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Sample records for acute cytotoxicity assays

  1. The use of human adipose-derived stem cells based cytotoxicity assay for acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Abud, Ana Paula Ressetti; Zych, Jaiesa; Reus, Thamile Luciane; Kuligovski, Crisciele; de Moraes, Elizabeth; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; de Aguiar, Alessandra Melo

    2015-12-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were evaluated as cell culture model for cytotoxicity assay and toxicity prediction by using the neutral red uptake assay (NRU). In this study, we compared ADSC and the murine cell line BALB/c 3T3 clone A31 to predict the toxicity of 12 reference substances as recommended by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods. We predicted the LD50 for RC-rat-only weight and RC-rat-only millimole regressions for both cell culture models. For RC rat-only weight regression, both cells had the same accordance (50%), while for RC rat-only millimole regression, the accordance was 50% for ADSC and 42% for 3T3s. Thus, ADSC have similar capability for GHS class prediction as the 3T3 cell line for the evaluated reference substances. Therefore, ADSCs showed the potential to be considered a novel model for use in evaluating cytotoxicity in drug development and industry as well as for regulatory purposes to reduce or replace the use of laboratory animals with acceptable sensitivity for toxicity prediction in humans. These cells can be used to complete the results from other models, mainly because of its human origin. Moreover, it is less expensive in comparison with other existing models. PMID:26382612

  2. Automation of an in vitro cytotoxicity assay used to estimate starting doses in acute oral systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Bories, Gilles; Casado, Juan; Coecke, Sandra; Norlén, Hedvig; Parissis, Nicholaos; Rodrigues, Robim M; Whelan, Maurice P

    2012-06-01

    Application of High Throughput Screening (HTS) to the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals is still in its infancy but shows great promise in terms of facilitating better understanding of toxicological modes-of-action, reducing the reliance on animal testing, and allowing more data-poor chemicals to be assessed at a reasonable cost. To promote the uptake and acceptance of HTS approaches, we describe in a stepwise manner how a well known cytotoxicity assay can be automated to increase throughput while maintaining reliability. Results generated with selected reference chemicals compared very favourably with data obtained from a previous international validation study concerning the prediction of acute systemic toxicity in rodents. The automated assay was then included in a formal ECVAM validation study to determine if the assay could be used for binary classification of chemicals with respect to their acute oral toxicity, using a threshold equivalent to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. in a rodent bioassay (LD50). This involved the blind-testing of 56 reference chemicals on the HTS platform to produce concentration-response and IC50 data. Finally, the assay was adapted to a format more suited to higher throughput testing without compromising the quality of the data obtained. PMID:22465836

  3. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  4. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  5. Cytotoxicity assays to evaluate tannery effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, N; Moraes, J P; Klauck, C R; Gehlen, G; Rodrigues, M A S; Ziulkoski, A L

    2015-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) is used to increase the treatment efficiency of effluents however, it is necessary to compare the toxicity of treated and untreated effluents to evaluate if the decontamination process does not cause any biological harm. Cultured cells have been previously used to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of various compounds. Hence, the aim of this work was to assess the applicability of cytotoxicity assays to evaluate the toxicity related to the AOP treatment. Samples of an industrial effluent were collected after their treatment by a conventional method. Cytotoxicity of standard and AOP treated effluents was assessed in CRIB and HEp-2 cell line using the MTT and neutral red assays. We observed decrease at cell viability in the both assays (50% MTT and 13% NRU) when cells were exposed to the AOP treatment in the highest concentration. Thus, cytotoxic assays in cultured cells can be explored as an useful method to evaluate toxicity as well as to optimize effluents treatment process. PMID:26628242

  6. Label-free cytotoxicity screening assay by digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Jonas; Shaffer, Etienne; Mena, Julien; Breton, Billy; Parent, Jérôme; Rappaz, Benjamin; Chambon, Marc; Emery, Yves; Magistretti, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre; Turcatti, Gerardo

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a label-free technology based on digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with applicability for screening by imaging, and we demonstrate its capability for cytotoxicity assessment using mammalian living cells. For this first high content screening compatible application, we automatized a digital holographic microscope for image acquisition of cells using commercially available 96-well plates. Data generated through both label-free DHM imaging and fluorescence-based methods were in good agreement for cell viability identification and a Z'-factor close to 0.9 was determined, validating the robustness of DHM assay for phenotypic screening. Further, an excellent correlation was obtained between experimental cytotoxicity dose-response curves and known IC50 values for different toxic compounds. For comparable results, DHM has the major advantages of being label free and close to an order of magnitude faster than automated standard fluorescence microscopy. PMID:23062077

  7. A New Cytotoxicity Assay for Brevetoxins Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Jennifer R.; Elliott, Elizabeth A.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    Brevetoxins are a family of ladder-framed polyether toxins produced during blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Consumption of shellfish or finfish exposed to brevetoxins can lead to the development of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. The toxic effects of brevetoxins are believed to be due to the activation of voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cell membranes. The traditional cytotoxicity assay for detection of brevetoxins uses the Neuro-2A cell line, which must first be treated with the neurotoxins, ouabain and veratridine, in order to become sensitive to brevetoxins. In this study, we demonstrate several drawbacks of the Neuro-2A assay, which include variability for the EC50 values for brevetoxin and non-linear triphasic dose response curves. Ouabain/veratridine-treated Neuro-2A cells do not show a typical sigmoidal dose response curve in response to brevetoxin, but rather, have a polynomial shaped curve, which makes calculating EC50 values highly variable. We describe a new fluorescence live cell imaging model, which allows for accurate calculation of cytotoxicity via nuclear staining and additional measurement of other viability parameters depending on which aspect of the cell is stained. In addition, the SJCRH30 cell line shows promise as an alternative to Neuro-2A cells for testing brevetoxins without the need for ouabain and veratridine. PMID:25251033

  8. A study on reference standard for cytotoxicity assay of biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Oshima, H; Nakamura, M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to find a standard substance for use as a reference in the cytotoxicity assay of biomaterials, as an alternative to animal experiments in recent years. Eight kinds of rubber were made in a plate shape to keep their surface area at 1 cm2 against 10 ml of extract volume. They were extracted by the following three extraction methods (a) dynamic extraction at 200 rpm gyration on alumina balls at 37 degrees C for 24 h; (b) static extraction at 37 degrees C for 24 h and (c) extraction by heating in an autoclave at 121 degrees C for 60 min. At the end of each period each extract was examined for cell viability based on an evaluation by neutral red uptake. These methods were repeated up to seven times. Two kinds of chemicals were also tested. The extracts obtained were used to treat human gingival fibroblasts that have been cultured with DMEM supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum into a 96 well tissue culture plate by 1 x 10(5) cells/ml, in an incubator aerated with 5% CO2, and 95% humidified air at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The extracts of ethylene-propylene, butyl, nitrile rubbers, and two kinds of chemicals yielded strong cytotoxicity in all three kinds of extraction methods, while chloroprene, fluorine-contained, isoprene, India, and silicone rubbers showed little cytotoxicity. The results obtained by the three kinds of extraction methods revealed no differences in the order of cytotoxicity of the materials tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7950880

  9. Automated fluorescent analysis for drug-induced cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Funa, K; Dawson, N; Jewett, P B; Agren, H; Ruckdeschel, J C; Bunn, P A; Gazdar, A F

    1986-10-01

    The human tumor clonogenic assay has been reported to predict for sensitivity of human tumors to a variety of drugs. However, this assay requires large numbers of viable cells, is time-consuming, and takes at least 2 weeks before results are available. To circumvent these problems, Weisenthal developed a microscope-based dye exclusion assay. Because this method is also time-consuming and subject to observer error, we have developed an automated method of quantitating drug cytotoxicity using a flow cytometric cell sorter (FCM). After incubation of drug-exposed tumor cells, acetaldehyde-fixed duck red blood cells (DRBC) are added. Dead tumor cells and the fixed DRBC are stained by the fluorescent dye propidium iodide, which penetrates dead cell membranes. A two-parameter analysis (cell size as measured by narrow angle light scatter vs propidium iodide fluorescence) enables determination of the live tumor cell:DRBC ratio. There was a strong correlation between the FCM method and manual counting (r = 0.958 for cell lines, r = 0.831 for fresh leukemic cells, P less than 0.0001 in both cases). We conclude that the automatized FCM method gives compatible results to the manual dye exclusion assay and increases efficiency. PMID:3019545

  10. A MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ASSAYING CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxic activity assays of Gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria are often laborious and time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop in situ procedures for testing potential cytotoxic activities of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water systems. Wate...

  11. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  12. Comparative cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 13 drinking water disinfection by-products using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Miao, Dong-Yue; Tan, Li; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The implications of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in drinking water are of public health concern because of their potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and other toxic effects on humans. In this study, we selected 13 main DBPs found in drinking water to quantitatively analyse their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. With the developed SOS/umu test, eight DBPs: 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-fura3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-[5H]-furanone (MX), dibromoacetonitrile (DBN), iodoacetic acid (IA), bromochloroacetonitrile (BCN), bromoacetic acid (BA), trichloroacetonitrile (TCN), dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were significantly genotoxic to S. typhimurium. Three DBPs: chloroacetic acid (CA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCN) were weakly genotoxic, whereas the remaining DBPs: chloroacetonitrile (CN) and chloral hydrate (CH) were negative. The rank order in decreasing genotoxicity was as follows: MX > DBN > IA > BCN > BA > TCN > DBA > DCA > CA, TCA, DCN > CN, CH. MX was approximately 370 000 times more genotoxic than DCA. In the microplate-based cytotoxicity assay, cytotoxic potencies of the 13 DBPs were compared and ranked in decreasing order as follows: MX > IA > DBN > BCN > BA > TCN > DCN > CA > DCA > DBA > CN > TCA > CH. MX was approximately 19 200 times more cytotoxic than CH. A statistically significant correlation was found between cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the 13 DBPs in S. typhimurium. Results suggest that microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and the developed SOS/umu assay are feasible tools for analysing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs, particularly for comparing their toxic intensities quantitatively. PMID:26188195

  13. The low molecular weight DNA diffusion assay as an indicator of cytotoxicity for the in vitro comet assay.

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Vesely, Alexandra; Schütz, Petra; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Bausinger, Julia

    2014-07-01

    The low molecular weight DNA diffusion assay (LMW assay) has been recommended as a measure for cytotoxicity for the in vivo comet assay. To better understand the relationship between effects in the LMW assay, DNA migration in the comet assay and effects in established cytotoxicity tests, we performed in vitro experiments with cultured human cell lines (TK6, A549) and comparatively investigated five test substances (methyl methanesulfonate, (±)-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, sodium dodecyl sulphate, menthol and sodium arsenite). We measured DNA migration (tail intensity) in the comet assay and the frequency of 'hedgehogs' (cells with almost all DNA in the tail), DNA diffusion in the LMW assay, cell viability (trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide staining) and inhibition of proliferation (relative cell counts). Our in vitro experiments indicate that effects in the LMW assay occur independently from DNA effects in the comet assay and are not related to the occurrence of hedgehogs. Results from the LMW assay are in good agreement with results from viability assays and seem to allow discriminating genotoxic from non-genotoxic substances when appropriate preparation times are considered. Measurements of cytotoxicity by these methods only at an early preparation time after exposure to genotoxic substances may lead to erroneous results. PMID:24803666

  14. FluxCTTX: A LIMS-based tool for management and analysis of cytotoxicity assays data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytotoxicity assays have been used by researchers to screen for cytotoxicity in compound libraries. Researchers can either look for cytotoxic compounds or screen "hits" from initial high-throughput drug screens for unwanted cytotoxic effects before investing in their development as a pharmaceutical. These assays may be used as an alternative to animal experimentation and are becoming increasingly important in modern laboratories. However, the execution of these assays in large scale and different laboratories requires, among other things, the management of protocols, reagents, cell lines used as well as the data produced, which can be a challenge. The management of all this information is greatly improved by the utilization of computational tools to save time and guarantee quality. However, a tool that performs this task designed specifically for cytotoxicity assays is not yet available. Results In this work, we have used a workflow based LIMS -- the Flux system -- and the Together Workflow Editor as a framework to develop FluxCTTX, a tool for management of data from cytotoxicity assays performed at different laboratories. The main work is the development of a workflow, which represents all stages of the assay and has been developed and uploaded in Flux. This workflow models the activities of cytotoxicity assays performed as described in the OECD 129 Guidance Document. Conclusions FluxCTTX presents a solution for the management of the data produced by cytotoxicity assays performed at Interlaboratory comparisons. Its adoption will contribute to guarantee the quality of activities in the process of cytotoxicity tests and enforce the use of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). Furthermore, the workflow developed is complete and can be adapted to other contexts and different tests for management of other types of data. PMID:26696462

  15. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin cytotoxicity in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) is a widely used anti-tumor drug for the treatment of a broad range of human malignancies with successful therapeutic outcomes for head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancers. It has been found to inhibit cell cycle progression and to induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. However, its molecular mechanisms of cytotoxic action are poorly understood. We hypothesized that cisplatin induces cytotoxicity through DNA adduct formation, oxidative stress, transcriptional factors (p53 and AP-1), cell cycle regulation, stress signaling and apoptosis in APL cells. We used the APL cell line as a model, and applied a variety of molecular tools to elucidate the cytototoxic mode of action of cisplatin. We found that cisplatin inhibited cell proliferation by a cytotoxicity, characterized by DNA damage and modulation of oxidative stress. Cisplatin also activated p53 and phosphorylated activator protein (AP-1) component, c-Jun at serine (63, 73) residue simultaneously leading to cell cycle arrest through stimulation of p21 and down regulation of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases in APL cell lines. It strongly activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome C, and up-regulation of caspase 3 activity. It also down regulated the p38MAPK pathway. Overall, this study highlights the molecular mechanisms that underline cisplatin toxicity to APL cells, and provides insights into selection of novel targets and/or design of therapeutic agents to treat APL. PMID:26486083

  16. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is

  17. Evidence of ATP assay as an appropriate alternative of MTT assay for cytotoxicity of secondary effluents from WWTPs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Yun; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Hong-Ying; Chen, Ying-Hua; Liu, Wan-Li

    2015-12-01

    Biological tests are effective and comprehensive methods to assess toxicity of environmental pollutants to ensure the safety of reclaimed water. In this study, the canonical MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) of secondary effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It was surprising that most concentrated DOMs treated HepG2 cells yielded much higher signal compared with vehicle control regardless of difference of treatment technologies and seasons. However, there was actually no obvious enhancement of the cell proliferation by microscopy. In order to find out potential reason for the discrepancy, another three assays were performed. The results of ATP assay and flow cytometry showed expected toxicity, which was consistent with microscopy and previous studies, while DNA assay did not exhibit apparent change in treated cells. The possible mechanisms of abnormal MTT signal could be that some materials in secondary effluents isolated by solid extraction with HLB resin directly reacted with MTT and/or enhanced the activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase. Therefore, the MTT assay is not suitable to assess cytotoxicity of complex mixtures such as secondary effluents, while ATP assay is an optional sensitive method. This study also suggests the importance of choosing both suitable extraction methods and detection assays for toxicity evaluation of component-unknown environmental samples. PMID:26410194

  18. A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, José Luis; Hernández-Inda, Zaira L; Pérez, Pilar; García-Grávalos, María D

    2002-01-01

    Background The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity. Material and Methods The bioactivity of the isopropanolic (2-PrOH) extracts of 14 species of marine invertebrates and 6 species of macroalgae was evaluated with the shrimp lethality assay (lethality assay), as well as with another assay based on the inhibition of hatching of the cyst (hatchability assay). The extracts were also assayed for cytotoxicity against two human cell lines, lung carcinoma A-549 and colon carcinoma HT-29, in order to assess the sensitivity of the shrimp assays to detect cytotoxic activity. Results Two sponges (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp.), two gorgonians (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp.), one tunicate (Polyclinum laxum), and three echinoderms (Holothuria impatiens, Pseudoconus californica and Pharia pyramidata) showed a strong cytostatic (growth inhibition) and cytotoxic effect. The hatchability assay showed a strong activity in 4 of the species active against the two human cell lines tested (Hyatella sp, Dysidea sp., Pacifigorgia adamsii and Muricea sp.), and the lethality assay also showed a high lethality in 4 of them (Pacifigorgia adamsii, Muricea sp., Polyclinum laxum, and Pharia pyramidata). Each bioassay detected activity in 50% of the species that were considered active against the two human cell lines tested. However, the simultaneous use of both bioassays increased the percentage to 75%. Conclusions Our results seem consistent with the correlation previously established between cytotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality in plant extracts. We suggest using both bioassays simultaneously to test natural marine products for pharmacological

  19. Standardization of a micro-cytotoxicity assay for human natural killer cell lytic activity.

    PubMed

    Mariani, E; Monaco, M C; Sgobbi, S; de Zwart, J F; Mariani, A R; Facchini, A

    1994-06-24

    Cytotoxicity assays are widely used to evaluate the functional activity of NK and T cells against tumour target cells and the release of radioactive sodium chromate from labelled target cells is still the most commonly used marker of target lysis in culture supernatants. We describe here the standardization of a micro-cytotoxicity test in which the number of cytolytic effector and tumour target cells have been decreased by a factor of 10. The release obtained by 500 tumour target cells was compared with the release obtained by 5000 target cells in the standard cytotoxicity assay for target:effector cell ratios from 1:1 to 1:100. Both gamma and beta emissions of the 51Cr isotope were evaluated to determine the assay release. The results obtained by the micro-cytotoxicity assay (500 target cells) were comparable to those of the standard assay (5000 target cells) and 51Cr release evaluation using the gamma counter was the most sensitive method of determining lytic activity using 500 tumour target cells. beta counter evaluation using solid phase scintillation was found to be a reproducible alternative method, even if the lytic curves cannot be compared with those obtained using the traditional method. PMID:8034970

  20. Cytotoxicity assays as tools to assess water quality in the Sinos River basin.

    PubMed

    Trintinaglia, L; Bianchi, E; Silva, L B; Nascimento, C A; Spilki, F R; Ziulkoski, A L

    2015-05-01

    Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of surface waters and may help to improve the control of water quality. This study compared two methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Hep-2 cells to water samples collected from the Rolante River, an important affluent of the Sinos River. The toxicity was evaluated using the MTT and neutral red assays. Two methods were used to prepare culture media. In method 1, the sample was diluted at 1:1, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000, 1:10.000 (v/v, sample/medium) in a standard culture medium; in method 2, water samples were used as the solvent for the culture medium, which was prepared at concentrations of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20%. Semi-confluent cultures were then exposed to the media test for 24 hours, and cytotoxicity was determined immediately using the MTT and NR assays. Mitochondrial activity (MTT) was significantly lower at all concentrations in both methods, except at 1:1000 in method 1. However, the lysosome viability (NR) results revealed cytotoxicity only in the 1:1 sample of method 1. Both culture preparation methods were efficient and sensitive to the MTT assay, but method 2 seemed to be more adequate for the NR assay. The Rolante River has cytotoxic contaminants to Hep-2 cells, which may be one of the explanations for the poor water quality of the Sinos River basin. PMID:26270217

  1. Pressure-driven perfusion culture microchamber array for a parallel drug cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji; Edahiro, Jun-ichi; Kikuchi, Kyoko; Sumaru, Kimio; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2008-08-15

    This article reports a pressure-driven perfusion culture chip developed for parallel drug cytotoxicity assay. The device is composed of an 8 x 5 array of cell culture microchambers with independent perfusion microchannels. It is equipped with a simple interface for convenient access by a micropipette and connection to an external pressure source, which enables easy operation without special training. The unique microchamber structure was carefully designed with consideration of hydrodynamic parameters and was fabricated out of a polydimethylsiloxane by using multilayer photolithography and replica molding. The microchamber structure enables uniform cell loading and perfusion culture without cross-contamination between neighboring microchambers. A parallel cytotoxicity assay was successfully carried out in the 8 x 5 microchamber array to analyze the cytotoxic effects of seven anticancer drugs. The pressure-driven perfusion culture chip, with its simple interface and well-designed microfluidic network, will likely become an advantageous platform for future high-throughput drug screening by microchip. PMID:18553395

  2. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays

    PubMed Central

    Vajrabhaya, La-Ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared through an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis. Results: No significant differences in cytotoxicity were noted between the two assays (P > 0.05). The ICC values for agreement between two assays for the negative and positive control groups and C. nutans concentrations of 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% were 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.68, 0.74, and 0.71, respectively. Conclusion: In general, the MTT and NRU assays performed similarly, exhibiting moderate to good correlation for the evaluation of the cytotoxicity of C. nutans. PMID:27011752

  3. Modified cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency assay by measuring released europium in a time resolved fluorometer.

    PubMed

    Haque, K; Truman, C; Dittmer, I; Laundy, G; Denning-Kendall, P; Hows, J; Feest, T; Bradley, B

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTLpf) can be quantified by using the principle of limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Chromium 51 (51Cr) and europium (Eu) release assays are based on the measurement of marker release after lysis of targets by the effector cells. Although, 51Cr release has been widely used to quantify cell lysis since its introduction, it has several disadvantages such as handling and disposal of radioisotopes as well as health risk to personnel involved performing the assay. This situation has led us to adopt a non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay. After 7 days culture the PHA-stimulated targets are labeled with europium DTPA chelate. Lysis of labeled targets by effectors releases the Eu-DTPA complex in culture medium--a highly fluorescent substance. The amount of fluorescence can be measured in a time resolved fluorometer. We describe here some modifications of the original protocol which include optimising IL-2 requirements, reduction of incubation times, addition of an extra spin before 37 degrees C incubation, readjustment of target cells per volume of labeling buffer and other crucial parameters increasing the specificity and sensitivity of CTLpf assay. We are in agreement with others that the Eu-release assay is specific and reproducible. It can be used for the CTLpf estimation as well as other T cell and non-T cell cytotoxicity assays. PMID:9090438

  4. Importance of structural information in predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro cytotoxicity data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soyoung; Park, Keunwan; Ahn, Hee-Sung; Kim, Dongsup

    2010-07-15

    In this study, we tried to assess the utility of the structural information of drugs for predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro basal cytotoxicity, and to interpret the informative quality and the pharmacokinetic meaning of each structural descriptor. For this, human acute toxicity data of 67 drugs were taken from literature with their basal cytotoxicity data, and used to develop predictive models. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to construct feasible regression models by combining molecular descriptors and cytotoxicity data. We found that although the molecular descriptors alone had only moderate correlation with human acute toxicity, they were highly useful for explaining the discrepancy between in vitro cytotoxicity and human acute toxicity. Among many possible models, we selected the most explanatory models by changing the number and the type of combined molecular descriptors. The results showed that our selected models had high predictive power (R{sup 2}: between 0.7 and 0.87). Our analysis indicated that those successful models increased the prediction accuracies by providing the information on human pharmacokinetic parameters which are the major reason for the difference between human acute toxicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, we performed a clustering analysis on selected molecular descriptors to assess their informative qualities. The results indicated that the number of single bonds, the number of hydrogen bond donors and valence connectivity indices are closely related to linking cytotoxicity to acute toxicity, which provides insightful explanation about human toxicity beyond cytotoxicity.

  5. Microfluidic device with chemical gradient for single-cell cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masahito; Hayashi, Takuma; Mori, Tetsushi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Nakasono, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2011-05-15

    Here, we report the fabrication of a chemical gradient microfluidic device for single-cell cytotoxicity assays. This device consists of a microfluidic chemical gradient generator and a microcavity array that enables entrapment of cells with high efficiency at 88 ± 6% of the loaded cells. A 2-fold logarithmic chemical gradient generator that is capable of generating a serial 2-fold gradient was designed and then integrated with the microcavity array. High density single-cell entrapment was demonstrated in the device without cell damage, which was performed in 30 s. Finally, we validated the feasibility of this device to perform cytotoxicity assays by exposing cells to potassium cyanide (0-100 μM KCN). The device captured images of 4000 single cells affected by 6 concentrations of KCN and determined cell viability by counting the effected cells. Image scanning of the microcavity array was completed within 10 min using a 10× objective lens and a motorized stage. Aligning cells on the microcavity array eases cell counting, observation, imaging, and evaluation of singular cells. Thus, this platform was able to determine the cytotoxicity of chemicals at a single-cell level, as well as trace the cytotoxicity over time. This device and method will be useful for cytotoxicity analysis and basic biomedical research. PMID:21526753

  6. A simple and versatile microfluidic cell density gradient generator for quantum dot cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Qiushui; Liu, Wu; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-05-21

    In this work, a simple and versatile microfluidic cell density gradient generator was successfully developed for cytotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) assay. The microfluidic cell density gradient generator is composed of eight parallel channels which are respectively surrounded by 1-8 microwells with optimized length and width. The cells fall into microwells by gravity and the cell densities are obviously dependent of microwell number. In a case study, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells were successfully utilized for generating cell density gradients on the microfluidic chip. The microfluidic cell density gradient generator was proved to be easily handled, cell-friendly and could be used to conduct the subsequent cell-based assay. As a proof-of-concept, QD cytotoxicity was evaluated and the results exhibited obvious cell density-dependence. For comparison, QD cytotoxicity was also investigated with a series of cell densities infused by pipette tips. Higher reproducibility was observed on the microfluidic cell density gradient generator and cell density was demonstrated to be a vital factor in cytotoxic study. With higher efficiency, controllability and reproducibility, the microfluidic cell density gradient generator could be integrated into microfluidic analysis systems to promote chip-based biological assay. PMID:23538998

  7. Comparison of europium and chromium release assays: cytotoxicity in healthy individuals and patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    von Zons, P; Crowley-Nowick, P; Friberg, D; Bell, M; Koldovsky, U; Whiteside, T L

    1997-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activities were measured in peripheral blood obtained from healthy women to compare a standard 51Cr release assay with a nonradioactive europium (Eu3+) release assay based on time-resolved fluorescence. The two types of cytotoxicity assays were first compared in paired determinations performed on 28 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from healthy women who had normal pap smears or no biopsy evidence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Target cells (NK-sensitive K562 and NK-resistant Raji cell lines) were labeled with Eu3+ only, 51Cr only, or both labels and compared in cytotoxicity assays using fresh or interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated effector cells. Spontaneous release in the Eu3+ release assay was comparable to that observed in the 51Cr release assay, but maximum Eu3+ release always exceeded that of 51Cr. In 4-h assays, specific release of Eu3+ from target cells was more rapid than that of 51Cr, consistently resulting in 30 to 40% higher levels of activity. However, a significant linear correlation (P < 0.001) was observed between cytotoxicity levels based on measurements of Eu3+ and 51Cr release in 4-h assays. The Eu3+ release assay was then used to measure NK and LAK activities in the peripheral blood of women with cervical SIL or cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Mean NK activity of women with advanced SIL (121 lytic units [LU]) or SCC (93 LU) was found to be similar to that of controls (101 LU) or patients with normal cervical biopsies (90 LU), as was the ability to generate IL-2-stimulated NK activity. However, LAK activity during 18 h of incubation in the presence of IL-2 was reduced in patients with cervical SCC (P < 0.05) compared with that in normal controls. Results of 51Cr assays performed in parallel with patient samples gave comparable results. Advantages of EU3+ release assays for routine evaluation of cytotoxicity are discussed. PMID:9067656

  8. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts. PMID:26353417

  9. Comparative microstructures and cytotoxicity assays for ballistic aerosols composed of micrometals and nanometals: respiratory health implications

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Brenda I; Suro, Raquel M; Garza, Kristine M; Murr, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol particulates collected on filters from ballistic penetration and erosion events for W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe kinetic energy rod projectiles penetrating steel target plates were observed to be highly cytotoxic to human epithelial A549 lung cells in culture after 48 hours of exposure. The aerosol consisted of micron-sized Fe particulates and nanoparticulate aggregates consisting of W, Ni or W, Co, and some Fe, characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and using energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry for elemental analysis and mapping. Cytotoxic assays of manufactured micron-sized and nanosized metal particulates of W, Ni, Fe, and Co demonstrated that, consistent with many studies in the literature, only the nanoparticulate elements demonstrated measurable cytotoxicity. These results suggest the potential for very severe, short-term, human toxicity, in particular to the respiratory system on inhaling ballistic aerosols. PMID:21499416

  10. Assessing cytotoxicity of boron nitride nanotubes: Interference with the MTT assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ciofani, Gianni; Danti, Serena; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Moscato, Stefania; Menciassi, Arianna

    2010-04-02

    Thanks to a non-covalent wrapping with glycol-chitosan, highly biocompatible and highly concentrated dispersions of boron nitride nanotubes were obtained and tested on human neuroblastoma cells. A systematic investigation of the cytotoxicity of these nanovectors with several complementary qualitative and quantitative assays allowed a strong interference with the MTT metabolic assay to be highlighted, similar to a phenomenon already observed for carbon nanotubes, that would wrongly suggest toxicity of boron nitride nanotubes. These results confirm the high complexity of these new nanomaterials, and the needing of extensive investigations on their exciting potential applications in the biomedical field.

  11. Improved flow cytometry based cytotoxicity and binding assay for clinical antibody HLA crossmatching.

    PubMed

    Alheim, Mats; Paul, Prashanta Kumer; Hauzenberger, Dan-Mikael; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    The presence of preformed donor-specific HLA antibodies leads to early antibody mediated kidney allograft rejection. Therefore, detection and avoidance of donor reactive HLA antibodies prior to transplantation is of outmost importance in order to minimize the risk of rejection. Detection of pre-formed HLA antibodies is currently performed using complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assay alone or together with a flow cytometry based crossmatch (FCXM). This study was initiated to further evaluate our recently developed flow cytometry based procedure for determination of both cytotoxicity of and IgG binding to donor-derived lymphocytes by HLA antibodies. Highly enriched immuno-magnetic bead purified T and B lymphocytes were used as target cells for patient sera using 96-well plates. Importantly, the assay shows high sensitivity and specificity as determined by HLA typed donor cells and serum with defined HLA antibody IgG and C1q. Based on this and additional data generated in this paper, such as evaluation of appropriate serum and complements incubation times and assay reproducibility and stability, will enable us to more rapidly implement this assay in our clinical laboratory routines. In addition, we demonstrate that FCtox crossmatching of deceased donor cells has superior specificity compared to conventional CDC assay especially regarding high frequencies of false-positive reactions. PMID:26429307

  12. Fathead minnow FHM cells for use in in vitro cytotoxicity assays of aquatic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Borenfreund, E.

    1987-08-01

    The suitability of the fathead minnow (FHM) epithelial cell line for use as the target (indicator) system in in vitro cytotoxicity assays was evaluated using several endpoints. The organometal diethyltin dichloride served as the representative test agent. The concentration of diethyltin dichloride which resulted in a midpoint toxicity was 3.5 microM in a 3-day cell growth assay, 3.8 microM in the 24-hr neutral red assay, and 16.5 microM in a 4-hr cell detachment assay. The neutral red assay was used to compare the relative sensitivities of the FHM cells (exposed at 34/sup 0/C) with those of bluegill sunfish (BF-2) cells, a fibroblastic cell culture (exposed at 26 degrees C), in the presence of different classes of test agents frequently occurring as aquatic pollutants. For both fish species the sequence of potencies of the test agents was in the order of organometals greater than pesticides approximately equal to polychlorinated biphenyls greater than polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons greater than phenolics. Overall, the FHM cells were more sensitive than were the BF-2 cells. However, there was a better correlation between the in vitro cytotoxicity data for the BF-2 cell culture and LC50 data for bluegill sunfish than between similar data for the FHM cell line and fathead minnows.

  13. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems. PMID:27539747

  14. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke total particulate matter using three in vitro assays and two types of cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Bin; Nie, Cong; Shang, Pingping; Liu, Huimin

    2013-05-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used to evaluate potential toxicological effects of tobacco products. Total particulate matter (TPM) from mainstream cigarette smoke trapped by a Cambridge filter is used widely for biological evaluation of smoke. This study compared neutral red uptake (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and WST-1 assays for assessing the cytotoxicity of TPM, and evaluated the sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549 cells) to TPM-induced cytotoxic effects. The results indicate that NRU and WST-1 assays are preferable to LDH activity assay for assessing the TPM-induced cytotoxicity, and NRU assay might be more sensitive than WST-1 assay. The cytotoxicity of 3R4F reference cigarettes and two commercial brands of cigarettes were tested by NRU assay in CHO and A549 cells. The results showed that EC50 values in CHO cells treated with TPM were lower than EC50 values in A549 cells, indicating CHO cells are more sensitive to TPM-induced cytotoxic effects than A549 cells. PMID:23193988

  15. Artifacts by marker enzyme adsorption on nanomaterials in cytotoxicity assays with tissue cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlleben, Wendel; Kolle, Susanne N.; Hasenkamp, Laura-Carolin; Böser, Alexander; Vogel, Sandra; von Vacano, Bernhard; van Ravenzwaay, Ben; Landsiedel, Robert

    2011-07-01

    We used precision cut lung slices (PCLS) to study the cytotoxicity of cobalt ferrite nanomaterials with and without bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilization. Using mitochondrial activity as an indicator of cytotoxicity (WST-1 assay) increasing concentrations of cobalt ferrite nanomaterial caused increasing levels of cytotoxicity in PCLS irrespective of BSA stabilization. However, there was no increase in released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels caused by BSA stabilized nanomaterial indicating concentration depended cytotoxictiy. Moreover, non-stabilized nanomaterial caused a decrease of background LDH levels in the PCLS culture supernatant confirmed by complementary methods. Direct characterization of the protein corona of extracted nanomaterial shows that the LDH decrease is due to adsorption of LDH onto the surface of the non-stabilized nanomaterial, correlated with strong agglomeration. Preincubation with serum protein blocks the adsorption of LDH and stabilizes the nanomaterial at low agglomeration. We have thus demonstrated the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials in PCLS does not correlate with disrupted membrane integrity followed by LDH release. Furthermore, we found that intracellular enzymes such as the marker enzyme LDH are able to bind onto surfaces of nanomaterial and thereby adulterate the detection of toxic effects. A replacement of BSA by LDH or a secondary LDH-on-BSA-corona were not observed, confirming earlier indications that the protein corona exchange rate are slow or vanishing on inorganic nanomaterial. Thus, the method(s) to assess nanomaterial-mediated effects have to be carefully chosen based on the cellular effect and possible nano-specific artifacts.

  16. An improved assay for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity based on time resolved fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Patel, A K; Boyd, P N

    1995-07-17

    A new and faster assay for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity based on release of europium from target cells is described. This has a number of important advantages over the traditional assays based on release of chromium-51 (51Cr). The new method involves labelling of Wein 133 target cells (B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells) which express the antigen, CDw52, with the chelate europium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (EuDTPA) according to the method of Blomberg et al. (1986). Labelled cells are sensitised (coated) with the anti-lymphocytic monoclonal antibody, Campath-1H. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells are added to mediate lysis of EuDTPA labelled Wein 133 cells by ADCC. Release of EuDTPA from lysed cells is determined by mixing supernatants with enhancement solution containing 2-naphthoyl trifluoroacetone, 2-NTA, to form a highly fluorescent chelate which is measured using time resolved fluorometry. Results obtained with the new EuDPTA release assays were comparable to traditional assays based on the release of the radioisotope 51Cr. It is anticipated that this assay will have a widespread application among laboratories performing ADCC assays. The method is non-hazardous and has been used routinely for over 2 years to monitor production and purification of Campath-1H. PMID:7622867

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment based on KC(50) with real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) assay.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhong; Khare, Swanand; Ackah, Fred; Huang, Biao; Zhang, Weiping; Gabos, Stephan; Jin, Can; Stampfl, Melinda

    2013-12-01

    Technological advances in cytotoxicity analysis have now made it possible to obtain real time data on changes in cell growth, morphology and cell death. This type of testing has a great potential for reducing and refining traditional in vivo toxicology tests. By monitoring the dynamic response profile of living cells via the xCELLigence real-time cell analyzer for high-throughput (RTCA HT) system, cellular changes including cell number (cell index, CI) are recorded and analyzed. A special scaled index defined as normalized cell index (NCI) is used in the analysis which reduces the influence of inter-experimental variations. To assess the extent of exposure of the tested chemicals, a two-exponent model is presented to describe rate of cell growth and death. This model is embodied in the time and concentration-dependent cellular response curves, and the parameters k1 and k2 in this model are used to describe the rate of cell growth and death. Based on calculated k2 values and the corresponding concentrations, a concentration-response curve is fitted. As a result, a cytotoxicity assessment named KC50 is calculated. The validation of the proposed method is demonstrated by exposing six cell lines to 14 chemical compounds. Our findings suggest that the proposed KC50-based toxicity assay can be an alternative to the traditional single time-point assay such as LC50 (the concentration at which 50% of the cells are killed). The proposed index has a potential for routine evaluation of cytotoxicities. Another advantage of the proposed index is that it extracts cytotoxicity information when CI fails to detect the low toxicity. PMID:24055763

  18. Optimization of cytotoxicity assay by real-time, impedance-based cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Quereda, J J; Mendonça, L; Majado, M J; Gomez-Coelho, K; Mrowiec, A; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Abellaneda, J M; Pallares, F J; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an optimized procedure for assessing an immune-mediated cytotoxicity, produced after the addition of human and baboon serum to transgenic porcine fibroblasts. This procedure is performed with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer (RTCA). The xCELLigence system measures the impedance variations in the culture media of a 96-well microelectronic plate, and shows the changes in cell number and morphology in a real-time plot. However, different factors need to be optimized before developing an RTCA assay. Thus, we studied the influence of several variables, such as the number of cells seeded, the time the cells were allowed to grow before the tests, the serum concentration and the addition of rabbit complement. The findings were confirmed by the WST-1 classical cytotoxicity test. The results showed that 7.5 × 10(3) cells seeded per well produced the adequate CI in 10 h. The area under the curve and the CImin versus concentration values showed a very high correlation index (r(2) = 0.966 and r(2) = 0.92 for the first 50 h after challenge, respectively), proving that CI variations are directly proportional to the quantity of serum added. The addition of complement resulted in lower CImin values. Therefore, both the cytolysis level with and without exogenous complement addition had to be assessed. There was a high correlation between the relative cytotoxicity assessed by WST-1 and the CI obtained by RTCA when exogenous complement was not added (r(2) = 0.827; p < 0.001). The correlation was average when rabbit complement was added (r(2) = 0.523; p = 0.046). In conclusion, culture conditions have an important influence on RTCA cytotoxicity assays. PMID:23887614

  19. Evaluation of antigen specific recognition and cell mediated cytotoxicity by a modified lysispot assay in a rat colon carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes represent potent effector cells of the adaptive immune response against viruses as well as tumours. Therefore assays capable at exploring the generation and function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes represent an important objective for both clinical and experimental settings. Methods Here we show a simple and reproducible assay for the evaluation of antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes based on a LysiSpot technique for the simultaneous determination of antigen-specific IFN-γ production and assessment of tumor cytolysis. The assay was developed within an experimental model of colorectal carcinoma, induced by the colorectal tumor cell line DHD-K12 that induces tumors in BDIX rats and, in turn, elicits a tumor- specific immune response. Results Using DHD-K12 cells transfected to express Escherichia coli β-galactosidase as target cells, and by the fine setting of spot colours detection, we have developed an in vitro assay that allows the recognition of cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced in BDIX rats as well as the assessment of anti-tumour cytotoxicity. The method highlighted that in the present experimental model the tumour antigen-specific immune response was bound to killing target cells in the proportion of 55%, while 45% of activated cells were not cytotoxic but released IFN-γ. Moreover in this model by an ELISPOT assay we demonstrated the specific recognition of a nonapeptide epitope called CSH-275 constitutionally express in DHD-K12 cells. Conclusions The assay proved to be highly sensitive and specific, detecting even low frequencies of cytotoxic/activated cells and providing the evaluation of cytokine-expressing T cells as well as the extent of cytotoxicity against the target cells as independent functions. This assay may represent an important tool to be adopted in experimental settings including the development of vaccines or immune therapeutic strategies PMID:22296726

  20. The agar diffusion scratch assay - A novel method to assess the bioactive and cytotoxic potential of new materials and compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pusnik, Mascha; Imeri, Minire; Deppierraz, Grégoire; Bruinink, Arie; Zinn, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    A profound in vitro evaluation not only of the cytotoxic but also of bioactive potential of a given compound or material is crucial for predicting potential effects in the in vivo situation. However, most of the current methods have weaknesses in either the quantitative or qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity and/or bioactivity of the test compound. Here we describe a novel assay combining the ISO 10993-5 agar diffusion test and the scratch also termed wound healing assay. In contrast to these original tests this assay is able to detect and distinguish between cytotoxic, cell migration modifying and cytotoxic plus cell migration modifying compounds, and this at higher sensitivity and in a quantitative way. PMID:26861591

  1. Replacement of in vivo acute oral toxicity studies by in vitro cytotoxicity methods: opportunities, limits and regulatory status.

    PubMed

    Ukelis, Ute; Kramer, Peter-Jürgen; Olejniczak, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan O

    2008-06-01

    The development of a new medicinal product is a long and costly process in particular due to the regulatory requirements for quality, safety and efficacy. There is a common interest to increase the efficiency of drug development and to provide new, better quality medicinal products much faster to the public. One possible way to economize time and costs, as well as to consider animal protection issues, is to introduce new alternative methods into non-clinical toxicity testing. Currently, animal tests are mandatory for the evaluation of acute toxicity of chemicals and new drugs. The replacement of the in vivo tests by alternative in vitro assays would offer the opportunity to screen and assess numerous compounds at the same time, to predict acute oral toxicity and thus accelerate drug development. Moreover, the substitution of in vivo tests by in vitro methods shows a proactive pursuit of ethical and animal welfare issues. Importantly, the implementation of in vitro assays for acute oral toxicity would require the establishment of common test guidelines across the EU, USA and Japan, i.e., the regions of ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use). Presently, alternative in vitro tests are being investigated internationally. Yet, in order to achieve regulatory acceptance and implementation of in vitro assays, convincing results from validation studies are required. In this review, we discuss the current regulatory status of acute oral toxicity testing and point out achievements of alternative methods. We describe the application of in vitro tests, correlating in vitro with in vivo data. The use of in vitro data to predict in vivo acute oral toxicity is analyzed using the Registry of Cytotoxicity, an official independent database. We have then analyzed opportunities and drawbacks for future implementation of in vitro test methods, with particular focus on industrial use. PMID:18362045

  2. Valproic Acid Synergistically Enhances The Cytotoxicity of Clofarabine in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chengzhi; Edwards, Holly; LoGrasso, Salvatore B.; Buck, Steven A.; Matherly, Larry H.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Ge, Yubin

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a major therapeutic challenge in pediatric oncology even with intensified cytarabine (ara-C)-based chemotherapy. Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed to improve treatment outcome of this deadly disease. In this study, we evaluated antileukemic interactions between clofarabine (a second-generation purine nucleoside analog) and valproic acid (VPA, a FDA-approved agent for treating epilepsy in both children and adult and a histone deacetylase inhibitor), in pediatric AML. Methodology In vitro clofarabine and VPA cytotoxicities of the pediatric AML cell lines and diagnostic blasts were measured by using MTT assays. The effects of clofarabine and VPA on apoptosis and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were determined by flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting, respectively. Active form of Bax was measured by Western blotting post immunoprecipitation. Results We demonstrated synergistic antileukemic activities between clofarabine and VPA in both pediatric AML cell lines and diagnostic blasts sensitive to VPA. In contrast, antagonism between the two agents could be detected in AML cells resistant to VPA. Clofarabine and VPA cooperate in inducing DNA DSBs, accompanied by Bax activation and apoptosis in pediatric AML cells. Conclusion Our results document synergistic antileukemic activities of combined VPA and clofarabine in pediatric AML and suggest that this combination could be an alternative treatment option for the disease. PMID:22488775

  3. Editor's Highlight: Analysis of the Effects of Cell Stress and Cytotoxicity on In Vitro Assay Activity Across a Diverse Chemical and Assay Space.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard; Houck, Keith; Martin, Matt; Richard, Ann M; Knudsen, Thomas B; Shah, Imran; Little, Stephen; Wambaugh, John; Woodrow Setzer, R; Kothya, Parth; Phuong, Jimmy; Filer, Dayne; Smith, Doris; Reif, David; Rotroff, Daniel; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Sipes, Nisha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Crofton, Kevin; Thomas, Russell S

    2016-08-01

    Chemical toxicity can arise from disruption of specific biomolecular functions or through more generalized cell stress and cytotoxicity-mediated processes. Here, responses of 1060 chemicals including pharmaceuticals, natural products, pesticidals, consumer, and industrial chemicals across a battery of 815 in vitro assay endpoints from 7 high-throughput assay technology platforms were analyzed in order to distinguish between these types of activities. Both cell-based and cell-free assays showed a rapid increase in the frequency of responses at concentrations where cell stress/cytotoxicity responses were observed in cell-based assays. Chemicals that were positive on at least 2 viability/cytotoxicity assays within the concentration range tested (typically up to 100 μM) activated a median of 12% of assay endpoints whereas those that were not cytotoxic in this concentration range activated 1.3% of the assays endpoints. The results suggest that activity can be broadly divided into: (1) specific biomolecular interactions against one or more targets (eg, receptors or enzymes) at concentrations below which overt cytotoxicity-associated activity is observed; and (2) activity associated with cell stress or cytotoxicity, which may result from triggering specific cell stress pathways, chemical reactivity, physico-chemical disruption of proteins or membranes, or broad low-affinity non-covalent interactions. Chemicals showing a greater number of specific biomolecular interactions are generally designed to be bioactive (pharmaceuticals or pesticidal active ingredients), whereas intentional food-use chemicals tended to show the fewest specific interactions. The analyses presented here provide context for use of these data in ongoing studies to predict in vivo toxicity from chemicals lacking extensive hazard assessment. PMID:27208079

  4. Probing the biocompatibility of MoS2 nanosheets by cytotoxicity assay and electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pratikkumar; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Li, Chen-Zhong; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2015-08-01

    Transition metal dichalgogenides such as MoS2 have recently emerged as hot two-dimensional (2D) materials due to their superior electronic and catalytic properties. Recently, we have reported the usefulness of MoS2 nanosheets toward the electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters and glucose (Narayanan et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 335702). Furthermore, there are reports available in the literature that demonstrate the usefulness of MoS2 nanosheets for biosensing and energy storage applications (Zhu et al 2013 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 5998-6001 Pumera and Loo 2014 Trends Anal. Chem. 61 49-53 Lee et al 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 7352; Stephenson et al 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 209-31). Understanding the cytotoxic effect of any material is very important prior to employing them for any in vivo biological applications such as implantable sensors, chips, or carriers for drug delivery and cell imaging purposes. Herein, we report the cytotoxicity of the MoS2 nanosheets based on the cytotoxic assay results and electrical impedance analysis using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and rat adrenal medulla endothelial cells (RAMEC). Our results indicated that the MoS2 nanosheets synthesized in our work are safe 2D nanosheets for futuristic biomedical applications.

  5. A Neutralizing Antibody Assay Based on a Reporter of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuling; Li, Jia J; Kim, Hyun Jun; Liu, Xu; Liu, Weiyi; Akhgar, Ahmad; Bowen, Michael A; Spitz, Susan; Jiang, Xu-Rong; Roskos, Lorin K; White, Wendy I

    2015-11-01

    Benralizumab is a humanized anti-IL5 receptor α (IL5Rα) monoclonal antibody (mAb) with enhanced (afucosylation) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) function. An ADCC reporter cell-based neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay was developed and characterized to detect NAb against benralizumab in human serum to support the clinical development of benralizumab. The optimal ratio of target cells to effector cells was 3:1. Neither parental benralizumab (fucosylated) nor benralizumab Fab resulted in ADCC activity, confirming the requirement for ADCC activity in the NAb assay. The serum tolerance of the cells was determined to be 2.5%. The cut point derived from normal and asthma serum samples was comparable. The effective range of benralizumab was determined, and 35 ng/mL [80% maximal effective concentration (EC80)] was chosen as the standard concentration to run in the assessment of NAb. An affinity purified goat anti-benralizumab polyclonal idiotype antibody preparation was shown to have NAb since it inhibited ADCC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. The low endogenous concentrations of IL5 and soluble IL5 receptor (sIL5R) did not demonstrate to interfere with the assay. The estimated assay sensitivities at the cut point were 1.02 and 1.10 μg/mL as determined by the surrogate neutralizing goat polyclonal and mouse monoclonal anti-drug antibody (ADA) controls, respectively. The assay can detect NAb (at 2.5 μg/mL) in the presence of 0.78 μg/mL benralizumab. The assay was not susceptible to non-specific matrix effects. This study provides an approach and feasibility of developing an ADCC cell-based NAb assay to support biopharmaceuticals with an ADCC function. PMID:26205082

  6. Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Benodanil by using Allium and Micronucleus assays.

    PubMed

    Akyıl, Dilek; Özkara, Arzu; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza; Eren, Yasin; Konuk, Muhsin; Sağlam, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of Benodanil fungicide by employing both mitotic index (MI) and mitotic phases on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa and genotoxic effects by using in vitro micronucleus assay (MN) in human peripheral blood lymphocyte. In the Allium root growth inhibition test, the EC50 value was first determined as 25 ppm. Then, 2 × EC50 value (50 ppm), EC50 value (25 ppm), and 1/2 × EC50 value (12.5 ppm) were tested with different treatment periods (24, 48, and 72 h). Both negative and positive controls were also used in parallel experiments. We obtained that mitotic index and prophase index decreased when compared with the control in all concentrations. In the micronucleus assay, lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (250, 500, 750, and 1000 µg/ml) of Benodanil for 24 and 48 h. The results showed that Benodanil did not induce MN frequency in all concentrations of both treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased nuclear division index (NDI) significantly. It was concluded that Benodanil has a cytotoxic effects depending on decreasing of MI and NDI. PMID:26333298

  7. Assessment of cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid by Allium test and micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Özkara, Arzu; Akyıl, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza; Konuk, Muhsin; Sağlam, Esra

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of pyracarbolid using both micronuleus (MN) assay, in human lymphocytes, and Allium cepa assay, in the root meristem cells. In Allium test, EC50 value was determined in order to selecting the test concentrations for the assay and the root tips were treated with 25 ppm (EC50/2), 50 ppm (EC50) and 100 ppm (EC50 × 2) concentrations of pyracarbolid. One percent of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In the micronucleus assay, the cultures were treated with four concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) of pyracarbolid for 24 and 48 h, negative and positive controls were also used in the experiment parallely. The results showed that mitotic index (MI) significantly reduced with increasing the pyracarbolid concentration at each exposure time. It was also obtained that prophase and metaphase index decreased significantly in all concentration at each exposure time. Anaphase index decreased as well and results were found to be statistically significant, except 24 h. A significant increase was observed in MN frequency in all concentrations and both treatment periods when compared with the controls. Pyracarbolid also caused a significant reduction in the cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) in all concentration and both exposure time. PMID:25275653

  8. Ex vivo cytotoxic drug evaluation by DiSC assay to expedite identification of clinical targets: results with 8-chloro-cAMP.

    PubMed Central

    Bosanquet, A. G.; Burlton, A. R.; Bell, P. B.; Harris, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    There is a pressing need to reduce the time and cost of developing new cytotoxic agents and to accurately identify clinically active agents at an early stage. In this study, the differential staining cytotoxicity (DiSC) assay was used to assess the efficacy of the novel antitumour cAMP analogue, 8-chloro-cAMP (8-Cl-cAMP) (and its metabolite 8-Cl-adenosine) against 107 fresh specimens of human neoplastic and normal cells. Diagnoses included chronic and acute leukaemias, myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and miscellaneous solid tumours. The aim was to identify targets for subsequent phase I, II and III trials. 8-Cl-cAMP was tested at 4-985 microM, along with standard chemotherapeutic drugs. 8-Cl-cAMP and its metabolite caused no morphologically observable cell differentiation but induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Compared with untreated patients, previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients showed no increase in ex vivo resistance to 8-Cl-cAMP (P = 0.878); minimal cross-resistance with other cytotoxic drugs was detected. Compared with normal cells (mean LC90 = 1803 microM), 8-Cl-cAMP showed significant ex vivo activity against CLL (117.0 microM; P < 0.0001) and NHL (140.0 microM; P < 0.0001), of which eight were mantle cell NHL (84.7 microM), and greatest activity against cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML; mean LC90 = 24.3 microM; in vitro therapeutic index 74-fold, P < 0.0001). Solid tumour specimens were comparatively resistant to 8-Cl-cAMP. The results highlight the clinical potential of 8-Cl-cAMP, point to several new phase I, II and III trial possibilities and provide a rationale for the inclusion of ex vivo cytotoxic drug evaluation in the drug development process. PMID:9275029

  9. The effect of long term storage on tobacco smoke particulate matter in in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Crooks, I; Dillon, D M; Scott, J K; Ballantyne, M; Meredith, C

    2013-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) collected from mainstream tobacco smoke is a test article commonly used for in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity testing of combustible tobacco products. However, little published data exists concerning the stability of PM. We completed a 2 year study to quantify the effect of PM storage at -80 °C, on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of PM generated from 3R4F and M4A reference cigarettes. The Ames test, Micronucleus assay (MNvit), Mouse Lymphoma assay (MLA) and the Neutral Red Uptake assay (NRU) were used. The majority of M4A and 3R4F PMs were genotoxic and cytotoxic at the timepoints tested. Some minor but statistically significant differences were observed for stored versus freshly prepared PM, but the magnitude of changes were within the variability observed for repeat testing. PMID:23220485

  10. Screening ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

  11. Comparative Measurement of In Vitro Paraquat and Aflatoxin B1 Cytotoxicity Using Three Different Cytotoxicity Assays in Pheochromocytoma Cells (PC-12).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Nejati, Majid; Esmaeili, Jamileh; Ghafari, Homanaz; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among the herbicides and mycotoxins, paraquat (PQ) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are highly cytotoxic. In this study the toxicity of PQ and AFB1 in the cultured cell were determined using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], JG-B (Janus green B), and NR (neutral red) assay by multiwell scanning spectophotometry. JG-B was used not only for the vital staining of mitochondria but also for viability assay and was compared to MTT and NR assay. Various concentrations of paraquat (0.1 mM to 100 mM) and AFB1 (0.001 nM to 10 nM) on the PC-12 cells were investigated. The 50% lethal concentration of toxins (LC50) were determined for PQ (7.70 +/- 2.50, 3.67 +/- 1.53, 4.85 +/- 2.44) and AFB1 (0.16 +/- 0.01, 0.13 +/- 0.04, 0.14 +/- 0.02) as determined by these methods (JG-B, NR, and MTT, respectively). A significant correlation was found among the JG-B and MTT using PQ (r(2) = 0.99, p < 0.05) and significant correlation was also found among the three methods (r(2) = 0.95, 0.93, and 0.92, p < 0.05) using AFB1. No significant correlation was found between JG-B and MTT with NR (r(2) = 0.34 and 0.35, p < 0.05, respectively) using PQ. These results suggest that both methods (MTT assay and JG-B assay) are reliable and are comparable for determining the cytotoxicity. It is concluded that the JG-B assay may be preferable to MTT assay methods because of its simplicity, low cost, sensitivity, and objectivity; in addition, this method takes little time to be done. PMID:20020925

  12. γδ T Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity with CD19 Antibodies Assessed by an Impedance-Based Label-Free Real-Time Cytotoxicity Assay.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Ursula Jördis Eva; Vogt, Fabian; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Jung, Gundram; Handgretinger, Rupert; Lang, Peter

    2014-01-01

    γδ T cells are not MHC restricted, elicit cytotoxicity against various malignancies, are present in early post-transplant phases in novel stem cell transplantation strategies and have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These features make γδ T cells promising effector cells for antibody-based immunotherapy in pediatric patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To evaluate combination of human γδ T cells with CD19 antibodies for immunotherapy of B-lineage ALL, γδ T cells were expanded after a GMP-compliant protocol and ADCC of both primary and expanded γδ T cells with an Fc-optimized CD19 antibody (4G7SDIE) and a bi-specific antibody with the specificities CD19 and CD16 (N19-C16) was evaluated in CD107a-degranulation assays and intracellular cytokine staining. CD107a, TNFα, and IFNγ expression of primary γδ T cells were significantly increased and correlated with CD16-expression of γδ T cells. γδ T cells highly expressed CD107a after expansion and no further increased expression by 4G7SDIE and N19-C16 was measured. Cytotoxicity of purified expanded γδ T cells targeting CD19-expressing cells was assessed in both europium-TDA release and in an impedance-based label-free method (using the xCELLigence system) measuring γδ T cell lysis in real-time. Albeit in the 2 h end-point europium-TDA release assay no increased lysis was observed, in real-time xCELLigence assays both significant antibody-independent cytotoxicity and ADCC of γδ T cells were observed. The xCELLigence system outperformed the end-point europium-TDA release assay in sensitivity and allows drawing of conclusions to lysis kinetics of γδ T cells over prolonged periods of time periods. Combination of CD19 antibodies with primary as well as expanded γδ T cells exhibits a promising approach, which may enhance clinical outcome of patients with pediatric B-lineage ALL and requires clinical

  13. Different cytotoxicity responses to antimicrobial nanosilver coatings when comparing extract-based and direct-contact assays.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Eric M; Casey, Brendan J; Dutta, Debargh; Dair, Benita J

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to understand how the choice of cytotoxicity assay format affects the observed biocompatibility of nanosilver (nAg). nAg coatings are physical coatings containing silver (Ag) that have feature sizes of 100 nm or less, often in the form of nanoparticles or grains. They are used on medical devices to prevent infection, but in spite of this intended benefit, observations of potential cytotoxicity from nAg have been reported in numerous published studies. For medical device regulation, cytotoxicity testing is part of a biocompatibility evaluation, in which specific test methods are chosen based on the technological characteristics and intended use of a device. For this study, nAg-coated tissue culture polystyrene surfaces were prepared using magnetron sputter coating, resulting in nAg films of 0.2 to 311 µg cm(-2) Ag. These coatings exhibited nanometer-scale morphologies and demonstrated a > 4log10 reduction in Escherichia coli viability. It was observed that extracts of nAg caused no cytotoxicity to L929 mouse fibroblasts, but cells cultured directly on nAg coatings (direct-contact assay format) showed a dose-dependent reduction in viability by up to 100% (P < 0.001). Results using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure Ag release suggested that extracts of nAg are not toxic because the dissolved Ag in those samples becomes less cytotoxic over time, probably owing to the reaction with cell culture media and serum (six-fold cytotoxicity reductions observed over a 24-h period). These findings highlight the potential value of direct-contact cytotoxicity testing for nAg in predicting biological interactions with cells or tissue in vivo. PMID:25645305

  14. Size- and coating-dependent cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles evaluated using in vitro standard assays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Yan; Yan, Jian; Ingle, Taylor; Jones, Margie Yvonne; Mei, Nan; Boudreau, Mary D; Cunningham, Candice K; Abbas, Mazhar; Paredes, Angel M; Zhou, Tong; Moore, Martha M; Howard, Paul C; Chen, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot. PMID:27441588

  15. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis. PMID:20508844

  16. Liquid crystal based sensors monitoring lipase activity: a new rapid and sensitive method for cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Zafiu, Christian; Küpcü, Seta; Pivetta, Lucineia; Hollfelder, Nadine; Masutani, Akira; Kilickiran, Pinar; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin

    2014-06-15

    In this work we present liquid crystal (LC) based sensor devices to monitor cell viability. The sensing layer is composed by the LC and a planar monolayer of phospholipids. In the presence of minute traces of phospholipases, which hydrolyze enzymatically phospholipids, the LC-lipid interface is disintegrated. This event causes a change in orientation of the LC, which was followed in a polarized microscope. The lipase activity can be used to measure the cell viability, since members of this enzyme family are released by cells, as they undergo necrosis. The described sensor was used to monitor the presence of the lipases released from three different cell lines, which were either exposed to highly cytotoxic model compounds (sodium azide and paracetamol) or subjected to freeze-thaw cycles to induce cell death by a non-chemical based inducer for apoptosis, such as temperature. Finally, the comparison of lipase activity detected by a state-of-the-art fluorescence assay to the LC based system resulted in the superiority of the LC system concerning incubation time and sensitivity. PMID:24508543

  17. Cytotoxic Effects of Tetracycline Analogues (Doxycycline, Minocycline and COL-3) in Acute Myeloid Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Kim R.; Sidén, Åke; Potácová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Tetracycline analogues (TCNAs) have been shown to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases and to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell types. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of TCNAs doxycycline (DOXY), minocycline (MINO) and chemically modified tetracycline-3 (COL-3) were investigated in the human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cell line. Cells were incubated with TCNAs in final concentrations of 0.5–100 µg/ml for 24 h. Viability of the leukemic cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner using resazurin assay. The estimated IC50s were 9.2 µg/ml for DOXY, 9.9 µg/ml for MINO and 1.3 µg/ml for COL-3. All three TCNAs induced potent cytotoxic effects and cell death. Apoptosis, which was assessed by morphological changes and annexin V positivity, was concentration- and time-dependent following incubation with any one of the drugs. TCNAs induced DNA double strand breaks soon after treatment commenced as detected by γH2AX and western blot. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), caspase activation and cleavage of PARP and Bcl-2 were observed; however, the sequence of events differed among the drugs. Pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK improved survival of TCNAs-treated cells and decreased TCNAs-induced apoptosis. In summary, we demonstrated that TCNAs had a cytotoxic effect on the HL-60 leukemic cell line. Apoptosis was induced via mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent pathways in HL-60 cells by all three TCNAs. COL-3 exerted the strongest anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in concentrations that have been achieved in human plasma in reported clinical trials. These results indicate that there is a therapeutic potential of TCNAs in leukemia. PMID:25502932

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and its processed product.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Song, Mei-Zhen; Wang, Jing; Li, Yun-Fei; Lin, Pei; Que, Lin; Bao, Zhaorigetu

    2013-01-01

    Xanthii Fructus (XF), the fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patr., was used in the treatment of rhinitis and related nasal disease. Adverse effects of Xanthii Fructus are frequently reported these years. In the paper, in vitro renal cytotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity researches of Xanthii Fructus (XF) and its processed product (processed Xanthii Fructus (PXF)) were carried out. Water extraction of XF displayed no cell membrane damage effects even in the highest concentration (100 μg/mL); however, it might affect the function of renal cell mitochondria. Acute toxicities were observed only in high and middle dosage groups. Fortunately, the single dose administration of XF or PXF was safe even at the highest daily dosage. Twelve-week chronic toxicity assays were performed in SD rats with low, middle, and high dosage. Notable changes in body weight and blood cell and BUN and Scr changes sporadically occurred in middle and high groups after the 9th week. Serum HA and HPCIII values were sustained increasing from the 4th week to the 8th week in Group V male rats, which indicated that the renal fibrosis risks still existed although no fibrosis was found in the pathological examination of the liver and kidney. PMID:24371823

  19. In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and Its Processed Product

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Song, Mei-Zhen; Wang, Jing; Li, Yun-Fei; Lin, Pei; Que, Lin; Bao, Zhaorigetu

    2013-01-01

    Xanthii Fructus (XF), the fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patr., was used in the treatment of rhinitis and related nasal disease. Adverse effects of Xanthii Fructus are frequently reported these years. In the paper, in vitro renal cytotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity researches of Xanthii Fructus (XF) and its processed product (processed Xanthii Fructus (PXF)) were carried out. Water extraction of XF displayed no cell membrane damage effects even in the highest concentration (100 μg/mL); however, it might affect the function of renal cell mitochondria. Acute toxicities were observed only in high and middle dosage groups. Fortunately, the single dose administration of XF or PXF was safe even at the highest daily dosage. Twelve-week chronic toxicity assays were performed in SD rats with low, middle, and high dosage. Notable changes in body weight and blood cell and BUN and Scr changes sporadically occurred in middle and high groups after the 9th week. Serum HA and HPCIII values were sustained increasing from the 4th week to the 8th week in Group V male rats, which indicated that the renal fibrosis risks still existed although no fibrosis was found in the pathological examination of the liver and kidney. PMID:24371823

  20. Tirapazamine-induced DNA damage measured using the comet assay correlates with cytotoxicity towards hypoxic tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Siim, B. G.; van Zijl, P. L.; Brown, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Tirapazamine (SR 4233), a bioreductive drug selectively toxic towards hypoxic cells, is presently in phase II clinical trials. Since it would not be expected that all tumours would respond equally to the drug, we are exploring ways of predicting the response of individual tumours. In this study we have tested whether the comet assay, which measures DNA damage in individual cells, can provide a simple, surrogate end point for cell killing by tirapazamine. We examined the relationship between the cytotoxicity of tirapazamine under hypoxic conditions and tirapazamine-induced DNA strand breaks in murine (SCCVII, EMT6, RIF-1) and human (HT1080, A549, HT29) tumour cell lines. These results were compared with the relationship between tirapazamine cytotoxicity and another measure of the ability of cells to metabolise tirapazamine; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of tirapazamine loss or formation of the two electron reduction product SR 4317. The correlation between the hypoxic cytotoxic potency of tirapazamine and DNA damage was highly significant (r = 0.905, P = 0.013). A similar correlation was observed for hypoxic potency and tirapazamine loss (r = 0.812, P = 0.050), while the correlation between hypoxic potency and SR 4317 formation was not significant (r = 0.634, P = 0.171). The hypoxic cytotoxicity of tirapazamine in vitro can therefore be predicted by measuring tirapazamine-induced DNA damage using the comet assay. This approach holds promise for predicting the response of individual tumours to tirapazamine in the clinic. PMID:8611431

  1. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuyan; Guo, Huarong; Xiao, Qin; Su, Feng; Yin, Licheng

    2007-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of abamectin to the Gill Cell Line of Flounder (FG cell line) was examined in this study. It was found that the exposure of FG cells to abamectin caused the decreases of both cell growth rate and antioxidant enzyme activities, and the increase of intracellular O2 - content. It was proposed that the reduction of antioxidant enzyme activities in FG cells caused the accumulation of O2 - content in FG cells, leading to the change of cell morphology and even the death of cells. The results showed that FG cell line is suitable for the evaluation of the acute toxicity of abamectin.

