the Morris water maze, following exposure to an acute restraint stress either before training or recall. Exposure of non-handled rats to the acute stress prior to training resulted in quicker learning of the task, than in the absence of the stressor. When acute stress preceded acquisition, male handled rats showed an overall better learning performance, and both sexes of handled animals were less impaired in the subsequent memory trial, compared to the respective non-handled. In addition, the number of neurons immunoreactive for GR was higher in all areas of Ammon's horn of the handled rats during the recall. In contrast, the number of neurons immunoreactive for MR was higher in the CA1 and CA2 areas of the non-handled males. When the acute restraint stress was applied prior to the memory test, neonatal handling was not effective in preventing mnemonic impairment, as all animal groups showed a similar deficit in recall. In this case, no difference between handled and non-handled rats was observed in the number of GR positive neurons in the CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas during the memory test. These results indicate that early experience interacts with sex and acute stress exposure in adulthood to affect performance in the water maze. Hippocampal corticosterone receptors may play a role in determining the final outcome.

  11. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine.

  12. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Barber, Beth A; Kohl, Krista L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2014-03-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p < .01) and anxiety symptoms (r = .53, p < .01). Examining specific acute stress subscales, reexperiencing was correlated with anxiety (r = .47, p < .01) and arousal was correlated with depression (r = .50, p < .01) and anxiety (r = .55, p < .01). Age was inversely associated with total acute stress symptoms (r = -.24, p < .01), reexperiencing (r = -.17, p < .01), avoidance (r = -.27, p < .01), and arousal (r = -.19, p < .01) and gender was related to total anxiety symptoms (Spearman's ρ = .17, p < .01). The current study supports the importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery.

  13. Transcriptional expression levels of cell stress marker genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to acute thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Farcy, Émilie; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    During the annual cycle, oysters are exposed to seasonal slow changes in temperature, but during emersion at low tide on sunny summer days, their internal temperature may rise rapidly, resulting in acute heat stress. We experimentally exposed oysters to a 1-h acute thermal stress and investigated the transcriptional expression level of some genes involved in cell stress defence mechanisms, including chaperone proteins (heat shock proteins Hsp70, Hsp72 and Hsp90 (HSP)), regulation of oxidative stress (Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, metallothionein (MT)), cell detoxification (glutathione S-transferase sigma, cytochrome P450 and multidrug resistance (MDR1)) and regulation of the cell cycle (p53). Gene mRNA levels were quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and expressed as their ratio to actin mRNA, used as a reference. Of the nine genes studied, HSP, MT and MDR1 mRNA levels increased in response to thermal stress. We compared the responses of oysters exposed to acute heat shock in summer and winter and observed differences in terms of magnitude and kinetics. A larger increase was observed in September, with recovery within 48 h, whereas in March, the increase was smaller and lasted more than 2 days. The results were also compared with data obtained from the natural environment. Though the functional molecule is the protein and information at the mRNA level only has limitations, the potential use of mRNAs coding for cell stress defence proteins as early sensitive biomarkers is discussed. PMID:19002605

  14. Overexpression of AtLEA3-3 confers resistance to cold stress in Escherichia coli and provides enhanced osmotic stress tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengshan; Liu, Fei; Ma, Miao; Gong, Jiao; Wang, Qiujun; Jia, Pengfei; Zheng, Guochang; Liu, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) group 3 proteins significantly respond to changes in environmental conditions. However, reports that demonstrate their biological role, especially in Arabidopsis, are notably limited. This study examines the functional roles of the Arabidopsis LEA group 3 proteins AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 in abiotic stress and ABA treatments. Expression of AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 is upregulated by ABA, high salinity, and osmotic stress. Results on the ectopic expression of AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 in E. coli suggest that both proteins play important roles in resistance to cold stress. Overexpression of AtLEA3-3 in Arabidopsis (AtLEA3-3-OE) confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance that is characterized during germination and early seedling establishment. However, AtLEA3-3-OE lines show sensitivity to ABA treatment during early seedling development. These results suggest that accumulation of AtLEA3-3 mRNA and/or proteins may help heterologous ABA re-initiate second dormancy during seedling establishment. Analysis of yellow fluorescent fusion proteins localization shows that AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 are mainly distributed in the ER and that AtLEA3-3 also localizes in the nucleus, and in response to salt, mannitol, cold, or BFA treatments, the localization of AtLEA3-3 and AtLEA3-4 is altered and becomes more condensed. Protein translocalization may be a positive and effective strategy for responding to abiotic stresses. Taken together, these results suggest that AtLEA3-3 has an important function during seed germination and seedling development of Arabidopsis under abiotic stress conditions.

  15. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions.

  16. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    PubMed Central

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  17. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  18. Acute and chronic stress models differentially impact the inflammatory and antibody titer responses to respiratory vaccination in naive beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of an acute vs. chronic stress model on serum antibody titer and acute phase responses. Seronegative beef steers (n=32; 209 +/- 8 kg) were stratified by body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) Chronic stress (CHR), 0.5 mg/...

  19. Biochemical and biomolecular aspects of oxidative stress due to acute and severe hypoxia in human muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Sessego, R; Velluti, C; Salvi, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress was investigated in severe and acute hypoxia and in reperfusion applied to human muscle tissues. The biochemical and biomolecular relationship between the response of the respiratory-chain enzymic complexes and the metabolism of specific hypoxia stress proteins (HSP) suggest an adaptive mechanism which antagonizes the oxidative damage due to acute and severe tissue hypoxia.

  20. Acute stress does not impair long-term memory retrieval in older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Puig-Perez, Sara; Salvador, Alicia

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress-induced cortisol increases impair memory retrieval in young people. This effect has not been studied in older people; however, some findings suggest that age-related changes in the brain can affect the relationships between acute stress, cortisol and memory in older people. Our aim was to investigate the effects of acute stress on long-term memory retrieval in healthy older people. To this end, 76 participants from 56 to 76 years old (38 men and 38 women) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor or a control task. After the stress/control task, the recall of pictures, words and stories learned the previous day was assessed. There were no differences in memory retrieval between the stress and control groups on any of the memory tasks. In addition, stress-induced cortisol response was not associated with memory retrieval. An age-related decrease in cortisol receptors and functional changes in the amygdala and hippocampus could underlie the differences observed between the results from this study and those found in studies performed with young people.

  1. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  2. Effect of short-term cold stress on oxidative damage and transcript accumulation of defense-related genes in chickpea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Shahandashti, Seyyedeh-Sanam; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Zeinali, Hassan; Khazaei, Mona; Talei, Alireza; Ramezanpour, Seyyedeh-Sanaz

    2014-08-15

    Cold stress affects many plant physiological and biochemical components and induces cascades of alterations in metabolic pathways, amongst them the membrane fatty acid compositions, the activity of antioxidative enzymes and the regulation of gene expression. The present work aimed to characterize the changes of some of these factors in both cold acclimated (CA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to identify the role of the acclimation process in adjusting plant responses to severe cold stress. The results showed an increase in the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) ratio compared to saturated fatty acids, which was more obvious in CA plants. Defense enzymes had an important role in CA plants to create greater cold tolerance compared to NA ones in the cases of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. During cold stress, a high transcription level of CaCAT and CaSOD genes was detected in CA plants, but a low transcription of CaLOX gene was observed in CA plants compared to NA plants, which might have prevented the decline of UFAs (confirmed by double bond index (DBI) data). Moreover, the transcription level of the Carubisco gene, as an energy producing agent, was higher in CA plants than in NA plants and the transcription of the Catubulin gene, as a crucial substance of cell cytoskeleton, showed a decreasing trend in both CA and NA plants, but this decline was greater in NA plants. These responses showed the possible targets of cold stress as chloroplast and signal transduction to balance stress programs. The above results indicate the crucial role of FA compositions in creating cold tolerance in susceptible chickpea plants with possible responsive components and the possible interactions in protein and transcript levels even in facing extreme cold stress.

  3. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision-Making Under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M.; Kubota, Jennifer T.; Seiler, Morgan G.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, non-social contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices of uncertainty in the real world. Our goals were twofold, to test whether uncertainty valuation is similarly processed across social and non-social contexts, and investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Participants completed matched gambling and trust games under either control or stress manipulations. Participants not under stress exhibited no differences between money gambled and money entrusted to partners. In contrast, stressed participants exhibited increased gambling but decreased trusting behavior. We further found that irrespective of stress, participants were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in non-social gambling contexts, believing that every incremental loss led to a greater chance of winning (gamblers’ fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, participants behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. PMID:26546080

  4. Chemical composition of rainbow trout urine following acute hypoxic stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, Joseph B.

    1969-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) were anesthetized with MS-222, catheterized, and introduced into urine collecting chambers. Twenty-four hours after introduction, a 4-hour accumulation of urine was collected to serve as the control. Water flow to the chambers was then discontinued for 30 minutes during which the oxygen content of the water exiting in the chamber dropped from 4.9 to 2.8 mg/l. Following this hypoxic stress fresh water was restored and accumulated urine samples were taken for analysis at 1, 4, and 20 hours post-hypoxic stress. Rainbow trout excrete abnormally high concentrations of Na, K, Mg, Cl, and inorganic PO4 following hypoxia.

  5. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  6. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  7. Contribution of infralimbic cortex in the cardiovascular response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia Camargos de Figueirêdo; Zaretsky, Dmitry V; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Santos, Robson A S; DiMicco, Joseph A; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky

    2012-09-15

    The infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (IL) modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine function via projections to subcortical structures involved in the response to stress. We evaluated the contribution of the IL to the cardiovascular response evoked by acute stress. Under anesthesia (80 mg/kg ketamine-11.5 mg/kg xylazine), rats were implanted with telemetry probes or arterial lines for recording heart rate and blood pressure. Guide cannulas were implanted to target the IL for microinjection of muscimol (100 pmol/100 nl), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (6 pmol/100 nl), or vehicle (100 nl). Microinjection of muscimol, an agonist of GABA(A) receptors, into the IL had no effect on stress-evoked cardiovascular and thermogenic changes in any of the paradigms evaluated (cage switch, restraint plus air-jet noise, or air-jet stress). However, microinjection of the excitatory amino acid NMDA into the IL attenuated the pressor and tachycardic response to air-jet stress. Pretreatment with the selective NMDA antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5, 100 pmol/100 nl) blocked the effect of NMDA on the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress. We conclude that 1) the IL region is not tonically involved in cardiovascular or thermogenic control during stress or under baseline conditions, and 2) activation of NMDA receptors in the IL can suppress the cardiovascular response to acute stress exposure.

  8. Phenolic acids identified in sorghum distillery residue demonstrated antioxidative and anti-cold-stress properties in cultured tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin-Mei; Lin, Jing-Jen; Liao, Chih-Yuan; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Pan, Bonnie Sun

    2014-05-21

    This study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds and evaluate the anti-cold-stress function of the sorghum distillery residue (SDR) using tilapia as an alternative animal model. The highest contents of water-soluble bioactive compounds in SDR were polyphenols, followed by tannins, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. SDR was extracted with double-distilled water, 95% ethanol, and ethyl acetate, separately. The ethanol extract (SDR-E) yielded the highest polyphenol content [15.03 mg/g of SDR dry weight (dw)], of which the EC50 value of R,R-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging efficiency was 0.56 ± 0.04 mg/mL. The SDR-E suppressed the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) more efficiently than that of other extracts. Tilapia fed a diet containing 3.6% SDR-E decreased accumulative mortality during cold stress, of 46.2%. The accumulative morality of the control was 92.9%. The phenolic acids identified in SDR included gallic acid (0.36 ± 0.08 mg/g of SDR dw), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (0.16 ± 0.12 mg/g of SDR dw), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (0.49 ± 0.23 mg/g of SDR dw). Diets supplemented with 0.5% 4-hydroxybenzoic acid fed to tilapia showed a lower mortality rate than that fed 1.0% 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, comparable to that of the tilapia fed 20% SDR. The latter showed lower mortality than that of the control. These results suggested that 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is one of the major anti-cold-stress compounds in SDR.

  9. Global Transcriptional Analysis Reveals the Complex Relationship between Tea Quality, Leaf Senescence and the Responses to Cold-Drought Combined Stress in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In field conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, tea plants are often simultaneously exposed to various abiotic stresses such as cold and drought, which have profound effects on leaf senescence process and tea quality. However, most studies of gene expression in stress responses focus on a single inciting agent, and the confounding effect of multiple stresses on crop quality and leaf senescence remain unearthed. Here, global transcriptome profiles of tea leaves under separately cold and drought stress were compared with their combination using RNA-Seq technology. This revealed that tea plants shared a large overlap in unigenes displayed “similar” (26%) expression pattern and avoid antagonistic responses (lowest level of “prioritized” mode: 0%) to exhibit very congruent responses to co-occurring cold and drought stress; 31.5% differential expressed genes and 38% of the transcriptome changes in response to combined stresses were unpredictable from cold or drought single-case studies. We also identified 319 candidate genes for enhancing plant resistance to combined stress. We then investigated the combined effect of cold and drought on tea quality and leaf senescence. Our results showed that drought-induced leaf senescence were severely delayed by (i) modulation of a number of senescence-associated genes and cold responsive genes, (ii) enhancement of antioxidant capacity, (iii) attenuation of lipid degradation, (iv) maintenance of cell wall and photosynthetic system, (v) alteration of senescence-induced sugar effect/sensitivity, as well as (vi) regulation of secondary metabolism pathways that significantly influence the quality of tea during combined stress. Therefore, care should be taken when utilizing a set of stresses to try and maximize leaf longevity and tea quality. PMID:28018394

  10. Initial evaluation of floor cooling on lactating sows under severe acute heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives were to evaluate an acute heat stress protocol for lactating sows and evaluate preliminary estimates of water flow rates required to cool sows. Twelve multiparous sows were provided with a cooling pad built with an aluminum plate surface, high-density polyethylene base and copper pipe...

  11. Baroreflex sensitivity is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade

    PubMed Central

    Truijen, Jasper; Davis, Shyrin C.A.T.; Stok, Wim J.; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Westerloo, David J.; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom; Westerhof, Berend E.; Karemaker, John M.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute psychological stress challenges the cardiovascular system with an increase in BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and reduced BRS (baroreflex sensitivity). β-adrenergic blockade enhances BRS during rest, but its effect on BRS during acute psychological stress is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that BRS is higher during acute psychological stress in healthy subjects under β-adrenergic blockade. Twenty healthy novice male bungee jumpers were randomized and studied with (PROP, n=10) or without (CTRL, n=10) propranolol. BP and HR responses and BRS [cross-correlation time-domain (BRSTD) and cross-spectral frequency-domain (BRSFD) analysis] were evaluated from 30 min prior up to 2 h after the jump. HR, cardiac output and pulse pressure were lower in the PROP group throughout the study. Prior to the bungee jump, BRS was higher in the PROP group compared with the CTRL group [BRSTD: 28 (24–42) compared with 17 (16–28) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; BRSFD: 27 (20–34) compared with 14 (9–19) ms·mmHg−1, P<0.05; values are medians (interquartile range)]. BP declined after the jump in both groups, and post-jump BRS did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, during acute psychological stress, BRS is higher in healthy subjects treated with non-selective β-adrenergic blockade with significantly lower HR but comparable BP. PMID:20828371

  12. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  13. Natural variations in the stress and acute phase responses of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The initial response of the innate immune system upon activation has been defined as the acute phase response (APR). Activation of the APR results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations, and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being th...