  2. Prevention of the acute cytotoxicity associated with silica-containing minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Vallyathan, V.; Castranova, V.; Dalal, N.S.; Van Dyke, K.

    1989-10-30

    The inventors have developed a method that may prevent the acute cytotoxicity of freshly fractured silica and silica containing minerals including asbestos and coal-mine dust containing silica. The method entails coating silica-containing minerals, including coal, with a monomolecular film of an aqueously compatible silane coupling agent, either during milling, processing or after grinding or fracturing of silica or silica-containing materials. The invention also provides for a method of preventing certain pulmonary diseases, have been considered as occupational hazards in certain professions, such as coal mining and any other profession where persons are subjected to the inhalation of small particles of freshly fractured or ground silica containing minerals.

  3. The modified FACS calcein AM retention assay: A high throughput flow cytometer based method to measure cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gillissen, M A; Yasuda, E; de Jong, G; Levie, S E; Go, D; Spits, H; van Helden, P M; Hazenberg, M D

    2016-07-01

    Current methods to determine cellular cytotoxicity in vitro are hampered by background signals that are caused by auto-fluorescent target and effector cells and by non-specific cell death. We combined and adjusted existing cell viability assays to develop a method that allows for highly reproducible, accurate, single cell analysis by high throughput FACS, in which non-specific cell death is corrected for. In this assay the number of living, calcein AM labeled cells that are green fluorescent are quantified by adding a fixed number of unlabeled calibration beads to the analysis. Using this modified FACS calcein AM retention method, we found EC50 values to be highly reproducible and considerably lower compared to EC50 values obtained by conventional assays, displaying the high sensitivity of this assay. PMID:27084117

  4. REDUCTION OF INTERFERING CYTOTOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH WASTEWATER SLUDGE CONCENTRATES ASSAYED FOR INDIGENOUS ENTERIC VIRUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Washing, freon extraction, and cationic polyelectrolyte precipitation were compared for their ability to reduce cytotoxicity associated with virus concentrates derived from beef extract eluates of wastewater sludges. Eluates concentrated by hydroextraction were usually much more ...

  5. Comparison of five different in vitro assays for assessment of sodium metavanadate cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 line).

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare five different in vitro cytotoxicity assays for their power in revealing vanadium-mediated toxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. The cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO(3)) in the range of 10-1000 µM for 24 h and thereafter the cytotoxic effects of NaVO(3) were measured by colorimetric in vitro assays: the neutral red (NR) test, the 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt (XTT) assay, the resazurin assay, the sulforhodamine B (SR-B) assay, and by microscopic assessment of cell viability using the trypan blue (TB) staining method. Among the assays used, the NR test was the most sensitive, since it revealed metavanadate cytotoxicity at the lowest NaVO(3) dose (=50 µM). Also, NaVO(3) cytotoxicity expressed as inhibitory concentration (IC) showed the lowest values for the NR test. Three other tests XTT, resazurin, and SR-B assays showed intermediate sensitivity revealing the cytotoxicity of NaVO(3) at 100 µM. The corresponding IC10 and IC50 values calculated for the XTT, resazurin, and SR-B tests were similar. The TB staining method was the least sensitive, since it recorded metavanadate cytotoxicity at the highest NaVO(3) concentration tested (=600 µM). Based on the cytotoxicity end points measured with the above assays, it can be concluded that lysosomal/Golgi apparatus damage (measured by NR assay) may be the primary effect of NaVO(3) on CHO-K1 cells. The disintegration of mitochondria (assessed with the XTT and resazurin assays) probably follows lysosomal impairment. Plasma membrane permeability (staining with TB) occurs at a late stage of NaVO(3)-induced cytotoxicity on CHO-K1 cells. The results obtained in this research work show that the NR test can be recommended as a very sensitive assay for the assessment of NaVO(3) cytotoxicity in the CHO-K1 cell culture model. Considering the convenience of assay performance along with adequate sensitivity

  6. Molecular basis of arsenite (As+3)-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Muhammad Nauman; Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Khurshid, Mohsin; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Maqsood, Umer; Asghar, Muhammad Tahir; Nazir, Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid industrialization is discharging toxic heavy metals into the environment, disturbing human health in many ways and causing various neurologic, cardiovascular, and dermatologic abnormalities and certain types of cancer. The presence of arsenic in drinking water from different urban and rural areas of the major cities of Pakistan, for example, Lahore, Faisalabad, and Kasur, was found to be beyond the permissible limit of 10 parts per billion set by the World Health Organization. Therefore the present study was initiated to examine the effects of arsenite (As+3) on DNA biosynthesis and cell death. Methods After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and flow cytometry. Results We show that As+3 ions have a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect through the activation of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In contrast to previous research, the present study was designed to explore the early cytotoxic effects produced in human cells during exposure to heavy dosage of As+3 (7.5 µg/ml). Even treatment for 1 h significantly increased the mRNA levels of p21 and p27 and caspases 3, 7, and 9. It was interesting that there was no change in the expression levels of p53, which plays an important role in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Conclusion Our results indicate that sudden exposure of cells to arsenite (As+3) resulted in cytotoxicity and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis resulting from up-regulation of caspases. PMID:25922308

  7. Determining the size and concentration dependence of gold nanoparticles in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) test using WST-1 assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Nur Shafawati binti; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Shamsuddin, Shaharum

    2015-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) received a great deal of attention for biomedical applications, especially in diagnostic imaging and therapeutics. Even though AuNPs have potential benefits in biomedical applications, the impact of AuNPs on human and environmental health still remains unclear. The use of AuNPs which is a high-atomic-number materials, provide advantages in terms of radiation dose enhancement. However, before this can become a clinical reality, cytotoxicity of the AuNPs has to be carefully evaluated. Cytotoxicity test is a rapid, standardized test that is very sensitive to determine whether the nanoparticles produced are harmful or benign on cellular components. In this work the size and concentration dependence of AuNPs cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) are tested by using WST-1 assay. The sizes of AuNPs tested were 13 nm, 50 nm, and 70 nm. The cells were seeded in the 96-well plate and were treated with different concentrations of AuNPs by serial dilution for each size of AuNPs. The high concentration of AuNPs exhibit lower cell viability compared to low concentration of AuNPs. We quantified the toxicity of AuNPs in MCF-7 cell lines by determining the IC50 values in WST-1 assays. The IC50 values (inhibitory concentrations that effected 50% growth inhibition) of 50 nm AuNPs is lower than 13 nm and 70 nm AuNPs. Mean that, 50nm AuNPs are more toxic to the MCF-7 cells compared to smaller and larger sizes AuNPs. The presented results clearly indicate that the cytotoxicity of AuNPs depend not only on the concentration, but also the size of the nanoparticles.

  8. Topical pimecrolimus lacks genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by means of micronucleus erythrocyte rodent assay.

    PubMed

    Flores-García, Aurelio; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zamora-Pérez, Ana L; Garibaldi-Becerra, Vicente; Barba-Barajas, Martha; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M

    2011-10-01

    Topical pimecrolimus is an alternative treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, rare cases of malignancy have been reported with their use. This study was performed to investigate the possible geno- or cytotoxic effect in mouse bone marrow caused by systemic absorption of pimecrolimus 1% cream. In order to determine this, induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in mouse peripheral blood was determined after the cutaneous application of three different doses, daily for 5 consecutive days. No differences were found in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes, MNE, and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the different groups of study. In conclusion, under described conditions, no geno- or cytotoxic effects were detected after the cutaneous application of pimecrolimus. PMID:21749197

  9. Acute effects of a prooxidant herbicide on the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity endpoints.

    PubMed

    Esperanza, Marta; Cid, Ángeles; Herrero, Concepción; Rioboo, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    Since recent evidence has demonstrated that many types of chemicals exhibit oxidative and/or genotoxic potential on living organisms, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and DNA damage are currently the best accepted paradigms to assess the potential hazardous biological effects of a wide range of contaminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different cytotoxicity and genotoxicity responses on the model microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to the prooxidant herbicide paraquat. In addition to the growth endpoint, cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assayed as potential markers of cytotoxicity using flow cytometry (FCM). To study the effects of paraquat on C. reinhardtii DNA, several genotoxicity approaches were implemented for the first time in an ecotoxicological study on microalgae. Oxidative DNA base damage was analysed by measuring the oxidative DNA lesion 8-OHdG by FCM. DNA fragmentation was analysed by different methods: comet assay, and cell cycle analysis by FCM, with a particular focus on the presence of subG1-nuclei. Finally, effects on morphology of nuclei were monitored through DAPI staining. The evaluation of these endpoints showed that several physiological and biochemical parameters reacted to oxidative stress disturbances with greater sensitivity than integrative parameters such as growth rates or cell viability. The experiments revealed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity (ROS formation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane), genotoxicity (oxidative DNA damage, DNA strand breakage, alterations in nuclear morphology), and cell cycle disturbances (subG1-nuclei, decrease of 4N population) in paraquat-treated cells. Overall, the genotoxicity results indicate that the production of ROS caused by exposure to paraquat induces oxidative DNA damage followed by DNA single- and double-strand breaks and cell cycle alterations, possibly leading to apoptosis

  10. Cytotoxicity of CD56-positive lymphocytes against autologous B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Lim, Min; George, Aswathi A.; Kirzner, Jonathan; Lee, Dean; Seeger, Robert; Groffen, John; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Precursor B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) affects hematopoietic development and therefore is associated with immune deficiencies that can be further exacerbated by chemotherapy. It is unclear if and when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that stimulate antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) can be used for treatment because this depends on the presence of functional effector cells. Here, we used flow cytometry to determine that patient samples at diagnosis, post-induction and relapse contain detectable numbers of CD56+ cells. We were able to selectively expand CD56+ immune effector cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood samples at diagnosis and at various stages of treatment by co-culture with artificial antigen-presenting K562 clone 9.mbIL-21 cells. Amplified CD56+CD3- cells had spontaneous and anti-BAFF-R mAb-stimulated ADCC activity against autologous ALL cells, which could be further enhanced by IL15. Importantly, matched CD56+ effector cells also killed autologous ALL cells grown out from leukemia samples of the same patient, through both spontaneous as well as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Since autologous cell therapy will not be complicated by graft-versus-host disease, our results show that expanded CD56+ cells could be applied for treatment of pre-B-ALL without transplantation, or for purging of bone marrow in the setting of autologous bone marrow transplants. PMID:25134458

  11. Dynamics of cytotoxic T cell subsets during immunotherapy predicts outcome in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Frida Ewald; Rydström, Anna; Bernson, Elin; Kiffin, Roberta; Riise, Rebecca; Aurelius, Johan; Anderson, Harald; Brune, Mats; Foà, Robin; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B.; Martner, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Preventing relapse after chemotherapy remains a challenge in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Eighty-four non-transplanted AML patients in first complete remission received relapse-preventive immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride and low-dose interleukin-2 in an international phase IV trial (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01347996). Blood samples were drawn during cycles of immunotherapy and analyzed for CD8+ (cytotoxic) T cell phenotypes in blood. During the first cycle of therapy, a re-distribution of cytotoxic T cells was observed comprising a reduction of T effector memory cells and a concomitant increase of T effector cells. The dynamics of T cell subtypes during immunotherapy prognosticated relapse and survival, in particular among older patients and remained significantly predictive of clinical outcome after correction for potential confounders. Presence of CD8+ T cells with specificity for leukemia-associated antigens identified patients with low relapse risk. Our results point to novel aspects of T cell-mediated immunosurveillance in AML and provide conceivable biomarkers in relapse-preventive immunotherapy. PMID:26863635

  12. Antibody to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus spike protein domain 2 cross-reacts with lung epithelial cells and causes cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y S; Lin, C F; Fang, Y T; Kuo, Y M; Liao, P C; Yeh, T M; Hwa, K Y; Shieh, C C K; Yen, J H; Wang, H J; Su, I J; Lei, H Y

    2005-01-01

    Both viral effect and immune-mediated mechanism are involved in the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. In this study, we showed that in SARS patient sera there were autoantibodies (autoAbs) that reacted with A549 cells, the type-2 pneumocytes, and that these autoAbs were mainly IgG. The autoAbs were detectable 20 days after fever onset. Tests of non-SARS-pneumonia patients did not show the same autoAb production as in SARS patients. After sera IgG bound to A549 cells, cytotoxicity was induced. Cell cytotoxicity and the anti-epithelial cell IgG level were positively correlated. Preabsorption and binding assays indicated the existence of cross-reactive epitopes on SARS-CoV spike protein domain 2 (S2). Furthermore, treatment of A549 cells with anti-S2 Abs and IFN-γ resulted in an increase in the adherence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to these epithelial cells. Taken together, we have demonstrated that the anti-S2 Abs in SARS patient sera cause cytotoxic injury as well as enhance immune cell adhesion to epithelial cells. The onset of autoimmune responses in SARS-CoV infection may be implicated in SARS pathogenesis. PMID:16045740

  13. Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) is an assay which evaluates xenobiotic-induced effects using three endpoints: mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, mESC viability, and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal was to develop an improved high-throughput assay by establi...

  14. Cytotoxicity screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials using a test matrix of ten cell lines and three different assays

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Engineered nanomaterials display unique properties that may have impact on human health, and thus require a reliable evaluation of their potential toxicity. Here, we performed a standardized in vitro screening of 23 engineered nanomaterials. We thoroughly characterized the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials and adapted three classical in vitro toxicity assays to eliminate nanomaterial interference. Nanomaterial toxicity was assessed in ten representative cell lines. Results Six nanomaterials induced oxidative cell stress while only a single nanomaterial reduced cellular metabolic activity and none of the particles affected cell viability. Results from heterogeneous and chemically identical particles suggested that surface chemistry, surface coating and chemical composition are likely determinants of nanomaterial toxicity. Individual cell lines differed significantly in their response, dependent on the particle type and the toxicity endpoint measured. Conclusion In vitro toxicity of the analyzed engineered nanomaterials cannot be attributed to a defined physicochemical property. Therefore, the accurate identification of nanomaterial cytotoxicity requires a matrix based on a set of sensitive cell lines and in vitro assays measuring different cytotoxicity endpoints. PMID:21345205

  15. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts.

    PubMed

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  16. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Leaves Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Elsyana, Vida; Bintang, Maria; Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo

    2016-01-01

    Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary) cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity. PMID:27099614

  17. L929 cell response to root perforation repair cements: an in vitro cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Rosana Belchior; Fidel, Sandra Rivera; Boller, Maria Aparecida Affonso

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cytotoxicity of an experimental epoxy-resin and calcium hydroxide-based cement (MBPc), gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using the agar overlay method with neutral red dye. L929 cells were seeded into 6-well culture plates where 48-h set test materials were placed on the agar overlay, in triplicate. Teflon and natural rubber served as negative and positive controls. After an incubation period of 24 h at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air, a discolored area around the samples and the positive controls could be observed and measured per quadrant. The mean values were compared and converted into grades to classify the results according to the table of cytotoxicity grades according to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. The nonviable cell areas and the morphological changes in the cells were observed with an inverted microscope. The results showed grade 1 (slight) for the two types of MTA (p>0.05) and grade 2 (mild) for the MBPc (p<0.001). All samples met the requirements of the test as none of the cultures showed reactivity higher than grade 2. PMID:19466226

  18. Optimal dose selection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for the rat comet assay to evaluate DNA damage in organs with different susceptibility to cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Sachiko; Matsuyama, Ryoko; Uematsu, Yasuaki; Ogata, Keiko; Ota, Mika; Yamada, Toru; Miyata, Kaori; Funabashi, Hitoshi; Saito, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is a promising technique to evaluate DNA damage in vivo. However, there is no agreement on a method to evaluate DNA damage in organs where cytotoxicity is observed. As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the comet assay, we examined DNA damage in the liver, stomach, and bone marrow of rats given three oral doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) up to the maximum tolerated dose based on systemic toxicity. MNU significantly increased the % tail DNA in all the organs. Histopathological analysis showed no cytotoxic effect on the liver, indicating clearly that MNU has a genotoxic potential in the liver. In the stomach, however, the cytotoxic effects were very severe at systemically non-toxic doses. Low-dose MNU significantly increased the % tail DNA even at a non-cytotoxic dose, indicating that MNU has a genotoxic potential also in the stomach. Part of the DNA damage at cytotoxic doses was considered to be a secondary effect of severe cell damage. In the bone marrow, both the % tail DNA and incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes significantly increased at non-hematotoxic doses, which were different from the non-cytotoxic doses for liver and stomach. These findings indicate that an optimal dose for detecting DNA damage may vary among organs and that careful attention is required to select an optimum dose for the comet assay based on systemic toxicity such as mortality and clinical observations. The present study shows that when serious cytotoxicity is suggested by increased % hedgehogs in the comet assay, histopathological examination should be included for the evaluation of a positive response. PMID:26212303

  19. Evaluation of 309 environmental chemicals using a mouse embryonic stem cell adherent cell differentiation and cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Kelly J; Barrier, Marianne; Jeffay, Susan; Nichols, Harriette P; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Singh, Amar V; Reif, David M; Sipes, Nisha S; Judson, Richard S; Dix, David J; Kavlock, Robert; Hunter, Edward S; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    The vast landscape of environmental chemicals has motivated the need for alternative methods to traditional whole-animal bioassays in toxicity testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an in vitro model of embryonic development and an alternative method for assessing developmental toxicity. Here, we evaluated 309 environmental chemicals, mostly food-use pesticides, from the ToxCast™ chemical library using a mouse ES cell platform. ES cells were cultured in the absence of pluripotency factors to promote spontaneous differentiation and in the presence of DMSO-solubilized chemicals at different concentrations to test the effects of exposure on differentiation and cytotoxicity. Cardiomyocyte differentiation (α,β myosin heavy chain; MYH6/MYH7) and cytotoxicity (DRAQ5™/Sapphire700™) were measured by In-Cell Western™ analysis. Half-maximal activity concentration (AC₅₀) values for differentiation and cytotoxicity endpoints were determined, with 18% of the chemical library showing significant activity on either endpoint. Mining these effects against the ToxCast Phase I assays (∼500) revealed significant associations for a subset of chemicals (26) that perturbed transcription-based activities and impaired ES cell differentiation. Increased transcriptional activity of several critical developmental genes including BMPR2, PAX6 and OCT1 were strongly associated with decreased ES cell differentiation. Multiple genes involved in reactive oxygen species signaling pathways (NRF2, ABCG2, GSTA2, HIF1A) were strongly associated with decreased ES cell differentiation as well. A multivariate model built from these data revealed alterations in ABCG2 transporter was a strong predictor of impaired ES cell differentiation. Taken together, these results provide an initial characterization of metabolic and regulatory pathways by which some environmental chemicals may act to disrupt ES cell growth and differentiation. PMID:21666745

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements on human monocytes, a colorimetric MTT assay

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Sedigheh; Dehghan, Somayyeh; Hadjati, Jamshid; Masoumi, Farimah; Dummer, Paul Michael Howell

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements at different storage times after mixing. Materials and Methods Capillary tubes were filled with Biodentine (Septodont), Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM cement, BioniqueDent), Tech Biosealer Endo (Tech Biosealer) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Empty tubes and tubes containing Dycal were used as negative and positive control groups respectively. Filled capillary tubes were kept in 0.2 mL microtubes and incubated at 37℃. Each material was divided into 3 groups for testing at intervals of 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day after mixing. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cocultered with 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day samples of different materials for 24 and 48 hr. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Results In all groups, the viability of monocytes significantly improved with increasing storage time regardless of the incubation time (p < 0.001). After 24 hr of incubation, there was no significant difference between the materials regarding monocyte viability. However, at 48 hr of incubation, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were less cytotoxic than CEM cement and Biosealer (p < 0.01). Conclusions Biodentine and ProRoot MTA had similar biocompatibility. Mixing ProRoot MTA with PBS in place of distilled water had no effect on its biocompatibility. Biosealer and CEM cement after 48 hr of incubation were significantly more cytotoxic to on monocyte cells compared to ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. PMID:25110637

  1. Evaluation of 309 Environmental Chemicals Using a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Kelly J.; Barrier, Marianne; Jeffay, Susan; Nichols, Harriette P.; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C.; Singh, Amar V.; Reif, David M.; Sipes, Nisha S.; Judson, Richard S.; Dix, David J.; Kavlock, Robert; Hunter, Edward S.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    The vast landscape of environmental chemicals has motivated the need for alternative methods to traditional whole-animal bioassays in toxicity testing. Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide an in vitro model of embryonic development and an alternative method for assessing developmental toxicity. Here, we evaluated 309 environmental chemicals, mostly food-use pesticides, from the ToxCast™ chemical library using a mouse ES cell platform. ES cells were cultured in the absence of pluripotency factors to promote spontaneous differentiation and in the presence of DMSO-solubilized chemicals at different concentrations to test the effects of exposure on differentiation and cytotoxicity. Cardiomyocyte differentiation (α,β myosin heavy chain; MYH6/MYH7) and cytotoxicity (DRAQ5™/Sapphire700™) were measured by In-Cell Western™ analysis. Half-maximal activity concentration (AC50) values for differentiation and cytotoxicity endpoints were determined, with 18% of the chemical library showing significant activity on either endpoint. Mining these effects against the ToxCast Phase I assays (∼500) revealed significant associations for a subset of chemicals (26) that perturbed transcription-based activities and impaired ES cell differentiation. Increased transcriptional activity of several critical developmental genes including BMPR2, PAX6 and OCT1 were strongly associated with decreased ES cell differentiation. Multiple genes involved in reactive oxygen species signaling pathways (NRF2, ABCG2, GSTA2, HIF1A) were strongly associated with decreased ES cell differentiation as well. A multivariate model built from these data revealed alterations in ABCG2 transporter was a strong predictor of impaired ES cell differentiation. Taken together, these results provide an initial characterization of metabolic and regulatory pathways by which some environmental chemicals may act to disrupt ES cell growth and differentiation. PMID:21666745

  2. Characterization of Diversity in Toxicity Mechanism Using In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assays in Quantitative High Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Xia, Menghang; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the potential health risks of environmental chemical compounds is an expensive undertaking which has motivated the development of new alternatives to traditional in vivo toxicological testing. One approach is to stage the evaluation, beginning with less expensive and higher throughput in vitro testing before progressing to more definitive trials. In vitro testing can be used to generate a hypothesis about a compound's mechanism of action, which can then be used to design an appropriate in vivo experiment. Here we begin to address the question of how to design such a battery of in vitro cell-based assays by combining data from two different types of assays, cell viability and caspase activation, with the aim of elucidating mechanism of action. Because caspase activation is a transient event during apoptosis, it is not possible to design a single end-point assay protocol that would identify all instances of compound-induced caspase activation. Nevertheless, useful information about compound mechanism of action can be obtained from these assays in combination with cell viability data. Unsupervised clustering in combination with Dunn's cluster validity index is a robust method for identifying mechanisms of action without requiring any a priori knowledge about mechanisms of toxicity. The performance of this clustering method is evaluated by comparing the clustering results against literature annotations of compound mechanisms. PMID:18281954

  3. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  4. A novel aryl-hydrazide from the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea: isolation, synthesis of derivatives, and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Catherine; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Weghe, Pierre van de; Devehat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël

    2010-08-01

    A new aryl-hydrazide l-glutamic acid derivative, pygmeine (3), was isolated from a methanolic extract of Lichina pygmaea, a marine lichen. Synthetic derivatives obtained via a two-step coupling of l-glutamic acid with phenylhydrazine moieties were useful to elucidate the structure of 3 and to carry out biological assays. Thus, the cytotoxicity of the ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxyl isomers along with their respective benzyl intermediates, and a natural methoxylated analog, were evaluated on murine and human melanoma cells (B16, A375). The para-hydroxyl isomer 6 was found to be the most active (IC(50)=1.6 microM) on B16 cells. PMID:20570625

  5. Co-activation of AMPK and mTORC1 Induces Cytotoxicity in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sujobert, Pierre; Poulain, Laury; Paubelle, Etienne; Zylbersztejn, Florence; Grenier, Adrien; Lambert, Mireille; Townsend, Elizabeth C; Brusq, Jean-Marie; Nicodeme, Edwige; Decrooqc, Justine; Nepstad, Ina; Green, Alexa S; Mondesir, Johanna; Hospital, Marie-Anne; Jacque, Nathalie; Christodoulou, Alexandra; Desouza, Tiffany A; Hermine, Olivier; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Weinstock, David M; Moura, Ivan C; Bouscary, Didier; Tamburini, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    AMPK is a master regulator of cellular metabolism that exerts either oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity depending on context. Here, we report that the specific AMPK agonist GSK621 selectively kills acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells but spares normal hematopoietic progenitors. This differential sensitivity results from a unique synthetic lethal interaction involving concurrent activation of AMPK and mTORC1. Strikingly, the lethality of GSK621 in primary AML cells and AML cell lines is abrogated by chemical or genetic ablation of mTORC1 signaling. The same synthetic lethality between AMPK and mTORC1 activation is established in CD34-positive hematopoietic progenitors by constitutive activation of AKT or enhanced in AML cells by deletion of TSC2. Finally, cytotoxicity in AML cells from GSK621 involves the eIF2α/ATF4 signaling pathway that specifically results from mTORC1 activation. AMPK activation may represent a therapeutic opportunity in mTORC1-overactivated cancers. PMID:26004183

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of 30 reference chemicals to predict acute human and animal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Arjun, S.; Borges, L. )

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted in cooperation with the Scandinavian Society of Cell Toxicology, as part of the Multicenter Evaluation for In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC), and was designed to develop an in vitro model for predicting acute human and animal toxicity. The technique relies on the ability of cultured transformed rat lung epithelial cells (L2) to incorporate radiolabled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during a 24-hr incubation. IC50 values were extrapolated from the dose-response curves after linear regression analysis. Human toxic blood concentrations estimated from rodent LD50 values suggest that our experimental IC50's are in close correlation with the former. Validation of the data by the MEIC committee shows that our IC50 values predicted human lethal dosage as efficient as rodent LD50's. It is anticipated that this and related procedures may supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for predicting human toxicity.

  7. Effects of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase variants and pyridoxine sensitivity on oxalate metabolism in a cell-based cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Fargue, Sonia; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P; Rumsby, Gill; Danpure, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    The hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a functional deficiency of the liver-specific, peroxisomal, pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). One third of PH1 patients, particularly those expressing the p.[(Pro11Leu; Gly170Arg; Ile340Met)] mutant allele, respond clinically to pharmacological doses of pyridoxine. To gain further insight into the metabolic effects of AGT dysfunction in PH1 and the effect of pyridoxine, we established an "indirect" glycolate cytotoxicity assay using CHO cells expressing glycolate oxidase (GO) and various normal and mutant forms of AGT. In cells expressing GO the great majority of glycolate was converted to oxalate and glyoxylate, with the latter causing the greater decrease in cell survival. Co-expression of normal AGTs and some, but not all, mutant AGT variants partially counteracted this cytotoxicity and led to decreased synthesis of oxalate and glyoxylate. Increasing the extracellular pyridoxine up to 0.3μM led to an increased metabolic effectiveness of normal AGTs and the AGT-Gly170Arg variant. The increased survival seen with AGT-Gly170Arg was paralleled by a 40% decrease in oxalate and glyoxylate levels. These data support the suggestion that the effectiveness of pharmacological doses of pyridoxine results from an improved metabolic effectiveness of AGT; that is the increased rate of transamination of glyoxylate to glycine. The indirect glycolate toxicity assay used in the present study has potential to be used in cell-based drug screening protocols to identify chemotherapeutics that might enhance or decrease the activity and metabolic effectiveness of AGT and GO, respectively, and be useful in the treatment of PH1. PMID:26854734

  8. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  9. Cytotoxic potency of cardiotoxin from Naja sputatrix: development of a new cytolytic assay.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Donghui; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Jeyaseelan, Kandiah

    2002-01-01

    The possible involvement of specific regions/loops of cardiotoxin from Naja sputatrix venom in mediating its cytolytic activity is evaluated using a new cytolytic assay. In this assay, the amount of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) that is released upon lysis of the cellular membranes by the cytotoxin has been measured as an index of cytolysis. This newly developed CAT system is more sensitive than the traditional haemolysis method utilizing red blood cells or the lactate dehydrogenase assay for cytolysis. Series of chimaeric toxin molecules have been constructed by swapping the loops between highly hydrophilic neurotoxin and highly hydrophobic cardiotoxin molecules from Naja sputatrix, which are known to exhibit structural similarity (three-finger conformation) but to have different functional properties. Comparison of the cytolytic activities of the recombinant chimaeric toxins demonstrated the possible involvement of all three loops of cardiotoxin in its cytolytic potency. However, the first two loops of the protein appear to make the major contribution to its lytic activity. cDNAs encoding cardiotoxin and the chimaeric toxins, when expressed in transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, resulted in cell lysis, indicating that these cDNAs can be developed as useful cytolytic agents. PMID:12027804

  10. Can Artemia Hatching Assay Be a (Sensitive) Alternative Tool to Acute Toxicity Test?

    PubMed

    Rotini, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Tornambè, A; Migliore, L

    2015-12-01

    Artemia sp. is extensively used in ecotoxicity testing, despite criticisms inherent to both acute and long-term tests. Alternative endpoints and procedures should be considered to support the use of this biological model. The hatching process comprises several developmental steps and the cyst hatchability seems acceptable as endpoint criterion. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the hatching assay on A. franciscana by comparing with acute and long-term mortality tests, using two chemicals: Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS). Both DEG and SDS tests demonstrated a dose dependent hatching inhibition. The hatching test resulted more sensitive than acute mortality test and less sensitive than the long-term one. Results demonstrate the reliability and high sensitivity of this hatching assay on a short time lag and support its useful application in first-tier risk assessment procedures. PMID:26245451

  11. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo acute toxicity assays in Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1790) and its three cell lines in relation to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Sarath Babu, V; Vimal, S; Kamatchiammal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2012-03-01

    Cell lines of Etroplus suratensis established in our laboratory were evaluated for their potential use as screening tools for the ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent. The cytotoxic effect of tannery effluent in three cell lines derived from eye, kidney and gill tissue of E. suratensis was assessed using multiple endpoints such as Neutral Red (NR) assay, Coomassie Blue (CB) protein assay and Alamar Blue (AB) assay. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing E. suratensis for 96 h to tannery effluent under static conditions. The toxic effect of tannery effluent on the survival of fish was found to be concentration and time dependent. The tannery effluent at the concentration of 15% caused 100% mortality at 96 h whereas the lower concentration (0.5%) caused 13.33% mortality. The cytotoxicity of tannery effluent was found to be similar in the three cell lines tested, independent of the toxic endpoints employed. EC(50) values, the effective concentration of tannery effluent resulting in 50% inhibition of cytotoxicity parameters after 48 h exposure to tannery effluent were calculated for eye, kidney and gill cell lines using NR uptake, AB and cell protein assays. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with r(2)=0.95-0.99 for all combinations between endpoints employed. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC(50) and the in vivo LC(50) data, were highly significant p<0.001 with r(2)=0.977, 0.968 and 0.906 for AB(50), NR(50), and CB(50), respectively. PMID:22205045

  12. Miniaturization of cytotoxicity tests for concentration range-finding studies prior to conducting the pH 6.7 Syrian hamster embryo cell-transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Plöttner, Sabine; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-08-15

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell-transformation assay (SHE assay) is a promising alternative method to animal testing for the identification of potential carcinogens in vitro. Prior to conducting the SHE assay the appropriate concentration range for each test chemical must be established, with a maximum concentration causing approximately 50% cytotoxicity. Concentration range-finding is done in separate experiments, which are similar to the final SHE assay but with less replicates and more concentrations. Here we present an alternative for the cytotoxicity testing by miniaturization of the test procedure by use of 24-well plates and surpluses from feeder-cell preparations as target cells. In addition, we integrated the photometry-based neutral red (NR) assay. For validation of the assay, incubations with dimethyl sulf-oxide, p-phenylenediamine-2HCl, aniline, o-toluidine-HCl, 2,4-diaminotoluene, and 2-naphthylamine were carried out in the miniaturized approach and compared with the standard procedure in terms of calculating the relative plating efficiencies (RPEs). To directly compare both methods, concentrations that produced 50% cytotoxicity (IC50) were calculated. Excellent associations were observed between the number of colonies and NR uptake. For all test substances a concentration-dependent, concomitant decrease of NR uptake in the miniaturized approach and RPEs in the standard test was observed after a 7-day incubation. The results from both test setups showed a comparable order of magnitude and the IC50 values differed by a factor <2 (1.4-1.9), depending on the substance in question. Overall, the miniaturized approach should be considered an improved alternative for cytotoxicity testing in the SHE assay, as it saves valuable SHE cells and speeds-up the time, to obtain test results more rapidly. PMID:23830925

  13. Microfluidic Impedimetric Cell Regeneration Assay to Monitor the Enhanced Cytotoxic Effect of Nanomaterial Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Rothbauer, Mario; Praisler, Irene; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H.; Ertl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the application of nanomaterials (NMs) in technical products and biomedicine has become a rapidly increasing market trend. As the safety and efficacy of NMs are of utmost importance, new methods are needed to study the dynamic interactions of NMs at the nano-biointerface. However, evaluation of NMs based on standard and static cell culture end-point detection methods does not provide information on the dynamics of living biological systems, which is crucial for the understanding of physiological responses. To bridge this technological gap, we here present a microfluidic cell culture system containing embedded impedance microsensors to continuously and non-invasively monitor the effects of NMs on adherent cells under varying flow conditions. As a model, the impact of silica NMs on the vitality and regenerative capacity of human lung cells after acute and chronic exposure scenarios was studied over an 18-h period following a four-hour NM treatment. Results of the study demonstrated that the developed system is applicable to reliably analyze the consequences of dynamic NM exposure to physiological cell barriers in both nanotoxicology and nanomedicine. PMID:26633532

  14. Microfluidic Impedimetric Cell Regeneration Assay to Monitor the Enhanced Cytotoxic Effect of Nanomaterial Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Rothbauer, Mario; Praisler, Irene; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Ertl, Peter

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, the application of nanomaterials (NMs) in technical products and biomedicine has become a rapidly increasing market trend. As the safety and efficacy of NMs are of utmost importance, new methods are needed to study the dynamic interactions of NMs at the nano-biointerface. However, evaluation of NMs based on standard and static cell culture end-point detection methods does not provide information on the dynamics of living biological systems, which is crucial for the understanding of physiological responses. To bridge this technological gap, we here present a microfluidic cell culture system containing embedded impedance microsensors to continuously and non-invasively monitor the effects of NMs on adherent cells under varying flow conditions. As a model, the impact of silica NMs on the vitality and regenerative capacity of human lung cells after acute and chronic exposure scenarios was studied over an 18-h period following a four-hour NM treatment. Results of the study demonstrated that the developed system is applicable to reliably analyze the consequences of dynamic NM exposure to physiological cell barriers in both nanotoxicology and nanomedicine. PMID:26633532

  15. Use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure antigenaemia during acute plague*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James E.; Gentry, Mary K.; Braden, Carol A.; Leister, Flora; Yolken, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure concentrations of the specific F1 antigen of the plague bacillus in biological fluids. The assay employed a monoclonal antibody to capture the antigen. Sensitivity of the assay was 0.4 ng of F1 antigen. ELISA-inhibition was used to confirm the specificity of the reactions. This assay detected F1 antigen in two of ten sera from patients with acute bubonic plague and indicated that antigenaemia in man during plague may reach levels of 4-8 μg of F1 antigen per ml of serum. The probability for a correct serodiagnosis of plague was improved when the patients' sera were tested for both antibody and antigen. Two patients with antigenaemia did not have antibody, while two patients with antibody lacked antigenaemia. PMID:6380787

  16. The cytotoxicity of polycationic iron oxide nanoparticles: Common endpoint assays and alternative approaches for improved understanding of cellular response mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) have an increasing number of biomedical applications. As such in vitro characterisation is essential to ensure the bio-safety of these particles. Little is known on the cellular interaction or effect on membrane integrity upon exposure to these MNPs. Here we synthesised Fe3O4 and surface coated with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to achieve particles of varying surface positive charges and used them as model MNP's to evaluate the relative utility and limitations of cellular assays commonly applied for nanotoxicity assessment. An alternative approach, atomic force microscopy (AFM), was explored for the analysis of membrane structure and cell morphology upon interacting with the MNPs. The particles were tested in vitro on human SH-SY5Y, MCF-7 and U937 cell lines for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation (LPO), LDH leakage and their overall cytotoxic effect. These results were compared with AFM topography imaging carried out on fixed cell lines. Results Successful particle synthesis and coating were characterised using FTIR, PCS, TEM and ICP. The particle size from TEM was 30 nm (−16.9 mV) which increased to 40 nm (+55.6 mV) upon coating with PEI and subsequently 50 nm (+31.2 mV) with PEG coating. Both particles showed excellent stability not only at neutral pH but also in acidic environment of pH 4.6 in the presence of sodium citrate. The higher surface charge MNP-PEI resulted in increased cytotoxic effect and ROS production on all cell lines compared with the MNP-PEI-PEG. In general the effect on the cell membrane integrity was observed only in SH-SY5Y and MCF-7 cells by MNP-PEI determined by LDH leakage and LPO production. AFM topography images showed consistently that both the highly charged MNP-PEI and the less charged MNP-PEI-PEG caused cell morphology changes possibly due to membrane disruption and cytoskeleton remodelling. Conclusions Our findings

  17. Obatoclax Potentiates the Cytotoxic Effect of Cytarabine on Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells by Enhancing DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chengzhi; Edwards, Holly; Caldwell, J. Timothy; Wang, Guan; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Ge, Yubin

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to cytarabine and anthracycline-based chemotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and/or Mcl-1 has been associated with chemoresistance in AML cell lines and with poor clinical outcome of AML patients. Thus, inhibitors of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins could be novel therapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated how clinically achievable concentrations of obatoclax, a pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor, potentiate the antileukemic activity of cytarabine in AML cells. MTT assays in AML cell lines and diagnostic blasts, as well as flow cytometry analyses in AML cell lines revealed synergistic antileukemic activity between cytarabine and obatoclax. Bax activation was detected in the combined, but not the individual, drug treatments. This was accompanied by significantly increased loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Most importantly, in AML cells treated with the combination, enhanced early induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) preceded a decrease of Mcl-1 levels, nuclear translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, and apoptosis. These results indicate that obatoclax enhances cytarabine-induced apoptosis by enhancing DNA DSBs. This novel mechanism provides compelling evidence for the clinical use of BH3 mimetics in combination with DNA-damaging agents in AML and possibly a broader range of malignancies. PMID:25308513

  18. Measurement of HCV-Specific CD8(+) Cytotoxic T-Cell Activities in the Peripheral Blood by Europium Release Assay.

    PubMed

    Imawari, M

    1999-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) contain NK cells, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), helper T-cells, and B-cells that respond to viral infection and act to eliminate the virus from infected individuals. CTLs are not only thought to be a major host defense against viral infection, but are also implicated in the immunopathogenesis. Classical CTLs are CD8(+) and recognize endogenously synthesized and processed antigen in association with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule. The antigens are usually 8-10 amino acids long. HCV-specific CTLs have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of some of patients with HCV infection by stimulating PBMC with the HCV synthetic peptides (1). The peptides were synthesized as overlapping peptides to encompass a certain region of the HCV antigen (1), on the basis of antigenicity prediction from the amino acid composition of HCV (2), or on the basis of the HLA binding motifs in the HCV antigen (3). Several minimal and optimal epitopes in the HCV antigen and their HLA restriction of recognition by CTLs have been defined. Recently, it has been reported that HCV-specific CTLs may suppress the outgrowth of HCV (4). In this chapter, methods will be discussed that demonstrate HCV-specific CTLs in the peripheral blood of patients with HCV infection. We use nonradioisotope europium (Eu) for assay of CTL activities. PMID:21374383

  19. Polymeric nanoparticles for oral delivery of 5-fluorouracil: Formulation optimization, cytotoxicity assay and pre-clinical pharmacokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Ana Cristina de; Altmeyer, Clescila; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-03-10

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) blend nanoparticles were developed loading 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an antitumor agent broadly used in therapy. A 2(3) factorial experimental design was conducted to indicate an optimal formulation and demonstrate the influence of the interactions of components on the mean particle size and drug encapsulation efficiency. Optimized PLA nanoparticles presented 294nm and 51% of 5-FU encapsulation efficiency and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles presented 283nm and 55% of 5-FU encapsulation efficiency. In vitro release assay demonstrated after 320h about 50% of 5-FU was released from PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles. Release kinetics of 5-FU from nanoparticles followed second order and the release mechanism calculated by Korsmeyer-Peppas model was diffusion and erosion. In the assessment of cytotoxicity over Hep-2 tumor cells, PLA or PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles presented similar IC50 value than free 5-FU. Pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of 5-FU were improved by nanoencapsulation. Bioavailability, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2 and distribution volume were significantly improved, while clearance were decreased. PEG presence in nanoparticles didn't influence physicochemical and biological parameters evaluated. PLA and PLA-PEG nanoparticles can be potential carriers for oral delivery of 5-FU. PMID:26775869

  20. The acute extracellular flux (XF) assay to assess compound effects on mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruolan; Novick, Steven J; Mangum, James B; Queen, Kennedy; Ferrick, David A; Rogers, George W; Stimmel, Julie B

    2015-03-01

    Numerous investigations have linked mitochondrial dysfunction to adverse health outcomes and drug-induced toxicity. The pharmaceutical industry is challenged with identifying mitochondrial liabilities earlier in drug development and thereby reducing late-stage attrition. Consequently, there is a demand for reliable, higher-throughput screening methods for assessing the impact of drug candidates on mitochondrial function. The extracellular flux (XF) assay described here is a plate-based method in which galactose-conditioned HepG2 cells were acutely exposed to test compounds, then real-time changes in the oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were simultaneously measured using a Seahorse Bioscience XF-96 analyzer. The acute XF assay was validated using marketed drugs known to modulate mitochondrial function, and data analysis was automated using a spline curve fitting model developed at GlaxoSmithKline. We demonstrate that the acute XF assay is a robust, sensitive screening platform for evaluating drug-induced effects on mitochondrial activity in whole cells. PMID:25381255

  1. Determining optimal cytotoxic activity of human Her2neu specific CD8 T cells by comparing the Cr51 release assay to the xCELLigence system.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Courtney L; Henle, Andrea M; Knutson, Keith L

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic CD8 T cells constitute a subgroup of T cells that are capable of inducing the death of infected or malignant host cells. These cells express a specialized receptor, called the T cell receptor (TCR), which can recognize a specific antigenic peptide bound to HLA class I molecules. Engagement of infected cells or tumor cells through their HLA class I molecule results in production of lytic molecules such as granzymes and perforin resulting in target cell death. While it is useful to determine frequencies of antigen-specific CD8 T cells using assays such as the ELIspot or flow cytometry, it is also helpful to ascertain the strength of CD8 T cell responses using cytotoxicity assays. The most recognizable assay for assessing cytotoxic function is the Chromium Release Assay (CRA), which is considered a standard assay. The CRA has several limitations, including exposure of cells to gamma radiation, lack of reproducibility, and a requirement for large numbers of cells. Over the past decade, there has been interest in adopting new strategies to overcome these limitations. Newer approaches include those that measure caspase release , BLT esterase activity and surface expression of CD107. The impedance-based assay, using the Roche xCelligence system, was examined in the present paper for its potential as an alternative to the CRA. Impedance or opposition to an electric current occurs when adherent tumor cells bind to electrode plates. Tumor cells detach following killing and electrical impedance is reduced which can be measured by the xCelligence system. The ability to adapt the impedance-based approach to assess cell-mediated killing rests on the observation that T cells do not adhere tightly to most surfaces and do not appear to have much impact on impedance thus diminishing any concern of direct interference of the T cells with the measurement. Results show that the impedance-based assay can detect changes in the levels of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells

  2. Analysis of the Effects of Cell Stress and Cytotoxicity on In Vitro Assay Activity Across a Diverse Chemical and Assay Space

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical toxicity can arise from disruption of specific biomolecular functions or through more generalized cell stress and cytotoxicity-mediated processes. Here, concentration-dependent responses of 1063 chemicals including pharmaceuticals, natural products, pesticidals, consumer...

  3. Correlation between cytotoxicity induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from acute infections and IL-1β secretion in a model of human THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Anantharajah, Ahalieyah; Buyck, Julien M; Faure, Emmanuel; Glupczynski, Youri; Rodriguez-Villalobos, Hector; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Guery, Benoît; Tulkens, Paul M; Mingeot-Leclercq, Marie-Paule; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with poor clinical outcome in acute infections. T3SS allows for injection of bacterial exotoxins (e.g. ExoU or ExoS) into the host cell, causing cytotoxicity. It also activates the cytosolic NLRC4 inflammasome, activating caspase-1, inducing cytotoxicity and release of mature IL-1β, which impairs bacterial clearance. In addition, flagellum-mediated motility has been suggested to also modulate inflammasome response and IL-1β release. Yet the capacity of clinical isolates to induce IL-1β release and its relation with cytotoxicity have never been investigated. Using 20 clinical isolates from acute infections with variable T3SS expression levels and human monocytes, our aim was to correlate IL-1β release with toxin expression, flagellar motility and cytotoxicity. ExoU-producing isolates caused massive cell death but minimal release of IL-1β, while those expressing T3SS but not ExoU (i.e. expressing ExoS or no toxins) induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release, the level of which was correlated with cytotoxicity. Both effects were prevented by a specific caspase-1 inhibitor. Flagellar motility was not correlated with cytotoxicity or IL-1β release. No apoptosis was detected. Thus, T3SS cytotoxicity is accompanied by a modification in cytokine balance for P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that do not express ExoU. PMID:26203053

  4. Cytotoxic effect of inositol hexaphosphate and its Ni(II) complex on human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Eliane May; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine; de Andrade, Lucas Ferrari; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2015-12-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6) is present in cereals, legumes, nuts and seed oils and is biologically active against some tumor and cancer cells. Herein, this study aimed at evaluating the cellular toxicity, antiproliferative activity and effects on cell cycle progression of free InsP6 and InsP6-Ni(II) of leukemic T (Jurkat) and normal human cells. Treatments with InsP6 at concentrations between 1.0 and 4.0mM significantly decreased the viability of Jurkat cells, but showed no cytotoxic effect on normal human lymphocytes. Treatment with InsP6-Ni(II) complex at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.30 mM showed an anti-proliferative dose and a time-dependent effect, with significantly reduced cell viability of Jurkat cells but showed no cytotoxic effect on normal human lymphocytes as compared to the control. Ni(II) free ion was toxic to normal cells while InsP6-Ni(II) had no cytotoxic effect. The InsP6-Ni(II) complex potentiated (up to 10×) the antiproliferative effect of free InsP6 on Jurkat cells. The cytometric flow assay showed that InsP6 led to an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by a decrease in the number of cells in S and G2/M phases, whereas InsP6-Ni(II) has led to an accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases. Our findings showed that InsP6-Ni(II) potentiates cytotoxic effects of InsP6 on Jurkat cells and may be a potential adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26335902

  5. Cabozantinib is selectively cytotoxic in acute myeloid leukemia cells with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Wang, An-Ni; Liao, Heng-An; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Hou, Hsin-An; Hu, Chung-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fan; Ou, Da-Liang; Lin, Liang-In

    2016-07-01

    Cabozantinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that exhibits anti-tumor activity in several cancers. We found that cabozantinib was significantly cytotoxic to MV4-11 and Molm-13 cells that harbored FLT3-ITD, resulting in IC50 values of 2.4 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively. However, K562, OCI-AML3 and THP-1 (leukemia cell lines lacking FLT3-ITD) were resistant to cabozantinib, showing IC50 values in the micromolar range. Cabozantinib arrested MV4-11 cell growth at the G0/G1 phase within 24 h, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, AKT and ERK. Additionally, cabozantinib induced MV4-11 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (as indicated by annexin V staining and high levels of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP-1), down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein survivin and up-regulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bak. Thus, cabozantinib is selectively cytotoxic to leukemia cells with FLT3-ITD, causing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. In mouse xenograft model, cabozantinib significantly inhibited MV4-11 and Molm-13 tumor growth at a dosage of 10 mg/kg and showed longer survival rate. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of cabozantinib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FLT3-ITD are warranted. PMID:27060207

  6. Susceptibility to Acute Rheumatic Fever Based on Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Cytotoxicity, Chemotaxis, and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Gordon K.; Gooding, Travis; Oshlack, Alicia; Harrington, Zinta; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Robins-Browne, Roy; Curtis, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown why only some individuals are susceptible to acute rheumatic fever (ARF). We investigated whether there are differences in the immune response, detectable by gene expression, between individuals who are susceptible to ARF and those who are not. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 15 ARF-susceptible and 10 nonsusceptible (control) adults were stimulated with rheumatogenic (Rh+) group A streptococci (GAS) or nonrheumatogenic (Rh−) GAS. RNA from stimulated PBMCs from each subject was cohybridized with RNA from unstimulated PBMCs on oligonucleotide arrays to compare gene expression. Thirty-four genes were significantly differentially expressed between ARF-susceptible and control groups after stimulation with Rh+ GAS. A total of 982 genes were differentially expressed between Rh+ GAS- and Rh− GAS-stimulated samples from ARF-susceptible individuals. Thirteen genes were differentially expressed in the same direction (predominantly decreased) between the two study groups and between the two stimulation conditions, giving a strong indication of their involvement. Seven of these were immune response genes involved in cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. There was variability in the degree of expression change between individuals. The high proportion of differentially expressed apoptotic and immune response genes supports the current model of autoimmune and cytokine dysregulation in ARF. This study also raises the possibility that a “failed” immune response, involving decreased expression of cytotoxic and apoptotic genes, contributes to the immunopathogenesis of ARF. PMID:24478089

  7. Susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever based on differential expression of genes involved in cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Penelope A; Smyth, Gordon K; Gooding, Travis; Oshlack, Alicia; Harrington, Zinta; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Robins-Browne, Roy; Curtis, Nigel

    2014-02-01

    It is unknown why only some individuals are susceptible to acute rheumatic fever (ARF). We investigated whether there are differences in the immune response, detectable by gene expression, between individuals who are susceptible to ARF and those who are not. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 15 ARF-susceptible and 10 nonsusceptible (control) adults were stimulated with rheumatogenic (Rh+) group A streptococci (GAS) or nonrheumatogenic (Rh-) GAS. RNA from stimulated PBMCs from each subject was cohybridized with RNA from unstimulated PBMCs on oligonucleotide arrays to compare gene expression. Thirty-four genes were significantly differentially expressed between ARF-susceptible and control groups after stimulation with Rh+ GAS. A total of 982 genes were differentially expressed between Rh+ GAS- and Rh- GAS-stimulated samples from ARF-susceptible individuals. Thirteen genes were differentially expressed in the same direction (predominantly decreased) between the two study groups and between the two stimulation conditions, giving a strong indication of their involvement. Seven of these were immune response genes involved in cytotoxicity, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. There was variability in the degree of expression change between individuals. The high proportion of differentially expressed apoptotic and immune response genes supports the current model of autoimmune and cytokine dysregulation in ARF. This study also raises the possibility that a "failed" immune response, involving decreased expression of cytotoxic and apoptotic genes, contributes to the immunopathogenesis of ARF. PMID:24478089

  8. Acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus strains on fish and mouse bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Ramos, Felipe Rosa; Lopes, Madaí Cruz; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa Freitas; Monnerat, Rose Gomes

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) serotypes kurstaki and israelensis and crystal proteins of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) serotype H5 have been used in insect control for decades. The availability of microbial toxins in biopesticides as well as in plants with incorporated protection has been increasing the concerns about biosafety. Acute toxicity to Danio rerio and cytotoxicity on mouse bone marrow cells and peripheral erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus were tested with Bt israelensis, Bt kurstaki and Bs H5 strains. The concentration and dose tested were 10(6) and 10(8) spores/ml, respectively. Neither lethality nor effects on mouse bone marrow were promoted by any strain. In necrosis-apoptosis study on peripheral erythrocytes of O. niloticus an increased frequency of necrotic cells caused by exposure to strains of B. thuringiensis was found. Exposure to B. sphaericus did not show cytotoxic effects in either tested system. None of the strains studied induced apoptosis in contrast with the chemical controls. PMID:18670879

  9. Diagnostic Potential of the NMDA Receptor Peptide Assay for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dambinova, Svetlana A.; Bettermann, Kerstin; Glynn, Theodore; Tews, Matthew; Olson, David; Weissman, Joseph D.; Sowell, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The acute assessment of patients with suspected ischemic stroke remains challenging. The use of brain biomarker assays may improve the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The main goal of the study was to evaluate whether the NR2 peptide, a product of the proteolytic degradation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can differentiate acute ischemic stroke (IS) from stroke mimics and persons with vascular risk factors/healthy controls. A possible correlation between biomarker values and lesion sizes was investigated as the secondary objective. Methods and Findings A total of 192 patients with suspected stroke who presented within 72 h of symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. The final diagnosis was determined based on clinical observations and radiological findings. Additionally gender- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 52) and persons with controlled vascular risk factors (n = 48) were recruited to compare NR2 peptide levels. Blinded plasma was assayed by rapid magnetic particles (MP) ELISA for NR2 peptide within 30 min and results for different groups compared using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. There was a clinical diagnosis of IS in 101 of 192 (53%) and non-stroke in 91 (47%) subjects. The non-stroke group included presented with acute stroke symptoms who had no stroke (n = 71) and stroke mimics (n = 20). The highest NR2 peptide elevations where found in patients with IS that peaked at 12 h following symptom onset. When the biomarker cut off was set at 1.0 ug/L, this resulted in a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 96% to detect IS. A moderate correlation (rs = 0.73) between NR2 peptide values and acute ischemic cortical lesions (<200 mL) was found. Conclusions This study suggests that the NR2 peptide may be a brain specific biomarker to diagnose acute IS and may allow the differentiation of IS from stroke mimics and controls. Additional larger scale clinical validation studies are required

  10. Determining the size and concentration dependence of gold nanoparticles in vitro cytotoxicity (IC{sub 50}) test using WST-1 assay

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Nur Shafawati binti; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Shamsuddin, Shaharum

    2015-04-24

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) received a great deal of attention for biomedical applications, especially in diagnostic imaging and therapeutics. Even though AuNPs have potential benefits in biomedical applications, the impact of AuNPs on human and environmental health still remains unclear. The use of AuNPs which is a high-atomic-number materials, provide advantages in terms of radiation dose enhancement. However, before this can become a clinical reality, cytotoxicity of the AuNPs has to be carefully evaluated. Cytotoxicity test is a rapid, standardized test that is very sensitive to determine whether the nanoparticles produced are harmful or benign on cellular components. In this work the size and concentration dependence of AuNPs cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) are tested by using WST-1 assay. The sizes of AuNPs tested were 13 nm, 50 nm, and 70 nm. The cells were seeded in the 96-well plate and were treated with different concentrations of AuNPs by serial dilution for each size of AuNPs. The high concentration of AuNPs exhibit lower cell viability compared to low concentration of AuNPs. We quantified the toxicity of AuNPs in MCF-7 cell lines by determining the IC{sub 50} values in WST-1 assays. The IC{sub 50} values (inhibitory concentrations that effected 50% growth inhibition) of 50 nm AuNPs is lower than 13 nm and 70 nm AuNPs. Mean that, 50nm AuNPs are more toxic to the MCF-7 cells compared to smaller and larger sizes AuNPs. The presented results clearly indicate that the cytotoxicity of AuNPs depend not only on the concentration, but also the size of the nanoparticles.

  11. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  12. Comparison of three different cell viability assays for evaluation of vanadyl sulphate cytotoxicity in a Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Zwolak, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    Previously, evaluation of sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) cytotoxicity after 24 h exposure of Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells revealed different sensitivity of the in vitro assays used starting from the neutral red (NR, 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride) test (detecting lysosomal and possibly the Golgi apparatus damage) as the most sensitive followed by the 2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt (XTT) and resazurin (7-hydroxy-3H-phenoxazin-3-one-10-oxide) tests (mitochondrial disruption). The trypan blue (TB) staining (plasma membrane permeability) showed cytotoxicity of NaVO3 at a much higher NaVO3 concentration than the above-mentioned assays. In the current study, using the same experimental approach, we have assessed the toxicity of vanadyl sulphate (VOSO4) and compared the obtained results with NaVO3 action. Unlike metavanadate, VOSO4 treatment at 24 h resulted in similar sensitivity of the NR and resazurin tests. Nevertheless, following the 48-h incubation with VOSO4, the NR test showed markedly higher sensitivity than the resazurin test when comparing the half maximal inhibitory concentration values (61 and 110 µM for the NR and resazurin test, respectively, p < 0.05). The TB staining method was the least susceptible for detecting vanadyl cytotoxicity at each exposure time point. In summary, both the NR and resazurin tests can be advocated as similarly sensitive in detection of VOSO4-induced cytotoxicity in the CHO-K1 cell line at 24 h. However, the longer incubation time with VOSO4 showed that the NR test is more sensitive than the resazurin assay. The differences in the results between the cytotoxicity tests employed probably arise from dissimilar susceptibility of the endpoints (targets) measured with these tests to the damage by vanadium. Considering this, the current and the previous studies highlight the role of lysosomes (and possibly the Golgi apparatus) apart from mitochondria

  13. Xanthium strumarium L. Extracts Produce DNA Damage Mediated by Cytotoxicity in In Vitro Assays but Does Not Induce Micronucleus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piloto Ferrer, Janet; Cozzi, Renata; Cornetta, Tommaso; Stano, Pasquale; Fiore, Mario; Degrassi, Francesca; De Salvia, Rosella; Remigio, Antonia; Francisco, Marbelis; Quiñones, Olga; Valdivia, Dayana; González, Maria L.; Pérez, Carlos; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a member of the Asteraceae commonly used in Cuba, mainly as diuretic. Some toxic properties of this plant have also been reported and, to date, very little is known about its genotoxic properties. The present work aims was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic risk of whole extract from Xanthium strumarium L. whole extract of aerial parts. No positive response was observed in a battery of four Salmonella typhimurium strains, when exposed to concentrations up to 5 mg/plate, with and without mammalian metabolic activation (liver microsomal S9 fraction from Wistar rats). In CHO cells, high concentrations (25–100 μg/mL) revealed significant reduction in cell viability. Results from sister chromatid exchanges, chromosome aberrations, and comet assay showed that X. strumarium extract is genotoxic at the highest concentration used, when clear cytotoxic effects were also observed. On the contrary, no increase in micronuclei frequency in bone marrow cells was observed when the extract was orally administered to mice (100, 500, and 2000 mg/Kg doses). The data presented here constitute the most complete study on the genotoxic potential of X. strumarium L. and show that the extract can induce in vitro DNA damage at cytotoxic concentrations. PMID:25025061

  14. Xanthium strumarium L. extracts produce DNA damage mediated by cytotoxicity in in vitro assays but does not induce micronucleus in mice.