  14. Influence of acute stress on response inhibition in healthy men: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Dierolf, Angelika Margarete; Fechtner, Julia; Böhnke, Robina; Wolf, Oliver T; Naumann, Ewald

    2017-02-07

    The current study investigated the influence of acute stress and the resulting cortisol increase on response inhibition and its underlying cortical processes, using EEG. Before and after an acute stressor or a control condition, 39 healthy men performed a go/no-go task while ERPs (N2, P3), reaction times, errors, and salivary cortisol were measured. Acute stress impaired neither accuracy nor reaction times, but differentially affected the neural correlates of response inhibition; namely, stress led to enhanced amplitudes of the N2 difference waves (N2d, no-go minus go), indicating enhanced response inhibition and conflict monitoring. Moreover, participants responding to the stressor with an acute substantial rise in cortisol (high cortisol responders) showed reduced amplitudes of the P3 of the difference waves (P3d, no-go minus go) after the stressor, indicating an impaired evaluation and finalization of the inhibitory process. Our findings indicate that stress leads to a reallocation of cognitive resources to the neural subprocesses of inhibitory control, strengthening premotor response inhibition and the detection of response conflict, while concurrently diminishing the subsequent finalization process within the stream of processing.

  15. The Effects of Acute Stress on Cognitive Performance. A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Determining the relationship of acute stress, anxiety, and salivary a- amylase level with performance of student nurse anesthesiologists during...A., Ramat, L., and Teixeira, A. (2009). Effect of lecturing to 200 students on heart rate variability and alpha- amylase . European Journal of Applied

  16. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  17. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  18. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  19. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced cold tolerance relative to those harboring a premature stop codon (PMSC) in this gene. Similarly, isolates possessing a plasmid demonstrated significantly (p = 0.013) enhanced acid tolerance. We also identified nine new L. monocytogenes sequence types, a new inlA PMSC, and several connections between CCs and the presence/absence or variations of specific genetic elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σB regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in

  20. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress.

    PubMed

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced cold tolerance relative to those harboring a premature stop codon (PMSC) in this gene. Similarly, isolates possessing a plasmid demonstrated significantly (p = 0.013) enhanced acid tolerance. We also identified nine new L. monocytogenes sequence types, a new inlA PMSC, and several connections between CCs and the presence/absence or variations of specific genetic elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σ(B) regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in

  1. Effect of acute heat stress on plant nutrient metabolism proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrupt heating decreased the levels (per unit total root protein) of all but one of the nutrient metabolism proteins examined, and for most of the proteins, effects were greater for severe vs. moderate heat stress. For many of the nutrient metabolism proteins, initial effects of heat (1 d) were r...

  2. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  3. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role.

  4. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ??? 150 ??l/l without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 100 ??l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 50 ??l/l.

  5. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ≤ 150 (μl/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 100 μl/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 50μl/l.

  6. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEAT AND COLD STRESS ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES AND OTHER TOXICANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in laboratory rodents maintained under comfortable environmental conditions. However, exposure to toxicants as well as some drugs can occur under stressful conditions during rest or while exercising. Heat stress can exa...

  7. Sesamol attenuates oxidative stress-mediated experimental acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, P-Y; Srinivasan, P; Deng, J-F; Liu, M-Y

    2012-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease with no known cure. The initial events in acute pancreatitis may occur within the acinar cells. We examined the effect of sesamol on (i) a cerulein-induced pancreatic acinar cancer cell line, AR42J, and (ii) cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Sesamol inhibited amylase activity and increased cell survival. It also inhibited medium lipid peroxidation and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in AR42J cells compared with the cerulein-alone groups. In addition, in cerulein-treated rats, sesamol inhibited serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic edema, and lipid peroxidation, but it increased pancreatic glutathione and nitric oxide levels. Thus, we hypothesize that sesamol attenuates cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis by inhibiting the pancreatic acinar cell death associated with oxidative stress in rats.

  8. Transcriptomic Profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant pad2.1 in Response to Combined Cold and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Datta, Riddhi; Hazra, Saptarshi; Sultana, Asma; Mukhopadhyay, Ria; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of glutathione (GSH) in stress tolerance, defense response and antioxidant signaling is an established fact. In this study transcriptome analysis of pad2.1, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, after combined osmotic and cold stress treatment has been performed to explore the intricate position of GSH in the stress and defense signaling network in planta. Microarray data revealed the differential regulation of about 1674 genes in pad2.1 amongst which 973 and 701 were significantly up- and down-regulated respectively. Gene enrichment, functional pathway analysis by DAVID and MapMan analysis identified various stress and defense related genes viz. members of heat shock protein family, peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX2), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), NBS-LRR type resistance protein etc. as down-regulated. The expression pattern of the above mentioned stress and defense related genes and APETALA were also validated by comparative proteomic analysis of combined stress treated Col-0 and pad2.1. Functional annotation noted down-regulation of UDP-glycosyl transferase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase 8, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (CAD4), ACC synthase and ACC oxidase which are the important enzymes of phenylpropanoid, lignin and ethylene (ET) biosynthetic pathway respectively. Since the only difference between Col-0 (Wild type) and pad2.1 is the content of GSH, so, this study suggested that in addition to its association with specific stress responsive genes and proteins, GSH provides tolerance to plants by its involvement with phenylpropanoid, lignin and ET biosynthesis under stress conditions. PMID:25822199

  9. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  10. Overexpression of a bHLH1 Transcription Factor of Pyrus ussuriensis Confers Enhanced Cold Tolerance and Increases Expression of Stress-Responsive Genes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cong; Huang, Xiao-San; Li, Kong-Qing; Yin, Hao; Li, Lei-Ting; Yao, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in arrays of physiological and biochemical processes. However, knowledge concerning the functions of bHLHs in cold tolerance remains poorly understood. In this study, a PubHLH1 gene isolated from Pyrus ussuriensis was characterized for its function in cold tolerance. PubHLH1 was upregulated by cold, salt, and dehydration, with the greatest induction under cold conditions. PubHLH1 had the transactivational activity and localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of PubHLH1 in transgenic tobacco conferred enhanced tolerance to cold stress. The transgenic lines had higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll, higher proline contents, lower electrolyte leakages and MDA when compared with wild type (WT). In addition, transcript levels of eight genes associated with ROS scavenging, regulation, and stress defense were higher in the transgenic plants relative to the WT under the chilling stress. Taken together, these results demonstrated that PubHLH1 played a key role in cold tolerance and, at least in part, contributed to activation of stress-responsive genes. PMID:27092159

  11. Overexpression of SlGMEs leads to ascorbate accumulation with enhanced oxidative stress, cold, and salt tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Liu, Junxia; Zhang, Yuyang; Cai, Xiaofeng; Gong, Pengjuan; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Ye, Zhibiao