    PubMed

    Piloto Ferrer, Janet; Cozzi, Renata; Cornetta, Tommaso; Stano, Pasquale; Fiore, Mario; Degrassi, Francesca; De Salvia, Rosella; Remigio, Antonia; Francisco, Marbelis; Quiñones, Olga; Valdivia, Dayana; González, Maria L; Pérez, Carlos; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Xanthium strumarium L. is a member of the Asteraceae commonly used in Cuba, mainly as diuretic. Some toxic properties of this plant have also been reported and, to date, very little is known about its genotoxic properties. The present work aims was to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic risk of whole extract from Xanthium strumarium L. whole extract of aerial parts. No positive response was observed in a battery of four Salmonella typhimurium strains, when exposed to concentrations up to 5 mg/plate, with and without mammalian metabolic activation (liver microsomal S9 fraction from Wistar rats). In CHO cells, high concentrations (25-100 μg/mL) revealed significant reduction in cell viability. Results from sister chromatid exchanges, chromosome aberrations, and comet assay showed that X. strumarium extract is genotoxic at the highest concentration used, when clear cytotoxic effects were also observed. On the contrary, no increase in micronuclei frequency in bone marrow cells was observed when the extract was orally administered to mice (100, 500, and 2000 mg/Kg doses). The data presented here constitute the most complete study on the genotoxic potential of X. strumarium L. and show that the extract can induce in vitro DNA damage at cytotoxic concentrations. PMID:25025061

  15. Evaluation of Xpert® Norovirus Assay performance in comparison with real-time RT-PCR in hospitalized adult patients with acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Premoli, Marta; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto

    2016-08-01

    Xpert® Norovirus Assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) was compared with a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Norovirus GI and GII in hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis. The two assays showed a high level of concordance but Xpert® Norovirus Assay allowed faster detection of Norovirus and a simpler sample handling. PMID:27233425

  16. Acute Shear Stress Direction Dictates Adherent Cell Remodeling and Verifies Shear Profile of Spinning Disc Assays

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, Alexander; Engler, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disc chamber or “spinning disc” in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologies. Recent observations suggest that cells may remodel their morphology and align during acute shear exposure, but contrary to intuition, shear is not orthogonal to the radial direction. Here we theoretically derive the magnitude and direction of applied shear and demonstrate that cells, under certain physiological conditions, align in this direction within minutes. Shear force magnitude is also experimentally verified which validates that for spread cells shear forces and not torque or drag dominate in this assay, and demonstrates that the applied force per cell area is largely independent of initial morphology. These findings suggest that direct quantified comparison of the effects of shear on a wide array of cell types and conditions can be made with confidence using this assay without the need for computational or numerical modeling. PMID:25619322

  17. Structure-function relationship of new anthralin derivatives assayed for growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Tanzer, H; Seidel, M; Geisel, J; Merk, H F; Mahrle, G; Wiegrebe, W

    1991-11-01

    HaCaT keratinocyte cultures were exposed to twelve hydrophilic anthralin derivatives 1 to 12 with substituents at C-1 and C-8 of the anthrone skeleton, of one H at C-10 and of both H's at C-10 by lacton rings. After 3 microM treatment growth was determined by cellular protein content, 3H-thymidine- and 14C-amino-acid-uptake and cytotoxicity by the release of cytoplasmic LDH into the culture medium. In comparison to acetone control (100%) anthralin suppressed mean protein content, as well as DNA- and protein-synthesis to 33, 28, and 21%, respectively, and the drug revealed an enzyme release of 660%. In relation to the parent drug we found similar cell growth inhibitory effects of compounds 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Deriv. 4, 8, and 10 were, however, to some extent less cytotoxic than anthralin, whereas deriv. 6, 9, and 12 were in the same range. An extreme suppression of growth parameters which differed from the anthralin effect by a factor 0.5-0.8 was caused by deriv. 11, showing the same cytotoxicity. Deriv. 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 did not demonstrate any cytotoxicity. Concerning growth parameters, deriv. 2 induced a slight stimulation, deriv. 3 and 7 were completely ineffective, deriv. 1 and 5 induced slightly to moderately inhibited proliferation but both being much less effective than anthralin. These data indicate that the "minimum structure" concept by Krebs and Schaltegger--claiming 1-hydroxy-9-anthrone as a precondition for clinical antipsoriatic potency--is not valid at least in cell-biological tests and point toward possible usefulness of some experimental model compounds as alternative antipsoriatics. PMID:1804068

  18. HLA-G1-transfected K562 cells do not inhibit NK-cell-mediated lysis in europium release cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Sapak, M; Buc, M

    2003-01-01

    The class Ia of HLA molecules are recognised by NK-cells either by inhibitory or stimulatory NK-receptors. When inhibitory signals prevail over stimulatoryones, the target cells expressing the class Ia of HLA molecules are not lysed by NK-cells. Similarly, class Ib of HLA molecules have been reported to induce the inhibitory signal in NK-cells. The cell line K562 is deprived of both class Ia and class Ib of HLA molecules, respectively, the fact of which enhances the lysis of K562 cells when they are co-cultivated with NK-cells. To study the role of HLA-G molecules in NK-cell cytotoxic activity, HLA-G tranfected K562 cells were used as target cells. NK-cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of 4 unrelated persons using Miltenyi's Biotec isolation system. The purity of directly isolated NK cells (CD56 Multisort kit) was 74.1%, and that of indirectly isolated NK-cells (NK-cell isolation kit) 69.4%. The europium release cytotoxicity assay was used in all experiments. The percentage of cytotoxicity ranged from 19% to 24% when K562 target cells were used. Similar results were obtained with the HLA-G1-transfected target cells: the percentage of cytotoxicity ranged from 17% to 29%. Our preliminary results indicate that NK-cells are able to lyse both, K562 cells and the HLA-G1-transfected K562 cells. (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 21.). PMID:15055728

  19. Biocompatibility of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using normal, glia and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ankamwar, B; Lai, T C; Huang, J H; Liu, R S; Hsiao, M; Chen, C H; Hwu, Y K

    2010-02-19

    In order to reveal the biocompatibility of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate cytotoxicity tests were performed as a function of concentration from low (0.1 microg ml(-1)) to higher concentration (100 microg ml(-1)) using various human glia, human breast cancer and normal cell lines. Cytotoxicity tests for human glia (D54MG, G9T, SF126, U87, U251, U373), human breast cancer (MB157, SKBR3, T47D) and normal (H184B5F5/M10, WI-38, SVGp12) cell lines exhibited almost nontoxicity and reveal biocompatibility of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles in the concentration range of 0.1-10 microg ml(-1), while accountable cytotoxicity can be seen at 100 microg ml(-1). The results of our studies suggest that Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles coated with bipolar surfactant tetramethylammonium 11-aminoundecanoate are biocompatible and promising for bio-applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:20090199

  20. Transformation of BALB/c-3T3 cells: III. Development of a co-culture clonal survival assay for quantification of chemical cytotoxicity in high-density cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, E J

    1993-01-01

    A co-culture clonal survival assay was developed to measure the cytotoxicity of test chemical treatments to BALB/c-3T3 cells because the standard clonal survival assay using 200 wild type (WT) cells frequently overestimates chemical cytotoxicity when compared with identical treatment doses in high-density cultures. The assay used co-cultures of 3.2 x 10(4) WT cells, the same seeding density used in the transformation assay, and 200 ouabain resistant (OUAr) cells. After a 48-hr test chemical treatment, co-cultured cells were fed with culture medium containing 4 mM ouabain. The test chemical was cytotoxic to an equal percentage of WT and OUAr cells. Ouabain treatments killed the remaining WT cells. Thus, OUAr cells surviving the test chemical treatment measured the relative cloning efficiency (RCE) of all treated cells in the high-density cell co-culture. The co-culture assay succeeded because metabolic cooperation at the OUAr locus was not detected in BALB/c-3T3 cells. Five chemicals induced comparable cytotoxic responses in both assays, including actinomycin D, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, N'-methyl-N-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine, dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium chloride. In contrast, chemical cytotoxic responses detected in the standard and co-culture assays differed by > or = 10-fold for 11-aminoundecanoic acid, benzo[a]pyrene, cytosine arabinoside, and 3-methyl-cholanthrene and differed by > 2-fold for 2-acetylaminofluorene and dimethylnitrosamine. Detection of 11-aminoundecanoic acid-induced transformation was shown to be dependent on selecting treatment doses from the co-culture assay data. Thus, this method permits more accurate assessment of both chemical-induced cytotoxicity and transformation. PMID:8243400

  1. Transformation of BALB/c-3T3 cells: III. Development of a co-culture clonal survival assay for quantification of chemical cytotoxicity in high-density cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Matthews, E J

    1993-07-01

    A co-culture clonal survival assay was developed to measure the cytotoxicity of test chemical treatments to BALB/c-3T3 cells because the standard clonal survival assay using 200 wild type (WT) cells frequently overestimates chemical cytotoxicity when compared with identical treatment doses in high-density cultures. The assay used co-cultures of 3.2 x 10(4) WT cells, the same seeding density used in the transformation assay, and 200 ouabain resistant (OUAr) cells. After a 48-hr test chemical treatment, co-cultured cells were fed with culture medium containing 4 mM ouabain. The test chemical was cytotoxic to an equal percentage of WT and OUAr cells. Ouabain treatments killed the remaining WT cells. Thus, OUAr cells surviving the test chemical treatment measured the relative cloning efficiency (RCE) of all treated cells in the high-density cell co-culture. The co-culture assay succeeded because metabolic cooperation at the OUAr locus was not detected in BALB/c-3T3 cells. Five chemicals induced comparable cytotoxic responses in both assays, including actinomycin D, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, N'-methyl-N-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine, dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium chloride. In contrast, chemical cytotoxic responses detected in the standard and co-culture assays differed by > or = 10-fold for 11-aminoundecanoic acid, benzo[a]pyrene, cytosine arabinoside, and 3-methyl-cholanthrene and differed by > 2-fold for 2-acetylaminofluorene and dimethylnitrosamine. Detection of 11-aminoundecanoic acid-induced transformation was shown to be dependent on selecting treatment doses from the co-culture assay data. Thus, this method permits more accurate assessment of both chemical-induced cytotoxicity and transformation. PMID:8243400

  2. Viral Evolution and Cytotoxic T Cell Restricted Selection in Acute Infant HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A.; Slyker, Jennifer; Payne, Barbara Lohman; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; de Silva, Thushan I.; Chohan, Bhavna; Khasimwa, Brian; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; John-Stewart, Grace; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.; Esbjörnsson, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-1 infected infants experience poor viral containment and rapid disease progression compared to adults. Viral factors (e.g. transmitted cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations) or infant factors (e.g. reduced CTL functional capacity) may explain this observation. We assessed CTL functionality by analysing selection in CTL-targeted HIV-1 epitopes following perinatal infection. HIV-1 gag, pol and nef sequences were generated from a historical repository of longitudinal specimens from 19 vertically infected infants. Evolutionary rate and selection were estimated for each gene and in CTL-restricted and non-restricted epitopes. Evolutionary rate was higher in nef and gag vs. pol, and lower in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag and nef. Selection pressure was stronger in infants with non-severe immunosuppression vs. severe immunosuppression across gag. The analysis also showed that infants with non-severe immunosuppression had stronger selection in CTL-restricted vs. non-restricted epitopes in gag and nef. Evidence of stronger CTL selection was absent in infants with severe immunosuppression. These data indicate that infant CTLs can exert selection pressure on gag and nef epitopes in early infection and that stronger selection across CTL epitopes is associated with favourable clinical outcomes. These results have implications for the development of paediatric HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:27403940

  3. Derivation and Validation of a Cytokine-Based Assay to Screen for Acute Rejection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    De Serres, Sacha A.; Mfarrej, Bechara G.; Grafals, Monica; Riella, Leonardo V.; Magee, Ciara N.; Yeung, Melissa Y.; Dyer, Christine; Ahmad, Usaila; Chandraker, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Acute rejection remains a problem in renal transplantation. This study sought to determine the utility of a noninvasive cytokine assay in screening of acute rejection. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cross-sectional study, 64 patients from two centers were recruited upon admission for allograft biopsy to investigate acute graft dysfunction. Blood was collected before biopsy and assayed for a panel of 21 cytokines secreted by PBMCs. Patients were classified as acute rejectors or nonrejectors according to a classification rule derived from an initial set of 32 patients (training cohort) and subsequently validated in the remaining patients (validation cohort). Results Although six cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, GM-CSF, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) distinguished acute rejectors in the training cohort, logistic regression modeling identified a single cytokine, IL-6, as the best predictor. In the validation cohort, IL-6 was consistently the most accurate cytokine (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.85; P=0.006), whereas the application of a prespecified cutoff level, as determined from the training cohort, resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and 63%, respectively. Secondary analyses revealed a strong association between IL-6 levels and acute rejection after multivariate adjustment for clinical characteristics (P<0.001). Conclusions In this pilot study, the measurement of a single cytokine can exclude acute rejection with a sensitivity of 92% in renal transplant recipients presenting with acute graft dysfunction. Prospective studies are needed to determine the utility of this simple assay, particularly for low-risk or remote patients. PMID:22498498

  4. Role of natural killer cell subsets and natural cytotoxicity receptors for the outcome of immunotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Martner, Anna; Rydström, Anna; Riise, Rebecca E; Aurelius, Johan; Anderson, Harald; Brune, Mats; Foà, Robin; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B

    2016-01-01

    In a phase IV trial, 84 patients (age 18–79) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) received cycles of immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose human recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) for 18 months to prevent leukemic relapse. During cycles, the treatment resulted in expansion of CD56bright (CD3−/16−/56bright) and CD16+ (CD3−/16+/56+) natural killer (NK) cells in the blood along with increased NK cell expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) NKp30 and NKp46. Multivariate analyses correcting for age and risk group demonstrated that high CD56bright NK cell counts and high expression of NKp30 or NKp46 on CD16+ NK cells independently predicted leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). Our results suggest that the dynamics of NK cell subsets and their NCR expression may determine the efficiency of relapse-preventive immunotherapy in AML. PMID:26942055

  5. Delayed Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4-Immunoglobulin Treatment Reverses Ongoing Alloantibody Responses and Rescues Allografts From Acute Rejection.

    PubMed

    Young, J S; Chen, J; Miller, M L; Vu, V; Tian, C; Moon, J J; Alegre, M-L; Sciammas, R; Chong, A S

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection has emerged as the leading cause of late graft loss in kidney transplant recipients, and inhibition of donor-specific antibody production should lead to improved transplant outcomes. The fusion protein cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4-Ig) blocks T cell activation and consequently inhibits T-dependent B cell antibody production, and the current paradigm is that CTLA4-Ig is effective with naïve T cells and less so with activated or memory T cells. In this study, we used a mouse model of allosensitization to investigate the efficacy of continuous CTLA4-Ig treatment, initiated 7 or 14 days after sensitization, for inhibiting ongoing allospecific B cell responses. Delayed treatment with CTLA4-Ig collapsed the allospecific germinal center B cell response and inhibited alloantibody production. Using adoptively transferred T cell receptor transgenic T cells and a novel approach to track endogenous graft-specific T cells, we demonstrate that delayed CTLA4-Ig minimally inhibited graft-specific CD4(+) and T follicular helper responses. Remarkably, delaying CTLA4-Ig until day 6 after transplantation in a fully mismatched heart transplant model inhibited alloantibody production and prevented acute rejection, whereas transferred hyperimmune sera reversed the effects of delayed CTLA4-Ig. Collectively, our studies revealed the unexpected efficacy of CTLA4-Ig for inhibiting ongoing B cell responses even when the graft-specific T cell response was robustly established. PMID:26928966

  6. Accurate Cytotoxicity and Proliferation Determination: Advantages of a High-Throughput Phenotypic Approach Over ATP Luminescence Assays.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Anne F; Wylie, Paul G

    2016-09-01

    Cell viability and proliferation assays are a fundamental tool in the drug discovery process and are used to evaluate both the antiproliferative potency and toxicity of compounds. Some lead discovery groups generate cell viability data for up to two million compounds per screen, so any method used to assess these parameters needs to deliver not only on data quality but also on throughput and assay cost per well. Most methods used to determine cell viability cannot deliver on all three of these requirements, so compromises have to be made. Here we show the development and implementation of a cost-effective, no-wash phenotypic assay to simultaneously report the number of cells, percentage of live cells, and cell cycle phase distribution as markers of proliferation and viability. We demonstrate that this assay can be applied to high-density plate formats and be imaged and analyzed in 8 min per plate on a laser scanning imaging cytometer. By comparing the drug-responses of several well-characterized anticancer drugs on HeLa cells, we highlight the key differences between the phenotypic assay and a commercial ATP luminescence detection system. PMID:27504922

  7. A rapid, comprehensive system for assaying DNA repair activity and cytotoxic effects of DNA-damaging reagents.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Nakazawa, Yuka; Guo, Chaowan; Shimada, Mayuko; Sethi, Mieran; Takahashi, Yoshito; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Yuji; Ogi, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    DNA repair systems protect cells from genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Therefore, assays for measuring DNA repair activity are valuable, not only for clinical diagnoses of DNA repair deficiency disorders but also for basic research and anticancer drug development. Two commonly used assays are UDS (unscheduled DNA synthesis, requiring a precise measurement of an extremely small amount of repair DNA synthesis) and RRS (recovery of RNA synthesis after DNA damage). Both UDS and RRS are major endpoints for assessing the activity of nucleotide excision repair (NER), the most versatile DNA repair process. Conventional UDS and RRS assays are laborious and time-consuming, as they measure the incorporation of radiolabeled nucleosides associated with NER. Here we describe a comprehensive protocol for monitoring nonradioactive UDS and RRS by studying the incorporation of alkyne-conjugated nucleoside analogs followed by a fluorescent azide-coupling click-chemistry reaction. The system is also suitable for quick measurement of cell sensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents and for lentivirus-based complementation assays, which can be used to systematically determine the pathogenic genes associated with DNA repair deficiency disorders. A typical UDS or RRS assay using primary fibroblasts, including a virus complementation test, takes 1 week to complete. PMID:25474029

  8. Generation of proliferating human hepatocytes using Upcyte® technology: characterisation and applications in induction and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Alexandra; Dähn, Caroline; Heinz, Stefan; Zutavern, Anne; Sonntag-Buck, Vera; Maltman, Daniel; Przyborski, Stefan; Hewitt, Nicola J; Braspenning, Joris

    2012-10-01

    1. We have developed a novel technique which causes primary human hepatocytes to proliferate by transducing them with genes that upregulate their proliferation. 2. Upcyte(®) hepatocytes did not form colonies in soft agar and are not immortalised anchorage-independent cells. Confluent cultures expressed liver-specific proteins, produced urea and stored glycogen. 3. CYP activities were low but similar to that in 5-day cultures of primary human hepatocytes. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were inducible; moreover, upcyte(®) hepatocytes predicted the in vivo induction potencies of known CYP3A4 inducers using the "relative induction score" prediction model. Placing cells into 3D culture increased their basal CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 basal activities and induction responses. 4. Phase 2 activities (UGTs, SULTs and GSTs) were comparable to activities in freshly isolated hepatocytes. 5. Upcyte(®) hepatocytes were markedly more sensitive to the hepatotoxin, α-amanitin, than HepG2 cells, indicating functional OATP1B3 uptake. The cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B(1), was decreased in upcyte(®) hepatocytes by co-incubation with the CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole. Upcyte(®) hepatocytes also differentiated between ten hepatotoxic and eight non-hepatotoxic compounds. 6. In conclusion, upcyte(®) hepatocyte cultures have a differentiated phenotype and exhibit functional phase 1 and 2 activities. These data support the use of upcyte(®) hepatocytes for CYP induction and cytotoxicity screening. PMID:22524704

  9. Effects of acute critical illnesses on the performance of interferon-gamma release assay

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Ku, Shih-Chi; Lee, Pei-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Huang, Chun-Kai; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chien, Ying-Chun; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) is influenced by preanalytical, laboratory and host factors. The data regarding how critical illnesses influence IGRA results are limited. This study aimed to investigate IGRA performance among critically ill patients. Patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were prospectively enrolled, and underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing on admission and discharge. The associations between patient factors and IGRA results were explored. In total, 118 patients were included. IGRA results on admission were positive, negative and indeterminate for 10(9%), 36(31%) and 72(61%) patients. All indeterminate results were due to a low mitogen response. Indeterminate results were associated with higher disease severity and lower serum albumin levels. Ninety(76%) patients survived to ICU discharge and had repeat IGRA testing 13.3 ± 10.1 days after first ones. Of those, 43(48%) had indeterminate results, and no IGRA conversion or reversion was observed. The majority (35/51, 69%) of ICU survivors with initial indeterminate results still had indeterminates on follow-up testing. Acute critical illnesses exert a significant impact on IGRA performance and a high proportion of indeterminate results was seen in ICU patients. This study highlights limitation of IGRAs in the critically ill and judicious selection of patients to be tested should be considered. PMID:26804487

  10. Effects of acute critical illnesses on the performance of interferon-gamma release assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Ku, Shih-Chi; Lee, Pei-Lin; Kuo, Lu-Cheng; Hsu, Chia-Lin; Huang, Chun-Kai; Yang, Ching-Yao; Chien, Ying-Chun; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) is influenced by preanalytical, laboratory and host factors. The data regarding how critical illnesses influence IGRA results are limited. This study aimed to investigate IGRA performance among critically ill patients. Patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) were prospectively enrolled, and underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing on admission and discharge. The associations between patient factors and IGRA results were explored. In total, 118 patients were included. IGRA results on admission were positive, negative and indeterminate for 10 (9%), 36 (31%) and 72 (61%) patients. All indeterminate results were due to a low mitogen response. Indeterminate results were associated with higher disease severity and lower serum albumin levels. Ninety (76%) patients survived to ICU discharge and had repeat IGRA testing 13.3 ± 10.1 days after first ones. Of those, 43 (48%) had indeterminate results, and no IGRA conversion or reversion was observed. The majority (35/51, 69%) of ICU survivors with initial indeterminate results still had indeterminates on follow-up testing. Acute critical illnesses exert a significant impact on IGRA performance and a high proportion of indeterminate results was seen in ICU patients. This study highlights limitation of IGRAs in the critically ill and judicious selection of patients to be tested should be considered. PMID:26804487

  11. Salvia somalensis essential oil as a potential cosmetic ingredient: solvent-free microwave extraction, hydrodistillation, GC-MS analysis, odour evaluation and in vitro cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Villa, C; Trucchi, B; Bertoli, A; Pistelli, L; Parodi, A; Bassi, A M; Ruffoni, B

    2009-02-01

    Salvia somalensis Vatke, a wild sage native of Somalia, has been studied with the aim of assessing the potential cosmetic application of its essential oil, recovered from fresh aerial parts by solvent-free microwave extraction - SFME. To evaluate the efficiency and reliability of this eco-friendly procedure, the recovery of the essential oil was also processed by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and the results compared. The essential oils obtained by both SFME and HD were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using apolar and polar capillary columns. The essential oil recovered by SFME was submitted to an odour evaluation that revealed peculiar olfactive characteristics interesting in alcoholic male perfumery and body detergents.In vitro cytotoxicity assays were carried out using NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes as target cells. The oil displayed slight cytotoxic effects, which were three orders of magnitude lower than those found for sodium dodecyl sulphate positive control. The promising results in terms of chemical composition, scent and safety seem to indicate this essential oil as an interesting potential functional ingredient useful in a cosmetic context. PMID:19134128

  12. Measurement of the cytotoxic effects of different strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube using a calmodulin assay.

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, V M; Miller, R B; Rosendal, S; Fernando, M A; Johnson, W H; O'Brien, P J

    1992-01-01

    The cytopathic effects induced by five strains of Mycoplasma equigenitalium for cells of equine uterine tube explants were tested by measuring changes in cellular and extracellular concentrations of calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin concentrations in samples of total homogenate (TH) and total homogenate supernates (THS) of the infected equine uterine tube explants were significantly lower than respective measurements on noninfected controls. In tissue culture medium fractions (TCM) of some infected explants, CaM concentrations were significantly higher than noninfected controls (p > 0.95). The results suggest that M. equigenitalium colonization on ciliated cells of the equine uterine tube can affect the permeability of the cell membrane leading to leakage or release of CaM during cell breakdown. Measurement of CaM concentrations in samples of TH revealed significant differences in the cytotoxic effects induced by different strains of M. equigenitalium on the equine uterine tube (EUT). The data suggests that some strains of M. equigenitalium may have a role in reproductive failure in the mare. In addition comparisons of the means of the concentrations of CaM in samples of TH or THS in EUT explants from four mares in the follicular and four in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were found to be not significantly different. PMID:1477802

  13. In vitro toxicity assay of cisplatin on mouse acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shabani, R; Ashtari, K; Behnam, B; Izadyar, F; Asgari, H; Asghari Jafarabadi, M; Ashjari, M; Asadi, E; Koruji, M

    2016-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in reproductive age, and cisplatin is one of the major helpful chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of this cancer. In addition, exposure of testes cancer cells to cisplatin could potentially eliminate tumour cells from germ cells in patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cisplatin on viability of mouse acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell line (EL-4) and neonatal mouse spermatogonial cells in vitro. In this study, the isolated spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) and EL-4 were divided into six groups including control (received medium), sham (received DMSO in medium) and experimental groups which received different doses of cisplatin (0.5, 5, 10 and 15 μg ml(-1) ). Cells viability was evaluated with MTT assay. The identity of the cultured cells was confirmed by the expression of specific markers. Our finding showed that viability of both SSC and EL-4 cells was reduced with the dose of 15 μg/ml when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Also, the differences between the IC50 in doses 10 and 15 μg/ml at different time were significant (P ≤ 0.05). The number of TUNEL-positive cells was increased, and the BAX and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated in EL4 cells for group that received an effective dose of cisplatin). In conclusion, despite the dramatic effects of cisplatin on both cells, spermatogonial stem cells could form colony in culture. PMID:26428408

  14. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-19

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  15. Specific detection of common pathogens of acute bacterial meningitis using an internally controlled tetraplex-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Hamidreza; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Mondanizadeh, Mahdieh; MirabSamiee, Siamak; Khansarinejad, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis is critical for antimicrobial treatment of patients. Although PCR-based methods have been widely used for the diagnosis of acute meningitis caused by bacterial pathogens, the main disadvantage of these methods is their high cost. This disadvantage has hampered the widespread use of molecular assays in many developing countries. The application of multiplex assays and "in-house" protocols are two main approaches that can reduce the overall cost of a molecular test. In the present study, an internally controlled tetraplex-PCR was developed and validated for the specific detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The analysis of a panel of other human pathogens showed no cross-reactivity in the assay. The analytical sensitivity of the in-house assay was 792.3 copies/ml, when all three bacteria were presentin the specimens. This value was calculated as 444.5, 283.7, 127.8 copies/ml when only S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae, respectively, were present. To demonstrate the diagnostic performance of the assay, a total of 150 archival CSF samples were tested and compared with a commercial multiplex real-time PCR kit. A diagnostic sensitivity of 92.8% and a specificity of 95.1% were determined for the present tetraplex-PCR assay. The results indicate that the established method is sensitive, specific and cost-effective, and can be used particularly in situations where the high cost of commercial kits prevents the use of molecular methods for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. PMID:27401970

  16. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Egner, Patricia A.; Sell, Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.

  17. Primary hemocyte culture of Penaeus monodon as an in vitro model for white spot syndrome virus titration, viral and immune related gene expression and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Jose, Seena; Mohandas, A; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2010-11-01

    Immortal cell lines have not yet been reported from Penaeus monodon, which delimits the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, a method of developing primary hemocyte culture from this crustacean has been standardized by employing modified double strength Leibovitz-15 (L-15) growth medium supplemented with 2% glucose, MEM vitamins (1×), tryptose phosphate broth (2.95 gl⁻¹), 20% FBS, N-phenylthiourea (0.2 mM), 0.06 μg ml⁻¹ chloramphenicol, 100 μg ml⁻¹ streptomycin and 100 IU ml⁻¹ penicillin and hemolymph drawn from shrimp grown under a bio-secured recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In this medium the hemocytes remained viable up to 8 days. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling assay revealed its incorporation in 22 ± 7% of cells at 24h. Susceptibility of the cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay using a monoclonal antibody against 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. A convenient method for determining virus titer as MTT(50)/ml was standardized employing the primary hemocyte culture. Expression of viral genes and cellular immune genes were also investigated. The cell culture could be demonstrated for determining toxicity of a management chemical (benzalkonium chloride) by determining its IC(50). The primary hemocyte culture could serve as a model for WSSV titration and viral and cellular immune related gene expression and also for investigations on cytotoxicity of aquaculture drugs and chemicals. PMID:20807537

  18. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  19. Evaluation of Commercially Available Assays for Diagnosis of Acute Dengue in Schoolchildren During an Epidemic Period in Medellin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Piedrahita, Leidy D; Agudelo, Ivony Y; Trujillo, Andrea I; Ramírez, Ruth E; Osorio, Jorge E; Restrepo, Berta N

    2016-08-01

    During an active surveillance study in school children in Medellin, we assessed the performance of two diagnostic strategies for dengue virus. A total of 41 patients with suspected dengue acute infection were evaluated. Diagnostic strategies consisted of one combining Panbio(®) Dengue virus IgM and IgG Capture ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and another using a commercial rapid SD Bioline Dengue Duo (IgG/IgM + NS1 Ag) test. These two strategies were compared with the enzyme-linked immunospot microneutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT). The sensitivity and specificity were 53.9% and 80.0% for the combination of Panbio(®) ELISAs and RT-PCR tests, and 30.8% and 73.3% for the SD Bioline Duo test, respectively. ELISPOT-MNT detected 16.4% additional cases and revealed the presence of neutralizing antibodies in all the acute samples, evidencing that they were all secondary infections. In contrast, Panbio(®) and SD Dengue Duo rapid tests only classified 23.0% and 26.9% of the cases as secondary dengue infections, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient and McNemar's association tests demonstrated a significant disagreement between the two diagnostic strategies and ELISPOT-MNT. Overall, these results evidence the relatively poor performances of commercial assays for the diagnosis of acute and secondary dengue infections, compared with ELISPOT-MNT, and raise concern about the accuracy of these assays for the diagnostic of dengue in endemic areas. PMID:27185768

  20. Curative Effects of Thiacremonone against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatic Failure via Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines Production and Infiltration of Cytotoxic Immune Cells and Kupffer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Ri; Ban, Jung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Lee, Yong Moon; Yoon, Yeo Pyo; Eum, So Young; Jeong, Heon Sang; Yoon, Do-young; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    High doses of acetaminophen (APAP; N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) cause severe hepatotoxicity after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2E1. This study was undertaken to examine the preventive effects of thiacremonone, a compound extracted from garlic, on APAP-induced acute hepatic failure in male C57BL/6J. Mice received with 500 mg/kg APAP after a 7-day pretreatment with thiacremonone (10–50 mg/kg). Thiacremonone inhibited the APAP-induced serum ALT and AST levels in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly reduced the restricted area of necrosis and inflammation by administration of APAP. Thiacremonone also inhibited the APAP-induced depletion of intracellular GSH, induction of nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of P450 2E1. After APAP injection, the numbers of Kupffer cells, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T cells were elevated, but the elevated cell numbers in the liver were reduced in thiacremonone pretreated mice. The expression levels of I-309, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-7, and IL-17 were increased by APAP treatment, which were inhibited in thiacremonone pretreated mice. These data indicate that thiacremonone could be a useful agent for the treatment of drug-induced hepatic failure and that the reduction of cytotoxic immune cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine production may be critical for the prevention of APAP-induced acute liver toxicity. PMID:23935693

  1. Acute, proximal aortic dissection with negative D-Dimer assay and normal portable chest radiograph: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thota, Darshan; Zanoni, Steve; Mells, Cary; Auten, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection is one of the most devastating and time-sensitive diagnosis to consider in young adults with chest pain. Military medicine is represented by a larger proportion of 18- to 50-year-old individuals than is seen in the general medical population. Although uncommon in frequency, younger patients are more likely to suffer from proximal, aortic dissections. Chest radiographs and D-Dimer assays are used frequently as risk stratification tools, but have significant limitations in these more proximal dissections. Because of the frequency and lethality of nonspecific presentations, there exists a need for a sensitive screening tool. This case report presents a 43-year-old male with a concerning history and physical examination for aortic dissection, but a normal portable chest radiograph and a normal D-Dimer assay. It highlights the importance of clinical acumen in developing and maintaining a high clinical index of suspicion based on a Bayesian pretest probability model. PMID:25562879

  2. Western blot (immunoblot) assay of small, round-structured virus associated with an acute gastroenteritis outbreak in Tokyo.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y; Ando, T; Utagawa, E; Sekine, S; Okada, S; Yabuuchi, K; Miki, T; Ohashi, M

    1989-01-01

    Small, round-structured virus (SRSV) was detected in a stool specimen of a patient during an acute gastroenteritis outbreak in Tokyo and was tentatively named SRSV-9. SRSV-9 was purified by sucrose velocity gradient centrifugation after CsCl density gradient centrifugation. The buoyant density of SRSV-9 appeared to be 1.36 g/ml in CsCl. A Western blot (immunoblot) assay using the biotin-avidin system revealed that SRSV-9 was antigenically related to the Hawaii agent but distinct from the Norwalk agent and contained a single major structural protein with a molecular size of 63.0 +/- 0.6 kilodaltons. The prevalence of SRSV-9 infection in Tokyo was surveyed by the Western blot antibody assay by using a crude virus preparation as the antigen. Seroconversion was observed in 56.5% of the patients involved in the outbreaks from which SRSV was detected by electron microscopy. Images PMID:2504773

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity of aplidin and crossresistance with other cytotoxic drugs in childhood leukemic and normal bone marrow and blood samples: a rational basis for clinical development.

    PubMed

    Bresters, D; Broekhuizen, A J F; Kaaijk, P; Faircloth, G T; Jimeno, J; Kaspers, G J L

    2003-07-01

    To determine the potential of aplidin as a cytotoxic agent in pediatric leukemia, we tested bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) samples (n=72) of children with different types of leukemia and healthy children in the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium assay. Also, we compared these results with other cytotoxic drugs. Aplidin was cytotoxic in vitro at nanomolar concentrations, in a dose-dependent fashion. L-carnitine, that is applied in clinical studies to prevent myotoxicity caused by aplidin, had no effect on aplidin cytotoxicity in vitro. Aplidin cytotoxicity in vitro was not different when initial and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or initial ALL and initial acute myeloid leukemia were compared. However, normal BM (n=19) and PB (n=13) cells were more resistant to aplidin than leukemic cells (median two- to seven-fold, P=0.001 and median four- to 11-fold, P&<0.0001, respectively). In leukemia samples, no significant crossresistance between aplidin and other cytotoxic drugs was found, except for a trend for correlation with 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (rho=0.71, P=0.02). In normal BM samples, significant crossresistance with the epipodophyllotoxins was found, which is not readily explained by the currently known mechanisms of action of aplidin. In conclusion, we show that aplidin has selective cytotoxicity in vitro towards childhood leukemia cells and generally lacks crossresistance with other known cytotoxic drugs, which warrants clinical studies. PMID:12835722

  4. Rectal Application of a Highly Osmolar Personal Lubricant in a Macaque Model Induces Acute Cytotoxicity but Does Not Increase Risk of SHIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanathan, Sundaram A.; Morris, Monica R.; Wolitski, Richard J.; Luo, Wei; Rose, Charles E.; Blau, Dianna M.; Tsegaye, Theodros; Zaki, Sherif R.; Garber, David A.; Jenkins, Leecresia T.; Henning, Tara C.; Patton, Dorothy L.; Hendry, R. Michael; McNicholl, Janet M.; Kersh, Ellen N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal lubricant use is common during anal intercourse. Some water-based products with high osmolality and low pH can damage genital and rectal tissues, and the polymer polyquaternium 15 (PQ15) can enhance HIV replication in vitro. This has raised concerns that lubricants with such properties may increase STD/HIV infection risk, although in vivo evidence is scarce. We use a macaque model to evaluate rectal cytotoxicity and SHIV infection risk after use of a highly osmolar (>8,000 mOsm/kg) water-based lubricant with pH of 4.4, and containing PQ15. Methods Cytotoxicity was documented by measuring inflammatory cytokines and epithelial tissue sloughing during six weeks of repeated, non-traumatic lubricant or control buffer applications to rectum and anus. We measured susceptibility to SHIVSF162P3 infection by comparing virus doses needed for rectal infection in twenty-one macaques treated with lubricant or control buffer 30 minutes prior to virus exposure. Results Lubricant increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue sloughing while control buffer (phosphate buffered saline; PBS) did not. However, the estimated AID50 (50% animal infectious dose) was not different in lubricant- and control buffer-treated macaques (p = 0.4467; logistic regression models). Conclusions Although the test lubricant caused acute cytotoxicity in rectal tissues, it did not increase susceptibility to infection in this macaque model. Thus neither the lubricant-induced type/extent of inflammation nor the presence of PQ15 affected infection risk. This study constitutes a first step in the in vivo evaluation of lubricants with regards to HIV transmission. PMID:25853710

  5. Nrf2 activation ameliorates cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through increased glutathione levels and arsenic efflux from cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Shoichi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Koike, Shin; Yuan, Bo; Takagi, Norio; Ogasawara, Yuki

    2016-08-15

    Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis, has been shown to activate nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative and electrophilic stress. Recently, the Nrf2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) pathway has been associated with cancer drug resistance attributable to modulation of the expression and activation of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. However, the exact mechanisms by which Nrf2 activation results in chemoresistance are insufficiently understood to date. This study investigated the mechanisms by which the cytotoxic effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO), an anticancer drug, were decreased in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells treated with CA, a typical activator of Nrf2 used to stimulate the Nrf2/Keap1 system. Our findings suggest that arsenic is non-enzymatically incorporated into NB4 cells and forms complexes that are dependent on intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations. In addition, the arsenic complexes are recognized as substrates by multidrug resistance proteins and subsequently excreted from the cells. Therefore, Nrf2-associated activation of the GSH biosynthetic pathway, followed by increased levels of intracellular GSH, are key mechanisms underlying accelerated arsenic efflux and attenuation of the cytotoxic effects of ATO. PMID:27317373

  6. Comparison of Seven Commercial Antigen and Antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Acute Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Richard G.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Mammen, Mammen P.; Nisalak, Ananda; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Bailey, Mark S.; Premaratna, Ranjan; de Silva, H. Janaka; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Lalloo, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Seven commercial assays were evaluated to determine their suitability for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection: (i) the Panbio dengue virus Pan-E NS1 early enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), second generation (Alere, Australia); (ii) the Panbio dengue virus IgM capture ELISA (Alere, Australia); (iii) the Panbio dengue virus IgG capture ELISA (Alere, Australia); (iv) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus NS1 antigen ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); (v) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus IgM ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); (vi) the Standard Diagnostics dengue virus IgG ELISA (Standard Diagnostics, South Korea); and (vii) the Platelia NS1 antigen ELISA (Bio-Rad, France). Samples from 239 Thai patients confirmed to be dengue virus positive and 98 Sri Lankan patients negative for dengue virus infection were tested. The sensitivities and specificities of the NS1 antigen ELISAs ranged from 45 to 57% and 93 to 100% and those of the IgM antibody ELISAs ranged from 85 to 89% and 88 to 100%, respectively. Combining the NS1 antigen and IgM antibody results from the Standard Diagnostics ELISAs gave the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity (87 and 96%, respectively), as well as providing the best sensitivity for patients presenting at different times after fever onset. The Panbio IgG capture ELISA correctly classified 67% of secondary dengue infection cases. This study provides strong evidence of the value of combining dengue virus antigen- and antibody-based test results in the ELISA format for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection. PMID:22441389

  7. Acute exercise preferentially redeploys NK-cells with a highly-differentiated phenotype and augments cytotoxicity against lymphoma and multiple myeloma target cells.

    PubMed

    Bigley, Austin B; Rezvani, Katayoun; Chew, Claude; Sekine, Takuya; Pistillo, Mira; Crucian, Brian; Bollard, Catherine M; Simpson, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    NK-cells undergo a "licensing" process as they develop into fully-functional cells capable of efficiently killing targets. NK-cell differentiation is accompanied by an increased surface expression of inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) molecules, which is positively associated with cytotoxicity against the HLA-deficient K562 cell line. NK-cells are rapidly redeployed between the blood and tissues in response to acute exercise, but it is not known if exercise evokes a preferential trafficking of differentiated NK-cells or impacts NK-cell cytotoxic activity (NKCA) against HLA-expressing target cells. Sixteen healthy cyclists performed three 30-min bouts of cycling exercise at -5%, +5%, and +15% of lactate threshold. Blood samples obtained before, immediately after, and 1h after exercise were used to enumerate NK-cells and their subsets, and determine NKCA and degranulating subsets (CD107+) against cell lines of multiple myeloma (U266 and RPMI-8226), lymphoma (721.221 and 221 AEH), and leukemia (K562) origin by 4 and 10-color flow cytometry, respectively. Exercise evoked a stepwise redeployment of NK-cell subsets in accordance with differentiation status [highly-differentiated (KIR+/NKG2A-) >medium-differentiated (KIR+/NKG2A+)>low-differentiated (KIR-/NKG2A+)] that was consistent across all exercise intensities. NKCA per cell increased ∼1.6-fold against U266 and 221 AEH targets 1h post-exercise and was associated with a decreased proportion of NK-cells expressing the inhibitory receptor CD158b and increased proportion of NK-cells expressing the activating receptor NKG2C, respectively. We conclude that exercise evokes a preferential redeployment of NK-cell subsets with a high differentiation phenotype and augments cytotoxicity against HLA-expressing target cells. Exercise may serve as a simple strategy to enrich the blood compartment of highly cytotoxic NK-cell subsets that can be harvested for clinical use. PMID:24200514

  8. [Automated kinetic assay of plasmatic L-asparaginase activity undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Orsonneau, J-L; Brassart, E A; Lecame, M; Thomare, P; Delaroche, O; Dudouet, D

    2004-01-01

    The L-asparaginase is a critical drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, that achieves blood L-asparagin depletion. However, such a therapy is associated with a high rate of negative side effects, particularly antibody synthesis against L-asparaginase. This therefore decreases therapy efficiency requiring the monitoring of L-asparaginase activity since L-asparagin determination is not easy. We compared here the results obtained with an automated kinetic enzymatic method to those obtained with the most commonly used Nessler reagent method. The correlation coefficient, r = 0,992, obtained was very good, and the allometric regression line was y = 1,038x - 0,37 microkat/L. We also showed that the specificity and the precision were better with the enzymatic method than the Nessler one. Moreover, the enzymatic method was easier and required less time to perform. Finally, the method appears able to perform real time monitoring of the therapy. PMID:15355807

  9. Polyclonal proliferation of activated suppressor/cytotoxic T cells with transient depression of natural killer cell function in acute infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M L; Loughran, T P; Kidd, P G; Starkebaum, G A

    1989-01-01

    In acute infectious mononucleosis large numbers of atypical lymphocytes proliferate in response to B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus, generally resulting in a self-limited illness. Although both T-cells and NK cells are known to be involved, the precise origin of the large granular lymphocytes in this disorder is incompletely understood. Using two-colour immunofluorescent flow cytometry, we sequentially examined the phenotype of selected T cell and NK cell subsets from nine patients with infectious mononucleosis. In parallel, we determined whether these lymphocytes utilized a restricted repertoire of the T cell receptor gene and also measured their NK activity. Our results show that in acute infectious mononucleosis there was a greater than three-fold increase in T lymphocytes with the phenotype CD2+, CD3+, CD8+ and DR+. A modest increase in Leu7(HNK1)+ and CD4+ T cells was also seen. In addition, there was a three-fold increase in cells coexpressing CD3- and CD16+, the phenotype reported to represent most NK cells. In spite of this latter finding, however, a marked decrease in NK function was found at the time of diagnosis, gradually returning to normal by day 28. Finally, Southern blot analysis of DNA from patient lymphocytes showed polyclonal rearrangements of the T cell receptor beta chain gene. These studies indicate that the proliferation of activated suppressor/cytotoxic T lymphocytes in acute infectious mononucleosis is polyclonal and is associated with transient depression of NK function. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2527653

  10. Acute toxicity estimation by calculation--Tubifex assay and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Tichý, Milon; Rucki, Marian; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Roth, Zdenek

    2008-11-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model dependent on log P(n - octanol/water), or log P(OW), was developed with acute toxicity index EC50, the median effective concentration measured as inhibition of movement of the oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex with 3 min exposure, EC50(Tt) (mol/L): log EC50(Tt) = -0.809 (+/-0.035) log P(OW) - 0.495 (+/-0.060), n=82, r=0.931, r2=0.867, residual standard deviation of the estimate 0.315. A learning series for the QSAR model with the oligochaete contained alkanols, alkenols, and alkynols; saturated and unsaturated aldehydes; aniline and chlorinated anilines; phenol and chlorinated phenols; and esters. Three cross-validation procedures proved the robustness and stability of QSAR models with respect to the chemical structure of compounds tested within a series of compounds used in the learning series. Predictive ability was described by q2 .801 (cross-validated r2; predicted variation estimated with cross-validation) in LSO (leave-a structurally series-out) cross-validation. PMID:18522479

  11. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED AND ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL INFECTIVITY, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ANALYSIS, AND ANTIGEN DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detecting infectious virus, nucleic material, and antigen. Persistently infected (PI) and acutely/transiently infected calves with BVDV represent two different manifestations. Diagnostic test results impact on differentiation of PI o...

  12. Evaluation of Oxidative DNA Damage Using an Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Comet Assay, and the Protective Effects of N-Acetylcysteine Amide on Zearalenone-induced Cytotoxicity in Chang Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Hyungkyoung; Yoo, Yong-San; Hah, Do-Yun; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-03-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium that are found in cereals and agricultural products. ZEN has been implicated in mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. The toxic effects of ZEN are well known, but the ability of an alkaline Comet assay to assess ZEN-induced oxidative DNA damage in Chang liver cells has not been established. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the Comet assay for the determination of cytotoxicity and extent of DNA damage induced by ZEN toxin, and the second aim was to investigate the ability of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) to protect cells from ZEN-induced toxicity. In the Comet assay, DNA damage was assessed by quantifying the tail extent moment (TEM; arbitrary unit) and tail length (TL; arbitrary unit), which are used as indicators of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. The cytotoxic effects of ZEN in Chang liver cells were mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of oxidative DNA damage. Increasing the concentration of ZEN increased the extent of DNA damage. The extent of DNA migration, and percentage of cells with tails were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner following treatment with ZEN toxin (p < 0.05). Treatment with a low concentration of ZEN toxin (25 μM) induced a relatively low level of DNA damage, compared to treatment of cells with a high concentration of ZEN toxin (250 μM). Oxidative DNA damage appeared to be a key determinant of ZEN-induced toxicity in Chang liver cells. Significant reductions in cytolethality and oxidative DNA damage were observed when cells were pretreated with NACA prior to exposure to any concentration of ZEN. Our data suggest that ZEN induces DNA damage in Chang liver cells, and that the antioxidant activity of NACA may contribute to the reduction of ZEN-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity via elimination of oxidative stress. PMID:24278628

  13. Cytotoxicity and mitogenicity assays with real-time and label-free monitoring of human granulosa cells with an impedance-based signal processing technology intergrating micro-electronics and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Bildik, Gamze; Senbabaoglu, Filiz; Lack, Nathan A; Akin, Nazli; Yakar, Feridun; Urman, Defne; Guzel, Yilmaz; Balaban, Basak; Iwase, Akira; Urman, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    A recently developed technology (xCelligence) integrating micro-electronics and cell biology allows real-time, uninterrupted and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity by measuring the electrical impedance of the cell population in the wells without using any labeling agent. In this study we investigated if this system is a suitable model to analyze the effects of mitogenic (FSH) and cytotoxic (chemotherapy) agents with different toxicity profiles on human granulosa cells in comparison to conventional methods of assessing cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. The system generated the real-time growth curves of the cells, and determined their doubling times, mean cell indices and generated dose-response curves after exposure to cytotoxic and mitogenic stimuli. It accurately predicted the gonadotoxicity of the drugs and distinguished less toxic agents (5-FU and paclitaxel) from more toxic ones (cisplatin and cyclophosphamide). This platform can be a useful tool for specific end-point assays in reproductive toxicology. PMID:26746109

  14. Complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) activity of a humanized anti Lewis-Y antibody: FACS-based assay versus the 'classical' radioactive method -- qualification, comparison and application of the FACS-based approach.

    PubMed

    Nechansky, A; Szolar, O H J; Siegl, P; Zinoecker, I; Halanek, N; Wiederkum, S; Kircheis, R

    2009-05-01

    The fully humanized Lewis-Y carbohydrate specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) IGN311 is currently tested in a passive immunotherapy approach in a clinical phase I trail and therefore regulatory requirements demand qualified assays for product analysis. To demonstrate the functionality of its Fc-region, the capacity of IGN311 to mediate complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against human breast cancer cells was evaluated. The "classical" radioactive method using chromium-51 and a FACS-based assay were established and qualified according to ICH guidelines. Parameters evaluated were specificity, response function, bias, repeatability (intra-day precision), intermediate precision (operator-time different), and linearity (assay range). In the course of a fully nested design, a four-parameter logistic equation was identified as appropriate calibration model for both methods. For the radioactive assay, the bias ranged from -6.1% to -3.6%. The intermediate precision for future means of duplicate measurements revealed values from 12.5% to 15.9% and the total error (beta-expectation tolerance interval) of the method was found to be <40%. For the FACS-based assay, the bias ranged from -8.3% to 0.6% and the intermediate precision for future means of duplicate measurements revealed values from 4.2% to 8.0%. The total error of the method was found to be <25%. The presented data demonstrate that the FACS-based CDC is more accurate than the radioactive assay. Also, the elimination of radioactivity and the 'real-time' counting of apoptotic cells further justifies the implementation of this method which was subsequently applied for testing the influence of storage at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C ('stability testing') on the potency of IGN311 drug product. The obtained results demonstrate that the qualified functional assay represents a stability indicating test method. PMID:19250790

  15. Cytotoxicity of Agaricus sylvaticus in non-tumor cells (NIH/3T3) and tumor (OSCC-3) using tetrazolium (MTT) assay.

    PubMed

    Orsine, Joice Vinhal Costa; Marques Brito, Luíssa; Silva, Renata Carvalho; Santos Almeida, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effect of the non-fractionated aqueous extract of A. sylvaticus mushroom in cultures of non-tumor cells (NIH3T3) and tumor cells (OSCC-3). The cells were maintained in DMEN cell culture medium added of 10% of fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic. For the cytotoxicity test we prepared the aqueous mushroom extract at concentrations of 0.01 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.02 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.04 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.08 mg.ml⁻¹, 0.16 mg.ml⁻¹, and 0.32 mg.ml⁻¹. For the culture, 2 x 10⁵ cells/ml was deposited in 96-well microplates during 24 hour incubation with subsequent exchange of medium by another containing the mushroom concentrations. After 24 hour incubation the medium was discarded and 100 ml of tetrazolium blue (MTT) was added at a concentration of 5 mg.ml⁻¹. The microplates were incubated for 2 h at 37° C. Spectrophotometric analysis was performed using 570 nm wavelength. From the values of the optical densities we determined the drug concentration capable of reducing cell viability by 50%. Therefore, the mushroom A. sylvaticus, at all concentrations tested, did not show cytotoxic effects, once the inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) obtained for tumor cells OSCC-3 was 0.06194 mg.ml⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ checked for non-tumor cells NIH3T3 was 0,06468 mg.ml⁻¹. This test made it possible to determine that A. sylvaticus mushroom has no cytotoxic effects, suggesting its use safe for human consumption. PMID:23889648

  16. The Dual MEK/FLT3 Inhibitor E6201 Exerts Cytotoxic Activity against Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells Harboring Resistance-Conferring FLT3 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Borthakur, Gautam; Gao, Chen; Chen, Ye; Mu, Hong; Ruvolo, Vivian R; Nomoto, Kenichi; Zhao, Nanding; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-03-15

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibition has elicited encouraging responses in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy. Unfortunately, unless combined with a bone marrow transplant, disease relapse is frequent. In addition to the acquired point mutations in the FLT3 kinase domain that contribute to FLT3 inhibitor resistance, MEK/ERK signaling is persistently activated in AML cells even when FLT3 phosphorylation is continually suppressed. Thus, concomitant targeting of FLT3 and MAPK may potentially exert synergistic activity to counteract the resistance of AML cells to FLT3-targeted therapy. In this study, we investigated the antileukemia activity of a MEK1 and FLT3 dual inhibitor, E6201, in AML cells resistant to FLT3 inhibition. We found that E6201 exerted profound apoptogenic effects on AML cells harboring resistance-conferring FLT3 mutations. This activity appeared to be p53 dependent, and E6201-induced cytotoxicity was retained under hypoxic culture conditions and during coculture with mesenchymal stem cells that mimic the AML microenvironment. Furthermore, E6201 markedly reduced leukemia burden and improved the survival of mice in a human FLT3-mutated AML model. Collectively, our data provide a preclinical basis for the clinical evaluation of E6201 in AML patients harboring FLT3 mutations, including those who relapse following FLT3-targeted monotherapy. PMID:26822154

  17. Masking of two in vitro immunological assays for Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) in calves acutely infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Charleston, B; Hope, J C; Carr, B V; Howard, C J

    2001-10-20

    Acute infection of calves, previously vaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), with non-cytopathic viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) resulted in the temporary suppression of two in vitro assays used to monitor Mycobacterium bovis infection. Lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma production by whole blood cultures containing purified protein derivatives prepared from Mycobacterium avium (PPD-A) and M bovis (PPD-B) were markedly suppressed. The implication is that acute infections of cattle with non-cytopathic BVDV may temporarily compromise diagnostic tests for M. bovis infections and result in a failure to identify cattle with tuberculosis. PMID:11700926

  18. The combination of FLT3 and DNA methyltransferase inhibition is synergistically cytotoxic to FLT3/ITD acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, E; Ganguly, S; Rajkhowa, T; Gocke, C D; Levis, M; Konig, H

    2016-05-01

    Effective treatment regimens for elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients harboring internal tandem duplication mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene (FLT3/ITD) are lacking and represent a significant unmet need. Recent data on the effects of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors on FLT3/ITD(+) AML showed promising clinical activity, including in elderly patients. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors such as decitabine (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, DEC) and 5-azacitidine (AZA) demonstrated clinical benefit in AML, are well tolerated and are associated with minimal increases in FLT3 ligand, which can represent a potential resistance mechanism to FLT3 inhibitors. In addition, both FLT3 and DNMT inhibition are associated with the induction of terminal differentiation of myeloid blasts. Consequently, there is a strong theoretical rationale for combining FLT3 and DNMT inhibition for FLT3/ITD(+) AML. We therefore sought to study the anti-leukemic effects of DEC, AZA and FLT3 inhibitors, either as single agents or in combination, on AML cell lines and primary cells derived from newly diagnosed and relapsed AML patients. Our studies indicate that combined treatment using FLT3 inhibition and hypomethylation confers synergistic anti-leukemic effects, including apoptosis, growth inhibition and differentiation. The simultaneous administration of AZA and FLT3 inhibition appears to be the most efficacious combination in this regard. These drugs may provide a novel therapeutic approach for FLT3/ITD(+) AML, in particular for older patients. PMID:26686245

  19. Cytotoxicity assessment of antibiofouling compounds and by-products in marine bivalve cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Domart-Coulon, I; Auzoux-Bordenave, S; Doumenc, D; Khalanski, M

    2000-06-01

    Short-term primary cell cultures were derived from adult marine bivalve tissues: the heart of oyster Crassostrea gigas and the gill of clam Ruditapes decussatus. These cultures were used as experimental in vitro models to assess the acute cytotoxicity of an organic molluscicide, Mexel-432, used in antibiofouling treatments in industrial cooling water systems. A microplate cell viability assay, based on the enzymatic reduction of tetrazolium dye (MTT) in living bivalve cells, was adapted to test the cytotoxicity of this compound: in both in vitro models, toxicity thresholds of Mexel-432 were compared to those determined in vivo with classic acute toxicity tests. The clam gill cell model was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of by-products of chlorination, a major strategy of biofouling control in the marine environment. The applications and limits of these new in vitro models for monitoring aquatic pollutants were discussed, in reference with the standardized Microtox test. PMID:10806375

  20. Perforin- and granulysin-mediated cytotoxicity and interleukin 15 play roles in neurocognitive impairment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Petranovic, Duska; Pilcic, Gorazd; Valkovic, Toni; Sotosek Tokmadzic, Vlatka; Laskarin, Gordana

    2014-07-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is an aggressive disease. The course of disease is regulated by pro-inflammatory agents, and malignant cell infiltration of tissues plays a deleterious role in disease progression, greatly impacting quality of life, especially in the cognitive domains. Our hypothesis is that significant serum concentrations of interleukin 15 (IL-15) are responsible for higher expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which allow leukaemia cells and/or normal lymphocytes the infiltration into the brain. In brain tissue these cells could be stimulated to release perforin and granulysin causing induction of apoptosis in brain cells that are involved in complex neural signalling mediated by neurotransmitters, and consequent fine cognitive impairment. Such changes could be detected early, even before notable clinical psycho-neurological or radiological changes in patients with ALL. To evaluate this hypothesis we propose measuring cognitive function using Complex Reactiometer Drenovac (CRD) scores in patients with ALL. The expression of different adhesion molecules on BBB as well as presence and distribution of different lymphocytes in brain tissue will be analyzed. We will then correlate CRD scores with levels of IL-15 and the percentages of T cells, natural killer T cells, and natural killer cells expressing perforin and/or granulysin proteins. CRD is a scientifically recognised and highly sensitive psychometric laboratory test based on the complex chronometric mathematical measuring of speed of reaction to various stimuli. It provides an objective assessment of cognitive functions from the most complex mental activities to the simplest reaction reflexes. Early recognition of cognitive dysfunction might be important when selecting the most appropriate chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy regimens, and could allow for the implementation of preventive measures against further deterioration in cognitive function and

  1. Inhibition of MDM2 by Nilotinib Contributes to Cytotoxicity in Both Philadelphia-Positive and Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Chiang, Kuang-Yueh; Zhou, Muxiang

    2014-01-01

    Nilotinib is a selective BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor related to imatinib that is more potent than imatinib. Nilotinib is widely used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The present study identifies Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) as a target of nilotinib. In studying ALL cell lines, we found that the expression of MDM2 in both Philadelphia positive (Ph+) and Philadelphia negative (Ph-) ALL cells was remarkably inhibited by nilotinib, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further studies demonstrated that nilotinib inhibited MDM2 at the post-translational level by inducing MDM2 self-ubiquitination and degradation. Nilotinib-mediated MDM2 downregulation did not result in accumulation and activation of p53. Inhibition of MDM2 in nilotinib-treated ALL cells led to downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a translational target of MDM2, resulting in activation of caspases. Inhibition of XIAP following nilotinib-mediated downregulation of MDM2 resulted in apoptosis of MDM2-expressing ALL; however, similar nilotinib treatment induced stronger apoptosis in Ph+/MDM2+ ALL than in Ph-/MDM2+ or Ph+/MDM2- ALL. The ALL cells that were Ph-/MDM2- were totally resistant to nilotinib. These results suggested that nilotinib can inhibit MDM2 and induce a p53-independent apoptosis pathway by downregulating XIAP; thus, nilotinib can treat not only Ph+, but also Ph- ALL patients whose cancer cells overexpress MDM2. PMID:24968304

  2. Effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Kelen C; Carroll, F Ivy; Negus, S Stevens

    2015-11-01

    Agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute one drug class being evaluated as candidate analgesics. Previous preclinical studies have implicated α4β2 and α7 nAChRs as potential mediators of the antinociceptive effects of (–)-nicotine hydrogen tartrate (nicotine) and other nAChR agonists; however, these studies have relied exclusively on measures of pain-stimulated behavior, which can be defined as behaviors that increase in frequency, rate, or intensity after presentation of a noxious stimulus. Pain is also associated with depression of many behaviors, and drug effects can differ in assays of pain-stimulated versus pain-depressed behavior. Accordingly, this study compared the effects of nicotine, the selective α4/6β2 agonist 5-(123I)iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine (5-I-A-85380), and the selective α7 agonist N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide in assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid served as an acute noxious stimulus to either stimulate a stretching response or depress the operant responding, which is maintained by electrical brain stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Nicotine produced a dose-dependent, time-dependent, and mecamylamine-reversible blockade of both acid-stimulated stretching and acid-induced depression of ICSS. 5-I-A-85380 also blocked both acid-stimulated stretching and acid-induced depression of ICSS, whereas N-(3R)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-4-chlorobenzamide produced no effect in either procedure. Both nicotine and 5-I-A-85380 were ≥10-fold more potent in blocking the acid-induced depression of ICSS than in blocking the acid-induced stimulation of stretching. These results suggest that stimulation of α4β2 and/or α6β2 nAChRs may be especially effective to alleviate the signs of pain-related behavioral depression in rats; however, nonselective behavioral effects

  3. Synergistic cytotoxicity of sorafenib with busulfan and nucleoside analogs in human FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications-positive acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Guiyun; Valdez, Benigno C; Li, Yang; Liu, Yan; Champlin, Richard E; Andersson, Borje S

    2014-11-01

    Clofarabine (Clo), fludarabine (Flu), and busulfan (Bu) are used in pretransplantation conditioning therapy for patients with myeloid leukemia. To further improve their efficacy in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD)-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we investigated their synergism with sorafenib (Sor). Exposure of FLT3-ITD-positive MV-4-11 and MOLM 13 cells to Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity; no such synergism was observed in the FLT3-wild type THP-1 and KBM3/Bu250(6) cell lines. The drug synergism in MV-4-11 cells could be attributed to activation of DNA damage response, histone 3 modifications, inhibition of prosurvival kinases, and activation of apoptosis. Further, the phosphorylation of kinases, including FLT3, MAPK kinase (MEK), and AKT, was inhibited. The FLT3-ITD substrate STAT5 and its target gene PIM 2 product decreased when cells were exposed to Sor alone, Bu+Clo+Flu, and Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor. The level of the proapoptotic protein p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) increased, whereas the level of prosurvival protein MCL-1 decreased when cells were exposed to Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor. The interactions of PUMA with MCL-1 and/or BCL-2 were enhanced when cells were exposed to Bu+Clo+Flu or Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor. The changes in the level of these proteins, which are involved in mitochondrial control of apoptosis, correlate with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Bu+Clo+Flu+Sor decreased mitochondrial membrane potential by 60% and caused leakage of cytochrome c, second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC)/direct IAP Binding protein with low pI (DIABLO), and AIF from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, caspase activation, and cell death, suggesting the activation of apoptosis. Analogous, synergistic cytotoxicity in response to Bu, Clo, Flu, and Sor was observed in mononuclear cells isolated from FLT3-ITD-positive AML patients. Although our previous studies were aimed at standardizing the

  4. Forced degradation study of racecadotril: Effect of co-solvent, characterization of degradation products by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, NMR and cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Chiguru, Vishnuvardhan; Lingesh, Allakonda; R, Srinivas; N, Satheeshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Racecadotril, an enkephalinase inhibitor, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic and alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under acidic, basic hydrolysis and oxidative stress conditions whereas, it was stable under other stress conditions. A total of seven degradation products (DPs) were observed. The chromatographic separation was optimized on Acquity HSS Cyano (100×2.1mm, 1.8μ) column using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase in gradient mode. Six DPs were characterised by LC-MS/MS and DP1 by GC-MS. The major DPs (DP 2 and DP 5) were isolated and characterised by NMR. This is a typical case of degradation where co solvent methanol reacts with racecadotril leading to the formation of pseudo DPs, DP 6 and DP 5. Interestingly the MS/MS spectra of protonated drug, DP 4 and DP 7 showed product ions which were formed due to intramolecular benzyl migrations. In vitro cytotoxic activity studies on isolated DP 2 and DP 5 revealed that the former has no cytotoxic nature, whereas the latter has potential pulmonary and hepatic toxicity. PMID:27209450

  5. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    PubMed

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  6. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis

    PubMed Central

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1–5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6–9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5–30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  7. Comparison of Simplexa Universal Direct PCR with Cytotoxicity Assay for Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: Performance, Cost, and Correlation with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, David; Topal, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Simplexa Clostridium difficile universal direct PCR, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of the C. difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene using the 3M integrated cycler, was compared with a two-step algorithm which includes the C. Diff Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen assay followed by cytotoxin neutralization. Three hundred forty-two liquid or semisolid stools submitted for diagnostic C. difficile testing, 171 GDH antigen positive and 171 GDH antigen negative, were selected for the study. All samples were tested by the C. Diff Chek-60 GDH antigen assay, cytotoxin neutralization, and Simplexa direct PCR. Of 171 GDH-positive samples, 4 were excluded (from patients on therapy or from whom duplicate samples were obtained) and 88 were determined to be true positives for toxigenic C. difficile. Of the 88, 67 (76.1%) were positive by the two-step method and 86 (97.7%) were positive by PCR. Seventy-nine were positive by the GDH antigen assay only. Of 171 GDH antigen-negative samples, none were positive by PCR. One antigen-negative sample positive by the cytotoxin assay only was deemed a false positive based on chart review. Simplexa C. difficile universal direct PCR was significantly more sensitive for detecting toxigenic C. difficile bacteria than cytotoxin neutralization (P = 0.0002). However, most PCR-positive/cytotoxin-negative patients did not have clear C. difficile disease. The estimated cost avoidance provided by a more rapid molecular diagnosis was outweighed by the cost of isolating and treating PCR-positive/cytotoxin-negative patients. The costs, clinical consequences, and impact on nosocomial transmission of treating and/or isolating patients positive for toxigenic C. difficile by PCR but negative for in vivo toxin production merit further study. PMID:24226924

  8. Cytotoxic potential of few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Munish; Lata, Kusum; Satija, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of a few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared of five fruit peels, i.e., banana, lemon, guava, orange, and papaya by maceration and thereafter subjected for MTT assay to evaluate anticancer potential on HepG2 cells. Plant extract showed best activity was further fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate successively and screened again. Phytochemical analysis was then carried out to find out responsible components for the observed activity. Results: Out of the 40 samples from five fruit peel extracts with rich folklore usage, papaya extract showed maximum activity with least inhibitory concentration50 (IC50) value of 18.5 μg/ml. Further analysis after fractionation of the papaya peel extract, aqueous fraction showed the maximum inhibitory activity with least IC50 value of 17.3 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous fraction of papaya peel extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. Total flavonoid content found to be 72.25 mg/g. Conclusion: Papaya fruit extract demonstrated the best activity against MTT assay which may be due to the presence of flavonoids. PMID:26997725

  9. Determination of Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity assays are used for drug screening and cytotoxicity tests of chemicals. Nowadays, various reagents are used for cell viability detection. They are based on various cell functions such as enzyme activity, cell membrane permeability, cell adherence, ATP production, co-enzyme production and nucleotide uptake activity. Many have established methods such as colony formation method, crystal violet method, tritium-labelled thymidine uptake method, MTT and WST methods, which are used for counting the number of live cells. Moreover, trypan blue is a widely used assay for staining dead cells. In this method, cell viability must be determined by counting the unstained cells with a microscope or other instruments. This chapter is a collection of all these methods to be followed by researchers in a sequential manner. PMID:26939283

  10. Cytotoxic Biscembranoids from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton pauciplicatum.

    PubMed

    Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Tung, Pham The; Ngoc, Ninh Thi; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Thao, Do Thi; Huong, Tran Thu; Thung, Do Cong; Kiem, Phan Van; Kim, Young Ho; Minh, Chau Van

    2015-01-01

    Ten biscembranoids (1-10), including the two new compounds sarcophytolides M and N (1 and 2), were isolated from the methanol extract of the Vietnamese soft coral Sarcophyton pauciplicatum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one dimensional (1D)- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and circular dichroism (CD). The in vitro cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds against a panel of eight human cancer cell lines including HepG2 (hepatoma cancer), HL-60 (acute leukemia), KB (epidermoid carcinoma), LNCaP (prostate cancer), LU-1 (lung cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer), SK-Mel2 (melanoma), and SW480 (colon adenocarcinoma) was evaluated using the sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. Among the isolated biscembranoids, 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and may be selected for further studies of their anticancer activity. PMID:26235170

  11. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Carolina Amaral; MARTINS, Luciano Moura; GATTI, Maria Silvia Viccari; FALAVINA DOS REIS, Cristhiane Moura; HOFER, Ernesto; YANO, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviaestrains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviaestrains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil. PMID:26422161

  12. Synthesis, Molecular Structure Optimization, and Cytotoxicity Assay of a Novel 2-Acetyl-3-amino-5-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfanyl]-4-cyanothiophene.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia N; Aldawsari, Fahad D; Al-Showiman, Salim S; Barakat, Assem; Soliman, Saied M; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Yousuf, Sammer; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2016-01-01

    A novel thiophene-containing compound, 2-acetyl-3-amino-5-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfanyl]-4-cyanothiophene (4) was synthesized by reaction of malononitrile with CS₂ in the presence of K₂CO₃ under reflux in DMF and the subsequent reaction with chloroacetone followed by cyclization. This compound has been characterized by means of FT-IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectrometry as well as elemental analysis. In addition, the molecular structures of compound 4 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The geometry of the molecule is stabilized by an intramolecular interaction between N1-H1···O1 to form S6 graf set ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N1-H2···O1 and C7-H7A···N2 interactions to form a three-dimensional network. Molecular structure and other spectroscopic properties of compound 4 were calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method. Results revealed a good agreement between the optimized geometric parameters and the observed X-ray structure. Furthermore, and by employing the natural bond orbital (NBO) method, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions along with natural atomic charges at different sites, were calculated; results indicated strong n→π* ICT from LP(1)N5→BD*(2)C15-C16 (63.23 kcal/mol). In addition, the stabilization energy E(2) of the LP(2)O3→ BD*(1)N5-H6 ICT (6.63 kcal/mol) indicated the presence of intramolecular N-H···OH bonding. Similarly, calculations of the electronic spectra of compound 4 using, TD-DFT revealed a good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, compound 4 was evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxic effect against PC-3 and HeLa cell lines, as an anticancer agent, and found to be nontoxic. PMID:26891285

  13. Cytotoxicity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    de Gomes, Pedro Sousa; Figueiral, Maria Helena; Fernandes, Maria Helena R; Scully, Crispian

    2011-12-01

    Ten commercially available denture adhesives, nine soluble formulations (six creams, three powders) and one insoluble product (pad), were analyzed regarding the cytotoxicity profile in direct and indirect assays using L929 fibroblast cells. In the direct assay, fibroblasts were seeded over the surface of a thick adhesive gel (5%, creams; 2.5%, powders and pad). In the indirect assay, cells were cultured in the presence of adhesive extracts prepared in static and dynamic conditions (0.5-2%, creams; 0.25-1%, powders and pad). Cell toxicity was assessed for cell viability/proliferation (MTT assay) and cell morphology (observation of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization by confocal laser scanning microscopy). Direct contact of the L929 fibroblasts with the thick adhesive gels caused no, or only a slight, decrease in cell viability/proliferation. The adhesive extracts (especially those prepared in dynamic conditions) caused significantly higher growth inhibition of fibroblasts and, in addition, caused dose- and time-dependent effects, throughout the 6-72 h exposure time. Also, dose-dependent effects on cell morphology, with evident disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization, were seen in the presence of most adhesives. In conclusion, the adhesives possessed different degrees of cytotoxicity, but similar dose- and time-dependent biological profiles. PMID:20844908

  14. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assay of water sampled from the underground nuclear explosion site in the north of the Perm region (Russia).

    PubMed

    Evseeva, Tatiana I; Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Shuktomova, Ida I; Taskaev, Anatoliy I

    2005-01-01

    The results of our study revealed a local biologically relevant surface water contamination in the radionuclide anomaly in the north of Russia (Perm region) by means of Allium schoenoprasum L. anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay. This radionuclide anomaly was formed in 1971 as a result of an underground nuclear explosion with soil excavation. Specific activities of main dose-forming radionuclides in all examined reservoirs are below intervention levels officially adopted in Russia for drinking water. We found that (90)Sr significantly contributes to induction of cytogenetic disturbances. Our previous data and the data described here suggest that metal and radionuclide combined exposure (with the dose below permissible exposure limits for human) may cause substantial biological effects. These effects are in part due to synergic response. The findings described here indicated that development of a new concept of radiation protection for humans and biota should be based on the clear understanding of biological effects of low doses of radiation in chronic exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures. PMID:15653187

  15. Artemia salina as a new index for assessment of acute cytotoxicity during co-composting of sewage sludge and lignocellulose waste.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhdouch, Yedir

    2016-04-01

    Considering the necessity to constantly monitor the safety of use of sewage sludge, we have focused on evaluating the toxicity of raw sludge and sludge treated by co-composting with date palm waste using an in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity based on Artemia salina larvae as a simple new sensitive and reliable routine test. The efficiency of co-composting in decreasing sludge toxicity was evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity abatement reaching 100% by the second month of composting for mixture A (1/3 sludge+2/3 date palm waste) and the third month for mixture B (1/2 sludge+1/2 date palm waste). Cytotoxicity abatement was confirmed by the increase of germination index, which reached over 100% with positive correlation for lettuce (R(2)=0.81 and 0.86) and for turnip (R(2)=0.87 and 0.74) for mixtures A and B respectively. A strong correlation between the proposed cytotoxicity test and the evolution of regulatory physical-chemical approaches was found, (R(2)=0.88 and 0.89) for NH4(+)/NO3(-) and (R(2)=0.80 and 0.88) for C/N respectively for mixture A and B. These findings allow the inexpensive bioassay reported to be used as a highly sensitive test to determine the cytotoxicity and maturity of composts. PMID:26868843

  16. Cytotoxicity of the MEIC reference chemicals in rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, P J

    2000-09-01

    The cytotoxicity of the MEIC reference chemicals was investigated in rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells. The total protein content was measured as an endpoint after exposure times of 30 min and 24 h, both in normal and glutathione-depleted cells. The neutral red uptake inhibition and the MTT conversion were also measured after 30 min. On average, the cytotoxicity was higher in glutathione-depleted cells when compared to normal cells, and was lower after 30 min than after 24 h. Evidence was obtained for lysosomal attack (of five chemicals) or mitochondrial dysfunction (of six chemicals) as the primary intoxication mechanism. Malathion and mercuric chloride belong to both series of chemicals. Good to excellent correlations were observed when the 50% inhibitory concentrations of the six different in vitro assays were compared. When the six in vitro assays in Fa32 cells were compared with the human toxicity, the correlation coefficient was almost always identical to that obtained previously in human hepatoma-derived Hep G2 cells. The latter was the best acute in vitro assay for the prediction of human toxicity within the MEIC study. Altogether the results integrate very well with the basal cytotoxicity concept (Ekwall, B., 1995. The basal cytotoxicity concept. In: Goldberg, A.M., Van Zutphen, L.F.M. (Eds.), The World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences: Education, Research, Testing. Mary Ann Liebert Publishers, New York, pp. 721-725). PMID:10996672

  17. Fluorinated Nanocarbons Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdenek; Pumera, Martin

    2015-09-01

    As the research in nanotechnology progresses, there will eventually be an influx in the number of commercial products containing different types of nanomaterials. This phenomenon might damage our health and environment if the nanomaterials used are found to be toxic and they are released into the waters when the products degrade. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of fluorinated nanocarbons (CXFs), a group of nanomaterials which can find applications in solid lubricants and lithium primary batteries. Our cell viability findings indicated that the toxicological effects induced by the CXF are dependent on the dose, size, shape, and fluorine content of the CXF. In addition, we verified that CXFs have insignificant interactions with the cell viability assays-methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8), thus suggesting that the cytotoxicity data obtained are unlikely to be affected by CXF-induced artifacts and the results will be reliable. PMID:26215131

  18. A parasite rescue and transformation assay for antileishmanial screening against intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Jain, Surendra K; Sahu, Rajnish; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, largely affecting the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries. Over 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and approximately 2 million new cases occur yearly(1). Leishmania donovani is the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most fatal form of the disease. The choice of drugs available to treat leishmaniasis is limited (2);current treatments provide limited efficacy and many are toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition, most of the first line treatment drugs have already lost their utility due to increasing multiple drug resistance (3). The current pipeline of anti-leishmanial drugs is also severely depleted. Sustained efforts are needed to enrich a new anti-leishmanial drug discovery pipeline, and this endeavor relies on the availability of suitable in vitro screening models. In vitro promastigotes (4) and axenic amastigotes assays(5) are primarily used for anti-leishmanial drug screening however, may not be appropriate due to significant cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular differences in comparison to intracellular amastigotes. Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening. Differentiated, non-dividing human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP1) (make an attractive) alternative to isolated primary macrophages and can be used for assaying anti-leishmanial activity of different compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Here, we present a parasite-rescue and transformation assay with differentiated THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani for screening pure compounds and natural products extracts and determining the efficacy against the intracellular Leishmania amastigotes. The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2

  19. Click one pot synthesis, spectral analyses, crystal structures, DFT studies and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay of two newly synthesized 1,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Ayub, Khurshid; Mahmood, Tariq; Tahir, M. Nawaz; Khan, Bilal Ahmad; Hafeez, Muhammad; Ahmed, Madiha; ul-Haq, Ihsan

    2016-02-01

    Methyl-2-(1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-2-oxoacetate (1) and ethyl-2-(1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-2-oxoacetate (2) were synthesized by one pot three component strategy, and characterized by FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy and TOF-MS spectrometry. Finally, the structures were unequivocally confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Both compounds, 1 and 2 exist in monoclinic crystal packing having space group P21/n and P21/c, respectively. Crystal structures investigations revealed that the molecular structures of the title compounds are stabilized by weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions to form dimers. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed not only to compare with the experimental spectroscopic results but also to probe structural properties. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapped over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules delivered information about the electrophilic and nucleophilic sites. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbital analysis gave the idea about stability and reactivity of compounds. Both compounds were also screened for brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay.

  20. Use of viral lysate antigen combined with recombinant protein in Western immunoblot assay as confirmatory test for serodiagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ming; Chen, Hsiao Ying; Tan, Phuay Heng; Shen, Shuo; Goh, Phuay-Yee; Tan, Yee-Joo; Pang, Peow Hoon; Lu, Yang; Fong, Priscilla Yiquan; Chin, Daria

    2004-11-01

    A Western immunoblot assay for confirmatory serodiagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was developed utilizing viral lysate antigens combined with a recombinant nucleocapsid protein, GST-N (glutathione S-transferase-nucleocapsid) of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The viral lysate antigens were separated by electrophoresis and transblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. The resultant membrane was subsequently added with the GST-N recombinant protein at a specific location. The positions of bands corresponding to some of the structural proteins immobilized on the membrane were then located and verified with mouse or rabbit antisera specific to the respective proteins. The Western immunoblot assay was able to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV in all 40 serum specimens from SARS patients and differentiate the SARS-positive samples from those of the healthy donor or non-SARS patient controls (150 samples) when set criteria were followed. In addition, when the immunoblot was used to test samples considered falsely positive by an in-house-developed SARS-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, band patterns different from those with samples from SARS patients were obtained. PMID:15539520

  1. Sensitive colorimetric cytotoxicity measurement using alarmar blue.

    PubMed

    Page, B; Page, M

    1995-01-01

    Cytotoxicity testing of anticancer drugs requires techniques which are sensitive, reproductible and applicable to large scale testing using automated instruments. End point staining of cells or viability stains are reliable but they are often not sensitive enough or not suitable for automation. We have already described a fluorometric cytotoxicity assay using a non fluorescent substrate, Alarmar Blue, which upon reduction in living cells, yields a fluorescent product. This assay is sensitive and highly reproductible but it is limited since automated fluorescent plate readers are not found frequently in laboratories. The conditions are now described for using Alamar Blue as a substrate in a colorimetric cytotoxicity assay. This new economical assay could be used with advantage for large scale screening of cytotoxic agents in microtitration plates. PMID:21597689

  2. Evaluation of genotoxicity of the acute gamma radiation on earthworm Eisenia fetida using single cell gel electrophoresis technique (Comet assay).

    PubMed

    Sowmithra, K; Shetty, N J; Jha, S K; Chaubey, R C

    2015-12-01

    Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution. Radiation-induced lesions in DNA can be considered to be molecular markers for early effects of ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation produces a wide spectrum of DNA. Some of these lesions, i.e., DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites can be detected by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay by measuring the migration of DNA from immobilized nuclear DNA. E. fetida were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation, i.e., 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50Gy, and comet assay was performed for all the doses along with control at 1, 3 and 5h post irradiation to evaluate the genotoxicity of gamma radiation in this organism. The DNA damage was measured as percentage of comet tail DNA. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in samples exposed to 5Gy and above, and the increase in DNA damage was dose dependent i.e., DNA damage was increased with increased doses of radiation. The highest DNA damage was noticed at 1h post irradiation and gradually decreased with time, i.e., at 3 and 5h post irradiation. The present study reveals that gamma radiation induces DNA damage in E. fetida and the comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for its detection to detect genotoxicity of gamma radiation. PMID:26653984

  3. The kSORT Assay to Detect Renal Transplant Patients at High Risk for Acute Rejection: Results of the Multicenter AART Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Sue; Dai, Hong; Bestard, Oriol; Metes, Diana; Zeevi, Andrea; Gritsch, Albin; Cheeseman, Jennifer; Macedo, Camila; Peddy, Ram; Medeiros, Mara; Vincenti, Flavio; Asher, Nancy; Salvatierra, Oscar; Shapiro, Ron; Kirk, Allan; Reed, Elaine; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of noninvasive molecular assays to improve disease diagnosis and patient monitoring is a critical need. In renal transplantation, acute rejection (AR) increases the risk for chronic graft injury and failure. Noninvasive diagnostic assays to improve current late and nonspecific diagnosis of rejection are needed. We sought to develop a test using a simple blood gene expression assay to detect patients at high risk for AR. Methods and Findings We developed a novel correlation-based algorithm by step-wise analysis of gene expression data in 558 blood samples from 436 renal transplant patients collected across eight transplant centers in the US, Mexico, and Spain between 5 February 2005 and 15 December 2012 in the Assessment of Acute Rejection in Renal Transplantation (AART) study. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) in one center. A 17-gene set—the Kidney Solid Organ Response Test (kSORT)—was selected in 143 samples for AR classification using discriminant analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.94; 95% CI 0.91–0.98), validated in 124 independent samples (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88–1.0) and evaluated for AR prediction in 191 serial samples, where it predicted AR up to 3 mo prior to detection by the current gold standard (biopsy). A novel reference-based algorithm (using 13 12-gene models) was developed in 100 independent samples to provide a numerical AR risk score, to classify patients as high risk versus low risk for AR. kSORT was able to detect AR in blood independent of age, time post-transplantation, and sample source without additional data normalization; AUC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–0.99). Further validation of kSORT is planned in prospective clinical observational and interventional trials. Conclusions The kSORT blood QPCR assay is a noninvasive tool to detect high risk of AR of renal transplants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID

  4. Exploration of Disease Mechanism in Acute Kidney Injury Using a Multiplex Bead Array Assay: A Nested Case Control Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Liangos, Orfeas; Addabbo, Francesco; Tighiouart, Hocine; Goligorsky, Michael; Jaber, Bertrand L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes increased morbidity and mortality. Objective Evaluate the plasma profile of biomarkers potentially involved in AKI following CPB. Methods In a nested case-control study, plasma levels of 27 biomarkers in 11 AKI cases were compared with 25 controls. Results Pre CPB, plasma levels of epidermal growth factor and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β; 2 hours following CPB, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, fractalkine and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α; and at later time points, sVCAM-1 and interleukin-6 were associated with AKI. Conclusion Biomarkers associated with AKI following CPB may merit further study. PMID:20482449

  5. Direct short-term cytotoxic effects of BIBR 1532 on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells through induction of p21 coupled with downregulation of c-Myc and hTERT transcription.

    PubMed

    Bashash, D; Ghaffari, S H; Zaker, F; Hezave, K; Kazerani, M; Ghavamzadeh, A; Alimoghaddam, K; Mosavi, S A; Gharehbaghian, A; Vossough, P

    2012-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by specific t(15;17), distinct morphologic picture, and clinical coagulopathy that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the disease. This study aims to investigate the effects of antitelomerase compound BIBR1532 on APL cells (NB4). BIBR 1532 exerts a direct short-term growth suppressive effect in a concentration-dependent manner probably through downregulation of c-Myc and hTERT expression. Our results also suggest that induction of p21 and subsequent disturbance of Bax/Bcl-2 balanced ratio as well as decreased telomerase activity may be rational mechanisms for the potent/direct short-term cytotoxicity of high doses of BIBR1532 against NB4 cells. PMID:22236190

  6. Performance and Cost Evaluation of One Commercial and Six In-House Conventional and Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assays for Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, James B.; Petrich, Astrid; Louie, Lisa; Song, Xinyu; Chong, Sylvia; Smieja, Marek; Chernesky, Max; Loeb, Mark; Richardson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated seven reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays, including six in-house assays and one commercial assay for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA in clinical specimens. RT-PCR assays targeted different genomic regions and included three conventional assays (one nested and two non-nested) run on a conventional heat block and four real-time assays performed in a LightCycler (LC; Roche Diagnostics). All in-house assays were optimized for assay parameters, including MgCl2, primer, and probe concentrations. The commercial assay was the RealArt HPA CoV RT-PCR assay (Artus), which was run in the LC. Testing serial dilutions of cultured SARS-CoV showed that the analytical sensitivity of the assays ranged from 10−8 to 10−6, corresponding to 1 and 100 copies of viral RNA, respectively. Significant differences in analytical sensitivities were observed between assays (P < 0.01, probit regression analysis for 50% sensitivity levels for the top two assays versus the others). Testing 68 clinical specimens (including 17 respiratory tract specimens, 29 urine samples, and 22 stools or rectal swabs) demonstrated that six of the seven assays detected at least 17 of 18 positives (defined as positive in at least two assays), and two of the assays had a sensitivity of 100%. There were no significant differences in sensitivity between the assays (P = 0.5 [Cochrance Q test, least sensitive 15 of 18 versus 18 of 18]). The specificities of the assays ranged from 94.0 to 100% without significant differences (P = 0.25 to 0.5 [McNemar test]). The reagent and technologist cost of performing the in-house PCR assays ranged from $5.46 to $9.81 Canadian dollars (CDN) per test. The commercial assay cost was considerably higher at $40.37 per test. The results demonstrated good performance for all assays, providing laboratories that need to do SARS RNA testing with a choice of assay formats. PMID:15070991

  7. Determination of acute Zn toxicity in pore water from soils previously treated with sewage sludge using bioluminescence assays

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudri, A.M.; Knight, B.P.; Barbosa-Jefferson, V.L.

    1999-06-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of Zn and Cu in soil pore water from soils of a long-term sewage sludge field experiment on microbial bioluminescence were investigated. Concentrations of total soluble Zn, free Zn{sup 2+}, and soluble Cu increased sharply in soil pore water with increasing total soil metal concentrations above 140 mg of Zn kg{sup {minus}1} or 100 mg of Cu kg{sup {minus}1}. Two luminescence bioassays were tested, based on two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) with the lux genes encoding bacterial luminescence inserted into them. The bioluminescence response of the two microorganisms declined as total soil Zn, soil pore water soluble Zn, and soil pore water free Zn{sup 2+} concentrations increased. The EC{sub 25} values for E. coli and P. fluorescens were 1.3 {+-} 0.2 and 4.3 {+-} 0.5 mg L{sup {minus}1} on a free Zn{sup 2+} basis, respectively. The EC{sub 50} values were 2.5 {+-} 0.2 and 9.6 {+-} 0.9 mg of free Zn{sup 2+} L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Copper had no significant effect on bioluminescence in the two assays, even at the largest soil pore water concentration of about 620 {micro}g L{sup {minus}1}, corresponding to a total Cu concentration in bulk soil of about 350 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. Thus, the decline in bioluminescence of the two assays was ascribed to increasing soil pore water free Zn{sup 2+} and not soluble Cu.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of organic pollutants to bluegill sunfish (BF-2) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Borenfreund, E.

    1987-02-01

    BF-2 cells, an established cell line derived from bluegill sunfish, (Lepomis macrochirus), were exposed to 18 organic toxicants, with cytotoxicity being assayed by the neutral red (NR) technique. Based on the concentration of toxicant that reduced lysosomal uptake of neutral red by 50% (NR50), the rank order of cytotoxicity was methyl mercury greater than pentachlorophenol greater than 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol greater than 2,3,5-trichlorophenol greater than 2,3-dinitrotoluene greater than 2,4,6-trichlorophenol greater than 2,4-dichlorophenol greater than 2,4-dichlorotoluene greater than 6-chloro-3-hydroxytoluene greater than o-chlorotoluene greater than 4-chlorophenol greater than 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol greater than 2,4-dinitrophenol greater than 4-nitrophenol greater than 3-methylphenol greater than phenol greater than toluene. Published in vivo LC50 values were identified for 11 of the 18 test agents and, with the exception of 2,4-dinitrophenol, there was a good correlation between the in vitro cytotoxicity of the test agents and their in vivo waterborne acute toxocity. The potencies of the substituted phenolics and chlorinated toluenes as determined by the in vitro cytotoxicity assay correlated strongly with their log octanol/water partition coefficients (log P). However, the toxicity of 2,3-dinitrotoluene in vitro, and apparently also in vivo, was not a function of its log P value.

  9. Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Assay in Paediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boloor, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) pulmonary disease manifesting as bronchiolitis and pneumonia continues to play a major role in the childhood mortality and morbidity. Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized children presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) and its correlation with risk factors. Aim To determine the occurrence of RSV related respiratory tract infection in paediatric patients and to access the risk factors and clinical features associated. Materials and Methods RSV antigen detection was performed by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) staining on 100 nasopharyngeal aspirate collected from hospitalized children below 5 years of age with a diagnosis of ARTI. Results Out of the 100 samples tested for RSV with DFA, 22 (22%) were found RSV positive with a mean age of 12 months and a male to female ratio of (1.75:1). Clinical features significantly associated with RSV were wheezing and breathlessness. Congenital heart disease (CHD) and prematurity were the risk factors significantly associated with RSV infection. Conclusion RSV infection is a significant cause of morbidity among children presenting with ARTI. In resource limited countries DFA can be used as an important tool for rapid detection of RSV and can potentially eliminate prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  10. Cytotoxic effects of aggregated nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Soto, Karla; Garza, K M; Murr, L E

    2007-05-01

    This study deals with cytotoxicity assays performed on an array of commercially manufactured inorganic nanoparticulate materials, including Ag, TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), Al(2)O(3), ZrO(2), Si(3)N(4), naturally occurring mineral chrysotile asbestos and carbonaceous nanoparticulate materials such as multiwall carbon nanotube aggregates and black carbon aggregates. The nanomaterials were characterized by TEM, as the primary particles, aggregates or long fiber dimensions ranged from 2nm to 20microm. Cytotoxicological assays of these nanomaterials were performed utilizing a murine alveolar macrophage cell line and human macrophage and epithelial lung cell lines as comparators. The nanoparticulate materials exhibited varying degrees of cytoxicity for all cell lines and the general trends were similar for both the murine and human macrophage cell lines. These findings suggest that representative cytotoxic responses for humans might be obtained by nanoparticulate exposures to simple murine macrophage cell line assays. Moreover, these results illustrate the utility in performing rapid in vitro assays for cytotoxicity assessments of nanoparticulate materials as a general inquiry of potential respiratory health risks in humans. PMID:17275430

  11. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma cell-25 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and determination of percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle by flow cytometry: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Magadi, Visveswaraiah Paranjyothi; Ravi, Venkatadasappa; Arpitha, Anantharaju; Litha; Kumaraswamy, Kikkerilakshminarayana; Manjunath, Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignancies constitute a wide variety of disorders having high mortality and morbidity rates. Current protocols for management include surgical intervention, chemotherapy, and radiation which possess numerous adverse effects. Many phytochemicals are available with anticancer properties similar to anticancer drugs. Major benefit of these compounds is apparent lack of toxicity to normal tissues. Graviola (botanical name: Annona Muricata) contain bioactive compound “annonaceous acetogenins” known for anticancer activity on cancer cell lines. Aims: To determine cytotoxicity of Graviola and percentage cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle. Settings and Design: The cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-25) cell lines at various concentrations evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The percentage of SCC-25 cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle determined using flow cytometry. Methods: Graviola Leaves, American Type Culture Collection SCC-25 cell lines were procured from Skanda Laboratories, Bengaluru. The cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola on SCC-25 cells at various concentrations evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage of SCC-25 cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle determined using flow cytometry. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA. Results: MTT assay showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) dose-dependent inhibition of SCC-25 cell lines by Graviola with IC50 value of 12.42 μg/ml. Flow cytometry revealed that Graviola at 25 and 50 g/ml arrested 53.39% and 52.09% cells in G2M phase of cell cycle respectively, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Graviola showed significant cytotoxic activity and percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase cell cycle against SCC-25 cell lines. PMID:26681860

  12. An enzyme-linked immuno focus assay for rapid detection and enumeration, and a newborn mouse model for human non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Rao, C Durga; Reddy, Harikrishna; Naidu, Jagadish R; Raghavendra, A; Radhika, N S; Karande, Anjali

    2015-11-01

    We have recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute and persistent diarrhea (18-21% of total diarrheal cases), and non-diarrheal Increased Frequency of Bowel Movements (IFoBM-ND) (about 29% of the NPEV infections) in children and that the NPEV-associated diarrhea was as significant as rotavirus diarrhea. However, their diarrhea-causing potential is yet to be demonstrated in an animal model system. Since the determination of virus titers by the traditional plaque assay takes 4-7 days, there is a need for development of a rapid method for virus titer determination to facilitate active clinical research on enterovirus-associated diarrhea. The goal of this study is to develop a cell-based rapid detection and enumeration method and to demonstrate the diarrhea-inducing potential of purified and characterized non-polio enteroviruses, which were isolated from diarrheic children. Here we describe generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against purified strains belonging to different serotypes, and development of an enzyme-linked immuno focus assay (ELIFA) for detection and enumeration of live NPEV particles in clinical and purified virus samples, and a newborn mouse model for NPEV diarrhea. Plaque-purified NPVEs, belonging to different serotypes, isolated from children with diarrhea, were grown in cell culture and purified by isopycnic CsCl density gradient centrifugation. By ELIFA, NPEVs could be detected and enumerated within 12h post-infection. Our results demonstrated that Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and CVB5 strains, isolated from diarrheic children, induced severe diarrhea in orally-inoculated 9-12 day-old mouse pups, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The methods described here would facilitate studies on NPEV-associated gastrointestinal disease. PMID:26300372

  13. Demonstrating approaches to chemically modify the surface of Ag nanoparticles in order to influence their cytotoxicity and biodistribution after single dose acute intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chengfang; Brunelli, Andrea; Zhu, Conghui; Hristozov, Danail; Liu, Ying; Semenzin, Elena; Wang, Wenwen; Tao, Wuqun; Liang, Jingnan; Marcomini, Antonio; Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    With the advance in material science and the need to diversify market applications, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are modified by different surface coatings. However, how these surface modifications influence the effects of AgNPs on human health is still largely unknown. We have evaluated the uptake, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of AgNPs coated with citrate, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrolidone and branched polyethyleneimine (Citrate AgNPs, PEG AgNPs, PVP AgNPs and BPEI AgNPs, respectively). Our results demonstrated that the toxicity of AgNPs depends on the intracellular localization that was highly dependent on the surface charge. BPEI AgNPs (ζ potential = +46.5 mV) induced the highest cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation in Hepa1c1c7. In addition, it showed the highest damage to the nucleus of liver cells in the exposed mice, which is associated with a high accumulation in liver tissues. The PEG AgNPs (ζ potential = -16.2 mV) showed the cytotoxicity, a long blood circulation, as well as bioaccumulation in spleen (34.33 µg/g), which suggest better biocompatibility compared to the other chemically modified AgNPs. Moreover, the adsorption ability with bovine serum albumin revealed that the PEG surface of AgNPs has an optimal biological inertia and can effectively resist opsonization or non-specific binding to protein in mice. The overall results indicated that the biodistribution of AgNPs was significantly dependent on surface chemistry: BPEI AgNPs > Citrate AgNPs = PVP AgNPs > PEG AgNPs. This toxicological data could be useful in supporting the development of safe AgNPs for consumer products and drug delivery applications. PMID:25962681

  14. Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

  15. Recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus in SARS patients.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ming; Chen, Hsiao Ying; Foo, Shen Yun; Tan, Yee-Joo; Goh, Phuay-Yee; Wee, Shock Hwa

    2004-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients were developed by utilizing the well-characterized recombinant proteins Gst-N and Gst-U274. The ELISA detected IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV in all 74 convalescent-phase samples from SARS patients while weakly cross-reacting to only 1 of the 210 control sera from healthy donors. This finding thus led to a kit sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100, 99.5, and 99.6%, respectively. The test thus provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 98.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In addition, the ELISA gave a positive delta of 5.4 and a negative delta of 3.6, indicating an excellent differentiation between positives and negatives. The same recombinant proteins were also applied to a newly developed platform for the development of a 15-min rapid test. The resulting rapid test has an excellent agreement of 99.6%, with a kappa value of 1.00, with the ELISA. Again, this rapid test was able to detect 100% of the samples tested (n = 42) while maintaining a specificity of 99.0% (n = 210). The PPV and NPV for the rapid test thus reached 95.3 and 100%, respectively. PMID:15013977

  16. Assaying Pharmacodynamic Endpoints with Targeted Therapy: Flavopiridol and 17AAG Induced Dephosphorylation of Histone H1.5 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liwen; Harshman, Sean W.; Liu, Shujun; Ren, Chen; Xu, Hua; Sallans, Larry; Grever, Michael; Byrd, John C.; Marcucci, Guido; Freitas, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Histone H1 is commonly used to assay kinase activity in vitro. As many promising targeted therapies affect kinase activity of specific enzymes involved in cancer transformation, H1 phosphorylation can serve as potential pharmacodynamic marker for drug activity within the cell. In this report we utilized a phosphoproteomic workflow to characterize histone H1 phosphorylation changes associated with two targeted therapies in the Kasumi-1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cell line. The phosphoproteomic workflow was first validated with standard casein phosphoproteins and then applied to the direct analysis of histone H1 from Kasumi-1 nuclear lysates. Ten H1 phosphorylation sites were identified on the H1 variants, H1.2, H1.3, H1.4, H1.5 and H1.x. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry profiling of intact H1s demonstrated global dephosphorylation of H1.5 associated with therapy by the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, and the Hsp90 inhibitor, 17AAG (17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin). In contrast, independent treatments with a nucleotide analog, proteosome inhibitor and histone deacetylase inhibitor did not exhibit decreased H1.5 phosphorylation. The data presented herein demonstrate that potential of histones to assess the cellular response of reagents that have direct and indirect effects on kinase activity that alters histone phosphorylation. As such, this approach may be a highly informative marker for response to targeted therapies influencing histone phosphorylation. PMID:21110323

  17. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joan E. Wielgus, Albert R. Boyes, William K. Andley, Usha Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-04-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 {mu}M. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 {mu}M fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 {mu}M lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein {alpha}-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo.

  18. Acute exercise preferentially redeploys NK-cells with a highly-differentiated phenotype and augments cytotoxicity against lymphoma and multiple myeloma target cells. Part II: impact of latent cytomegalovirus infection and catecholamine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bigley, Austin B; Rezvani, Katayoun; Pistillo, Mira; Reed, Justin; Agha, Nadia; Kunz, Hawley; O'Connor, Daniel P; Sekine, Takuya; Bollard, Catherine M; Simpson, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    We showed previously that acute exercise is associated with a preferential redeployment of highly-differentiated NK-cells and increased cytotoxicity against HLA-expressing tumor cell lines during exercise recovery. In this part II study, we retrospectively analyzed these findings in the context of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and performed additional experiments to explore potential mechanisms underpinning the marked reduction in NK-cell redeployment with exercise in CMV-seropositive individuals. We show here that latent CMV infection impairs NK-cell mobilization with exercise, only when the intensity of the exercise bout exceeds the individual blood lactate threshold (BLT). This impaired mobilization is associated with increased proportions of poorly exercise-responsive NK-cell subsets (NKG2C+/KIR-, NKG2C+/NKG2A-, and NKG2C+/CD57+) and decreased NK-cell β(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) expression in those with CMV. As a result, NK-cell production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in response to in vitro isoproterenol (synthetic β-agonist) stimulation was drastically lower in those with CMV (6.0 vs. 20.3pmol/mL, p<0.001) and correlated highly with the proportion of NKG2C+/CD57+ NK-cells (R(2)=0.97). Moreover, NK-cell cytotoxic activity (NKCA) against the K562 (36.6% vs. 22.7%, p<0.05), U266 (23.6% vs. 15.9%, p<0.05), and 221.AEH (41.3% vs. 13.3%, p<0.001) cell lines was increased at baseline in those infected with CMV; however, latent CMV infection abated the post-exercise increase in NKCA as a result of decreased NK-cell mobilization. Additionally, NKCA per cell against the U266 (0.24 vs. 0.12, p<0.01), RPMI-8226 (0.17 vs. 0.11, p<0.05), and 221.AEH (0.18 vs. 0.11, p<0.05) cell lines was increased 1h post-exercise (relative to baseline) in CMV-seronegative subjects, but not in those infected with CMV. Collectively, these data indicate that latent CMV infection may compromise NK-cell mediated immunosurveillance after acute exercise due to an increased proportion of

  19. Production of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B from callus culture of Salvia miltiorrhiza with cytotoxicity towards acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Karioti, Anastasia; Rohr, Doris; Bilia, Anna Rita; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) Bunge is one of the widely-used Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, the chemical constituents and anticancer potential of SM stems and leaves were examined with those of respective callus cultures. The callus culture for stem and leaf explants was initiated in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Active constituents of respective extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD and MS (HPLC-DAD-MS). Rosmarinic acid (RA) and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were determined to be the main phenolic compounds. Quantitative analyses revealed that callus stem extracts produced higher amount of RA and Sal B (stem RA: 1.27±0.38%; stem Sal B: 0.87±0.20%) than callus leaf did (leaf RA: 0.28±0.02%; leaf Sal B: 0.07±0.03%). Stem and leaf callus extracts exerted cytotoxic effects towards CCRF-CEM cells (stem: 13.1±0.90 μg/ml; leaf: 18.1±0.33 μg/ml). As expected, stem extract with higher amount of RA and Sal B showed lower IC50 value than leaf extract. These findings suggest the possibility to isolate bioactive constituents with anticancer properties from in vitro callus cultures of stems and leaves of SM. PMID:26868579

  20. Cytotoxicity of halogenated graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Khim Chng, Elaine Lay; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Graphene and its family of derivatives possess unique and remarkable physicochemical properties which make them valuable materials for applications in many areas like electronics, energy storage and biomedicine. In response to the possibility of its large-scale manufacturing as commercial products in the future, an investigation was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity of one particular family of graphene derivatives, the halogenated graphenes, for the first time. Halogenated graphenes were prepared through thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in gaseous chlorine, bromine or iodine atmospheres to yield chlorine- (TRGO-Cl), bromine- (TRGO-Br) and iodine-doped graphene (TRGO-I) respectively. 24 h exposure of human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) to the three halogenated graphenes and subsequent cell viability assessments using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays revealed that all the halogenated graphenes examined are rather cytotoxic at the concentrations tested (3.125 μg mL-1 to 200 μg mL-1) and the effects are dose-dependent, with TRGO-Cl reducing the cell viability to as low as 25.7% at the maximum concentration of 200 μg mL-1. Their levels of cytotoxicity can be arranged in the order of TRGO-Cl > TRGO-Br > TRGO-I, and it is suggested that the amount of halogen present in the graphene material is the determining factor for the observed trend. Control experiments were carried out to test for possible nanomaterial-induced interference as a consequence of reaction between the halogenated graphenes and the viability markers (MTT/WST-8 reagent) or binding of the formazan products under cell-free conditions. The data obtained eliminate the probability of significant influence by these interferents as the change in the normalized percentage of formazan formed is relatively small and thorough washings were performed prior to the viability assessments to reduce the amount of halogenated

  1. The effects of ryanodine receptor (RYR1) mutation on natural killer cell cytotoxicity, plasma cytokines and stress hormones during acute intermittent exercise in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Borman, A; Myślińska, D; Pałczyńska, P; Kamyczek, M

    2016-04-01

    Stress susceptibility has been mapped to a single recessive gene, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene or halothane (Hal) gene. Homozygous (Hal(nn)), mutated pigs are sensitive to halothane and susceptible to Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS). Previous studies have shown that stress-susceptible RYR1 gene mutated homozygotes in response to restraint stress showed an increase in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) accompanied by more pronounced stress-related hormone and anti-inflammatory cytokine changes. In order to determine the relationship of a RYR1 gene mutation with NKCC, plasma cytokines and stress-related hormones following a different stress model - exercise - 36 male pigs (representing different genotypes according to RYR1 gene mutation: NN, homozygous dominant; Nn, heterozygous; nn, homozygous recessive) were submitted to an intermittent treadmill walking. During the entire experiment the greatest level of NKCC and the greatest concentrations of interleukin (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN-)γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and stress-related hormones (adrenaline, prolactin, beta-endorphin) were observed in nn pigs, and the greatest concentration of IL-1 and growth hormone in NN pigs. Immunostimulatory effects of intermittent exercise on NKCC in nn pigs were concomitant with increases in IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ, the potent NKCC activators. Our findings suggest that stress-susceptible pigs RYR1 gene mutated pigs develop a greater level of NKCC and cytokine production in response to exercise stress. These results suggest that the heterogeneity of immunological and neuroendocrine response to exercise stress in pigs could be influenced by RYR1 gene mutation. PMID:27033913

  2. Cytotoxicity of ferrite particles by MTT and agar diffusion methods for hyperthermic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Se-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Shim, In-Bo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of the prepared various ferrites (Fe-, Li-, Ni/Zn/Cu-, Ba-, Sr-, Co-, Co/Ni-ferrites) using MTT assay as well as agar diffusion method. Their cytotoxicity was compared with that of alginate-encapsulated ferrites. In the MTT assay, Fe 3O 4 and SrFe 12O 19 ferrite showed the highest cell viability of 90%. Alginate-encapsulated Ba-ferrite was ranked mildly cytotoxic, whereas their ferrite particles were ranked cytotoxic.

  3. Individual and combined cytotoxic effects of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins B1) on swine jejunal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lam Yim Murphy; Turner, Paul C; El-Nezami, Hani

    2013-07-01

    Fusarium mycotoxins occur worldwide in foods such as cereals and animal forages, leading to acute and chronic exposures in human and animals. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are an important first target site for these dietary toxins. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of four common Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on a normal porcine jejunal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. A dose response relationship between individual mycotoxins and cell viability (MTT assay) was initially investigated, and subsequently cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic concentrations were selected to investigate combinations of two, three and all four of the mycotoxins. For individual mycotoxins, a dose response was observed with cell viability, such that the potency ranking was NIV>DON>ZEA>FB1. At cytotoxic doses of individual mycotoxins, all mixtures gave reduced cell viability compared to control. At noncytotoxic concentrations of individual mycotoxins, all mixtures were cytotoxic with DON-NIV, DON-ZEA, DON-NIV-FB1, DON-ZEA-FB1, NIV-ZEA-FB1 and all four mixed causing the greatest loss of cell viability. The latter observation in particular raises concerns over safety margins based on single toxin species, and suggests that the effects of multiple complex mixtures need to be better understood to assess health risks. PMID:23562706

  4. Modification of sphingolipid metabolism by tamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen in acute myelogenous leukemia – Impact on enzyme activity and response to cytotoxics

    PubMed Central

    Morad, Samy A. F.; Tan, Su-Fern; Feith, David J.; Kester, Mark; Claxton, David F.; Loughran, Thomas P.; Barth, Brian M.; Fox, Todd E.; Cabot, Myles C.

    2015-01-01

    The triphenylethylene antiestrogen, tamoxifen, can be an effective inhibitor of sphingolipid metabolism. This off-target activity makes tamoxifen an interesting ancillary for boosting the apoptosis-inducing properties of ceramide, a sphingolipid with valuable tumor censoring activity. Here we show for the first time that tamoxifen and metabolite, N –desmethyltamoxifen (DMT) block ceramide glycosylation and inhibit ceramide hydrolysis (by acid ceramidase, AC) in human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell lines and in AML cells derived from patients. Tamoxifen (1-10 μM) inhibition of AC in AML cells was accompanied by decreases in AC protein expression. Tamoxifen also depressed expression and activity of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme catalyzing production of mitogenic sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1-P). Results from mass spectroscopy showed that tamoxifen and DMT, i ) increased the levels of endogenous C16:0- and C24:1 ceramide molecular species, ii) nearly totally halted production of respective glucosylceramide (GC) molecular species, iii ) drastically reduced levels of sphingosine ( to 9% of control), and iv ) reduced levels of S1-P by 85%, in vincristine-resistant HL-60/VCR cells. Co-administration of tamoxifen with either N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), a ceramide-generating retinoid, or a cell-deliverable form of ceramide, C6-ceramide, resulted in marked decreases in HL-60/VCR cell viability that far exceeded single agent potency. Combination treatments resulted in synergistic apoptotic cell death as gauged by increased Annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. These results show the versatility of adjuvant triphenylethylene with ceramide-centric therapies for magnifying therapeutic potential in AML. Such drug regimens could serve as effective strategies, even in the multidrug resistant setting. PMID:25769964

  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae induces cytotoxic activity in guinea pig bronchoalveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kist, M.; Koester, H.; Bredt, W.

    1985-06-01

    Precultured guinea pig alveolar macrophages (AM) and freshly harvested alveolar cells (FHAC) activated by interaction with Mycoplasma pneumoniae were cytotoxic for xenogeneic /sup 75/selenomethionine-labeled tumor target cells. Phagocytosis of whole opsonized or nonopsonized M. pneumoniae cells was more effective in eliciting cytotoxicity than uptake of sonicated microorganisms. The addition of living mycoplasma cells to the assay system enhanced the cytotoxic effect considerably. Target cells were significantly more susceptible to the cytotoxic action of phagocytes if they were coated with mycoplasma antigen or cocultured together with M. pneumoniae. The activation of the phagocytes could be inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by antimicrobial substances suppressing mycoplasma protein synthesis. It was accompanied by /sup 51/Cr release without detectable signs of cell damage. The supernatants of activated cells were cytotoxic for approximately 24 h. Inhibition, release, and cytotoxic activity indicate the necessity of an intact metabolism of the effector cells and suggest a secretion of cytotoxic substances.

  6. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the compounds from Euphorbia kansui.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W F; Cui, Z; Zhu, Q

    1998-12-01

    Eleven compounds including four triterpenes, one sterol, and six diterpenes from E kansui had been assayed for their cytotoxicity and activiral activity. The relations between structures and bioactivities have also been noted. PMID:9933994

  7. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in clinical sputum specimens of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chuanhui; Cui, Jian; Bai, Wei; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the application of LAMP for rapid diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in clinical sputum specimens of AECOPD as compared with conventional sputum culturing method. 120 sputum specimens of AECOPD patients, 46 sputum specimens of healthy controls, as well as 166 serum specimens as negative controls, were evaluated by LAMP assay using primers of eight typical respiratory pathogens. No cross-reactivity was observed in these negative control species using LAMP assay. The lower detection limit of LAMP assay was approximately 103 copies. 25 cases (20.8%) were detected at least one positive bacteria species by conventional sputum culturing method, while 73 cases (60.8%) were tested positive in LAMP assay. Moreover, compared with sputum culture, bacterial titers results of LAMP assay were more consistent with FEV1/FVC value of AECOPD patients. These results indicated that the sensitivity of LAMP assay was significantly higher than that of sputum culturing method. PMID:26221344

  8. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6 mg mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5 mg mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3 mg mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08 mg mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  10. Antimicrobial activity against periodontopathogenic bacteria, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of various extracts from endemic Thermopsis turcica

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Açık, Leyla; Akca, Gülçin; Sarper, Meral; Elçi, Mualla Pınar; Avcu, Ferit; Vural, Mecit

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial potential of Thermopsis turcica Kit Tan, Vural & Küçüködük against periodontopathogenic bacteria, its antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on various cancer cell lines. Methods In vitro antimicrobial activities of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate (EtAc), n-hexane and water extracts of Thermopsis turcica herb against periodontopathogenic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 and Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 were tested by agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antioxidant properties of the extracts were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching methods. Amounts of phenolic contents of the extracts were also analysed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of the extracts on androgen-insensitive prostate cancer, androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia human cancer cell lines were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Human gingival fibroblast cells were used as a control. Results Our data showed that EtAc extract had the highest antimicrobial effect on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (MIC: 1.562 mg/mL, MBC: 3.124 mg/mL) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (MIC: 0.781 mg/mL, MBC: 1.562 mg/mL). In antioxidant assays, EtAc extract exhibited also the highest radical scavenging activity [IC50=(30.0±0.3) µg/mL] and the highest inhibition [(74.35±0.30)%] against lineloic acide oxidation. The amount of phenolic content of it was also the highest [(162.5±1.2) µg/mg gallic acid]. In cytotoxic assay, only ethanol [IC50=(80.00±1.21) µg/mL] and EtAc extract [IC50=(70.0±0.9) µg/mL] were toxic on acute promyelocytic leukemia cells at 20-100 µg/mL (P<0.05). However, no toxic effect was observed on human gingival fibroblast cells

  11. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of bortezomib and CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: turning off the prosurvival ER chaperone BIP/Grp78 and turning on the pro-apoptotic NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Buontempo, Francesca; Orsini, Ester; Lonetti, Annalisa; Cappellini, Alessandra; Chiarini, Francesca; Evangelisti, Camilla; Evangelisti, Cecilia; Melchionda, Fraia; Pession, Andrea; Bertaina, Alice; Locatelli, Franco; Bertacchini, Jessika; Neri, Luca Maria; McCubrey, James A.; Martelli, Alberto Maria

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is a new targeted treatment option for refractory or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. However, a limited efficacy of bortezomib alone has been reported. A terminal pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) is one of the several mechanisms of bortezomib-induced apoptosis. Recently, it has been documented that UPR disruption could be considered a selective anti-leukemia therapy. CX-4945, a potent casein kinase (CK) 2 inhibitor, has been found to induce apoptotic cell death in T-ALL preclinical models, via perturbation of ER/UPR pathway. In this study, we analyzed in T- and B-ALL preclinical settings, the molecular mechanisms of synergistic apoptotic effects observed after bortezomib/CX-4945 combined treatment. We demonstrated that, adding CX-4945 after bortezomib treatment, prevented leukemic cells from engaging a functional UPR in order to buffer the bortezomib-mediated proteotoxic stress in ER lumen. We documented that the combined treatment decreased pro-survival ER chaperon BIP/Grp78 expression, via reduction of chaperoning activity of Hsp90. Bortezomib/CX-4945 treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in T-ALL cell lines and primary cells from T-ALL patients, but, intriguingly, in B-ALL cells the drug combination activated NF-κB p65 pro-apoptotic functions. In fact in B-cells, the combined treatment induced p65-HDAC1 association with consequent repression of the anti-apoptotic target genes, Bcl-xL and XIAP. Exposure to NEMO (IKKγ)-binding domain inhibitor peptide reduced the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib/CX-4945 treatment. Overall, our findings demonstrated that CK2 inhibition could be useful in combination with bortezomib as a novel therapeutic strategy in both T- and B-ALL. PMID:26593250

  12. Morphine Attenuated the Cytotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Khedri, Mostafa; Jahanabadi, Samane; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an efficient drug for the treatment of the patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptosis, attenuation of migration, and induction of differentiation in tumor cells are the main mechanisms through which ATO acts against APL. Despite advantages of ATO in treatment of some malignancies, certain harmful side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, have been reported. It has been well documented that morphine has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties and is able to attenuate cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of morphine against ATO toxicity in H9c2 myocytes using multi-parametric assay including thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase 3 activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation assay, and expression of apoptotic markers. Our results showed that morphine (1 μM) attenuated cytotoxicity induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Results of this study suggest that morphine may have protective properties in management of cardiac toxicity in patients who receive ATO as an anti-cancer treatment. PMID:26815588

  13. Challenges in detecting pre-malignant pancreatic lesions during acute pancreatitis using a serum microRNA assay: a study based on KrasG12D transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiafei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Wenze; Ye, Adam Yongxin; Song, Wei; Dai, Hongmei; Wang, Xianze; Wu, Fan; You, Lei; Wu, Wenming; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis accelerates the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in a pancreas-specific KrasG12D mouse model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether serum microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as sensitive biomarkers to detect occult PanIN in the setting of acute pancreatitis. Serum miRNA profiles were quantified by an array-based method and normalized by both Variance Stabilization Normalization (VSN) and invariant methods. Individual miRNAs were validated by TaqMan real-time PCR with synthetic spike-in C. elegans miRNAs as external controls. Serum miRNA profiles distinguished KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice without pancreatitis, but failed to differentiate KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Most individual miRNAs that increased in KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis were not significantly different between KrasG12D mice without pancreatitis and wild-type mice without pancreatitis. Mechanistically, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) of the mRNA array data and immunohistochemical assays showed that caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis involved acinar cell loss and immune cell infiltration, which might contribute to serum miRNA profile changes. This study highlighted the challenges in using sensitive serum miRNA biomarker screening for the early detection of pancreatic malignancies during acute pancreatitis. PMID:27009811

  14. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Helena; Runesson, Johan; Lundqvist, Jessica; Lindegren, Helene; Axelsson, Viktoria; Forsby, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  15. Coupling cytotoxicity biomarkers with DNA damage assessment in TK6 human lymphoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Springer, Sandra; Escobar, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    There is considerable discussion within the scientific community as to the appropriate measures of cytotoxicity to use when deciding on the maximum concentration of a substance to test in vitro for its ability to induce DNA damage using the Comet assay. Conventional cytotoxicity assessment methods, such as trypan blue dye exclusion or relative cell number (cell counts) may not be the most biologically relevant measurement for cytotoxicity in this assay. Thus, we evaluated for decreased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and activation of Caspase-3/7 as well as relative cell number and trypan blue exclusion in order to understand the correlation among test compound concentration, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity outcomes in the Comet assay. We tested two non-genotoxic and non-cytotoxic compounds (d-glucose and ethanol), two non-genotoxic but cytotoxic compounds (2,4-dichlorophenol and tunicamycin) and four genotoxic and cytotoxic compounds (methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, etoposide and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide) in TK6 human lymphoblast cells. Our data show that measuring ATP and Caspase-3/7 levels provides more rapid and perhaps more biologically relevant measures of cytotoxicity compared with trypan blue dye exclusion and relative cell number. Furthermore, incorporating these two assays into the Comet assay also provided insight on the cytotoxic mode of action of the chemicals tested. By extrapolation, such assays may also be useful in other in vitro genotoxicity assays. PMID:20100597

  16. The cytotoxicity study of praziquantel enantiomers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Mao, Ruifeng; Wang, Dongling; Hu, Changyan; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Dequn

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is prescribed as a racemic mixture (racemic-PZQ, rac-PZQ), which is composed of (R)-PZQ and (S)-PZQ. In this work, the cytotoxicity of rac-PZQ and its two enantiomers (R)-PZQ and (S)-PZQ on eight cell lines (L-02, HepG2, prf-plc-5, SH-SY5Y, HUVEC, A549, HCT-15, Raw264.7) was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphe-nyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. The morphology of apoptotic cells was studied by fluorescence microscope using Hoechst 33342 staining, and the cytotoxicity of the compounds was also tested by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Results revealed that (R)-PZQ had negligible cytotoxicity against L-02, SH-SY5Y, HUVEC, A549, HCT-15, and Raw264.7 cells but selectively inhibited tumor cell lines (prf-plc-5 and HepG2). However, in contrast to (R)-PZQ, the (S)-isomer showed higher cytotoxicity against L-02 cells and lower inhibition on prf-plc-5 and HepG2 cells. Besides, (R)-PZQ showed lower cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y cells than (S)-PZQ. Meanwhile, (R)-PZQ at <80 μM concentration could promote proliferation of macrophage cells (Raw264.7). Our research revealed that (R)-PZQ has lower cytotoxicity than (S)-PZQ and has similar cytotoxicity with rac-PZQ. (S)-PZQ is the principal enantiomer to cause side effects on human definitive hosts. These findings gave the reasonable reasons for World Health Organization to produce (R)-PZQ as a replacement for rac-PZQ for the treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:27445457

  17. The cytotoxicity study of praziquantel enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Mao, Ruifeng; Wang, Dongling; Hu, Changyan; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Dequn

    2016-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is prescribed as a racemic mixture (racemic-PZQ, rac-PZQ), which is composed of (R)-PZQ and (S)-PZQ. In this work, the cytotoxicity of rac-PZQ and its two enantiomers (R)-PZQ and (S)-PZQ on eight cell lines (L-02, HepG2, prf-plc-5, SH-SY5Y, HUVEC, A549, HCT-15, Raw264.7) was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphe-nyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. The morphology of apoptotic cells was studied by fluorescence microscope using Hoechst 33342 staining, and the cytotoxicity of the compounds was also tested by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Results revealed that (R)-PZQ had negligible cytotoxicity against L-02, SH-SY5Y, HUVEC, A549, HCT-15, and Raw264.7 cells but selectively inhibited tumor cell lines (prf-plc-5 and HepG2). However, in contrast to (R)-PZQ, the (S)-isomer showed higher cytotoxicity against L-02 cells and lower inhibition on prf-plc-5 and HepG2 cells. Besides, (R)-PZQ showed lower cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y cells than (S)-PZQ. Meanwhile, (R)-PZQ at <80 μM concentration could promote proliferation of macrophage cells (Raw264.7). Our research revealed that (R)-PZQ has lower cytotoxicity than (S)-PZQ and has similar cytotoxicity with rac-PZQ. (S)-PZQ is the principal enantiomer to cause side effects on human definitive hosts. These findings gave the reasonable reasons for World Health Organization to produce (R)-PZQ as a replacement for rac-PZQ for the treatment of schistosomiasis. PMID:27445457

  18. T cell-mediated hepatitis in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Liver cell destruction by H-2 class I-restricted virus-specific cytotoxic T cells as a physiological correlate of the /sup 51/Cr-release assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkernagel, R.M.; Haenseler, E.; Leist, T.; Cerny, A.; Hengartner, H.; Althage, A.

    1986-10-01

    A model for immunologically T cell-mediated hepatitis was established in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of hepatitis was monitored histologically and by determination of changes in serum levels of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Kinetics of histological disease manifestations, increases of liver enzyme levels in the serum, and cytotoxic T cell activities in livers and spleens all correlated and were dependent upon several parameters: LCMV-isolate; LCMV-WE caused extensive hepatitis, LCMV-Armstrong virtually none. Virus dose. Route of infection; i.v. or i.p. infection caused hepatitis, whereas infection into the footpad did not. The general genetic background of the murine host; of the strains tested, Swiss mice and A-strain mice were more susceptible than C57BL or CBA mice; BALB/c and DBA/2 mice were least susceptible. The degree of immunocompetence of the murine host; T cell deficient nu/nu mice never developed hepatitis, whereas nu/+ or +/+ mice always did. B cell-depleted anti-IgM-treated mice developed immune-mediated hepatitis comparably or even more extensively than control mice. Local cytotoxic T cell activity; mononuclear cells isolated from livers during the period of overt hepatitis were two to five times more active than equal numbers of spleen cells. Adoptive transfer of nylon wool-nonadherent anti-Thy-1.2 and anti-Lyt-2 plus C-sensitive, anti-L3T4 plus C-resistant lymphocytes into irradiated mice preinfected with LCMV-WE caused a rapid time- and dose-dependent linear increase of serum enzyme levels. This increase was caused by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes if immune cell donors and recipient mice shared class I, but not when they shared class II histocompatibility antigens.