    2011-03-01

    GDP-Mannose 3',5'-epimerase (GME; EC 5.1.3.18) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis pathway in higher plants. In this study, two members of the GME gene family were isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Both SlGME genes encode 376 amino acids and share a 92% similarity with each other. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that SlGME1 was constantly expressed in various tissues, whereas SlGME2 was differentially expressed in different tissues. Transient expression of fused SlGME1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and SlGME2-GFP in onion cells revealed the cytoplasmic localisation of the two proteins. Transgenic plants over-expressing SlGME1 and SlGME2 exhibited a significant increase in total ascorbic acid in leaves and red fruits compared with wild-type plants. They also showed enhanced stress tolerance based on less chlorophyll content loss and membrane-lipid peroxidation under methyl viologen (paraquat) stress, higher survival rate under cold stress, and significantly higher seed germination rate, fresh weight, and root length under salt stress. The present study demonstrates that the overexpression of two members of the GME gene family resulted in increased ascorbate accumulation in tomato and improved tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  12. Effect of the acute crowding stress on the rat brown adipose tissue metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Cvijic, Gordana; Petrovic, Natasa; Davidovic, Vukosava

    2005-12-01

    Our previous results have shown that metabolic and thermal stressors influence interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) metabolic activity by increasing oxygen consumption and, consequently, altering the toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidative system activity. Since there is not enough evidence about the effect of psychosocial stressors on these processes, we studied the effect of acute crowding stress on the IBAT and hypothalamic monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity as well as IBAT antioxidative enzymes, manganese (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT), as the relevant indicators of IBAT metabolic alternations under the stress exposure and the returning of animals to control conditions. The results indicated that acute crowding stress did not change the hypothalamic and IBAT MAO activities, the generation of ROS and, consequently, the IBAT CuZnSOD and CAT activities. However, all three antioxidative enzymes were affected only after the recovery period. It seems that peripheral overheating of rats during acute crowding changes the stress nature, by becoming more thermal than psychosocial and by suppression the hypothalamic efferent pathways involved in the IBAT thermogenesis regulation. However, it seems that returning of the animals to the control conditions after the stress termination causes the reactivation of IBAT thermogenesis with tendency to normalise the body temperature.

  13. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Methods One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention. PMID:26514158

  14. Predictive modeling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to acute and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vladimir M; Čupić, Željko; Vukojević, Vladana; Kolar-Anić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Detailed dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is complex, depending on the individual metabolic load of an organism, its current status (healthy/ill, circadian phase (day/night), ultradian phase) and environmental impact. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the HPA axis activity between different individuals or draw unequivocal conclusions about the overall status of the HPA axis in an individual using single time-point measurements of cortisol levels. The aim of this study is to identify parameters that enable us to compare different dynamic states of the HPA axis and use them to investigate self-regulation mechanisms in the HPA axis under acute and chronic stress. In this regard, a four-dimensional stoichiometric model of the HPA axis was used. Acute stress was modeled by inducing an abrupt change in cortisol level during the course of numerical integration, whereas chronic stress was modeled by changing the mean stationary state concentrations of CRH. Effects of acute stress intensity, duration and time of onset with respect to the ultradian amplitude, ultradian phase and the circadian phase of the perturbed oscillation were studied in detail. Bifurcation analysis was used to predict the response of the HPA axis to chronic stress. Model predictions were compared with experimental findings reported in the literature and relevance for pharmacotherapy with glucocorticoids was discussed.

  15. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  16. Acute restraint stress induces an imbalance in the oxidative status of the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Dal Santo, Glaucia; Conterato, Greicy M M; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Rosemberg, Denis B; Piato, Angelo L

    2014-01-13

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an emergent model organism for translational approaches focused on the neurobiology of stress due to its genetic, neuroanatomical, and histological similarities with mammalian systems. However, despite the increasing number of studies using zebrafish, reports examining the impact of stress on relevant neurochemical parameters are still elementary when compared to studies using rodents. Additionally, it is important to further validate this model organism by comparing its stress response with those described in other species. Here, we evaluated the effects of an acute restraint stress (ARS) protocol on oxidative stress-related parameters in the zebrafish brain. Our data revealed that ARS significantly decreased catalase activity without altering the activity of superoxide dismutase. Oxidative stress was also indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxides. ARS significantly increased the levels of non-protein thiols, although significant changes in total reduced sulfhydryl content were not detected. These results suggest that ARS is an interesting strategy for evaluating the mechanisms underlying the neurochemical basis of the oxidative profile triggered by acute stressors in the zebrafish brain. Furthermore, this protocol may be suitable for screening new compounds with protective properties against oxidative stress, which plays an increasingly important role in many psychiatric disorders.

  17. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  18. Engineering carpel-specific cold stress tolerance: a case study in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freezing temperatures during winter generally do not injure floral buds of horticulturally important crops. Entry into dormancy coupled with cold acclimation provides adequate protection unless the temperatures are exceptionally low. This measure of protection is lost in spring when the floral bud...

  19. Genome wide transcriptional profile analysis of Vitis amurensis in response to cold stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide and is cultivated on all of the continents except Antarctica. However, low temperatures can limit the geographical locations and productivity of grapes. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding th...

  20. Adrenal response to acute stress in mammillary medial nuclei lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Suarez, M; Perassi, N I

    1993-01-01

    In view of the inhibitory influence of Mammillary Medial Nuclei, pars lateralis (MMN) on corticoadrenal activity, experiments were conducted in order to determine whether these nuclei are involved in the control of adrenal response to ether stress. In bilateral MMN lesioned rats, prestress plasma corticosterone concentration (C) is significantly higher than that in sham lesioned animals. Acute stress produced a significant C increase in both, sham and lesioned rats, being this increase lower in lesioned animals. After exposure to ether vapors. adrenal concentration of norepinephrine was similar in lesioned and control animals. Whereas, adrenal epinephrine concentration was significantly higher in lesioned rats than that found in the sham lesioned ones. This study demonstrates that the integrity of MMN is not essential for adrenal response to acute stress.

  1. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Putri, Mirasari; Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A.; Iso, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Tsushima, Yoshito; and others

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36{sup −/−} mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue {sup 125}I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue {sup 18}F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36{sup −/−} mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is

  2. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant-pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed.

  3. Characterizing dynamic interactions between ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity and acute stress using the phase response curve.

    PubMed

    Rankin, James; Walker, Jamie J; Windle, Richard; Lightman, Stafford L; Terry, John R

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a dynamic oscillatory hormone signalling system that regulates the pulsatile secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. In addition to regulation of basal levels of glucocorticoids, the HPA axis provides a rapid hormonal response to stress that is vitally important for homeostasis. Recently it has become clear that glucocorticoid pulses encode an important biological signal that regulates receptor signalling both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. It is therefore important to understand how stressful stimuli disrupt the pulsatile dynamics of this system. Using a computational model that incorporates the crucial feed-forward and feedback components of the axis, we provide novel insight into experimental observations that the size of the stress-induced hormonal response is critically dependent on the timing of the stress. Further, we employ the theory of Phase Response Curves to show that an acute stressor acts as a phase-resetting mechanism for the ultradian rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion. Using our model, we demonstrate that the magnitude of an acute stress is a critical factor in determining whether the system resets via a Type 1 or Type 0 mechanism. By fitting our model to our in vivo stress-response data, we show that the glucocorticoid response to an acute noise stress in rats is governed by a Type 0 phase-resetting curve. Our results provide additional evidence for the concept of a deterministic sub-hypothalamic oscillator regulating the ultradian glucocorticoid rhythm, which constitutes a highly responsive peripheral hormone system that interacts dynamically with hypothalamic inputs to regulate the overall hormonal response to stress.