  19. Cytotoxic activities of several geranyl-substituted flavanones.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Karel; Svacinová, Jana; Slapetová, Tereza; Schneiderová, Kristýna; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Závalová, Veronika; Kollár, Peter; Chudík, Stanislav; Marek, Radek; Julínek, Ondrej; Urbanová, Marie; Kartal, Murat; Csöllei, Marek; Dolezal, Karel

    2010-04-23

    Nine geranylated flavanones isolated from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa (4-12) and two from the roots of Morus alba (13 and 14) were examined for cytotoxicity to selected human cancer cell lines and normal human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was determined in vitro using a calcein AM cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity for the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cell line was tested using erythrosin B cell staining. The geranylated compounds tested were compared with the known simple flavanone standards taxifolin (1), naringenin (2), and hesperetin (3) and with the standard anticancer drugs olomoucine II, diaziquone, and oxaliplatin and the antineoplastic compound camptothecin, and showed different levels of cytotoxicity. The effects of structural changes on cytotoxic activity, including geranyl substitution of the flavanone skeleton and the oxidation pattern of ring B of the flavanones, are discussed. PMID:20192247

  20. Human gamma interferon production by cytotoxic T lymphocytes sensitized during hepatitis A virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, K.; Gabriel, P.; Koscielniak, E.; Stierhof, Y.D.; Wiedmann, K.H.; Flehmig, B.; Vallbracht, A.

    1988-10-01

    The production of interferon (IFN) during a chromium-51 release assay with hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected fibroblasts and autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with acute HAV infection was studied to determine whether IFN plays a role in immunopathogenesis of hepatitis A infection in humans. Skin fibroblasts of eight patients after acute HAV infection and from two control persons without history of current of past HAV infection were infected with HAV. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected at different times after the onset of icterus and tested in a chromium-51 release assay against autologous HAV-infected skin fibroblasts for their cytolytic and IFN-producing activity. The IFN produced during the assay was characterized and found to have the properties of human gamma IFN. Cytotoxicity and gamma IFN release were virus specific. The cell types responsible for both functions were characterized and found to be in the HLA-dependent T8/sup +/ lymphocyte subset. Considering that gamma IFN has an antiviral effect on persistent HAV infection in vitro and that it probably accounts for stimulation of HLA class I antigen expression on hepatocytes, these experimental results presented here demonstrate that human gamma IFN produced by HAV-specific T cells may participate in pathogenesis of hepatitis A infection in humans.

  1. Arsenic trioxide enhances the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    KOTOWSKI, ULANA; HEIDUSCHKA, GREGOR; BRUNNER, MARKUS; EROVIC, BOBAN M.; MARTINEK, HELGA; THURNHER, DIETMAR

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved for the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukaemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether ATO would lead to cell death in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and whether it was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, a standard chemotherapeutic agent. The four HNSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25, CAL27 and FADU were treated with ATO or cisplatin alone or with ATO and cisplatin in combination. Cytotoxicity assays, immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and flow cytometry were carried out. Possible interactions between the two drugs were calculated using the Chou-Talalay equation. Ther results demonstrated a synergistic cytotoxic effect of the combination of ATO and cisplatin at high doses. The two agents induced apoptosis in all four HNSCC cell lines. In conclusion, this study showed that ATO is a promising therapeutic drug with cytotoxic effects in HNSCC. We demonstrated a synergistic effect in the combined treatment with cisplatin at high doses. PMID:22783443

  2. Essential Oil Composition, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys Growing Spontaneously in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Saoussen; Jmii, Habib; El Mokni, Ridha; Khmiri, Abdelbaki; Faidi, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Hatem; El Aouni, Mohamed Hédi; Aouni, Mahjoub; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiviral activities of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Teucrium pseudochamaepitys (Lamiaceae) collected from Zaghouan province of Tunisia are reported. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-one compounds were identified representing 88.6% of the total essential oil. Hexadecanoic acid was found to be the most abundant component (26.1%) followed by caryophyllene oxide (6.3%), myristicin (4.9%) and α-cubebene (3.9%). The antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured on the basis of the scavenging activity to the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The IC50 value of the oil was evaluated as 0.77 mg·mL(-1). In addition, the essential oil was found to possess moderate cytotoxic effects on the HEp-2 cell line (50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50)=653.6 µg·mL(-1)). The potential antiviral effect was tested against Coxsackievirus B (CV-B), a significant human and mouse pathogen that causes pediatric central nervous system disease, commonly with acute syndromes. The reduction of viral infectivity by the essential oil was measured using a cytopathic (CPE) reduction assay. PMID:26580590

  3. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects of novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Humeniuk, Rita; Kaczmarek, Lukasz; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Cellular effects of novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were studied. These compounds are synthetic analogs of plant alkaloid neocryptolepine (5-methyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) present in extracts from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. They are traditionally used in natural medicine in Central and West Africa. Previous molecular and computational studies indicated that these compounds were DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II. We have extended our studies on their mode of action to the cellular level. Past experiments have shown that these compounds were active in vitro against cell lines derived from solid tumors, so for the present studies we selected leukemic cell lines. Jurkat acute T cell, CCRF-CEM T lymphoblastoid, THP-1 acute monocytic, HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemias, and HL-60/MX2 subline with reduced expression of topoisomerase II were used. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects of the indolo[2,3-b]quinoline compounds. We also tested if these compounds were able to induce apoptosis in the cells. Our studies revealed that novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were more cytotoxic to all cell lines than etoposide (used as a reference topoisomerase II inhibitor), and that their cytotoxicity depended on the substituents introduced to the indolo[2,3-b]quinoline core. Surprisingly, our studies have shown that HL-60/MX2 cell line and also THP-1 cell line, resistant to etoposide, were susceptible to methyl- and methoxy-substituted indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives. In parallel to the evaluation of cytotoxicity we studied cell cycle effects of these compounds. Treatment of HL-60 cells with etoposide in subcytotoxic concentrations resulted in a massive accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. When we used subcytotoxic concentrations of our novel indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells was not affected. Moreover, the cell cycle of HL-60/MX2 cells was not influenced by

  4. Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B

    PubMed Central

    Shin, So Youn; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Jino; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute hepatitis A (AHA) and acute hepatitis B (AHB) are caused by an acute infection of the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus, respectively. In both AHA and AHB, liver injury is known to be mediated by immune cells and cytokines. In this study, we measured serum levels of various cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins in patients with AHA or AHB to identify liver injury-associated cytokines. Materials and Methods Forty-six patients with AHA, 16 patients with AHB, and 14 healthy adults were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of 17 cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cytometric bead arrays and analyzed for correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Results Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly elevated in both AHA and AHB. IL-6, IL-22, granzyme B, and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in AHA but not in AHB. In both AHA and AHB, the serum level of CXCL10 significantly correlated with the peak ALT level. Additionally, the serum level of granzyme B in AHA and the serum level of sFasL in AHB correlated with the peak ALT level. Conclusion We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis. PMID:26996565

  5. Diagnosis of Ureaplasma urealyticum Septic Polyarthritis by PCR Assay and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Galicier, Lionel; Wargnier, Alain; Pereyre, Sabine; Itzykson, Raphaël; Zouakh, Myriem; Bébéar, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of polyarthritis with axial involvement in a young female patient treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Detection in the hip fluid of Ureaplasma urealyticum by broad-range PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed the diagnosis of septic arthritis and ad integrum recovery upon adapted antibiotic therapy. PMID:24958801

  6. Diagnosis of ureaplasma urealyticum septic polyarthritis by PCR assay and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Balsat, Marie; Galicier, Lionel; Wargnier, Alain; Pereyre, Sabine; Itzykson, Raphaël; Zouakh, Myriem; Bébéar, Cécile; Boissel, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of polyarthritis with axial involvement in a young female patient treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Detection in the hip fluid of Ureaplasma urealyticum by broad-range PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry allowed the diagnosis of septic arthritis and ad integrum recovery upon adapted antibiotic therapy. PMID:24958801

  7. Prospective validation of a 1-hour algorithm to rule-out and rule-in acute myocardial infarction using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay

    PubMed Central

    Reichlin, Tobias; Twerenbold, Raphael; Wildi, Karin; Gimenez, Maria Rubini; Bergsma, Nathalie; Haaf, Philip; Druey, Sophie; Puelacher, Christian; Moehring, Berit; Freese, Michael; Stelzig, Claudia; Krivoshei, Lian; Hillinger, Petra; Jäger, Cedric; Herrmann, Thomas; Kreutzinger, Philip; Radosavac, Milos; Weidmann, Zoraida Moreno; Pershyna, Kateryna; Honegger, Ursina; Wagener, Max; Vuillomenet, Thierry; Campodarve, Isabel; Bingisser, Roland; Miró, Òscar; Rentsch, Katharina; Bassetti, Stefano; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to prospectively validate a novel 1-hour algorithm using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T measurement for early rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: In a multicentre study, we enrolled 1320 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute MI. The high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 1-hour algorithm, incorporating baseline values as well as absolute changes within the first hour, was validated against the final diagnosis. The final diagnosis was then adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including coronary angiography, echocardiography, follow-up data and serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels. Results: Acute MI was the final diagnosis in 17.3% of patients. With application of the high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 1-hour algorithm, 786 (59.5%) patients were classified as “rule-out,” 216 (16.4%) were classified as “rule-in” and 318 (24.1%) were classified to the “observational zone.” The sensitivity and the negative predictive value for acute MI in the rule-out zone were 99.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 97.6%–99.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.3%–100%), respectively. The specificity and the positive predictive value for acute MI in the rule-in zone were 95.7% (95% CI 94.3%–96.8%) and 78.2% (95% CI 72.1%–83.6%), respectively. The 1-hour algorithm provided higher negative and positive predictive values than the standard interpretation of highsensitivity cardiac troponin T using a single cut-off level (both p < 0.05). Cumulative 30-day mortality was 0.0%, 1.6% and 1.9% in patients classified in the rule-out, observational and rule-in groups, respectively (p = 0.001). Interpretation: This rapid strategy incorporating high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T baseline values and absolute changes within the first hour substantially accelerated the management of suspected acute MI by allowing safe rule-out as well as accurate

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  9. Optimal Cutoff and Accuracy of an IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand: an Alternative Reference Method to the IgM Immunofluorescence Assay.

    PubMed

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Lim, Cherry; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Kantipong, Pacharee; Richards, Allen L; Paris, Daniel H; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas P J

    2016-06-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased receiver operating characteristic curves and found that the sample dilution of 1:400 was optimal for the IgM ELISA. With the optimal cutoff OD of 1.474 at a sample dilution of 1:400, the IgM ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 77.4% to 86.7%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CrI, 97.2% to 100%) using paired samples. For the ELISA, the OD could be determined objectively and quickly, in contrast to the reading of IFA slides, which was both subjective and labor-intensive. The IgM ELISA for scrub typhus has high diagnostic accuracy and is less subjective than the IgM IFA. We suggest that the IgM ELISA may be used as an alternative reference test to the IgM IFA for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27008880

  10. Optimal Cutoff and Accuracy of an IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand: an Alternative Reference Method to the IgM Immunofluorescence Assay

    PubMed Central

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Kantipong, Pacharee; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased receiver operating characteristic curves and found that the sample dilution of 1:400 was optimal for the IgM ELISA. With the optimal cutoff OD of 1.474 at a sample dilution of 1:400, the IgM ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 77.4% to 86.7%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CrI, 97.2% to 100%) using paired samples. For the ELISA, the OD could be determined objectively and quickly, in contrast to the reading of IFA slides, which was both subjective and labor-intensive. The IgM ELISA for scrub typhus has high diagnostic accuracy and is less subjective than the IgM IFA. We suggest that the IgM ELISA may be used as an alternative reference test to the IgM IFA for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27008880

  11. Cytotoxic, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity effects of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pinhatti, Valéria Rodrigues; da Silva, Juliana; Martins, Tales Leandro Costa; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Rosa, Renato Moreira; Villela, Izabel; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; da Silva Santos, Selma; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Machado, Carlos Renato; Saffi, Jenifer; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have reported that guanylhydrazones display a variety of desirable biological properties, such as antihypertensive, antibacterial, and antimalarial behaviour. They furthermore promote anti-pneumocystosis and anti-trypanosomiasis, exhibit antitumor activity, and show significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. In this work, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of two guanylhydrazones derivatives, (E)-2-[(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazine carboxymidamide hydrochloride (2,3-DMeB) and (E)-2-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazine carboxymidamide hydrochloride (3,4-DMeB), in different biological models. Both 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB induce weak cytotoxic and mutagenic effects in bacteria and yeast. The genotoxicity of these compounds was determined in a fibroblast cell line (V79) using alkaline comet assay, as well as a modified comet assay with bacterial enzymes formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). Both guanylhydrazone derivatives induced DNA damage. Treatment of V79 cells with EndoIII and FPG proteins demonstrated a significant effect of 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB with respect to oxidized bases. In addition, the derivatives induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells at high doses. The antifungal and anti-trypanosomal properties of these guanylhydrazone derivatives were also evaluated, and the obtained results suggest that 2,3-DMeB is more effective than 3,4-DMeB. The biological activity of 2,3-DMeB and 3,4-DMeB may thus be related, at least in part, to their oxidative potential, as well as to their ability to interact with DNA. Considering the previously reported in vitro antitumor activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives in combination with the lack of acute toxicity and the fact that DNA damage is only observed at high doses should render both compounds good candidates for in vivo studies on antitumor activity. PMID:27476330

  12. Elimination of complement interference can improve the diagnostic performance of the VIDAS CMV IgG assay in acute cytomegalovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Berth, Mario; Willaert, Sofie

    2016-05-01

    In this study we showed that complement factors are responsible for assay interference in the VIDAS cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) assay. Three different serum treatments were applied to show the cause of interference: heat treatment (56 °C), adding cobra venom factor, and adding EDTA. Elimination of complement interference by EDTA treatment of serum was prospectively evaluated on 215 CMV IgM positive samples and a sensitivity increase of the VIDAS CMV IgG assay was noticed. On average the CMV IgG level increased 100% after EDTA treatment of the serum. In paired serum samples from 38 patients we could show that serum treatment with EDTA can make the CMV IgG level changes more obvious in recent CMV infections. Since the CMV IgG avidity II assay on VIDAS depends on the determination of CMV IgG, the CMV IgG avidity was also evaluated in this study but only a limited effect of the complement interference was observed. PMID:26971633

  13. Cytotoxic farnesyl glycosides from Pittosporum pancheri.

    PubMed

    Eparvier, Véronique; Thoison, Odile; Bousserouel, Hadjira; Guéritte, Françoise; Sévenet, Thierry; Litaudon, Marc

    2007-03-01

    Bioassay guided purification of the ethanolic extract of the bark of New Caledonian Pittosporum pancheri Brongn. and Gris (Pittosporaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of two new farnesyl monoglycosides, pancherins A and B. The structure of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The new compounds displayed a significant activity in the in vitro cytotoxic assay against KB cancer cell line, and pancherin A inhibits weakly farnesyl protein transferase. PMID:17174992

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity of metallic ions released from dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Milheiro, Ana; Nozaki, Kosuke; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Muris, Joris; Miura, Hiroyuki; Feilzer, Albert J

    2016-05-01

    The cytotoxicity of a dental alloy depends on, but is not limited to, the extent of its corrosion behavior. Individual ions may have effects on cell viability that are different from metals interacting within the alloy structure. We aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of individual metal ions in concentrations similar to those reported to be released from Pd-based dental alloys on mouse fibroblast cells. Metal salts were used to prepare seven solutions (concentration range 100 ppm-1 ppb) of the transition metals, such as Ni(II), Pd(II), Cu(II), and Ag(I), and the metals, such as Ga(III), In(III), and Sn(II). Cytotoxicity on mouse fibroblasts L929 was evaluated using the MTT assay. Ni, Cu, and Ag are cytotoxic at 10 ppm, Pd and Ga at 100 ppm. Sn and In were not able to induce cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. Transition metals were able to induce cytotoxic effects in concentrations similar to those reported to be released from Pd-based dental alloys. Ni, Cu, and Ag were the most cytotoxic followed by Pd and Ga; Sn and In were not cytotoxic. Cytotoxic reactions might be considered in the etiopathogenesis of clinically observed local adverse reactions. PMID:25549610

  15. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  16. Determination of cut-off cycle threshold values in routine RT-PCR assays to assist differential diagnosis of norovirus in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Trang, N V; Choisy, M; Nakagomi, T; Chinh, N T M; Doan, Y H; Yamashiro, T; Bryant, J E; Nakagomi, O; Anh, D D

    2015-11-01

    Norovirus (NV) is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children, but is also frequently detected in asymptomatic children, which complicates the interpretation of NV detection results in both the clinical setting and population prevalence studies. A total of 807 faecal samples from children aged <5 years hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis were collected in Thai Binh, Vietnam, from January 2011 to September 2012. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect and quantify NV-RNA in clinical samples. A bimodal distribution of cycle threshold (Ct) values was observed in which the lower peak was assumed to represent cases for which NV was the causal agent of diarrhoea, whereas the higher peak was assumed to represent cases involving an alternative pathogen other than NV. Under these assumptions, we applied finite-mixture modelling to estimate a threshold of Ct <21·36 (95% confidence interval 20·29-22·46) to distinguish NV-positive patients for which NV was the likely cause of diarrhoea. We evaluated the validity of the threshold through comparisons with NV antigen ELISA results, and comparisons of Ct values in patients co-infected with rotavirus. We conclude that the use of an appropriate cut-off value in the interpretation of NV real-time RT-PCR results may improve differential diagnosis of enteric infections, and could contribute to improved estimates of the burden of NV disease. PMID:26418350

  17. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract and compounds from Polygonum limbatum.

    PubMed

    Dzoyem, Jean P; Nkuete, Antoine H L; Kuete, Victor; Tala, Michel F; Wabo, Hippolyte K; Guru, Santosh K; Rajput, Vikrant S; Sharma, Akash; Tane, Pierre; Khan, Inshad A; Saxena, Anil K; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2012-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity and the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract (PLA) as well as fractions (PLA1-4) and compounds [cardamomin (1), (±)-polygohomoisoflavanone (2), (S)-(-)-pinostrobin (3), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3',6'-dimethoxychalcone (4), (2S)-(-)-5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (5), and (2S)-(-)-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6)] obtained from leaves of Polygonum limbatum. The microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against 11 microbial strains including Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), S.epidermidis, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The sulphorhodamine B cell growth inhibition assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the above samples on lung A549 adenocarcinoma, breast carcinoma MCF-7, prostate carcinoma PC-3, cervical carcinoma HeLa, and the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. The results of the MIC determination indicated that, apart from fraction PLA3, all other fractions as well as PLA and compound 3 were selectively active. MIC values were noted on 100 % of the 11 tested microorganisms for fraction PLA3, 72.7 % for PLA, fraction PLA2, and compound 4, 63.6 % for PLA1, and 54.5 % for fraction PLA4. The results of the cytotoxicity assay revealed that, except for A459 cells, more than 50 % inhibition of the proliferation was obtained with each of the tested samples on at least one of the four other cell lines. IC₅₀ values below 4 µg/mL were obtained with 1 and 4 on THP-1 cells. The overall results of the present study provided baseline information for the possible use of Polygonum limbatum as well as some of the isolated compounds for the control of cancer diseases and mostly leukemia. PMID:22495442

  18. Comparative cytotoxicity of quantum dot and gold conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Jay; Kumar, Anil; Dumas, Eve-Marie

    2009-02-01

    Nanoparticle toxicity is of interest for the design of anti-bacterial and anti-cancer agents, and also for development of regulations for their safe handling and disposal. However, the same reactivity that makes nanoparticles show unique optical properties also makes them interact with standard cytotoxicity agents, causing false positive and/or false negative results. We discuss which cytotoxicity assays are most likely to work with nanoparticles and which are to be avoided, and present some results on comparative cytotoxicity of different types of conjugates.

  19. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    zare shahneh, fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 μg/ml), U937 (229.312 μg/ml) and Raji (239.692 μg/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

  20. Effects of μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists in Assays of Acute Pain-Stimulated and Pain-Depressed Behavior in Male Rats: Role of μ-Agonist Efficacy and Noxious Stimulus Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kenner C.; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Pain is associated with stimulation of some behaviors and depression of others, and μ-opioid receptor agonists are among the most widely used analgesics. This study used parallel assays of pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats to compare antinociception profiles for six μ-agonists that varied in efficacy at μ-opioid receptors (from highest to lowest: methadone, fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, buprenorphine, and nalbuphine). Intraperitoneal injection of diluted lactic acid served as an acute noxious stimulus to either stimulate stretching or depress operant responding maintained by electrical stimulation in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). All μ-agonists blocked both stimulation of stretching and depression of ICSS produced by 1.8% lactic acid. The high-efficacy agonists methadone and fentanyl were more potent at blocking acid-induced depression of ICSS than acid-stimulated stretching, whereas lower-efficacy agonists displayed similar potency across assays. All μ-agonists except morphine also facilitated ICSS in the absence of the noxious stimulus at doses similar to those that blocked acid-induced depression of ICSS. The potency of the low-efficacy μ-agonist nalbuphine, but not the high-efficacy μ-agonist methadone, to block acid-induced depression of ICSS was significantly reduced by increasing the intensity of the noxious stimulus to 5.6% acid. These results demonstrate sensitivity of acid-induced depression of ICSS to a range of clinically effective μ-opioid analgesics and reveal distinctions between opioids based on efficacy at the μ-receptor. These results also support the use of parallel assays of pain-stimulated and -depressed behaviors to evaluate analgesic efficacy of candidate drugs. PMID:25406170

  1. Short communication an interferon-γ ELISPOT assay with two cytotoxic T cell epitopes derived from HTLV-1 tax region 161-233 discriminates HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers in a Peruvian population.

    PubMed

    Best, Ivan; López, Giovanni; Talledo, Michael; MacNamara, Aidan; Verdonck, Kristien; González, Elsa; Tipismana, Martín; Asquith, Becca; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vanham, Guido; Clark, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic and progressive disorder caused by the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In HTLV-1 infection, a strong cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response is mounted against the immunodominant protein Tax. Previous studies carried out by our group reported that increased IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) responses against the region spanning amino acids 161 to 233 of the Tax protein were associated with HAM/TSP and increased HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL). An exploratory study was conducted on 16 subjects with HAM/TSP, 13 asymptomatic carriers (AC), and 10 HTLV-1-seronegative controls (SC) to map the HAM/TSP-associated CTL epitopes within Tax region 161-233. The PVL of the infected subjects was determined and the specific CTL response was evaluated with a 6-h incubation IFN-γ ELISPOT assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with 16 individual overlapping peptides covering the Tax region 161-233. Other proinflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokines were also quantified in the supernatants by a flow cytometry multiplex assay. In addition, a set of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles that bind with high affinity to the CTL epitopes of interest was determined using computational tools. Univariate analyses identified an association between ELISPOT responses to two new CTL epitopes, Tax 173-185 and Tax 181-193, and the presence of HAM/TSP as well as an increased PVL. The HLA-A*6801 allele, which is predicted to bind to the Tax 181-193 peptide, was overpresented in the HAM/TSP patients tested. PMID:21453202

  2. Natural deep eutectic solvents: cytotoxic profile.

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Mbous, Yves Paul; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Hayyan, Adeeb; Salleh, Zulhaziman; Mohd-Ali, Ozair

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic profiles of different ternary natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) containing water. For this purpose, five different NADESs were prepared using choline chloride as a salt, alongside five hydrogen bond donors (HBD) namely glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycerol, and malonic acid. Water was added as a tertiary component during the eutectics preparation, except for the malonic acid-based mixture. Coincidentally, the latter was found to be more toxic than any of the water-based NADESs. A trend was observed between the cellular requirements of cancer cells, the viscosity of the NADESs, and their cytotoxicity. This study also highlights the first time application of the conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) software for the analysis of the cytotoxic mechanism of NADESs. COSMO-RS simulation of the interactions between NADESs and cellular membranes' phospholipids suggested that NADESs strongly interacted with cell surfaces and that their accumulation and aggregation possibly defined their cytotoxicity. This reinforced the idea that careful selection of NADESs components is necessary, as it becomes evident that organic acids as HBD highly contribute to the increasing toxicity of these neoteric mixtures. Nevertheless, NADESs in general seem to possess relatively less acute toxicity profiles than their DESs parents. This opens the door for future large scale utilization of these mixtures. PMID:27386357

  3. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  4. ECVAM's ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Bulgheroni, Anna; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-12-01

    The 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (2003/15/EC) set up timelines for banning animal testing and marketing of cosmetic products and their ingredients tested on animals. For most of the human health effects, including acute toxicity, the deadline for these bans was in March 2009. Moreover, the new Regulation EC 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) provided a strong impetus towards the application of alternative approaches to reduce the number of animals used for toxicological testing. Therefore, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is currently putting considerable effort into developing and validating alternative methods in the field of acute toxicity. The main activities in this area include: (1) the Integrated Project ACuteTox, funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme in 2005 with the aim to develop and pre-validate a testing strategy to fully replace acute oral toxicity testing in vivo; (2) a follow-up validation study to assess the predictive capacity of the validated BALB/3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay to discriminate between toxic/hazardous (LD(50)<2,000 mg/kg) substances and substances not classified for acute toxicity (LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg); (3) an approach to identify compounds with LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg using information from 28-days repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:19591916

  5. Human acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells are rare and heterogeneous when assayed in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγc-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarry, Jean-Emmanuel; Murphy, Kathleen; Perry, Robin; Sanchez, Patricia V.; Secreto, Anthony; Keefer, Cathy; Swider, Cezary R.; Strzelecki, Anne-Claire; Cavelier, Cindy; Récher, Christian; Mansat-De Mas, Véronique; Delabesse, Eric; Danet-Desnoyers, G.; Carroll, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Human leukemic stem cells, like other cancer stem cells, are hypothesized to be rare, capable of incomplete differentiation, and restricted to a phenotype associated with early hematopoietic progenitors or stem cells. However, recent work in other types of tumors has challenged the cancer stem cell model. Using a robust model of xenotransplantation based on NOD/SCID/IL2Rγc-deficient mice, we confirmed that human leukemic stem cells, functionally defined by us as SCID leukemia-initiating cells (SL-ICs), are rare in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In contrast to previous results, SL-ICs were found among cells expressing lineage markers (i.e., among Lin+ cells), CD38, or CD45RA, all markers associated with normal committed progenitors. Remarkably, each engrafting fraction consistently recapitulated the original phenotypic diversity of the primary AML specimen and contained self-renewing leukemic stem cells, as demonstrated by secondary transplants. While SL-ICs were enriched in the Lin–CD38– fraction compared with the other fractions analyzed, SL-ICs in this fraction represented only one-third of all SL-ICs present in the unfractionated specimen. These results indicate that human AML stem cells are rare and enriched but not restricted to the phenotype associated with normal primitive hematopoietic cells. These results suggest a plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype that we believe has not been previously described. PMID:21157036

  6. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer. PMID:22128430

  7. Cytotoxicity of exfoliated transition-metal dichalcogenides (MoS2 , WS2 , and WSe2 ) is lower than that of graphene and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2014-07-28

    Studies involving transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been around for many decades and in recent years, many were focused on using TMDs to synthesize inorganic analogues of carbon nanotubes, fullerene, as well as graphene and its derivatives with the ultimate aim of employing these materials into consumer products. In view of this rising trend, we investigated the cytotoxicity of three common exfoliated TMDs (exTMDs), namely MoS2 , WS2 , and WSe2 , and compared their toxicological effects with graphene oxides and halogenated graphenes to find out whether these inorganic analogues of graphenes and derivatives would show improved biocompatibility. Based on the cell viability assessments using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays on human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) following a 24 h exposure to varying concentrations of the three exTMDs, it was concluded that MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets induced very low cytotoxicity to A549 cells, even at high concentrations. On the other hand, WSe2 exhibited dose-dependent toxicological effects on A549 cells, reducing cell viability to 31.8 % at the maximum concentration of 400 μg mL(-1) ; the higher cytotoxicity displayed by WSe2 might be linked to the identity of the chalcogen. In comparison with graphene oxides and halogenated graphenes, MoS2 and WS2 were much less hazardous, whereas WSe2 showed similar degree of cytotoxicity. Future in-depth studies should be built upon this first work on the in vitro cytotoxicity of MoS2 and WS2 to ensure that they do not pose acute toxicity. Lastly, nanomaterial-induced interference control experiments revealed that exTMDs were capable of reacting with MTT assay viability markers in the absence of cells, but not with WST-8 assay. This suggests that the MTT assay is not suitable for measuring the cytotoxicity of exTMDs because inflated results will be obtained, giving false impressions that the materials are

  8. Troponin I Assay for Identification of a Significant Coronary Stenosis in Patients with Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction and Wide QRS Complex

    PubMed Central

    von Jeinsen, Beatrice; Tzikas, Stergios; Pioro, Gerhard; Palapies, Lars; Zeller, Tanja; Bickel, Christoph; Lackner, Karl J.; Baldus, Stephan; Blankenberg, Stefan; Muenzel, Thomas; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Keller, Till

    2016-01-01

    Background Common ECG criteria such as ST-segment changes are of limited value in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and bundle branch block or wide QRS complex. A large proportion of these patients do not suffer from an AMI, whereas those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) equivalent AMI benefit from an aggressive treatment. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic information of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in hemodynamically stable patients with wide QRS complex and suspected AMI. Methods In 417 out of 1818 patients presenting consecutively between 01/2007 and 12/2008 in a prospective multicenter observational study with suspected AMI a prolonged QRS duration was observed. Of these, n = 117 showed significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) used as diagnostic outcome variable. cTnI was determined at admission. Results Patients with significant CAD had higher cTnI levels compared to individuals without (median 250ng/L vs. 11ng/L; p<0.01). To identify patients needing a coronary intervention, cTnI yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.849. Optimized cut-offs with respect to a sensitivity driven rule-out and specificity driven rule-in strategy were established (40ng/L/96ng/L). Application of the specificity optimized cut-off value led to a positive predictive value of 71% compared to 59% if using the 99th percentile cut-off. The sensitivity optimized cut-off value was associated with a negative predictive value of 93% compared to 89% provided by application of the 99th percentile threshold. Conclusion cTnI determined in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected AMI and wide QRS complex using optimized diagnostic thresholds improves rule-in and rule-out with respect to presence of a significant obstructive CAD. PMID:27148734

  9. Prognostic Significance of Mixed-Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Gene Detected by Real-Time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR Assay in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sai; Yang, Hua; Li, Yan; Feng, Cong; Gao, Li; Chen, Guo-Feng; Gao, Hong-Hao; Huang, Zhi; Li, Yong-Hui; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The overall prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene-positivity is unfavorable. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of the MLL gene in AML patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 68 MLL gene-positive patients out of 433 newly diagnosed AML patients, and 216 bone marrow samples were collected. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) was used to precisely detect the expression levels of the MLL gene. RESULTS We divided 41 patients into 2 groups according to the variation of MRD (minimal residual disease) level of the MLL gene. Group 1 (n=22) had a rapid reduction of MRD level to ≤10^-4 in all samples collected in the first 3 chemotherapy cycles, while group 2 (n=19) had MRD levels constantly >10^-4 in all samples collected in the first 3 chemotherapy cycles. Group 1 had a significantly better overall survival (p=0.001) and event-free survival (p=0.001) compared to group 2. Moreover, the patients with >10^-4 MRD level before the start of HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) had worse prognosis and higher risk of relapse compared to patients with ≤10^-4 before the start of HSCT. CONCLUSIONS We found that a rapid reduction of MRD level to ≤10^-4 appears to be a prerequisite for better overall survival and event-free survival during the treatment of AML. The MRD levels detected by RQ-PCR were basically in line with the clinical outcome and may be of great importance in guiding early allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) treatment. PMID:27561414

  10. [Chemical constituents from Callicarpa nudiflora and their cytotoxic activities].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Chun; Zhang, Min; Xu, Wen-Tong; Feng, Shi-Xiu; Lei, Ming; Yi, Bo

    2014-08-01

    The chemical consitituents from cytotoxic fraction of the Callicarpa nudiflora extract were isolated and purified by a combination of HP-20 macroporous resin, silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic data and comparison of their spectroscopic data with reported data. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay. The 50% and 70% EtOH elutions of EtOH-extract showed significant cytotoxic activities, leading to the isolation of twelve compounds, which were identified as luteoloside(1), lutedin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside(2), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucoside(3), lutedin-7-O-neohesperidoside(4), rhoifolin (5), luteolin-7, 4'-di-O-glucoside (6), forsythoside B (7), acteoside (8), alyssonoside (9), catalpol(10), nudifloside(11), and leonuride(12). Compounds 3-6, 10 and 12 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and compound 9 was isolated from this plant for the first time. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that flavonoids 1-6, in various concentrations, showed monolithic proliferation inhibitory activities against Hela, A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. Compounds 3, 5 and iridoid glycoside 11 possessed higher cytotoxicacivities. In short, flavonoids are the main components of cytotoxic extract from C. nudiflora, while phenylethanoid glycosides are the predominant ingredient but inactive to cancer cell lines. In addition, the minor iridoid glycoside expressed weak cytotoxic activity. PMID:25509294

  11. Cytotoxic activity of selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A; van de Venter, M; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum paniculatum, Celosia trigyna, Drymaria cordata, Cyathula achyranthoides and Cyathula prostata. Justica extensa, Pupalia lappacea, Hedranthera barteri leaves, Alternanthera sessilis, Ethulia conyzoides leaves, Combretum zenkeri root, Sapium ellipticum stembark and Lannea nigritana stembark showed very low activity while Combretum molle, Adenanthera parvoniana and Lannea acida showed no activity. The results justify the use of Sapium, Combretum, Celosia, Drymaria and Cyathula in traditional treatment of cancer. PMID:20606772

  12. Cytotoxic activity of Vitex trifolia purpurea extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mortada M; El-Hashash, Maher M; Mohamed, Mona A; Korany, Tamer M

    2011-08-01

    Defatted 85% crude hot aqueous methanol extract of Vitex trifolia purpurea (AME) successively extracted with, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Cytotoxicity of (AME), chloroform methanol extract (CE), ethyl acetate methanol extract (EE) and the residue obtained from methanol extract after successive extraction (RME) have been evaluated on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and Hep-G2 cell lines as well. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay the results revealed that the (RME) is the most potent one with LC50 value 173 microg/ml while LC50 values of (AME), (CE) and (EE) was 180, 199 and 286 microg/ml, respectively. As well as the results of cytotoxic assay against Hep-G2 cell lines are in full agreement with previous results, with IC50 values 6, 10.7, 20.8 and 65.8 microg/ml for (RME), (AME), (CE) and (EE), respectively. PMID:21980779

  13. Selective cytotoxicity and telomere damage in leukemia cells using the telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532.

    PubMed

    El-Daly, Hesham; Kull, Miriam; Zimmermann, Stefan; Pantic, Milena; Waller, Cornelius F; Martens, Uwe M

    2005-02-15

    Telomerase represents an attractive target for a mechanism-based therapeutic approach because its activation has been associated with unlimited proliferation in most cancer cells. Recently, a nonnucleosidic small molecule inhibitor, BIBR1532 (2-[(E)-3-naphtalen-2-yl-but-2-enoylamino]-benzoic acid), has been identified that is highly selective for inhibition of telomerase, resulting in delayed growth arrest of tumor cells. Here we examined the effects of BIBR1532 in different leukemia cell lines as well as in primary cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in short-term culture assays. We observed a dose-dependent direct cytotoxicity in concentrations ranging from 30 to 80 microM. Interestingly, cell death was not dependent on the catalytic activity of telomerase but was delayed in cells with very long telomeres. We observed time-dependent individual telomere erosion, which was associated with loss of telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and increased phosphorylation of p53. Importantly, the proliferative capacity of normal CD34(+) cells from cord blood and leukapheresis samples was not affected by treatment with BIBR1532. We conclude that using this class of telomerase inhibitor at higher concentrations exerts a direct cytotoxic effect on malignant cells of the hematopoietic system, which appears to derive from direct damage of the structure of individual telomeres and must be dissected from telomerase-suppressed overall telomere shortening. PMID:15507522

  14. Rotenone isolated from Pachyrhizus erosus displays cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Estrella-Parra, Edgar A; Gomez-Verjan, Juan C; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Vázquez-Martínez, Edgar Ricardo; Vergara-Castañeda, Edgar; Cerbón, Marco A; Alavez-Solano, Dagoberto; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Pachyrhizus erosus (Fabaceae) is a herb commonly known as 'yam bean', which has been cultivated in México since pre-Columbian times for its edible tubers. The seeds are also known for their acaricidal and insecticidal properties due to rotenone and other isoflavonoid contents. Rotenone has exhibited cytotoxic activity against several human tumour cell lines; however, its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of rotenone isolated from P. erosus seeds on K562 human leukaemia cells. Rotenone exhibited significant cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 13.05 μM), as determined by the MTT assay. Three other isolated isoflavonoids were not cytotoxic. Rotenone genotoxicity was detected using the comet assay. Rotenone induced cell death, and caspase-3 activation as indicated by TUNEL assay, and immunocytofluorescence. Plasmid nicking assay indicated that rotenone does not interact directly with DNA. PMID:25055205

  15. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936

  16. A Novel Method for Assessment of Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Using Image Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Somanchi, Srinivas S.; McCulley, Kelsey J.; Somanchi, Anitha; Chan, Leo L.; Lee, Dean A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate arm of the immune system and though activated NK cells can modulate immune responses through the secretion of cytokines, their primary effector function is through target cell lysis. Accordingly, cytotoxicity assays are central to studying NK cell function. The 51Chromium release assay, is the “gold standard” for cytotoxicity assay, however, due to concerns over toxicity associated with the use and disposal of radioactive compounds there is a significant interest in non-radioactive methods. We have previously used the calcein release assay as a non-radioactive alternative for studying NK cell cytotoxicity. In this study, we show that the calcein release assay varies in its dynamic range for different tumor targets, and that the entrapped calcein could remain unreleased within apoptotic bodies of lysed tumor targets or incompletely released resulting in underestimation of percent specific lysis. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel cytotoxicity assay using the Cellometer Vision Image Cytometer and compared this method to standard calcein release assay for measuring NK cell cytotoxicity. Using tumor lines K562, 721.221, and Jurkat, we demonstrate here that image cytometry shows significantly higher percent specific lysis of the target cells compared to the standard calcein release assay within the same experimental setup. Image cytometry is able to accurately analyze live target cells by excluding dimmer cells and smaller apoptotic bodies from viable target cell counts. The image cytometry-based cytotoxicity assay is a simple, direct and sensitive method and is an appealing option for routine cytotoxicity assay. PMID:26492577

  17. Cell cooperation in coelomocyte cytotoxic activity of Paracentrotus lividus coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Arizza, Vincenzo; Giaramita, Francesca Tiziana; Parrinello, Daniela; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2007-06-01

    The coelomic fluid from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus contains several coelomocyte types including amoebocytes and uncoloured spherulocytes involved in immune defences. In the present paper, we show a Ca(2+)-dependent cytotoxic activity for the unfractionated coelomocytes assayed in vitro, with rabbit erythrocytes and the K562 tumour cell line. In a plaque-forming assay, whole coelomocyte preparations as well as density gradient separated coelomocyte populations revealed that cell populations enriched in uncoloured spherulocytes, exerted high cytotoxic activity by releasing lysins in the presence of amoebocytes. This cooperative effect could be dependent on soluble factors released by amoebocytes. With regard to this, we show that an enhanced cytotoxic activity was found by adding the supernatant from sonicated amoebocytes or hemocyte culture medium into spherulocyte preparations. PMID:17329136

  18. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  19. Antioxidant and cytotoxic agent from the rhizomes of Kaempferia pandurata

    PubMed Central

    Tanjung, Mulyadi; Tjahjandarie, Tjitjik Srie; Sentosa, Mulya Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of two flavanones, pinocembrin (1) and pinostrobin (2) from the rhizomes of Kaempferia pandurata. The chemical structures of both compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, MS and NMR spectra. Methods The antioxidant activities of pinocembrin (1) and pinostrobin (2) were assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Cytotoxic assay was done by using brine shrimp lethality test, and cytotoxic properties was tested against murine leukemia P-388 cells. Results Compounds 1-2 were evaluated for their antioxidant properties against DPPH, showing their IC50 were 5 816 and 6 268 µmol/L; brine shrimp lethality test: LC50 23.3 and 60.5 µg/mL; murine leukemia P-388: IC50 176.3 and 218.5 µmol/L. Conclutions The results indicated that pinocembrin (1) was slightly more active than pinostrobin (2).

  20. In vivo flow cytometric Pig-a and micronucleus assays: highly sensitive discrimination of the carcinogen/noncarcinogen pair benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene using acute and repeated-dose designs.

    PubMed

    Torous, Dorothea K; Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Mereness, Jared; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Weller, Pamela; Bell, Sara; Gleason, Carol; Custer, Laura L; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    frequencies were observed with BP, whereas Pyr had no effect. These results demonstrate that Pig-a and micronucleus endpoints discriminate between these structurally related carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents. Furthermore, the high sensitivity demonstrated with the enrichment protocol indicates that the Pig-a endpoint is suitable for both repeated-dose and acute studies, allowing integration of mutagenic and clastogenic endpoints into on-going toxicology studies, and use as a short-term assay that provides efficient screening and mechanistic information in vivo. PMID:22730284

  1. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity of bovine mononuclear cells to IBRV-infected cells: dependence on Sephadex G-10 adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Rossi, C R

    1985-04-01

    Following intranasal inoculation of cattle with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) mononuclear cells that produced a genetically unrestricted cytotoxic response against IBRV-infected, but not against uninfected cells, were present in peripheral blood. Cytotoxicity was detected between 6 and 14 days after primary infection in a 20 h, but not in a 5 h, 51Cr-release assay. Cytotoxic activity was present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infected and subsequently hyperimmunized cattle for a considerably longer time. Neither natural cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, nor antibody produced during the assay was responsible for the cytotoxicity. However, cytotoxicity was dependent upon an adherent mononuclear cell that was partially removed by passage over nylon wool and completely removed by passage over Sephadex G-10. PMID:2408374

  2. "False" cytotoxicity of ions-adsorbing hydroxyapatite - Corrected method of cytotoxicity evaluation for ceramics of high specific surface area.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Katarzyna; Belcarz, Anna; Pazik, Robert; Sobierajska, Paulina; Han, Tomasz; Wiglusz, Rafal J; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of biomaterial cytotoxicity is a prerequisite for evaluation of its clinical potential. A material is considered toxic while the cell viability decreases under 70% of the control. However, extracts of certain materials are likely to reduce the cell viability due to the intense ions adsorption from culture medium (e.g. highly bioactive ceramics of high surface area). Thus, the standard ISO 10993-5 procedure is inappropriate for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high specific surface area because biomaterial extract obtained in this method (ions-depleted medium) is not optimal for cell cultures per se. Therefore, a simple test was designed as an alternative to ISO 10993-5 standard for cytotoxicity evaluation of the biomaterials of high surface area and high ions absorption capacity. The method, presented in this paper, included the evaluation of ceramics extract prepared according to corrected procedure. The corrected extract was found not cytotoxic (cell viability above 70%), suggesting that modified method for cytotoxicity evaluation of ions-adsorbing ceramics is more appropriate than ISO 10993-5 standard. For such biomaterials, the term "false" cytotoxicity is more suitable. Moreover, it was noted that NRU assay and microscopic observations should be recommended for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high surface area. PMID:27157729

  3. Cytotoxicity of Vinca minor.

    PubMed

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Farahanikia, Behnaz; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2010-01-01

    Vinca minor L. (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant that has long been used to treat cerebral and memory disorders in European folk medicine. Furthermore, it contains more than 50 alkaloids, some of them having bisindole structure such as the antineoplastic alkaloids present in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae). In this study, the plant's alkaloid extract was divided into three fractions and the cytotoxic effects on cell proliferation of HT-29, Caco-2, T47D, and NIH/3T3 cell lines were examined. All alkaloid fractions showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on the cell lines. IC(50) values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were less affected in comparison to other cell lines. PMID:20645762

  4. Attenuation of tumor necrosis factor-induced endothelial cell cytotoxicity and neutrophil chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, H.; Crowley, J.J.; Chan, J.C.; Hoffmann, H.; Hatherill, J.R.; Ishizaka, A.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Our laboratory has previously shown that the administration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine produced by activated mononuclear cells, to guinea pigs produces a syndrome similar to gram-negative sepsis or ARDS. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine, protects against TNF-induced and sepsis-induced acute lung injury in vivo. We now report on in vitro cellular studies of PMN-mediated cellular injury and its attenuation. We studied TNF-induced bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) cytotoxicity both with and without PMN. A 51Cr release assay was used to measure EC damage. Further, we investigated PMN function in response to TNF by measuring chemiluminescence. Agents that attenuate EC damage and PMN activation were evaluated in the above assays. Results revealed that TNF causes EC injury (p less than 0.05) and PMN increase TNF-induced EC injury. Furthermore, PTX, aminophylline (AMPH), caffeine, and forskolin attenuate TNF-induced EC cytotoxicity only in the presence of PMN (p less than 0.05). Of interest, dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) protects EC from TNF-induced injury both with and without PMN. Agents that may increase cAMP levels in PMN (PTX, DBcAMP, forskolin, isobutyl methylxanthine, and terbutaline) significantly attenuate TNF-induced PMN chemiluminescence (p less than 0.05). We conclude that TNF causes EC damage and PMN increase this damage. Furthermore, PTX, AMPH, caffeine, and forskolin can attenuate TNF-induced EC injury in the presence of PMN, whereas DBcAMP attenuates TNF-induced EC injury with and without PMN. In addition, agents that may increase intracellular cAMP levels in PMN can attenuate TNF-induced PMN chemiluminescence. Thus, these agents likely attenuate TNF-induced PMN-mediated EC injury through their inhibitory effects on PMN.

  5. Lactobacillus Casei Decreases Organophosphorus Pesticide Diazinon Cytotoxicity in Human HUVEC Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Bagherpour Shamloo, Hasan; Golkari, Saber; Faghfoori, Zeinab; Movassaghpour, AliAkbar; Lotfi, Hajie; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exposure to diazinon can trigger acute and chronic toxicity and significantly induces DNA damage and proapoptotic effects in different human cells. Due to the significance of probiotic bacteria antitoxin effect, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei on diazinon (DZN) cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity assessments were performed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and flow cytometric methodologies. Results: Cytotoxic assessments through flow cytometry/ DAPI staining demonstrated that apoptosis is the main cytotoxic mechanism of diazinon in HUVEC cells and L. casei could decrease the diazinon cytotoxic effects on toxicants. Conclusion: the screen of total bacterial secreted metabolites can be considered as a wealthy source to find the new active compounds to introduce as reducing agricultural remained pesticide cytotoxicity effects on the human food chain. PMID:27478782

  6. Stability and cytotoxicity of crystallin amyloid nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manmeet; Healy, Jackie; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan; Lassé, Moritz; Puskar, Ljiljana; Tobin, Mark J; Valery, Celine; Gerrard, Juliet A; Sasso, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    Previous work has identified crystallin proteins extracted from fish eye lenses as a cheap and readily available source for the self-assembly of amyloid nanofibrils. However, before exploring potential applications, the biophysical aspects and safety of this bionanomaterial need to be assessed so as to ensure that it can be effectively and safely used. In this study, crude crystallin amyloid fibrils are shown to be stable across a wide pH range, in a number of industrially relevant solvents, at both low and high temperatures, and in the presence of proteases. Crystallin nanofibrils were compared to well characterised insulin and whey protein fibrils using Thioflavin T assays and TEM imaging. Cell cytotoxicity assays suggest no adverse impact of both mature and fragmented crystallin fibrils on cell viability of Hec-1a endometrial cells. An IR microspectroscopy study supports long-term structural integrity of crystallin nanofibrils. PMID:25255060

  7. Distinct Contributions of JNK and p38 to Chromium Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Ovesen, Jerald L.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Background Potassium dichromate [Cr(VI)] is a widespread environmental toxicant responsible for increased risk of several human diseases. Cr(VI) exposure leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2, p38, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Objectives We evaluated the contribution of MAPKs to Cr(VI) toxicity. Methods Phosphorylation of MAPKs and their downstream effectors was evaluated by Western immunoblotting; reactive oxygen species were measured by DCFDA (5′,6′-chloromethyl-2′-7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) labeling and flow cytometry, and glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels were determined by monochrome graphic spectroflurometer. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay and colony formation. Embryoid body (EB) differentiation was evaluated by contracting cardiomyocyte formation, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for cardiomyocyte-specific and stem-cell-specific gene expression. Results Acute treatment of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with 50 μM Cr(VI) induced the rapid phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK and their respective downstream transcription factors, c-JUN, activating transcription factor-2, and ELK1. MAPK activation and cytotoxicity induction were partially blocked by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Ablation of the upstream MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K7) in ES cells prevented JNK activation, whereas ablation of MAP2K4 prevented both JNK and p38 activation. Using specific MAPK inhibitors and MAP2K4- and MAP2K7-deficient ES cells, we showed that JNK reduced acute Cr(VI) cytotoxicity, p38 potentiated it, and ERK had no effect. At low submicromolar concentrations, Cr(VI) caused MAP2K4/7-dependent JNK activation and MAP2K4-dependent p38 activation and strongly inhibited contracting cardiomyocyte development in wild-type ES

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of different tobacco product preparations.

    PubMed

    Arimilli, Subhashini; Damratoski, Brad E; Bombick, Betsy; Borgerding, Michael F; Prasad, G L

    2012-12-01

    Acute exposure to cigarette smoke or its components triggers diverse cellular effects, including cytotoxicity. However, available data regarding the potential cytotoxic effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) extracts lack consensus. Here, we investigated the relative biological effects of 2S3 reference ST, and whether ST elicits differential cellular/molecular responses compared to combustible tobacco product preparations (TPPs) prepared from 3R4F cigarettes. Total particulate matter (TPM) and whole smoke conditioned medium (WS-CM) were employed as combustible TPPs, while the ST extract was used as non-combustible TPP. HL60, THP1 cells and human PBMCs were used to examine the effects of TPPs in short-term cell culture. Corresponding EC(50) values, normalized for nicotine content of the TPPs, suggest that combustible TPPs induced higher cytotoxicity as follows: WS-CM TPM ≥ ≫ST extract>nicotine. While all three TPPs induced detectable levels of DNA damage and IL8 secretion, the combustible TPPs were significantly more potent than the ST preparation. The major PBMC subsets showed differential cytotoxicity to combustible TPPs as follows: CD4>CD8>monocytes>NK cells. These findings suggest that, relative cytotoxic and other cell biological effects of TPPs are dose-dependent, and that ST extract is the least cytotoxic TPP tested in this study. PMID:22996032

  9. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana D'arc Castania; De Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2010-01-01

    Açai, the fruit of a palm native to the Amazonian basin, is widely distributed in northern South America, where it has considerable economic importance. Whereas individual polyphenolics compounds in açai have been extensively evaluated, studies of the intact fruit and its biological properties are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of açai and its possible antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. The açai pulp doses selected were 3.33, 10.0 and 16.67g/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (16mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with açai pulp (24h) and eight groups for subacute treatment (daily for 14 consecutive days) before euthanasia. The negative control groups were treated in a similar way. The results of chemical analysis suggested the presence of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic, and flavonoids in açai pulp. The endpoints analyzed were micronucleus induction in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells polychromatic erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and kidney cells assessed using the alkaline (pH >13) comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the groups treated with the three doses of açai pulp alone in all endpoints analyzed, demonstrating the absence of genotoxic effects. The protective effects of açai pulp were observed in both acute and subacute treatments, when administered prior to DXR. In general, subacute treatment provided greater efficiency in protecting against DXR-induced DNA damage in liver and kidney cells. These protective effects can be explained as the result of the phytochemicals present in açai pulp. These results will be applied to the developmental of food with functional characteristics, as well as to explore the characteristics of açai as a health promoter. PMID

  10. Cytotoxicity of pilocarpine to human corneal stromal cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Wen, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the cytotoxic effect of pilocarpine, an anti-glaucoma drug, on human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected HCS cells. METHODS After HCS cells were treated with pilocarpine at a concentration from 0.15625 g/L to 20.0 g/L, their morphology and viability were detected by light microscopy and MTT assay. The membrane permeability, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructure were examined by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double-staining. DNA electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cell cycle, phosphatidylserine (PS) orientation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). And the activation of caspases was checked by ELISA. RESULTS Morphology observations and viability assay showed that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and time-dependent morphological abnormality and viability decline of HCS cells. AO/EB double-staining, DNA electrophoresis and TEM noted that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and/or time-dependent membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of the cells. Moreover, FCM and ELISA assays revealed that 2.5 g/L pilocarpine also induced S phase arrest, PS externalization, MTP disruption, and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation of the cells. CONCLUSION Pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L (1/32 of its clinical therapeutic dosage) has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing apoptosis in these cells, which is most probably regulated by a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:27162720

  11. Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteases without Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Sasaki, J I; Yamaguchi, S; Kawai, K; Kawakami, H; Iwasaki, Y; Imazato, S

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently the focus of considerable attention for dental applications; however, their biological effects have not been fully elucidated. The long-term, slow release of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) digests collagen fibrils within resin-dentin bonds. Therefore, MMP inhibitors can prolong the durability of resin-dentin bonds. However, there have been few reports evaluating the combined effect of MMP inhibition and the cytotoxic effects of NPs for dentin bonding. The aim of this study was to evaluate MMP inhibition and cytotoxic responses to gold (AuNPs) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in cultured murine macrophages (RAW264) by using MMP inhibition assays, measuring cell viability and inflammatory responses (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-qPCR]), and conducting a micromorphological analysis by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Cultured RAW264 cells were exposed to metal NPs at various concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 400 µg/mL). AuNPs and PtNPs markedly inhibited MMP-8 and MMP-9 activity. Although PtNPs were cytotoxic at high concentrations (100 and 400 µg/mL), no cytotoxic effects were observed for AuNPs at any concentration. Transmission electron microscopy images showed a significant nonrandom intercellular distribution for AuNPs and PtNPs, which were mostly observed to be localized in lysosomes but not in the nucleus. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated inflammatory responses were not induced in RAW264 cells by AuNPs or PtNPs. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles might depend on the core metal composition and arise from a "Trojan horse" effect; thus, MMP inhibition could be attributed to the surface charge of PVP, which forms the outer coating of NPs. The negative charge of the surface coating of PVP binds to Zn(2+) from the active center of MMPs by chelate binding and results in MMP inhibition. In summary, AuNPs are attractive NPs that effectively

  12. Helicase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Diaz, Jason; You, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Helicases are a class of enzymes which are motor proteins using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to move directionally along a nucliec acid phosphodiester backbone (such as DNA, RNA and DNA-RNA hybrids) and separate two annealed nucleic acid strands. Many cellular processes, such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair involve helicase activity. Here, we provide a protocol to analyze helicase activities in vitro. In this protocol, the DNA helicase protein Merkel cell polyomavirus large T-antigen was expressed in the mammalian cell line HEK293 and immoblized on an IgG resin. The helicase assay is performing while the protein is immoblized on IgG resin.

  13. Autoxidation and cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, D C; Schaich, K M; Elmore, Jr, J J

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive synthesis, or reaction schema, to relate autoxidations of non-lipid compounds to lipid chain peroxidation in vivo is presented. This is done in the context of cytotoxic autoxidation reactions, and it is concluded that hydroxyl radicals produced by iron-dependent Fenton reactions serve as both primary toxicants and as sources of secondary toxicants. The latter stem from lipid chain peroxidation initiated by the Fenton-derived hydroxyl radicals, which are visualized as the obligate coupling step linking enzyme-dependent and non-enzymic autoxidations to potentially toxic outcomes.

  14. Comparative cytotoxicity of chlorophenols to cultured fish cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Hotaka; Shigeoka, Tadayoshi )

    1994-10-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity of chlorophenols to Cyprinus carpio brain (CCB) cells derived from carp and Oryzias latipes fin (OLF-136) cells derived from medaka was examined with the neutral red (3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride) incorporation assay. Results were compared with previous cytotoxicity data of chlorophenols to goldfish (Carassius auratus) scale (GFS) cells derived from the goldfish. There were excellent correlations between the 24-h NR50 values of chlorophenols toward the three kinds of cells (r[sup 2] > 0.94).

  15. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of some derivatives of alkyl piperidine.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Akhtar, Shamim; Saify, Zafar Saied; Mushtaq, Nousheen; Sial, Ali Akbar; Kamil, Arfa; Arif, Muhammed

    2013-05-01

    Synthesis of novel phenacyl derivatives of alkyl piperidine as cytotoxic agents via simple and single step reaction procedure is going to be reported here. Twelve new compounds were successfully synthesized in moderate yield and in solid form. Their synthesis was confirmed by TLC, melting point, CHN analysis and through different spectral studies such as UV, IR, Mass and proton NMR. The advantages of this synthetic route are simple operation, mild reaction conditions and good yields. These newly synthesized derivatives were extensively explored for their cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality assay. PMID:23625425

  16. New cytotoxic indolic metabolites from a marine Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Sánchez López, José M; Martínez Insua, Marta; Pérez Baz, Julia; Fernández Puentes, José L; Cañedo Hernández, Librada M

    2003-06-01

    Three new cytotoxic 3,6-disubstituted indoles (1-3) were isolated from the mycelium of a strain identified as Streptomyces sp. (BL-49-58-005), which was separated from a Mexican marine invertebrate, and their structures established by analysis of NMR and mass spectral data. GI(50) values for 1 and 2 in cytotoxic bioassays against a panel of 14 different tumor cell lines were estimated at micromolar range, while compound 3 showed no activity in the same assays. PMID:12828477

  17. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  18. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate by a cellular impedance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Cui, Lin; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Gang-Ling; Hou, Hong-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Hu, Qing-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a cytotoxicity assay was developed for profiling the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) base on a cellular impedance biosensor (CIB). Compared with the traditional in vitro cytotoxicity assays, this CIB-based method offered distinct advantages in real-time kinetic measurement which provided a comprehensive understanding of cellular responses for the entire duration of the experiment and prediction of the potential mechanism of action of a given treatment. The time-dependent cell response profiles provided valid evidences for optimization of cell number per well, cell quality control, and identification of the optimal time points for compound treatment and endpoint assays. According to the time dependent IC50 values, the CIB could provide dynamic information that can be used to identify maximum toxicity of cigarette smoke and reversibility of the toxic effects which are difficult to achieve by the endpoint assays. The comparative IC50 values indicated that the as-developed biosensor offered analytical results in good consistency with the commonly used NRU method. The features of the CIB-based cytotoxicity assay, such as no cell labeling, automatic detection, and easy operation, give this assay potential to become routine setting for evaluating the cytotoxicity of CSCs. PMID:22142689

  19. Gold Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironava, Tatsiana

    Over the last two decades gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used for many scientific applications and have attracted attention due to the specific chemical, electronic and optical size dependent properties that make them very promising agents in many fields such as medicine, imagine techniques and electronics. More specifically, biocompatible gold nanoparticles have a huge potential for use as the contrast augmentation agent in X-ray Computed Tomography and Photo Acoustic Tomography for early tumor diagnostic as well these nanoparticles are extensively researched for enhancing the targeted cancer treatment effectiveness such as photo-thermal and radiotherapy. In most biomedical applications biocompatible gold nanoparticles are labeled with specific tumor or other pathology targeting antibodies and used for site specific drug delivery. However, even though gold nanoparticles poses very high level of anti cancer properties, the question of their cytotoxicity ones they are released in normal tissue has to be researched. Moreover, the huge amount of industrially produced gold nanoparticles raises the question of these particles being a health hazard, since the penetration is fairly easy for the "nano" size substances. This study focuses on the effect of AuNPs on a human skin tissue, since it is fall in both categories -- the side effects for biomedical applications and industrial workers and users' exposure during production and handling. Therefore, in the present project, gold nanoparticles stabilized with the biocompatible agent citric acid were generated and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytotoxic effect of AuNPs release to healthy skin tissue was modeled on 3 different cell types: human keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and human adipose derived stromal (ADS) cells. The AuNPs localization inside the cell was found to be cell type dependent. Overall cytotoxicity was found to be dependent

  20. In vitro sensitivity of granulo-monocytic progenitors as a new toxicological cell system and endpoint in the ACuteTox Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cerrato, Laura; Valeri, Antonio; Bueren, Juan A.; Albella, Beatriz

    2009-07-15

    The ACuteTox Project (part of the EU 6th Framework Programme) was started up in January 2005. The aim of this project is to develop a simple and robust in vitro strategy for prediction of human acute systemic toxicity, which could replace animal tests used for regulatory purposes. Our group is responsible for the characterization of the effect of the reference chemicals on the hematopoietic tissue. CFU-GM assay based on the culture of human mononuclear cord blood cells has been used to characterize the effects of the selected compounds on the myeloid progenitors. Previous results have shown the relevance of the CFU-GM assay for the prediction of human acute neutropenia after treatment of antitumoral compounds, and this assay has been recently approved by the ECVAM's Scientific Advisory Committee. Among the compounds included in the study there were pharmaceuticals, environmental pollutants and industrial chemicals. Eleven out of 55 chemicals did not show any cytotoxic effect at the maximum concentration tested. The correlation coefficients of CFU-GM IC50, IC70 and IC90 values with human LC50 values (50% lethal concentration calculated from time-related sublethal and lethal human blood concentrations) were 0.4965, 0.5106 and 0.5142 respectively. Although this correlation is not improve respect to classical in vitro basal cytotoxicity tests such as 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake, chemicals which deviate substantially in the correlation with these assays (colchicine, digoxin, 5-Fluorouracil and thallium sulfate) fitted very well in the linear regression analysis of the CFU-GM progenitors. The results shown in the present study indicate that the sensitivity of CFU-GM progenitors correlates better than the sensitivity of HL-60 cells with human LC50 values and could help to refine the predictability for human acute systemic toxicity when a given chemical may affect to the hematopoietic myeloid system.

  1. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of urban particulate matter in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey F.; Tate, M.; Walmsley, Richard; Elder, Rhod H.; Povey, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM)-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a variety of altered cellular outcomes. In this study, three different PM samples from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust standard reference material SRM1649a and air collected in Manchester have been tested for their ability to oxidise DNA in a cell-free assay, to increase intracellular ROS levels and to induce CYP1A1 gene expression in mammalian cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PM were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and alkaline comet assay, respectively. All PM samples catalysed the Fenton reaction in a cell-free assay, but only DEP resulted in the generation of ROS as measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation in mammalian cells. However, there was no evidence that increased ROS was a consequence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism via CYP1A1 induction as urban dust, the Manchester dust samples but not DEP-induced CYP1A1 expression. Urban dust was more cytotoxic in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) than the other PM samples and also induced expression of GADD45a in the GreenScreen Human Cell assay without S9 activation suggesting the presence of a direct-acting genotoxicant. Urban dust and DEP produced comparable levels of DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, in MEFs at higher levels than those induced by Manchester PM. In conclusion, results from the cytotoxic and genotoxic assays are not consistent with ROS production being the sole determinant of PM-induced toxicity. This suggests that the organic component can contribute significantly to this toxicity and that further work is required to better characterise the extent to which ROS and organic components contribute to PM-induced toxicity. PMID:26113525

  2. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as eucalyptol (43.7%), phytol (11.5%), α-farnesene (9.6%), and pentacosane (7.6%). Cytotoxicity of essential oil of leaves of M. domestica was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. The essential oil of leaves of M. domestica, tested against three cancer cell lines, namely, C-6 (glioma cells), A549 (human lung carcinoma), CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells), and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell). The highest activity showed by essential oil on C-6 cell lines (98.2%) at concentration of 2000 μg/ml compared to control. It is the first paper in literature to exploit the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of leaves essential oil of M. domestica. PMID:22619691

  3. Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10 μg/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10 μg/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

  4. Neuroprotection by pramipexole against dopamine- and levodopa-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zou, L; Jankovic, J; Rowe, D B; Xie, W; Appel, S H; Le, W

    1999-01-01

    Pramipexole, a novel non-ergoline dopamine (DA) agonist, has been applied successfully for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). We report here that pramipexole can protect dopaminergic cell line Mes23.5 against dopamine- and levodopa-induced cytotoxicity possibly through a mechanism related to antioxidant activity. In the MES 23.5 cultures, DA and L-DOPA induce a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, as determined by tetrazolium salt and trypan blue assays. Furthermore, an in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay demonstrates that DA-induced cell death is apoptotic. Pretreatment with pramipexole in a concentration range (4-100 microM) significantly attenuates DA- or L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, an action which is not blocked by D3 antagonist U-99194 A or D2 antagonist raclopride. Pramipexole also protects MES 23.5 cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In cell-free system, pramipexole can effectively inhibit the formation of melanin, an end product resulting from DA or L-DOPA oxidation. These results indicate that pramipexole exerts its neuroprotective effect possibly through a mechanism, which is independent of DA receptors but related to antioxidation or scavenging of free radicals (e.g. hydrogen peroxide). As a direct DA agonist and potentially neuroprotective agent, pramipexole remains attractive in the treatment of PD. PMID:10227583

  5. Cytotoxicity of occupationally and environmentally relevant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Westphal, Götz; Mönnich, Angelika; Hinnendahl, Britta; Hallier, Ernst; Müller, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Mycotoxins can cause various toxic effects in humans. Acute and chronic respiratory diseases were reported after inhalation of organic dust containing toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins, respectively. To gain first insights into health effects from airborne exposure to these compounds, five toxigenic airborne moulds of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium collected at composting plants and eight reference mycotoxins were tested for cytotoxicity in four established cell lines as a surrogate of tissues known or suspected to be targets of toxic effects of mycotoxins. The known mycotoxins sterigmatocystin, fumagillin, verruculogen, penitrem A, and roquefortine C were detected in extracts of the moulds. All five extracts caused serious toxic effects in the cell lines. Sterigmatocystin caused a 80-fold higher toxicity in the A-549 lung cell line compared to Hep-G2 liver cells indicating a specific susceptibility of A-549 to this agent. Since only a minor part of the toxic effects of the extracts in A-549 cells and--to a lesser extent--in the other cell lines could be explained by contents of the identified mycotoxins, the presence of additional mycotoxins or other toxic principles is assumed in the mould extracts. However, the detected mycotoxins in the mould extracts and their distinctive cytotoxicity support the hypothesis that mycotoxins may be involved in the aetiology of lung diseases due to the inhalation of organic dust. PMID:15337583

  6. Antitumour-Promoting and Cytotoxic Constituents of Etlingera Elatior

    PubMed Central

    Habsah, M; Ali, AM; Lajis, NH; Sukari, MA; Yap, YH; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on rhizome of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (6), stigmast-4-en-6b-ol-3-one (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (8). 1 and 4 were new compounds. Compounds 5 and 7 displayed high antitumour-promoting activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed a very significant cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and MCF-7 cell lines (4 μg/ml and 6.25 μg/ml respectively). The antitumour-promoting activity was determined by EBV-EA assay and cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay. PMID:22605941

  7. Antitumour-promoting and cytotoxic constituents of etlingera elatior.

    PubMed

    Habsah, M; Ali, Am; Lajis, Nh; Sukari, Ma; Yap, Yh; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on rhizome of Etlingera elatior have resulted in the isolation of 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,4,6-heptatrienone (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (3), 16-hydroxylabda-8(17),11,13-trien-16,15-olide (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5), stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione (6), stigmast-4-en-6b-ol-3-one (7), 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (8). 1 and 4 were new compounds. Compounds 5 and 7 displayed high antitumour-promoting activity. Ethyl acetate extract showed a very significant cytotoxic activity against CEM-SS and MCF-7 cell lines (4 μg/ml and 6.25 μg/ml respectively). The antitumour-promoting activity was determined by EBV-EA assay and cytotoxic activity was determined by MTT assay. PMID:22605941

  8. Protective effects of melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules on paraquat-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a pulmonary cell line.

    PubMed

    Charão, Mariele F; Baierle, Marília; Gauer, Bruna; Goethel, Gabriela; Fracasso, Rafael; Paese, Karina; Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Bubols, Guilherme B; Dias, Bruna B; Matte, Ursula S; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-06-01

    Many acute poisonings lack effective and specific antidotes. Due to both intentional and accidental exposures, paraquat (PQ) causes thousands of deaths annually, especially by pulmonary fibrosis. Melatonin (Mel), when incorporated into lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC), has enhanced antioxidant properties. The effects of such a formulation have not yet been studied with respect to mitigation of PQ- induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage. Here, we have tested whether Mel-LNC can ameliorate PQ-induced toxicity in the A549 alveolar epithelial cell line. Physicochemical characterization of the formulations was performed. Cellular uptake was measured using nanocapsules marked with rhodamine B. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. The enzyme-modified comet assay with endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) were used to investigate oxidative DNA damage. Incubation with culture medium for 24h did not alter the granulometric profile of Mel-LNC formulations. Following treatment (3 and 24h), red fluorescence was detected around the cell nucleus, indicating internalization of the formulation. Melatonin solution (Mel), Mel-LNC, and LNC did not have significant effects on cell viability or DNA damage. Pre-treatment with Mel-LNC enhanced cell viability and showed a remarkable reduction in % DNA in tail compared to the PQ group; this was not observed in cells pre-treated with Mel. PQ induces oxidative DNA damage detected with the enzyme-modified comet assay. Mel-LNC reduced this damage more effectively than did Mel. In summary, Mel-LNC is better than Mel at protecting A549 cells from the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PQ. PMID:26046970

  9. Cytotoxic triterpenoid glycosides (saikosaponins) from the roots of Bupleurum chinense.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan-Qi; Wu, Jie; Liu, Li-Yin; Wu, Ying-Ying; Li, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Qing-Bo; Yang, Jing-Yu; Song, Shao-Jiang; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2015-09-15

    As a part of our ongoing studies on cytotoxic triterpenoid saponins from herbal medicines, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Bupleurum chinense DC. afforded four new saikosaponins (1-4), along with 16 known ones (5-20). Their structures were established by direct interpretation of their spectral data, mainly HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR, and by comparison with literature data. Among them, compound 20 was isolated from the natural product for the first time. The cytotoxicities of all compounds against five selected human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, Hep3B, Bcap-37 and MCF-7) were assayed. In general, a number of the isolated compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against the five selected human cancer cell lines. In particular, compounds 3, 8-9, 11-13, 16 and 20 showed more potent cytotoxic activities against the HepG2 and A549 cell lines than the positive control 5-fluorouracil. Based on the primary screening results, the preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were also discussed. The SAR results suggest that the 13,28-epoxy bridge, the orientation of the hydroxyl group and the type of the sugar units are important requirements for cytotoxicity and selectivity. PMID:26259802

  10. Hormonal activity, cytotoxicity and developmental toxicity of UV filters.

    PubMed

    Balázs, Adrienn; Krifaton, Csilla; Orosz, Ivett; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Kovács, Róbert; Csenki, Zsolt; Urbányi, Béla; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are commonly used compounds in personal care products and polymer based materials, as they can absorb solar energy in the UVA and UVB spectrum. However, they are able to bind to hormone receptors and have several and different types of hormonal activities determined by in vitro assays. One of the aims of this work was to measure the hormonal and cytotoxic activities of four frequently used UV filters using bioluminescence based yeast test organisms. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYAS strains allowed the rapid and reliable detection of agonist and antagonist hormonal activities, whereas BLYR strain served to measure cytotoxicity. Results confirmed that all tested UV filters show multiple hormonal activities. Cytotoxicity is detected only in the case of benzophenone-3. Research data on the toxic effects of benzophenone-3, especially on aquatic organisms are scarce, so further investigations were carried out regarding its cytotoxic and teratogenic effects on bacteria and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, respectively. Results revealed the cytotoxicity of benzophenone-3 not only to yeasts but to bacteria, as well as its ability to influence zebrafish embryo hatching and development. PMID:27208882

  11. Phytochemical and cytotoxic investigations of Alpinia mutica rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Phang, Chung Weng; Ibrahim, Halijah; Norhanom, Abdul Wahab; Sim, Kae Shin

    2011-01-01

    The methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) of Alpinia mutica (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes were investigated for their cytotoxic effect against six human carcinoma cell lines, namely KB, MCF7, A549, Caski, HCT116, HT29 and non-human fibroblast cell line (MRC 5) using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The ethyl acetate extract possessed high inhibitory effect against KB, MCF7 and Caski cells (IC₅₀ values of 9.4, 19.7 and 19.8 µg/mL, respectively). Flavokawin B (1), 5,6-dehydrokawain (2), pinostrobin chalcone (3) and alpinetin (4), isolated from the active ethyl acetate extract were also evaluated for their cytotoxic activity. Of these, pinostrobin chalcone (3) and alpinetin (4) were isolated from this plant for the first time. Pinostrobin chalcone (3) displayed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against the tested human cancer cells, such as KB, MCF7 and Caski cells (IC₅₀ values of 6.2, 7.3 and 7.7 µg/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of Alpinia mutica. PMID:21240148

  12. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurothamnus maximus and Vicoa pentanema.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Ilias; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Mossa, Jaber S; El-Feraly, Farouk S; Walker, Larry A; Clark, Alice M

    2003-02-01

    The aerial parts of Centaurothamnus maximus yielded three cytotoxic guaianolides, chlorojanerin (1), cynaropicrin (2) and janerin (3). The structure elucidation of 1-3 was based on (1)H and (13)C NMR data, mainly 2D-NMR (1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C HETCOR experiments. Compounds 1-3 showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines of malignant melanoma (SK-MEL), epidermoid (KB), ductal (BT-549) and ovarian (SK-OV-3) carcinomas with IC(50) values of 2-6 microgram/mL. In addition, 12 sesquiterpene lactones (4-15), isolated previously from the aerial parts of Vicoa pentanema, were evaluated for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. 2alpha- Acetoxy-3beta-hydroxyalantolactone (10) and 8beta-hydroxyparthenolide (14) were found to be the main cytotoxic agents (IC(50) values of 2-6 microgram/mL against SK-MEL, BT-549 and SK-OV-3), while lactones 4, 5, 11 and 15 selectively inhibited the growth of human malignant melanoma (IC(50) value of 3.6-7.3 microgram/mL). Cell aggregation and cell adhesion assays, using HL-60 and HeLa cell lines, evaluated the effect of cytotoxic constituents 1-3, 10 and 14 on immune response and inflammation. PMID:12601682

  13. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants. PMID:19901901

  14. Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols and cytotoxic constituents of Hypericum androsaemum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kou; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Xiu; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Peng, Li-Yan; Li, Yan; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2012-06-01

    Two new polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), androforin A and hyperandrone A, together with twelve known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum androsaemum. Their structures were established by detailed spectral analysis. In the cytotoxic assay, 1,4-O-diferuloylsecoisolariciresinol showed activities comparable with those of cisplatin, and acetyloleanolic acid exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 cancer cell lines. PMID:22700239

  15. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)

    PubMed Central

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E.; Hiltunen, Anna K.; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract’s pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow. PMID:26569236

  16. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS).

    PubMed

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E; Hiltunen, Anna K; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract's pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow. PMID:26569236

  17. Human antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and natural killer cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected autologous and allogeneic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, S; Moore, C M

    1983-01-01

    Using cultured skin shavings, human cellular cytotoxicity to uninfected and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts and Chang liver cells was analysed in a 51Cr release assay. The effector cell requirements and characterization, time kinetics and antibody requirements were similar using each HSV-infected target cell in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) system. There was lower natural killer cytotoxicity (NKC) to uninfected autologous cells than unrelated cells in an 18 hr assay. NKC to infected autologous and unrelated fibroblasts was similar to that mediated against Chang liver cells. Thus NKC to uninfected fibroblasts correlated with the relationship of effector and target cells while NKC to infected cells correlated with the intrinsic lytic potential of the effector cells. The autologous system offers little advantage in the analysis of ADCC or NKC in normal individuals to virus-infected cells, but is probably crucial for the detection of HLA-restricted T-cell cytotoxicity. The demonstration of autologous anti-viral ADCC and NKC lends further credence to the in vivo importance of the mechanisms. PMID:6848451

  18. A Standardized Chemically Modified Curcuma longa Extract Modulates IRAK-MAPK Signaling in Inflammation and Potentiates Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rana, Minakshi; Maurya, Preeti; Reddy, Sukka S; Singh, Vishal; Ahmad, Hafsa; Dwivedi, Anil K; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj K

    2016-01-01

    The TLR/IL-1R pathway is a critical signaling module that is misregulated in pathologies like inflammation and cancer. Extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) enriched in curcumin and carbonyls like turmerones have been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxic effect and the underlying mechanism of a novel chemically modified, non-carbonyl compound enriched Curcuma longa L. (C. longa) extract (CMCE). CMCE (1 or 10 μg/mL; 14 h) significantly decreased LPS (50-100 ng/mL) induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, human, and mouse whole blood as measured by ELISA. LPS-induced IRAK1, MAPK activation, TLR4 expression, TLR4-MyD88 interaction, and IκBα degradation were significantly reduced in CMCE pre-treated THP-1 cells as assessed by Western blotting. CMCE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg; 10 days p.o.) pre-treated and LPS (10 mg/kg) challenged Swiss mice exhibited attenuated plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, aortic iNOS expression, and vascular dysfunction. In a PI permeability assay, cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of CMCE. Analysis of Sub-G1 phase, Annexin V-PI positivity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3, and PARP-1 activation confirmed CMCE induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. IRAK inhibition also sensitized HL-60 cells to CMCE induced cytotoxicity. The present study defines the mechanism underlying the action of CMCE and suggests a therapeutic potential for its use in sepsis and leukemia. PMID:27504095

  19. A Standardized Chemically Modified Curcuma longa Extract Modulates IRAK-MAPK Signaling in Inflammation and Potentiates Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Minakshi; Maurya, Preeti; Reddy, Sukka S.; Singh, Vishal; Ahmad, Hafsa; Dwivedi, Anil K.; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    The TLR/IL-1R pathway is a critical signaling module that is misregulated in pathologies like inflammation and cancer. Extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) enriched in curcumin and carbonyls like turmerones have been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxic effect and the underlying mechanism of a novel chemically modified, non-carbonyl compound enriched Curcuma longa L. (C. longa) extract (CMCE). CMCE (1 or 10 μg/mL; 14 h) significantly decreased LPS (50-100 ng/mL) induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, human, and mouse whole blood as measured by ELISA. LPS-induced IRAK1, MAPK activation, TLR4 expression, TLR4-MyD88 interaction, and IκBα degradation were significantly reduced in CMCE pre-treated THP-1 cells as assessed by Western blotting. CMCE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg; 10 days p.o.) pre-treated and LPS (10 mg/kg) challenged Swiss mice exhibited attenuated plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, aortic iNOS expression, and vascular dysfunction. In a PI permeability assay, cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of CMCE. Analysis of Sub-G1 phase, Annexin V-PI positivity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3, and PARP-1 activation confirmed CMCE induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. IRAK inhibition also sensitized HL-60 cells to CMCE induced cytotoxicity. The present study defines the mechanism underlying the action of CMCE and suggests a therapeutic potential for its use in sepsis and leukemia. PMID:27504095

  20. Cytotoxic effects of four aescin types on human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Seweryn, Ewa; Gleńsk, Michal; Sroda-Pomianek, Kamila; Ceremuga, Ireneusz; Wlodarczyk, Maciej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Four types of aescin that are available on the pharmaceutical market, beta-aescin crystalline, beta-aescin amorphous, beta-aescin sodium and aescin polysulfate, have been analyzed for their cytotoxic effects on human colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo) and doxorubicin-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (LoVo/Dx). Their cytotoxic activities were evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB) and methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays. All four types of aescin exerted strong dose-dependent cytotoxicity to LoVo and, to a lesser degree, LoVo/Dx cell lines. The IC50 value for the LoVo/Dx cell line was higher, but still dose-dependent. Results from both assays demonstrated that p-aescin crystalline has the most cytotoxic activity toward human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:24689224

  1. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  2. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  3. Size dependent cytotoxicity of fly ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Tam, J.S.K.; Wong, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Fly ash samples were collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a coal-fired power plant in Hong Kong. The particles of the respirable range (smaller than 10 {mu}m) were divided into 4 groups according to their particle size (mass median aerodynamic diameters). The surface morphology and the metal contents (Fe, Mn, Al and Zn) of fly ash particles were examined by a scanning electron microscopy and an inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer, respectively. The particles were very heterogeneous in size and shape as well as the concentration of metals. The cytotoxicity of these four groups of fly ash particles were evaluated using an in vitro rat alveolar macrophages culture assay. The viability of alveolar macrophages was lower when incubated with smaller size particles. This relationship was also reflected by the damage of the surface morphology of the cells and the release of cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase) and lysosomal (acid phosphatase and {beta}-glucuronidase) marker enzymes into the culture media.

  4. Synthesis and cytotoxic properties of tryptamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Salikov, Rinat F; Belyy, Aleksandr Yu; Khusnutdinova, Nailya S; Vakhitova, Yulia V; Tomilov, Yury V

    2015-09-01

    The cyclopropyliminium and subsequent Grandberg rearrangements of cyclopropylketone hydrozones lead to the formation of tryptamines, which were additionally substituted at either the aromatic ring atoms or the amino group. The products were tested for their cytotoxic properties against HepG2, Jurkat and HEK293 cell lines using MTT assay. The highest activity as well as the highest selectivity was found amongst the compounds derived with one benzyl substituent at the amino group. The flow cytometry technique revealed cell-type specificity in terms of the mechanism of viability inhibition. Thus, the compounds were found to induce mainly apoptosis in HEK293 and HepG2 cells, while Jurkat cells displayed late apoptotic and necrotic responses. The apoptosis pathway is most likely to include mitochondrial damage. PMID:26174553

  5. Cytotoxic withanolide constituents of Physalis longifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaping; Samadi, Abbas K; Gallagher, Robert J; Araya, Juan J; Tong, Xiaoqin; Day, Victor W; Cohen, Mark S; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2011-12-27

    Fourteen new withanolides, 1-14, named withalongolides A-N, respectively, were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis longifolia together with eight known compounds (15-22). The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. In addition, the structures of withanolides 1, 2, 3, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using a MTS viability assay, eight withanolides (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 16, and 19) and four acetylated derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b) showed potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC₅₀ values in the range between 0.067 and 9.3 μM. PMID:22098611

  6. Cytotoxic Withanolide Constituents of Physalis longifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaping; Samadi, Abbas K.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Araya, Juan J.; Tong, Xiaoqin; Day, Victor W.; Cohen, Mark S.; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara N.

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen new withanolides 1-14, named withalongolides A-N, respectively, were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis longifolia together with eight known compounds (15-22). The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. In addition, the structures of withanolides 1, 2, 3, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using a MTS viability assays, eight withanolides (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 16, and 19) and four acetylated derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b) showed potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC50 values in the range between 0.067 and 9.3 μM. PMID:22098611

  7. Cytotoxic immune responses in the lungs correlate to disease severity in patients with hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, J; Pourazar, J; Mohamed, N; Lejon, K; Evander, M; Blomberg, A; Ahlm, C

    2016-04-01

    Hantavirus infections may cause severe and sometime life-threatening lung failure. The pathogenesis is not fully known and there is an urgent need for effective treatment. We aimed to investigate the association between pulmonary viral load and immune responses, and their relation to disease severity. Bronchoscopy with sampling of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was performed in 17 patients with acute Puumala hantavirus infection and 16 healthy volunteers acting as controls. Lymphocyte subsets, granzyme concentrations, and viral load were determined by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Analyses of BAL fluid revealed significantly higher numbers of activated CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, as well as higher concentrations of the cytotoxins granzymes A and B in hantavirus-infected patients, compared to controls. In patients, Puumala hantavirus RNA was detected in 88 % of BAL cell samples and correlated inversely to the T cell response. The magnitude of the pulmonary cytotoxic lymphocyte response correlated to the severity of disease and systemic organ dysfunction, in terms of need for supplemental oxygen treatment, hypotension, and laboratory data indicating renal failure, cardiac dysfunction, vascular leakage, and cell damage. Regulatory T cell numbers were significantly lower in patients compared to controls, and may reflect inadequate immune regulation during hantavirus infection. Hantavirus infection elicits a pronounced cytotoxic lymphocyte response in the lungs. The magnitude of the immune response was associated with disease severity. These results give insights into the pathogenesis and possibilities for new treatments. PMID:26873376

  8. Cytotoxicity of Hymenocallis expansa alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Antoun, M D; Mendoza, N T; Ríos, Y R; Proctor, G R; Wickramaratne, D B; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    1993-08-01

    From the bulbs and leaves of Hymenocallis expansa (Amaryllidaceae), three alkaloid constituents were identified: (+)-tazettine, (+)-hippeastrine, and (-)-haemanthidine. These alkaloids demonstrated significant cytotoxicity when tested against a panel of human and murine tumor cell lines. PMID:8229020

  9. The impact of pH on cytotoxic effects of three root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Delvarani, Abbas; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Nikoo, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Karamifar, Kasra; Asgar, Kamal; Dadvand, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    Aim Cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants is important due to their close contact with host tissues. This study was to assess the possible impact of pH on cytotoxic effects of MTAD, 17% EDTA, and 2.6% NaOCl on the human gingival fibroblasts using MTT assay. Materials and methods Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the irrigants and their viability was assessed after 1, 6, and 12 h. The pH of the medium was measured in each interval. Light absorption values were measured for each culture medium using Elisa Reader device. Results NaOCl had significantly less cytotoxicity than EDTA and MTAD. Also irrigants cytotoxicity decreased in 12, 1, and 6 h, respectively. Conclusion It seems that variation of the pH resulted in variation in the cytotoxicity of solutions; i.e., it follows the pattern of the pH variation. PMID:23960509

  10. Generation of oxygen radicals by minerals and its correlation to cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, V

    1994-12-01

    Occupational exposure to mineral dust causes pneumoconiosis and other diseases. A cytotoxicity assay to predict the potential of minerals to cause disease would be of great value as a prevention strategy. This study compares the ability of several minerals to generate the more potent oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radical (.OH), and their cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation potentials. Crystalline silica, the most potent cytotoxic and pathogenic mineral studied, showed the least ability to generate .OH radicals while inducing the maximal lipid peroxidation. Coal mine dust, showing the maximal ability to generate .OH radicals, was the least cytotoxic in bioassays of toxicity and induction of lipid peroxidation. Based on these results, it would appear that the ability of minerals to induce lipid peroxidation provides a better correlation with known cytotoxicity and pathogenicity of minerals than does their ability to generate oxygen radicals. PMID:7705284

  11. A novel assay to assess the effectiveness of antiangiogenic drugs in human breast cancer.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cytotoxic drugs maintain antiangiogenic properties, but there are no human, tumor-based assays to evaluate their antiangiogenic potential. We used a fibrin-thrombin clot-based angiogenesis model to evaluate the angiogenic response of human breast cancer to various cytotoxic agents commonly used...

  12. Cytotoxic activity of Staphylococcus hyicus.

    PubMed

    Allaker, R P; Whitlock, M; Lloyd, D H

    1991-01-01

    Culture supernatants from a number of Staphylococcus hyicus strains caused toxic effects to both murine fibroblast and porcine keratinocyte cells in culture. The extent of cytotoxicity was shown to differ between strains and may provide an indication of strain virulence. Purification of cytotoxic activity produced by S. hyicus (strain P119) using preparative isoelectric-focussing demonstrated it to be cytolytic, haemolytic and non-proteolytic. The cytotoxin demonstrates certain properties in common with the delta haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:2024438

  13. Stability and cytotoxicity of crystallin amyloid nanofibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manmeet; Healy, Jackie; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan; Lassé, Moritz; Puskar, Ljiljana; Tobin, Mark J.; Valery, Celine; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Sasso, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Previous work has identified crystallin proteins extracted from fish eye lenses as a cheap and readily available source for the self-assembly of amyloid nanofibrils. However, before exploring potential applications, the biophysical aspects and safety of this bionanomaterial need to be assessed so as to ensure that it can be effectively and safely used. In this study, crude crystallin amyloid fibrils are shown to be stable across a wide pH range, in a number of industrially relevant solvents, at both low and high temperatures, and in the presence of proteases. Crystallin nanofibrils were compared to well characterised insulin and whey protein fibrils using Thioflavin T assays and TEM imaging. Cell cytotoxicity assays suggest no adverse impact of both mature and fragmented crystallin fibrils on cell viability of Hec-1a endometrial cells. An IR microspectroscopy study supports long-term structural integrity of crystallin nanofibrils.Previous work has identified crystallin proteins extracted from fish eye lenses as a cheap and readily available source for the self-assembly of amyloid nanofibrils. However, before exploring potential applications, the biophysical aspects and safety of this bionanomaterial need to be assessed so as to ensure that it can be effectively and safely used. In this study, crude crystallin amyloid fibrils are shown to be stable across a wide pH range, in a number of industrially relevant solvents, at both low and high temperatures, and in the presence of proteases. Crystallin nanofibrils were compared to well characterised insulin and whey protein fibrils using Thioflavin T assays and TEM imaging. Cell cytotoxicity assays suggest no adverse impact of both mature and fragmented crystallin fibrils on cell viability of Hec-1a endometrial cells. An IR microspectroscopy study supports long-term structural integrity of crystallin nanofibrils. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ThT fluorescence graphs of buffers and solvents used for

  14. Discovery of Mandelalide E and Determinants of Cytotoxicity for the Mandelalide Series.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mohamad; Serrill, Jeffrey D; Sikorska, Justyna; Ye, Tao; Ishmael, Jane E; McPhail, Kerry L

    2016-03-18

    Recollection of the tunicate source of the mandelalides has provided new and known analogues that have facilitated expanded analyses of the disputed cancer cytotoxicity of mandelalide A following a number of recent reported total syntheses. Using newly characterized mandelalide E, reisolated natural mandelalides B and C, and synthetic mandelalide A, the cytotoxicity of the mandelalides is demonstrated to be strongly influenced by compound glycosylation and assay cell density. Glycosylated mandelalides reduced the viability of human cancer cells cultured at a high starting density with a rank order of potency A > B ≫ E, yet display dramatically reduced cytotoxic efficacy against low density cultures. PMID:26914981

  15. Comparison of the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of twenty unsaturated sesquiterpene dialdehydes from plants and mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Anke, H; Sterner, O

    1991-08-01

    Twenty unsaturated sesquiterpene dialdehydes were tested for antimicrobial, algaecidal, cytotoxic, and mutagenic activity. In addition to the known antifungal activity, polygodial (1) also exhibited antibacterial and cytotoxic activity; epipolygodial (2) was slightly less active. The most active compounds were: isovelleral (7), isoisovelleral (8), velleral (20), and methylmarasmate (6). With the exception of velleral (20), they also exhibited mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Derivatization to less polar compounds usually increased the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects and reduced mutagenicity, while the introduction of hydroxyl groups had the reverse effect. PMID:1775575

  16. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells. PMID:23391534

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  18. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  19. Baicalein increases the cytotoxicity of cisplatin by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Suzhi; Zhang, Yuan; Tao, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Drug resistance limits the clinical application of cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Gap junction (GJ) is a channel that enhances cytotoxicity of certain chemotherapeutic agents. Baicalein is well known for its antitumor activity. This study investigated the effect of baicalein on cisplatin cytotoxicity and the relationship between this effect and the modulation of the GJ function in connexin 26 (Cx26)‑transfected HeLa cells. The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to examine the effect of baicalein on cell viability. A 'parachute' assay was used to investigate the effect of baicalein on GJ function. The effects of baicalein on cisplatin cytotoxicity and GJ function were assayed by standard colony‑forming assays. The expression of Cx26 was monitored by western blotting. It was observed that exposure of Cx26‑transfected cells to cisplatin reduced the number of colonies formed in low‑density cultures (no GJ formation) and in high‑density cultures (GJ formation), but the toxic effect was greater when cells were seeded at a high density. In the absence of connexin expression or with blockage of connexin channels however, cell density had no effect on cisplatin toxicity. Baicalein significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity, but this effect required the presence of functional GJs between the cells. In conclusion, the dependence of cisplatin toxicity on cell density is mediated by GJs. Baicalein increases cisplatin cytotoxicity through enhancing GJ intercellular communication. PMID:24736991

  20. Evaluation of the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of three ginkgolic acids.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kerstin; Braun, Christine; Krug, Isabel; Schrenk, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgolic acids (GAs) are alkylphenols which can be found in the fruits and leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) used in herbal teas, drugs and food supplements. Standardized leaf extracts of G. biloba are widely used in the therapy of cognitive decline including Alzheimer's diseases. However, GAs are known to have cytotoxic and allergenic potential and are suspected to possess genotoxic properties. Therefore, we examined in this study the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of three major GAs with different alkyl or alkenyl groups (13:0, 15:1, 17:1). Cytotoxicity was assessed in male Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) using the resazurin reduction assay. The substances showed concentration dependent cytotoxic effects after 24h of incubation at concentrations of 50μM and higher. Mutagenicity was determined by using the Ames fluctuation assay in different Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix). Furthermore, we analyzed the mutagenic potency of the three major GAs in V79 cells by performing the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) assay which detects gene mutations at the HPRT locus. None of the mutagenic assays showed any increase in mutagenicity above background. Therefore, these data provide evidence that the GAs tested have some cytotoxic potency but are not mutagenic. Thus, our findings contribute to the risk assessment of preparations containing plant extracts from G. biloba. PMID:25448085

  1. Asparagine Depletion Potentiates the Cytotoxic Effect of Chemotherapy Against Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Panosyan, Eduard H.; Wang, Yuntao; Xia, Peng; Lee, Wai-Nang Paul; Pak, Youngju; Laks, Dan R.; Lin, Henry J.; Moore, Theodore B.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Kornblum, Harley I.; Lasky, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting amino acid metabolism has therapeutic implications for aggressive brain tumors. Asparagine is an amino acid that is synthesized by normal cells. However, some cancer cells lack asparagine synthetase (ASNS), the key enzyme for asparagine synthesis. Asparaginase (ASNase) contributes to eradication of acute leukemia by decreasing asparagine levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. However, leukemic cells may become ASNase-resistant by up-regulating ASNS. High expression of ASNS has also been associated with biological aggressiveness of other cancers, including gliomas. Here, the impact of enzymatic depletion of asparagine on proliferation of brain tumor cells was determined. ASNase was used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Viability assays for ASNase-treated cells demonstrated significant growth reduction in multiple cell lines. This effect was reversed by glutamine in a dose-dependent manner -- as expected, because glutamine is the main amino group donor for asparagine synthesis. ASNase treatment also reduced sphere formation by medulloblastoma and primary glioblastoma cells. ASNase-resistant glioblastoma cells exhibited elevated levels of ASNS mRNA. ASNase co-treatment significantly enhanced gemcitabine or etoposide cytotoxicity against glioblastoma cells. Xenograft tumors in vivo showed no significant response to ASNase monotherapy and little response to temozolomide (TMZ) alone. However, combinatorial therapy with ASNase and TMZ resulted in significant growth suppression for an extended duration of time. Taken together, these findings indicate that amino acid depletion warrants further investigation as adjunctive therapy for brain tumors. PMID:24505127

  2. An integrated cellular model to evaluate cytotoxic effects in mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fernández Freire, P; Peropadre, A; Pérez Martín, J M; Herrero, O; Hazen, M J

    2009-12-01

    The ever growing anthropogenic pressure to the environment has lead in 2007 to the revision of the existing legislation and the approval of the new European law regarding the production and importation of chemicals, known as REACH. This new legal framework supports the development of alternative methods to animal experimentation encouraging the improvement and/or design of new methodological strategies for the toxicological evaluation of chemical compounds. Even though cytotoxicity studies are a reductionist approach to acute toxicity in vivo, they offer the best agreement between obtaining relevant information about the mechanism of toxic action and the use of alternative methods. Following this trend, this work presents an integrated cellular strategy in order to know the toxicity and mechanism of action of chemical compounds, using simple and reproducible in vitro systems. The experimental procedures are performed in two steps. The first one involves the systematic analysis of the main cellular targets using proliferation, viability and morphological probes. The second step relies upon the results obtained in the first step, including specific assays that focus on the mechanism of toxic action and the cellular response. The benefits of this strategy are exemplified with two real cases: pentachlorophenol and rotenone. PMID:19540333

  3. Influence of chitosan coating on magnetic nanoparticles in endothelial cells and acute tissue biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Agotegaray, Mariela; Campelo, Adrián; Zysler, Roberto; Gumilar, Fernanda; Bras, Cristina; Minetti, Alejandra; Massheimer, Virginia; Lassalle, Verónica

    2016-08-01

    Chitosan coating on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was studied on biological systems as a first step toward the application in the biomedical field as drug-targeted nanosystems. Composition of MNPs consists of magnetite functionalized with oleic acid and coated with the biopolymer chitosan or glutaraldehyde-cross-linked chitosan. The influence of the biopolymeric coating has been evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays on the effects of these MNPs on rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) viability and on the random tissue distribution in mice. Results were correlated with the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. Nitric oxide (NO) production by ECs was determined, considering that endothelial NO represents one of the major markers of ECs function. Cell viability was studied by MTT assay. Different doses of the MNPs (1, 10 and 100 μg/mL) were assayed, revealing that MNPs coated with non-cross-linked chitosan for 6 and 24 h did not affect neither NO production nor cell viability. However, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed after 36 h treatment with the highest dose of this nanocarrier. It was also revealed that the presence and dose of glutaraldehyde in the MNPs structureimpact on the cytotoxicity. The study of the acute tissue distribution was performed acutely in mice after 24 h of an intraperitoneal injection of the MNPs and sub acutely, after 28 days of weekly administration. Both formulations greatly avoided the initial clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in liver. Biological properties found for N1 and N2 in the performed assays reveal that chitosan coating improves biocompatibility of MNPs turning these magnetic nanosystems as promising devices for targeted drug delivery. PMID:27251857

  4. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  5. Comparison of two rapid assays for Clostridium difficile Common antigen and a C difficile toxin A/B assay with the cell culture neutralization assay.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Alcabasa, Romina C; Lema, Clara A; Carroll, Karen C

    2010-01-01

    We compared 3 rapid assays for Clostridium difficile with a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Of 600 stool samples, 46 were positive for toxigenic C difficile. Both rapid common antigen assays were highly sensitive (91.3%-100%) and, therefore, were appropriate screening tests. The rapid toxin assay had poor sensitivity (61%) but excellent specificity (99.3%). Testing stools for glutamate dehydrogenase (step 1) and those positive with a rapid toxin assay (step 2) would correctly classify 81% of submitted specimens within 2 hours, including during periods of limited staffing (evenings, nights, and weekends). CCNA could then be used as a third step to test rapid toxin-negative samples, thereby providing a final result for the remaining 19% of samples by 48 to 72 hours. The use of rapid assays as outlined could enhance timely diagnosis of C difficile. PMID:20023265

  6. Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Lalande, Valérie; Barrault, Laurence; Wadel, Sophie; Eckert, Catherine; Petit, Jean-Claude; Barbut, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A new assay (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian Bioscience), based on the original loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, was evaluated with 472 unformed stools from patients suspected of Clostridium difficile infection. Compared to the toxigenic culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 91.8, 99.1, 91.8, and 99.1% for the illumigene C. difficile assay and 69.4, 100, 100, and 96.6% for the cytotoxicity assay, respectively. PMID:21525213

  7. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Lalande, Valérie; Barrault, Laurence; Wadel, Sophie; Eckert, Catherine; Petit, Jean-Claude; Barbut, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    A new assay (illumigene C. difficile; Meridian Bioscience), based on the original loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, was evaluated with 472 unformed stools from patients suspected of Clostridium difficile infection. Compared to the toxigenic culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 91.8, 99.1, 91.8, and 99.1% for the illumigene C. difficile assay and 69.4, 100, 100, and 96.6% for the cytotoxicity assay, respectively. PMID:21525213

  8. Further drimane sesquiterpenes from Drimys brasiliensis stem barks with cytotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Fratoni, Eduarda; Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Franchi, Gilberto C; Nowill, Alexandre E; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Monache, Franco Delle; Malheiros, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer. Its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in vitro models using extracts and isolated compounds. This study investigates the cytotoxic effects of stem bark extracts of D. brasiliensis as well as isolated compounds that may be responsible for the activitys and evaluates them in leukemia cells. The stem bark extract were subjected to column chromatography, and the structures of compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods by using NMR and infrared spectroscopy and GC/MS. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in chronic myeloid (K562) and acute B lymphoblastic (Nalm6) leukemia cells using tetrazolium assay (MTT). Two new compounds were isolated 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11α-enol-albicanol (1a) and the isomer 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11β-enol-albicanol (1b) and 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-isodrimeninol (2). The known compounds polygonal acid (3a) and the isomer isopolygonal acid (3b), fuegin (4a) and the isomer epifuegin (4b), the mixture drimanial (5) and 1β-O-(p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl)-6α-hydroxypolygodial (6) were also isolated. The drimanes (1-4) and drimanial (5), 1β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial (7), 1β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial (8), and polygodial (9) isolated previously were assessed in tumor cells. The IC50 values were between 3.56 and 128.91 μM. 1-β-(p-cumaroiloxi)-polygodial showed the best result with IC50 8.18 and 3.56 μM by K562 and Nalm6, respectively. The chloroform extract of the stem bark of D. brasiliensis is a great source of drimane sesquiterpenes. Our experimental data suggest that drimanes are responsible for cytotoxicity activity demonstrated by this species, especially those with the aldehyde group linked to carbons C-11 and C-12. PMID:27095358

  9. [Imaging in acute toxic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Dietemann, J-L; Botelho, C; Nogueira, T; Vargas, M I; Audibert, C; Abu Eid, M; Bogorin, A; Bernardo, R; Jacques, C; Kremer, S; Zöllner, G

    2004-09-01

    Neuroimaging, particularly MR imaging, plays a major role for the diagnosis of many acute toxic encephalopathies. Toxic disorders are related to drugs (immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapeutic agents, anti-epileptic drugs, heroin...), to metals (lead, manganese, mercury...), and to industrial and environmental chemicals (solvent, carbon monoxide...). MR imaging with diffusion and perfusion imaging provides information regarding brain lesions induced by the toxic agents (vasogenic edema, cytotoxic edema, infarction, hemorrhage, demyelination...). PMID:15545943

  10. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of mercury in house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Tewari, R R

    2011-01-01

    Mercury, one of the most widely diffused and hazardous environmental contaminants, induces oxidative stress in organisms, which ultimately leads to genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. House fly Musca domestica L. was used as a model for assaying the genotoxic potential of mercury with the help of micronucleus assay, chromosomal aberration assay as end points and cytotoxicity by assaying the mitotic index and the extent of tissue damage by trypan blue dye exclusion. Late third instar larvae were exposed to different dietary concentrations of mercury (0.0001 mg/ml- 10 mg/ml) for various time intervals. A dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus frequency and mitotic index was observed. Micronucleus frequency increases with time while mitotic index decreases showing decreasing rate of cell proliferation due to an increase in cell death. Trypan blue staining gives the visual manifestation of cytotoxicity at higher concentrations of mercury (1 mg/ml- 10mg/ml). The present study suggests that the house fly model may be used to assay the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of mercury as well as other environmental pollutants. PMID:21366971

  11. Granzyme B promotes cytotoxic lymphocyte transmigration via basement membrane remodeling.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Monica D; Munoz, Marcia A; Jain, Rohit; Tong, Philip L; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Kleifeld, Oded; Ho, Bosco; Olson, Matthew; Turner, Stephen J; Mrass, Paulus; Weninger, Wolfgang; Bird, Phillip I

    2014-12-18

    Granzyme B (GzmB) is a protease with a well-characterized intracellular role in targeted destruction of compromised cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes. However, GzmB also cleaves extracellular matrix components, suggesting that it influences the interplay between cytotoxic lymphocytes and their environment. Here, we show that GzmB-null effector T cells and natural killer (NK) cells exhibited a cell-autonomous homing deficit in mouse models of inflammation and Ectromelia virus infection. Intravital imaging of effector T cells in inflamed cremaster muscle venules revealed that GzmB-null cells adhered normally to the vessel wall and could extend lamellipodia through it but did not cross it efficiently. In vitro migration assays showed that active GzmB was released from migrating cytotoxic lymphocytes and enabled chemokine-driven movement through basement membranes. Finally, proteomic analysis demonstrated that GzmB cleaved basement membrane constituents. Our results highlight an important role for GzmB in expediting cytotoxic lymphocyte diapedesis via basement membrane remodeling. PMID:25526309

  12. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-09-01

    The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity. PMID:21718715

  13. Polyphenols in Ammania auriculata: structures, antioxidative activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nawwar, M A; Youb, N A; El-Raey, M A; Zaghloul, S S; Hashem, A M; Mostafa, E S; Eldahshan, O; Werner, V; Becker, A; Haertel, B; Lindequist, U; Linscheid, M W

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological investigations of the extract of Ammania auriculata (Lytheraceae) resulted in the identification of eight polyphenols (1 - 8) for the first time from this plant, including the gallotannin, 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-(α,β)-4C1-glucopyranose (8), for which 1D and 2D-NMR spectra were recorded and assigned for the first time. The structures of all isolates (1 - 8) were elucidated by conventional methods, spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and by HR-ESIMS as well. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities, determined by the DPPH and ORAC methods and for their cytotoxicity against the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT using the neutral red assay (NRU) and cell cycle analysis. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species production with ED50 values between 3.22 and 9.79 μg/ml. Compounds 1, 3, 4, and 5 showed cytotoxic activity against HaCaT cells with IC50 values between 30.7 and 84.1 μg/ml. The new galloyl glucose (8) was found not cytotoxic. Ellagitannins, 2,3-hexahydroxy-((α/β)-glucopyranose (1) and 1 -0-galloyl 2,3-hexahydroxy-(α)-glucopyranose (5) possess remarkable antioxidative and comparably weak cytotoxic activity. PMID:25985585

  14. A study on the cytotoxicity of carbon-based materials.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dipendu; Heldt, Caryn L; Gencoglu, Maria F; Vijayaragavan, K Saagar; Chen, Jihua; Saksule, Ashish

    2016-11-01

    With an aim to understand the origin and key contributing factors towards carbon-induced cytotoxicity, we have studied five different carbon samples with diverse surface area, pore width, shape and size, conductivity and surface functionality. All the carbon materials were characterized with surface area and pore size distribution, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron microscopic imaging. We performed cytotoxicity study in Caco-2 cells by colorimetric assay, oxidative stress analysis by reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, cellular metabolic activity measurement by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and visualization of cellular internalization by TEM imaging. The carbon materials demonstrated a varying degree of cytotoxicity in contact with Caco-2 cells. The lowest cell survival rate was observed for nanographene, which possessed the minimal size amongst all the carbon samples under this study. None of the carbons induced oxidative stress to the cells as indicated by the ROS generation results. Cellular metabolic activity study revealed that the carbon materials caused ATP depletion in cells and nanographene caused the highest depletion. Visual observation by TEM imaging indicated the cellular internalization of nanographene. This study confirmed that the size is the key cause of carbon-induced cytotoxicity and it is probably caused by the ATP depletion within the cell. PMID:27524001

  15. Cytotoxic and immunostimulatory effects of Bacteroides cell products.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Lewis, D M; Gerencser, V F; Gerencser, M A

    1990-09-01

    The etiologic role of Bacteroides in both periodontal and periapical infections has been well documented, with current interest focusing on the specific pathogenic mechanisms involved. The effects of cell fractions derived from Bacteroides gingivalis (BG), Bacteroides intermedius (BI), and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus (BA) have been studied in vitro through: an assessment of the direct cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts using a tetrazolium dye reduction assay, an evaluation of murine lymphocyte stimulation and interleukin-1 release, and the induction of human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. Both BG and BI stimulated interleukin-1 release (P less than 0.001), while BA, a nonoral organism, was not significantly active in this respect. Only BG sonicates were able to induce lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (P less than 0.005). All three Bacteroides species demonstrated direct cytotoxic effects on cultured gingival fibroblasts, and these effects were related to the relative protein content and endotoxin activity of the sonicate preparations for each organism. These data show that BG and BI possess factors which may enhance their virulence through activities not shared with BA. PMID:2250226

  16. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the aerial parts of Inula aucheriana.

    PubMed

    Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Eslami-Tehrani, Bahara; Pirani, Atefeh; Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam; Read, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Inula aucheriana DC is a member of the family Asteraceae which is known to produce cytotoxic secondary metabolites noted as sesquiterpene lactones. In the present study, sesquiterpene lactones inuchinenolide B, 6-deoxychamissonolide (stevin) and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10),11(13)-dien-12,8α-olide were isolated from I. aucheriana. Inuchinenolide B and 14-acetoxy-1β,5α,7αH-4β-hydroxy-guai-9(10),11(13)-dien-12,8α-olide were further evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay to demonstrate cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of (56.6, 19.0), (39.0, 11.8), and (55.7, 15.3) μg/mL against HepG-2, MCF-7 and A-549 cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the two evaluated sesquiterpene lactones partly explains the cytotoxic activity that was previously observed for the extracts of Inula aucheriana. The isolated compounds could be further investigated in cancer research studies. PMID:25993354

  17. An efficient analysis of nanomaterial cytotoxicity based on bioimpedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2010-09-01

    In the emerging nanotechnology field, there is an urgent need for the development of a significant and sensitive method that can be used to analyse and compare the cytotoxicities of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), since such materials can be applied as contrast agents or drug delivery carriers. The bioimpedance system possesses great potential in many medical research fields including nanotechnology. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is a particular bioimpedance system that offers a real-time, non-invasive, and quantitative measurement method for the cytotoxicity of various materials. The present work compared the cytotoxicity of AuNPs to that of purchased single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The size-controlled and monodispersed AuNPs were synthesized under autoclaved conditions and reduced by ascorbic acid (AA) whereas the purchased SWCNTs were used without any surface modifications. Bioimpedance results were validated by conventional WST-1 and trypan blue assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were performed to examine nanomaterials inside the VERO cells. This research evaluates the ability of the ECIS system compared to those of conventional methods in analyzing the cytotoxicity of AuNPs and SWCNTs with higher sensitivity under real-time conditions.

  18. Cytotoxic Alkaloids from the Stem of Xylopia laevigata.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Leociley R A; Costa, Cinara O D Sousa; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B da C; Santo, Felipe R do E; Nepel, Angelita; Dutra, Lívia M; Silva, Felipe M A; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae), known locally as "meiú" or "pindaíba", is widely used in folk medicine in Northeastern Brazil. In the present work, we performed phytochemical analyses of the stem of X. laevigata, which led to the isolation of 19 alkaloids: (-)-roemerine, (+)-anonaine, lanuginosine, (+)-glaucine, (+)-xylopine, oxoglaucine, (+)-norglaucine, asimilobine, (-)-xylopinine, (+)-norpurpureine, (+)-N-methyllaurotetanine, (+)-norpredicentrine, (+)-discretine, (+)-calycinine, (+)-laurotetanine, (+)-reticuline, (-)-corytenchine, (+)-discretamine and (+)-flavinantine. The in vitro cytotoxic activity toward the tumor cell lines B16-F10 (mouse melanoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia) and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) and non-tumor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was tested using the Alamar Blue assay. Lanuginosine, (+)-xylopine and (+)-norglaucine had the highest cytotoxic activity. Additionally, the pro-apoptotic effects of lanuginosine and (+)-xylopine were investigated in HepG2 cells using light and fluorescence microscopies and flow cytometry-based assays. Cell morphology consistent with apoptosis and a marked phosphatidylserine externalization were observed in lanuginosine- and (+)-xylopine-treated cells, suggesting induction of apoptotic cell death. In addition, (+)-xylopine treatment caused G₂/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. These data suggest that X. laevigata is a potential source for cytotoxic alkaloids. PMID:27399666

  19. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic evaluation of some new quinazolinone derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, F.; Jafari, E.; Hakimelahi, G.H.; Khajouei, M. Rahmani; Jalali, M.; Khodarahmi, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Quinazolinone ring system is renown because of its wide spectrum of pharmacological activities due to various substitutions on this ring system. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthesized compounds in our laboratory was determined by micro dilution Alamar Blue® Assay against six strains of bacteria (three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative) and three strains of fungi. Following a broth micro dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) tests were performed. Cytotoxic effects of the compounds were measured using the MTT colorimetric assay on HeLa cell line. Results of antimicrobial screening showed that compounds had better bacteriostatic activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Results from MBC revealed that these compounds had more significant bacteriostatic than bactericidal activities. Nearly all screened compounds showed good activity against C. albicans and A. niger. Results from MFC indicated that these compounds had better fungistatic rather than fungicidal activities. The synthesized target molecules were found to exhibit different cytotoxicity in the range of 10 to 100 μM on HeLa cell line. Compounds 6 and 7 exhibited acceptable cytotoxicity approximately 50% at 10 μM concentration. PMID:23181085

  20. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

  1. Cytotoxic Effect of Lipophilic Bismuth Dimercaptopropanol Nanoparticles on Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; Badireddy, Appala Raju; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Francisco, Contreras-Cordero Juan; Israel, Martinez-Gonzalez Gustavo; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Chellam, Shankararaman; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth nanoparticles have many interesting properties to be applied in biomedical and medicinal sectors, however their safety in humans have not been comprehensively investigated. The objective of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of bismuth dimercaptopropanol nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) on epithelial cells. The nanoparticles are composed of 18.7 nm crystallites on average and have a rhombohedral structure, agglomerating into chains-like or clusters of small nanoparticles. Based on MTT viability assay and fluorescence microscopy, cytotoxicity was not observed on monkey kidney cells after growing with 5 µM of BisBAL NPs for 24 h. Employing same techniques, identical results were obtained with human epithelial cells (HeLa), showing a not strain-dependent phenomenon. The absence of toxic effects on epithelial cells growing with BisBAL NPs was corroborated with long-time experiments (24-72 hrs.), showing no difference in comparison with growing control (cells without nanoparticles). Further, genotoxicity assays, comet assay and fluorescent microscopy and electrophoresis in bromide-stained agarose gel revealed no damage to genomic DNA of MA104 cells after 24 h. of exposition to BisBAL NPs. Finally, the effect of bismuth nanoparticles on protein synthesis was studied in cells growing with BisBAL NPs for 24 h. SDS-PAGE assays showed no difference between treated and untreated cells, suggesting that BisBAL NPs did not interfere with protein synthesis. Hence BisBAL NPs do not appear to exert cytotoxic effects suggesting their biological compatibility with epithelial cells. PMID:27398446

  2. Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

  3. Cytotoxic activity of Alpinia murdochii Ridl.: A mountain ginger species from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Ibrahim, Halijah; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alpinia murdochii (Zingiberaceae) is a wild ginger species restricted to mountain areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Due to rapid development and deforestation activities, this species is becoming rare. This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of A. murdochii. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of leaves and rhizomes of A. murdochii against selected human cancer cell lines by using in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Materials and Methods: The leaves and rhizomes of A. murdochii were extracted in hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and methanol (MeOH) prior to cytotoxic activity assessment against selected human cancer cell lines, namely MCF7 (hormone dependent breast carcinoma cell line), HT29 (colon carcinoma cell line), and SKOV-3 (ovarian cancer cell line) by using in vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay. Results: The hexane and CH2Cl2 extracts of both leaves and rhizomes exhibited remarkable cytotoxic effect against SKOV-3 cells with the IC50 values in the range of 5.2-16.7 μg/ml. Conclusion: Based on the preliminary data obtained in the present study, the leaves and rhizomes of A. murdochii may be viable therapeutic or preventive candidates for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24695515

  4. In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2014-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

  5. Cytotoxic activity and DNA-binding properties of isoeuxanthone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui Fang; Yan, Hong; Gao, Xianghua; Niu, Baolong; Guo, Ruijie; Wei, Liqiao; Xu, Bingshe; Tang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the interactions of different groups substituted isoeuxanthone derivatives with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) were investigated by spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the xanthone derivatives could intercalate into the DNA base pairs by the plane of xanthone ring and the various substituents may influence the binding affinity with DNA according to the calculated quenching constant values. Furthermore, two tumor cell lines including the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of xanthone derivatives by acid phosphatase assay. Analyses showed that the oxiranylmethoxy substituted xanthone exhibited more effective cytotoxic activity against the cancer cells than the other substituted xanthones. The effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro agreed with the studies of DNA-binding. PMID:24583780

  6. Evaluation of synthetic coumarins for antiausterity cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Conner M; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Hall, Eric A; Awale, Suresh; Magolan, Jakob

    2016-03-01

    A series of functionalized coumarins were synthesized and evaluated for their capacity to inhibit the resistance to starvation of pancreatic cancer cells. This form of cytotoxicity, termed 'antiausterity' activity, was evaluated using a preferential cytotoxicity assay that compared cell survival in nutrient poor and nutrient rich conditions. Six of the seventeen compounds showed weak antiausterity activity against PANC-1. Compound 34 was active against PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and Capan-1 cancer cell lines. All of the compounds tested were simplified structural analogs of previously reported natural product leads. Six of the compounds, including 34, contain functionalized triazoles as novel potential bioisosteres of the side chain of the natural product angelmarin. Overall, the analogs were found to have low antiausterity activity relative to the corresponding natural products. PMID:26832787

  7. HPLC analysis and cytotoxic activity of Vernonia cinerea.

    PubMed

    Khay, Mom; Toeng, Phirom; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Mabrouki, Fathi; Sothea, Kim; Ollivier, Evelyne; Elias, Riad; Bun, Sok-Siya

    2012-10-01

    The extracts of five Cambodian medicinal plants (Aganosma marginata, Dracaena cambodiana, Harrisonia perforata, Hymenodictyon excelsum and Vernonia cinerea) were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells, using the MTT assay. Among these five plants, Vernonia cinerea displayed potent cytotoxicity. One main sesquiterpene lactone, 8alpha-tigloyloxy-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate was isolated from the whole plant of V. cinerea. This compound was active against both cancer cell lines (IC50 = 3.50 microM for HT29 and IC50 = 4.27 microM for HepG2). To quantify this compound in the plant, an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated. PMID:23156983

  8. Cytotoxic and natural killer cell stimulatory constituents of Phyllanthus songboiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yulin; Yuan, Chunhua; Deng, Youcai; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Tu, Vuong Tan; Chai, Hee-Byung; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Fuchs, James R.; Yalowich, Jack C.; Yu, Jianhua; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    A dichapetalin-type triterpenoid and a dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignan, together with five known lignans, a known aromatic diterpenoid, and a known acylated phytosterol, were isolated from the aerial parts of Phyllanthus songboiensis, collected in Vietnam. Their structures were determined by interpretation of the spectroscopic data, and the inhibitory activity toward the HT-29 human colon cancer cells of all isolates was evaluated by a cytotoxicity assay. The known arylnaphthalene lignan, (+)-acutissimalignan A, was highly cytotoxic toward HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 19 nM, but this compound was inactive as a DNA topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα) poison. The known phytosterol, (−)-β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-(6-O-palmitoyl)glucopyranoside, was found to stimulate natural killer (NK) cells at a concentration of 10 μM in the presence of interleukin 12 (IL-12). PMID:25596805

  9. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities from Jatropha dioica roots.

    PubMed

    Silva-Belmares, Yesenia; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; de la Cruz-Galicia, María Guadalupe; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar

    2014-05-01

    The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts obtained from roots of the medicinal plant Jatropha dioica (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated. In order to evaluate their antimicrobial activity, the organic extracts were tested against clinical isolates of the human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Sporothrix schenckii. Results revealed that the hexane extract possess the stronger activity and a broader microbicide spectrum compared to the acetone and ethanol extracts. The activity of hexane extract may be attributed in part to the presence of β-sitosterol, the major compound identified by bioautography. The hexane extract, as well as the bioactive fraction were not cytotoxic when assays were profiled against the normal cell lines Chang, OK and LLCPK-1 (IC50>1000 μg mL(-1)). PMID:26031013

  10. Stability, cytotoxicity and cell uptake of water-soluble dendron–conjugated gold nanoparticles with 3, 12 and 17 nm cores† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional characterization methods and procedures in addition to the data for the characterization of glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles and dendron-conjugated gold nanoparticles including FT-IR spectra (Fig. S1 and S2), UV-vis spectra (Fig. S3 and S6), TEM images (Fig. S4), MALDI-TOF/TOF spectra (Fig. S5), fluorescence spectra (Fig. S6 and S7), In vitro cytotoxic assay results (Fig. S9) and ICP-MS results (Tables 1 and 2). DOI: 10.1039/c5tb00608b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Deol, Suprit; Weerasuriya, Nisala

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the synthesis of water-soluble dendron–conjugated gold nanoparticles (Den–AuNPs) with various average core sizes and the evaluation of stability, cytotoxicity, cell permeability and uptake of these materials. The characterization of Den–AuNPs using various techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), 1H NMR, FT-IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy confirms the dendron conjugation to the glutathione-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The stability of AuNPs and Den–AuNPs in solutions of different pH and salt concentration is determined by monitoring the changes in surface plasmon bands of gold using UV-vis spectroscopy. The stability of Den–AuNPs at different pH remained about the same compared to that of AuNPs. In comparison, the Den–AuNPs are found to be more stable than the precursor AuNPs maintaining their solubility in the aqueous solution with the salt concentration of up to 100 mM. The improved stability of Den–AuNPs suggests that the post-functionalization of thiol-capped gold nanoparticle surfaces with dendrons can further improve the physiological stability and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle-based materials. Cytotoxicity studies of AuNPs and Den–AuNPs with and without fluorophores are also performed by examining cell viability for 3T3 fibroblasts using a MTT cell proliferation assay. The conjugation of dendrons to the AuNPs with a fluorophore is able to decrease the cytotoxicity brought about by the fluorophore. The successful uptake of Den–AuNPs in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells shows the physiological viability of the hybrid materials. PMID:26366289

  11. Immune checkpoint inhibitors enhance cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against human myeloid leukaemic blasts.

    PubMed

    Poh, Su Li; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2016-05-01

    We studied whether blockade of inhibitory receptors on cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells by immune checkpoint inhibitors could increase its anti-tumour potency against haematological malignancies. CIK cultures were generated from seven normal donors and nine patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or multiple myeloma (MM). The inhibitory receptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator, CD200 receptor, lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing-3 (TIM-3) were present at variable percentages in most CIK cultures, while cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR2DL1/2/3) were expressed at low level in most cultures. Without blockade, myeloid leukaemia cells were susceptible to autologous and allogeneic CIK-mediated cytotoxicity. Blockade of KIR, LAG-3, PD-1 and TIM-3 but not CTLA-4 resulted in remarkable increase in killing against these targets, even in those with poor baseline cytotoxicity. ALL and MM targets were resistant to CIK-mediated cytotoxicity, and blockade of receptors did not increase cytotoxicity to a meaningful extent. Combination of inhibitors against two receptors did not further increase cytotoxicity. Interestingly, potentiation of CIK killing by blocking antibodies was not predicted by expression of receptors on CIK and their respective ligands on the targets. Compared to un-activated T and NK cells, blockade potentiated the cytotoxicity of CIK cells to a greater degree and at a lower E:T ratio, but without significant increase in cytotoxicity against normal white cell. Our findings provide the basis for clinical trial combining autologous CIK cells with checkpoint inhibitors for patients with AML. PMID:26961084

  12. Griscelli syndrome: characterization of a new mutation and rescue of T-cytotoxic activity by retroviral transfer of RAB27A gene.