  4. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P < 0.03) and total energy intake (965.2 kJ vs. 793.8 kJ, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P < 0.01). This positive relationship was stronger in subjects with high disinhibition scores (R(2) = 0.12, P < 0.05). Differences in state anxiety scores were a function of trait anxiety scores (R(2) = 0.07, P < 0.05). We conclude that acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress.

  5. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, De-guo; Jin, Shi-li; Li, Gong-ying; Li, Qing-qing; Li, Zhi-ruo; Ma, Hong-xia; Zhuo, Chuan-jun; Jiang, Rong-huan; Ye, Min-jie

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress. PMID:27857753

  6. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, De-Guo; Jin, Shi-Li; Li, Gong-Ying; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Zhi-Ruo; Ma, Hong-Xia; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Jiang, Rong-Huan; Ye, Min-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  7. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity.

  8. Expression of selected Ginkgo biloba heat shock protein genes after cold treatment could be induced by other abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fuliang; Cheng, Hua; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Linling; Xu, Feng; Yu, Wanwen; Yuan, Honghui

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa), 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, GbHSP17 showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 may play important roles in Ginkgo leaf development and photosynthesis, and GbHSP17 may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three GbHSPs were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of GbHSP70, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP17, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment caused up-regulation of GbHSP70 primarily.

  9. Clinical defense response to cold and noise in preterm neonates after intrauterine conditions associated with chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Van Reempts, P J; Wouters, A; De Cock, W; Van Acker, K J

    1996-07-01

    Threatening stimuli may trigger abnormal reaction patterns in animals and infants. We investigated whether chronic intrauterine stress influenced these reactions. The autonomic defense response to cold and noise in 21 preterm newborns who had suffered from chronic intrauterine stress, such as maternal smoking, maternal hypertension, and intrauterine growth retardation (STR-group) was compared with the response in 30 preterm newborns without such condition (C-group). An ice cube was applied to the forehead and a 90 dB bleeptone was presented to the ears. After the cold test the heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure increased in both groups, but to a lesser extent in the STR-group: the heart rate increased more at 2 minutes in the C-group (p = 0.009), and the systolic blood pressure was higher in the C-group at 30 seconds (p = 0.007). The respiratory rate decreased in both groups. After the auditory stimulus, no significant difference in response between the two groups was seen for any of the parameters. The number of arousals between the two groups was similar for both tests; they uniformly resulted in increased heart and respiratory rates. The classic passive defense response was not observed in either group of preterm newborns. The observed reaction could be defined as a combination of a sympathetic, active fight-or-flight reaction and a parasympathetic passive freezing, or paralysis, reaction. The latter was less pronounced in the C-group. This may point to a change in the maturation of the autonomic nervous system after chronic intrauterine stress. It is speculated that this could make these infants more vulnerable in stressful situations.

  10. Expression of Selected Ginkgo biloba Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fuliang; Cheng, Hua; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Linling; Xu, Feng; Yu, Wanwen; Yuan, Honghui

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three HSP genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Ginkgo biloba leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated GbHSP16.8, GbHSP17 and GbHSP70. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa), 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, GbHSP17 showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70 may play important roles in Ginkgo leaf development and photosynthesis, and GbHSP17 may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three GbHSPs were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of GbHSP70, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP17, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of GbHSP16.8 and GbHSP70, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment caused up-regulation of GbHSP70 primarily. PMID:22754330

  11. Simultaneous Over-Expression of PaSOD and RaAPX in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Confers Cold Stress Tolerance through Increase in Vascular Lignifications

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Amrina; Dogra, Vivek; Gill, Tejpal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes play a significant role in eliminating toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated during stress from living cells. In the present study, two different antioxidant enzymes namely copper-zinc superoxide dismutase derived from Potentilla astrisanguinea (PaSOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (RaAPX) from Rheum austral both of which are high altitude cold niche area plants of Himalaya were cloned and simultaneously over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to alleviate cold stress. It was found that the transgenic plants over-expressing both the genes were more tolerant to cold stress than either of the single gene expressing transgenic plants during growth and development. In both single (PaSOD, RaAPX) and double (PaSOD + RaAPX) transgenic plants higher levels of total antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars, proline content and lower levels of ROS, ion leakage were recorded when compared to the WT during cold stress (4°C), besides increase in yield. In the present study, Confocal and SEM analysis in conjunction with qPCR data on the expression pattern of lignin biosynthetic pathway genes revealed that the cold stress tolerance of the transgenic plants might be because of the peroxide induced up-regulation of lignin by antioxidant genes mediated triggering. PMID:25330211

  12. Isolation and characterization of rice (Oryza sativa L.) E3-ubiquitin ligase OsHOS1 gene in the modulation of cold stress response.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Tiago; Sapeta, Helena; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Rodrigues, Mafalda; Cordeiro, André; Abreu, Isabel A; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2013-11-01

    Plants can cope with adverse environmental conditions through the activation of stress response signalling pathways, in which the proteasome seems to play an important role. However, the mechanisms underlying the proteasome-mediated stress response in rice are still not fully understood. To address this issue, we have identified a rice E3-ubiquitin ligase, OsHOS1, and characterized its role in the modulation of the cold stress response. Using a RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic approach we found that, under cold conditions, the RNAi::OsHOS1 plants showed a higher expression level of OsDREB1A. This was correlated with an increased amount of OsICE1, a master transcription factor of the cold stress signalling. However, the up-regulation of OsDREB1A was transient and the transgenic plants did not show increased cold tolerance. Nevertheless, we could confirm the interaction of OsHOS1 with OsICE1 by Yeast-Two hybrid and bi-molecular fluorescence complementation in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Moreover, we could also determine through an in vitro degradation assay that the higher amount of OsICE1 in the transgenic plants was correlated with a lower amount of OsHOS1. Hence, we could confirm the involvement of the proteasome in this response mechanism. Taken together our results confirm the importance of OsHOS1, and thus of the proteasome, in the modulation of the cold stress signalling in rice.

  13. A nonparametric mean-variance smoothing method to assess Arabidopsis cold stress transcriptional regulator CBF2 overexpression microarray data.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pingsha; Maiti, Tapabrata

    2011-01-01

    Microarray is a powerful tool for genome-wide gene expression analysis. In microarray expression data, often mean and variance have certain relationships. We present a non-parametric mean-variance smoothing method (NPMVS) to analyze differentially expressed genes. In this method, a nonlinear smoothing curve is fitted to estimate the relationship between mean and variance. Inference is then made upon shrinkage estimation of posterior means assuming variances are known. Different methods have been applied to simulated datasets, in which a variety of mean and variance relationships were imposed. The simulation study showed that NPMVS outperformed the other two popular shrinkage estimation methods in some mean-variance relationships; and NPMVS was competitive with the two methods in other relationships. A real biological dataset, in which a cold stress transcription factor gene, CBF2, was overexpressed, has also been analyzed with the three methods. Gene ontology and cis-element analysis showed that NPMVS identified more cold and stress responsive genes than the other two methods did. The good performance of NPMVS is mainly due to its shrinkage estimation for both means and variances. In addition, NPMVS exploits a non-parametric regression between mean and variance, instead of assuming a specific parametric relationship between mean and variance. The source code written in R is available from the authors on request.

  14. WRKY76 is a rice transcriptional repressor playing opposite roles in blast disease resistance and cold stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yokotani, Naoki; Sato, Yuko; Tanabe, Shigeru; Chujo, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Takafumi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Shimono, Masaki; Sugano, Shoji; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Minami, Eiichi; Nishizawa, Yoko

    2013-11-01

    OsWRKY76 encodes a group IIa WRKY transcription factor of rice. The expression of OsWRKY76 was induced within 48h after inoculation with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), and by wounding, low temperature, benzothiadiazole, and abscisic acid. Green fluorescent protein-fused OsWRKY76 localized to the nuclei in rice epidermal cells. OsWRKY76 showed sequence-specific DNA binding to the W-box element in vitro and exhibited W-box-mediated transcriptional repressor activity in cultured rice cells. Overexpression of OsWRKY76 in rice plants resulted in drastically increased susceptibility to M. oryzae, but improved tolerance to cold stress. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of OsWRKY76 suppresses the induction of a specific set of PR genes and of genes involved in phytoalexin synthesis after inoculation with blast fungus, consistent with the observation that the levels of phytoalexins in the transgenic rice plants remained significantly lower than those in non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, overexpression of OsWRKY76 led to the increased expression of abiotic stress-associated genes such as peroxidase and lipid metabolism genes. These results strongly suggest that OsWRKY76 plays dual and opposing roles in blast disease resistance and cold tolerance.

  15. The Effects of Acute Stress on Episodic Memory: A Meta-Analysis and Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Sazma, Matthew A; McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-04-03

    A growing body of research has indicated that acute stress can critically impact memory. However, there are a number of inconsistencies in the literature, and important questions remain regarding the conditions under which stress effects emerge as well as basic questions about how stress impacts different phases of memory. In this meta-analysis, we examined 113 independent studies in humans with 6,216 participants that explored effects of stress on encoding, postencoding, retrieval, or postreactivation phases of episodic memory. The results indicated that when stress occurred prior to or during encoding it impaired memory, unless both the delay between the stressor and encoding was very short and the study materials were directly related to the stressor, in which case stress improved encoding. In contrast, postencoding stress improved memory unless the stressor occurred in a different physical context than the study materials. When stress occurred just prior to or during retrieval, memory was impaired, and these effects were larger for emotionally valenced materials than neutral materials. Although stress consistently increased cortisol, the magnitude of the cortisol response was not related to the effects of stress on memory. Nonetheless, the effects of stress on memory were generally reduced in magnitude for women taking hormonal contraceptives. These analyses indicate that stress disrupts some episodic memory processes while enhancing others, and that the effects of stress are modulated by a number of critical factors. These results provide important constraints on current theories of stress and memory, and point to new questions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Acute and Chronic Stress: The Effects of Loss of Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-31

    items? 1 not hard 2 3 4 5 6 7 hard 7. How important is it to you to do well on the EFT? 1 not important 2 3 4 5 6 7 important GV <JLJb ABC 0 E ABC D E 229...the research on the effects of 5 unemployment that supports the notion that long-term unemployment is associated with chronic stress and loss of control...found to be associated with unemployment rates as well, usually at lags between 1 and 5 years (Brenner, 1971; Brenner & Mooney, 1983). In addition

  17. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of Child Acute Stress Measures in Spanish and English

    PubMed Central

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.; Montaño, Zorash; Kohser, Kristen L.; Cuadra, Anai; Muñoz, Cynthia; Armstrong, F. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers need tools for accurate early assessment of children’s acute stress reactions and acute stress disorder (ASD). There is a particular need for independently validated Spanish-language measures. The current study reports on 2 measures of child acute stress (a self-report checklist and a semi-structured interview), describing the development of the Spanish version of each measure and psychometric evaluation of both the Spanish and English versions. Children between the ages of 8 to 17 years who had experienced a recent traumatic event completed study measures in Spanish (n = 225) or in English (n = 254). Results provide support for reliability (internal consistency of the measures in both languages ranges from .83 to .89; cross-language reliability of the checklist is .93) and for convergent validity (with later PTSD symptoms, and with concurrent anxiety symptoms). Comparing checklist and interview results revealed a strong association between severity scores within the Spanish and English samples. Checklist-interview differences in evaluating the presence of ASD appear to be linked to different content coverage for dissociation symptoms. Future studies should further assess the impact of differing assessment modes, content coverage, and the use of these measures in children with diverse types of acute trauma exposure in English- and Spanish-speaking children. PMID:23371337

  18. GsZFP1, a new Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein, is a positive regulator of plant tolerance to cold and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jing; Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-06-01

    Plant acclimation to environmental stress is controlled by a complex network of regulatory genes that compose distinct stress-response regulons. The C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) have been implicated in different cellular processes involved in plant development and stress responses. Through microarray analysis, an alkaline (NaHCO(3))-responsive ZFP gene GsZFP1 was identified and subsequently cloned from Glyycine soja. GsZFP1 encodes a 35.14 kDa protein with one C2H2-type zinc-finger motif. The QALGGH domain, conserved in most plant C2H2-type ZFPs, is absent in the GsZFP1 protein sequence. A subcellular localization study using a GFP fusion protein indicated that GsZFP1 is localized to the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that GsZFP1 was induced in the leaf by ABA (100 μM), salt (200 mM NaCl), and cold (4°C), and in the root by ABA (100 μM), cold (4°C), and drought (30% PEG 6000). Over-expression of GsZFP1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in a greater tolerance to cold and drought stress, a decreased water loss rate, and an increase in proline irrespective of environmental conditions. The over-expression of GsZFP1 also increased the expression of a number of stress-response marker genes, including CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, NCED3, COR47, and RD29A in response to cold stress and RAB18, NCED3, P5CS, RD22, and RD29A in response to drought stress, especially early during stress treatments. Our studies suggest that GsZFP1 plays a crucial role in the plant response to cold and drought stress.

  19. Cold Responsive Gene Expression Profiling of Sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum with Functional Analysis of a Cold Inducible Saccharum Homolog of NOD26-Like Intrinsic Protein to Salt and Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Won; Benatti, Thiago R; Marconi, Thiago; Yu, Qingyi; Solis-Gracia, Nora; Mora, Victoria; da Silva, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of sugarcane hybrid CP72-1210 (cold susceptible) and Saccharum spontaneum TUS05-05 (cold tolerant) using Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS) from SUCEST-FUN Database showed that a total of 35,340 and 34,698 SAS genes, respectively, were expressed before and after chilling stress. The analysis revealed that more than 600 genes are differentially expressed in each genotype after chilling stress. Blast2Go annotation revealed that the major difference in gene expression profiles between CP72-1210 and TUS05-05 after chilling stress are present in the genes related to the transmembrane transporter activity. To further investigate the relevance of transmembrane transporter activity against abiotic stress tolerance, a S. spontaneum homolog of a NOD26-like major intrinsic protein gene (SspNIP2) was selected for functional analysis, of which expression was induced after chilling stress in the cold tolerant TUS05-05. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that SspNIP2 expression was increased ~2.5 fold at 30 minutes after cold treatment and stayed induced throughout the 24 hours of cold treatment. The amino acid sequence analysis of the cloned SspNIP2 confirmed the presence of six transmembrane domains and two NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) motifs, signature features of major intrinsic protein families. Amino acid analysis confirmed that four amino acids, comprising the ar/R (aromatic residue/arginine) region responsible for the substrate specificity among MIPs, are conserved among monocot silicon transporters and SspNIP2. Salinity stress test on SspNIP2 transgenic tobacco plants resulted in more vigorous transgenic lines than the non-transgenic tobacco plants, suggesting some degree of tolerance to salt stress conferred by SspNIP2. SspNIP2-transgenic plants, exposed to 2 weeks of water stress without irrigation, developed various degrees of water stress symptom. The water stress test confirmed that the SspNIP2 transgenic lines had lower evapotranspiration rates than non

  20. Cold Responsive Gene Expression Profiling of Sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum with Functional Analysis of a Cold Inducible Saccharum Homolog of NOD26-Like Intrinsic Protein to Salt and Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Won; Benatti, Thiago R.; Marconi, Thiago; Yu, Qingyi; Solis-Gracia, Nora; Mora, Victoria; da Silva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of sugarcane hybrid CP72-1210 (cold susceptible) and Saccharum spontaneum TUS05-05 (cold tolerant) using Sugarcane Assembled Sequences (SAS) from SUCEST-FUN Database showed that a total of 35,340 and 34,698 SAS genes, respectively, were expressed before and after chilling stress. The analysis revealed that more than 600 genes are differentially expressed in each genotype after chilling stress. Blast2Go annotation revealed that the major difference in gene expression profiles between CP72-1210 and TUS05-05 after chilling stress are present in the genes related to the transmembrane transporter activity. To further investigate the relevance of transmembrane transporter activity against abiotic stress tolerance, a S. spontaneum homolog of a NOD26-like major intrinsic protein gene (SspNIP2) was selected for functional analysis, of which expression was induced after chilling stress in the cold tolerant TUS05-05. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that SspNIP2 expression was increased ~2.5 fold at 30 minutes after cold treatment and stayed induced throughout the 24 hours of cold treatment. The amino acid sequence analysis of the cloned SspNIP2 confirmed the presence of six transmembrane domains and two NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala) motifs, signature features of major intrinsic protein families. Amino acid analysis confirmed that four amino acids, comprising the ar/R (aromatic residue/arginine) region responsible for the substrate specificity among MIPs, are conserved among monocot silicon transporters and SspNIP2. Salinity stress test on SspNIP2 transgenic tobacco plants resulted in more vigorous transgenic lines than the non-transgenic tobacco plants, suggesting some degree of tolerance to salt stress conferred by SspNIP2. SspNIP2-transgenic plants, exposed to 2 weeks of water stress without irrigation, developed various degrees of water stress symptom. The water stress test confirmed that the SspNIP2 transgenic lines had lower evapotranspiration rates than non

  1. The behavioural, cognitive, and neural corollaries of blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T; Whittaker, Anna C; Lovallo, William R; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2017-02-27

    Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems that are needed to regulate motivated behaviour in the face of challenge. In support of this, brain imaging data demonstrate fronto-limbic hypoactivation during acute stress exposure. Those demonstrating blunted reactions also show impairments of motivation, including lower cognitive ability, more rapid cognitive decline, and poorer performance on motivation-dependent tests of lung function. Persons exhibiting blunted stress reactivity display well established temperament characteristics, including neuroticism and impulsivity, characteristic of various behavioural disorders. Notably, the outcomes related to blunted stress reactivity are similar to those that define Reward Deficiency Syndrome. Accordingly, some individuals may be characterised by a broad failure in cardiovascular and cortisol responding to both stress and reward, reflecting fronto-limbic dysregulation. Finally, we proffer a model of blunted stress reactivity, its antecedents and sequelae, and identify future research priorities.

  2. Neonatal experience interacts with adult social stress to alter acute and chronic Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R R; Maldonado Bouchard, S; Prentice, T W; Bridegam, P; Rassu, F; Young, C R; Steelman, A J; Welsh, T H; Welsh, C J; Meagher, M W

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal handling has prolonged protective effects associated with stress resilience and aging, yet little is known about its effect on stress-induced modulation of infectious disease. We have previously demonstrated that social disruption stress exacerbates the acute and chronic phases of the disease when applied prior to Theiler's virus infection (PRE-SDR) whereas it attenuates disease severity when applied concurrently with infection (CON-SDR). Here, we asked whether neonatal handling would protect adult mice from the detrimental effects of PRE-SDR and attenuate the protective effects of CON-SDR on Theiler's virus infection. As expected, handling alone decreased IL-6 and corticosterone levels, protected the non-stressed adult mice from motor impairment throughout infection and reduced antibodies to myelin components (PLP, MBP) during the autoimmune phase of disease. In contrast, neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR elevated IL-6 and reduced corticosterone as well as increased motor impairment during the acute phase of the infection. Neonatal handling X PRE/CON-SDR continued to exacerbate motor impairment during the chronic phase, whereas only neonatal handling X PRE-SDR increased in antibodies to PLP, MOG, MBP and TMEV. Together, these results imply that while handling reduced the severity of later Theiler's virus infection in non-stressed mice, brief handling may not be protective when paired with later social stress.

  3. Modulation of the immunologic response to acute stress in humans by beta-blockade or benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Benschop, R J; Jacobs, R; Sommer, B; Schürmeyer, T H; Raab, J R; Schmidt, R E; Schedlowski, M

    1996-03-01

    Acute stress evokes immediate responses in the cardiovascular endocrine, and immune systems. In particular, the number and activity of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes increase after stress. Here, we investigate the possibility to pharmacologically interfere with these stress-induced immunologic changes. Twenty-five healthy males were subjected to an acute stressor, a first-time tandem parachute jump. Subjects were randomly assigned to a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol), a benzodiazepine (alprazolam), or placebo group. To analyze the role of the spleen in lymphocyte redistribution, splenectomized subjects performed a parachute jump. Propranolol, but no alprazolam, inhibited the heart rate increase during jumping. Increases in epinephrine and cortisol in the propranolol group were comparable to placebo, but were attenuated by alprazolam. The number and activity of NK cells significantly increased in the placebo group but not in the propranolol group immediately after stress. Alprazolam treatment did not alter the increase in NK cell numbers but did inhibit the increase in NK activity. In splenectomized subjects, NK cell numbers, but not NK activity, increased as in placebo subjects. We conclude that stress-induced changes in the immune system are controlled by beta-adrenergic mechanisms and only partly depend on the spleen; central interference with alprazolam differentially affects stress-induced changes in the NK cell compartment.

  4. Obesity-induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-03-09

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese (DIO) mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in DIO mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins including PERK, IREα and ATF6, in whole lung and in lung endothelial cells isolated from DIO mice. Further, we found that lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of DIO mice. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation; indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-PBA, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in DIO mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the endoplasmic reticulum of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against ARDS in obese individuals.

  5. General Procedure for Protective Cooling and Equipment Evaluations Relative to Heat and Cold Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Catherine O’Brien Bruce S. Cadarette Thomas L. Endrusick Laurie A. Blanchard Xiaoxiang Xu Larry G. Berglund Michael N. Sawka Reed W. Hoyt...International Organization for Standardization, ISO 11092:1993, 1993. 22. Kenefick, R. W., N. V. Mahood, M. P. Hazzard, T. J. Quinn , and J. W...1998. 31. O’Brien, C., A. J. Young, and M. N. Sawka. Hypohydration and thermoregulation in cold air. J Appl Physiol 84: 185-189, 1998. 32. Patton

  6. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol.

  7. Expression of ferritin-like protein in Listeria monocytogenes after cold and freezing stress.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Hanene; Soukri, Abdelaziz; Bakhrouf, Amina; Ammar, Emna

    2012-11-01

    The cold shock protein family consists of the transfer of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes from 37 to 4 and -20 °C and was characterized by the sharp induction of a low molecular mass protein. This major cold shock protein ferritin-like protein (Flp) has an important role in regulation of various microbial physiological processes. Flp have a molecular mass of about 18 kDa, as observed on SDS-PAGE. The purification procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation was used. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against the purified new Flp immunostained a single 18-kDa Flp band in extracts from different cytoplasmic proteins blotted onto nitrocellulose. A 411-bp cDNA fragment that corresponds to an internal region of an flp gene was obtained by RT-PCR. Our result indicated a surexpression of major cold shock protein and an important increase in flp mRNA amount after a downshift temperature especially at -20 °C.

  8. Early repolarization, acute emotional stress and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Lesta, Maria del Mar; Vanhaebost, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Augsburger, Marc; Vogt, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    We herein report the case of a 36-year-old man who died suddenly after a fight with another man. Forensic investigations included unenhanced computed tomography, postmortem angiography, autopsy, histology, neuropathology, toxicology, and biochemistry and allowed a traumatic cause of death to be excluded. An electrocardiogram recorded some years prior to death revealed the presence of an early repolarization pattern. Based on the results of all investigations, the cause of death was determined to be cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest during an emotionally stressful event associated with physical assault. Direct third party involvement, however, was excluded, and the manner of death was listed as natural. The case was not pursued any further by the public prosecutor.

  9. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  10. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jingkai; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J.; Rooks, Cherie; Bremner, J. Douglas; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ibeanu, Ijeoma; Murrah, Nancy; Shallenberger, Lucy; Raggi, Paolo; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task), and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS), obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores. Results There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30), p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56), p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress. Conclusion Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological) stress. PMID:25061993

  11. Stress tolerance and genetic variability of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-08-01

    Nineteen efficient phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas were screened for stress tolerance against temperature, alkalinity, salinity, calcium salts, and desiccation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed these bacteria under three groups with fourteen strains in Group I including Pseudomonas trivialis and P. poae, two strains in Group II together with Pseudomonas kilonensis and P. corrugata, and three strains in Group III along with Pseudomonas jessenii and P. moraviensis. Genetic diversity assessed by ERIC and BOX-PCR revealed variability among strains belonging to the same phylogenetic groups. Cluster analysis based on the growth characteristics under regimes of different stress levels placed the strains into three distinct clusters displaying no correlation to their phylogenetic groups. Stress-tolerant strains differed in the level of decline in phosphate solubilization under increasing intensity of various stress parameters. The highest decrease occurred with 5% CaCO(3,) followed by 2.5% CaCO(3), pH 11, 5% NaCl, temperature of 37 degrees C, 40% PEG, 5% CaSO(4), 2.5% NaCl, 2.5% CaSO(4), pH 9 and temperature of 15 degrees C. Two strains belonging to Phylogenetic Group I exhibited higher phosphate solubilization at lower temperature. The results revealed that stress-tolerance ability was not limited to any particular phylogenetic group. Knowledge about the genetic variants of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas with potential for tolerance to desiccation, alkalinity, temperature, and salinity could be useful in understanding their ecological role under stressful environments of low phosphate availability.

  12. Effect of methyl jasmonate on seedling tolerance to drought and cold temperature stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions are rarely optimal for plant growth, and nearly all plants experience some degree of abiotic stress during production. Commonly caused by inadequate water availability or unfavorably low or high temperatures, environmental stresses cause growth to slow or cease, reduce net p...

  13. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Itoga, Christy A.; Fisher, Marc O.; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded by CB1 receptor agonists, indicating it was mediated by the retrograde release of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The rapid glucocorticoid effect in BLA neurons in vitro was occluded by prior in vivo acute stress-induced, or prior in vitro glucocorticoid-induced, release of endocannabinoid. Acute stress also caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor activation and inhibiting 2-AG synthesis in the BLA. Together, these findings suggest that acute stress causes a long-lasting suppression of synaptic inhibition in BLA neurons via a membrane glucocorticoid receptor-induced release of 2-AG at GABA synapses, which contributes to stress-induced anxiogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We provide a cellular mechanism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) for

  14. Evaluation of serum protein-based arrival formula and serum protein supplement (Gammulin) on growth, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport and cold) male dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Pineda, A; Ballou, M A; Campbell, J M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K

    2016-11-01

    first 2 wk, increased intakes of dry matter and CP, and decreased respiratory scores. For the 8-wk experiment, G supplementation resulted in lower mean fecal score (1.6 vs. 1.8) and fewer antibiotic treatments per calf (1.5 vs. 2.5) than NG. Survival was greater in G than in NG calves (98 vs. 84%). Despite the marked reduction in morbidity and mortality, blood indicators of acute-phase response, urea N, and total protein were not affected by AF or G in transported cold-stressed male calves.

  15. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-11-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals.

  16. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    PubMed

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-06

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  17. The Hidden Cost of Housing Practices: Using Noninvasive Imaging to Quantify the Metabolic Demands of Chronic Cold Stress of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Chatziioannou, Arion F; Taschereau, Richard; Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory mice routinely are housed at 20 to 22 °C—well below the murine thermoneutral zone of 29 to 34 °C. Chronic cold stress requires greater energy expenditure to maintain core body temperature and can lead to the failure of mouse models to emulate human physiology. We hypothesized that mice housed at ambient temperatures of 20 to 22 °C are chronically cold-stressed, have greater energy expenditure, and have high glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue. To test our hypotheses, we used indirect calorimetry to measure energy expenditure and substrate utilization in C57BL/6J and Crl:NU-Foxn1nu nude mice at routine vivarium (21 °C), intermediate (26 °C), and heated (31 °C) housing temperatures. We also examined the activation of interscapular brown adipose tissue, the primary site of nonshivering thermogenesis, via thermography and glucose uptake in this region by using positron emission tomography. Energy expenditure of mice was significantly higher at routine vivarium temperatures compared with intermediate and heated temperatures and was associated with a shift in metabolism toward glucose utilization. Brown adipose tissue showed significant activation at routine vivarium and intermediate temperatures in both hirsuite and nude mice. Crl:NU-Foxn1nu mice experienced greater cold stress than did C57BL/6J mice. Our data indicate mice housed under routine vivarium conditions are chronically cold stress. This novel use of thermography can measure cold stress in laboratory mice housed in vivaria, a key advantage over classic metabolic measurement tools. Therefore, thermography is an ideal tool to evaluate novel husbandry practices designed to alleviate murine cold stress. PMID:24210014

  18. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  19. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted.

  20. Regulation of water, salinity, and cold stress responses by salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound. SA plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth, development, ripening, and defense responses. The role of SA in the plant–pathogen relationship has been extensively investigated. In addition to defense responses, SA plays an important role in the response to abiotic stresses, including drought, low temperature, and salinity stresses. It has been suggested that SA has great agronomic potential to improve the stress tolerance of agriculturally important crops. However, the utility of SA is dependent on the concentration of the applied SA, the mode of application, and the state of the plants (e.g., developmental stage and acclimation). Generally, low concentrations of applied SA alleviate the sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and high concentrations of applied induce high levels of oxidative stress, leading to a decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In this article, the effects of SA on the water stress responses and regulation of stomatal closure are reviewed. PMID:24478784