    PubMed

    Bizario, João C S; Feldmann, Jérôme; Castro, Fabíola A; Ménasché, Gaël; Jacob, Cristina M A; Cristofani, L; Casella, Erasmo B; Voltarelli, Júlio C; de Saint-Basile, Geneviève; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2004-07-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is caused by mutations in the MYO5A (GS1), RAB27A (GS2), or MLPH (GS3) genes, all of which lead to a similar pigmentary dilution. In addition, GS1 patients show primary neurological impairment, whereas GS2 patients present immunodeficiency and periods of lymphocyte proliferation and activation, leading to their infiltration in many organs, such as the nervous system, causing secondary neurological damage. We report the diagnosis of GS2 in a 4-year-old child with haemophagocytic syndrome, immunodeficiency, and secondary neurological disorders. Typical melanosome accumulation was found in skin melanocytes and pigment clumps were observed in hair shafts. Two heterozygous mutant alleles of the RAB27A gene were found, a C-T transition (C352T) that leads to Q118stop and a G-C transversion on the exon 5 splicing donor site (G467+1C). Functional assays showed increased cellular activation and decreased cytotoxic activity of NK and CD8+ T cells, associated with defective lytic granules release. Myosin-Va expression and localization in the patient lymphocytes were also analyzed. Most importantly, we show that cytotoxic activity of the patient's CD8+ T lymphocytes can be rescued in vitro by RAB27A gene transfer mediated by a recombinant retroviral vector, a first step towards a potential treatment of the acute phase of GS2 by RAB27A transduced lymphocytes. PMID:15163896

  13. Suitability of Cell-Based Label-Free Detection for Cytotoxicity Screening of Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Claudia; Absenger, Markus; Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2013-01-01

    Cytotoxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) by conventional screening assays is often complicated by interference. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are particularly difficult to assess. To test the suitability of cell-based label-free techniques for this application, a panel of CNTs with different diameters and surface functionalizations was assessed by impedance-based technique (xCELLigence RTCA) and automated microscopy (Cell-IQ) compared to formazan bioreduction (MTS assay). For validation of the label-free systems different concentrations of ethanol and of amine (AMI) polystyrene NPs were used. CNTs were evaluated in various cell lines, but only endothelial EAhy926 cells and L929 and V79 fibroblasts could be evaluated in all systems. Polystyrene particles obtained similar results in all assays. All systems identified thin (<8 nm) CNTs as more cytotoxic than thick (>20 nm) CNTs, but detection by xCELLigence system was less sensitive to CNT-induced cytotoxicity. Despite advantages, such as continuous monitoring and more detailed analysis of cytotoxic effects, label-free techniques cannot be generally recommended for cytotoxicity screening of NPs. PMID:24377092

  14. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube variants: a comparative in vitro exposure study with A549 epithelial and J774 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kumarathasan, Prem; Breznan, Dalibor; Das, Dharani; Salam, Mohamed A; Siddiqui, Yunus; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Guan, Jingwen; de Silva, Nimal; Simard, Benoit; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-03-01

    While production of engineered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has escalated in recent years, knowledge of risk associated with exposure to these materials remains unclear. We report on the cytotoxicity of four CNT variants in human lung epithelial cells (A549) and murine macrophages (J774). Morphology, metal content, aggregation/agglomeration state, pore volume, surface area and modifications were determined for the pristine and oxidized single-walled (SW) and multi-walled (MW) CNTs. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by cellular ATP content, BrdU incorporation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and CellTiter-Blue (CTB) reduction assays. All CNTs were more cytotoxic than respirable TiO2 and SiO2 reference particles. Oxidation of CNTs removed most metallic impurities but introduced surface polar functionalities. Although slopes of fold changes for cytotoxicity endpoints were steeper with J774 compared to A549 cells, CNT cytotoxicity ranking in both cell types was assay-dependent. Based on CTB reduction and BrdU incorporation, the cytotoxicity of the polar oxidized CNTs was higher compared to the pristine CNTs. In contrast, pristine CNTs were more cytotoxic than oxidized CNTs when assessed for cellular ATP and LDH. Correlation analyses between CNTs' physico-chemical properties and average relative potency revealed the impact of metal content and surface area on the potency values estimated using ATP and LDH assays, while surface polarity affected the potency values estimated from CTB and BrdU assays. We show that in order to reliably estimate the risk posed by these materials, in vitro toxicity assessment of CNTs should be conducted with well characterized materials, in multiple cellular models using several cytotoxicity assays that report on distinct cellular processes. PMID:24713075

  15. Toxin content and cytotoxicity of algal dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Heussner, A.H.; Mazija, L.; Fastner, J.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2012-12-01

    Blue-green algae (Spirulina sp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and Chlorella sp. are commercially distributed as organic algae dietary supplements. Cyanobacterial dietary products in particular have raised serious concerns, as they appeared to be contaminated with toxins e.g. microcystins (MCs) and consumers repeatedly reported adverse health effects following consumption of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the toxin contamination and the in vitro cytotoxicity of algae dietary supplement products marketed in Germany. In thirteen products consisting of Aph. flos-aquae, Spirulina and Chlorella or mixtures thereof, MCs, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin were analyzed. Five products tested in an earlier market study were re-analyzed for comparison. Product samples were extracted and analyzed for cytotoxicity in A549 cells as well as for toxin levels by (1) phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), (2) Adda-ELISA and (3) LC–MS/MS. In addition, all samples were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the mcyE gene, a part of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase gene cluster. Only Aph. flos-aquae products were tested positive for MCs as well as the presence of mcyE. The contamination levels of the MC-positive samples were ≤ 1 μg MC-LR equivalents g{sup −1} dw. None of the other toxins were found in any of the products. However, extracts from all products were cytotoxic. In light of the findings, the distribution and commercial sale of Aph. flos-aquae products, whether pure or mixed formulations, for human consumption appear highly questionable. -- Highlights: ► Marketed algae dietary supplements were analyzed for toxins. ► Methods: Phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), Adda-ELISA, LC-MS/MS. ► Aph. flos-aquae products all tested positive for microcystins. ► Products tested negative for nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin. ► Extracts from all products were cytotoxic.

  16. Propofol depresses cisplatin cytotoxicity via the inhibition of gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xiyan; Wang, Qin; Ge, Hui; Tao, Liang

    2016-06-01

    The general anesthetic, propofol, affects chemotherapeutic activity, however, the mechanism underlying its effects remains to be fully elucidated. Our previous study showed that tramadol and flurbiprofen depressed the cytotoxicity of cisplatin via the inhibition of gap junction (GJ) intercellular communication (GJIC) in connexin (Cx)32 HeLa cells. The present study investigated whether the effects of propofol on the cytotoxicity of cisplatin were mediated by GJ in U87 glioma cells and Cx26‑transfected HeLa cells. Standard colony formation assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Parachute dye coupling assay was used to measure GJ function, and western blot analysis was used to determine the expression levels of Cx32. The results revealed that exposure of the U87 glioma cells and the Cx26-transfected HeLa cells to cisplatin for 1 h reduced clonogenic survival in low density cultures (without GJs) and high density cultures (with GJs). However, the toxic effect was higher in the high density culture. In addition, pretreatment of the cells with propofol significantly reduced cisplatin‑induced cytotoxicity, but only in the presence of functional GJs. Furthermore, propofol significantly inhibited dye coupling through junctional channels, and a long duration of exposure of the cells to propofol downregulated the expression levels of Cx43 and Cx26. These results demonstrated that the inhibition of GJIC by propofol affected the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. The present study provides evidence of a novel mechanism underlying the effects of analgesics in counteracting chemotherapeutic efficiency. PMID:27082707

  17. Targeted and controlled release delivery of daunorubicin to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Lavaee, Parirokh; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-07-15

    Clinical administration of daunorubicin (Dau) in treatment of leukemia has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. Targeted delivery of chemotherapy drugs could reduce their side effects and increase the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Biocompatibility and large surface area of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) make these nanoparticles great candidates for biomedical applications. In this study sgc8c aptamer (Apt)-Dau-AuNPs complex was designed and evaluated for treatment of Molt-4 cells (human acute lymphoblastic leukemia T-cell, target). Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex formation was analyzed by fluorometric analysis and gel retardation assay. Dau release profiles from the complex were evaluated in pHs 5.5 and 7.4. For cytotoxic studies (MTT assay) U266 (B lymphocyte human myeloma, nontarget) and Molt-4 cells (target) were treated with Dau Apt-Dau conjugate and Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex. Internalization was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal imaging. 12 μM Dau was efficiently loaded onto 1 mL of Apt-modified AuNPs. Dau was released from the complex in a pH-dependent manner (higher rate of release at pH 5.5). The results of flow cytometry analysis and confocal imaging showed that the complex was effectively internalized into Molt-4 cells, but not into U266 cells. The results of MTT assay also confirmed the internalization data. Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex was less cytotoxic in U266 cells compared to Dau alone and even Apt-Dau conjugate. The complex was more cytotoxic in target cells in comparison with Dau alone and even Apt-Dau conjugate. In conclusion, Apt-Dau-AuNPs complex was able to selectively target Molt-4 cells. Another advantage of this system was pH-dependent release of drug from the complex. Furthermore, this complex has characteristics which make it ideal for clinical use. PMID:25936625

  18. Phytochemical properties and cytotoxicity evaluation of the aqueous extracts from Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakoush, Sumaia Mohamed Mohamed; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Adam, Jumaat; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, phytochemical properties and cytotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Rafflesia cantleyi bud parts were done. Three bud parts including disk, bract and perigone tube were extracted in water to produce crude aqueous extract. Cytotoxic activity of R. cantleyi bud parts was assessed by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against normal cells Vero, 3T3 cell lines and mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The CC50 value against Vero, 3T3 and PBMC cells were equal or more than 125 µg/ml indicating the non-cytotoxic effect of the bud parts extracts. The finding revealed that crude extracts of all the tested bud parts contained potential bioactive compounds which can be used for various biological activities and have no cytotoxicity to selected normal cells.

  19. Cytotoxic Indole Alkaloids against Human Leukemia Cell Lines from the Toxic Plant Peganum harmala

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhenxue; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation was used to determine the cytotoxic alkaloids from the toxic plant Peganum harmala. Two novel indole alkaloids, together with ten known ones, were isolated and identified. The novel alkaloids were elucidated to be 2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-hydroxy-3-(N-acetyl-2-aminoethyl)-6-methoxyindol-2-one (3). The cytotoxicity against human leukemia cells was assayed for the alkaloids and some of them showed potent activity. Harmalacidine (compound 8, HMC) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against U-937 cells with IC50 value of 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L. The cytotoxic mechanism of HMC was targeting the mitochondrial and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways (PTKs-Ras/Raf/ERK). The results strongly demonstrated that the alkaloids from Peganum harmala could be a promising candidate for the therapy of leukemia. PMID:26540074

  20. One-pot synthesis of cinnamylideneacetophenones and their in vitro cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weldon, David J; Saulsbury, Marilyn D; Goh, Joshua; Rowland, Leah; Campbell, Petreena; Robinson, Laijia; Miller, Calvin; Christian, Joshua; Amis, Louisa; Taylor, Nia; Dill, Cassandra; Davis, Willie; Evans, Stanley L; Brantley, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    A series of cinnamylideneacetophenones were synthesized via a modified Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and evaluated for cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells using the Alamar Blue™ assay. Derivatives 17 and 18 bearing a 2-nitro group on the B ring, exhibited sub-micromolar cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells (IC50=71 and 1.9 nM), respectively. Derivative 17 also displayed sub-micromolar (IC50=780 nM) cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-468 cells. Additionally, 17 and 18 displayed significantly less cytotoxicity than the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. This study provides evidence supporting the continued development of nitro-substituted cinnamylideneacetophenones as small molecules to treat breast cancer. PMID:24957352

  1. Saponins as cytotoxic agents: a review

    PubMed Central

    Galanty, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    Saponins are natural glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties including cytotoxic activity. In this review, the recent studies (2005–2009) concerning the cytotoxic activity of saponins have been summarized. The correlations between the structure and the cytotoxicity of both steroid and triterpenoid saponins have been described as well as the most common mechanisms of action. PMID:20835386

  2. Inhibition of Homologous Recombination with Vorinostat Synergistically Enhances Ganciclovir Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ladd, Brendon; Ackroyd, Jeffrey J.; Hicks, J. Kevin; Canman, Christine E.; Flanagan, Sheryl A.; Shewach, Donna S.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleoside analog ganciclovir (GCV) elicits cytotoxicity in tumor cells via a novel mechanism in which drug incorporation into DNA produces minimal disruption of replication, but numerous DNA double strand breaks occur during the second S-phase after drug exposure. We propose that homologous recombination (HR), a major repair pathway for DNA double strand breaks, can prevent GCV-induced DNA damage, and that inhibition of HR will enhance cytotoxicity with GCV. Survival after GCV treatment in cells expressing a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase was strongly dependent on HR (>14-fold decrease in IC50 in HR-deficient vs. HR-proficient CHO cells). In a homologous recombination reporter assay, the histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat), decreased HR repair events up to 85%. SAHA plus GCV produced synergistic cytotoxicity in U251tk human glioblastoma cells. Elucidation of the synergistic mechanism demonstrated that SAHA produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the HR proteins Rad51 and CtIP. GCV alone produced numerous Rad51 foci, demonstrating activation of HR. However, the addition of SAHA blocked GCV-induced Rad51 foci formation completely and increased γH2AX, a marker of DNA double strand breaks. SAHA plus GCV also produced synergistic cytotoxicity in HR-proficient CHO cells, but the combination was antagonistic or additive in HR-deficient CHO cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HR promotes survival with GCV and compromise of HR by SAHA results in synergistic cytotoxicity, revealing a new mechanism for enhancing anticancer activity with GCV. PMID:24231389

  3. Differential cytotoxicity of copper ferrite nanoparticles in different human cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Saquib, Quaiser; Khan, Shams T; Wahab, Rizwan; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2016-10-01

    Copper ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to be applied in biomedical fields such as cell labeling and hyperthermia. However, there is a lack of information concerning the toxicity of copper ferrite NPs. We explored the cytotoxic potential of copper ferrite NPs in human lung (A549) and liver (HepG2) cells. Copper ferrite NPs were crystalline and almost spherically shaped with an average diameter of 35 nm. Copper ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, evident by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide and neutral red uptake assays. However, we observed a quite different susceptibility in the two kinds of cells regarding toxicity of copper ferrite NPs. Particularly, A549 cells showed higher susceptibility against copper ferrite NP exposure than those of HepG2 cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential due to copper ferrite NP exposure was observed. The mRNA level as well as activity of caspase-3 enzyme was higher in cells exposed to copper ferrite NPs. Cellular redox status was disturbed as indicated by induction of reactive oxygen species (oxidant) generation and depletion of the glutathione (antioxidant) level. Moreover, cytotoxicity induced by copper ferrite NPs was efficiently prevented by N-acetylcysteine treatment, which suggests that reactive oxygen species generation might be one of the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity caused by copper ferrite NPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the cytotoxic potential of copper ferrite NPs in human cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the mechanisms of differential toxicity of copper ferrite NPs in different types of cells. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26918645

  4. Cytotoxicity of selenium nanoparticles in rat dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Joseph F; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a deadly nosocomial infection caused by contaminated endotracheal tubes. It has been shown that polyvinyl chloride (PVC, the endotracheal tube substrate) coated with elemental selenium nanoparticles reduces bacterial adherence and proliferation on PVC by over 99%. However, it is not known if selenium nanoparticles elicit a cytotoxic effect in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of PVC coated with selenium nanoparticles on fibroblasts, which are mammalian cells central to endotracheal tube intubation. Methods: Different concentrations of selenium nanoparticles were precipitated onto the PVC surface by reduction of selenium salts using glutathione. Characterization of PVC coated with selenium nanoparticles was done by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, and contact angle measurements. For the cytotoxicity experiments, fibroblasts were seeded at a density of 5000 cm2 onto PVC coated with three different concentrations of selenium nanoparticles (high, medium, low) and incubated for 4 hours (adhesion) as well as for 24 hours and 72 hours (proliferation). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was determined after 72 hours using an ultrahigh concentration. MTT assays were used to assess cell viability at the indicated time points. Results: The three concentrations of selenium nanoparticles did not elicit a cytotoxic effect after 72 hours (P < 0.01, n = 3). It was found that the IC50value was at the ultrahigh concentration of selenium nanoparticles. The nanoparticulate elemental selenium concentration previously shown to decrease the function of bacteria was shown not to cause a cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate great selectivity between bacteria and healthy cells, and are a viable option for coating endotracheal tubes in order to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:22915842

  5. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Abul Farah, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Abou-Tarboush, F M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anticancer activities of a total of 14 wild angiosperms collected in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of each extract was assessed against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using the MTT assay. Among the plants screened, the potential cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract of Lavandula dentata (Lamiaceae) was identified, and we analyzed its anticancer potential by testing antiproliferative and apoptotic activity. Our results clearly show that ethanolic extract of L. dentata exhibits promising cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 39 μg/mL. Analysis of cell morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis (using an Annexin V assay) also confirmed the apoptotic effect of L. dentata extract, and thus, our data call for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s) and their mechanisms of inducing apoptosis. PMID:24938609

  7. Cell specific cytotoxicity and uptake of graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lalwani, Gaurav; Zhang, Kevin; Yang, Jeong Y; Neville, Kayla; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of oxidized graphene nanoribbons (O-GNR) via longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes opens avenues for their further development for a variety of biomedical applications. Evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is necessary to develop any new material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the cytotoxicity screening of O-GNRs water-solubilized with PEG-DSPE (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)]), using six different assays, in four representative cell lines; Henrietta Lacks cells (HeLa) derived from cervical cancer tissue, National Institute of Health 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3), Sloan Kettering breast cancer cells (SKBR3) and Michigan cancer foundation-7 breast cancer cells (MCF7). These cell lines significantly differed in their response to O-GNR-PEG-DSPE formulations; assessed and evaluated using various endpoints (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular metabolism, lysosomal integrity and cell proliferation) for cytotoxicity. In general, all the cells showed a dose-dependent (10-400 μg/ml) and time-dependent (12-48 h) decrease in cell viability. However, the degree of cytotoxicity was significantly lower in MCF7 or SKBR3 cells compared to HeLa cells. These cells were 100% viable upto 48 h, when incubated at 10 μg/ml O-GNR-PEG-DSPE concentration, and showed decrease in cell viability above this concentration with ~78% of cells viable at the highest concentration (400 μg/ml). In contrast, significant cell death (5-25% cell death depending on the time point, and the assay) was observed for HeLa cells even at a low concentration of 10 μg/ml. The decrease in cell viability was steep with increase in concentration with the CD(50) values ≥ 100 μg/ml depending on the assay, and time point. Transmission electron microscopy of the various cells treated with the O-GNR solutions show higher uptake of the O-GNR-PEG-DSPEs into HeLa cells compared to other cell types

  8. Cell Specific Cytotoxicity and Uptake of Graphene Nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Lalwani, Gaurav; Zhang, Kevin; Yang, Jeong Yun; Neville, Kayla; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of oxidized graphene nanoribbons (O-GNR) via longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes opens avenues for their further development for a variety of biomedical applications. Evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is necessary to develop any new material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the cytotoxicity screening of O-GNRs water-solubilized with PEG-DSPE (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)]), using six different assays, in four representative cell lines; Henrietta Lacks cells (HeLa) derived from cervical cancer tissue, National Institute of Health 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3), Sloan Kettering breast cancer cells (SKBR3) and Michigan cancer foundation-7 breast cancer cells (MCF7). These cell lines significantly differed in their response to O-GNR-PEG-DSPE formulations; assessed and evaluated using various endpoints (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular metabolism, lysosomal integrity and cell proliferation) for cytotoxicity. In general, all the cells showed a dose-dependent (10–400 μg/ml) and time-dependent (12–48 h) decrease in cell viability. However, the degree of cytotoxicity was significantly lower in MCF7 or SKBR3 cells compared to HeLa cells. These cells were 100% viable upto 48 hours, when incubated at 10μg/ml O-GNR-PEG-DSPE concentration, and showed decrease in cell viability above this concentration with ~78% of cells viable at the highest concentration (400 μg/ml). In contrast, significant cell death (5–25% cell death depending on the time point, and the assay) was observed for HeLa cells even at a low concentration of 10μg/ml. The decrease in cell viability was steep with increase in concentration with the CD50 values ≥ 100μg/ml depending on the assay, and time point. Transmission electron microscopy of the various cells treated with the O-GNR solutions show higher uptake of the O-GNR-PEG-DSPEs into HeLa cells compared to other cell

  9. Microchip Screening Platform for Single Cell Assessment of NK Cell Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Guldevall, Karolin; Brandt, Ludwig; Forslund, Elin; Olofsson, Karl; Frisk, Thomas W.; Olofsson, Per E.; Gustafsson, Karin; Manneberg, Otto; Vanherberghen, Bruno; Brismar, Hjalmar; Kärre, Klas; Uhlin, Michael; Önfelt, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a screening platform for assessment of the cytotoxic potential of individual natural killer (NK) cells within larger populations. Human primary NK cells were distributed across a silicon–glass microchip containing 32,400 individual microwells loaded with target cells. Through fluorescence screening and automated image analysis, the numbers of NK and live or dead target cells in each well could be assessed at different time points after initial mixing. Cytotoxicity was also studied by time-lapse live-cell imaging in microwells quantifying the killing potential of individual NK cells. Although most resting NK cells (≈75%) were non-cytotoxic against the leukemia cell line K562, some NK cells were able to kill several (≥3) target cells within the 12-h long experiment. In addition, the screening approach was adapted to increase the chance to find and evaluate serial killing NK cells. Even if the cytotoxic potential varied between donors, it was evident that a small fraction of highly cytotoxic NK cells were responsible for a substantial portion of the killing. We demonstrate multiple assays where our platform can be used to enumerate and characterize cytotoxic cells, such as NK or T cells. This approach could find use in clinical applications, e.g., in the selection of donors for stem cell transplantation or generation of highly specific and cytotoxic cells for adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:27092139

  10. Murine cellular cytotoxicity to syngeneic and xenogeneic herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, S; Drath, D B; Loo, L S

    1982-01-01

    Cellular cytotoxicity of C57BL/6 adult mice peritoneal cells to xenogeneic (Chang liver) and syngeneic (BL/6-WT3) herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells was analyzed in a 6-h 51Cr release assay. There was no difference in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to either target. There was no natural killer cytotoxicity to targets with cells from uninfected mice except at very high effector cell ratios. HSV-infected (2 X 10(4) PFU intraperitoneally 1 day previously) mice mediated significantly higher antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and required less antibody (10(-5) versus 10(-2) dilution), fewer cells, and less time to kill than cells from uninfected mice. HSV-infected mice mediated natural killer cytotoxicity but preferentially killed syngeneic HSV-infected cells. Stimulation of cytotoxicity was not virus specific since influenza-infected mice mediated similar levels of cytotoxicity to HSV-infected targets. There was no difference in morphology (95% macrophage) or in the percentage of FcR-positive cells, but infected mice had more peritoneal cells and generated higher levels of superoxide in response to opsonized zymosan or phorbolmyristate acetate. These data demonstrate nonspecific virus-stimulated metabolic and effector cell function which may enhance clearance of virus in an infected host. PMID:6295943

  11. Murine cellular cytotoxicity to syngeneic and xenogeneic herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Kohl, S; Drath, D B; Loo, L S

    1982-12-01

    Cellular cytotoxicity of C57BL/6 adult mice peritoneal cells to xenogeneic (Chang liver) and syngeneic (BL/6-WT3) herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells was analyzed in a 6-h 51Cr release assay. There was no difference in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to either target. There was no natural killer cytotoxicity to targets with cells from uninfected mice except at very high effector cell ratios. HSV-infected (2 X 10(4) PFU intraperitoneally 1 day previously) mice mediated significantly higher antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and required less antibody (10(-5) versus 10(-2) dilution), fewer cells, and less time to kill than cells from uninfected mice. HSV-infected mice mediated natural killer cytotoxicity but preferentially killed syngeneic HSV-infected cells. Stimulation of cytotoxicity was not virus specific since influenza-infected mice mediated similar levels of cytotoxicity to HSV-infected targets. There was no difference in morphology (95% macrophage) or in the percentage of FcR-positive cells, but infected mice had more peritoneal cells and generated higher levels of superoxide in response to opsonized zymosan or phorbolmyristate acetate. These data demonstrate nonspecific virus-stimulated metabolic and effector cell function which may enhance clearance of virus in an infected host. PMID:6295943

  12. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  13. MANGANESE CHLORIDE ENHANCES MURINE CELL-MEDIATED CYTOTOXICITY: EFFECTS ON NATURAL KILLER CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity of mice given a single injection of manganese chloride (MnCl2) was significantly enhanced as measured in a 4-hr in vitro 51Cr release assay. Enhanced activity persisted for several days after injection. This cytotoxic activity was associated with...

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxic effects of K4 (PtCl2ATP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, K.K.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Maity, P. )

    1991-03-01

    An antineoplastic agent, cis-K4 (PtCl2ATP) has been synthesized and characterized, using elemental analysis, solution conductance, thermoanalysis, infrared, NMR spectroscopy, and circular dichroism studies. The in vitro cytotoxic effect imparted by this compound on Dalton's Lymphoma cells has been assessed by Trypan blue dye exclusion method and 51Cr release assays.

  15. Cytotoxic Effect of Iranian Vipera lebetina Snake Venom on HUVEC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kakanj, Maryam; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Zare Mirakabadi, Abbas; Daraei, Bahram; Vatanpour, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Envenomation by heamotoxic snakes constituted a critical health occurrence in the world. Bleeding is the most sever consequence following snake bite with viperid and crothalid snakes. It is believed that the degradation of vascular membrane caused hemorrhage; in contrast, some suggested that direct cytotoxicity has role in endothelial cell disturbances. This study was carried out to evaluate the direct toxicity effect of V. lebetina crude venom on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Methods: The effect of V. lebetina snake venom on HUVECs growth inhibition was determined by MTT assay and neutral red uptake assay. The integrity of cell membrane through LDH release was measured with the Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Morphological changes of endothelial cells were also evaluated using a phase contrast microscope. Result: In MTT assay, crude venom showed a cytotoxic effect on endothelial cells which was confirmed by the effect observed with neutral red assay. Also, crude venom caused changes in the integrity of cell membrane by LDH release. The morphological alterations enhanced in high concentration results in total cells number reduced. Conclusion: V. lebetina venom showed potential direct cytotoxic effects on human endothelial cells in a manner of concentration- dependent inhibition. PMID:26185512

  16. A rapid and sensitive fluorometric microassay for determining cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Krasagakes, S; Garbe, C; Kossman, P; Orfanos, C E

    1992-11-25

    In order to measure cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines in vitro more rapidly and conveniently, a fluorometric microassay was developed and results were compared with those obtained by the 51Cr release assay. The fluorometric method is based on the hydrolysis of the fluorochrome 4-methylumbelliferyl heptanoate (MUH) by intracellular esterases of viable cells. Melanoma cell monolayers were incubated with lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells for 4 h at various effector: target (E:T) cell ratios (E:T = 16, 8, 4, 2:1). Thereafter surviving adherent melanoma cells were stained with MUH for 30 min and fluorescence was measured directly in a 96 well plate reader. For the calculation of LAK cell cytotoxicity fluorescence values were corrected for the number of nonspecifically detached tumor cells during the washes and the number of nonspecifically adherent LAK cells. Using identical target and effector cell preparations both assays showed a nearly proportional increase of percentage cytotoxicity with rising numbers of lymphocytes. Compared with the 51Cr release assay, however, higher cytotoxicity values were obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay: 57% with MUH versus 26% with 51Cr and 39% versus 14% for cell lines StML-11 and SKMel-28, respectively (E:T ratio = 16:1). The higher cytotoxicity rates obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay were not due to the additional 30 min staining with MUH or due to nonspecific hydrolysis of MUH by extracellular esterases released from damaged cells, as could be shown by a series of experiments. In conclusion, a simple and rapid fluorometric microassay has been developed showing reliable reproducibility and a higher sensitivity compared with the 51Cr release assay for the determination of cellular cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines, avoiding hazardous radioactive labels. PMID:1431156

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  18. Unambiguous Identification of β-Tubulin as the Direct Cellular Target Responsible for the Cytotoxicity of Chalcone by Photoaffinity Labeling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Yu, Xingxin; Zhuang, Chunlin; Villalta, Peter; Lin, Yong; Lu, Junxuan; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-07-01

    Chalcone is a simple and potentially privileged structure in medicinal chemistry with a diverse repertoire of biological activities, among which cytotoxicity is of particular interest. The sharp structure-activity relationship (SAR) for chalcone's cytotoxicity suggests structure-specific target interactions. Despite the numerous putative targets proposed, evidence for direct target interactions in cells is unavailable. In this study, guided by the sharp cytotoxic SAR, we developed a cytotoxic chalcone-based photoaffinity labeling (PAL) probe, (E)-3-(3-azidophenyl)-1-[3,5-dimethoxy-4-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)phenyl]-2-methylprop-2-en-1-one (C95; IC50 : 0.38±0.01 μm), along with two structurally similar non-cytotoxic probes. These probes were used to search for the direct cellular target responsible for chalcone's cytotoxicity through intact cell-based PAL experiments, in which β-tubulin was identified to specifically interact with the cytotoxic probe (i.e., C95) but not the non-cytotoxic probes. A set of phenotypical and biochemical assays further reinforced β-tubulin as the cytotoxic target of chalcones. Peptide mass quantitation by mass spectrometric analysis revealed one peptide potentially labeled by C95, providing information on chalcone's binding site on β-tubulin. PMID:27203512

  19. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-He; Wang, Zi-Hao; Meng, Da-Li; Li, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub growing extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical areas. Four new compounds, guavinoside C, D, E and F (1-3, 10) were isolated from the leaves of P. guajava, along with six known ones (4-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 4 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activities on HeLa, SGC-7901 and A549 cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 4-10 showed antioxidant activities in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and five of them (1, 4-6, 10) exhibited stronger activities than that of vitamin C. PMID:25862199

  20. Cytotoxic polyacetylenes from the Red Sea sponge Siphonochalina siphonella.

    PubMed

    Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Angawy, Rihab; Alarif, Waliled M; Saqer, Esraa A; Badria, Farid A

    2014-01-01

    Two new polyacetylenes, callyspongenol-D (1) and callyspongendiol (2), the known polyacetylene dehydrosiphonochalynol (3), and the known triterpenoid sipholenol-A (4) were isolated from the Red Sea sponge Siphonochalina siphonella. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds towards the human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and compounds 4 and 1 were found to be the most toxic of the four, with IC50 values of 8.8 and 11.7 microM, respectively. PMID:24873032

  1. Cytotoxic geranylflavonoids from Bonannia graeca

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Maggio, Antonella; Raccuglia, Rosa Angela; Safder, Muhammad; Lai, Chin-Yu; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of the aerial parts of Bonannia graeca led to the isolation and characterization of two new polar geranylated flavonoids (6 and 7). The structure elucidation was performed by extensive spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. All natural flavonoids isolated from B. graeca (1–7) and some synthetic derivatives (8–11) were tested for cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity relationship correlations are discussed. PMID:21459391

  2. Cytotoxic diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Monira; Islam, S K N; Gray, Alexander I; Stimson, William H

    2003-07-01

    Four new labdane-derived diterpenes, iso-dulcinol (1), 4-epi-scopadulcic acid B (2), dulcidiol (4), and scopanolal (5), together with two known diterpenes, dulcinol/scopadulciol (3) and scopadiol (6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis. The structures were determined by extensive NMR studies. The crude extracts as well as the pure diterpenes showed cytotoxicity against a panel of six human stomach cancer cell lines. PMID:12880314

  3. Lysosomotropic cationic drugs induce cytostatic and cytotoxic effects: Role of liposolubility and autophagic flux and antagonism by cholesterol ablation.

    PubMed

    Parks, Alexandre; Marceau, François

    2016-08-15

    Cation trapping in acidic cell compartments determines an antiproliferative effect that has a potential interest in oncology, as shown by clinical data and trials involving chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. To further characterize the mechanism of this effect, we studied a series of 6 substituted triethylamine (s-Et3N) drugs that encompasses a wide range of liposolubility (amiodarone, quinacrine, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lidocaine, and procainamide). Three tumor cell lines and primary human endothelial cells were exploited in proliferation assays (48h, cell counts). Accumulation of the autophagic effector LC3 II and the apoptotic marker cleaved PARP1 (immunoblots), cytotoxicity, cell cycle analysis and endocytic function were further tested in the p53-null histiocytic lymphoma U937 line. A profound and desynchronized antiproliferative effect was observed in response to all s-Et3Ns with essentially no cell type specificity. Predictors of s-Et3N potency were liposolubility and the acute accumulation of the autophagic effector LC3 II (6h-treatments). For each s-Et3N, there was an antiproliferative concentration range where cytotoxicity and apoptosis were not triggered in U937 cells (24-48h-treatments). Quinacrine was the most potent cytostatic drug (1-5μM). Co-treatment of cells with inhibitors of cholesterol, β-cyclodextrin or lovastatin, partially reversed the antiproliferative effect of each s-Et3N. The cytopathology induced by cationic drug accumulation includes a cytostatic effect. Its intensity is cell type- and p53-independent, but predicted by the inhibition of autophagic flux and by the liposolubility of individual drugs and alleviated by cholesterol ablation. The superiority of quinacrine, biomarker value of LC3 II and antagonism by a statin may be clinically relevant. PMID:27288732

  4. Kinetics and pathogenesis of intracellular magnetic nanoparticle cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Giustini, Andrew. J.; Gottesman, Rachel E.; Petryk, A.A.; Rauwerdink, A.M.; Hoopes, P. Jack.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles excited by alternating magnetic fields (AMF) have demonstrated effective tumor-specific hyperthermia. This treatment is effective as a monotherapy as well as a therapeutic adjuvant to chemotherapy and radiation. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been shown, so far, to be non-toxic, as are the exciting AMF fields when used at moderate levels. Although higher levels of AMF can be more effective, depending on the type of iron oxide nanoparticles use, these higher field strengths and/or frequencies can induce normal tissue heating and toxicity. Thus, the use of nanoparticles exhibiting significant heating at low AMF strengths and frequencies is desirable. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within tumor cells improves their heating effect and cytotoxicity per nanoparticle. We have used transmission electron microscopy to track the endocytosis of nanoparticles into tumor cells (both breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) and acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells). Our preliminary results suggest that nanoparticles internalized into tumor cells demonstrate greater cytotoxicity when excited with AMF than an equivalent heat dose from excited external nanoparticles or cells exposed to a hot water bath. We have also demonstrated that this increase in SAR caused by aggregation improves the cytotoxicity of nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy in vitro. PMID:24382988

  5. CYP3A5 mediates bioactivation and cytotoxicity of tetrandrine.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Shen, Shuijie; Jiang, Yan; Shen, Qi; Zeng, Su; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Tetrandrine is a diaryl ether-type bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid and has shown multiple pharmacological activities. Our early work demonstrated that tetrandrine produced acute pulmonary toxicity and that tetrandrine was biotransformed to a quinone methide-derived metabolite mediated by CYP3A enzymes. The formation of the reactive intermediate is suggested to be responsible for the pulmonary toxicity induced by tetrandrine. In the present study, a WI-38-based Cyp3a5 transgenic cell line (WI-38/Cyp3a5) was established to investigate the role of CYP3A5 in tetrandrine-induced cytotoxicity. The transgenic cells were found to be more susceptible to the cytotoxicity of tetrandrine than the wild-type cells (WI-38/Vector). WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells showed higher cellular ROS levels, higher LDH activities in culture media, but lower cellular GSH contents than those observed in WI-38/Vector cells after exposure to tetrandrine. And severer apoptosis were observed in WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells after treatment with tetrandrine: WI-38/Cyp3a5 cells had higher proportion of early and late apoptotic cells, higher expression levels of caspase-3, but lower level of Bcl-2 than WI-38/Vector cells. This study provided strong evidence that CYP3A5 participated in tetrandrine-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26302866

  6. Kinetics and pathogenesis of intracellular magnetic nanoparticle cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Andrew J.; Gottesman, Rachel E.; Petryk, A. A.; Rauwerdink, A. M.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles excited by alternating magnetic fields (AMF) have demonstrated effective tumor-specific hyperthermia. This treatment is effective as a monotherapy as well as a therapeutic adjuvant to chemotherapy and radiation. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been shown, so far, to be non-toxic, as are the exciting AMF fields when used at moderate levels. Although higher levels of AMF can be more effective, depending on the type of iron oxide nanoparticles use, these higher field strengths and/or frequencies can induce normal tissue heating and toxicity. Thus, the use of nanoparticles exhibiting significant heating at low AMF strengths and frequencies is desirable. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within tumor cells improves their heating effect and cytotoxicity per nanoparticle. We have used transmission electron microscopy to track the endocytosis of nanoparticles into tumor cells (both breast adenocarcinoma (MTG-B) and acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells). Our preliminary results suggest that nanoparticles internalized into tumor cells demonstrate greater cytotoxicity when excited with AMF than an equivalent heat dose from excited external nanoparticles or cells exposed to a hot water bath. We have also demonstrated that this increase in SAR caused by aggregation improves the cytotoxicity of nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy in vitro.

  7. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Mai Hung Thanh; Đuc, Ho Viet; Huong, Tran Thu; Duong, Nguyen Thanh; Phuong, Do Thi; Thao, Do Thi; Tai, Bui Huu; Kim, Young Ho; Bach, Tran The; Cuong, Nguyen Manh

    2013-01-01

    Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1), isobruceine B (2), 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3), bruceolline F (4), niloticine (5), octatriacontan-1-ol (6), bombiprenone (7), α-tocopherol (8), inosine (9), and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth), LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma), LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma), and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3) and niloticine (5) have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus. PMID:24106661

  8. Induction thermal plasma process modifies the physicochemical properties of materials used for carbon nanotube production, influencing their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Yasaman; Faucheux, Nathalie; Soucy, Gervais

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radio frequency induction thermal plasma (RFITP) process on the cytotoxicity of materials used for single-walled carbon nanotube production remains unknown. In this study, the influence of RFITP process on physicochemical and cytotoxic properties of commercial Co, Ni, Y₂O₃, Mo catalysts and carbon black was investigated. The cytotoxic assays (MTS, LDH, neutral red, TUNEL) revealed the strongest effect of commercial Co on murine Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts affecting their viability in a dose-dependent manner within 24 h. The cells contained also less actin stress fibres. Although RFITP affects the properties of each catalyst (size, morphology, chemistry), only cytotoxicity of Ni catalyst was increased. The plasma-treated Ni induced apoptosis. Comparing Ni particles before and after RFITP process with commercial nanoparticles of Ni revealed that the particles with similar surface area have different cytotoxicities. Interestingly, the observed toxicity of the catalysts was not mainly due to the release of ions. PMID:22998219

  9. The Cytotoxicity of Layered Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Latiff, Naziah Mohamad; Teo, Wei Zhe; Sofer, Zdenek; Fisher, Adrian C; Pumera, Martin

    2015-09-28

    Black phosphorus (BP), the latest addition to the family of 2D layered materials, has attracted much interest owing to potential optoelectronics, nanoelectronics, and biomedicine applications. Little is known about its toxicity, such as whether it could be as toxic as white phosphorus. In response to the possibility of BP employment into commercial products and biomedical devices, its cytotoxicity to human lung carcinoma epithelial cells (A549) was investigated. Following a 24 h exposure of the cells with different BP concentrations, cell viability assessments were conducted using water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) and methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. The toxicological effects were found to be dose-dependent, with BP reducing cell viabilities to 48% (WST-8) and 34% (MTT) at 50 μg mL(-1) exposure. This toxicity was observed to be generally intermediate between that of graphene oxides and exfoliated transition-metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, WS2, WSe2). The relatively low toxicity paves the way to utilization of black phosphorus. PMID:26291565

  10. Cytotoxic effects of tebufenozide in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingjun; Guo, Junfu; Xu, Wenping; Gao, Jufang; Li, Yaxiao; Tao, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Tebufenozide is considered an environmentally friendly pesticide due to its specificity on target insects, but the effects on human are well studied. Studies on the toxicity of tebufenozide at molecular and cellular level is poorly understood. The present study reveals non-selective cytotoxic effects of tebufenozide, and the apoptotic mechanism induced by tebufenozide on HeLa and Tn5B1-4 cells. We demonstrate that the viability of HeLa and Tn5B1-4 cells is inhibited by tebufenozide in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular biochemical assays showed that tebufenozide-induced apoptosis of two cell lines concurrent with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase reactive oxygen species generation, the release of cytochrome-c into the cytosol and a marked activation of caspase-3. These results indicate that a mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic pathway contributes to tebufenozide induced apoptosis in HeLa and Tn5B1-4 cells and suggests potential threats to ecosystems and human health. PMID:27043174

  11. HIV-1-Specific CD8 T Cells Exhibit Limited Cross-Reactivity during Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Du, Victor Y; Bansal, Anju; Carlson, Jonathan; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F; Salazar, Maria G; Ladell, Kristin; Gras, Stephanie; Josephs, Tracy M; Heath, Sonya L; Price, David A; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hunter, Eric; Goepfert, Paul A

    2016-04-15

    Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. However, most of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. In each case, we determined the transmitted founder virus sequence to identify the autologous epitopes restricted by individual HLA class I molecules. Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in the uncommon instances where cross-reactive responses were detected, the variant epitopes were poorly recognized in cytotoxicity assays. Molecular analysis revealed that similar antigenic structures could be cross-recognized by identical CD8 T cell clonotypes mobilized in vivo, yet even subtle differences in a single TCR-accessible peptide residue were sufficient to disrupt variant-specific reactivity. These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. Polyvalent vaccines may therefore be required to provide optimal immune cover against this genetically labile pathogen. PMID:26983786

  12. Cytotoxicity of crystals involves RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Desai, Jyaysi; Kumar, Santhosh V; Eberhard, Jonathan N; Thomasova, Dana; Romoli, Simone; Grigorescu, Melissa; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Popper, Bastian; Vielhauer, Volker; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Romagnani, Paola; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Munoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin; Liapis, Helen; Krautwald, Stefan; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Crystals cause injury in numerous disorders, and induce inflammation via the NLRP3 inflammasome, however, it remains unclear how crystals induce cell death. Here we report that crystals of calcium oxalate, monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and cystine trigger caspase-independent cell death in five different cell types, which is blocked by necrostatin-1. RNA interference for receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) or mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL), two core proteins of the necroptosis pathway, blocks crystal cytotoxicity. Consistent with this, deficiency of RIPK3 or MLKL prevents oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. The related tissue inflammation drives TNF-α-related necroptosis. Also in human oxalate crystal-related acute kidney injury, dying tubular cells stain positive for phosphorylated MLKL. Furthermore, necrostatin-1 and necrosulfonamide, an inhibitor for human MLKL suppress crystal-induced cell death in human renal progenitor cells. Together, TNF-α/TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL are molecular targets to limit crystal-induced cytotoxicity, tissue injury and organ failure. PMID:26817517

  13. Cytotoxicity of crystals involves RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Shrikant R.; Desai, Jyaysi; Kumar, Santhosh V.; Eberhard, Jonathan N.; Thomasova, Dana; Romoli, Simone; Grigorescu, Melissa; Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Popper, Bastian; Vielhauer, Volker; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Romagnani, Paola; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Munoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin; Liapis, Helen; Krautwald, Stefan; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Crystals cause injury in numerous disorders, and induce inflammation via the NLRP3 inflammasome, however, it remains unclear how crystals induce cell death. Here we report that crystals of calcium oxalate, monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and cystine trigger caspase-independent cell death in five different cell types, which is blocked by necrostatin-1. RNA interference for receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) or mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL), two core proteins of the necroptosis pathway, blocks crystal cytotoxicity. Consistent with this, deficiency of RIPK3 or MLKL prevents oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. The related tissue inflammation drives TNF-α-related necroptosis. Also in human oxalate crystal-related acute kidney injury, dying tubular cells stain positive for phosphorylated MLKL. Furthermore, necrostatin-1 and necrosulfonamide, an inhibitor for human MLKL suppress crystal-induced cell death in human renal progenitor cells. Together, TNF-α/TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL are molecular targets to limit crystal-induced cytotoxicity, tissue injury and organ failure. PMID:26817517

  14. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of heat killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) on various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Menaga; In, Lionel L A; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a non-pathogenic mycobacterium, which has been tested on several cancer types like lung and bladder where tumour regression and complete recovery was observed. In discovering the potential cytotoxic elements, a preliminary test was carried out using four different fractions consisting of live bacteria, culture supernatant, heat killed bacteria and heat killed culture supernatant of MIP against two human cancer cells A549 and CaSki by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was investigated in MCF-7 and ORL-115 cancer cells by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation assays. Among four MIP fractions, only heat killed MIP fraction (HKB) showed significant cytotoxicity in various cancer cells with inhibitory concentration, IC50 in the range 5.6–35.0 μl/(1.0 × 106 MIP cells/ml), while cytotoxicity effects were not observed in the remaining fractions. HKB did not show cytotoxic effects on non-cancerous cells contrary to cancerous cells, suggesting its safe usage and ability to differentially recognize between these cells. Evaluation on PARP assay further suggested that cytotoxicity in cancer cells were potentially induced via caspase-mediated apoptosis. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of MIP HKB have indicated that this fraction can be a good candidate to further identify effective anti-cancer agents. PMID:26817684

  15. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic and mutagenic activity of avarol.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Iodice, Carmine; Kojic, Vesna; Jakimov, Dimitar; Lazovic, Milica; Tommonaro, Giuseppina

    2016-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of avarol, a main secondary metabolite of the Mediterranean sponge Dysidea avara, was in vitro screened by MTT assay against four human tumour cell lines. The colon HT-29 tumour cells practically showed to be the only sensitive ones towards this organic compound. No toxicity was found against the fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells at the concentrations tested. In comparison with doxorubicin, used as a positive control, avarol actually exhibited at least 588-fold less toxicity towards normal MRC-5 cells. Finally, comet assay indicated that DNA fragmentation was almost fivefold higher upon the treatment with doxorubicin, compared to avarol. The obtained results have actually confirmed that avarol scaffold may contribute to development of new cytostatics inspired by nature. PMID:26181496

  16. Natural Mineral Particles Are Cytotoxic to Rainbow Trout Gill Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Capitani, Christian; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Pietsch, Constanze

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide increases in fluvial fine sediment are a threat to aquatic animal health. Fluvial fine sediment is always a mixture of particles whose mineralogical composition differs depending on the sediment source and catchment area geology. Nonetheless, whether particle impact in aquatic organisms differs between mineral species remains to be investigated. This study applied an in vitro approach to evaluate cytotoxicity and uptake of four common fluvial mineral particles (quartz, feldspar, mica, and kaolin; concentrations: 10, 50, 250 mg L−1) in the rainbow trout epithelial gill cell line RTgill-W1. Cells were exposed for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Cytotoxicity assays for cell membrane integrity (propidium iodide assay), oxidative stress (H2DCF-DA assay), and metabolic activity (MTT assay) were applied. These assays were complemented with cell counts and transmission electron microscopy. Regardless of mineral species, particles ≤2 µm in diameter were taken up by the cells, suggesting that particles of all mineral species came into contact and interacted with the cells. Not all particles, however, caused strong cytotoxicity: Among all assays the tectosilicates quartz and feldspar caused sporadic maximum changes of 0.8–1.2-fold compared to controls. In contrast, cytotoxicity of the clay particles was distinctly stronger and even differed between the two particle types: mica induced concentration-dependent increases in free radicals, with consistent 1.6–1.8-fold-changes at the 250 mg L−1 concentration, and a dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Kaolin caused concentration-dependent increases in cell membrane damage, with consistent 1.3–1.6-fold increases at the 250 mg L−1 concentration. All effects occurred in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell numbers per se were marginally affected. Results indicate that (i.) natural mineral particles can be cytotoxic to gill epithelial cells, (ii.) their cytotoxic potential differs between mineral species

  17. Synthesis and cytotoxic activities of E-resveratrol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ting; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Huai-Ming; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Lu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to synthesize derivatives of E-resveratrol and evaluate their cytotoxic activity in vitro. Different functional groups were conjugated with the phenolic hydroxyl group of E-resveratrol, and the double bond of E-resveratrol was reduced. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the synthetic derivatives was evaluated against three tumor cell lines (A549, LAC, and HeLa) using the MTT assay. Twenty-six E-resveratrol derivatives were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, MS, IR, and elemental analyses. Compounds 1-6, 12, 15-21, and 23-26 were reported for the first time. Among them, Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, and 9-11, showed significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells; especially, Compound 1 showed an IC50 value of 4.38 μmol · L(-1) in the A549 cells which was 15-fold more active than E-resveratrol; Compound 9 showed an IC50 value of 1.41 μmol · L(-1) in the HeLa cell line which was 90-fold more active than E-resveratrol, and close to adriamycin. The structure-activity relationships were also investigated. Compounds 1, 2 and 9-11 may serve as potential lead compounds for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. PMID:25986287

  18. Irradiation stability and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles for radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Mei-Li; Wu, Hong-Ying; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Ding, Yan-Qiu; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Liang-An

    2009-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are promising as a kind of novel radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. If gold nanoparticles are shown to have good irradiation stability and biocompatibility, they would play an important role in radiotherapy. In this work, we investigated irradiation effects of gold nanoparticles under 2–10 kR gamma irradiation and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles with human K562 cells by using Cell Titre-Glo™ luminescent cell viability assay. The results revealed that gamma irradiation had not induced any obvious instability and size variations in gold nanoparticles. We found that gold nanoparticles showed excellent radiation hardness with an absorbed dose conversation factor of 9.491 rad/R. Meanwhile, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was enhanced obviously after 2–10 kR gamma irradiation. Subsequently, cytotoxicity tests indicated that the extremely high concentration of gold nanoparticles could cause a sharp decrease in K562 cell viability, while the low concentration of gold nanoparticles had no obvious influence on the cell viability. Our results revealed that gold nanoparticles were stable under high-energy ray irradiation and showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. PMID:19774115

  19. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, J.K.

    1982-03-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of (3H)uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism.

  20. Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of 3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxyisoflavone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Jing; Geng, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Ya-Jing; Zheng, Tian-Yu; Lu, Jin-Rong; Hu, Rong

    2016-06-01

    Soy isoflavones exert a wide variety of biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a bZip transcription factor, plays a key role in soy isoflavones induced protection against oxidative stress and cancer. To obtain more effective isofavones, a series of 7,4'-bis-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy), 7 or 4'-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy) isoflavone derivatives have been synthesized as potential antitumor agents and Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant response element) activators. The cytotoxicity of these compounds in human cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, HT-29, HCT116, HepG2 and 7402 was tested by MTT assay. In this study, the cytotoxicity of compound 3b exhibited highest cytotoxic activity and at the safety dose range, it also strongly up-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter activity. In addition, compound 3b induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulated its downstream target genes NQO-1 and HO-1 at protein level. Taken together, our results suggest that compound 3b could be a potential agent for cancer themotherapy or cancer chemoprevention. PMID:27473965

  1. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  2. Effects of in vivo hydrocortisone on lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, P.; Zaytoun, A.M.; Lee, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To examine the effects of in vivo hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HC) on natural killer (NK) cell and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), 11 normal adults received a single intravenous bolus of 400 mg hydrocortisone. Lymphocytes were tested for NK activity and ADCC using 51chromium (51Cr)-release and single cell cytotoxicity assays against Molt-4 and sensitized RL O leads to target cells, respectively. Four hours after injection, both NK and ADCC activity were transiently increased in the 51Cr-release system. At 4 hours, there was a twofold increase in the relative frequency of potentially cytotoxic target binding cells but the absolute number of these cells did not change. However, the percentage lysis of bound targets at 4 hours was not altered. These data suggest that: 1) lymphocytes participating in NK and ADCC reactions are refractory to the kinetic and functional effects of HC; 2) the increased lytic activity observed at 4 hours is due to a selective depletion of noncytotoxic cells from the circulation; and 3) NK and ADCC activity did not differ in their responses to HC.

  3. Studies on influence of polymer modifiers for fluorescent nanocrystals' cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Grabowska-Jadach, Ilona; Drozd, Marcin; Biegala, Joanna; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Parzuchowski, Paweł G; Brzózka, Zbigniew

    2016-08-01

    The presented studies aimed at investigation of the effect of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) stabilized with hyperbranched polyglycidol and its carboxylated derivative on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549). The first stage of studies concerned the modification of quantum dots with both types of the tested polymers with the use of pyridine as an intermediate agent. Subsequently, cytotoxic effect of the prepared nanoparticles was examined after various incubation time using MTT test (cell metabolic activity assay). Our studies revealed that CdSeS/ZnS with a diameter of 6nm, which were stabilized with hyperbranched polymers do not penetrate into cells, even after prolonged incubation time. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of the tested QDs was observed over a range of tested concentrations (5-90μM of Cd(2+)). It was confirmed that tested nanoparticles had significant influence on cell culture viability. The examined cytotoxic effect of the tested quantum dots was dependent on the type of polymer applied and the experiments indicated, that the one bearing carboxylic moieties is more toxic to A549 cells. PMID:26997161

  4. Simultaneous measurement of NK cell cytotoxicity against two target cell lines labelled with fluorescent lanthanide chelates.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, J; Blomberg, K

    1994-07-12

    We describe a cytotoxicity assay which permits the simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell activity against two different cell lines. The target cell lines are labelled either with a fluorescent europium chelate or with a fluorescent terbium chelate and cell death is quantified by measuring the chelate release. K-562, Molt4 and Daudi cell lines have been used as targets. The release of the two chelates from the target cells can be detected with the help of time resolved fluorometry. As the measurements are made after background fluorescence has decayed no additional steps are needed to correct for the background from the medium. The assay procedure used for measurement of cytotoxicity against two target cell lines is very similar to the widely used 51Cr release assay. PMID:8034979

  5. Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induces oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Berardis, Barbara; Civitelli, Gabriele; Condello, Maria; Lista, Pasquale; Pozzi, Roberta; Arancia, Giuseppe; Meschini, Stefania

    2010-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles offer great promise in many industrial and biomedical applications, however little information is available about gastrointestinal toxicity. The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and proinflammatory mediator release induced by ZnO nanoparticles on human colon carcinoma LoVo cells. The biological activity of these particles was related to their physico-chemical characteristics. The physico-chemical characteristics were evaluated by analytical electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity was determined by growth curves and water-soluble tetrazolium assay. The reactive oxygen species production, cellular glutathione content, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis cell death were quantified by flow cytometry. The inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. Treatment with ZnO (5 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} corresponding to 11.5 {mu}g/ml) for 24 h induced on LoVo cells a significant decrease of cell viability, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/OH{center_dot} increase, O2{sup -{center_dot}} and GSH decrease, depolarization of inner mitochondrial membranes, apoptosis and IL-8 release. Higher doses induced about 98% of cytotoxicity already after 24 h of treatment. The experimental data show that oxidative stress may be a key route in inducing the cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in colon carcinoma cells. Moreover, the study of the relationship between toxicological effects and physico-chemical characteristics of particles suggests that surface area does not play a primary role in the cytotoxicity.

  6. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 modulates cytotoxic effects of protopanaxadiol on different human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some of ginsenosides, root extracts from Panax ginseng, exert cytotoxicity against cancer cells through disruption of membrane subdomains called lipid rafts. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) exhibits the highest cytotoxic effect among 8 ginsenosides which we evaluated for anti-cancer activity. We investigated if PPD disrupts lipid rafts in its cytotoxic effects and also the possible mechanisms. Methods Eight ginsenosides were evaluated using different cancer cells and cell viability assays. The potent ginsenoside, PPD was investigated for its roles in lipid raft disruption and downstream pathways to apoptosis of cancer cells. Anti-cancer effects of PPD was also investigated in vivo using mouse xenograft model. Results PPD consistently exerts its potent cytotoxicity in 2 cell survival assays using 5 different cancer cell lines. PPD disrupts lipid rafts in different ways from methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) depleting cholesterol out of the subdomains, since lipid raft proteins were differentially modulated by the saponin. During disruption of lipid rafts, PPD activated neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase 2) hydrolyzing membrane sphingomyelins into pro-apoptotic intracellular ceramides. Furthermore, PPD demonstrated its anti-cancer activities against K562 tumor cells in mouse xenograft model, confirming its potential as an adjunct or chemotherapeutic agent by itself in vivo. Conclusions This study demonstrates that neutral sphingomyelinase 2 is responsible for the cytotoxicity of PPD through production of apoptotic ceramides from membrane sphingomyelins. Thus neutral sphingomyelinase 2 and its relevant mechanisms may potentially be employed in cancer chemotherapies. PMID:23889969

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of ulvan, a polysaccharide extracted from green algae.

    PubMed

    Alves, Anabela; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L

    2013-08-01

    Sustainable exploitation and valorization of natural marine resources represents a highly interesting platform for the development of novel biomaterials, with both economic and environmental benefits. In this context, toxicity data is regarded as a crucial and fundamental knowledge prior to any advances in the application development of natural derived polymers. In the present work, cytotoxicity of ulvan extracted from green algae Ulva lactuca was assessed by means of standard in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Fibroblast-like cells were incubated in the presence of this green algae's polysaccharide, and cell viability was assayed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium test. In addition, double stranded DNA and total protein were quantified in order to assess cell number. In order to establish ulvan's non-cytotoxic behaviour, the effect of this polysaccharide on cellular metabolic activity and cell number was directly compared to hyaluronic acid (HA), used as a non-cytotoxic control material. In this study, ulvan demonstrated promising results in terms of cytotoxicity, comparable to the currently used HA, which suggests that ulvan can be considered as non-toxic in the range of concentrations studied. PMID:22972627

  8. New Approach to Investigate the Cytotoxicity of Nanomaterials Using Single Cell Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Current in vitro methods to assess nanomaterial cytotoxicity involve various assays to monitor specific cellular dysfunction, such as metabolic imbalance or inflammation. Although high throughput, fast, and animal-free, these in vitro methods suffer from unreliability and lack of relevance to in vivo situations. New approaches, especially with the potential to reliably relate to in vivo studies directly, are in critical need. This work introduces a new approach, single cell mechanics, derived from atomic force microscopy-based single cell compression. The single cell based approach is intrinsically advantageous in terms of being able to directly correlate to in vivo investigations. Its reliability and potential to measure cytotoxicity is evaluated using known systems: zinc oxide (ZnO) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NP) on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). This investigation clearly indicates the reliability of single cell compression. For example, ZnO NPs cause significant changes in force vs relative deformation profiles, whereas SiO2 NPs do not. New insights into NPs–cell interactions pertaining to cytotoxicity are also revealed from this single cell mechanics approach, in addition to a qualitative cytotoxicity conclusion. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are also compared with conventional cytotoxicity assays. PMID:24417356

  9. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  10. Clinical usefulness of WT1 mRNA expression in bone marrow detected by a new WT1 mRNA assay kit for monitoring acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison with expression of WT1 mRNA in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kunio; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Ishiyama, Ken; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Kanji; Suzuki, Kenshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Okada, Masaya; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Imai, Kiyotoshi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yasuhisa; Chiba, Shigeru; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Jin; Nannya, Yasuhito; Kurokawa, Mineo; Ueda, Yasunori; Koga, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Haruo; Takaku, Fumimaro

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown the clinical usefulness of Wilms' tumor 1 gene (WT1) mRNA expression in peripheral blood (PB) as a minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring marker in 191 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients using the WT1 mRNA assay kit "Otsuka" (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; "former kit"). In contrast, the usefulness of WT1 mRNA expression in bone marrow (BM) has been investigated in only a limited number of subjects using former kit. Following that previous study, a next-generation kit, WT1 mRNA assay kit II "Otsuka" (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; "new kit") has been newly developed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the performance of the new kit and to investigate the clinical usefulness of WT1 mRNA expression in BM. The PB and BM were collected on the same day from 164 blood disease patients, including 118 AML patients. WT1 mRNA expression was determined using the new and former kits and the values obtained were compared. The performance of new kit was shown to be equivalent to that of former kit. As reported in PB, WT1 mRNA expression in BM was found to be a useful marker for monitoring disease status as well as for a diagnosis of early stage relapse in AML patients. PMID:26520650

  11. Cytotoxic Activity and Apoptosis Induction of Hypericum scabrum L.

    PubMed Central

    Hamzeloo-Moghadam, Maryam; Khalaj, Amir; Malekmohammadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the acquired biological hallmarks of tumor multistep development is the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis; therefore, induction of apoptosis is an important therapeutic approach. Hypericum species are spread throughout the world and have been investigated for their biological properties. Objectives: Our previous studies had demonstrated cytotoxicity of Hypericum scabrum L. methanol extract against some tumor cell lines, suggesting the species for further studies. The objectives of the present study were to determine the most cytotoxic fraction of Hypericum scabrum L. and to assess the apoptosis induction ability of the most effective fraction as well as its methanol extract. The laboratory evidence has been presented to support the potency of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) medicinal plants as a source of different biological activity surveys and drug discoveries. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive study. The sampling strategy was based on ITM data of cancer phytotherapy. Hypericum scabrum was collected from Alborz province, Iran (2012) and the herbarium specimen was taxonomically identified. The petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and methanol fractions have been evaluated for cytotoxicity against M-CF7, A-549, HT-29, and HepG-2 cell lines through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assay. The apoptosis induction ability has been assessed by activated caspase-3 inspection and Annexin V FITC/PI (propidium iodide) assays. Results: Di-chloromethane fraction demonstrated IC50 values of 25.72 μg/mL and 24.73 μg/mL against HT-29 and HepG-2 cell lines, respectively and IC50 values of petroleum ether fraction were 22.6 μg/mL and 18.31 μg/mL against HT-29 and HepG-2, respectively. The methanol fraction did not show cytotoxic activity. Both the methanol extract and the petroleum ether fraction of Hypericum scabrum L. revealed apoptosis induction ability. Conclusions: Considering the

  12. Limited Immunogenicity of HIV CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes in Acute Clade C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Radebe, Mopo; Nair, Kriebashnie; Chonco, Fundisiwe; Bishop, Karen; Wright, Jaclyn K.; van der Stok, Mary; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Mncube, Zenele; Altfeld, Marcus; Walker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–specific CD8+ responses contribute to the decline in acute peak viremia following infection. However, data on the relative immunogenicity of CD8+ T-cell epitopes during and after acute viremia are lacking. Methods. We characterized CD8+ T-cell responses in 20 acutely infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV-1 subtype C infection using the interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. Eleven of these had not fully seroconverted at the time of analysis. Viruses from plasma were sequenced within defined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) cell epitopes for selected subjects. Results. At approximately 28 days after estimated initial infection, CD8+ T-cell responses were directed against an average of 3 of the 410 peptides tested (range, 0–6); 2 individuals had no detectable responses at this time. At 18 weeks, the average number of peptides targeted had increased to 5 (range 0–11). Of the 56 optimal Gag CTL epitopes sequenced, 31 were wild-type in the infecting viruses, but only 11 of 31 elicited measurable CD8+ T-cell responses. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that the majority of CD8+ responses are not elicited during acute HIV infection despite the presence of the cognate epitope in the infecting strain. There is a need to define factors that influence lack of induction of effective immune responses and the parameters that dictate immunodominance in acute infection. PMID:21844303

  13. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Orta, Manuel Luis; Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2) also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer) in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay) induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee. PMID:27399778

  14. Cells Deficient in the Fanconi Anemia Protein FANCD2 are Hypersensitive to the Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Induced by Coffee and Caffeic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Orta, Manuel Luis; Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found a positive association between coffee consumption and a lower risk of cardiovascular disorders, some cancers, diabetes, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Coffee consumption, however, has also been linked to an increased risk of developing some types of cancer, including bladder cancer in adults and leukemia in children of mothers who drink coffee during pregnancy. Since cancer is driven by the accumulation of DNA alterations, the ability of the coffee constituent caffeic acid to induce DNA damage in cells may play a role in the carcinogenic potential of this beverage. This carcinogenic potential may be exacerbated in cells with DNA repair defects. People with the genetic disease Fanconi Anemia have DNA repair deficiencies and are predisposed to several cancers, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. Defects in the DNA repair protein Fanconi Anemia D2 (FANCD2) also play an important role in the development of a variety of cancers (e.g., bladder cancer) in people without this genetic disease. This communication shows that cells deficient in FANCD2 are hypersensitive to the cytotoxicity (clonogenic assay) and DNA damage (γ-H2AX and 53BP1 focus assay) induced by caffeic acid and by a commercial lyophilized coffee extract. These data suggest that people with Fanconi Anemia, or healthy people who develop sporadic mutations in FANCD2, may be hypersensitive to the carcinogenic activity of coffee. PMID:27399778

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity of the ternary PAMAM G3–pyridoxal–biotin bioconjugate

    PubMed Central

    Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Gargasz, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Wołowiec, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    A third-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM G3) was used as a macromolecular carrier for pyridoxal and biotin. The binary covalent bioconjugate of G3, with nine molecules of biotin per one molecule of G3 (G39B), and the ternary covalent bioconjugate of G3, with nine biotin and ten pyridoxal molecules (G39B10P), were synthesized. The biotin and pyridoxal residues of the bioconjugate were available for carboxylase and transaminase enzymes, as demonstrated in the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate and alanine to pyruvate, respectively, by in vitro monitoring of the reactions, using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The toxicity of the ternary bioconjugate (BC-PAMAM) was studied in vitro on BJ human normal skin fibroblasts and human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-15) cell cultures in comparison with PAMAM G3, using three cytotoxicity assays (XTT, neutral red, and crystal violet) and an estimation of apoptosis by confocal microscopy detection. The tests have shown that BC-PAMAM has significantly lower cytotoxicity compared with PAMAM. Nonconjugated PAMAM was not cytotoxic at concentrations up to 5 μM (NR) and 10 μM (XTT), and BC-PAMAM was not cytotoxic up to 50 μM (both assays) for both cell lines. It has been also found that normal fibroblasts were more sensitive than SCC to both PAMAM and BC-PAMAM. The effect of PAMAM and BC-PAMAM on the initiation of apoptosis (PAMAM in fibroblasts at 5 μM and BC-PAMAM at 10 μM in both cell lines) corresponded with cytotoxicity assays for both cell lines. We concluded that normal fibroblasts are more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of the PAMAM G3 dendrimer and that modification of its surface cationic groups by substitution with biologically active molecules significantly decreases that effect, confirming that PAMAM G3 is a useful candidate as a carrier for active biocompound delivery. PMID:24376351

  16. The Effect of Ultrafine Process on the Dissolution, Antibacterial Activity, and Cytotoxicity of Coptidis rhizoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhen-Yu; Deng, Hai-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Jun-Yan; Kang, Si-He

    2016-01-01

    Background: The dosage of herb ultrafine particle (UFP) depended on the increased level of its dissolution, toxicity, and efficacy. Objective: The dissolution, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of Coptidis rhizoma (CR) UFP were compared with those of traditional decoction (TD). Materials and Methods: The dissolution of berberine (BBR) of CR TD and UFP was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibacterial activity of CR extract was assayed by plate-hole diffusion and broth dilution method; the inhibitory effect of rat serums against bacteria growth was evaluated after orally given CR UFP or TD extract. The cytotoxicity of CR extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: The dissolution amount of BBR from CR UFP increased 6–8-folds in comparison to TD at 2 min, the accumulative amount of BBR in both UFP and TD group increased in a time-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of CR UFP extract decreased to 1/2~1/4 of those of TD extract. The inhibitory effect of rat serums against bacteria growth decreased time-dependently, and no statistical difference was observed between two groups at each time point. The 50% cytotoxic concentrations of UFP extract increased 1.66~1.97 fold than those of TD. Conclusions: The antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of CR UFP increased in a dissolution-effect manner in vitro, the increased level of cytotoxicity was lower than that of antibacterial activity, and the inhibitory effect of rat serums containing drugs of UFP group did not improve. SUMMARY Ultrafine grinding process caused a rapid increase of BBR dissolution from CR.The antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of UFP extract in vitro increased in a dissolution-effect manner, but the cytotoxicity increased lower than the antibacterial activity.The antibacterial activity of rat serums of UFP group did not improve in comparison to that

  17. Novel optical approaches for label-free quantification of nano-cytotoxic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mues, Sarah; Antunovic, Jan; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Commonly used cytotoxicity assays to determine the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell viability or cell death are often affected by applied nanomaterials, which lead to false-positive or false-negative results. Thus, novel nanomaterial toxicity testing strategies that allow for high nanomaterial doses to determine Low Effect Levels (LOEL) even of low toxic materials are of high interest. We demonstrate novel approaches to quantify cytotoxic effects with new parameter sets such as cellular refractive index, volume, density and dry mass that are obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM). Furthermore, we correlate results obtained from spherical (NM 300) and rod shaped (NM 302) silver nanomaterials with established cell viability and cell death assays. Moreover, in a label-free flow cytometry configuration, cell-nanoparticle-interaction-kinetics were determined by side scatter signal analysis. We demonstrate that silver spheres show a higher cytotoxicity than silver rods and found that this effect correlates with a decrease of the intracellular refractive index and a decreased temporal development of dry mass and cell covered surface area indicating reduced cell viability and increased cell death. Results from side scatter analysis suggest a dose-dependent uptake kinetics of both materials that correlates with cytotoxicity data of the established assays. Taken together, our results demonstrate DHM and flow cytometry as promising novel label-free tools for nanomaterial toxicity and cell particle interaction studies.

  18. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.

    PubMed

    Utami, Rahayu; Khalid, Nurhasniza; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Abdul, Ahmad Bustaman; Dachriyanus

    2013-03-01

    Elaeocarpus floribundus is higher plant that has been used as traditional medicine for treating several diseases. There is no previous report on phytochemicals and bioactivity studies of this species. In this investigation, triterpenoids friedelin, epifriedelanol and β-sitosterol were isolated from its leaves and stem bark. Determination of total phenolic content of methanolic extract of leaves and stem bark was carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. All extracts and isolated compounds were subjected to screening of antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical scavenging method and cytotoxic activities by MTT assay towards human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEM-SS) and human cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. In the total phenolic content determination, methanolic extract of leaves gave higher value of 503.08±16.71 mg GAE/g DW than stem bark with value of 161.5±24.81 mg GAE/g DW. Polar extracts of leaves and stem bark possessed promising antioxidant activity with methanol extract of stem bark exhibited strongest activity with IC50 value of 7.36±0.01 μg/ml. In the cytotoxic activity assay, only chloroform extract of leaves showed significant activity with IC50 value of 25.6±0.06 μg/ml against CEM-SS cancer cell, while friedelin and epifriedelanol were found to be active against the two cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 3.54 to 11.45 μg/ml. PMID:23455191

  19. Cytotoxic Compounds from Aerial Organs of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Janet Piloto; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Francisco, Marbelis; Romero, Aylema; Valdivia, Dayana; Gonzalez, Maria; Carlos Salas; Lamar, Angel Sanchez; Isla, Maria Inés

    2016-03-01

    Xanthium strumarium L., the main species of the genus Xanthium, is ubiquitously distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect of aerial organs of X strumarium, grown in Cuba, against cancer cell lines and the isolation of compounds potentially responsible for this activity. Initially, an ethanol partitioning procedure yielded the XSE extract that was subsequently fractionated with chloroform resulting in a XSCF fraction. Both, XSE and XSCF fractions exhibited cytotoxic effects on MDA MB-23 1, MCF7, A549 and CT26 cell lines by using the MTT assay. Above all, the XSCF fraction was more active than XSE. For this reason, XSCF was subsequently fractionated by silica gel chromatography and the active fractions submitted to semi-preparative HPLC for isolation of bioactive compounds. Six sub-fractions (SF1 to SF6) were recovered. Sub-fractions 3 and 6 were the most active on each assayed cell line, while sub-fractions 4 and 5 were only active against A549 and CT26 cell lines. In each case, sub-fraction 6 showed the strongest inhibitory effect. The HPLC-DAD fingerprint of sub-fraction 6 showed a single peak that was identified by GC-MS as (-) spathulenol, a sesquiterpene with reported antitumor activity. PMID:27169184

  20. Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Antonio-Nieto-Camacho; Gomez-Vidales, Virginia; Ramirez-Apan, María Teresa; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención; Kaufhold, Stephan; Abidin, Zeanal; Theng, Benny K G

    2014-06-15

    This paper reports that the main component of respirable volcanic ash, allophane, induces lipid peroxidation (LP), the oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes, and cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. Naturally-occurring allophane collected from New Zealand, Japan, and Ecuador was studied. The quantification of LP was conducted using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The cytotoxic effect was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) determinations of naturally-occurring allophane confirmed the incorporation in the structure and clustering of structural Fe(3+), and nucleation and growth of small-sized Fe (oxyhydr)oxide or gibbsite. LP induced by allophane varied with time, and solid concentration and composition, reaching 6.7 ± 0.2 nmol TBARS mg prot(-1). LP was surface controlled but not restricted by structural or surface-bound Fe(3+), because redox processes induced by soluble components other than perferryl iron. The reactivity of Fe(3+) soluble species stemming from surface-bound Fe(3+) or small-sized Fe(3+) refractory minerals in allophane surpassed that of structural Fe(3+) located in tetrahedral or octahedral sites of phyllosilicates or bulk iron oxides. Desferrioxamine B mesylate salt (DFOB) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited LP. EDTA acted as a more effective inhibitor, explained by multiple electron transfer pathways. Registered cell-viability values were as low as 68.5 ± 6.7%. PMID:24793297

  1. Cytotoxic activity of Origanum dictamnus.

    PubMed

    Chinou, Ioanna; Liolios, Christos; Moreau, Dimitri; Roussakis, Christos

    2007-07-01

    Several extracts of Origanum dictamnus, an endemic plant of Greece growing only in the island of Crete and the bioassay-directed isolated ursolic acid, were tested in vitro against the P388 (murine leukemia) and the human bronchial epidermoid cancer NSCLC-N6 (non small cell lung cancer) cell lines. Both the initial dichloromethane extract and the isolated from it ursolic acid exhibited cytotoxic activity. Ursolic acid was also tested in vivo, on murine ascite leukemia P388, where it exhibited at a dose of 50 mg/kg a marginal antileukemic activity. PMID:17507178

  2. Investigation of cytotoxic activity in four stachys species from iran.

    PubMed

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Manayi, Azadeh; Lotfi, Mahnaz; Abbasi, Rofeyde; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of Stachys laxa Boiss. and Buhse. from Siah-bishe in Mazandaran province, Stachys trinervis Aitch. and Hemsl. from Karaj in Alborz province, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F. and Stachys turcomanica Trautv. from Golestan province have been collected in May 2008. Total extracts were obtained through MeOH/H2O (80/20) and then partitioned between CHCl3, EtOAc and MeOH. These fractions and total extracts have been investigated for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against the colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D) and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines using MTT assay (3-(4,5-di methyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide). At each cell line, doses of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL in 1% (v/v) DMSO of all samples were tested. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys laxa against proliferation of T47D and HT-29 cell lines and chloroform fraction of Stachys subaphylla and Stachys subaphylla ethyl acetate fraction toward T47D cell line exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 50 µg/mL). Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys turcomanica against HT-29 cell line, except methanol fraction of Stachys subaphylla, the other extrcts on T47D cell line, represented moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 70 µg/mL). All fractions of S. trinervis demonstrated no effective cytotoxic activity. IC50 values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of HT-29 and T47D cells were most affected by chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Stachys laxa and Stachys turcomanica due to their nonpolar compounds. PMID:24250483

  3. Uremic Toxins Enhance Statin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Shinmoto, Tadakazu; Ogino, Hitomi; Oda, Tomoko; Yoshida, Takuya; Furukubo, Taku; Izumi, Satoshi; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Tachiki, Hidehisa; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2014-01-01

    The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis is considerably increased in statin users with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Uremic toxins, which accumulate in patients with ESRF, exert cytotoxic effects that are mediated by various mechanisms. Therefore, accumulation of uremic toxins might increase statin-induced cytotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of four uremic toxins—hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate, indole-3-acetic acid, and 3-indoxyl sulfate—on statin-induced myopathy. Differentiated rhabdomyosarcoma cells were pre-treated with the uremic toxins for seven days, and then the cells were treated with pravastatin or simvastatin. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by viability assays and flow cytometry. Pre-treatment with uremic toxins increased statin- but not cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated). In addition, the pre-treatment increased statin-induced apoptosis, which is one of the cytotoxic factors (p < 0.05 vs. untreated). However, mevalonate, farnesol, and geranylgeraniol reversed the effects of uremic toxins and lowered statin-induced cytotoxicity (p < 0.05 vs. untreated). These results demonstrate that uremic toxins enhance statin-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. The mechanism underlying this effect might be associated with small G-protein geranylgeranylation. In conclusion, the increased severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients with ESRF is likely due to the accumulation of uremic toxins. PMID:25192420

  4. Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 μg.mL−1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

  5. Suppression of natural killer cell cytotoxicity in postpartum women: time course and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Groer, Maureen W; El-Badri, Nagwa; Djeu, Julie; Williams, S Nicole; Kane, Bradley; Szekeres, Karoly

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the recovery of the immune system from normal pregnancy and whether the postpartum period is a uniquely adapted immune state. This report extends previous observations from our group of decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in the postpartum period. NK cytotoxicity was measured from 1 week through 9 months postpartum. In addition, NK cytotoxicity was assayed in the presence or absence of pooled plasmas collected from either postpartum or nonpostpartum women. Samples of cells were stained for inhibitory receptors and analyzed by flow cytometry. NK cytotoxicity remained decreased in postpartum women compared to controls through the first 6 postpartum months, returned to normal levels by 9 months, and remained normal at 12 months. NK cytotoxicity during the first 6 months was further inhibited by the addition of pooled plasma to NK cultures from postpartum women, but the addition of pooled plasma from the control group did not affect that group's NK cultures. There were differences in inhibitory receptor staining between the two groups, with decreased CD158a and CD158b and increased NKG2A expression on postpartum NK cells during the first 3 postpartum months. These data suggest that NK cytotoxicity postpartum inhibition lasts 6 months and is influenced by unidentified postpartum plasma components. The effect may also involve receptors on NK cells. PMID:23956351

  6. Ocular Surface Cytotoxicity and Safety Evaluation of Tafluprost, a Recently Developed Anti-Glaucoma Prostaglandin Analog

    PubMed Central

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Ayaki, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity of tafluprost, which is the most recently developed anti-glaucoma prostaglandin (PG) analog, in ocular surface cells is addressed in comparison with other PG analogs. Irrespective of cell lines and models, the cytotoxicity of anti-glaucoma PG eyedrops was primarily related to the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) contained in the eyedrops as a preservative. Accordingly, preservative-free tafluprost was apparently less cytotoxic than BAK-preserved PG analogs. Furthermore, our study for cytotoxicity assays on ocular cells, conducted by comprehensive investigations covering a variety of concentrations and treatment times, which is termed the cell viability score (CVS) system, demonstrated that 0.001% BAK-preserved tafluprost was not cytotoxic, and suggested that tafluprost may even reduce the cytotoxic effect of BAK. It has been reported that adverse reactions associated with tafluprost in healthy human volunteers and patients with glaucoma include conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid pigmentation, eyelash bristles, and deepening of upper eyelid sulcus. Nonetheless, most clinical studies have demonstrated that not only preservative-free tafluprost but also BAK-preserved tafluprost is well tolerated and safe in patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. PMID:24558301

  7. Syntaxin 8 is required for efficient lytic granule trafficking in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Shruthi S; Friedmann, Kim S; Knörck, Arne; Hoxha, Cora; Leidinger, Petra; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas; Rettig, Jens; Hoth, Markus; Qu, Bin; Schwarz, Eva C

    2016-07-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) eliminate pathogen-infected and cancerous cells mainly by polarized secretion of lytic granules (LG, containing cytotoxic molecules like perforin and granzymes) at the immunological synapse (IS). Members of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) family are involved in trafficking (generation, transport and fusion) of vesicles at the IS. Syntaxin 8 (Stx8) is expressed in LG and colocalizes with the T cell receptor (TCR) upon IS formation. Here, we report the significance of Stx8 for human CTL cytotoxicity. We found that Stx8 mostly localized in late, recycling endosomal and lysosomal compartments with little expression in early endosomal compartments. Down-regulation of Stx8 by siRNA resulted in reduced cytotoxicity. We found that following perforin release of the pre-existing pool upon target cell contact, Stx8 down-regulated CTL regenerate perforin pools less efficiently and thus release less perforin compared to control CTL. CD107a degranulation, real-time and end-point population cytotoxicity assays, and high resolution microscopy support our conclusion that Stx8 is required for proper and timely sorting and trafficking of cytotoxic molecules to functional LG through the endosomal pathway in human CTL. PMID:27094127

  8. Enumeration of Cytotoxic CD8 T Cells Ex Vivo during the Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Dietmar M. W.; Sijts, Alice J. A. M.; Mosmann, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Cytotoxicity is a key effector function of CD8 T cells. However, what proportion of antigen-specific CD8 T cells in vivo exert cytotoxic activity during a functional CD8 T-cell response to infection still remains unknown. We used the Lysispot assay to directly enumerate cytotoxic CD8 T cells from the spleen ex vivo during the immune response to infection with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. We demonstrate that not all antigen-responsive gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting T cells display cytotoxic activity. Most CD8 T cells detected at early time points of the response were cytotoxic. This percentage continuously declined during both the expansion and contraction phases to about 50% at the peak and to <10% of IFN-γ-producing cells in the memory phase. As described for clonal expansion, this elaboration of a program of differentiation after an initial stimulus was not affected by antigen or CD4 help but, like proliferation, could be influenced by later reinfection. These data indicate that cytotoxic effector function during the response to infection is regulated independently from IFN-γ secretion or expansion or contraction of the overall CD8 T-cell response. PMID:18678661

  9. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  10. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic activities of Hakea sericea Schrader extracts

    PubMed Central

    Luís, Ângelo; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Ferreira, Susana; Duarte, Ana Paula; Domingues, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hakea sericea Schrader is an invasive shrub in Portuguese forests. Objective: The goal of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of H. sericea extracts against several strains of microorganisms, including the ability to inhibit the formation of biofilms. Additionally the cytotoxic properties of these extracts, against human cells, were assessed. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of H. sericea was assessed by disk diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value determination. The antibiofilm activity was determined by quantification of total biofilm biomass with crystal violet. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by hemolysis assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results: For Gram-positive bacteria, MIC values of H. sericea methanolic extracts ranged between 0.040 and 0.625 mg/mL, whereas the fruits extract yielded the lowest MIC for several strains of microorganisms, namely, S. aureus, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Stems and fruits extract at 2.5 mg/mL effectively eradicated the biofilm of S. aureus ATCC 25923, SA 01/10 and MRSA 12/10. Regarding leaves extract, hemolysis was not observed, and in the case of stems and fruits, hemolysis was verified only for higher concentrations, suggesting its low toxicity. Fruits extract presented no toxic effect to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) cells however for concentrations of 0.017 and 0.008 mg/mL this extract was able to decrease human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7) viability in about 60%, as MTT test results had confirmed. This is a clearly demonstrator of the cytotoxicity of this extract against MCF-7 cells. PMID:24914310

  11. The relevancy of controlled nanocrystallization on rifampicin characteristics and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mohyeldin, Salma M; Mehanna, Mohammed M; Elgindy, Nazik A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article investigated the influence of novel rifampicin nanosuspension (RIF NS) for enhancing drug delivery properties. Methods RIF NS was fabricated using the antisolvent precipitation technique. The impact of solvent type and flow rate, stabilizer type and concentration, and stirring time and apparatus together with the solvent–antisolvent volume ratio on its controlled nanocrystallization has been evaluated. NSs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particle size and zeta potential analysis, solubility, and dissolution profiles. The compatibility between RIF and the stabilizer was investigated via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The shelf-life stability of the RIF NS was assessed within a period of 3 months at different storage temperatures. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on lung epithelial cells. Results Polyvinyl alcohol at 0.4% w/v, 1:15 methanol to deionized water volume ratio and 30-minutes sonication were the optimal parameters for RIF NS preparation. Nanocrystals were obtained with a nanometeric particle size (101 nm) and a negative zeta potential (−26 mV). NS exhibited a 50-fold enhancement in RIF solubility and 97% of RIF was dissolved after 10 minutes. The RIF NS was stable at 4±0.5°C with no significant change in particle size or zeta potential. The MTT cytotoxicity assay of RIF NS demonstrated a good safety profile and reduction in cell cytotoxicity with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.5 and 0.8 mg/mL for free RIF and RIF NS, respectively. Conclusion A novel RIF NS could be followed as an approach for enhancing RIF physicochemical characteristics with a prominence of a safer and better drug delivery. PMID:27274244

  12. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  13. In Vitro Cytotoxic Potential of Essential Oils of Eucalyptus benthamii and Its Related Terpenes on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Döll-Boscardin, Patrícia Mathias; Sartoratto, Adilson; Sales Maia, Beatriz Helena Lameiro de Noronha; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Nakashima, Tomoe; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus L. is traditionally used for many medicinal purposes. In particular, some Eucalyptus species have currently shown cytotoxic properties. Local Brazilian communities have used leaves of E. benthamii as a herbal remedy for various diseases, including cancer. Considering the lack of available data for supporting this cytotoxic effect, the goal of this paper was to study the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii and some related terpenes (α-pinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene) on Jurkat, J774A.1 and HeLa cells lines. Regarding the cytotoxic activity based on MTT assay, the essential oils showed improved results than α-pinene and γ-terpinene, particularly for Jurkat and HeLa cell lines. Terpinen-4-ol revealed a cytotoxic effect against Jurkat cells similar to that observed for volatile oils. The results of LDH activity indicated that cytotoxic activity of samples against Jurkat cells probably involved cell death by apoptosis. The decrease of cell DNA content was demonstrated due to inhibition of Jurkat cells proliferation by samples as a result of cytotoxicity. In general, the essential oils from young and adult leaves of E. benthamii presented cytotoxicity against the investigated tumor cell lines which confirms their antitumor potential. PMID:22645627

  14. Photoinduced cytotoxicity by a platinum diimine complex employing magnetite-silica nanocomposites as delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhigang; Li, Haisha; Dai, Ruihui; Chai, Aiyun

    2015-10-01

    Tartaric acid-modified core-shell magnetite-silica nanocomposites were prepared by a sol-gel method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Then the nanocomposites were employed as carriers of a photoactive platinum diimine complex. Photoinduced cytotoxicity by the photosensitizer-loaded nanocomposites in different human carcinoma cells has been studied by cell viability assay. The results suggest that the as-synthesized nanocomposites have good stability in water, and the cytotoxicity induced by the platinum diimine complex in red light can be significantly enhanced when the photosensitizer is loaded with the magnetic nanocomposites. PMID:26315847

  15. Cytotoxicity and phytochemical analyses of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves and flower extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahid, Alaa Abd; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with many ethnobotanical uses including antifungal and antibacterial activities. This study is aimed to determine the cytotoxicity and phytochemical content of O. stamineus leaves and flower using ethanol and water as solvents. The cytotoxicity of the extracts towards Vero cell was determined by MTT assay. The CC50 values were between 3.4-7.4 mg/ml and can be considered as nontoxic. Phytochemical screening revealed terpenes, alkaloid and phenolic were present in the leaves and flower of O. stamineus that might pose as the bioactive compound.

  16. Simple isoquinoline and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids as potential antimicrobial, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, K; Moriyasu, M; Tachibana, Y; Kim, H S; Wataya, Y; Wiegrebe, W; Bastow, K F; Cosentino, L M; Kozuka, M; Lee, K H

    2001-11-01

    Twenty-six simple isoquinolines and 21 benzylisoquinolines were tested for antimicrobial, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV activities. Some simple isoquinoline alkaloids were significantly active in each assay, and may be useful as lead compounds for developing potential chemotherapeutic agents. These compounds include 13 (antimicrobial), 25, 26, and 42 (antimalarial), 13 and 25 (cytotoxic), and 28 and 29 (anti-HIV). A quaternary nitrogen atom of isoquinolium or dihydroisoquinolinium type may contribute to enhanced potency in the first three types of activities. In contrast, anti-HIV activity was found with tetrahydroisoquinoline and 6,7-dihydroxyisoquinolium salts. PMID:11597468

  17. New cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory steroids from the soft coral Klyxum flaccidum.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wan-Ru; Huang, Chiung-Yao; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Lin, Yun-Sheng; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Su, Jui-Hsin; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Dai, Chang-Feng; Sheu, Jyh-Horng

    2016-07-15

    Four new steroids, namely klyflaccisteroids G-J (1-4) were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Klyxum flaccidum. The structures of compounds 1-4 were established by spectral data analysis (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison of spectral data with those of the related known compounds. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that 4 exhibited inhibition activity against the growth of HT-29, P388 and K562 cancer cell lines, whereas 2 showed selective cytotoxicity toward P388 cells. Compound 4 was also found to display significant anti-inflammatory activity for suppressing superoxide anion generation (O2(-)) and elastase release. PMID:27256910

  18. Preparation and cytotoxicity of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/alginate beads containing gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martins, Alessandro F; Facchi, Suelen P; Monteiro, Johny P; Nocchi, Samara R; Silva, Cleiser T P; Nakamura, Celso V; Girotto, Emerson M; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2015-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex beads based on N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) were obtained. This biomaterial was characterised by FTIR, TGA/DTG, DSC and SEM analysis. The good properties of polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel beads were associated, for the first time, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Through a straightforward methodology, AuNPs were encapsulated into the beads. The in vitro cytotoxicity assays on the Caco-2 colon cancer cells and healthy VERO cells showed that the beads presented good biocompatibility on both cell lines, whereas the beads loaded with gold nanoparticles (beads/AuNPs) was slightly cytotoxic on the Caco-2 and VERO cells. PMID:25159881

  19. Cytotoxicity of chronic exposure to 4 cigarette smoke condensates in 2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Word, Beverly; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles; Yang, Maocheng; Hammons, George; Lyn-Cook, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death. The cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke without the vapor phase, has mostly been tested in short-term in vitro studies lasting from a few hours to a few days. Here, we assessed the toxicity of CSCs from 2 reference cigarettes, 3R4F and CM6, using a primary human small airway epithelial (PSAE) cell line by quantifying adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), total glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH] + oxidized glutathione [GSSG]), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release over the course of 28 days. The CSCs, 0.3 to 10 μg/mL, promoted cell proliferation at 120 hours of exposure, but demonstrated cytotoxicity at days 14 and 28. Interestingly, CSCs, 0.3 to 3 μg/mL, showed a cell death effect at day 14 but induced cell proliferation at day 28. Consistently, transformation associated with morphological changes began by day 14 and the transformed cells grew dramatically at day 28. The LDH assay appeared to be sensitive for assessing early cell damage, whereas the ATP, MTS, and GSH assays were more suitable for determining later stage CSCs-induced cytotoxicity. The ATP assay showed greater sensitivity than the MTS and GSH assays. We also assessed the toxicity of CSCs in an human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized Barrett esophagus cell line (CP-C). The CP-C cells demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity over the course of 28 days but displayed higher resistance to CSCs than PSAE cells. This study demonstrates that CSCs cause cytotoxicity and induce transformation related to cell resistance and cell invasion properties. PMID:25800266

  20. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of orthodontic bands with or without silver soldered joints.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Tatiana Siqueira; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Trindade, Cristiano; Machado, Miriana da Silva; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2014-03-01

    Stainless steel bands, with or without silver soldered joints, are routinely used in orthodontics. However, little is known about the toxic biological effects of these appliances. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic, genotoxic and DNA damage-inducing effects of non-soldered bands (NSB) and silver soldered bands (SSB) on the HepG2 and HOK cell lines and to quantify the amount of ions released by the bands. The 24-h metallic eluates of NSBs and SSBs were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. An MTT reduction assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity, alkaline and modified comet assays were employed to measure genotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage effects, and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assays were used to verify DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity. Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn were detected in SSB medium samples, and Fe and Ni were detected in both the SSB and NSB medium samples. The SSB group induced stronger cytotoxic effects than the NSB group in both evaluated cell lines. NSB and SSB induced genotoxicity as evaluated by comet assays; stronger effects were observed in the SSB group. Both groups induced similar increases in the number of oxidative DNA lesions, as detected by the FPG and Endo III enzymes. Nucleoplasmic bridges, biomarkers of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end fusions, were significantly elevated in the SSB group. The SSB eluates showed higher amounts of Ni and Fe than NSB, and all the quantified ions were detected in SSB eluates, including Cd. The SSB eluates were more cytotoxic and genotoxic than the NSB samples. Based on these results, we propose that other brands, materials and techniques should be further investigated for the future manufacture of orthodontic appliances. PMID:24495929

  1. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  2. Development and validation of a single-cell network profiling assay-based classifier to predict response to induction therapy in paediatric patients with de novo acute myeloid leukaemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Lacayo, Norman J; Alonzo, Todd A; Gayko, Urte; Rosen, David B; Westfall, Matt; Purvis, Norman; Putta, Santosh; Louie, Brent; Hackett, James; Cohen, Aileen Cleary; Cesano, Alessandra; Gerbing, Robert; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Dahl, Gary V; Gamis, Alan; Meshinchi, Soheil

    2013-07-01

    Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multi-parameter flow cytometry technique for simultaneous interrogation of intracellular signalling pathways. Diagnostic paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) bone marrow samples were used to develop a classifier for response to induction therapy in 53 samples and validated in an independent set of 68 samples. The area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC(ROC)) was calculated to be 0·85 in the training set and after exclusion of induction deaths, the AUC(ROC) of the classifier was 0·70 (P = 0·02) and 0·67 (P = 0·04) in the validation set when induction deaths (intent to treat) were included. The highest predictive accuracy was noted in the cytogenetic intermediate risk patients (AUC(ROC) 0·88, P = 0·002), a subgroup that lacks prognostic/predictive biomarkers for induction response. Only white blood cell count and cytogenetic risk were associated with response to induction therapy in the validation set. After controlling for these variables, the SCNP classifier score was associated with complete remission (P = 0·017), indicating that the classifier provides information independent of other clinical variables that were jointly associated with response. This is the first validation of an SCNP classifier to predict response to induction chemotherapy. Herein we demonstrate the usefulness of quantitative SCNP under modulated conditions to provide independent information on AML disease biology and induction response. PMID:23682827

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. The potential of clofarabine in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Stumpel, Dominique J P M; Schneider, Pauline; Pieters, Rob; Stam, Ronald W

    2015-09-01

    MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in infants is the most difficult-to-treat type of childhood ALL, displaying a chemotherapy-resistant phenotype, and unique histone modifications, gene expression signatures and DNA methylation patterns. MLL-rearranged infant ALL responds remarkably well to nucleoside analogue drugs in vitro, such as cytarabine and cladribine, and to the demethylating agents decitabine and zebularine as measured by cytotoxicity assays. These observations led to the inclusion of cytarabine into the treatment regimens currently used for infants with ALL. However, survival chances for infants with MLL-rearranged ALL do still not exceed 30-40%. Here we explored the in vitro potential of the novel nucleoside analogue clofarabine for MLL-rearranged infant ALL. Therefore we used both cell line models as well as primary patient cells. Compared with other nucleoside analogues, clofarabine effectively targeted primary MLL-rearranged infant ALL cells at the lowest concentrations, with median LC50 values of ∼25 nM. Interestingly, clofarabine displayed synergistic cytotoxic effects in combination with cytarabine. Furthermore, at concentrations of 5-10nM clofarabine induced demethylation of the promoter region of the tumour suppressor gene FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad), a gene typically hypermethylated in MLL-rearranged ALL. Demethylation of the FHIT promoter region was accompanied by subtle re-expression of this gene both at the mRNA and protein level. We conclude that clofarabine is an interesting candidate for further studies in MLL-rearranged ALL in infants. PMID:26188848

  6. Nonspecific cytotoxic cells of teleosts are armed with multiple granzymes and other components of the granule exocytosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Kesavannair; Leary, John H; Evans, Donald L; Jaso-Friedmann, Liliana

    2006-03-01

    Granzymes are members of the serine protease family and major components of cytotoxic granules of professional killer cells. Multiple granzymes have been identified from human and rodents with different substrate specificities. Although the significance of granzymes A and B in cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been extensively investigated, recent reports suggest that other granzymes may have either equal or greater importance in mediating cell death. Studies on the evolution of these closely related proteases were hindered by the lack of sequence and biochemical information of granzymes from "lower vertebrates." Here we report the generation of a catalytically active recombinant granzyme identified in the cytotoxic cells of an ectothermic vertebrate. Fully active, soluble recombinant catfish granzyme-1 (CFGR-1) was generated using a yeast-based expression system. In vitro enzyme kinetic assays using various thiobenzyl ester substrates verified its tryptase activity in full agreement with previous observations by sequence comparison and molecular modeling. The tryptase activity that was secreted from catfish NCC during an in vitro cytotoxicity assay strongly correlated with the cytotoxicity induced by these cells. Evidence for additional granzymes with different substrate specificities in NCC was obtained by analysis of the protease activity of supernatants collected from in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Searches of the catfish EST database further confirmed the presence of teleost granzymes with different substrate specificities. Granzyme activity measurements suggested a predominance of chymase and tryptase activities in NCC. Further proof that the granule exocytosis pathway is one of the cytotoxic mechanisms in NCC was provided by the expression of granule components perforin, granulysin and serglycin detected by RT-PCR analysis. These results demonstrate the evidence for a parallel evolution of effector molecules of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in teleosts. PMID

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytotoxicity Is Attenuated at High Cell Density and Associated with the Accumulation of Phenylacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhe; Dong, Yihu; Zhou, Tielin; Liu, Xiaoling; Deng, Yinyue; Wang, Chao; Lee, Jasmine; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background P. aeruginosa is known to cause acute cytotoxicity against various human and animal cells and tissues. Methodology/Findings Intriguingly, however, in this study we noticed that while a low cell density inoculum of P. aeruginosa caused severe cytotoxicity against human lung tissue cell line A549, increasing the cell density of bacterial inoculum led to decreased cytotoxicity. Addition of the supernatants from high density bacterial culture to low cell density inoculum protected the human cells from bacterial cytotoxic damage, suggesting that P. aeruginosa may produce and accumulate an inhibitory molecule(s) counteracting its pathogenic infection. The inhibitor was purified from the stationary-phase culture supernatants of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 using bioassay-guided high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and characterized to be phenylacetic acid (PAA) by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microarray analysis revealed that treatment of P. aeruginosa with PAA down-regulated the transcriptional expression of Type III secretion system (T3SS) genes and related regulatory genes including rsmA and vfr, which were confirmed by transcriptional and translational analysis. Conclusions Identification of bacterial metabolite PAA as a T3SS-specific inhibitor explains this intriguing inverse cell-density-dependent-cytotoxicity phenomenon as T3SS is known to be a key virulence factor associated with cytotoxicity and acute infection. The findings may provide useful clues for design and development of new strategies to combat this formidable bacterial pathogen. PMID:23555919

  8. The MTT and Crystal Violet Assays: Potential Confounders in Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Almutary, A; Sanderson, B J S

    2016-07-01

    The toxicological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on humans, animals, and environment are largely unknown. Assessment of NPs cytotoxicity depends on the choice of the test system. Due to NPs optical activity and absorption values, they can influence the classical cytotoxicity assay. Eight NPs were spiked in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assays and tested with HaCaT human skin cells. The MTT assay standard curve optical density (OD) measurements were altered by the presence of trisilanol phenyl and trisilanol isooctyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane particles. The crystal violet standard curve OD measurements were significantly shifted by gold NPs, but they did not affect the MTT assay. Carbon black decreased ODs in the MTT and crystal violet assays and was localized in the cell cytoplasm. These findings strongly indicate that a careful choice of in vitro viability systems is required to avoid flawed measurement of NPs toxicity. PMID:27207930

  9. A Strategy for Quality Control of Menispermum dauricum DC Based on Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC Fingerprint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L. J.; Liu, J. N.

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Menispermum dauricum DC known as a traditional Chinese medicine, with high content of alkaloids, has been found to possess antitumor activity. In this research, an attempt to correlate fingerprinting with bioactivity was made for quality control of M. dauricum. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of extracts from ten batches of samples against human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was estimated by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Then, cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography. Eight peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of samples and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify and classify different samples into groups. Assays for determinations of total alkaloids and dauricine contents enabled cytotoxicity coefficient of each extract. The potential usefulness of employing cytotoxicity coefficient was investigated by a combination of Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis as being the reliable parameter to evaluate the herbal extracts. The results indicated that the level of dauricine (peak 8 in the fingerprint) correlated closely with cytotoxicity and played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of Bei Dou-Gen and could be related to its antitumor properties. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity coefficient value with a cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprint of key biomarkers (dauricine) may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of M. dauricum. The analysis of cytotoxic-activity-integrated fingerprint could correlate fingerprinting with bioactivities and would provide a reasonable strategy for quality control of complex mixture of herbal medicines. PMID:27168693

  10. A Strategy for Quality Control of Menispermum dauricum DC Based on Cytotoxic Activity and HPLC Fingerprint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Liu, J N

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Menispermum dauricum DC known as a traditional Chinese medicine, with high content of alkaloids, has been found to possess antitumor activity. In this research, an attempt to correlate fingerprinting with bioactivity was made for quality control of M. dauricum. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of extracts from ten batches of samples against human breast MCF-7 cancer cells was estimated by [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Then, cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprints were established by high performance liquid chromatography. Eight peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of samples and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify and classify different samples into groups. Assays for determinations of total alkaloids and dauricine contents enabled cytotoxicity coefficient of each extract. The potential usefulness of employing cytotoxicity coefficient was investigated by a combination of Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analysis as being the reliable parameter to evaluate the herbal extracts. The results indicated that the level of dauricine (peak 8 in the fingerprint) correlated closely with cytotoxicity and played a significant role in the cytotoxicity of Bei Dou-Gen and could be related to its antitumor properties. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity coefficient value with a cytotoxic activity-integrated fingerprint of key biomarkers (dauricine) may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of M. dauricum. The analysis of cytotoxic-activity-integrated fingerprint could correlate fingerprinting with bioactivities and would provide a reasonable strategy for quality control of complex mixture of herbal medicines. PMID:27168693

  11. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: procedures to evaluate cytotoxicity in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Dantas, Denise Conceição Mesquita; Linden, Rafael; Ziulkoski, Ana Luiza

    2016-06-01

    The risks associated to tobacco smoking are not ceased with smoke extinction. Many toxic compounds remain in the environment after the cigarette is extinguished and accumulated in the air or on surfaces. However, little is known about the risks of this exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate procedures to collect thirdhand smoke (THS) and prepare the samples to perform three in vitro toxicity tests. Cellulose papers and cotton wipes were used to impregnate with nicotine solution and smoke cigarette in a chamber or in smoker's home. Samples were immersed in methanol or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) to expose Hep-2 cells. MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU) and trypan blue assays were performed. The concentration of nicotine in DMEM extract of THS in paper and cotton was similar to those in methanol extract (p > 0.05). Alterations in the mitochondrial and lysosomal functions were found in both paper and cotton samples; however, the cytotoxic effect was not always observed. There was a decrease of 21-31% in MTT assay and 38-56% in NRU assay (p < 0.003). There was a dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes and lysosomal viability; the correlation was higher for cotton samples (r = -0.843, p < 0.001). As a dose-response relationship was found only in NRU assay, this test may be a more suitable choice rather than the MTT assay. Paper and wipe sampling can be reliable markers of tobacco smoke contamination. Moreover, these materials, if properly prepared, can be used as substrate providers to perform cellular assays. PMID:27268319

  12. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  13. Evaluation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples from the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, E; Goldoni, A; Trintinaglia, L; Lessing, G; Silva, C E M; Nascimento, C A; Ziulkoski, A L; Spilki, F R; Silva, L B

    2015-05-01

    Some water bodies in the Sinos River Basin (SRB) have been suffering the effects of pollution by residential, industrial and agroindustrial wastewater. The presence of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds could compromise the water quality and the balance of these ecosystems. In this context, the research aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the water at four sites along the SRB (in the cities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio), using bioassays in fish and cell culture. Samples of surface water were collected and evaluated in vitro using the Astyanax jacuhiensis fish species (micronucleus test and comet assay) and the Vero lineage of cells (comet assay and cytotoxicity tests, neutral red - NR and tetrazolium MTT). The micronucleus test in fish showed no significant differences between the sampling sites, and neither did the comet assay and the MTT and NR tests in Vero cells. The comet assay showed an increase in genetic damage in the fish exposed to water samples collected in the middle and lower sections of the basin (Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio) when compared to the upper section of the basin (Santo Antônio da Patrulha). The results indicate contamination by genotoxic substances starting in the middle section of the SRB. PMID:26270216

  14. Immunochromatographic assay on thread.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gina; Mao, Xun; Juncker, David

    2012-09-18

    Lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays are low-cost, simple-to-use, rapid tests for point-of-care screening of infectious diseases, drugs of abuse, and pregnancy. However, lateral flow assays are generally not quantitative, give a yes/no answer, and lack multiplexing. Threads have recently been proposed as a support for transporting and mixing liquids in lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays, but their use for quantitative high-sensitivity immunoassays has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we introduce the immunochromatographic assay on thread (ICAT) in a cartridge format that is suitable for multiplexing. The ICAT is a sandwich assay performed on a cotton thread knotted to a nylon fiber bundle, both of which are precoated with recognition antibodies against one target analyte. Upon sample application, the assay results become visible to the eye within a few minutes and are quantified using a flatbed scanner. Assay conditions were optimized, the binding curves for C-reactive protein (CRP) in buffer and diluted serum were established and a limit of detection of 377 pM was obtained. The possibility of multiplexing was demonstrated using three knotted threads coated with antibodies against CRP, osteopontin, and leptin proteins. The performance of the ICAT was compared with that of the paper-based and conventional assays. The results suggest that thread is a suitable support for making low-cost, sensitive, simple-to-use, and multiplexed diagnostic tests. PMID:22889381

  15. Induction of Cytotoxicity through Photorelease of Aminoferrocene.

    PubMed

    Leonidova, Anna; Anstaett, Philipp; Pierroz, Vanessa; Mari, Cristina; Spingler, Bernhard; Ferrari, Stefano; Gasser, Gilles

    2015-10-19

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activated aminoferrocene-based anticancer prodrug candidates successfully take advantage of intrinsically high amounts of ROS in tumor tissues. Interestingly, the ROS-initiated activation of these prodrug candidates leads to formation of unstable aminoferrocene (Fc-NH2) derivatives, which decay to iron ions. The latter catalytically increases ROS concentration to a lethal level. In this work, we prepared light-controlled aminoferrocene prodrug candidates by derivatizing Fc-NH2 with an o-nitrophenyl and an o-nitrobiphenyl photolabile protecting group (PLPG), respectively, and by further conjugation to a mitochondria localization signal (MLS) peptide (Cys-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2). The resulting bioconjugates were found to be more stable and less cytotoxic, in the dark, toward human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) compared to Fc-NH2. Upon light irradiation at 355 nm, both conjugates released Fc-NH2, albeit with very different photolysis quantum yields. The o-nitrobiphenyl photocage was in fact several orders of magnitude more efficient than the o-nitrophenyl photocage in releasing Fc-NH2. This difference was reflected by the light irradiation experiments on the HL-60 cell line, in which aminoferrocene conjugated with the o-nitrobiphenyl cage and the MLS displayed the highest phototoxicity index (2.5 ± 0.4) of all the compounds tested. The iron release assays confirmed the rise in iron ion concentrations upon light irradiation of both caged aminoferrocene derivatives. Together with the absence of phototoxicity on the nonmalignant hTERT-immortalized retinal pigment epithelial (hTERT RPE-1) cell line, these results indicate catalytic generation of ROS as possible mode of action. PMID:26440628

  16. Soil quality in the Lomellina area using in vitro models and ecotoxicological assays

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, Diego; Colombo, Andrea; Romeo, Margherita; Cambria, Felice; Teoldi, Federico; Lodi, Marco; Diomede, Luisa; Benfenati, Emilio

    2014-08-15

    Soil quality is traditionally evaluated by chemical characterization to determine levels of pollutants. Biological tools are now employed for soil monitoring since they can take account of the global biological effects induced by all xenobiotics. A combined monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, human-related in vitro models and ecotoxicological assay was applied in the Lomellina, a semirural area of northern Italy. Chemical characterization indicated overall good quality of the soils, with low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as heavy metals, PAHs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs. HepG2 cells were used as a model for the human liver and BALB/c 3T3 cells to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matter (EOM) and the MTS assay, DNA release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity only at doses of 500 and 1000 mg soil equivalents/ml. Potential issues for human health can be hypothesized after ingestion of soil samples from some sites. No statistically significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs, indicating that the levels of the soil-extracted organic pollutants were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. An acute phytotoxicity test and studies on Caenorhabditis elegans were used as ecotoxicological assays for plants and small invertebrates. No significant alerts for ecotoxicity were found. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells detected differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs, indicating that this cell line could be appropriate to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil. Additional information on the carcinogenic potential of mixtures was provided by the cell transformation assay, strengthening the combined approach. - Highlights: • A combined approach for evaluation of soil quality is

  17. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  18. CD8 T-cell responses to Wilms tumor gene product WT1 and proteinase 3 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Letsch, Anne; Thiel, Eckhard; Schmittel, Alexander; Mailaender, Volker; Baerwolf, Steffi; Nagorsen, Dirk; Keilholz, Ulrich

    2002-09-15

    Wilms tumor gene product WT1 and proteinase 3 are overexpressed antigens in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), against which cytotoxic T lymphocytes can be elicited in vitro and in murine models. We performed this study to investigate whether WT1- and proteinase 3-specific CD8 T cells spontaneously occur in AML patients. T cells recognizing HLA-A2.1-binding epitopes from WT1 or proteinase 3 could be detected ex vivo in 5 of 15 HLA-A2-positive AML patients by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and flow cytometry for intracellular IFN-gamma and in 3 additional patients by flow cytometry only. T cells producing IFN-gamma in response to proteinase 3 were further characterized in one patient by 4-color flow cytometry, identifying them as CD3(+)CD8(+)CD45RA(+) CCR7(-) T cells, resembling cytotoxic effector T cells. In line with this phenotype, most of the WT1- and proteinase-reactive T cells were granzyme B(+). These results provide for the first time evidence for spontaneous T-cell reactivity against defined antigens in AML patients. These data therefore support the immunogenicity of WT1 and proteinase 3 in acute leukemia patients and the potential usefulness of these antigens for leukemia vaccines. PMID:12200377

  19. Cytotoxic Aporphines from Artabotrys crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tan Kok; Shipton, Fiona; Azman, Nadiah Syafiqah Nor; Hossan, Shahadat; Jin, Khoo Ten; Wiart, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Artabotrys crassifolius Hook. f. & Thomson is a medicinal plant used in Malaysia. The cytotoxic effects of the hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the leaves and bark were examined in vitro against MCF-7, MDA-468 and HCT-116 cells. The chloroform extract of the bark inhibited the growth of all cell lines with GI₅₀ values ranging from 4.2 µg/mL to 9.4 µg/mL. Silica gel column chromatography of this extract yielded artabotrine, liridine, atherospermidine and lysicamine. Artabotrine and lysicamine inhibited the growth of HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells with GI₅₀ values ranging from 3.3 µM to 3.9 µM. These alkaloids were not toxic to human embryonic kidney cells (HEK297) up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL. PMID:27169188

  20. A Partially Purified Acinetobacter baumannii Phage Preparation Exhibits no Cytotoxicity in 3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Henein, Alexandra E.; Hanlon, Geoffrey W.; Cooper, Callum J.; Denyer, Stephen P.; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    A surge in the level and scale of antibiotic resistance has prompted renewed interest in the application of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections. However, concerns still exist over their efficacy and safety. Acinetobacter baumannii phage BS46, a member of the family Myoviridae, has previously been shown to be effective in murine models. The cytotoxic effect of this phage was evaluated in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells using four different assays: trypan blue; staining with Hoechst and propidium iodide; lactate dehydrogenase release; and the MTS assay. The addition of phage concentrations up to 2 × 109 pfu/mL showed little to no impact on the viability of 3T3 cells after 24 h exposure using the different assays. This study demonstrates that phage BS46 is non-cytotoxic to 3T3 cells using four different assays and that appropriate quality assurance protocols for phage therapeutics are required. PMID:27536286

  1. A Partially Purified Acinetobacter baumannii Phage Preparation Exhibits no Cytotoxicity in 3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cells.

    PubMed

    Henein, Alexandra E; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Cooper, Callum J; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    A surge in the level and scale of antibiotic resistance has prompted renewed interest in the application of bacteriophages to treat bacterial infections. However, concerns still exist over their efficacy and safety. Acinetobacter baumannii phage BS46, a member of the family Myoviridae, has previously been shown to be effective in murine models. The cytotoxic effect of this phage was evaluated in mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells using four different assays: trypan blue; staining with Hoechst and propidium iodide; lactate dehydrogenase release; and the MTS assay. The addition of phage concentrations up to 2 × 10(9) pfu/mL showed little to no impact on the viability of 3T3 cells after 24 h exposure using the different assays. This study demonstrates that phage BS46 is non-cytotoxic to 3T3 cells using four different assays and that appropriate quality assurance protocols for phage therapeutics are required. PMID:27536286

  2. Endothelial cell cytotoxicity of cotton bracts tannin and aqueous cotton bracts extract

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.M.; Hanson, M.N.; Rohrbach, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay based on the release of /sup 51/Cr from cultured porcine thoracic aortic and pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that cotton bracts tannin is a potent endothelial cell cytotoxin. It produces dose-dependent lethal injury to both types of endothelial cells with the aortic cells, being somewhat more sensitive to tannin-mediated injury than the pulmonary arterial cells. Cytotoxic injury to the cells was biphasic. During the first 3 hr of exposure to tannin, no lethal injury was detected. However, during this period, profound changes in morphology were observed suggesting sublethal injury to the cells preceded the ultimate toxic damage. Comparison of the cytotoxicity dose curves for aqueous bracts extracts with those for tannin demonstrated that tannin was major cytotoxin present in bracts.

  3. The cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from induction of double-strand breaks in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colis, Laureen C.; Woo, Christina M.; Hegan, Denise C.; Li, Zhenwu; Glazer, Peter M.; Herzon, Seth B.

    2014-06-01

    The metabolite (-)-lomaiviticin A, which contains two diazotetrahydrobenzo[b]fluorene (diazofluorene) functional groups, inhibits the growth of cultured human cancer cells at nanomolar-picomolar concentrations; however, the mechanism responsible for the potent cytotoxicity of this natural product is not known. Here we report that (-)-lomaiviticin A nicks and cleaves plasmid DNA by a pathway that is independent of reactive oxygen species and iron, and that the potent cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A arises from the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). In a plasmid cleavage assay, the ratio of single-strand breaks (ssbs) to dsbs is 5.3 ± 0.6:1. Labelling studies suggest that this cleavage occurs via a radical pathway. The structurally related isolates (-)-lomaiviticin C and (-)-kinamycin C, which contain one diazofluorene, are demonstrated to be much less effective DNA cleavage agents, thereby providing an explanation for the enhanced cytotoxicity of (-)-lomaiviticin A compared to that of other members of this family.

  4. A Quantum Chemical and Statistical Study of Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Anouar, El Hassane; Shilpi, Jamil A; Trabolsy, Zuhra Bashir Khalifa Al; Zain, Sharifuddin Bin Md; Zakaria, Nur Shahidatul Shida; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Malek, Sri Nurestri A; Rahman, Syarifah Nur Syed Abdul; Awang, Khalijah

    2015-01-01

    A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR); principal component analysis (PCA); and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) vary from 0%-55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay. PMID:25923077

  5. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Cancer Cells of Novel Isoquinolinequinone-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Jaime A; Delgado, Virginia; Sepúlveda, Sandra; Benites, Julio; Theoduloz, Cristina; Buc Calderon, Pedro; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-01-01

    A variety of aminoisoquinoline-5,8-quinones bearing α-amino acids moieties were synthesized from 3-methyl-4-methoxycarbonylisoquinoline-5,8-quinone and diverse l- and d-α-amino acid methyl esters. The members of the series were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against normal and cancer cell lines by using the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. From the current investigation, structure-activity relationships demonstrate that the location and structure of the amino acid fragment plays a significant role in the cytotoxic effects. Moderate to high cytotoxic activity was observed and four members, derived from l-alanine, l-leucine, l-phenylalanine, and d-phenylalanine, were selected as promising compounds by their IC50 ranging from 0.5 to 6.25 μM and also by their good selectivity indexes (≥2.24). PMID:27617997

  6. In vitro study on the biotransformation and cytotoxicity of three hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaomei; Chen, Cen; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yufang; Ren, Guofa; Yu, Zhiqiang; An, Jing

    2016-10-01

    In order to clarify the cytotoxicity of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers, and to investigate the correlation of cytotoxicity and biotransformation of HBCDs, the immortalized human liver cells L02 and human hepatoma cells HepG2 were exposed to individual HBCD diastereoisomer (α-, β- and γ-HBCD). Cytotoxicity was assayed in terms of cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and DNA damage. Metabolic rate, bioisomerization and enantiomer fractions were analyzed using the liquid chromatograph coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The α-, β- and γ-HBCD all had cytotoxicity in L02 and HepG2 cells with the toxicity order β-HBCD ≥ γ-HBCD > α-HBCD according to the results of proliferation assay. The cytotoxicity mechanism between the two cells seemed different: a) the stability of intracellular redox state plays an important role in inducing cell toxicity in HepG2 cells. b) DNA damage status is central to inhibit proliferation in L02 cells. The metabolic capability of HepG2 was superior to L02 for HBCD diastereoisomers, which may explain the greater toxicity of HBCDs in HepG2 cells. The bioisomerization and enantiomer enrichment were also detected in this study, although the results were inconsistent with other reports, which might result from species-specific differences in HBCDs metabolism or experimental conditions. The cytotoxicity and metabolic mechanism of individual enantiomers must be further investigated to evaluate the health risks of HBCDs. PMID:27434255

  7. Quantitative and qualitative control of cytotoxic preparations by HPLC-UV in a centralized parenteral preparations unit.

    PubMed

    Delmas, A; Gordien, J B; Bernadou, J M; Roudaut, M; Gresser, A; Malki, L; Saux, M C; Breilh, D

    2009-07-12

    The constantly growing incidence of cancer and long-term treatment are leading to an increasing number of cytotoxic preparations in hospital pharmacies. Security and quality standards of cytotoxic preparations are essential to assure treatment efficiency and limit iatrogenic toxicity. In order to secure the process of cytotoxic preparations; we decided to install a quantitative and qualitative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) control of cytotoxic preparations carried inside our pharmacotechnic unit. A 100 microl sample of each preparation was assayed by HPLC with ultraviolet/visible-diode array detection, which enabled the identification of all cytotoxic agents thanks to their characteristic UV spectra. We developed rapid and specific HPLC assays that determined qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of 21 different cytotoxic agents in less than 3.5 min. A fifteen per cent tolerance from the theoretical concentration was chosen in agreement with preparation and dosage bias, and a first period control of more than 4400 preparations revealed that around 7.7% preparations did not conform. The main objective of these controls was to avoid the administration of defective chemotherapies to patients and finally to use their results to identify error factors; as a result we will take corrective measures in order to reduce error frequency. PMID:19362442

  8. Targeting the Wee1 Kinase for Treatment of Pediatric Down Syndrome Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, J. Timothy; Edwards, Holly; Buck, Steven A.; Ge, Yubin; Taub, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most Down syndrome children with acute myeloid leukemia (DS-AML) have an overall excellent prognosis, however, patients who suffer an induction failure or relapse, have an extremely poor prognosis. Hence, new therapies need to be developed for this subgroup of DS-AML patients. One new therapeutic approach is preventing cell cycle checkpoint activation by inhibiting the upstream kinase wee1 with the first-in-class inhibitor MK-1775 in combination with the standard genotoxic agent cytarabine (AraC). Procedure Using the clinically relevant DS-AML cell lines CMK and CMY, as well as ex vivo primary DS-AML patient samples, the ability of MK-1775 to enhance the cytotoxicity of AraC was investigated with MTT assays. The mechanism by which MK-1775 enhanced AraC cytotoxicity was investigated in the cell lines using Western blots to probe CDK1 and H2AX phosphorylation and flow cytometry to determine apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and aberrant mitotic entry. Results MK-1775 alone had modest single-agent activity, however, MK-1775 was able to synergize with AraC in causing proliferation arrest in both cell lines and primary patient samples, and enhance AraC-induced apoptosis. MK-1775 was able to decrease inhibitory CDK1(Y15) phosphorylation at the relatively low concentration of 100 nM after only 4 hours. Furthermore, it was able to enhance DNA damage induced by AraC and partially abrogate cell cycle arrest. Importantly, the DNA damage enhancement appeared in early S-phase. Conclusions MK-1775 is able to enhance the cytotoxicity of AraC in DS-AML cells and presents a promising new treatment approach for DS-AML. PMID:24962331

  9. Evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity of partially purified serine protease isolate from the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mahendra Kumar; Xavier, Francies; Verma, Yogendra Kumar; Sobha, Kota

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate, partially purify and evaluate the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of a serine protease from the chosen Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Methods Whole animal extract was prepared and purified its protein constituents by size and charge based chromatographic separation techniques using Sephadex G-50 and DEAE-Cellulose resin respectively. Average molecular weight of the protein isolate was determined and analyzed for its cytotoxic property against Vero cells in different dilutions (1: 20 and 1: 40) and anti-tumor activity by MTT assay (a colorimetric assay) using breast cancer cell line MCF-7, with tamoxifen as standard. Results One of the protein constituents after purification was characterized as serine protease by Caseinolytic plate diffusion assay. Average molecular weight of this purified isolate was determined, by SDS-PAGE analysis with standard protein ladder, as of 15 kDa. The performed tests suggested that the 15kDa fraction has potent cytotoxic activity and satisfactory antitumor activity as well in vitro. Conclusions Exact molecular mechanism of the cytotoxic and antitumor activities is yet to be explored and currently we are working on ultra-purification and biophysical characterization of this fraction. Further investigation into the mechanism(s) of cytotoxic and antitumor activities at molecular level would be useful in treatment of various classes of cancer and viral infections in future.

  10. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  11. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  12. Cytotoxicity of a novel nano-silver particle endodontic irrigant

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eric LK; Zhang, Chengfei; Cheung, Gary SP

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a novel nano-silver particle (25.2±6.5 nm) endodontic irrigant (0.2 mM) and compare it with 3% sodium hypochlorite. Materials and methods Two cell types, mouse fibroblast National Institutes of Health 3T3 (NIH 3T3) and primary human periodontal ligament stem cell (hPDLSCs) were used in a test for the effect of direct and indirect (by separating the agent and cell with a layer of agar) exposure to the two solutions. In the direct exposure experiment, ten groups of cell cultures were exposed to one dilution (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6 or 1:7) of a nano-silver irrigant for 48 hours; the concentration-response function was estimated by determining the number of viable cells in each group by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The 50% lethal dose of the testing irrigant for NIH3T3 and hPDLSCs were estimated. In the second part of the experiment, a modified agar overlaying technique was applied. Twelve culture wells (6-well plate) were divided into three groups (n=4). The cell lysis zone (cytotoxic range) created by the stock nano-silver solution, 3% sodium hypochlorite, and an isotonic phosphate buffering saline (control) was measured by two double blinded observers (Kappa score =100%). The cytotoxic score of specific irrigant was derived by modified Sjögren’s method. Results The 50% lethal doses of the testing nano silver irrigant for NIH 3T3 and hPDLSCs after 48 hours of direct exposure were 0.58 and 0.608 dilution of stock solution, respectively. The cytotoxic scores of nano-silver irrigant and control (phosphate buffered saline) on NIH 3T3 were 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0 to 1.04) and 0 (95% CI =0 to 0); and on hPDLSCs were 0.13 (95% CI =0 to 0.52) and 0.25 (95% CI =0 to 1.04), respectively. Toxicity of the test and control group on both mouse fibroblasts (P>0.05) and hPDLSCs (P=1.00) was not statistically different. Conclusion Our

  13. Proteinaceous cytotoxic component of Allium sativum induces apoptosis of INT-407 intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Munawir, Al; Sohn, Eun-Tae; Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Seung Hun; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2009-08-01

    Garlic has long been known for its wide array of therapeutic effects, including hypolipidemic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and possibly anticancer effects; conversely, some adverse effects of garlic, such as acute pain and neurogenic inflammation, have also been reported. However, information detailing the toxicological significance of garlic is scarce. In this study, the cytotoxicities of fresh garlic extract (FGE) and boiled garlic extract (BGE) and their underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated using INT-407 intestinal epithelial cells. A brief exposure (20 minutes) to FGE induced a concentration-dependent increase in cell death (37 +/- 2% at 300 microg/mL), but no cytotoxic effects were induced after exposure to BGE. For FGE, only the high-molecular-mass (>10-kDa) proteins were associated with cytotoxic effects. FGE-treated cells showed morphological changes such as increased cell rounding and fragmentation, suggesting programmed cell death (apoptosis). Apoptosis of FGE-treated cells was evaluated by observing the fragmented multinuclei stained with Hoechst 33342. From the cell cycle analysis, the increase in hypodiploidic cells and in the G2/M phase cell population suggested not only apoptosis but also cell cycle arrest of FGE-treated cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine almost completely prevented FGE-induced cell death, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a key role in FGE-associated cytotoxicity. Consumption of fresh garlic may be linked to potential cytotoxicity of intestinal cells when ROS scavengers are not present. PMID:19735176

  14. Radioimmunotherapy for Treatment of Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Eugène, Thomas; Guérard, François; Gaschet, Joëlle; Bailly, Clément; Mougin, Marie; Bourgeois, Mickaël; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-03-01

    Acute leukemias are characterized by accumulation of immature cells (blasts) and reduced production of healthy hematopoietic elements. According to the lineage origin, two major leukemias can be distinguished: acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute</