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Sample records for acute dcs treatments

  1. tDCS for the treatment of depression: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Ulrich; Hasan, Alkomiet; Strube, Wolfgang; Padberg, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated for the treatment of major depressive disorders in recent years. Here, we review the implications of current research for the clinical use of tDCS in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Meta-analyses, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials, open-label trials, case reports and review articles were identified through a systematic search of the literature database of the National Institutes of Health (USA). Available articles were evaluated with regard to their clinical relevance. Results of tDCS efficacy are inconsistent due to the small sample sizes, the heterogeneous patient samples and the partially high treatment resistance in some studies. Overall, tDCS has very low side effects. Meta-analyses suggest some efficacy of tDCS in the treatment of acute depressive disorder with moderate effect size, and low efficacy in treatment-resistant depression. A general statement about the efficacy of tDCS as a therapeutic tool in major depression seems to be premature. tDCS is considered as a safe therapeutic option and is associated with only minor side effects. The effectiveness of tDCS decreases with resistance to treatment. Psychotropic drugs may attenuate or amplify its effects. The use of 2 mA current strength over 20 min per day over a short time span can be considered as safe.

  2. Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rajani; Saxena, Sadhvi; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Faria, Andreia V; Long, Charltien; Wright, Amy; Davis, Cameron; Tippett, Donna C; Mourdoukoutas, Antonios P; Bikson, Marom; Celnik, Pablo; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-01-01

    People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes.

  3. Cerebellar tDCS: A Novel Approach to Augment Language Treatment Post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Rajani; Saxena, Sadhvi; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Faria, Andreia V.; Long, Charltien; Wright, Amy; Davis, Cameron; Tippett, Donna C.; Mourdoukoutas, Antonios P.; Bikson, Marom; Celnik, Pablo; Hillis, Argye E.

    2017-01-01

    People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized, double-blind, sham controlled within-subject crossover trial. We also investigated changes in functional connectivity using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before and 2 months post-treatment. Both anodal and sham treatments resulted in improved spelling to dictation for trained and untrained words immediately after and 2 months post-treatment. However, there was greater improvement with tDCS than with sham, especially for untrained words. Further, generalization to written picture naming was only noted during tDCS but not with sham. The resting state functional connectivity data indicate that improvement in spelling was accompanied by an increase in cerebro-cerebellar network connectivity. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS to augment spelling therapy in an individual with large bilateral chronic strokes. PMID:28127284

  4. High Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induces Both Acute and Persistent Changes in Broadband Cortical Synchronization: a Simultaneous tDCS-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Abhrajeet; Baxter, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop methods for simultaneously acquiring electrophysiological data during high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) using high resolution electroencephalography (EEG). Previous studies have pointed to the after effects of tDCS on both motor and cognitive performance, and there appears to be potential for using tDCS in a variety of clinical applications. However, little is known about the real-time effects of tDCS on rhythmic cortical activity in humans due to the technical challenges of simultaneously obtaining electrophysiological data during ongoing stimulation. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of tDCS in humans are not well understood. We have conducted a simultaneous tDCS-EEG study in a group of healthy human subjects. Significant acute and persistent changes in spontaneous neural activity and event related synchronization (ERS) were observed during and after the application of high definition tDCS over the left sensorimotor cortex. Both anodal and cathodal stimulation resulted in acute global changes in broadband cortical activity which were significantly different than the changes observed in response to sham stimulation. For the group of 8 subjects studied, broadband individual changes in spontaneous activity during stimulation were apparent both locally and globally. In addition, we found that high definition tDCS of the left sensorimotor cortex can induce significant ipsilateral and contralateral changes in event related desynchronization (ERD) and ERS during motor imagination following the end of the stimulation period. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring high resolution EEG during high definition tDCS and provide evidence that tDCS in humans directly modulates rhythmic cortical synchronization during and after its administration. PMID:24956615

  5. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Petteri; Mäkitie, Antti; Aarnisalo, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months) tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA) or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA) or sham stimulation (0.3 mA) for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study protocol

  6. Acute Treatment of Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ÖZTÜRK, Vesile

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent disabling neurological conditions with a major impact on the patient’s quality of life. Migraine has been described as a chronic disorder that characterized with attacks. Attacks are characterized by moderate–severe, often unilateral, pulsating headache attacks, typically lasting 4 to 72 hours. Migraine remains underdiagnosed and undertreated despite advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology. This article reviews management of migraine acute pharmacological treatment. Currently, for the acute treatment of migraine attacks, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and triptans (serotonin 5HT1B/1D receptor agonists) are recommended. Before intake of NSAID and triptans, metoclopramide or domperidone is useful. In very severe attacks, subcutaneous sumatriptan is first choice. The patient should be treated early in the attack, use an adequate dose and formulation of a medication. Ideally, acute therapy should be restricted to no more than 2 to 3 days per week to avoid medication overuse.

  7. Treatment of visuospatial neglect with biparietal tDCS and cognitive training: a single-case study

    PubMed Central

    Brem, Anna-Katharine; Unterburger, Evelyn; Speight, Irving; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing treatment methods show limited efficacy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique, which can be used to increase or decrease brain excitability. Its combination with conventional neglect therapy may enhance treatment efficacy. A 72-year-old male with a subacute ischemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery suffering from visuospatial neglect, hemianopia, and hemiparesis was treated with biparietal tDCS and cognitive neglect therapy in a double-blind, sham-controlled single-case study. Four weeks of daily treatment sessions (5 days per week, 30 min) were started 26 days post-stroke. During week 1 and 4 the patient received conventional neglect therapy, during week 2, conventional neglect therapy was combined once with sham and once with real biparietal tDCS. Week 3 consisted of daily sessions of real biparietal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) combined with neglect therapy. Outcome measures were assessed before, immediately after, as well as 1 week and 3 months after the end of treatment. They included subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP): covert attention (main outcome), alertness, visual field; the Neglect-Test (NET): line bisection, cancelation, copying; and activities of daily living (ADL). After real stimulation, covert attention allocation toward left-sided invalid stimuli was significantly improved, and line bisection and copying improved qualitatively as compared to sham stimulation. ADL were only improved at the 3-month follow-up. This single-case study demonstrates for the first time that combined application of tDCS and cognitive training may enhance training-induced improvements in measures of visuospatial neglect and is applicable in a clinical context. PMID:25324736

  8. Treatment of visuospatial neglect with biparietal tDCS and cognitive training: a single-case study.

    PubMed

    Brem, Anna-Katharine; Unterburger, Evelyn; Speight, Irving; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing treatment methods show limited efficacy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique, which can be used to increase or decrease brain excitability. Its combination with conventional neglect therapy may enhance treatment efficacy. A 72-year-old male with a subacute ischemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery suffering from visuospatial neglect, hemianopia, and hemiparesis was treated with biparietal tDCS and cognitive neglect therapy in a double-blind, sham-controlled single-case study. Four weeks of daily treatment sessions (5 days per week, 30 min) were started 26 days post-stroke. During week 1 and 4 the patient received conventional neglect therapy, during week 2, conventional neglect therapy was combined once with sham and once with real biparietal tDCS. Week 3 consisted of daily sessions of real biparietal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) combined with neglect therapy. Outcome measures were assessed before, immediately after, as well as 1 week and 3 months after the end of treatment. They included subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP): covert attention (main outcome), alertness, visual field; the Neglect-Test (NET): line bisection, cancelation, copying; and activities of daily living (ADL). After real stimulation, covert attention allocation toward left-sided invalid stimuli was significantly improved, and line bisection and copying improved qualitatively as compared to sham stimulation. ADL were only improved at the 3-month follow-up. This single-case study demonstrates for the first time that combined application of tDCS and cognitive training may enhance training-induced improvements in measures of visuospatial neglect and is applicable in a clinical context.

  9. Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic (M3) Leukemia Early diagnosis and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia ( ... Comes Back After Treatment? More In Acute Myeloid Leukemia About Acute Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  10. [Treatment of acute leukemias].

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Gerecke, D

    1982-11-12

    The effective treatment of acute (myeloblastic and lymphoblastic) leukaemias depends on the induction of remissions as well as on the maintenance of these remissions. Whereas the use of anthracyclines and of cytosine arabinoside in different combinations notably increased the rate of induction of remissions, their maintenance was less successful until now. We present a scheme using, beside MTX and 6-MP, modified COAP regimes periodically every 3 months. The follow-up of 26 patients treated in this way is encouraging since nearly one third remained in full haematological remission after 3 years of observation.

  11. Functional Connectivity Substrates for tDCS Response in Minimally Conscious State Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cavaliere, Carlo; Aiello, Marco; Di Perri, Carol; Amico, Enrico; Martial, Charlotte; Thibaut, Aurore; Laureys, Steven; Soddu, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique recently employed in disorders of consciousness, and determining a transitory recovery of signs of consciousness in almost half of minimally conscious state (MCS) patients. Although the rising evidences about its possible role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions exist, no evidences exist about brain functional connectivity substrates underlying tDCS response. We retrospectively evaluated resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of 16 sub-acute and chronic MCS patients (6 tDCS responders) who successively received a single left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) tDCS in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial. A seed-based approach for regions of left extrinsic control network (ECN) and default-mode network (DMN) was performed. tDCS responders showed an increased left intra-network connectivity for regions co-activated with left DLPFC, and significantly with left inferior frontal gyrus. Non-responders (NR) MCS patients showed an increased connectivity between left DLPFC and midline cortical structures, including anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Our findings suggest that a prior high connectivity with regions belonging to ECN can facilitate transitory recovery of consciousness in a subgroup of MCS patients that underwent tDCS treatment. Therefore, resting state-fMRI could be very valuable in detecting the neuronal conditions necessary for tDCS to improve behavior in MCS. PMID:27857682

  12. Anaphylaxis: acute treatment and management.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes; Grosber, Martine; Möhrenschlager, Matthias; Brockow, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is the maximal variant of an acute life-threatening immediate-type allergy. Due to its often dramatic onset and clinical course, practical knowledge in the management of these reactions is mandatory both for physicians and patients. It has to be distinguished between acute treatment modalities and general recommendations for management of patients who have suffered from an anaphylactic reaction. Acute treatment comprises general procedures like positioning, applying an intravenous catheter, call for help, comfort of the patient as well as the application of medication. The acute treatment modalities are selected depending upon the intensity of the clinical symptomatology as they are categorized in 'severity grades'. First of all it is important to diagnose anaphylaxis early and consider several differential diagnoses. This diagnosis is purely clinical and laboratory tests are of no help in the acute situation. Epinephrine is the essential antianaphylactic drug in the pharmacologic treatment. It should be first applied intramuscularly, only in very severe cases or under conditions of surgical interventions intravenous application can be tried. Furthermore, glucocorticosteroids are given in order to prevent protracted or biphasic courses of anaphylaxis; they are of little help in the acute treatment. Epinephrine autoinjectors can be used by the patient him/herself. Histamine H(1)-antagonists are valuable in mild anaphylactic reactions; they should be given intravenously if possible. The replacement of volume is crucial in antianaphylactic treatment. Crystalloids can be used in the beginning, in severe shock colloid volume substitutes have to be applied. Patients suffering from an anaphylactic episode should be observed over a period of 4-10 h according to the severity of the symptomatology. It is crucial to be aware or recognize risk patients as for example patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, or under beta-adrenergic blockade. When bronchial

  13. The treatment of acute vertigo.

    PubMed

    Cesarani, A; Alpini, D; Monti, B; Raponi, G

    2004-03-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are very common symptoms in the general population. The aim of this paper is to describe the physical and pharmacological treatment of symptoms characterized by sudden onset of rotatory vertigo. Acute vertigo can be subdivided into two main groups: (1) spontaneous vertigo and (2) provoked vertigo, usually by postural changes, generally called paroxysmal positional vertigo (PPV). Sudden onset of acute vertigo is usually due to acute spontaneous unilateral vestibular failure. It can be also fluctuant as, e.g., in recurrent attacks of Ménière's disease. Pharmacotherapy of acute spontaneous vertigo includes Levo-sulpiride i.v., 50 mg in 250 physiologic solution, once or twice a day, methoclopramide i.m., 10 mg once or twice a day, or triethilperazine rectally, once or twice a day, to reduce neurovegetative symptoms; diazepam i.m., 10 mg once or twice a day, to decrease internuclear inhibition, sulfate magnesium i.v., two ampoules in 500 cc physiological solution, twice a day, or piracetam i.v., one ampoule in 500 cc physiological solution, twice a day, to decrease vestibular damage. At the onset of the acute symptoms, patients must lie on their healthy side with the head and trunk raised 20 degrees. The room must be quiet but not darkened. If the patient is able to swallow without vomiting, it is important to reduce nystagmus and stabilize the visual field with gabapentine, per os, 300 mg twice or three times a day. The first step of the physical therapy of acute vertigo is vestibular electrical stimulation, that is to say, a superficial paravertebral electrical stimulation of neck muscles, aimed to reduce antigravitary failure and to increase proprioceptive cervical sensory substitution. PPV is a common complaint and represents one of the most common entities in peripheral vestibular pathology. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, the etiopathogenesis of PPV is still a matter of debate. Despite the different

  14. Treatment of acute septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Peltola, Heikki

    2013-06-01

    Acute septic arthritis is a rare, but potentially devastating disease. The treatment is initiated intravenously, but can be safely switched to oral after 2-4 days providing large doses of a well-absorbing antibiotic and, for time-dependent antibiotics, 4 times-a-day administration are used. Empiric treatment should always cover Staphylococcus aureus and common respiratory pathogens, whereas Kingella kingae and Salmonella are important only regionally. Studies conducted by our group have shown that a total course of 10 days may suffice for previously healthy children in a Western setting. Treatment of neonates, patients with immunodeficiency or cases caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus, may deserve a different approach.

  15. Rapid reconstitution of functionally active 6-sulfoLacNAc+ dendritic cells (slanDCs) of donor origin following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant

    PubMed Central

    Mimiola, E; Marini, O; Perbellini, O; Micheletti, A; Vermi, W; Lonardi, S; Costantini, C; Meneghelli, E; Andreini, A; Bonetto, C; Vassanelli, A; Cantini, M; Zoratti, E; Massi, D; Zamo', A; Leso, A; Quaresmini, G; Benedetti, F; Pizzolo, G; Cassatella, M A; Tecchio, C

    2014-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is critical in determining the extent of graft-versus-host response. The goal of this study was to analyse slanDCs, a subset of human proinflammatory DCs, in haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) sources, as well as to evaluate their 1-year kinetics of reconstitution, origin and functional capacities in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of patients who have undergone HSCT, and their presence in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) tissue specimens. slanDCs were also compared to myeloid (m)DCs, plasmacytoid (p)DCs and monocytes in HSC sources and in patients' PB and BM throughout reconstitution. slanDCs accounted for all HSC sources. In patients' PB and BM, slanDCs were identified from day +21, showing median frequencies comparable to healthy donors, donor origin and kinetics of recovery similar to mDCs, pDCs, and monocytes. Under cyclosporin treatment, slanDCs displayed a normal pattern of maturation, and maintained an efficient chemotactic activity and capacity of releasing tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. None the less, they were almost undetectable in GVHD tissue specimens, being present only in intestinal acute GVHD samples. slanDCs reconstitute early, being donor-derived and functionally competent. The absence of slanDCs from most of the GVHD-targeted tissue specimens seems to rule out the direct participation of these cells in the majority of the local reactions characterizing GVHD. PMID:24853271

  16. Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for major depression: study design and methodology of a multicenter triple blind randomized placebo controlled trial (DepressionDC).

    PubMed

    Padberg, Frank; Kumpf, Ulrike; Mansmann, Ulrich; Palm, Ulrich; Plewnia, Christian; Langguth, Berthold; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas; Nolden, Jana; Burger, Max; Keeser, Daniel; Rupprecht, Rainer; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet; Egert, Silvia; Bajbouj, Malek

    2017-02-28

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed as novel treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on clinical pilot studies as well as randomized controlled monocentric trials. The DepressionDC trial is a triple-blind (blinding of rater, operator and patient), randomized, placebo controlled multicenter trial investigating the efficacy and safety of prefrontal tDCS used as additive treatment in MDD patients who have not responded to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). At 5 study sites, 152 patients with MDD receive a 6-weeks treatment with active tDCS (anode F3 and cathode F4, 2 mA intensity, 30 min/day) or sham tDCS add-on to a stable antidepressant medication with an SSRI. Follow-up visits are at 3 and 6 months after the last tDCS session. The primary outcome measure is the change of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores at week 6 post-randomisation compared to baseline. Secondary endpoints also cover other psychopathological domains, and a comprehensive safety assessment includes measures of cognition. Patients undergo optional investigations comprising genetic testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of structural and functional connectivity. The study uses also an advanced tDCS technology including standard electrode positioning and recording of technical parameters (current, impedance, voltage) in every tDCS session. Aside reporting the study protocol here, we present a novel approach for monitoring technical parameters of tDCS which will allow quality control of stimulation and further analysis of the interaction between technical parameters and clinical outcome. The DepressionDC trial will hopefully answer the important clinical question whether prefrontal tDCS is a safe and effective antidepressant intervention in patients who have not sufficiently responded to SSRIs.

  17. [Pharmacological treatment of acute catatonia].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Delgado, Christian L

    2012-01-01

    Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome of psychomotor dysregulation that can be present in a broad spectrum of clinical situations. Advances made over the last decades have progressively contributed to its clinical differentiation and its conceptual delimitation. Both Benzodiazepines (BZD) and Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been consolidated as first-line therapy. In this regard, a BZD response rate ranging from 70 to 90 per cent has been reported in different case series. Furthermore, NMDA receptor antagonists represent an emerging strategy in the therapeutic approach to the disorder. Most of the evidence that supports the aforementioned treatment recommendations arises from descriptive observational studies. Traditionally, catatonia pathophysiological research focused on the study of subcortical brain structures. Currently there exists compelling evidence that supports a cortical origin of the syndrome, emphasizing the role of the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychiatric catatonia models that integrate clinical, pathophysiological, and neurobiological findings have been postulated. The aim of the present review is to summarize up-to-date available evidence associated with the pharmacotherapeutic approach to acute catatonia as well as the neurochemical basis of its effectiveness. Likewise, general measures intended to prevent morbimortality are subject to discussion herein.

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  19. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery) and treatment options. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer in which the ... to radiation may increase the risk of developing ALL. Anything that increases your risk of getting a ...

  20. tDCS and Robotics on Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation: Effect Modification by Stroke Duration and Type of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Straudi, Sofia; Fregni, Felipe; Martinuzzi, Carlotta; Pavarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Basaglia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this exploratory pilot study is to test the effects of bilateral tDCS combined with upper extremity robot-assisted therapy (RAT) on stroke survivors. Methods. We enrolled 23 subjects who were allocated to 2 groups: RAT + real tDCS and RAT + sham-tDCS. Each patient underwent 10 sessions (5 sessions/week) over two weeks. Outcome measures were collected before and after treatment: (i) Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE), (ii) Box and Block Test (BBT), and (iii) Motor Activity Log (MAL). Results. Both groups reported a significant improvement in FMA-UE score after treatment (p < 0.01). No significant between-groups differences were found in motor function. However, when the analysis was adjusted for stroke type and duration, a significant interaction effect (p < 0.05) was detected, showing that stroke duration (acute versus chronic) and type (cortical versus subcortical) modify the effect of tDCS and robotics on motor function. Patients with chronic and subcortical stroke benefited more from the treatments than patients with acute and cortical stroke, who presented very small changes. Conclusion. The additional use of bilateral tDCS to RAT seems to have a significant beneficial effect depending on the duration and type of stroke. These results should be verified by additional confirmatory studies.

  1. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  2. Acute scurvy during treatment with interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, D T; Dasanu, C A; Kauffman, C L

    2009-10-01

    The association of vitamin C deficiency with nutritional factors is commonly recognized. However, an acute form of scurvy can occur in patients with an acute systemic inflammatory response, which is produced by sepsis, medications, cancer or acute inflammation. The frequency of acute hypovitaminosis C in hospitalized patients is higher than previously recognized. We report the occurrence of acute signs and symptoms of scurvy (perifollicular petechiae, erythema, gingivitis and bleeding) in a patient hospitalized for treatment of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma with high-dose interleukin-2. Concomitantly, serum vitamin C levels decreased to below normal. Better diets and longer lifespan may result a lower frequency of acute scurvy and a higher frequency of scurvy associated with systemic inflammatory responses. Therefore, increased awareness of this condition can lead to early recognition of the cutaneous signs of acute scurvy in hospitalized patients with acute illnesses or in receipt of biological agents, and prevent subsequent morbidity such as bleeding, anaemia, impaired immune defences, oedema or neurological symptoms.

  3. Treatment of acute lower limb ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Lukasiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Acute lower limb ischaemia poses a major threat to limb survival. For many years surgical thromboembolectomy was the mainstay of treatment. Recent years have brought an endovascular revolution in the management of acute lower limb ischaemia. A wide range of endovascular procedures can nowadays be employed, providing results at least as good as the traditional surgical approach. This paper is an overview of currently utilised endovascular options as well as recent modifications of standard surgical techniques.

  4. A treatment for the acute migraine attack.

    PubMed

    Adam, E I

    1987-01-01

    A compound analgesic/anti-emetic formulation was significantly effective in reducing the severity of acute attacks of migraine, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of 34 patients referred to a migraine clinic. The preparation contained paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg, buclizine hydrochloride 6.25 mg and dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate 10 mg. The dosage was two tablets taken as early as possible in the acute attack. No specific factors could be identified which influenced response to treatment. Patients with a long history of migraine (more than 10 years) responded as well as those with a recent onset of the condition.

  5. Treatment of acute and remote symptomatic seizures.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Barbara S

    2009-07-01

    In principle, the use of anticonvulsant drugs does not differ between acute and remote symptomatic seizures, but control of acute symptomatic seizures requires simultaneous treatment of the underlying etiology. Prevention of remote seizures when the risk is known to be high has been the subject of intense efforts at antiepileptogenesis, but the optimal duration of treatment after an injury is not yet known. Appropriate evaluation of a seizure depends on individual circumstances, but findings on examination, laboratory tests (serum electrolytes, magnesium, glucose, assessment of hepatic and renal function), and brain imaging (CT scan or MRI) are necessary to determine the most likely cause. Lumbar puncture is always required when there is suspicion of meningitis or encephalitis. Preferred medications for treatment of acute symptomatic seizures or status epilepticus are those available for intravenous use, such as benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin or phenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, and phenobarbital. Diazepam is also available as a gel for rectal administration. Seizures that occur in patients with epilepsy because of missed antiepileptic drugs or inadequate serum levels should be treated with additional doses of their regular medications; loading doses can be administered with minimal toxicity in tolerant patients. Surgery is rarely necessary in the acute setting except for intracerebral lesions with rapidly rising intracranial pressure and impending herniation. After seizures are controlled, the provoking condition must also be determined and treated.

  6. What's New in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia (AML) About Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) What’s New in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Research and Treatment? Researchers ... benefit from current treatments. Researchers are studying many new chemo drugs for use in AML, including: Sapacitabine, ...

  7. Treatment of Children with APL (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood Leukemia Treatment of Children With Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the ... With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) More In Childhood Leukemia About Childhood Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. Microbiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2013-04-01

    Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease.

  9. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  10. Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Errichi, Bruno; Di Renzo, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Ricci, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Cacchio, Marisa; Rohdewald, Peter

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of orally and topically applied Pycnogenol for the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks in a controlled, randomized study with 84 subjects. Within less than 48 h of onset of an acute attack, patients were enrolled and signs and symptoms were scored. This evaluation was repeated after seven days' treatment and again seven days following treatment cessation. The decrease in scores was significantly more pronounced in the Pycnogenol-treated groups than in the control group given placebo (p < 0.05), showing the efficacy of Pycnogenol for relieving signs and symptoms of acute external hemorrhoids. In a group of patients given topical (0.5%) Pycnogenol in addition to oral Pycnogenol the improvement in symptoms set in significantly faster and was more pronounced. The most prominent symptom, hemorrhoidal bleeding, was completely absent in all patients treated with Pycnogenol for seven days and also at the 14 days follow-up. In contrast, bleedings were still observed in the control group during the two weeks follow-up. This study indicates that Pycnogenol, both in oral and in topical form, is effective for controlling this common, disabling health problem. The application of Pycnogenol eases the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks and help avoid bleedings.

  11. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bihemispheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF). In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for determining diffusivity measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient's lesion) and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS + PT/OT) showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%), while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065) were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than the CST.

  12. Acute hepatitis C: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Tahan, Veysel

    2009-04-01

    HCV can cause acute or chronic hepatitis and is a health problem all over the world. It is one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is a common indication for liver transplantation. Unrecognized patients with HCV infection may transmit the virus to uninfected people. The acute form of the disease leads to chronic hepatitis in the majority of cases. Since the success rate of treatment given in the chronic phase is much lower than that given in the acute phase, recognizing acute hepatitis is critical. Although HCV is less prevalent since 1990s in the Western world after improved blood-donor screening programs, needle-exchange facilities and education among intravenous drug users, it is still endemic in some regions, including African countries, Egypt, Taiwan, China and Japan. Acute HCV infection may be a challenge for the clinician; since it is often asymptomatic, detection and diagnosis are usually difficult. After an incubation period of 7 weeks (2-12 weeks), only a minority of patients (10-15%) report symptoms. The spontaneous clearance of the virus is more frequent primarily during the first 3 months of clinical onset of the disease, but may occur anytime during the 6 months of acute infection. This spontaneous resolution seems to be more frequent in symptomatic cases. Viremia persisting more than 6 months is accepted as chronic infection. The virus is transmitted more frequently through infected blood or body fluids. Detection of antibodies against HCV is not a reliable method of diagnosing acute HCV infection since the appearance of antibodies against HCV can be delayed in up to 30% of patients at the onset of symptoms. Thus, the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C relies on the qualitative detection of HCV RNA, which may appear as early as 1-2 weeks after exposure quickly followed by highly elevated alanine aminotransferase. After a follow-up period of 8-12 weeks for allowing spontaneous resolution, treatment should be initiated

  13. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognition, symptoms, and smoking in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert C; Boules, Sylvia; Mattiuz, Sanela; Youssef, Mary; Tobe, Russell H; Sershen, Henry; Lajtha, Abel; Nolan, Karen; Amiaz, Revital; Davis, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by cognitive deficits which persist after acute symptoms have been treated or resolved. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to improve cognition and reduce smoking craving in healthy subjects but has not been as carefully evaluated in a randomized controlled study for these effects in schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled study of the effects of 5 sessions of tDCS (2 milliamps for 20minutes) on cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and smoking and cigarette craving in 37 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were current smokers. Thirty subjects provided evaluable data on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), with the primary outcome measure, the MCCB Composite score. Active compared to sham tDCS subjects showed significant improvements after the fifth tDCS session in MCCB Composite score (p=0.008) and on the MCCB Working Memory (p=0.002) and Attention-Vigilance (p=0.027) domain scores, with large effect sizes. MCCB Composite and Working Memory domain scores remained significant at Benjamini-Hochberg corrected significance levels (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant effects on secondary outcome measures of psychiatric symptoms (PANSS scores), hallucinations, cigarette craving, or cigarettes smoked. The positive effects of tDCS on cognitive performance suggest a potential efficacious treatment for cognitive deficits in partially recovered chronic schizophrenia outpatients that should be further investigated.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and language

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Alessia; Ferrucci, Roberta; Fumagalli, Manuela; Mameli, Francesca; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Priori, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive neuromodulation technique inducing prolonged brain excitability changes and promoting cerebral plasticity, is a promising option for neurorehabilitation. Here, we review progress in research on tDCS and language functions and on the potential role of tDCS in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia. Currently available data suggest that tDCS over language-related brain areas can modulate linguistic abilities in healthy individuals and can improve language performance in patients with aphasia. Whether the results obtained in experimental conditions are functionally important for the quality of life of patients and their caregivers remains unclear. Despite the fact that important variables are yet to be determined, tDCS combined with rehabilitation techniques seems a promising therapeutic option for aphasia. PMID:23138766

  15. Treatment of acute cyanide intoxication with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D E; Foley, R; Sabatini, S; Wharton, J; Kapusnik, J; Kurtzman, N A

    1985-01-01

    A dramatic response was noted in a patient at our hospital who received hemodialysis therapy for severe acidosis secondary to an unknown toxin, subsequently identified as cyanide. We were unable to find any information concerning the hemodialysis clearance and extraction ratio of cyanide; thus, we studied the effect of hemodialysis in dogs receiving a constant infusion of cyanide with and without a simultaneous infusion of thiosulfate. The hemodialysis clearance of cyanide in the presence of thiosulfate was 38.3 +/- 5.4 ml/min with an extraction ratio of 0.43 +/- 0.06 (n = 4). Hemodialysis was found to increase the lethal dose of cyanide without thiosulfate infusion, and a further increase was noted with the thiosulfate infusion. Thiosulfate promotes mitochondrial metabolism of cyanide to thiocyanate. The end product, thiocyanate, is quickly removed by hemodialysis. We believe that the demonstrated effectiveness of hemodialysis in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication is related not only to the hemodialysis clearance of cyanide, but also to the removal of its metabolic end product, thiocyanate. Based on our observations, we feel that hemodialysis is an effective adjunct in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication.

  16. [Surgical and therapeutic treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Sandakov, P Ia; Samartsev, V A; Mineev, D A

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the features of different forms of acute pancreatitis in 1001 patients including 324 cases with pancreatonecrosis and 245 patients with middle severity of disease. It was shown that monitoring of patients' condition and destructive process in pancreas by using of modified SOFA-scale and evaluation of sonographic signs of inflammation are advisable. Flow indicators including resistance index and the maximum flow velocity in celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery represented severity of gland's destruction. Sonographic investigation revealed small-focal pancreonecrosis. It allows to differentiate medical tactics. Surgical treatment was performed in 582 patients. Efficiency of surgical treatment is determined by diagnostic methods, timely sanation of destructive focuses of pancreas, abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal fiber, adequate drainage and mini-invasive techniques using in case of purulent complications. The main prognostic factors of development of complications and adverse outcomes are determined.

  17. [Treatment guidelines for acute and preventive treatment of cluster headache].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Kun; Chen, Hsi-Ming; Chen, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yeng-Yu; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Lee, Lian-Hui; Liao, Yi-Chu; Lin, Kao-Chang; Tseng, Hung-Ping; Tsai, Jing-Jane; Wang, Po-Jen; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Yang, Chun-Pai; Yiu, Chun-Hing; Wu, Zin-An

    2011-09-01

    The Treatment Guideline Subcommittee of the Taiwan Headache Society evaluated both the acute and the preventive treatments for cluster headache now being used in Taiwan, based on the principles of evidence- based medicine. We assessed the quality of clinical trials and levels of evidence, and referred to other treatment guidelines proposed by other countries. Throughout several panel discussions, we merged opinions from the subcommittee members and proposed a consensus on the major roles, recommended levels, clinical efficacy, adverse events and cautions of clinical practice regarding acute and preventive treatments of cluster headache. The majority of Taiwanese patients have episodic cluster headaches, because chronic clusters are very rare. Cluster headache is characterized by severe and excruciating pain which develops within a short time and is associated with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Therefore, emergency treatment for a cluster headache attack is extremely important. Within the group of acute medications currently available in Taiwan, the subcommittee determined that high-flow oxygen inhalation has the best evidence of effectiveness, followed by intranasal triptans. Both are recommended as first-line medical treatments for acute attacks. Oral triptans were determined to be second-line medications. For transitional prophylaxis, oral corticosteroids are recommended as the first-line medication, and ergotamine as the second-line choice. As for maintenance prophylaxis, verapamil has the best evidence and is recommended as the first-line medication. Lithium, melatonin, valproic acid, topiramate and gabapentin are suggested as the second-line preventive medications. Surgical interventions, including occipital nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, radiofrequency block of the sphenopalatine ganglion, percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy and trigeminal nerve section, are invasive and their long-term efficacy and adverse events are still not clear in

  18. Treatment and pathogenesis of acute hyperkalemia

    PubMed Central

    Mushiyakh, Yelena; Dangaria, Harsh; Qavi, Shahbaz; Ali, Noorjahan; Pannone, John; Tompkins, David

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and various treatment modalities for acute hyperkalemia and presents a systematic approach to selecting a treatment strategy. Hyperkalemia, a life-threatening condition caused by extracellular potassium shift or decreased renal potassium excretion, usually presents with non-specific symptoms. Early recognition of moderate to severe hyperkalemia is vital in preventing fatal cardiac arrhythmias and muscle paralysis. Management of hyperkalemia includes the elimination of reversible causes (diet, medications), rapidly acting therapies that shift potassium into cells and block the cardiac membrane effects of hyperkalemia, and measures to facilitate removal of potassium from the body (saline diuresis, oral binding resins, and hemodialysis). Hyperkalemia with potassium level more than 6.5 mEq/L or EKG changes is a medical emergency and should be treated accordingly. Treatment should be started with calcium gluconate to stabilize cardiomyocyte membranes, followed by insulin injection, and b-agonists administration. Hemodialysis remains the most reliable method to remove potassium from the body and should be used in cases refractory to medical treatment. Prompt detection and proper treatment are crucial in preventing lethal outcomes. PMID:23882341

  19. Acute migraine: Current treatment and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Arun A; Elliott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    Migraine is a common disabling primary headache disorder. Despite the need for a perfect treatment of this debilitating condition, the ideal “cure” eludes us. In 1992, the first triptan was released in the US for use in acute migraine. Triptans are more specific for the serotonin receptor 5-hydroxy triptamine (5-HT) 1 than previously prescribed drugs, such as ergotamines, with fewer side effects. This was an important first step in specific acute migraine therapy. Today however, triptans continue to be underutilized. There remains a concern, among practitioners and patients, about possible cardiovascular safety issues, despite the lack of strong evidence of serious adverse events. In fact, triptans now have a safe track record over more than a decade of use. Other perceived downfalls to use, include cost and variable efficacy. The more we learn about the clinical features and pathophysiology of migraine, the closer we are to finding a satisfactory monotherapy. Until then, recognizing that mixed mechanisms underlie migraine symptoms, rational polytherapy can be useful. Research on the roles of serotonin, calcitonin gene related peptide, glutamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate in the trigeminovascular system holds promise for those searching for the perfect migraine headache cure. PMID:18488069

  20. A systematic review of the clinical efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kekic, Maria; Boysen, Elena; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, which can be used to selectively disrupt patterns of neural activity that are associated with symptoms of mental illness. tDCS has been implemented in numerous therapeutic trials across a range of patient populations, with a rapidly increasing number of studies being published each year. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tDCS in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Four electronic databases were searched from inception until December 2015 by two independent reviewers, and 66 eligible studies were identified. Depression was the most extensively researched condition, followed by schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Data on obsessive compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, and anorexia nervosa were also obtained. The quality of included studies was appraised using a standardised assessment framework, which yielded a median score corresponding to "weak" on the three-point scale. This improved to "moderate" when case reports/series were excluded from the analysis. Overall, data suggested that tDCS interventions comprising multiple sessions can ameliorate symptoms of several major psychiatric disorders, both acutely and in the long-term. Nevertheless, the tDCS field is still in its infancy, and several methodological and ethical issues must be addressed before clinical efficacy can truly be determined. Studies probing the mechanisms of action of tDCS and those facilitating the definition of optimised stimulation protocols are warranted. Furthermore, evidence from large-scale, multi-centre randomised controlled trials is required if the transition of this therapy from the laboratory to the clinic is to be considered.

  1. Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V. Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2007-04-15

    The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.

  2. Kaiser Crater DCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 29, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering a portion of Kaiser Crater. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    In this image, the basaltic sand dunes in bottom of Kaiser crater are colored a bright pink/magenta. The spectral features are clean and prominent on these dust-free surfaces and the dark color of the basaltic dunes helps them to absorb sunlight and produces higher surface temperatures, which also contributes to the image colors.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -46.5, Longitude 20.3 East (339.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin

  3. Pulmonary embolism: treatment of the acute episode.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Franco; Roncon, Loris; Greco, Francesco

    2005-10-01

    The prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is mainly related to the clinical presentation and circulatory state of the patient: the therapeutic strategy is consequently different, ranging from an aggressive treatment in patients in life-threatening clinical conditions to a "stabilization" treatment in those hemodynamically stable. Since the majority of PE patients are clinically stable, a well conducted anticoagulant therapy, either with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparins together with a vitamin K antagonist, is sufficient to stop thrombus extension, to minimize the risk of recurrent embolism and prevent mortality. In about 15-20% of cases presenting with clinical instability of variable severity, prompt intravenous thrombolysis with a short-acting compound often represents a life-saving treatment and should be the first-line approach. In normotensive patients with right ventricular dysfunction at echocardiography, who represent about 30% of PE patients, the debate regarding the optimal therapy is still open and further studies are required to document a clinically relevant improvement in the benefit-risk ratio of thrombolytic agents over heparin alone: young people, with a very low risk of bleeding and a concomitant reduction of cardiopulmonary reserve might be the best candidates to systemic thrombolysis. In any case such patients should be admitted to an intensive care unit to monitor the clinical status for at least 48-72 hours and detect signs of possible hemodynamic worsening. Mechanical thrombectomy, either percutaneous or surgical, are ancillary procedures and should be reserved to a minority of highly compromised patients who are unable to receive thrombolysis.

  4. DCS in Hesperia Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 30, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image in Hesperia Planum, west of Herschel Crater. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The two primary compositions that cover most of Mars - dust and basalt (probably in the form of sand) - are well represented in this image. In this image, the dust is green in color and the basalt is pink/magenta. The strongest basaltic signatures appear in the bottoms of craters, which act as topographic traps for the sand. Green dust streaks appear behind many of the smaller craters. The topographic relief of the crater prevents the wind from cleansing the dust from the surface. These features enable the determination of the prevailing wind direction in the region.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -16.6, Longitude 119.3 East (240.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS

  5. Canyon in DCS Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 26, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering a portion of Ganges Chasma. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The northern canyon at the top of this image is dominated by a bright red/magenta area consisting primarly basaltic materials on the floor of the canyon and atmospheric dust. Within that area, there are patches of purple, on the walls and in the landslides, that may be due to an olivine rich mineral layer. In the middle of the image, the green on the mesa between the two canyons is from a layer of dust. The patchy blue areas in the southern canyon are likely due to water ice clouds.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -6.6, Longitude 316 East (44 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics

  6. [Acute acalculous cholecystitis. Results of surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    de la Garza Villaseñor, L

    1993-01-01

    During an 11 year period, 47 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis were operated on. Two to one male/female ratio was observed with a mean age of 55 age of 55 years. No one had a past history of biliary tract pathology but 70 per cent of the patients had risk factors, mainly diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and collagenous diseases, some different of those reported in the world literature (sepsis, trauma, non biliary tract surgery, etc.). The ultrasound was the best diagnostic tool. Open cholecystectomy was performed in all patients and some sort of local complication was found in 85 per cent of patients (empyema, gangrene or perforation) in spite of the surgical procedure was done on emergency or early elective basis, a 31 per cent operative mortality rate was found and a 10.6% Operative mortality rates was observed. The bacterial cultures showed gram negative and anaerobic flora. This report shows that an early diagnosis and surgical treatment keeps a low morbidity and mortality rates but the gallbladder late complications have a high rates.

  7. [Some aspects of the complex treatment of acute suppurative perionitis].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, M M; Roĭ, V P; Zaritskiĭ, I; Konovalenko, V V; Mellin, V M

    1976-10-01

    The authors present an analysis of the results of complex treatment in 4318 patients operated upon for acute peritonitis, caused by acute appendicitis, perforating gastric and duodenal ulcers, acute cholecystitis, ruptures and perforations of the intestine and other surgical and gynecological diseases. Patients with diffuse purulent peritonitis showed marked disorders in protein-aminoacid, nitrogen, and water electrolyte metabolism, acid-base balance, a reduced nonspecific immune responsiveness of the organism. Therpeutic tactics was delineated taking into account the revealed changes.

  8. Assessment and treatment of patients with acute unstable bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Swift, Jennie

    Bradycardia is a slow heart rate that can lead to cardiac arrest or occur after initial resuscitation following cardiac arrest. This article provides information on acute unstable bradycardia and common arrhythmias. It focuses on the assessment of patients with acute bradycardia and how the presence or absence of adverse clinical features, in conjunction with an arrhythmia, dictates the necessity and choice of treatment.

  9. Acute aortic syndromes: definition, prognosis and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, S W; Kodolitsch, Y V; Debus, E S; Wipper, S; Tsilimparis, N; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Diener, H; Kölbel, T

    2014-04-01

    Acute aortic syndromes (AAS) are life-threatening vascular conditions of the thoracic aorta presenting with acute pain as the leading symptom in most cases. The incidence is approximately 3-5/100,000 in western countries with increase during the past decades. Clinical suspicion for AAS requires immediate confirmation with advanced imaging modalities. Initial management of AAS addresses avoidance of progression by immediate medical therapy to reduce aortic shear stress. Proximal symptomatic lesions with involvement of the ascending aorta are surgically treated in the acute setting, whereas acute uncomplicated distal dissection should be treated by medical therapy in the acute period, followed by surveillance and repeated imaging studies. Acute complicated distal dissection requires urgent invasive treatment and thoracic endovascular aortic repair has become the treatment modality of choice because of favorable outcomes compared to open surgical repair. Intramural hematoma, penetrating aortic ulcers, and traumatic aortic injuries of the descending aorta harbor specific challenges compared to aortic dissection and treatment strategies are not as uniformly defined as in aortic dissection. Moreover these lesions have a different prognosis. Once the acute period of aortic syndrome has been survived, a lifelong medical treatment and close surveillance with repeated imaging studies is essential to detect impending complications which might need invasive treatment within the short-, mid- or long-term.

  10. Treatment for acute asthma in the Emergency Department: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Urso, D L

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the management of acute asthma exacerbation in the Emergency Department (ED). An asthma exacerbation can be defined as clinical worsening of disease or an asymptomatic decrease in peak flows. Acute exacerbations of asthma may represent reactions to airway irritants or failures of chronic treatment. Hospitalizations and ED visits account for a large proportion of the health-care cost burden of asthma. The assessment of an asthma exacerbation constitutes a process with two different dimensions: to determine the severity of attack, and to evaluate the response to treatment. The principal goals of managing an asthma acute exacerbation may be summarized as maintenance of adequate arterial oxygen saturation with supplemental oxygen, relief of airflow obstruction with repetitive administration of short acting beta-2 agonists (SABA), and treatment of airway inflammation with systemic corticosteroids (CS) to prevent future relapses. SABA, oxygen, and CS form the basis of management of acute asthma exacerbation but a role is emerging for anthicolinergics.

  11. Combined neuromodulatory interventions in acute experimental pain: assessment of melatonin and non-invasive brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Nádia Regina Jardim; Laste, Gabriela; Deitos, Alícia; Stefani, Luciana Cadore; Cambraia-Canto, Gustavo; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and melatonin can effectively treat pain. Given their potentially complementary mechanisms of action, their combination could have a synergistic effect. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that compared to the control condition and melatonin alone, tDCS combined with melatonin would have a greater effect on pain modulatory effect, as assessed by quantitative sensory testing (QST) and by the pain level during the Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM)-task. Furthermore, the combined treatment would have a greater cortical excitability effect as indicated by the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and on the serum BDNF level. Healthy males (n = 20), (aged 18–40 years), in a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover, clinical trial, were randomized into three groups: sublingual melatonin (0.25 mg/kg) + a-tDCS, melatonin (0.25 mg/kg) + sham-(s)-tDCS, or sublingual placebo+sham-(s)-tDCS. Anodal stimulation (2 mA, 20 min) was applied over the primary motor cortex. There was a significant difference in the heat pain threshold (°C) for melatonin+a-tDCS vs. placebo+s-tDCS (mean difference: 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9 to 8.63) and melatonin+s-tDCS vs. placebo+s-tDCS (mean: 5.16, 95% CI: 0.84 to 8.36). There was no difference between melatonin+s-tDCS and melatonin+a-tDCS (mean difference: 0.29, 95% CI: −3.72 to 4.23). The mean change from the baseline on amplitude of motor evocate potential (MEP) was significantly higher in the melatonin+a-tDCS (−19.96% ± 5.2) compared with melatonin+s-tDCS group (−1.36% ± 5.35) and with placebo+s-tDCS group (3.61% ± 10.48), respectively (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). While melatonin alone or combined with a-tDCS did not significantly affect CPM task result, and serum BDNF level. The melatonin effectively reduced pain; however, its association with a-tDCS did not present an additional modulatory effect on acute induced pain. PMID:25873871

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ross H

    2010-12-01

    Cough is the most common symptom bringing patients to the primary care physician's office, and acute bronchitis is usually the diagnosis in these patients. Acute bronchitis should be differentiated from other common diagnoses, such as pneumonia and asthma, because these conditions may need specific therapies not indicated for bronchitis. Symptoms of bronchitis typically last about three weeks. The presence or absence of colored (e.g., green) sputum does not reliably differentiate between bacterial and viral lower respiratory tract infections. Viruses are responsible for more than 90 percent of acute bronchitis infections. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for bronchitis, and should be used only if pertussis is suspected to reduce transmission or if the patient is at increased risk of developing pneumonia (e.g., patients 65 years or older). The typical therapies for managing acute bronchitis symptoms have been shown to be ineffective, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends against using cough and cold preparations in children younger than six years. The supplement pelargonium may help reduce symptom severity in adults. As patient expectations for antibiotics and therapies for symptom management differ from evidence-based recommendations, effective communication strategies are necessary to provide the safest therapies available while maintaining patient satisfaction.

  13. [New options in the treatment of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Link, A; Böhm, M

    2014-06-01

    Acute heart failure is defined as the acute onset of symptoms due to hear failure necessitating emergency therapy. The in-hospital mortality rate ranges up to 10 % and in cardiogenic shock is 50-70 %. In acute heart failure, rapid diagnosis and causal therapy are necessary to avoid cardiogenic shock. In cases of acute coronary syndromes, primary percutaneous intervention should be performed immediately. Medical and apparative treatment strategies focus on decreasing pulmonary congestion, afterload, and neurohormonal activation in order to improve hemodynamics and reduce symptoms of dyspnea. In contrast to chronic heart failure, no medical therapy has been able to reduce mortality rates in acute heart failure. However, new medical therapies should at least improve clinical symptoms of congestion and favorably reduce cardiovascular events, re-hospitalization, and mortality rates.

  14. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    PubMed

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed.

  15. [The fibrinolytic treatment with urokinase of acute arterial thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Ballester, A; Donato di Paola, M; Saccà, A; Cappello, I; D'Addato, M

    1993-01-01

    We present our experiences on 86 patients with acute arterial thrombosis of the legs, undergoing a fibrinolytic treatment with urokinase. Results from the treatment are analyzed according to: the administration way (systemic, locoregional, intrathrombotic), the level of thrombosis (upper or lower legs), the associated morbidity and mortality.

  16. Neurodevelopmental Sequelae of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Its Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Laura A.; Spiegler, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    This review will describe the neurocognitive outcomes associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its treatment. The literature is reviewed with the aim of addressing methodological issues, treatment factors, risks and moderators, special populations, relationship to neuroimaging findings, and directions for future research.…

  17. Painless acute pancreatitis associated with sorafenib treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Kanemitu, Toshiyuki; Kamoto, Akihito; Satoh, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Kenichiro; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Itatani, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. We report the case of a patient with painless acute pancreatitis associated with sorafenib treatment. The patient was a 71-year-old man who had undergone surgery for left renal carcinoma and tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and right atrium (IVC-RA). After a follow-up period of 3 years, he developed right adrenal metastasis and received interferon (IFN)-alpha treatment. One year later, progression of the adrenal metastasis was observed, and he was admitted to a hospital for treatment with sorafenib, which was administered at a dose of 800 mg/day. Two weeks later, he developed painless acute pancreatitis associated with sorafenib treatment. Thereafter, sorafenib treatment was discontinued, and he was treated with conservative therapy. Three weeks later, he was discharged. Even though painless acute pancreatitis associated with sorafenib treatment is rare, the possible development of painless acute pancreatitis in patients undergoing sorafenib treatment must be kept in mind.

  18. Pediatric Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: Diagnostic and Treatment Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Fang, Andrea; England, Jasmin; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2015-11-01

    Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of a simple upper respiratory infection. Acute bacterial sinusitis and an upper respiratory infection, however, have different management plans. This article will help clinicians establish when a diagnosis of ABS can be made based on the latest guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Also covered will be the pathophysiology of ABS, the role of diagnostic imaging, the recognition of complications of ABS, and treatment options.

  19. [Cerebrolysin in treatment of acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Domzał, T; Zaleska, B

    1995-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is composed of low molecular peptides and free amino-acids and as a nootropic drug it administered in various diseases of central nervous system. In an open clinical trial patients with acute ischaemic stroke in the region of the middle cerebral artery, were treated. Cerebrolysin was administered as intravenous infusion in daily dose of 15 ml during 21 days. Recovery in 10 patients and improvement in 3 was obtained and only one patient died. The results were compared to the large group of 108 patients treated earlier with other drugs. Therapeutic effect was similar in all groups.

  20. Acute treatment of mania: an update on new medications.

    PubMed

    Gajwani, Prashant; Kemp, David E; Muzina, David J; Xia, Guohua; Gao, Keming; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2006-12-01

    Acute mania is frequently a medical emergency requiring hospitalization for behavioral control, rapid resolution of irritability, agitation, de-escalation of mood, and decreasing of risk-taking behavior. Lithium efficacy in the management of acute mania was reported in 1949 and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1970. Chlorpromazine, from the class of typical antipsychotics, was approved for treatment of bipolar disorder in 1973. Typical antipsychotics were frequently used alone and as adjunct for the treatment of bipolar mania for the next 2 decades. Divalproex was approved by the FDA for the treatment of acute mania in 1994. Since the approval of olanzapine in 2000, all five atypical antipsychotics, namely risperidone (2003), quetiapine (2004), ziprasidone (2004), and aripiprazole (2004), have been approved by the FDA for the management of acute mania. Clozapine is the only atypical antipsychotic not FDA approved for any phase of bipolar disorder. This article will systematically review some of the major studies published, randomized controlled monotherapy, and adjunct therapy trials involving five atypical antipsychotics and newer anticonvulsants for the treatment of acute bipolar mania.

  1. [Our experiences in the treatment of acute leukemias].

    PubMed

    Jelić, S; Dragović, M; Vidaković, B; Plecas, V

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with observations concerning treatment of acute leukemia in the Department of haematology of The Clinical hospital of Belgrade during the period from 1970 to 1975, and with results of the treatment itself. During the last five years, 27 patients with different types of acute leukemia were treated. The type of acute leukemia was determined using cytological criteria of Levy and Lortholary and cytochemical criteria as described by Hayhoe. One thrid of the patients died during the first days of hospitalisation, before any effect of cytostatic treatment could be evaluated. The cause of death in those patients was septic shock, intracranial haemorrhage or cardiovascular colapsus; initial signs of those complications of acute leukemia were allready present before diagnosis. Those data point to the fact that diagnosis of acute leukemia is often made too late, when irreversible ocmplications of the disease are allready established. Patients over sixty, often "fragile" to aggresive cytostatic therapy, may enter complete and relatively long lasting remission with induction therapy cosisting of 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate only. Allthough the number of cases was rather limited, the authors had rather disappointing results with the 06-LA-66 protocole in adult lymphoblastic leukemia. The first with COAP treatment protocole seem encouraging. Adequate cytostatic therapy was in several cases impossible, duo to the lack of adequate substitution therapy; such inadequate cytostatic therapy resulted in partial remissions with a rather poor quality survival. A beeter cooperation is needed between hospital centers and institutions which provide matherial for the substitution theapy.

  2. [CONSERVATIVE THERAPY IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF ACUTE NECROTIZING PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Khomyak, I V

    2015-07-01

    Developed and implemented a phased differentiated treatment tactics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis, based on the theory of phase course of acute pancreatitis. Treatment started with conservative measures. Applications developed set of measures allowed us to achieve recovery of 39.53% patients without any instrumental interventions performans, including diapevtycal. Laparotomy reduced frequency performance of 57.14%--in the control group to 33.07%--in the main. Mortality in the main group was 6.72%; complication rate decreased 2.26 times; postoperative mortality was 9.83%.

  3. 77 FR 61417 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ...: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... entitled ``Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' This guidance addresses FDA's... an indication for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS). This guidance finalizes...

  4. Treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Wood, L; Novitzky, N

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-five consecutive patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), having a median age of 24 years (range 10-69 years), underwent induction and consolidation chemotherapy with weekly parenteral vincristine, Adriamycin, l-asparaginase and daily oral prednisone (VAAP), followed by standard (CNS) prophylaxis. Maintenance therapy was given for 3 years and consisted of daily 6-mercaptopurine, weekly methotrexate and monthly intrathecal therapy, with drug intensification comprising either vincristine, Adriamycin and l-asparaginase (VAA) or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside and prednisone (COAP). Complete remission (CR) was obtained in 59 patients (69%) and only the French-American-British (FAB) L1 morphology was a significant predictive factor (P = 0.048). Twenty-three patients failed to achieve CR and of these 12 had primary drug resistance. Median follow-up is currently 260 weeks, median predicted survival of all patients is 58 weeks and for those who achieved CR it is 104 weeks. Median duration of CR is 70 weeks. Of the prognostic factors for survival, only FAB L1 subtype was significant. Bone marrow relapses occurred in 29 patients, and of these 9 (31%) achieved CR. There has been CNS relapse in two patients and both have died. Eleven patients continue in CR off therapy, with a median of 152 weeks. This regimen is effective, with acceptable toxicity, and a number of patients are potentially cured. The incidence of resistant and relapsing disease is an argument for further intensifying both induction and postinduction therapy.

  5. Octreotide treatment in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Paran, H; Mayo, A; Paran, D; Neufeld, D; Shwartz, I; Zissin, R; Singer, P; Kaplan, O; Skornik, Y; Freund, U

    2000-11-01

    We investigated the effect of octreotide in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis in a case-control study. Experimental and clinical studies on the effect of octreotide in the treatment of acute pancreatitis have shown controversial results. Since January 1992, we have been conducting a prospective randomized study on the effect of octreotide in severe acute pancreatitis, in three hospitals in Israel. The entering criteria included three or more of the Ranson prognostic signs and CT findings of severe pancreatitis. Patients were randomly assigned to conservative treatment either with or without octreotide (0.1 mg subcutaneously three times a day). The end points of the study included: complication rate (ARDS, sepsis, renal failure, pseudocyst, fistula, and abscess), length of hospital stay, and mortality. From January 1992 to December 1996, 60 patients entered the study. After evaluating the files, 10 patients were excluded due to failure to meet the entering criteria, incomplete data, or incorrect diagnosis. Of the remaining 50 patients, 25 were assigned to octreotide (treatment group) and 25 to conservative treatment only (control group). The two groups matched with regard to age, sex, etiology, and severity of the disease. The complication rate was lower in the treatment group with regard to sepsis (24% vs 76%, P = 0.0002) and ARDS (28% vs 56%, P = 0.04). The hospital stay was shorter in the treatment group (20.6 vs 33.1 days, P = 0.04). Two patients died in the treatment group and eight in the control group (P < 0.019). These results suggest that octreotide may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis.

  6. Ipsilesional anodal tDCS enhances the functional benefits of rehabilitation in patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Claire; Amadi, Ugwechi; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wilkins, Leigh; Filippini, Nicola; Kischka, Udo; Stagg, Charlotte J; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can boost the effects of motor training and facilitate plasticity in the healthy brain. Motor rehabilitation depends on learning and plasticity, and motor learning can occur after stroke. Here, we tested whether brain stimulation using anodal tDCS added to motor training could improve rehabilitation outcomes in patients after stroke. We performed a randomized, controlled trial in 24 patients at least 6 months after a first unilateral stroke not directly involving the primary motor cortex. Patients received either anodal tDCS (n=11) or sham treatment (n=13) paired with daily motor training for 9 days. We observed improvements that persisted for at least 3 months post-intervention after anodal tDCS but not sham treatment on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) but not on the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity score (UEFM). Functional MRI showed increased activity during movement of the affected hand in the ipsilesional motor and premotor cortex in the anodal tDCS group compared to the sham treatment group. Structural MRI revealed intervention-related increases in gray matter volume in cortical areas including ipsilesional motor and premotor cortex after anodal tDCS but not sham treatment. The addition of ipsilesional anodal tDCS to a 9-day motor training program improved long-term clinical outcomes relative to sham treatment in patients after stroke. PMID:27089207

  7. Early rehabilitative treatment for pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Carlisi, E; Pavese, C; Mandrini, S; Carenzio, G; Dalla Toffola, E

    2015-06-01

    Although the diagnosis of and therapy for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been extensively investigated, the role of rehabilitation in modifying its functional outcome has received little attention in the literature so far. We report a case of pediatric ADEM who showed complete functional recovery following early rehabilitative treatment, started in the Intensive Care Unit.

  8. Validity of Sudden Gains in Acute Phase Treatment of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the validity of sudden gains identified with T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis's (1999) method in 2 clinical data sets that involved treatment of major depressive disorder (N=227). Sudden gains replicated among self- and clinician reports of depressive symptoms and predicted better psychosocial functioning at the acute phase…

  9. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  10. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P; Wood, L

    1992-08-01

    Forty-six consecutive patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), having a median age of 23 years (range 14 to 64), underwent induction and consolidation chemotherapy with weekly parenteral vincristine, adriamycin, l-asparaginase and daily oral prednisone (VAAP), followed by standard central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis. Maintenance therapy was given for 3 years and consisted of daily 6-mercaptopurine, weekly methotrexate, and monthly intrathecal chemotherapy, with drug intensification comprising either vincristine, adriamycin and l-asparaginase (VAA) or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside and prednisone (COAP). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 36 patients (78%) and only the FAB L1 morphology was a significant predictive factor (Chi-squared = 3.91: p < 0.05). Eight of the 10 non-responders had significant drug resistance and 3 deaths were associated with marrow hypoplasia. Median follow-up is 52 months. Median duration of CR is 28 months, median survival of all patients is 16 months, and for those who achieved CR is 44 months. There was no difference between the two maintenance arms. Significant prognostic factors for survival are French-American-British (FAB) subtype, in which the L1 is better than L2 (p = 0.05), and age (p = 0.035). Nineteen patients have experienced medullary relapse and 7 (37%) achieved subsequent CR; this is durable in a single patient who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Eight patients (17%) had CNS disease at diagnosis; 5 achieved CR and 1 is alive and disease-free at 65+ months. There has been 1 CNS relapse. These results demonstrate that prolonged remissions and survival can be achieved with this protocol and many patients possibly cured. The level of toxicity is acceptable and the pattern of induction failure indicates that a margin exists for intensifying chemotherapy and thereby possibly further improving results.

  11. Acute behavioral interventions and outpatient treatment strategies with suicidal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646

  12. [Monitorering and complications by conservative treatment of severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Novovic, Srdan; Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Møller Andersen, Anders; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Philipsen, Else; Schmidt, Palle Nordblad; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2013-05-20

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is associated with a high morbidity and a mortality risk of up to 20%. Although much progress has occurred during the latest couple of years, there are still some major controversies on important issues such as monitoring, fluid therapy, antibiotic treatment, and nutrition. In this article we describe the underlying, pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for organ failure in SAP, and the rationale for monitoring and conservative treatment of SAP.

  13. Endovascular treatment for acute pulmonary embolism in neurological patient

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gunchan; Paul, Birinder S; Gautam, Parshotam L; Mohan, Bishav; Sharma, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Among the spectrum of venous thrombo-embolic disease, acute pulmonary embolism accounts for the most life threatening manifestations with mortality exceeding 50%. It can affect many patient populations across various disciplines, hence immediate attention and aggressive treatment is crucial. With the advancement of technologies, various catheter-based devices are available to treat massive or submassive PE. In this paper we report two patients of acute pulmonary embolism with neurological issues where the life threatening emergency was successfully managed by utilizing endovascular directed thrombolytic reperfusion therapy. PMID:26609298

  14. [State-of-the-art Treatment of Acute Stroke].

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Nordmeyer, H

    2015-11-01

    This article gives an overview about diagnostic imaging and treatment options of acute patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with emphasis on evidence from relevant studies published in the last 2 years. A computed tomography of the brain with CT-angiography should be the minimal standard imaging modality in acute ischemic stroke patients. Diffusion-weighted/imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)-mismatch magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in patients with wake-up stroke to select patients for recanalisation therapies. Systemic thrombolysis with rt-PA within 4.5 hours after symptom onset and mechanical thrombectomy with stent retrievers within 6 hours and proven occlusion of a large vessel in the anterior brain circulation are both evidence-based treatments. In contrast, there are no major therapeutic advances in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. The systolic blood pressure should be lowered < 140  mm Hg in these patients within one hour. Both acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and patients with a transient ischemic attack should be monitored and treated on a stroke unit due to an improved outcome. A prophylactic antibiotic treatment and very early mobilization during the first 24 hours is not recommended in acute stroke patients.

  15. The application of tDCS in psychiatric disorders: a brain imaging view

    PubMed Central

    Baeken, Chris; Brunelin, Jerome; Duprat, Romain; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive, non-convulsive technique for modulating brain function. In contrast to other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, where costs, clinical applicability, and availability limit their large-scale use in clinical practices, the low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use tDCS devices may overcome these restrictions. Objective Despite numerous clinical applications in large numbers of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, it is not quite clear how tDCS influences the mentally affected human brain. In order to decipher potential neural mechanisms of action of tDCS in patients with psychiatric conditions, we focused on the combination of tDCS with neuroimaging techniques. Design We propose a contemporary overview on the currently available neurophysiological and neuroimaging data where tDCS has been used as a research or treatment tool in patients with psychiatric disorders. Results Over a reasonably short period of time, tDCS has been broadly used as a research tool to examine neuronal processes in the healthy brain. tDCS has also commonly been applied as a treatment application in a variety of mental disorders, with to date no straightforward clinical outcome and not always accompanied by brain imaging techniques. Conclusion tDCS, as do other neuromodulation devices, clearly affects the underlying neuronal processes. However, research on these mechanisms in psychiatric patients is rather limited. A better comprehension of how tDCS modulates brain function will help us to define optimal parameters of stimulation in each indication and may result in the detection of biomarkers in favor of clinical response. PMID:26993785

  16. Treatment of acute experimental toxoplasmosis with investigational poloxamers.

    PubMed Central

    Krahenbuhl, J L; Fukutomi, Y; Gu, L

    1993-01-01

    Because of the limited chemotherapeutic approaches available to treat reactivated latent Toxoplasma gondii infection manifested as toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients, investigation of novel chemotherapeutic agents is warranted. Several poloxamers (nonionic block copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene) were tested for their abilities to alter the course of acute infection with a highly virulent T. gondii in mice. The effect varied markedly with the length of the constituent chains of the copolymers. The most effective preparations were highly effective when administered after infection and afforded remarkable protection against 10 to 1,000 100% lethal doses of T. gondii. Protection was dose dependent, and multiple treatments were more effective than single treatment. These preliminary findings warrant additional studies to determine whether this novel form of antitoxoplasma chemotherapy may prove promising in the treatment or prevention of acute toxoplasmic encephalitis in humans. PMID:8285605

  17. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes.

  18. Normobaric oxygen treatment in acute ischemic stroke: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shu-hai; Qi, Zhi-feng; Luo, Yu-min; Ji, Xun-ming; Liu, Ke Jian

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a common and serious neurological disease. Oxygen therapy has been shown to increase oxygen supply to ischemic tissues and improve outcomes after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), an easily applicable and non-invasive method, shows protective effects on acute ischemic stroke animals and patients in pilot studies. However, many critical scientific questions are still unclear, such as the therapeutic time window of NBO, the long-term effects and the benefits of NBO in large clinic trials. In this article, we review the current literatures on NBO treatment of acute ischemic stroke in preclinical and clinical studies and try to analyze and identify the key gaps or unknowns in our understanding about NBO. Based on these analyses, we provide suggestions for future studies. PMID:27867482

  19. [Treatment of patients with acute asthma exacerbation].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Jelena; Mose, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. The global prevalence of asthma ranges from 1% to 18% of the population, so it remains a common problem with enormous medical and economic impacts. In majority of patients, asthma can be well controlled with simple regimens of inhaled anti-inflammatory and bronchodilating medications. However, some patients tend to suffer from poorly controlled disease in terms of chronic symptoms with episodic severe exacerbations. Major factors that may be related to the emergency department visits and hospitalisation include prior severe attacks, nonadherence to therapeutic regimens, inadequate use of inhaled corticosteroids, poor self-management skills, frequent use of inhaled short-acting beta-agonists, cigarette smoking, poor socioeconomic status and age over 40 years. Severe exacerbations of asthma are life-threatening medical emergencies and require careful brief assesment, treatment according to current GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines with periodic reassesment of patient's response to therapy usually in an emergency department.

  20. Differentiation syndrome in acute myeloid leukemia after treatment with azacitidine.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Christin B; Roberts, Owen

    2015-11-01

    We report a case report of hyperleukocytosis, fever, hypotension, pulmonary and pericardial effusions, and acute kidney injury during initial treatment with azacitidine in a patient with AML-MRC. Collectively, the symptomatology resembled differentiation syndrome. Azacitidine has been previously associated with fever, peripheral edema, and hyperleukocytosis, but its side effect profile has never been described as similar to differentiation syndrome. The patient's deteriorating course quickly turned around after treatment with dexamethasone. This potential reaction, and potential treatment, is important for clinicians to be aware of.

  1. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis. Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite ‘normal’ (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury. In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration. In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. PMID:25355373

  2. A strategic plan to accelerate development of acute stroke treatments.

    PubMed

    Marler, John R

    2012-09-01

    In order to reenergize acute stroke research and accelerate the development of new treatments, we need to transform the usual design and conduct of clinical trials to test for small but significant improvements in effectiveness, and treat patients as soon as possible after stroke onset when treatment effects are most detectable. This requires trials that include thousands of acute stroke patients. A plan to make these trials possible is proposed. There are four components: (1) free access to the electronic medical record; (2) a large stroke emergency network and clinical trial coordinating center connected in real time to hundreds of emergency departments; (3) a clinical trial technology development center; and (4) strategic leadership to raise funds, motivate clinicians to participate, and interact with politicians, insurers, legislators, and other national and international organizations working to advance the quality of stroke care.

  3. Treatment of acute abscesses in the casualty department.

    PubMed Central

    Simms, M H; Curran, F; Johnson, R A; Oates, J; Givel, J C; Chabloz, R; ALexander-Williams, J

    1982-01-01

    In the treatment of acute pyogenic soft-tissue abscess incision, curettage, and primary suture was compared with incision and drainage alone in a randomised prospective trial. Operations were performed under antibiotic cover by casualty officers, and patients were reviewed by an independent observer in a septic dressing clinic. Altogether 114 patients were studied, of whom 54 were treated by curettage and primary suture and 60 by simple drainage. The mean healing time was 8.9 days in those treated by primary suture and 7.8 days in those treated by simple drainage (p less than 0.05). Primary healing failed to occur in 19 (35%) of the sutured wounds, but there were no other complications in either group. It is concluded that incision and drainage alone is adequate treatment for acute soft-tissue abscess. PMID:6805714

  4. Impact of antipsychotic medication on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Bose, Anushree; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Chhabra, Harleen; Kalmady, Sunil V; Varambally, Shivarama; Nitsche, Michael A; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2016-01-30

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has generated interest as a treatment modality for schizophrenia. Dopamine, a critical pathogenetic link in schizophrenia, is also known to influence tDCS effects. We evaluated the influence of antipsychotic drug type (as defined by dopamine D2 receptor affinity) on the impact of tDCS in schizophrenia. DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia patients [N=36] with persistent auditory hallucinations despite adequate antipsychotic treatment were administered add-on tDCS. Patients were divided into three groups based on the antipsychotic's affinity to D2 receptors. An auditory hallucinations score (AHS) was measured using the auditory hallucinations subscale of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS). Add-on tDCS resulted in a significant reduction inAHS. Antipsychotic drug type had a significant effect on AHS reduction. Patients treated with high affinity antipsychotics showed significantly lesser improvement compared to patients on low affinity antipsychotics or a mixture of the two. Furthermore, a significant sex-by-group interaction occurred; type of medication had an impact on tDCS effects only in women. Improvement differences could be due to the larger availability of the dopamine receptor system in patients taking antipsychotics with low D2 affinity. Sex-specific differences suggest potential estrogen-mediated effects. This study reports a first-time observation on the clinical utility of antipsychotic drug type in predicting tDCS effects in schizophrenia.

  5. Hydrocortisone treatment of early SIRS in acute experimental pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gloor, B; Uhl, W; Tcholakov, O; Roggo, A; Muller, C A; Worni, M; Büchler, M W

    2001-10-01

    This work studied the effects of hydrocortisone treatment in experimental acute pancreatitis on cytokines, phospholipase A2, and breakdown products of arachidonic acid and survival. Edematous and necrotizing pancreatitis were induced in Wistar rats by cerulein hyperstimulation and retrograde intraductal infusion of sodium taurocholate, respectively. Hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 10 minutes after induction of acute pancreatitis. Serum was assayed for phospholipase A2; interleukin (IL) 1beta, IL-6, IL-10, thromboxane B2; Prostaglandin E2; and leukotriene B4 at five different time points. A significant release of inflammatory mediators was seen only in the severe model. Hydrocortisone powerfully suppressed arachidonic acid breakdown products and only mildly attenuated the systemic increase of phospholipase A2 and pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines. The mortality rate after 72 hr in the severe model was 86%. Hydrocortisone treatment reduced mortality to 13% (P = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). Hydrocortisone seems to be effective in the treatment of the early systemic inflammatory response syndrome associated with severe acute pancreatitis.

  6. Selecting initial treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Podoltsev, Nikolai A; Stahl, Maximilian; Zeidan, Amer M; Gore, Steven D

    2016-10-08

    More than half of the patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are older than 60years. The treatment outcomes in this group remain poor with a median overall survival of <1year. Selecting initial treatment for these patients involves an assessment of 'fitness' for induction chemotherapy. This is done based on patient and disease-related characteristics which help to estimate treatment-related mortality and chance of complete remission with induction chemotherapy. If the risk of treatment-related mortality is high and/or the likelihood of a patient achieving a complete remission is low, lower-intensity treatment (low-dose cytarabine, decitabine and azacitidine) should be discussed. As outcomes in both groups of patients remain poor, enrolment into clinical trials of novel agents with varying mechanisms of action should be considered for all older adults with AML. Novel agents in Phase III development include CPX-351, guadecitabine (SGI-110), quizartinib, crenolanib, sapacitabine, vosaroxin and volasertib.

  7. Filgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farese, A M; MacVittie, T J

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved Neupogen(®) (filgrastim) for the treatment of patients with radiation-induced myelosuppression following a radiological/nuclear incident. It is the first medical countermeasure currently approved by the FDA for this indication under the criteria of the FDA "animal rule". This article summarizes the consequences of high-dose radiation exposure, a description of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS), the use of hematopoietic growth factors in radiation accident victims and current available treatments for H-ARS with an emphasis on the use of Neupogen in this scenario.

  8. Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: Acute, Preventive, and Symptomatic

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Remi A.; Mealy, Maureen A.; Levy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that primarily attacks the optic nerves and spinal cord leading to blindness and paralysis. The spectrum of the disease has expanded based on the specificity of the autoimmune response to the aquaporin-4 water channel on astrocytes. With wider recognition of NMOSD, a standard of care for treatment of this condition has condition based on a growing series of retrospective and prospective studies. This review covers the present state of the field in the treatment of acute relapses, preventive approaches, and therapies for symptoms of NMOSD. PMID:26705758

  9. Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hung-Jin; Kuo, Chia-Chen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer that immature white blood cells continuously overproduce in the bone marrow. These cells crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow bringing damage and death. Methotrexate (MTX) is a drug used in the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. In particular, for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it had significant effect. MTX competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that participates in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis so as to inhibit purine synthesis. In addition, its downstream metabolite methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PGs) inhibit the thymidylate synthase (TS). Therefore, MTX can inhibit the synthesis of DNA. However, MTX has cytotoxicity and neurotoxin may cause multiple organ injury and is potentially lethal. Thus, the lower toxicity drugs are necessary to be developed. Recently, diseases treatments with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as complements are getting more and more attention. In this study, we attempted to discover the compounds with drug-like potential for ALL treatment from the components in TCM. We applied virtual screen and QSAR models based on structure-based and ligand-based studies to identify the potential TCM component compounds. Our results show that the TCM compounds adenosine triphosphate, manninotriose, raffinose, and stachyose could have potential to improve the side effects of MTX for ALL treatment. PMID:25136372

  10. Evaluating conservative treatment for acute appendicitis with lump formation

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Irshad, Ifat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interval appendectomy after acute appendicitis with lump formation (phlegmon) remains controversial. We conducted this study to determine the risk of recurrent appendicitis following initial non-operative treatment for appendicitis, and evaluate factors associated with recurrence. Secondarily, we evaluate the efficacy of interval appendectomy versus no appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Patients who received conservative treatment for appendicitis with lump formation were prospectively studied from June 2006 to June 2008. These patients were followed for recurrence of appendicitis. Results: Of 763 patients with acute appendicitis some 220 patients had lump formation (28.8%). Median age was 28 years. Conservative treatment was successful in 213 (96.8%) patients. The rate of recurrence was 13.1%, all occurring within six months after the index admission. Mean follow-up was 26±18 months. Conclusion: Conservative treatment of appendicitis with lump formation is efficient and the recurrence rate is low. Routine interval appendectomy after initial conservative treatment for lump formation is not a cost-effective intervention and not recommended. PMID:22416152

  11. System of acute medical support to emergency during dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, M; Takeshita, T; Akita, S

    1986-01-01

    The Resuscitation Committee of Hiroshima City Dental Association was established in 1983 in order to provide acute medical support in case of emergency during dental treatment at private dental clinics. This Committee is composed of representatives from the Hiroshima City Dental Association, Hiroshima University School of Dentistry, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima City Health Bureau, and Hiroshima City Fire and Ambulance Department. A portable ECG monitor with defibrillator and a resuscitation kit are held in readiness at the Hiroshima University Hospital. In case of emergency during dental treatment at a private dental clinic, we hurry to the clinic with the resuscitation set and give emergency treatment. We have been involved in two cases of emergency since this system started. Both of them recovered without any sequelae. Besides these activities, we give lectures annually to dentists and dental hygienists on the treatment of medical emergencies.

  12. Modulation of attention functions by anodal tDCS on right PPC.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lucia B; Sparing, Roland; Fink, Gereon R; Hesse, Maike D

    2015-07-01

    Attention is a complex construct that comprises at least three major subcomponents: alerting, spatial (re-)orienting, and executive functions, all of which have specific neural correlates along frontoparietal networks. Attention deficits are a common consequence of brain damage. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate spatial attention. We investigated whether tDCS of different stimulation targets differentially modulates alerting, spatial (re-)orienting, and executive functions. Twenty-four healthy participants were included in this randomized, double-blinded study, which employed a within-subject design. On four different days, the effects of 1.5 mA anodal tDCS (real and sham) on the left dorsolateral (EEG 10-20 point F3), left parietal (P3) and right parietal cortex (P4) were assessed using a modified attention network test. tDCS of the right parietal cortex enhanced spatial re-orienting, while tDCS of the other cortical targets did not modulate the assessed attention functions. With regard to visual field asymmetries in attentional processing, right parietal tDCS selectively enhanced mean network efficiency for targets presented in the contralateral left visual field. The observed visual field specific tDCS effects on reorienting suggest that systematic investigations into novel approaches for the treatment of patients suffering from spatial neglect patients are warranted.

  13. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. Case Presentation Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial nephritis after moxifloxacin treatment. The patient presented with fever, rigors and dialysis dependent acute kidney injury, just a few days after treatment of a respiratory tract infection with moxifloxacin. The renal biopsy revealed dense infiltrates mainly composed of eosinophils and severe interstitial edema. A course of oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) was commenced and rapidly tapered to zero within three weeks. The renal function improved, and the patient was discharged with a creatinine of 107 μmol/l. Conclusion This case illustrates that pharmacovigilance is important to early detect rare side effects, such as AIN, even in drugs with a favourable risk/benefit ratio such as moxifloxacin. PMID:20731847

  14. Treatment of Orbital Complications Following Acute Rhinosinusitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yuzhu; Shi, Guanggang; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The orbital complications account for about 80% of all complications secondary to acute rhinosinusitis. If the treatment is not correct and in time, orbital complications could progress rapidly, leading to optic neuritis, cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis or life-threatening intracranial complications. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of conservative therapy for the patients with orbital cellulitis and endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) performed on patients with subperiosteal abscess (SPA) secondary to acute rhinosinusitis in children. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: The retrospective study included 31 pediatric patients with orbital complications secondary to acute rhinosinusitis. In all cases, intensive treatment was initiated with a combination of oral or intravenous antibiotics, glucocorticoid and gelomyrtol forte after admission. ESS was performed if an improvement in the condition of patients did not occur after 48 hours. However, the patients with orbital SPA, motility disorders of eyeball or decreased vision received ESS immediately within 24 hours. Results: Sixteen patients were cured by conservative therapy and 15 patients by ESS. All of the signs and symptoms disappeared after conservative therapy or ESS. There were no recurrences within the follow-up period of 1 to 8 years. Conclusion: Conservative therapy is an effective method for patients with inflammatory edema and most cases of orbital cellulitis in children. SPA can be cured by ESS. PMID:27606135

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and Aphasia: The Case of Mr. C

    PubMed Central

    Cherney, Leora R.; Babbitt, Edna M.; Hurwitz, Rosalind; Rogers, Lynn M.; Stinear, James; Wang, Xue; Harvey, Richard L.; Parrish, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To illustrate the ethical challenges that arose from investigating a novel treatment procedure, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in a research participant with aphasia. Method First, we reviewed the current evidence supporting the use of tDCS in aphasia research, highlighting methodological gaps in our knowledge of tDCS. Second, we examined the case of Mr. C, a person with chronic aphasia who participated in a research protocol investigating the impact of tDCS on aphasia treatment. Results We describe the procedures that he underwent and the resulting behavioral and neurophysiological outcomes bed. Finally, we share the steps that were taken to balance beneficence and nonmaleficence, and to ensure Mr. C’s autonomy. Conclusion: Researchers must consider not only the scientific integrity of their studies, but also potential ethical issues and consequences to the research participants. PMID:23340067

  16. Treatment of acute erythroleukemia with Azacitidine: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Pierdomenico, Francesca; Almeida, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Acute erythroleukemia (AEL) is a rare form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often associated with a poor prognosis. It is more frequent in elderly patients, limiting the use aggressive therapies. Azacitidine is a hypomethylating agent with recognized efficacy in high risk myelodysplasia and AML in the elderly. Here we report 5 cases of AEL treated with Azacitidine. The cohort included 4 men and 1 woman, median age 70. One patient had been refractory to intensive chemotherapy, the others received Azacitidine as first line. Treatment was well tolerated. Four patients achieved transfusion independence. Two patients achieved complete remission and 1 achieved partial remission. After a median follow up time of 20 months, the median survival of the cohort was 20 months. Three patients died of disease progression. These results confirm the therapeutic value of Azacitidine in AEL. PMID:24371777

  17. Acute pancreatitis in ICU secondary to treatment with tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Bernas Albeniz, A; Aveiga Valencia, D A; Etxeberria Zabala, L; Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia Bilbao, J; Aguilera Celorrio, L

    2017-01-01

    Tigecycline is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent, structurally similar to minocycline and that shares some tetracycline-related side effects. A case report is presented on a 68-year-old female who received tigecycline for a sepsis of unknown origin and who, in the following 5days, developed abdominal pain and elevated pancreatic enzymes, which suggested acute pancreatitis. After ruling out other origins, and according to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, tigecycline was the probable cause of the acute pancreatitis, a complication that has been reported 5 times in the database of the Spanish pharmacosurveillance system since 2009. Close monitoring of abdominal signs and symptoms is recommended during treatment with tigecycline, since adverse effects affecting the digestive system are the most prevalent ones when using this drug.

  18. Remotely-supervised transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for clinical trials: guidelines for technology and protocols

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Leigh E.; Kasschau, Margaret; Datta, Abhishek; Knotkova, Helena; Stevens, Michael C.; Alonzo, Angelo; Loo, Colleen; Krull, Kevin R.; Bikson, Marom

    2015-01-01

    The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: (1) training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision; (2) assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely; (3) ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver; (4) simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear; (5) strict dose control for each session; (6) ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol), with corresponding corrective steps as required; (7) monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects; (8) guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care) following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations

  19. [Immunotherapy for the treatment of acute appendicitis in children].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, A A; Akhanzaripov, Z A

    1994-08-01

    The immune status was studied during the development of the disease in 182 children who were operated on for acute appendicitis. T lymphocytes and their subpopulations circulating in the blood, as well as B lymphocytes, immunoglobulins A, M, G, and immune complexes were determined. The character of changes of these values before the operation and in various postoperative periods were determined. The effect of complex treatment, including T-activin, on the clinical and immunological parameters in children with acute appendicitis was appraised. Analysis of the results showed that a transitory immunodepressive state forms in children with the disease, which is more marked in the destructive form, with normalization of the main values of cell-mediated and humoral immunity by the 7th day after appendectomy. In a complicated course of acute appendicitis the state of immunodeficiency is torpid in character and does not return to normal values even after clinical recovery, i.e. before discharge from the clinic. Inclusion of the immunostimulating agent T-activin into the complex treatment of patients with appendicitis ensures a more rapid involution of the main clinical manifestations of the disease. The therapeutic effect was most pronounced in destructive appendicitis: after 3 days of treatment the pain syndrome was encountered twice less frequently and intestinal paresis more than twice less frequently in these patients, and the term of hospital stay (8.8 +/- 0.4 days) was less shorter than for children of the control group (12.2 +/- 1.9 days) who did not receive T-activin in the therapeutic complex.

  20. Pathophysiology and Surgical Treatment of Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Karube, Norihisa; Yasuda, Shota; Miyamoto, Takuma; Matsuki, Yusuke; Isoda, Susumu; Goda, Motohiko; Suzuki, Shinichi; Masuda, Munetaka; Imoto, Kiyotaka

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We report the pathophysiology and treatment results of type A acute aortic dissection from our 20-year experience. Methods: We studied 673 patients with type A acute aortic dissection who underwent initial treatment from 1994 through July 2014. We divided these patients into two groups. The former group comprised 448 patients from 1994 through 2008, and the latter group comprised 225 patients from 2009 onward, when the current strategy of initial treatment and surgical technique including the early organ reperfusion therapies were established. Results: Women were significantly often presented than men in patients over 60 years of age. Thrombosed-type dissection accounted for more than half in patients over 70 years, and significantly often complicated pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade than patent type. Malperfusion occurred in 26% of patients. Central repair operations were performed in 579 patients. In-hospital mortality for all patients was 15%, and for the patients who underwent central repair operations was 10%. Former period of operation, malperfusion, and preoperative cardiopulmonary arrest were significant risk factor of in-hospital death. Preoperative left main trunk (LMT) stents were placed in eight patients and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) intervention was performed in five, they were effective to improve the outcome. From 2009 onward, in-hospital mortality was 5.0% and there was no significant risk factor. Conclusion: Surgical results of type A acute aortic dissection were dramatically improved in the past 20 years. Early reperfusion strategy for the patients with malperfusion improved the outcomes. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2015; 24: 127–134.) PMID:27738456

  1. WSES Jerusalem guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Birindelli, Arianna; Kelly, Micheal D; Catena, Fausto; Weber, Dieter G; Sartelli, Massimo; Sugrue, Michael; De Moya, Mark; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Bhangu, Aneel; Agresta, Ferdinando; Moore, Ernest E; Soreide, Kjetil; Griffiths, Ewen; De Castro, Steve; Kashuk, Jeffry; Kluger, Yoram; Leppaniemi, Ari; Ansaloni, Luca; Andersson, Manne; Coccolini, Federico; Coimbra, Raul; Gurusamy, Kurinchi S; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Biffl, Walter; Chiara, Osvaldo; Moore, Fred; Peitzman, Andrew B; Fraga, Gustavo P; Costa, David; Maier, Ronald V; Rizoli, Sandro; Balogh, Zsolt J; Bendinelli, Cino; Cirocchi, Roberto; Tonini, Valeria; Piccinini, Alice; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Jovine, Elio; Persiani, Roberto; Biondi, Antonio; Scalea, Thomas; Stahel, Philip; Ivatury, Rao; Velmahos, George; Andersson, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is among the most common cause of acute abdominal pain. Diagnosis of AA is challenging; a variable combination of clinical signs and symptoms has been used together with laboratory findings in several scoring systems proposed for suggesting the probability of AA and the possible subsequent management pathway. The role of imaging in the diagnosis of AA is still debated, with variable use of US, CT and MRI in different settings worldwide. Up to date, comprehensive clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of AA have never been issued. In July 2015, during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES, held in Jerusalem (Israel), a panel of experts including an Organizational Committee and Scientific Committee and Scientific Secretariat, participated to a Consensus Conference where eight panelists presented a number of statements developed for each of the eight main questions about diagnosis and management of AA. The statements were then voted, eventually modified and finally approved by the participants to The Consensus Conference and lately by the board of co-authors. The current paper is reporting the definitive Guidelines Statements on each of the following topics: 1) Diagnostic efficiency of clinical scoring systems, 2) Role of Imaging, 3) Non-operative treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis, 4) Timing of appendectomy and in-hospital delay, 5) Surgical treatment 6) Scoring systems for intra-operative grading of appendicitis and their clinical usefulness 7) Non-surgical treatment for complicated appendicitis: abscess or phlegmon 8) Pre-operative and post-operative antibiotics.

  2. [Acute kidney injury and septic shock: experiences in treatment].

    PubMed

    Pozzato, Marco; Ferrari, Fiorenza; Livigni, Sergio; Quarello, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 5-45% of critically ill patients, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required in 4-10% of patients with AKI. AKI has long been considered to be hemodynamic damage from low blood flow resulting in shock, and efforts have been made to prevent and cure it by increasing the renal blood flow and improving the cardiac output and perfusion pressure. In recent years, new experimental studies on patients with septic AKI have shown that the renal blood flow remains unaltered or even increases in septic shock. An important mechanism in the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic shock appears to be apoptosis rather than ischemic necrosis. The type of treatment as well as the dose and timing of initiation of RRT seem to have strategic importance in the recovery of AKI in patients admitted to the ICU. In critically ill (often postsurgical and septic) patients with acute renal failure the use of new anticoagulation strategies has permitted to perform treatments for a sufficient number of hours to achieve the correct level of purification by minimizing the downtime and the bleeding risk. In our center the use of protocols for different methods and different types of anticoagulants has simplified the treatment of all patients with AKI and septic shock admitted to the ICU.

  3. Morphine in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema--Why?

    PubMed

    Ellingsrud, C; Agewall, S

    2016-01-01

    Morphine has for a long time, been used in patients with acute pulmonary oedema due to its anticipated anxiolytic and vasodilatory properties, however a discussion about the benefits and risks has been raised recently. A literature search in Medline and Embase using the keywords "pulmonary oedema" OR "lung oedema" OR "acute heart failure" AND "morphine" was performed. A certain vasodilation has been described after morphine administration, but the evidence for this mechanism is relatively poor and morphine-induced anxiolysis may possibly be the most important factor of morphine in pulmonary oedema and therefore some authors have suggested benzodiazepines as an alternative treatment. Respiratory depression seems to be a less relevant clinical problem according to the literature, whereas vomiting is common, which may cause aspiration. In the largest outcome study, based on the ADHERE registry, morphine given in acute decompensated heart failure was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality, with an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% CI: 4.52-5.18, p<0.001). Other, smaller studies have shown a significant association between morphine administration and mortality, which was lost after adjusting for confounding factors. Morphine is still used for pulmonary oedema in spite of poor scientific background data. A randomised, controlled study is necessary in order to determine the effect--and especially the risk--when using morphine for pulmonary oedema. Since the positive effects are not sufficiently documented, and since the risk for increased mortality cannot be ruled out, one can advocate that the use should be avoided.

  4. [Protocol for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with necrosis].

    PubMed

    Barreda, Luis; Targarona, Javier; Rodriguez, César

    2005-01-01

    The Severe Acute Pancreatic Unit of Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital was officially created in the year 2000. Up to date, we have cared for more than 195 patients with Pancreatic Necrosis. All of them have been treated under a management protocol presented by us. This has helped us to standardize treatment and also to compare results with work groups around the world. This Protocol comes from our own experience and that of our colleagues abroad with a wide knowledge in this kind of pathology abroad, with whom we maintain close ties.

  5. [The efficacy of the acute pancreatitis' surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskiĭ, V K; Rodionov, P N; Makarov, S V

    2012-01-01

    The comparative analysis of blood levels of leukocytes, lymphocytes, the leukocytic intoxication index, amylase, lipase, lactatdehydrogenase and creatinphosphokinase, measured in operated patients with the acute pancreatitis, demonstrated the general positive dynamics of the patients condition. The higher blood levels of the substances in died patients demonstrate the important prognostic value of them. The higher levels of amylase, lipase, lactatdehydrogenase and creatinphosphokinase by the end of the clinical treatment together with the normalization of the rest laboratory data may witness the higher risk of the chronisation of the pancreatitis.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Brian A

    2012-02-15

    Acute low back pain is one of the most common reasons for adults to see a family physician. Although most patients recover quickly with minimal treatment, proper evaluation is imperative to identify rare cases of serious underlying pathology. Certain red flags should prompt aggressive treatment or referral to a spine specialist, whereas others are less concerning. Serious red flags include significant trauma related to age (i.e., injury related to a fall from a height or motor vehicle crash in a young patient, or from a minor fall or heavy lifting in a patient with osteoporosis or possible osteoporosis), major or progressive motor or sensory deficit, new-onset bowel or bladder incontinence or urinary retention, loss of anal sphincter tone, saddle anesthesia, history of cancer metastatic to bone, and suspected spinal infection. Without clinical signs of serious pathology, diagnostic imaging and laboratory testing often are not required. Although there are numerous treatments for nonspecific acute low back pain, most have little evidence of benefit. Patient education and medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and muscle relaxants are beneficial. Bed rest should be avoided if possible. Exercises directed by a physical therapist, such as the McKenzie method and spine stabilization exercises, may decrease recurrent pain and need for health care services. Spinal manipulation and chiropractic techniques are no more effective than established medical treatments, and adding them to established treatments does not improve outcomes. No substantial benefit has been shown with oral steroids, acupuncture, massage, traction, lumbar supports, or regular exercise programs.

  7. The effectiveness of ground level post-flight 100 percent oxygen breathing as therapy for pain-only altitude Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demboski, John T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    In both the aviation and space environments, decompression sickness (DCS) is an operational limitation. Hyperbaric recompression is the most efficacious treatment for altitude DCS. However, the inherent recompression of descent to ground level while breathing oxygen is in itself therapy for altitude DCS. If pain-only DCS occurs during a hypobaric exposure, and the symptoms resolver during descent, ground level post-flight breathing of 100% O2 for 2 hours (GLO2) is considered sufficient treatment by USAF Regulation 161-21. The effectiveness of the GLO2 treatment protocol is defined.

  8. Fosfomycin for the initial treatment of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Corti, N; Sennhauser, F; Stauffer, U; Nadal, D

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims: At our institution there has been a dichotomous antimicrobial treatment behaviour for acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) since 1984. The surgical department favoured fosfomycin as initial choice and the medical department ß lactams. We aimed to compare the performance of both strategies. Methods: Data from patients discharged with the diagnosis of AHOM between January 1984 and January 1998 were gathered from the charts by means of a questionnaire. Patients receiving fosfomycin treatment (FT) were compared with those receiving fosfomycin plus other antimicrobials (FT+) and those receiving no fosfomycin treatment (NFT). Results: A total of 103 patients aged 0.1–15.5 years (mean 6.5, median 6.9) with AHOM received no surgical treatment initially. In 23 (22.3%) FT was instilled initially, in 47 (45.6%) FT+, and in 33 (32.0%) NFT. The pathogen was established in 30%, 36%, and 42% of FT, FT+, and NFT patients, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus being the predominant isolate. Mean C reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rates normalised in all treatment groups after two and four weeks, respectively. The mean duration of intravenous antimicrobial treatment in FT patients was 2.5 weeks, in FT+ patients 3.1 weeks, and in NFT patients 3.8 weeks (p < 0.05), whereas the mean duration of intravenous plus oral treatment was comparable (7.1 v 6.8 v 6.5 weeks). Conclusions: The leucocyte penetrating fosfomycin performed similarly to extracellular ß lactams in the treatment of AHOM. Intravenous treatment for longer than 2.5 weeks offered no advantage. PMID:12765918

  9. Acute Coronary Syndromes in Women: Recent Treatment Trends and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Garth

    2016-01-01

    In the USA and internationally, women experience farranging differences with respect to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction (MI). Women suffer from more comorbidities than men, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and poor mental health. They some-times exhibit atypical MI presentation symptoms and are overall less likely to present with chest pain. Women are more likely than men to encounter delays between the onset of symptoms and arrival at the hospital or to guideline treatment. The use of various surgical and pharmacological treatments, including revascularization approaches, also differs. Women, on average, have worse outcomes than men following MI, with more complications, higher mortality rates, and poorer recovery. Internationally, outcomes are similar despite various differences in health care and culture in non-US countries. In this review, we detail differences regarding ACS and MI in women, describing their complex correlations and discussing their possible causes. Educational approaches that are tailored to women might help to reduce the incidence of ACS and MI, as well as outcomes following hospitalization. Although outcomes following acute MI have been improving over the years, women may require special consideration in order to see continued improvement. PMID:26884685

  10. An update of current treatments for adult acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) biology and its genetic landscape should ultimately lead to more subset-specific AML therapies, ideally tailored to each patient's disease. Although a growing number of distinct AML subsets have been increasingly characterized, patient management has remained disappointingly uniform. If one excludes acute promyelocytic leukemia, current AML management still relies largely on intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), at least in younger patients who can tolerate such intensive treatments. Nevertheless, progress has been made, notably in terms of standard drug dose intensification and safer allogeneic HSCT procedures, allowing a larger proportion of patients to achieve durable remission. In addition, improved identification of patients at relatively low risk of relapse should limit their undue exposure to the risks of HSCT in first remission. The role of new effective agents, such as purine analogs or gemtuzumab ozogamicin, is still under investigation, whereas promising new targeted agents are under clinical development. In contrast, minimal advances have been made for patients unable to tolerate intensive treatment, mostly representing older patients. The availability of hypomethylating agents likely represents an encouraging first step for this latter population, and it is hoped will allow for more efficient combinations with novel agents. PMID:26660429

  11. Stenting in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Samaniego, Edgar A.; Dabus, Guilherme; Linfante, Italo

    2011-01-01

    Recanalization of acute large artery occlusions is a strong predictor of good outcome. The development of thrombectomy devices resulted in a significant improvement in recanalization rates compared to thrombolytics alone. However, clinical trials and registries with these thrombectomy devices in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have shown recanalization rates in the range of 40–81%. The last decade has seen the development of nickel titanium self-expandable stents (SES). These stents, in contrast to balloon-mounted stents, allow better navigability and deployment in tortuous vessels and therefore are optimal for the cerebral circulation. SES were initially used for stent-assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms and for treatment of intracranial stenosis. However, a few authors have recently reported feasibility of deployment of SES in AIS. The use of these devices yielded higher recanalization rates compared to traditional thrombectomy devices. Encouraged by these results, retrievable SES systems have been recently used in AIS. These devices offer the advantage of resheathing and retrieving of the stent even after full deployment. Some of these stents can also be detached in case permanent stent placement is needed. Retrievable SES are being used in Europe and currently tested in clinical trials in the United States. We review the recent literature in the use of stents for the treatment of AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion. PMID:22163225

  12. Endovascular treatment of acute type B dissection complicating aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Abbasi, Kyomars; Mousavi, Mehdi; Sahebjam, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment poses a high risk to patients with concomitant aortic coarctation and dissection, and an interventional approach could be an alternative. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man with a long history of untreated hypertension and aortic coarctation who emergently presented at our institution with an acute Stanford type B dissection. The patient's elevated serum creatinine level, perfusion deficit in the right lower limb, and hypertension did not respond to medical therapy, and he did not consent to surgery. By endovascular means, we used a self-expandable stent-graft to cover the entry point of the dissection; then, we deployed a balloon-expandable bare-metal stent to correct residual stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the endovascular treatment of aortic coarctation complicated by type B dissection.

  13. [Evidence for treatment of acute syndesmosis injuries in sports].

    PubMed

    Best, R; Mauch, F; Bauer, G

    2013-06-01

    Injuries of the distal syndesmosis often accompany acute ankle sprains especially in professional team sports. While small partial syndesmosis lesions can often be missed as a consequence of impressive symptoms due to ventrolateral capsuloligamentous injuries, higher grade injuries of the syndesmosis can mostly be diagnosed without any problem. Furthermore, there is a consensus concerning the necessity of operative treatment in significantly unstable situations as well concerning conservative treatment of incomplete partial lesions. Consequently, the greatest challenge regarding diagnostic tools, quantification and optimal therapy arises in the most common form of sport-associated, complete or partial lesions of the distal syndesmosis. This review article summarizes sports-associated injuries of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis considering the current literature and placing the emphasis on the anatomy, pathobiomechanics, diagnostics and therapy of syndesmosis lesions from an evidence-based viewpoint.

  14. [Consensus conference on acute bronchiolitis (IV): Treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Review of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    González de Dios, J; Ochoa Sangrador, C

    2010-04-01

    A review of the evidence on treatment of acute bronchiolitis is presented. There is sufficient evidence on the lack of effectiveness of most interventions tested in bronchiolitis. Apart from oxygen therapy, fluid therapy, aspiration of secretions and ventilation support, few treatment options will be beneficial. There are doubts about the efficacy of inhaled bronchodilators (salbutamol or adrenaline), with or without hypertonic saline solution, suggesting that these options should be selectively used as therapeutic trials in moderate-severe bronchiolitis. Heliox and non-invasive ventilation techniques, methylxanthine could be used in cases with respiratory failure, in patients with apnea, and surfactant and inhaled ribavirin in intubated critically ill patients. The available evidence does not recommend the use of oral salbutamol, subcutaneous adrenaline, anticholinergic drugs, inhaled or systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, aerosolized o intravenous immunoglobulin, respiratory physiotherapy and others (nitric oxide, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease, recombinant interferon, nebulised furosemide and so on).

  15. DCS Color near Mare Cimmerium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 28, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image covering an area near Mare Cimmerium. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    This area contains a mixture of basaltic materials (magenta/purple) and dust (green/blue). Faint blue areas may be due to some thin water ice clouds. The different compositional units are sometimes correlated with crater floors and other surface features, but they are often not tied to valleys, lava flows, etc... indicating that the surface materials could be mobile (dust and sand).

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 139.3 East (220.7 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter

  16. Emerging New Approaches for the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae; Jurcic, Joseph G.; Rosenblat, Todd; Tallman, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the late 1980s combined with anthracycline-based chemotherapy has revolutionized the prognosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with more than 90% complete response rates and cure rates of approximately 80%. The subsequent advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in 1990s and progress in the treatment of APL have changed its course from a highly fatal to a highly curable disease. Despite the dramatic improvement in clinical outcome of APL, treatment failure still occurs due most often to early death. Relapse has become increasingly less frequent, most commonly occurring in patients with high-risk disease. A major focus of research for the past decade has been to develop risk-adapted and rationally targeted nonchemotherapy treatment strategies to reduce treatment-related morbidity and mortality to low- and intermediate-risk or older patients while targeting more intensive or alternative therapy to those patients at most risk of relapse. In this review, emerging new approaches to APL treatment with special emhasis on strategies to reduce early deaths, risk-adapted therapy during induction, consolidation and maintenance, as well as an overview of current and future clinical trials in APL will be discussed. PMID:23556100

  17. Recent advances and novel treatment paradigms in acute lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Papadantonakis, Nikolaos; Advani, Anjali S.

    2016-01-01

    This is an exciting time in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) given the advances in the relapsed/refractory setting. The development of antibody treatments (including antibody drug conjugates with toxins) offers a different treatment approach compared with conventional chemotherapy regimens. Moreover, the use of bispecific T-cell-engager antibodies (BiTEs) such as blinatumomab harness the cytotoxic activity of T cells against CD19-positive lymphoblasts. Another strategy involves the use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. CAR T cells have demonstrated promising results in the relapsed/refractory setting. However, the use of BiTEs and CAR T cells is also associated with a distinct set of adverse reactions that must be taken into account by the treating physician. Apart from the above strategies, the use of other targeted therapies has attracted interest. Namely, the discovery of the Philadelphia (Ph)-like signature in children and young adults with ALL has led to the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in these patients. The different drugs and strategies that are being tested in the relapsed/refractory ALL setting pose a unique challenge in identifying the optimum sequence of treatment and determining which approaches should be considered for frontline treatment. PMID:27695616

  18. Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Paradise, Jack L; Rockette, Howard E; Kearney, Diana H; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Shope, Timothy R; Martin, Judith M; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Copelli, Susan J; Colborn, D Kathleen; Block, Stan L; Labella, John J; Lynch, Thomas G; Cohen, Norman L; Haralam, MaryAnn; Pope, Marcia A; Nagg, Jennifer P; Green, Michael D; Shaikh, Nader

    2016-12-22

    Background Limiting the duration of antimicrobial treatment constitutes a potential strategy to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance among children with acute otitis media. Methods We assigned 520 children, 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate either for a standard duration of 10 days or for a reduced duration of 5 days followed by placebo for 5 days. We measured rates of clinical response (in a systematic fashion, on the basis of signs and symptomatic response), recurrence, and nasopharyngeal colonization, and we analyzed episode outcomes using a noninferiority approach. Symptom scores ranged from 0 to 14, with higher numbers indicating more severe symptoms. Results Children who were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 5 days were more likely than those who were treated for 10 days to have clinical failure (77 of 229 children [34%] vs. 39 of 238 [16%]; difference, 17 percentage points [based on unrounded data]; 95% confidence interval, 9 to 25). The mean symptom scores over the period from day 6 to day 14 were 1.61 in the 5-day group and 1.34 in the 10-day group (P=0.07); the mean scores at the day-12-to-14 assessment were 1.89 versus 1.20 (P=0.001). The percentage of children whose symptom scores decreased more than 50% (indicating less severe symptoms) from baseline to the end of treatment was lower in the 5-day group than in the 10-day group (181 of 227 children [80%] vs. 211 of 233 [91%], P=0.003). We found no significant between-group differences in rates of recurrence, adverse events, or nasopharyngeal colonization with penicillin-nonsusceptible pathogens. Clinical-failure rates were greater among children who had been exposed to three or more children for 10 or more hours per week than among those with less exposure (P=0.02) and were also greater among children with infection in both ears than among those with infection in one ear (P<0.001). Conclusions Among children 6 to 23 months of age with acute

  19. Lithium Treatment of Acute Mania in Adolescents: A Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafantaris, Vivian; Coletti, Daniel J.; Dicker, Robert; Padula, Gina; Pleak, Richard R.; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.; Kane, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There are no published placebo-controlled studies of any agent in the treatment of acute mania in children or adolescents. This is the first placebo-controlled study of lithium's efficacy in the treatment of acute mania in adolescents. Method: In this discontinuation study, participants received open treatment with lithium at…

  20. 77 FR 60126 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Otitis Media: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...; Formerly 2008N-0004] Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Otitis Media: Developing Drugs for Treatment... Media: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' This guidance addresses FDA's current thinking regarding the... treatment of acute bacterial otitis media (ABOM). This guidance finalizes the revised draft guidance of...

  1. Application of simplified bioclean apparatuses for treatment of acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, H; Horiuchi, A

    1983-01-01

    We used a portable horizontal laminar-air-flow clean bed and an open horizontal laminar-air-flow fan (clean wall unit) for treating patients with acute leukemia. The level of cleanliness as shown in the nonviable and viable particle counts was class 100 and class 1,000 at the head and foot, respectively, of the bed in the clean-bed rooms, while it was class 100 and class 10,000 respectively, in the clean-wall-unit rooms. The level of cleanliness in the open wards, on the other hand, was class 1,000,000. The incidence of infectious complications in the clean-bed rooms was 3.1/100 days when the granulocyte count was 1,000/mm3 or less, 3.9/100 days when the count was 500/mm3 or less and 6.1/100 days when it was 100/mm3 or less. In the clean-wall-unit rooms, these values were 3.1, 3.7 and 7.1, respectively, while in the open wards they were 4.6, 6.1 and 15.0. Thus, it was ascertained that, as the granulocyte count decreased, the incidence of infectious complications became significantly higher in the open wards than in the clean-bed rooms or the clean-wall-unit rooms. No complication of pneumonia was found in 37 patients with acute leukemia in the clean-bed rooms or in 40 in the clean-wall-unit rooms. Among 36 patients treated in the open wards, on the other hand, the complication of pneumonia was found in four. From the above results, it is believed that the use of clean-bed rooms or clean-wall-unit rooms is an extremely effective supplementary treatment method for preventing respiratory tract infection complications in patients with acute leukemia.

  2. [CHANGES OF A TREATMENT PROGRAM FOR AN ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Kostyrnoy, O V; Kosenko, A V; Bayomi, Imad Mokhamed Abdel S K

    2015-11-01

    Pathogenetically substantiated program of complex diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of purulent-necrotic complications (PNC) was elaborated for improvement of results of the necrotic pancreatitis treatment. With the objective to study the PNC pathogenesis and a probation of new preparations for local treatment the experimantal simulation of the disease was accomplished. There was proved, that during the disease course the integrity of pancreatic ductal system is disordered . A 42-year experience of treatment of an acute pancreatitis was analyzed. In I period (1970 - 1980) the operative interventions were conducted; in 11 period (1981 - 1991)--a scientifically substantiated conservative therapy; in III period (1992 - 2000)--the diagnostic procedures possibilities were extended, and operative intervention were performed in accordance to severe indications. There was established, that the main cause of PNC is a secondary microbal contamination occurrence on the third-fifth postoperative days, the immediate manipulations on pancreatic gland are forbidden; a one-time surgical processing of the necrosis foci is insufficient; the staged necrsequestrectomy constitutes the optimal operation.

  3. Acute urticaria and angioedema: diagnostic and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Frigas, Evangelo; Park, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Urticaria is defined as wheals consisting of three features: (i) central swelling of various sizes, with or without surrounding erythema; (ii) pruritus or occasional burning sensations; and (iii) the skin returning to normal appearance, usually within 1-24 hours. Angioedema is defined as: (i) abrupt swelling of the lower dermis and subcutis; (ii) occasional pain instead of pruritus; (iii) commonly involving the mucous membranes; and (iv) skin returning to normal appearance, usually within 72 hours. Acute urticaria and angioedema is defined by its duration (<6 weeks) compared with chronic urticaria and angioedema. The most common causes are infections, medications, and foods. The best tools in the evaluation of these patients are a comprehensive history and physical examination. There are a variety of skin conditions that may mimic acute urticaria and angioedema and the various reaction patterns associated with different drugs. Oral antihistamines are first-line treatment. In the event of a life-threatening reaction involving urticaria with angioedema, epinephrine may be needed to stabilize the patient. This review focuses on the value of a comprehensive clinical evaluation at the onset of symptoms. It underscores the importance of coordination of care among physicians, and the development of an action plan for evidence-based investigations, diagnosis, and therapy.

  4. Acute cyanide poisoning: clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Borron, S W; Baud, F J

    1996-09-01

    Cyanide poisoning presents in many forms. Industrial intoxications occur due to extensive use of cyanide compounds as reaction products. Smoke inhalation, a polyintoxication, is most often responsible for domestic cyanide poisonings. Suicidal poisonings are rare. Cyanogenic compounds may produce acute or subacute toxicity. Signs of cyanide poisoning include headache, vertigo, agitation, confusion, coma, convulsions and death. Definitive laboratory confirmation is generally delayed. Elevated plasma lactate, associated with cardiovascular collapse, should suggest cyanide intoxication. Immediate treatment includes 100% oxygen, assisted ventilation, decontamination, correction of acidosis and blood pressure support. Antidotes include oxygen, hydroxocobalamin, di-cobalt EDTA and methaemoglobin-inducers. Hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote due to its rapid cyanide binding and its lack of serious side-effects, even in the absence of cyanide intoxication. Sodium thiosulphate acts more slowly than other antidotes and is indicated in subacute cyanogen poisoning and as an adjunct to acute cyanide poisoning. Initial evaluation of antidotal efficacy is based on correction of hypotension and lactic acidosis; the final analysis rests on the degree of permanent central nervous system injury.

  5. [Surgical treatment of acute deep leg and pelvic vein trombosis].

    PubMed

    Gall, F; Husfeldt, K J

    1977-08-25

    In the last 3 years 93 cases of iliofermoral trombosis were treated by surgery. We prefer the method used by Brunner, but under general anaesthesia and using a Bentley-Autotransfusion-System (ATS). The average age of our patients was 55 years (age ranged between 17 and 87 years). No lethal pulmonary embolism was observed. 2, 1 percent of the patients died following apoplex or acute heart failure. Of 67 patients who were operated on 6 months ago or more 70 percent have no further complaints, 28 percent still have some residual edema and only 2 patients have a severe postthrombotic syndrome. 50 percent of 40 control-phlebograms demonstrated patency of all veins. 20 percent had short segmentary occlusions with definite signs of recanalisation, while in 27 percent of the cases occlusions of the lower leg and thigh were found, the iliac veins being free. Only 2 postoperative phlebograms showed a complete iliofemoral venous occlusion. Our results prove, that the operative thrombectomy is a successful method, with which the main complications of the iliofemoral thrombosis-pulmonary embolisation and postthrombotic syndrome-can difinitely be reduced. Also because of better long term results, the operative therapy of acute ilofemoral thrombosis should be generally prefered instead of conservative treatment.

  6. Acute renal and hepatic failure associated with allopurinol treatment.

    PubMed

    Fagugli, R M; Gentile, G; Ferrara, G; Brugnano, R

    2008-12-01

    Hyperuricemia is present in about 5% of the population, and allopurinol is frequently used to treat it. The use of this drug can be associated with a number of side effects, indicating allergic reactions, such as skin rash, reversible after its withdrawal. In some cases more severe hypersensitivity reactions may be seen, such as erythema multiforme exudativum, or Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS). Reversible clinical hepatotoxicity, as well as acute renal failure, may also develop after allopurinol therapy. We describe here the case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic renal failure who was admitted to hospital after 1 week of sore throat and fever, presenting mucous membrane lesions, widespread blistering of the skin, evolving to flaccid vesicles and bullae, and extensive epidermal detachment associated with acute renal failure and cholestatic jaundice. A diagnosis of allopurinol-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was established. Allopurinol was discontinued, and intensive care management was required: the patient was successfully treated by using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), standard hemodialysis, and albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System - MARS, Teraklin AG, Rostock, Germany). Allopurinol-induced TEN is extremely rare, however, the survival rate is extremely low. Clinicians should be aware of this potentially severe adverse effect. This report emphasizes the importance of an aggressive pharmacological and dialysis treatment in the case of TEN.

  7. A CD22-reactive TCR from the T-cell allorepertoire for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Lorenz; Hagedoorn, Renate S; van der Steen, Dirk M; Hombrink, Pleun; Kester, Michel G D; Schoonakker, Marjolein P; de Ridder, Daniëlle; van Veelen, Peter A; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2016-11-01

    CD22 is currently evaluated as a target-antigen for the treatment of B-cell malignancies using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T-cells or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). CAR- and mAbs-based immunotherapies have been successfully applied targeting other antigens, however, occurrence of refractory disease to these interventions urges the identification of additional strategies. Here, we identified a TCR recognizing the CD22-derived peptide RPFPPHIQL (CD22RPF) presented in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*07:02. To overcome tolerance to self-antigens such as CD22, we exploited the immunogenicity of allogeneic HLA. CD22RPF-specific T-cell clone 9D4 was isolated from a healthy HLA-B*07:02neg individual, efficiently produced cytokines upon stimulation with primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia and healthy B-cells, but did not react towards healthy hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell subsets, including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages expressing low levels of CD22. Gene transfer of TCR-9D4 installed potent CD22-specificity onto recipient CD8+ T-cells that recognized and lysed primary B-cell leukemia. TCR-transduced T-cells spared healthy CD22neg hematopoietic cell subsets but weakly lysed CD22low-expressing DCs and macrophages. CD22-specific TCR-engineered T-cells could form an additional immunotherapeutic strategy with a complementary role to CAR- and antibody-based interventions in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, CD22 expression on non-B-cells may limit the attractiveness of CD22 as target-antigen in cellular immunotherapy.

  8. Sapacitabine in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Norkin, Maxim; Richards, Ashley I

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor and new treatment approaches are urgently needed. A novel nucleoside analog sapacitabine has recently emerged as a feasible agent because of its oral administration and acceptable toxicity profile. Clinical efficacy of sapacitabine, both as a single agent and in combination, has been evaluated in elderly AML patients or AML patients unfit for standard intensive chemotherapy. Response rates varied from 15 to 45% in phase II studies. Sapacitabine was overall well-tolerated with gastrointestinal and myelosuppression-related complications were the most common side effects. Unfortunately, in a phase III study sapacitabine showed no clinical superiority as compared to low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in patients with AML. Another large phase III study comparing the combination of sapacitabine with decitabine to decitabine alone is currently ongoing and is expected to be completed by the end of 2015 or by the first half of 2016.

  9. Pharmacogenomics and the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Megías-Vericat, Juan Eduardo; Montesinos, Pau; Herrero, María José; Bosó, Virginia; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Poveda, José Luis; Sanz, Miguel Ángel; Aliño, Salvador F

    2016-07-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous malignancy that is primarily treated with combinations of cytarabine and anthracyclines. Although this scheme remains effective in most of the patients, variability of outcomes in patients has been partly related with their genetic variability. Several pharmacogenetic studies have analyzed the impact of polymorphisms in genes encoding transporters, metabolizers or molecular targets of chemotherapy agents. A systematic review on all eligible studies was carried out in order to estimate the effect of polymorphisms of anthracyclines and cytarabine pathways on efficacy and toxicity of AML treatment. Other emerging genes recently studied in AML, such as DNA repair genes, genes potentially related to chemotherapy response or AML prognosis, have also been included.

  10. [Intracranial pressure targeted treatment in acute bacterial meningitis increased survival].

    PubMed

    Glimåker, Martin; Johansson, Bibi; Halldorsdottir, Halla; Wanecek, Michael; Elmi-Terander, Adrian; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2014-12-16

    To evaluate the efficacy of intracranial pressure (ICP)-targeted treatment, compared to standard intensive care, in adults with community acquired acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) and severely impaired consciousness, a prospectively designed intervention-control comparison study was performed. Included were patients with confirmed ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission. Fifty-two patients, given ICP-targeted treatment at a neuro-intensive care unit, and 53 control cases, treated with conventional intensive care, were included. All patients received intensive care with me-chanical ventilation, sedation, antibiotics and corticosteroids according to current guidelines. ICP-targeted treatment was performed in the intervention group, aiming at ICP 50 mmHg. The mortality was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to controls, 5/52 (10%) versus 16/53 (30%). Furthermore, only 17 patients (32%) in the control group fully recovered, compared to 28 (54%) in the intervention group. Early neuro-intensive care using ICP-targeted therapy reduces mortality and improves the overall outcome in adult patients with ABM and severely impaired mental status on admission.

  11. New agents approved for treatment of acute staphylococcal skin infections

    PubMed Central

    Tatarkiewicz, Jan; Staniszewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described. Dalbavancin is a once-a-week, two-dose, long-acting intravenous bactericidal lipoglycopeptide antibiotic. Oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide with bactericidal activity, was developed as a single-dose intravenous treatment for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSI), which offers simplifying treatment of infections. Tedizolid is an oxazolidinone-class bacteriostatic once-daily agent, available for intravenous as well as oral use. Increased ability to overcome bacterial resistance is the main therapeutic advantage of the novel agents over existing antibiotics. PMID:27904526

  12. Treatment of simultaneous acute antibody-mediated rejection and acute cellular rejection with alemtuzumab in kidney transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jirasiritham, S; Khunprakant, R; Techawathanawanna, N; Jirasiritham, Si; Mavichak, V

    2010-04-01

    This is a case report of a living related donor kidney transplantation using basiliximab induction and maintenance immunosuppression with cyclosporine, mycophenolate sodium, and steroid. On the second posttransplant day, the patient developed acute antibody-mediated rejection, which was treated with plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Five days later, the graft had still not responded to the treatment. Another biopsy revealed additional acute cellular rejection (Banff IIA). As alemtuzumab can rapidly deplete T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, and natural killer cells, the patient was treated with alemtuzumab (30 mg subcutaneously) together with methylprednisolone (500 mg) and two more plasmaphereses. The kidney graft responded within 48 hours, producing more than 4 L of urine per day. The total lymphocyte decreased from 530/microL to 50/microL remaining in the 50 to 220/microL range. The patient received valgancyclovir and cotrimoxazole as infection prophylaxis. The kidney graft responded well to the rescue treatment and the patient was discharged with a serum creatinine of 1.1 mg/mL and has been uneventfully followed in the outpatient clinic for 8 months. Today, with the potent, effective, and selective immunosuppressive regimens, the rate and severity of acute cellular rejection in kidney transplantation has decreased in most centers. However, the rate of acute antibody-mediated rejection has increased to levels greater than those of acute cellular rejection in many centers. Acute antibody-mediated rejection is more difficult and expensive to treat successfully. The treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection included plasmapheresis and IVIG. Herein we have reported a case of kidney transplantation simultaneously developing acute antibody-mediated and acute cellular rejection; the patient was successfully treated with alemtuzumab.

  13. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...effects of antibiotics and probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) in mice irradiated with 7 Gy. The effects were studied in normal mice and mice

  14. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Advancements in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Meng-Ge; Zheng, Hu-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Among all subtypes, a lack of consensus exists regarding the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patient survival rates have remained modest for the past three decades in AML. Recently, targeted therapy has emerged as a promising treatment. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research papers on diagnostic development, target therapy, and other novel therapies of AML. Clinical trial information was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov. For the major purpose of this review that is to outline the latest therapeutic development of AML, we only listed the ongoing clinical trials for reference. However, the published results of complete clinical trials were also mentioned. Study Selection: This article reviewed the latest developments related to the diagnosis and treatment of AML. In the first portion, we provided some novel insights on the molecular basis of AML, as well as provided an update on the classification of AML. In the second portion, we summarized the results of research on potential molecular therapeutic agents including monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase/Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitors, epigenetic/demethylating agents, and cellular therapeutic agents. We will also highlight ongoing research and clinical trials in pediatric AML. Results: We described clonal evolution and how it changes our view on leukemogenesis, treatment responses, and disease relapse. Pediatric-specific genomic mapping was discussed with a novel diagnostic method highlighted. In the later portion of this review, we summarized the researches on potential molecular therapeutic agents including monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase/FLT3 inhibitors, epigenetic/demethylating agents, and cellular therapeutic agents. Conclusion: Gene sequencing techniques should set the basis for next-generation diagnostic

  15. Early Prediction of Acute Antidepressant Treatment Response and Remission in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Rongrong; Emslie, Graham; Mayes, Taryn; Nakonezny, Paul; Kennard, Betsy; Hughes, Carroll

    2009-01-01

    The rate of symptom improvement during the early weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment is a good indicator of remission. This finding was made after evaluating the outcome of the fluoxetine treatment on 168 children and adults with depression.

  16. New paradigms in the recognition and acute treatment of migraine.

    PubMed

    Sheftell, Fred D; Tepper, Stewart J

    2002-01-01

    It would be ideal if clinical decisions regarding acute migraine treatment could be made on the basis of three parameters: a critical appraisal of available scientific evidence, clinical experience (including knowledge of the individual patient and his/her attack characteristics), and, of course, patient preferences. Patients are likely to prefer agents that offer rapid relief, pain-free status within 2 hours, no recurrence or need for rescue medication, extended time to recurrence (if present), consistency of therapeutic effect over multiple attacks, oral administration. good tolerability, safety, and minimal drug interactions. Fortunately, a number of specific therapies now are available which place these objectives within the patient's reach. Ongoing barriers to optimal migraine care include underrecognition, underconsultation, undertreatment, restrictions imposed by insurance companies, and exaggerated concerns regarding the safety of the triptans. Overcoming these barriers is likely to prove a more important contribution to patient care than endeavoring to establish the relative merits of one triptan over another. We have described in detail a number of strategies for improving recognition and treatment of migraine. Many headache specialists now believe that recurrent episodes of disabling headache, with a stable pattern over years, should be viewed as migraine until proven otherwise. In the end, this may represent the most useful paradigm in the primary care setting, where time is of the essence. Studies to validate this approach are needed. Acute treatment intervention that is based on scientific evidence, clinical experience, and patients' needs and desires will provide better outcomes than those presently obtained. Preliminary evidence favors early intervention with oral triptans, and randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, ideally employing a crossover design, are required to confirm this. The US Consortium's evidence

  17. Evaluation and treatment of acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kinkade, Scott

    2007-04-15

    Acute low back pain with or without sciatica usually is self-limited and has no serious underlying pathology. For most patients, reassurance, pain medications, and advice to stay active are sufficient. A more thorough evaluation is required in selected patients with "red flag" findings associated with an increased risk of cauda equina syndrome, cancer, infection, or fracture. These patients also require closer follow-up and, in some cases, urgent referral to a surgeon. In patients with nonspecific mechanical low back pain, imaging can be delayed for at least four to six weeks, which usually allows the pain to improve. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, skeletal muscle relaxants, heat therapy, physical therapy, and advice to stay active. Spinal manipulative therapy may provide short-term benefits compared with sham therapy but not when compared with conventional treatments. Evidence for the benefit of acupuncture is conflicting, with higher-quality trials showing no benefit. Patient education should focus on the natural history of the back pain, its overall good prognosis, and recommendations for effective treatments.

  18. Beginning treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: the family connection.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam; Paton, Mary Anne; Huff, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    There is a loud silence on psycho-oncology research in relation to pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). This article is part of a series that begins to address the psycho-social hiatus. The present article documents the less obvious, often hidden, aspect of beginning treatment for pediatric AML--the "behind the scenes" experience of the home and family connection. The findings are from the first stage of a five year longitudinal study that examines through qualitative research the experience of childhood leukemia from the perspective of the child, siblings and parents. Open-ended interviews, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, were thematically analyzed with the assistance of the Non-numerical Unstructured Data by processes of Indexing Searching and Theory-building (NUD*IST) computer program. The findings emphasize the disruption to normalcy in relation to home life, school, and work, which is exacerbated for families who relocate for specialist treatment. The findings emphasise the need for support for families coping with childhood AML.

  19. Successful implementation of spacer treatment guideline for acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C; Maskell, G; Marks, M; South, M; Robertson, C; LENNEY, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination.
METHODS—Defined strategies were used for the development and implementation of a guideline, assessed by a prospective, descriptive, study using notes review, and patient, nursing, and medical staff telephone contact. The setting was a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria, Australia with 25 000 yearly admissions, and asthma accounting for about 7% of total. The first 200 children and families to use the guideline after its introduction were evaluated.
RESULTS—A total of 191 (95.5%) children were treated according to the guideline. Six (3.0%) children were given nebulisers appropriately based on severity; five (2.5%) were given nebulisers at parental or child choice; and four (2.0 %) who did not have severe asthma, received nebulised treatment inappropriately.
CONCLUSIONS—Successful implementation of a new evidence based guideline can be achieved using specific strategies for promoting the application of research findings in the clinical arena.

 PMID:11159290

  20. Treatment of Adolescent and Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, Josep-Maria; Ribera, Jordi; Genescà, Eulàlia

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts and the results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA). After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALL in the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority of pediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies in young adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewed emphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with event-free survival rates of 60–65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that the unfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescents with ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensive chemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which are more frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like), deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents have been translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of these patients in recent years. PMID:25045460

  1. Evaluation of artemisinins for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Drenberg, Christina D.; Buaboonnam, Jassada; Orwick, Shelley J.; Hu, Shuiying; Li, Lie; Fan, Yiping; Shelat, Anang A.; Guy, R. Kiplin; Rubnitz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Investigate antileukemic activity of artemisinins, artesunate (ART), and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), in combination with cytarabine, a key component of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chemotherapy using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods Using ten human AML cell lines, we conducted a high-throughput screen to identify antimalarial agents with antileukemic activity. We evaluated effects of ART and DHA on cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, lysosomal integrity, and combination effects with cytarabine in cell lines and primary patient blasts. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies and efficacy of single-agent ART or combination with cytarabine were evaluated in three xenograft models. Results ART and DHA had the most potent activity in a panel of AML cell lines, with selectivity toward samples harboring MLL rearrangements and FLT3-ITD mutations. Combination of ART or DHA was synergistic with cytarabine. Single-dose ART (120 mg/kg) produced human equivalent exposures, but multiple dose daily administration required for in vivo efficacy was not tolerated. Combination treatment produced initial regression, but did not prolong survival in vivo. Conclusions The pharmacology of artemisinins is problematic and should be considered in designing AML treatment strategies with currently available agents. Artemisinins with improved pharmacokinetic properties may offer therapeutic benefit in combination with conventional therapeutic strategies in AML. PMID:27125973

  2. Low molecular weight heparin for treatment of acute myocardial infarction (FAMI): Fragmin (dalteparin sodium) in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, V V; Iyengar, S S; De Lorenzo, F; Hargreaves, J R; Kadziola, Z A

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of using subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin sodium) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in patients not treated with thrombolytic therapy. Twenty-nine cardiological centres from leading hospitals in India participated in this prospective, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in two phases which included 1128 patients with acute myocardial infarction. In the acute phase (between day 1 and 3 of admission) all the patients received a weight-adjusted dose of subcutaneous dalteparin (120 IU/kg twice daily). In the second, double-blind phase of acute myocardial infarction, patients were randomised to receive a fixed dose of dalteparin (7,500 IU) or an identical placebo injection for 30 days. A composite primary endpoint of death, reinfarction, recurrence of angina and emergency revascularisation was used. All the 1128 patients with acute myocardial infarction were included in the trial. In the acute phase, the composite primary endpoint was observed in 58 (5.1%) patients. Of 1037 paients who were randomly assigned to receive a fixed dose of dalteparin (n=519) or placebo (n=518), the composite primary event rate was 6.7 percent and 7.0 percent, respectively (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.62-1.52; p=0.90). To conclude, treatment with dalteparin administered subcutaneously in a weight-adjusted dose of 120 IU/kg twice daily resulted in a lower than expected mortality during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. A lower fixed once daily dose of 7,500 IU during the chronic phase did not confer additional protection.

  3. Regulatory Considerations for the Clinical and Research Use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): review and recommendations from an expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Fregni, F; Nitsche, MA; Loo, C.K.; Brunoni, AR; Marangolo, P; Leite, J; Carvalho, S; Bolognini, N; Caumo, W; Paik, NJ; Simis, M; Ueda, K; Ekhitari, H; Luu, P; Tucker, DM; Tyler, WJ; Brunelin, J; Datta, A; Juan, CH; Venkatasubramanian, G; Boggio, PS; Bikson, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has experienced significant growth in the past 15 years. One of the tES techniques leading this increased interest is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Significant research efforts have been devoted to determining the clinical potential of tDCS in humans. Despite the promising results obtained with tDCS in basic and clinical neuroscience, further progress has been impeded by a lack of clarity on international regulatory pathways. We therefore convened a group of research and clinician experts on tDCS to review the research and clinical use of tDCS. In this report, we review the regulatory status of tDCS, and we summarize the results according to research, off-label and compassionate use of tDCS in the following countries: Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Portugal, South Korea, Taiwan and United States. Research use, off label treatment and compassionate use of tDCS are employed in most of the countries reviewed in this study. It is critical that a global or local effort is organized to pursue definite evidence to either approve and regulate or restrict the use of tDCS in clinical practice on the basis of adequate randomized controlled treatment trials. PMID:25983531

  4. Use of medications in the treatment of acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Dennis, Robin L

    2006-01-01

    The prescription of medications continues to be one of the mainstays of treatment of acute low back pain episodes. The goals of the pharmacologic treatment for acute low back are reduction of pain and return of normal function. Often, nociception is a result of secondary inflammation and muscle spasm after acute injury of a structure of the spine, which may include muscle, tendon, ligament, disc, or bone. An understanding of the appropriate use of medications to address the underlying pain generator and the current evidence for using these medications is essential for any physician who sees and treats patients with acute low back pain.

  5. 75 FR 32490 - Issues in the Development of Medical Products for the Prophylaxis and/or Treatment of Acute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Prophylaxis and/or Treatment of Acute Antibody Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients; Public... prophylaxis and/or treatment of acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant recipients....

  6. Technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.P.

    1998-02-09

    From October 1994 to June 1997, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were funded through LDRD to develop and integrate technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. The project was summarized in a Science and Technology Review article `Brain Attack` that appeared in June 1997 and again in the Center for Healthcare Technologies Report (UCRL-LR-124761). This article is the best overview of the project, epidemiology of stroke and technical progress. Most of the technical progress has been documented in conference papers and presentations and refereed journal articles. Additional technical publication can be expected as our remaining patent applications progress through the US Patent and Trademark Office. The purpose of this report is to provide an appropriate introduction and organization to the numerous publications so that interested readers can quickly find information. Because there is no documentation for the history of this project, this report provides a summary. It also provides the final status report for the LDRD funding.

  7. Genetics and Treatments Options for Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Celeste A.; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion Statement Worldwide research efforts demonstrate a major role of gene-environment interactions for the risk, development, and progression of most pancreatic diseases, including recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. New findings of pancreas disease-associated risk variants have been reported in the CPA1, GGT1, CLDN2, MMP1, MTHFR, and other genes. These risk genes and their regulatory regions must be added to the known pathogenic variants in the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC, CASR, UBR1, SBDS, CEL, and CTSB genes. This new knowledge promises to improve disease management and prevention through personalized medicine. At the same time, however, knowledge of an increasing number of pathogenic variants, and their complicated effects when present in combination, results in increasing difficulty in interpretation and development of recommendations. Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing results also adds complexity to disease management paradigms, especially without interpretation and, in many cases, proven accuracy. While improvements in the ability to rapidly and accurately interpret complex genetic tests are clearly needed, some results, such as pathogenic CFTR variants – including a new class of bicarbonate-defective mutations – and PRSS1 variants have immediate implications that direct management. In addition, discovery of pancreatitis-associated genetic variants in patients with glucose intolerance may suggest underlying type 3c diabetes, which also has implications for treatment and disease management. PMID:24954874

  8. Basic mechanisms of migraine and its acute treatment.

    PubMed

    Edvinsson, Lars; Villalón, Carlos M; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette

    2012-12-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by recurrent unilateral headaches accompanied by nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. Current theories suggest that the initiation of a migraine attack involves a primary event in the central nervous system (CNS), probably involving a combination of genetic changes in ion channels and environmental changes, which renders the individual more sensitive to environmental factors; this may, in turn, result in a wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD) when the attack is initiated. Genetically, migraine is a complex familial disorder in which the severity and the susceptibility of individuals are most likely governed by several genes that vary between families. Early PET studies have suggested the involvement of a migraine active region in the brainstem. Migraine headache is associated with trigeminal nerve activation and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from the trigeminovascular system. Administration of triptans (5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists) causes the headache to subside and the levels of CGRP to normalize. Moreover, administration of CGRP receptor antagonists aborts the headache. Recent immunohistochemical and pharmacological results suggest that the trigeminal system has receptors for CGRP; further, 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors, which inhibit the action of CGRP in pain transmission when activated, have been demonstrated. This offers an explanation for the treatment response. The present review provides an updated analysis of the basic mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of migraine and the various pharmacological approaches (including 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists, CGRP receptor antagonists and glutamate receptor antagonists) that have shown efficacy for the acute treatment of this disorder.

  9. System Control for the Transitional DCS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    r ADAOBO 509 HONEYWELL SYSTEMS AND RESEARCH CENTER MINNEAPOLIS MN F /6 17/9 SYSTEM CONTROL FOR THE TRANSITIONAL DCS.(U) MAY 78 R K CROWE- D E DOTY. R...ESTRDZEEE $Ea. COWiS us= moms. SEN. LEASED ZUG ZUISPITZE. A4lS. F EL 5DM 10291 GATEWAY 0293 UT 0299 ME 0288 SE 37 O DES RADIO V Des RADIO DCS RADIO OCS RADIO...6271411 1750 MARILESHAM ,6-fls 15 61 ;3 5, 1-S6KBS- -UtS’SCHO~ENFELD3 5 1; 21 17 PiR A S ENS 0 5. f AS COWIJS TTC--: SOITCH e O AUTOCDt, SWITCH UMOSA 4

  10. The Balance between Conventional DCs and Plasmacytoid DCs Is Pivotal for Immunological Tolerance during Pregnancy in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-ning; Shi, Meng; Meng, Chao-yang; Li, Dan-dan; Peng, Jing-pian

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), which can shape their functions depending on the microenvironment, are crucial for the delicate balance of immunity and tolerance during pregnancy. However, the mechanism underlying the microenvironment-educated plasticity of DC differentiation during pregnancy remains largely unclear. Here, we found that the differentiation of conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) is regulated in a tissue-specific manner during pregnancy. The ratio of cDCs and pDCs remained constant in the spleen. However, the ratio changed in the para-aortic lymph nodes (LNs), where cDC percentages were significantly reduced concurrent with an increase in pDCs from E8.5 to E16.5. Moreover, the expansion of pDCs and T regulatory (Treg) cells was correlated in the para-aortic LNs, and pDCs had more potential to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) compared with cDCs (independent of IDO expression). Notably, the balance between cDCs and pDCs is disrupted in IFN-γ-induced abnormal pregnancy, accompanied by lower Treg percentages in the para-aortic LNs and decidua. To further identify the underlying mechanism, we found that elevated IFN-γ can increase the levels of GM-CSF to alter the differentiation of pDCs into cDCs in vivo. Therefore, we provide a novel regulatory mechanism underlying pregnancy-related immune tolerance that involves the balance of DC subsets, which may offer a new target for the prevention of human spontaneous abortion. PMID:27229324

  11. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13-17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD.

  12. Improving Interference Control in ADHD Patients with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Carolin; Zaehle, Tino; Dannhauer, Moritz; Bonath, Björn; Tegelbeckers, Jana; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested as a promising alternative to psychopharmacological treatment approaches due to its local and network effects on brain activation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of tDCS over the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) on interference control in 21 male adolescents with ADHD and 21 age matched healthy controls aged 13–17 years, who underwent three separate sessions of tDCS (anodal, cathodal, and sham) while completing a Flanker task. Even though anodal stimulation appeared to diminish commission errors in the ADHD group, the overall analysis revealed no significant effect of tDCS. Since participants showed a considerable learning effect from the first to the second session, performance in the first session was separately analyzed. ADHD patients receiving sham stimulation in the first session showed impaired interference control compared to healthy control participants whereas ADHD patients who were exposed to anodal stimulation, showed comparable performance levels (commission errors, reaction time variability) to the control group. These results suggest that anodal tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus could improve interference control in patients with ADHD. PMID:27147964

  13. tDCS-enhanced motor and cognitive function in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that is now being widely used in neuroscientific and clinical research in humans. While initial studies focused on modulation of cortical excitability, the technique quickly progressed to studies on motor and cognitive functions in healthy humans and in patients with neurological diseases. In the present review we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of tDCS. In the main part, we will outline recent studies with tDCS that aimed at enhancing behavioral outcome or disease-specific symptoms in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and epilepsy, or persistent deficits after stroke. The review will close with a summary statement on the present use of tDCS in the treatment of neurological disorders, and an outlook to further developments in this realm. tDCS may be an ideal tool to be administered in parallel to intensive cognitive or motor training in neurological disease, but efficacy for the areas of activities and participation still needs to be established in controlled randomized trials. Its use in reducing disease-specific symptoms like dystonia or epileptic seizures is still unclear.

  14. DCS Operating-Maintenance Electrical Performance Standards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-29

    Quality Assurance Program, 21 January 1974, as amended. c. MIL-STD-188-100, Common Long Haul and Tactical Communication System Technical Standards, 15...quality control, quality assurance , or other programs is covered in other Circulars and is beyond the scope of this document. 7. The DCS Technical...recommended is less stringent than that for Government-owned systems. However, AT&T assures DCA that the Bell System circuit conditioning recommended

  15. Early adopters of the magical thinking cap: a study on do-it-yourself (DIY) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) user community

    PubMed Central

    Jwa, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Among currently available technologies, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the most promising neuroenhancements because it is relatively effective, safe, and affordable. Recently, lay people have begun to build—or purchase—the tDCS device to use it at home for treatment or as a cognitive enhancer. The tDCS device is currently not covered by the existing regulatory framework, but there are still significant potential risks of misusing this device, and its long-term effects on the brain have not been fully explored. Thus, researchers have argued the need for regulations or official guidelines for the personal use of tDCS. However, until now, no systematic research on the do-it-yourself (DIY) tDCS user community has been done. The present study explores the basic demographic characteristics of DIY tDCS users as well as why and how they are using this device through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and a content analysis of web postings on the use of tDCS. This preliminary but valuable picture of the DIY tDCS user community will shed light on future studies and policy analysis to craft sound regulations and official guidelines for the use of tDCS. PMID:27774197

  16. Acute and chronic tianeptine treatments attenuate ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Kayir, Hakan; Celik, Turgay; Yüksel, Nevzat

    2006-05-01

    Effects of acute and chronic tianeptine treatments on ethanol withdrawal syndrome were investigated in rats. Ethanol (7.2% v/v) was given to adult male Wistar rats by a liquid diet for 30 days. Acute or chronic (twice daily) tianeptine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally. Acute and last chronic tianeptine injections and saline were done 30 min before ethanol withdrawal testing. After 2nd, 4th and 6th hours of ethanol withdrawal, rats were observed for 5 min, and withdrawal signs which included locomotor hyperactivity, agitation, tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behavior and audiogenic seizures were recorded or rated. Locomotor activity in naive (no ethanol-dependent rats) was also tested after acute tianeptine treatments. Acute but not chronic tianeptine treatment attenuated locomotor hyperactivity and agitation in ethanol-dependent rats. Both acute and chronic tianeptine treatment produced some significant inhibitory effects on tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behaviors and audiogenic seizures during the ethanol withdrawal. Our results suggest that acute or chronic tianeptine treatment attenuates ethanol withdrawal syndrome in ethanol-dependent rats and this drug may be useful for treatment of ethanol-type dependence.

  17. Midostaurin: an emerging treatment for acute myeloid leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Gallogly, Molly Megan; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that carries a poor prognosis and has garnered few treatment advances in the last few decades. Mutation of the internal tandem duplication (ITD) region of fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT3) is considered high risk for decreased response and overall survival. Midostaurin is a Type III receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor found to inhibit FLT3 and other receptor tyrosine kinases, including platelet-derived growth factor receptors, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, src, c-kit, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. In preclinical studies, midostaurin exhibited broad-spectrum antitumor activity toward a wide range of tumor xenografts, as well as an FLT3-ITD-driven mouse model of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Midostaurin is orally administered and generally well tolerated as a single agent; hematologic toxicity increases substantially when administered in combination with standard induction chemotherapy. Clinical trials primarily have focused on relapsed/refractory AML and MDS and included single- and combination-agent studies. Administration of midostaurin to relapsed/refractory MDS and AML patients confers a robust anti-blast response sufficient to bridge a minority of patients to transplant. In combination with histone deacetylase inhibitors, responses appear comparable to historic controls, while the addition of midostaurin to standard induction chemotherapy may prolong survival in FLT3-ITD mutant patients. The response of some wild-type (WT)-FLT3 patients to midostaurin therapy is consistent with midostaurin’s ability to inhibit WT-FLT3 in vitro, and also may reflect overexpression of WT-FLT3 in those patients and/or off-target effects such as inhibition of kinases other than FLT3. Midostaurin represents a well-tolerated, easily administered oral agent with the potential to bridge mutant and WT-FLT3 AML patients to transplant and possibly deepen response to induction chemotherapy. Ongoing studies are

  18. Targeted fibrillar nanocarbon RNAi treatment of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Alidori, Simone; Akhavein, Nima; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Behling, Katja; Romin, Yevgeniy; Queen, Dawn; Beattie, Bradley J.; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Bergkvist, Magnus; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has tremendous yet unrealized potential to treat a wide range of illnesses. Innovative solutions are needed to protect and selectively deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) cargo to and within a target cell to fully exploit siRNA as a therapeutic tool in vivo. Herein, we describe ammonium-functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT)–mediated transport of siRNA selectively and with high efficiency to renal proximal tubule cells in animal models of acute kidney injury (AKI). fCNT enhanced siRNA delivery to tubule cells compared to siRNA alone and effectively knocked down the expression of several target genes, including Trp53, Mep1b, Ctr1, and EGFP. A clinically relevant cisplatin-induced murine model of AKI was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of fCNT-targeted siRNA to effectively halt the pathogenesis of renal injury. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of fCNT/siMep1b and fCNT/siTrp53 significantly improved progression-free survival compared to controls via a mechanism that required concurrent reduction of meprin-1β and p53 expression. The fCNT/siRNA was well tolerated, and no toxicological consequences were observed in murine models. Toward clinical application of this platform, fCNTs were evaluated for the first time in nonhuman primates. The rapid and kidney-specific pharmacokinetic profile of fCNT in primates was comparable to what was observed in mice and suggests that this approach is amenable for use in humans. The nanocarbon-mediated delivery of siRNA provides a therapeutic means for the prevention of AKI to safely overcome the persistent barrier of nephrotoxicity during medical intervention. PMID:27009268

  19. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-26

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy.

  20. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on multiscale complexity of dual-task postural control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Diange; Zhou, Junhong; Chen, Hu; Manor, Brad; Lin, Jianhao; Zhang, Jue

    2015-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the prefrontal cortex reduces the size and speed of standing postural sway in younger adults, particularly when performing a cognitive dual task. Here, we hypothesized that tDCS would alter the complex dynamics of postural sway as quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). Twenty healthy older adults completed two study visits. Center-of-pressure (COP) fluctuations were recorded during single-task (i.e., quiet standing) and dual-task (i.e., standing while performing serial subtractions) conditions, both before and after a 20-min session of real or sham tDCS. MSE was used to estimate COP complexity within each condition. The percentage change in complexity from single- to dual-task conditions (i.e., dual-task cost) was also calculated. Before tDCS, COP complexity was lower (p = 0.04) in the dual-task condition as compared to the single-task condition. Neither real nor sham tDCS altered complexity in the single-task condition. As compared to sham tDCS, real tDCS increased complexity in the dual-task condition (p = 0.02) and induced a trend toward improved serial subtraction performance (p = 0.09). Moreover, those subjects with lower dual-task COP complexity at baseline exhibited greater percentage increases in complexity following real tDCS (R = -0.39, p = 0.05). Real tDCS also reduced the dual-task cost to complexity (p = 0.02), while sham stimulation had no effect. A single session of tDCS targeting the prefrontal cortex increased standing postural sway complexity with concurrent non-postural cognitive task. This form of noninvasive brain stimulation may be a safe strategy to acutely improve postural control by enhancing the system's capacity to adapt to stressors.

  1. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on multiscale complexity of dual-task postural control in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Diange; Zhou, Junhong; Chen, Hu; Manor, Brad; Lin, Jianhao; Zhang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting the prefrontal cortex reduces the size and speed of standing postural sway in younger adults, particularly when performing a cognitive dual task. Here, we hypothesized that tDCS would alter the complex dynamics of postural sway as quantified by multiscale entropy (MSE). Twenty healthy older adults completed two study visits. Center-of-pressure (COP) fluctuations were recorded during single-task (i.e., quiet standing) and dual-task (i.e., standing while performing serial subtractions) conditions, both before and after a 20-min session of real or sham tDCS. MSE was used to estimate COP complexity within each condition. The percentage change in complexity from single- to dual-task conditions (i.e., dual-task cost) was also calculated. Before tDCS, COP complexity was lower (p = 0.04) in the dual-task condition as compared to the single-task condition. Neither real nor sham tDCS altered complexity in the single-task condition. As compared to sham tDCS, real tDCS increased complexity in the dual-task condition (p = 0.02) and induced a trend toward improved serial subtraction performance (p = 0.09). Moreover, those subjects with lower dual-task COP complexity at baseline exhibited greater percentage increases in complexity following real tDCS (R = −0.39, p = 0.05). Real tDCS also reduced the dual-task cost to complexity (p = 0.02), while sham stimulation had no effect. A single session of tDCS targeting the prefrontal cortex increased standing postural sway complexity with concurrent non-postural cognitive task. This form of noninvasive brain stimulation may be a safe strategy to acutely improve postural control by enhancing the system's capacity to adapt to stressors. PMID:25963755

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  3. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to relieve pain.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Antal, Andrea; Ahdab, Rechdi; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Fregni, Felipe; Khedr, Eman M; Nitsche, Michael; Paulus, Walter

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain resulting from injury of the peripheral or central nervous system may be associated with a significant dysfunction of extensive neural networks. Noninvasive stimulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be suitable to treat chronic pain as they can act on these networks by modulating neural activities not only in the stimulated area, but also in remote regions that are interconnected to the site of stimulation. Motor cortex was the first cortical target that was proved to be efficacious in chronic pain treatment. At present, significant analgesic effects were also shown to occur after the stimulation of other cortical targets (including prefrontal and parietal areas) in acute provoked pain, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, or visceral pain. Therapeutic applications of rTMS in pain syndromes are limited by the short duration of the induced effects, but prolonged pain relief can be obtained by repeating rTMS sessions every day for several weeks. Recent tDCS studies also showed some effects on various types of chronic pain. We review the evidence to date of these two techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of pain.

  4. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  5. Successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S; King, Tony; Cameron, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    This brief communication describes the successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a wild-born but captive infant western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Republic of Congo. The infant demonstrated signs of acute respiratory distress, lingual swelling, and reaction to intradermal tuberculin, given 55 hr earlier. Details of the treatment with steroids, anesthetic induction, and i.v. epinephrine are all reported, and potential antigens that may have initiated the anaphylactic shock are discussed.

  6. Treatment of angular deformities of the tibia in children: acute versus gradual correction.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James J; Mark, Arthur K; Davidson, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of 25 tibial osteotomies (in 19 patients) performed with either acute or gradual correction to determine the outcome of treatment and incidence of neurovascular complications. Patients undergoing gradual correction had fewer neurovascular complications and greater correction than those undergoing acute correction (27 degrees vs. 18 degrees, respectively). It was concluded that gradual correction tends to be a safer technique for the treatment of tibial deformities and allows greater correction.

  7. [Prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in infants].

    PubMed

    Turck, D

    2007-11-01

    The prognosis of acute diarrhoea in infants is most often satisfactory in industrialized countries. However, it has been estimated that 10 to 15 children die every year in France from acute dehydration due to acute diarrhoea. In spite of an increasing use over the least few years, oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are used in only 70% of infants presenting with acute diarrhoea. The use of homemade ORS, plain water or fizzy drink should be strictly avoided. In case of acute diarrhoea there is no indication to stop breastfeeding or the use of infant formula for more than 4 hours. Lactose intolerance is observed in only 5-10% of infants. Lactose free formulae should only be used in infants with severe, persistent or recurrent diarrhoea. Under 3-4 months of age, infants with severe diarrhoea should receive for a period of 2-4 weeks lactose free protein hydrolysate formulae. Racecadotril is the only drug with anti-diarrheal properties, with a reduction of the stool output of 50%. Oral antibiotics should only be used in case of Shigella infection or in case of bacterial infection with severe sepsis or underlying debilitating disease. Oral Rotavirus vaccine, that is not reimbursed yet in France, has been shown to dramatically reduce the number of severe cases of diarrhoea with dehydration, and has been associated with a striking reduction of both morbidity and mortality, as well as of the number of hospitalisations during periods of epidemics.

  8. [Cardiogenic shock in acute myocardial infarct. Its coronary angioplasty treatment].

    PubMed

    Fernández Valadez, E; García y Otero, J M; Escobar, G P; Frutos Rangel, E; Zúñiga Sedano, J; García García, R; Verduzco Bazavilvazo, S; López Aranda, J; López Ruiz, J

    1993-01-01

    Ventricular dysfunction is the most common cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction. When cardiogenic shock is manifested the mortality is very high. Seven patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction were treated with emergency coronary angioplasty. Four patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2 intraaortic balloon pump support and one femoro-femoral bypass pump support during the coronary angioplasty. The angiography success rate was 86%. Two patients died, one in the catheterization laboratory and the other one 24 hours later. The hospital mortality was 29%. Of the patients who survived 4 are in functional class I and one in functional class II (NYHA). Coronary angioplasty therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction plays a decisive role in the reduction of mortality.

  9. Acute promyelocytic leukemia: new issues on pathogenesis and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Vitoux, Dominique; Nasr, Rihab; de The, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia appears to be one of the best understood among human malignancies. The ability of retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide to directly target the oncogenic promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic receptor A (PML-RARA) fusion protein also made this disease the first model for oncogene-targeted therapies. A set of recent data has significantly increased the complexity of our view of acute promyelocytic leukemia pathogenesis, as well as of therapeutic response. This review summarizes and discusses these findings, which yield novels questions and models.

  10. Early Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers.

  11. Pulmonary oedema during treatment of acute water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, D.; Champion, M.; Trash, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Acute water intoxication with deepening coma and uncontrolled epileptiform seizures in a 25-year-old previously fit male schizophrenic was treated with hypertonic (2 N) saline and a 20% mannitol solution. This improved his neurological state but precipitated severe pulmonary oedema. Intravenous frusemide increased his urinary output sufficiently to clear the pulmonary oedema. In acute water intoxication the use of hypertonic solutions may thus precipitate left heart failure by expanding the intra-pulmonary blood volume beyond the capacity of even a healthy left ventricle to compensate. Simple water restriction will produce a slower but perhaps safer improvement. Images Fig. 1 PMID:981097

  12. DCS/FTS Commercial Satellite Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, T.; Rosner, R.; Pearsall, C.

    In order to control the rising costs of telephonic services and meeting the increasing demand for wideband video and data services within U.S. Federal Government agencies, the Defense Communications Agency and the General Services Administration have begun the implementation of a leased Commercial Satellite Communications System. Service volume demand, commonality of service requirements, and common geographic communities of interest facilitate economies of scale in the course of meeting DOD and other Federal agencies' objectives. The service, which incorporates the Federal Telecommunications Service and is therefore designated DCS/FTS, is presently studied with respect to military and national objectives.

  13. Evidence Report: Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, Johnny; Norcross, Jason R.; Wessel, James H. III; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Klein, Jill S.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) is identified by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space, as defined in the HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD). This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. Given that tissue inert gas partial pressure is often greater than ambient pressure during phases of a mission, primarily during extravehicular activity (EVA), there is a possibility that decompression sickness may occur.

  14. [Guideline on diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis: imaging prior to appendectomy is recommended].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Olaf J; Go, Peter M N Y H; Puylaert, Julien B C M; Kazemier, Geert; Heij, Hugo A

    2010-01-01

    Every year, over 2500 unnecessary appendectomies are carried out in the Netherlands. At the initiative of the Dutch College of Surgeons, the evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis was developed. This guideline recommends that appendectomy should not be carried out without prior imaging. Ultrasonography is the recommended imaging technique in patients with suspected appendicitis. After negative or inconclusive ultrasonography, a CT scan can be carried out. Appendectomy is the standard treatment for acute appendicitis; this can be done either by open or laparoscopic surgery. The first choice treatment of appendicular infiltrate is conservative treatment.

  15. Assessing candidacy for acute hepatitis C treatment among active young injection drug users: a case-series report.

    PubMed

    Asher, Alice; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has significantly better outcomes than treatment for chronic infection. The short window of the acute period poses challenges for young injection drug users (IDU), who are at highest risk of HCV infection, to demonstrate treatment candidacy. We recruited patients with acute HCV from a prospective cohort study to examine clinical and behavioral issues related to treatment candidacy. We report on outcomes and how nursing case management affected candidacy. All five acutely-infected participants reported daily drug use at baseline. All established primary care and decreased their drug use. None received treatment for their acute infection; one was treated within 12 months of infection. Establishing treatment candidacy for young IDU in the acute phase involves various health domains. An acute infection's short period poses many challenges to establishing candidacy, but it is a window of opportunity to engage young IDU in health care.

  16. Aggressive Early Debridement in Treatment of Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infections After Hip and Knee Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Volpin, Andrea; Sukeik, Mohamed; Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Haddad, Fares Sami

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periprosthetic Joint Infection Remains a Dreaded Complication After Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery. Treatment Options for Acute Postoperative and Acute Hematogenous Infections Include Arthroscopic or Open Debridement With Retention or Exchange of the Prostheses. This Review Article Aims to Summarize the Evidence for Management of Acute Postoperative And Acute Hematogenous Infections. Methods: A Systematic Literature Search Was Performed Using a Computer-based Search Engine Covering Medline (OvidSP), PubMed Database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health), Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and Google Scholar for Relevant Articles. Results: Common Themes Around Treatment of Acute Postoperative and Acute Hematogenous Infections Discussed in this Review Include the Timing of Intervention, Description of the Optimal Procedure and How we Perform it at our Institution, the Role of Arthroscopic Debridement, Most Commonly Isolated Micro-organisms and Prognostic Factors for Infection Control. Conclusion: Success in Treating Acute Postoperative and Acute Hematogenous Infections Depends on Early Diagnosis and Aggressive Surgical Debridement Combined With Effective Antibiotic Therapy. PMID:28144377

  17. [Treatment of acute porphyrias. The importance of follow-up of patients and carriers].

    PubMed

    Tasnádi, Gyöngyi; Bor, Márta; Pusztai, Agnes

    2003-05-11

    Acute porphyrias are caused by the inherited decreased activity of the enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the affected enzyme there are 4 types of them: acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria variegata, coproporphyria and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficient porphyria, listed in order of their frequency. Basically the clinical picture is the same in the four types of acute porphyria. The most frequent complaints and symptoms are: cramping abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness of the limbs then, in the advanced phase, there is a red-colored urine, hyponatremia, subileus, acute psychosis and Landry-type paralysis. Without proper treatment death is caused by respiratory paralysis or serious arrhythmia. In case of suspicion of acute porphyria it is mandatory to identify the type of the acute porphyria and the actual status of the patient. The later indicates what kind of treatment should be used. In the acute phase the early therapy with heme arginate is the treatment of choice. Since the clinical symptoms are precipitated by endogenous or exogenous inducing factors--most often by drugs-, the drugs negatively affecting the heme biosynthesis should be omitted at once even in the suspicion of acute porphyria. The role of the inducing factors in the manifestation of the clinical symptoms makes possible the prevention. It is possible to avoid the inducing factors and this way to prevent the acute attack if the acute porphyrias are recognized in time and the patients and the carriers are under regular control. The patients receive special identification card and the up-to-date list of safe drugs. They can use only these drugs in any kind of illness. Other drugs should be considered as porphyrinogenic since it is impossible to predict based on their chemical structure if they negatively affect the heme biosynthesis.

  18. The Effects of Compensatory Auditory Stimulation and High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) on Tinnitus Perception – A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Smouha, Eric; Parra, Lucas C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tinnitus correlates with elevated hearing thresholds and reduced cochlear compression. We hypothesized that reduced peripheral input leads to elevated neuronal gain resulting in the perception of a phantom sound. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to test whether compensating for this peripheral deficit could reduce the tinnitus percept acutely using customized auditory stimulation. To further enhance the effects of auditory stimulation, this intervention was paired with high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS). Methods A randomized sham-controlled, single blind study was conducted in a clinical setting on adult participants with chronic tinnitus (n = 14). Compensatory auditory stimulation (CAS) and HD-tDCS were administered either individually or in combination in order to access the effects of both interventions on tinnitus perception. CAS consisted of sound exposure typical to daily living (20-minute sound-track of a TV show), which was adapted with compressive gain to compensate for deficits in each subject's individual audiograms. Minimum masking levels and the visual analog scale were used to assess the strength of the tinnitus percept immediately before and after the treatment intervention. Results CAS reduced minimum masking levels, and visual analog scale trended towards improvement. Effects of HD-tDCS could not be resolved with the current sample size. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that providing tailored auditory stimulation with frequency-specific gain and compression may alleviate tinnitus in a clinical population. Further experimentation with longer interventions is warranted in order to optimize effect sizes. PMID:27832140

  19. Assessment and treatment of patients with acute tachyarrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Swift, Jennie

    A tachyarrhythmia is defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute in conjunction with abnormal cardiac conduction. This article aims to inform nurses and other healthcare professionals about the predominant acute tachyarrhythmias. It focuses on the assessment and management of patients with this condition using case study examples.

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Acute and Chronic Thoracic Aortic Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, Jan Ferko, Alexander; Lojik, Miroslav; Krajina, Antonin; Harrer, Jan; Dominik, Jan

    2007-11-15

    Our aim is to present midterm results after endovascular repair of acute and chronic blunt aortic injury. Between December 1999 and December 2005, 13 patients were endovascularly treated for blunt aortic injury. Ten patients, 8 men and 2 women, mean age 38.7 years, were treated for acute traumatic injury in the isthmus region of thoracic aorta. Stent-graftings were performed between the fifth hour and the sixth day after injury. Three patients (all males; mean age, 66 years; range, 59-71 years) were treated due to the presence of symptoms of chronic posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta (mean time after injury, 29.4 years, range, 28-32). Fifteen stent-grafts were implanted in 13 patients. In the group with acute aortic injury one patient died due to failure of endovascular technique. Lower leg paraparesis appeared in one patient; the other eight patients were regularly followed up (1-72 months; mean, 35.6 months), without complications. In the group with posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms all three patients are alive. One patient suffered postoperatively from upper arm claudication, which was treated by carotidosubclavian bypass. We conclude that the endoluminal technique can be used successfully in the acute repair of aortic trauma and its consequences. Midterm results are satisfactory, with a low incidence of neurologic complications.

  1. Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, J J; Magargal, L E

    1980-01-01

    The authors report the visual outcome in 34 consecutive cases of treated acute central retinal artery obstruction. Visual acuity equal to or better than 6/30 was recovered in 35% of the cases. The presenting visual acuity and duration of visual impairment appear to correlate with visual prognosis. PMID:7448144

  2. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  3. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  4. Acute myocardial infarction in a young woman on isotretinoin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Natalia; Antuña, Paula; Dominguez, Lourdes; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Alfonso, Fernando

    2015-02-15

    The use of isotretinoin has been associated with mild changes in the metabolic profile of adolescents. In very rare cases, a possible association with myocardial infarction, stroke and thromboembolic events has been reported. In this report we describe the potential association of isotretinoin with the occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction in a very young girl. OCT provided unique visualization of the culprit lesion.

  5. Communication Disorders and Treatment in the Acute Trauma Center Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz-Cowley, Roberta; Stepanik, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    The Shock Trauma Center of the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems instituted a comprehensive speech-language pathology program to provide acute intervention for communicative disorders in a critical/intensive care environment. This article provides a profile of the Center, a review of communicative impairments, and examples…

  6. Effects of tDCS on executive function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Doruk, Deniz; Gray, Zachary; Bravo, Gabriela L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-10-17

    Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are often poorly recognized, significantly impair quality of life and cause severe disability. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide treatment of associated psychiatric and cognitive problems. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have emerged as non-pharmacological alternatives to target cognitive symptoms without worsening motor function. In this context, we conducted a multicenter, sham controlled, double-blinded study to assess the immediate and long-term effects of ten consecutive sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the anode on the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (n=5), left DLPFC (n=6) or sham (n=7). We assessed cognitive functions, depressive symptoms and motor functions in 18 PD patients at baseline, at the end of the 2-week stimulation sessions and at 1-month follow-up. Our results showed that active stimulation of both left and right DLPFC resulted in prolonged improvements in Trail Making Test B, an established test to measure executive function, compared to sham tDCS at the 1-month follow-up. These results suggest the existence of a beneficial long-term effect on executive functions in PD patients following active tDCS over the DLPFC. Thus, our findings encourage further investigation exploring tDCS as an adjuvant therapy for cognitive and behavioral treatment in PD.

  7. Acute, but not chronic, exposure to d-cycloserine facilitates extinction and modulates spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Wilson, Gina N; Biesan, Orion R; Ketchesin, Kyle D

    2012-01-18

    opportunity to drink saccharin was provided (spontaneous recovery test). Saline-treated control rats that went through the EU-EXT procedure achieved asymptotic extinction more quickly than did the CSO-EXT rats and did not exhibit a spontaneous recovery of the CTA. Chronic DCS treatments did not significantly reduce the time to achieve asymptotic CTA extinction in rats exposed to either CSO or EU extinction methods. Further, animals treated with DCS throughout EU-EXT exhibited a spontaneous recovery of the CTA whereas the saline-treated, EU-EXT rats did not. Thus, chronic DCS treatment did not shorten the time to extinguish a CTA and this treatment eliminated the ability of EU-EXT to block spontaneous recovery of the CTA. Acute DCS treatments were more effective in reducing the time required to extinguish a CTA than were chronic drug treatments. Moreover, the timing of these acute DCS treatments affected spontaneous recovery of the CTA depending on the extinction method employed. Acute DCS administrations later in extinction were more effective in reducing spontaneous recovery than were early administrations if the rats went through the CSO-EXT procedure. However, late-in-extinction administrations of DCS facilitated spontaneous recovery of the CTA in rats that experienced the EU-EXT method. These data agree with other findings suggesting that DCS treatments are more effective when administered a limited number of times. Our data extend these findings to the CTA paradigm and further suggest that, depending on the extinction paradigm employed, acute exposure to DCS can speed up CTA extinction and reduce spontaneous recovery of the aversion. The timing of the acute DCS treatment during extinction is generally less important than its duration in predicting the rate of CTA extinction. However, the timing of acute DCS treatments during extinction and the method of extinction employed can interact to affect spontaneous recovery of a CTA.

  8. Monitoring and Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia After High Dose Methotrexate Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received high dose methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy and explore the corresponding treatment. Methods 180 children who received high dose MTX chemotherapy were observed with serum MTX concentration and serum creatinine. Patients with AKI of stage 3 or poor response to conventional treatment were performed on hemodialysis and assessed the treatment outcome. Results 9 patients (5%) have appeared AKI, including 7 cases of AKI of stage 3. However, there were not any significant correlation between age, gender, serum MTX concentration and AKI, respectively. Compared with normal serum MTX concentration, the patients with high serum MTX concentration easily were developed to AKI, the MTX and serum creatinine concentration had been significantly decreased in 9 patients after hemodialysis. Conclusion AKI has appeared in some children with ALL who receive high dose MTX chemotherapy, and this may due to increase of serum MTX concentration. The monitoring of serum MTX concentration and AKI index could help to find out AKI, and even to prevent the occurrence of it. Furthermore, once AKI is present, those patients with AKI stage 3 or poor response to conventional treatment should be performed on hemodialysis treatment. PMID:28243295

  9. Hybrid Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis Presenting with Paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Azzarone, Matteo; De Troia, Alessandro; Iazzolino, Luigi; Nabulsi, Bilal; Tecchio, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    Acute thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Classically, the clinical presentation is a severe peripheral ischemia with bilateral leg pain as the predominant feature. Aortic occlusion presenting as an isolated acute onset of paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia is very rare and requires improved awareness to prevent adverse outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia due to the thrombotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta involving the first segment of the common iliac arteries on both sides; emergent transperitoneal aorto iliac thrombectomy combined with the endovascular iliac kissing-stent technique were performed achieving perioperative complete regression of the symptoms.

  10. Treatment of acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Bear, R A; Cole, E H; Lang, A; Johnson, M

    1980-01-01

    Severe renal insufficiency is considered to indicate a poor prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, their reported median survival being approximately 2 months. In five consecutive patients with severe renal failure secondary to acute myeloma kidney early aggressive therapy, including chemotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, led to a significant improvement in the renal function of four; the fifth patient received a cadaveric renal transplant after 1 year of peritoneal dialysis. After a median follow-up period of 12 months all the patients were alive and had improved renal function. This experience contrasts with that previously reported and suggests that aggressive management may improve the survival of patients with acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney. PMID:7004618

  11. [Acute myocardial infarction during tocolytic treatment with ritodrine].

    PubMed

    Fornet, I; Calvo, M; Gimeno, M; Canser, E; Alonso, E; Gilsanz, F

    2006-05-01

    Ritodrine, a beta2-adrenergic agonist with a selective effect on the uterine muscle, is prescribed to prevent premature labor and to treat a hypertonic uterus. At therapeutic doses ritodrine has chronotropic and peripheral vasodilator effects. At high doses it has been related to sporadic cases of subendocardial necrosis, pulmonary edema, and death in pregnancy. We report the case of a pregnant woman who had a non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction after administration of ritodrine.

  12. Holmium:YAG laser angioplasty: treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On

    1993-06-01

    We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.

  13. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of acute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Michael; Käunicke, Matthias; Hailer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Acute and subacute ischemia of the legs in acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion is a dramatic situation that endangers the survival of the limbs, depending on the severity of the ischemia. Different therapy options like percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy procedures, which include rotational thrombectomy, have become available in recent years, in addition to local lysis and surgical thrombectomy. Surgical thrombectomy using the Fogarty catheter technique, in particular, shows an increased incidence of perioperative complications but only small technical success rates in randomized trials. On the other hand, local lysis is associated with increased costs due to resource-consuming measures, such as intensive monitoring and repeat angiographies, in addition to bleeding complications. In the past, further development of the Straub Rotarex(®) system as an endovascular therapy option has demonstrated good success leading to amputation-free survival in multiple studies. At the same time, a low rate of complications with use has been documented. Most examinations have been conducted in the thigh. To date, there are little investigational data on its use in acutely and subacutely occluded femoropopliteal bypasses. In this paper, the current study-based significance of the Rotarex system for this indication is analyzed based on the existing literature and the authors' own experiences with 22 patients.

  14. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of acute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Michael; Käunicke, Matthias; Hailer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Acute and subacute ischemia of the legs in acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion is a dramatic situation that endangers the survival of the limbs, depending on the severity of the ischemia. Different therapy options like percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy procedures, which include rotational thrombectomy, have become available in recent years, in addition to local lysis and surgical thrombectomy. Surgical thrombectomy using the Fogarty catheter technique, in particular, shows an increased incidence of perioperative complications but only small technical success rates in randomized trials. On the other hand, local lysis is associated with increased costs due to resource-consuming measures, such as intensive monitoring and repeat angiographies, in addition to bleeding complications. In the past, further development of the Straub Rotarex® system as an endovascular therapy option has demonstrated good success leading to amputation-free survival in multiple studies. At the same time, a low rate of complications with use has been documented. Most examinations have been conducted in the thigh. To date, there are little investigational data on its use in acutely and subacutely occluded femoropopliteal bypasses. In this paper, the current study-based significance of the Rotarex system for this indication is analyzed based on the existing literature and the authors’ own experiences with 22 patients. PMID:22661895

  15. High Feasibility of Empiric HIV Treatment for Patients With Suspected Acute HIV in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kathleen R; Arora, Sanjay; Walsh, Kristin B; Lora, Meredith; Merjavy, Stephen; Livermore, Shanna; Menchine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Earlier intervention in acute HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and may decrease HIV transmission. We developed criteria for empiric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an emergency department (ED) routine HIV screening program. We assessed the feasibility and willingness of patients with suspected acute HIV infection in the ED to begin ART. A suspected acute HIV infection was defined as a positive HIV antigen antibody combination immunoassay with pending HIV-antibody differentiation test results and HIV RNA viral load. During the study period, there were 16 confirmed cases of acute HIV infection: 11 met our criteria for empiric ART and agreed to treatment, 10 were prescribed ART, and 1 left the ED against medical advice without a prescription for ART. Eight patients completed at least one follow-up visit. Empiric HIV treatment in an ED is feasible, well received by patients, and offers a unique entry point into the HIV care continuum.

  16. Conventional and emerging treatments in the management of acute primary angle closure

    PubMed Central

    Boey, Pui Yi; Singhal, Shweta; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2012-01-01

    The management of acute primary angle closure is directed at lowering the intraocular pressure and relieving pupil block. Conventional treatment involves the use of medical treatment and laser peripheral iridotomy, respectively, as a means for achieving these aims. Newer therapeutic strategies have been described that are potentially useful adjuncts or alternatives to conventional treatment. Emerging strategies that lower intraocular pressure include anterior chamber paracentesis, as well as laser procedures such as iridoplasty and pupilloplasty. A possible alternative to relieving pupil block is lens extraction, and may be combined with adjunctive measures such as goniosynechiolysis and viscogoniosynechiolysis. Trabeculectomy has a limited role in the acute setting. This review paper reviews the current evidence regarding conventional and newer treatment modalities for acute primary angle closure. PMID:22536030

  17. Treatment of acute puerperal metritis with flunixin meglumine in addition to antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Drillich, M; Voigt, D; Forderung, D; Heuwieser, W

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this field trial was to evaluate effects of a single administration of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of flunixin meglumine (FM) in addition to a systemic antibiotic treatment in cows with acute puerperal metritis (APM). Outcome variables tested were proportion of cows with a fever, prevalence of chronic endometritis 18 to 22 and 32 to 35 d in milk (DIM), and reproductive performance measures in the current lactation. In addition, serum concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen were analyzed. Daily milk yield within 6 d after the first treatment was recorded. Cows were examined 4 to 5 DIM by rectal palpation and vaginoscopy, and rectal temperature was measured. Fetid vulvar discharge and a body temperature > or = 39.5 degrees C were signs of APM. Cows with APM were treated in the reference group with 1.0 mg/kg of BW of ceftiofur on 3 to 5 consecutive days (CEF, n = 119). In the study group, cows received the same antibiotic treatment as in CEF and 2.2 mg/kg of BW of FM on treatment d 1 (CEF + FM, n = 119). Blood samples were collected 4, 6, and 10 DIM and analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin and fibrinogen. A group of cows without APM remained untreated and served as controls (n = 9). There were no significant differences between CEF and CEF + FM in the proportion of cows with fever 1 d after the first treatment (33.6 vs. 46.2%), milk yield per milking 10 DIM (7.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.3 kg in primiparous, 9.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 10.6 +/- 0.4 kg in multiparous cows), prevalence of chronic endometritis 32 to 35 DIM (64.3 vs. 52.2%), and in reproductive performance (31.5 vs. 34.3% conception to first AI, 58.0 vs. 54.6% pregnancy rate, 107.8 +/- 36.9 vs. 101.6 +/- 41.4 d open). Compared with the control, CEF and CEF + FM had significantly greater concentrations of haptoglobin (1.1 +/- 0.28 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.06 and 1.8 +/- 0.07 mg/mL at 4 DIM; 0.3 +/- 0.15 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.06 and 1.2 +/- 0.07 mg/mL at 10 DIM) and fibrinogen (2.2 +/- 0.17 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.14 and

  18. [Clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of infectious acute diarrhea in children Peru - 2011].

    PubMed

    Gonzales S, Carlos; Bada M, Carlos; Rojas G, Raúl; Bernaola A, Guillermo; Chávez B, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The Clinical Practice Guidelines cover the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Pediatric Infectious is a consice information about definition, inclusion and exclusion criteria; epidemiology and etiology of infectious diarrhea. The guidelines cover aspects of diagnosis and treatment (dehydration, antibiotics, supportive therapy), nutritional support and other aspects of transferences and prevention.

  19. Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

  20. Penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia and acute hepatic failure following treatment of tetanus in a horse.

    PubMed

    Step, D L; Blue, J T; Dill, S G

    1991-01-01

    Acute, severe hemolytic anemia occurred in a horse being treated for tetanus with intravenous penicillin and tetanus antitoxin. During treatment, the horse developed a positive direct antiglobulin test and a high titer (maximum 1:1024) of IgG anti-penicillin antibody. The horse recovered from the tetanus and penicillin induced hemolytic anemia, but later developed acute hepatic failure, probably resulting from the administration of equine origin tetanus antitoxin.

  1. Glutamate Transmission Enhancement for Treatment of PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    and social phobia , who received DCS treatment during a type of extinction training (Norberg et al. 2008). DCS treatment significantly enhanced the... extinction therapy effects on measures of phobia -specific and generalized anxiety compared to placebo treatment. For example, those taking DCS...PTSD), extinction - based therapies require substantial time and investment for both the patient and provider, averaging 10 sessions or more of

  2. A systematic review on the role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Reinares, María; Rosa, Adriane R; Franco, Carolina; Goikolea, José Manuel; Fountoulakis, Kostas; Siamouli, Melina; Gonda, Xenia; Frangou, Sophia; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-03-01

    Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with bipolar depression, the optimal treatment for this phase is still a matter of debate. The aim of the current review was to provide updated evidence about the efficacy and tolerability of anticonvulsants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. A comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of anticonvulsants for the treatment of acute bipolar depression up to June 2011 was conducted by means of the PubMed-Medline database. Eligibility criteria included active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled randomized studies involving monotherapy or combination therapy. A total of 18 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies supported the efficacy of divalproex as monotherapy in acute bipolar depression but small sample size was a common methodological limitation. Findings were inconclusive for lamotrigine and carbamazepine although overall lamotrigine may have a beneficial but modest effect. Negative results were found for levetiracetam and gabapentin but the evidence base on these agents is scant. All anticonvulsants were generally well tolerated. No double-blind RCTs were found for the use of other anticonvulsants such as oxcarbazepine, licarbazepine, zonisamide, retigabine, pregabalin, tiagabine, felbamate and vigabatrine in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. To sum up, taking into consideration the efficacy and tolerability profiles of anticonvulsants, current evidence supports the use of divalproex and lamotrigine in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. However, available data for most other anticonvulsants are inconclusive and further RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  3. Retrievable stent thrombectomy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: analysis of a revolutionizing treatment technique.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Boehm, Kevin M; Stapleton, Christopher J; Mehta, Brijesh P; Nahed, Brian V; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2013-10-01

    Acute ischemic stroke resulting from intracranial vessel occlusion is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The mainstays of therapy are fibrinolytics and mechanical thrombectomy in properly selected patients. A new Food and Drug Administration-approved technology to perform thrombectomy, retrievable stenting, may provide superior revascularization rates and improved patient outcomes. We analyzed the cumulative human experience reported for the Trevo Pro Retrieval System (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) and the Solitaire FR Revascularization Device (ev3, Irvine, CA, USA) as the definitive treatment for acute ischemic stroke. A literature search was undertaken to identify studies using the retrievable stents published up to September 2012. Nineteen studies identified a total of 576 patients treated with either the Trevo (n=221) or Solitaire (n=355) devices. Pooled data analysis identified median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of 18.5 ± 0.289 (standard error of the mean) and 17.9 ± 0.610, and time to recanalization of 53.9 ± 23.6 minutes and 59.0 ± 8.0 minutes for the Trevo and Solitaire groups, respectively. Recanalization was variably defined by individual studies, most commonly achieving at least a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score of 2a-3 or a thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score of 2-3. Revascularization (83%, 82%), mortality (31%, 14%), hemorrhage (8%, 6%), device complications (5%, 6%), and good patient outcomes (51%, 47%) were found with the Trevo and Solitaire devices, respectively. Preliminary analysis reveals excellent clinical outcomes for retrievable stent technology. This may be attributable to both high rates of revascularization with a relatively short time to perfusion restoration.

  4. The Bipolar Depression Electrical Treatment Trial (BETTER): Design, Rationale, and Objectives of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial and Data from the Pilot Study Phase

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio; Nunes, Paula; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Brunoni, André R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bipolar depression (BD) is a prevalent condition, with poor therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel treatment strategies, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that showed promising results in unipolar depression. Methods. We describe a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial using tDCS for refractory, acutely symptomatic BD (the bipolar depression electrical treatment trial, BETTER). Sixty patients will be enrolled and assessed with clinical and neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome is change (over time and across groups) in the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Biological markers such as blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, heart rate variability, and motor cortical excitability will be assessed. Twelve anodal-left/cathodal-right 2 mA tDCS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be performed in 6 weeks. Results. In the pilot phase, five patients received active tDCS and were double-blindly assessed, two presenting clinical response. TDCS was well-tolerated, with no changes in cognitive scores. Conclusion. This upcoming clinical trial will address the efficacy of tDCS for BD on different degrees of refractoriness. The evaluation of biological markers will also help in understanding the pathophysiology of BD and the mechanisms of action of tDCS. PMID:25878904

  5. [Efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate nasal spray in the treatment of sinusitis or acute rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Klossek, J M

    2007-01-01

    Sinusitis or acute rhinosinusitis, is defined as an acute viral or bacterial infection characterised by inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Although antibiotics are routinely prescribed for the treatment of acute sinusitis, most cases are caused by viral infections and will resolve without antibiotic therapy. Given concerns about global antibacterial resistance, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines recommend a conservative approach to antibiotic treatment, with mild or moderately severe acute sinusitis managed symptomatically. Intranasal corticosteroids act on the nasal mucosa to relieve inflammation and its associated symptoms, and may be a useful symptomatic treatment option. Two randomised, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated that the corticosteroid mometasone furoate, administered as a nasal spray (MFNS), is effective as an adjunct to antibiotics in acute sinusitis. The design of these studies show a therapeutic approach known in Europe, but this attitude is still different from the current French guidelines. Furthermore, the efficacy and safety of MFNS monotherapy has been compared with antibiotic therapy in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adults with acute uncomplicated sinusitis and probably viral. In this study, twice-daily (BID) MFNS 200 microg produced statistically greater improvements in overall symptoms and most individual symptoms compared with amoxicillin or placebo, even though Amoxicillin is not the one recommended by the French guidelines for this indication. These findings suggest that MFNS may play an important role in the management of acute sinusitis, either as monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment to antibiotics. These results lead also to think over its interest in the treatment of uncomplicated common forms of sinusitis, where antibiotics are still widely prescribed in daily practice.

  6. NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORROSIVE INTOXICATION IN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Chibishev, Andon; Markoski, Velo; Smokovski, Ivica; Shikole, Emilija; Stevcevska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute intoxications with corrosive substances can cause severe chemical injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract, most often located in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum. If a patient survives the acute phase of intoxication, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis, and increased risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Such intoxication may be fatal due to perforation or tracheal necrosis. Enteral nutrition is a nutritional method when nutritional substances are administered through specially designed tubing placed through the nose or percutaneously, directly into the GIT. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the methods of artificial nutrition in patients with acute corrosive intoxications and the importance of nutritional support in the treatment of these intoxications. Discussion: Nutrition in the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is one of the most important therapeutic processes that largely contribute to faster recovery of the post-corrosive injuries of upper GIT, stabilization of biologic, immunologic and metabolic parameters, and reduction of length of stay in hospital Aim of the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is to prevent perforation and progressive fibrosis, and esophageal and gastric stenosis. There are different and often conflicting positions, on the conservative treatment of acute corrosive intoxications in adults. Such treatment mainly consists of anti-secretory treatment, antibiotics and intensive hyper-alimentation, aiming to prevent late post-corrosive intoxications. Conclusion: It is considered that nutritional support plays a major role in maintenance of metabolic processes and prevention of severe metabolic complications that could additionally aggravate the condition and impair the treatment. PMID:27047272

  7. Peptide nanomedicines for treatment of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represent a heterogenous group of lung disease in critically ill patients. Despite the increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ARDS, the mortality remains unacceptably high, ranging from 34% to 64%. Hence, ARDS represents an unmet medical need with an urgency to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Several promising targets that have been identified as potential therapies for ARDS have been limited because of difficulty with delivery. In particular, delivery of peptides and proteins to the lung is an ongoing challenge. Nanobiotechnology and nanoscience are the basis of innovative techniques to deliver drugs targeted to the site of inflamed organs, such as the lungs. Nanoscale drug delivery systems have the ability to improve the pharmacokinetics and pharmakodynamics of agents allowing an increase in the biodistribution of therapeutic agents to target organs, resulting in improved efficacy with reduction in drug toxicity. These systems are exploited for therapeutic purpose to carry the drug in the body in a controlled manner from the site of administration to the therapeutic target. Hence, it is an attractive strategy to test potential targets for ALI/ARDS using nanotechnology. To this end, we have identified several potential targets and proposed the delivery of these agents using nanomicelles to improve the drug delivery.

  8. [Diagnosis and treatment in the emergency room of acute asthma in childhood].

    PubMed

    Aldana Vergara, Ruth Saraí; Olivar Lòpez, Victor; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis; Lezana Fernández, José Luis; Zepeda Ortega, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Acute asthma is characterized by acute air way obstruction episodes presented as short breath, increased coughing, wheezing and difficult breathing, reversible with bronchodilator. It constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pediatric ER visits whose diagnosis and treatment is not always adequate. It is necessary to carry out a complete medical history searching for the number of previous attacks, risk factors, associated illnesses, triggers, prior hospitalizations, preventive and maintenance treatment used, along with a complete physical examination. During the management of moderate-severe attacks frequent systematic assessments are required to ensure treatment response. In children above 5 years old, monitoring of expiratory peak flow (EPF) during mild-moderate attacks is recommended. In general, a national consensus to classify and treat acute asthma in emergency services does not exist for which the need to develop a clinical practice guide of diagnosis and management arises.

  9. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  10. Review article: lack of effect of opiates in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, Marcin A

    2008-10-01

    Opiates have traditionally been used as one of the main treatments of acute heart failure and are still recognized as such. Most current textbooks and official guidelines advise the use of morphine as one of the first-line treatments for patients in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and a majority of physicians accept it to be the case. The author performed an extensive literature search in order to validate the evidence for the use of opiates in this condition. A total of seven papers, six in English and one in Polish, were found that directly investigated or reported the clinically important outcomes of treatment of acute pulmonary oedema. Only five of these dealt specifically with the effects of administration of opiates in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. None of the above publications suggested a clinically significant improvement in outcomes of patients treated with morphine, although early research did suggest reduced anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate as well as a reduction in arterial oxygen contents. The more recent studies suggest a strong association between increased mortality and morbidity (e.g. intensive care unit admissions or intubation rates), although causality is difficult to establish because of research methodologies. The current evidence does not support the routine use of opiates in the treatment of acute pulmonary oedema.

  11. The effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Idiopathic Hypersomnia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Andrea; Abutalebi, Jubin; Iannaccone, Sandro; Borsa, Virginia Maria; Musteata, Stela; Zucconi, Marco; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic Hypersomnia (IH) is a rare sleep disorder characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that leads to invalidating daytime consequences. Till now the treatment of IH has mirrored that of sleepiness in narcolepsy, and it is mainly focused on symptoms' management. We employed an anodal transcranic Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) treatment in order to induce a shift toward arousal in IH patients' cortex during the day. Every patients underwent a 4 weeks treatment (3 stimulations per week, for a total of 12 stimulations over a period of 28 days) with an assessment at the baseline and after treatment aimed to the evaluation of subjective daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive functions, and attentional domain tested by means of the Attentional Network Task (ANT). The dependent variables of the ANT are accuracy and reaction times, which represent the objective outcome of our study. A significant effect of tDCS' treatment in reducing EDS was found. Besides the amelioration in subjective EDS,  an objective improvement in RTs in all conditions of the ANT, in particular in the more difficult component, was observed. Our results indicate that tDCS may foster the management of EDS in IH, improving also the attentional domain.

  12. Treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.

  13. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment.

  14. Potential contribution of inorganic ions to whole effluent acute toxicity and genotoxicity during sewage tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Quan, Ying; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Shaokui; Liu, Xinchun

    2015-09-15

    Two acute toxicity tests (luminescent bacteria assay and cladoceran assay) and one genotoxicity test (broad bean assay) were used to evaluate whole effluent toxicity during the standard anion exchange resin-based pilot-scale sewage tertiary treatment that stably achieved significant dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions reduction. The effect of six representative inorganic ions (i.e., Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)-N, NO2(-)-N, NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P) on the acute toxicity and genotoxicity was further investigated. Significant whole effluent genotoxicity reduction was observed as an ∼ 57% micronucleated cell frequency reduction and ∼ 46% mitotic index increment during the pilot-scale periods, which should be attributed to significant organic removal since no significant (p ≥ 0.116) increase in genotoxicity was observed with the increase in these ionic concentrations. However, no significant (p ≥ 0.14) reductions were observed for whole effluent acute toxicity using two acute toxicity assays during the pilot-scale periods, and these inorganic ions, especially NH4(+)-N, contributed considerably to the acute toxicity. Based on Pearson correlation coefficients, whole effluent acute toxicity showed significant positive (p < 0.001, r ≥ 0.758) correlations with the NH4(+)-N concentration. Two optimal models were finally developed using step-wise multiple linear regression to predict the whole effluent acute toxicity via NH4(+)-N concentrations.

  15. [Treatment of acute pyoinflammatory diseases of the lungs and pleura under control of microorganism persistence factors].

    PubMed

    Abramzon, O M; Bukharin, O V; Kurlaev, P P

    2004-01-01

    Results of treatment of patients with acute pulmonary abscess, acute empyema of the pleura and pyopneumothorax were analyzed. The local treatment of the main group of patients consisting of 50 persons included oxitocin in combination with antiseptics and antibiotics which facilitated maximal reduction of the persistent potential of the pathogenic agent, its rapid elimination from the purulent focus and allowed to get better results using conservative therapy. The obtained clinical effect confirmed the experimental data on pronounced inhibition of persistent properties of the bacterial pathogens with the complexes "antibiotic-oxitocin".

  16. Use of chlorhexidine gluconate and povidone iodine mouthwashes in the treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Llewelyn, J

    1978-11-01

    A trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate with buffered peroxyborate in the treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis. After 20 patients had entered the trial and 11 had required additional therapy with metronidazole to control their symptoms, the study was terminated. Those patients receiving peroxyborate all showed a satisfactory improvement in clinical signs and symptoms. One patient each receiving povidone iodine or chlorhexidine reported a symptomatic improvement, although gingival ulceration was still apparent at 1 week. The remaining patients all required metronidazole therapy to control their symptoms. Povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate therefore cannot be recommended for the treatment of acute ulcerative gingivitis.

  17. Drugs under preclinical and clinical study for treatment of acute and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Joe Antony; Salmani, Jumah Masoud Mohammad; Chen, Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapy has modernized the treatment of both chronic and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The introduction of monoclonal antibodies and combinational drugs has increased the survival rate of patients. Preclinical studies with various agents have resulted in positive outputs with Phase III trial drugs and monoclonal antibodies entering clinical trials. Most of the monoclonal antibodies target the CD20 and CD22 receptors. This has led to the approval of a few of these drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration. This review focuses on the drugs under preclinical and clinical study in the ongoing efforts for treatment of acute and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:27382259

  18. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  19. Management of acute renal failure in the elderly. Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A K; Baig, M; Koutoubi, Z

    1996-10-01

    Renal changes that occur with aging mainly consist of impairment in the ability to concentrate urine and to conserve sodium and water. These physiological changes increase the risk of volume depletion and the prerenal type of acute renal failure (ARF) in elderly people. Bladder outlet obstruction caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy is a common cause of ARF in elderly men. Another frequent cause of ARF in the elderly is drug-induced nephropathy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics are most often implicated in the development of ARF in the elderly. However, considering the high usage of these drugs, the incidence of drug-induced nephropathy is relatively small. NSAIDs are more likely to cause ARF in patients with congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease (including diabetic nephropathy) or chronic liver disease than in otherwise healthy individuals. NSAID-induced ARF is often of the prerenal type, but may be caused by acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). The presence of heavy proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome differentiates NSAID-induced AIN from AIN caused by other drugs. Antibiotics, especially semisynthetic penicillins, more commonly give rise to AIN associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophiluria than NSAIDs. Ciprofloxacin is increasingly reported to cause AIN. Fever commonly accompanies AIN, especially when induced by antibiotics. Aminoglycosides produce ARF by inducing acute tubular necrosis (ATN), which results from the excessive accumulation of myeloid bodies in the tubules. In all cases of ARF it is essential to obtain a good history, to perform a through physical examination, with particular attention to skin turgor, and to measure blood pressure, pulse rate (supine and upright), urinary electrolyte and creatinine levels. Fractional excretion of sodium and the urine:plasma creatinine ratio are reliable indices that distinguish prerenal ARF from ATN. A prompt response to fluid challenge, with an increase in

  20. Leptin treatment ameliorates acute lung injury in rats with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, Fatma Ayca; Kerem, Mustafa; Tatlicioglu, Ertan; Aricioglu, Aysel; Unsal, Cigdem; Bukan, Neslihan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of exogenous leptin on acute lung injury (ALI) in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. AP was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) four times, at 1 h intervals. The rats received a single i.p. injection of 10 μg/kg leptin (leptin group) or 2 mL saline (AP group) after cerulein injections. In the sham group, animals were given a single i.p. injection of 2 mL saline. Experimental samples were collected for biochemical and histological evaluations at 24 h and 48 h after the induction of AP or saline administration. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of amylase, lipase, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, macrophage inflammatory peptide (MIP)-2 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 levels, while pancreatic and lung tissues were removed for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NOx) level, CD40 expression and histological evaluation. RESULTS: Cerulein injection caused severe AP, confirmed by an increase in serum amylase and lipase levels, histopathological findings of severe AP, and pancreatic MPO activity, compared to the values obtained in the sham group. In the leptin group, serum levels of MIP-2, sICMA-1, TNF-α, and IL-1β, pancreatic MPO activity, CD40 expression in pancreas and lung tissues, and NOx level in the lung tissue were lower compared to those in the AP group. Histologically, pancreatic and lung damage was less severe following leptin administration. CONCLUSION: Exogenous leptin attenuates inflamma-tory changes, and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide levels, and CD40 expression in cerulein-induced AP and may be protective in AP associated ALI. PMID:17589942

  1. The histone demethylase inhibitor GSK-J4 limits inflammation through the induction of a tolerogenic phenotype on DCs.

    PubMed

    Doñas, Cristian; Carrasco, Macarena; Fritz, Macarena; Prado, Carolina; Tejón, Gabriela; Osorio-Barrios, Francisco; Manríquez, Valeria; Reyes, Paz; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Bono, María Rosa; Loyola, Alejandra; Rosemblatt, Mario

    2016-12-01

    As it has been established that demethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 by the lysine-specific demethylase JMJD3 increases immune responses and thus elicits inflammation, we hypothesize that inhibition of JMJD3 may attenuate autoimmune disorders. We found that in vivo administration of GSK-J4, a selective inhibitor of JMJD3 and UTX, ameliorates the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In vitro experiments revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of GSK-J4 was exerted through an effect on dendritic cells (DCs), promoting a tolerogenic profile characterized by reduced expression of costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86, an increased expression of tolerogenic molecules CD103 and TGF-β1, and reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF. Adoptive transfer of GSK-J4-treated DCs into EAE mice reduced the clinical manifestation of the disease and decreased the extent of inflammatory CD4+ T cells infiltrating the central nervous system. Notably, Treg generation, stability, and suppressive activity were all exacerbated by GSK-J4-treated DCs without affecting Th1 and Th17 cell production. Our data show that GSK-J4-mediated modulation of inflammation is achieved by a direct effect on DCs and that systemic treatment with GSK-J4 or adoptive transfer of GSK-J4-treated DCs ex vivo may be promising approaches for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.

  2. [Emergency antibiotherapy and adjuvant treatments for acute bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Mourvillier, B

    2009-01-01

    The management of bacterial meningitis is based on the combination of several components. The objective of this review is to give an overview of the literature concerning both the arguments for urgent antibiotic treatment associated with a particular focus on the place of corticosteroids. Among other treatments, glycerol seems the best rated but symptomatic measures, which may not be achieved by randomized studies, should not be overlooked. Many animal studies explore other treatment options, but none can be translated into clinical practice. The neuroimaging has been little evaluated despite recent technological advances but remains important in monitoring of patients whose evolution is considered unfavorable.

  3. Study strategies for bloodletting therapy in treatment of acute soft tissue injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Dian; Chen, Gui-Zhen; Xu, Yun-Xiang

    2011-03-01

    Bloodletting therapy is one of the typical treatment modes of traditional Chinese medicine, and acute soft tissue injury (ASTI) is one of the most common indications for acupuncture therapeutics. In this paper, the current situation of treatments and pathological mechanisms of ASTIs, the existing problems of bloodletting therapy in the treatment of ASTIs and the study strategies are systematically analyzed, indicating that bloodletting therapy is significantly effective in the treatment of ASTIs. Breakthroughs in the treatment of ASTIs will be achieved with the application of bloodletting therapy both in clinical practice and experimental research.

  4. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging following major ozonated autohemotherapy for treatment of acute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-na; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiao-yan; Li, Zhen-sheng; Xiang, Wei; Du, Wei-qing; Yang, Hong-jun; Xiong, Tie-gen; Deng, Wen-ting; Peng, Kai-run; Pan, Su-yue

    2016-01-01

    Major ozonated autohemotherapy has been shown to promote recovery of upper limb motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction, but whether major ozonated autohemotherapy affects remote injury remains poorly understood. Here, we assumed that major ozonated autohemotherapy contributes to recovery of clinical function, possibly by reducing remote injury after acute cerebral infarction. Sixty acute cerebral infarction patients aged 30–80 years were equally and randomly allocated to ozone treatment and control groups. Patients in the ozone treatment group received medical treatment and major ozonated autohemotherapy (47 mg/L, 100 mL ozone) for 10 ± 2 days. Patients in the control group received medical treatment only. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, modified Rankin scale score, and reduced degree of fractional anisotropy values of brain magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging were remarkably decreased, brain function improved, clinical efficiency significantly increased, and no obvious adverse reactions detected in the ozone treatment group compared with the control group. These findings suggest that major ozonated autohemotherapy promotes recovery of neurological function in acute cerebral infarction patients by reducing remote injury, and additionally, exhibits high safety. PMID:27630695

  5. Current concepts for the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Arsalan-Werner, A; Sauerbier, M; Mehling, I M

    2016-02-01

    Fractures of the scaphoid are common injuries, accounting for approximately 80 % of carpal fractures. Differentiation between stable and unstable fractures (Herbert classification) cannot be made with conventional X-rays, so evaluation by computed tomography should additionally be performed. Under most circumstances, minimally invasive surgery with cannulated screws is the treatment of choice. A longer cast immobilization after minimal-invasive surgery is not necessary. Conservative treatment still has a place if the fracture is not dislocated nor unstable, but operative treatment can be offered to reduce the period of cast immobilization. Displaced fractures have a greater risk for nonunion and therefore should be treated operatively. Proximal pole fractures are definitely unstable, requiring treatment with screw fixation. The surgical approach depends on the location of the fracture and the preference of the surgeon.

  6. [The particularities of acute surgical diseases treatment of abdominal cavity organs in patients with haemophilia].

    PubMed

    Shutov, S A; Karagiulia, S R; Danishian, K I; Zorenko, V Iu; Grzhimolovskiĭ, A V; Polianskaia, T Iu; Shulutko, E M; Galstian, G M

    2014-01-01

    The experience of treatment of 366 patients with haemophilia who were urgently hospitalized in hеmatological Scientific Center over the last 10 years is presented in the article. There were 114 (31.1%) patients with acute diseases of abdominal cavity organs, 150 (41%) patients with bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract, 102 (27.9%) patients with acute hematomas of retroperitoneal space. Urgent operations were performed in 48 (22.2%) patients who were hospitalized with clinical symptoms of acute abdomen syndrome. It was developed the criteria of diagnosis and choice of treatment tactic on the basis of the received results. Application of presented algorithms led to improve the quality of urgent surgical care to patients with haemophilia.

  7. [Peculiarities of treatment of the aged and elderly patients with acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, I M; Kuzenko, R T

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 99 elderly and senile patients, suffering an acute pancreatitis in period of 2005 - 2013 yrs, were analyzed. Interstitial acute pancreatitis was diagnoses in 36 (36.3%) patients, focal pancreatic necrosis--in 32 (32.3%), total-subtotal pancreonecrosis--in 31 (31.3%). Miniinvasive interventions were performed in 40 (63.4%) patients, the open--in 24 (38%). The main indication for laparotomy conduction were purulent-septic complications, which is impossible to eliminate while miniinvasive methods application. Due to application of the staged treatment tactics with predominant application of miniinvasive methods, extracorporeal detoxication and improvement of the intensive therapy measures postoperative lethality in necrotic acute pancreatitis have had lowered from 16.7 to 10.3%.

  8. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver

    2014-10-14

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder.

  9. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Zerem, Enver

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder. PMID:25320523

  10. Incorporating FLT3 inhibitors into acute myeloid leukemia treatment regimens

    PubMed Central

    Pratz, Keith; Levis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    FMS-Like-Tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) mutations are found in about 30% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia and confer an increased relapse rate and reduced overall survival. Targeting of this tyrosine kinase by direction inhibition is the focus of both preclinical and clinical research in AML. Several molecules in clinical development inhibit FLT3 with varying degrees of specificity. Preclinical models suggest that these compounds enhance the cytotoxicity of conventional chemotherapeutics against FLT3 mutant leukemia cells. The pharmacodynamic interactions between FLT3 inhibitors and chemotherapy appear to be sequence dependent. When the FLT3 inhibitor is used prior to chemotherapy, antagonism is displayed, while if FLT3 inhibition is instituted after to exposure to chemotherapy, synergistic cytotoxicity is seen. The combination of FLT3 inhibitors with chemotherapy is also complicated by potential pharmacokinetic obstacles, such as plasma protein binding and p-glycoprotein interactions. Ongoing and future studies are aimed at incorporating FLT3 inhibitors into conventional induction and consolidation therapy specifically for patients with FLT3 mutant AML. PMID:18452067

  11. Treatment of acute kidney injury with cast nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Walther, Carl; Podoll, Amber S; Finkel, Kevin W

    2014-07-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with multiple myeloma develop renal disease; acute kidney injury (AKI) from cast nephropathy, or "myeloma kidney" is the most common type. Development of AKI is associated with worse 1-year survival and reduces the therapeutic options available to patients. Therefore, there is a great need to develop more effective therapies. Cast nephropathy is due to the interaction and aggregation of filtered free light chains (FLCs) and Tamm- Horsfall protein (THP) causing intratubular obstruction and damage. The key to treating cast nephropathy is rapid lowering of FLCs as this correlates with renal recovery. Newer chemotherapy agents lower FLCs and have been referred to as "renoprotective". However there remains great interest in using various extracorporeal therapies to remove serum FLCs. Initially, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was thought to improve renal outcomes in cast nephropathy based on small trials. The largest randomized trial of TPE, however, failed to show any benefit. A newer technique is extended high cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD). This modality uses a high molecular weight cut-off filter to remove FLCs. To date, trials with HCO-HD in patients with cast nephropathy have been encouraging. However, there are no randomized trials demonstrating the benefit of HCOHD when used in addition to newer chemotherapeutic regimens. Until these studies are available, HCO-HD cannot be recommended as standard of care.

  12. Current standard treatment of adult acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lo-Coco, Francesco; Cicconi, Laura; Breccia, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) has dramatically improved over the last two decades, due to the introduction of combined all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy regimens and, more recently, to the advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO). ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy remains a widely used strategy, providing cure rates above 80%, but it is associated with risk of severe infections and occurrence of secondary leukaemias. ATO is the most effective single agent in APL and, used alone or in combination with ATRA or ATRA and reduced-intensity chemotherapy, results in greater efficacy with considerably less haematological toxicity. The toxic profile of ATO includes frequent, but manageable, QTc prolongation and increase of liver enzymes. Two large randomized studies have shown that ATRA + ATO is superior to ATRA + chemotherapy for newly diagnosed low-risk APL resulting in 2-4 year event-free survival rates above 90% and very few relapses. According to real world data, the spectacular progress in APL outcomes reported in clinical trials has not been paralleled by a significant improvement in early death rates, this remains the most challenging issue for the final cure of the disease.

  13. L-carnitine for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Dinicolantonio, James J; Niazi, Asfandyar K; McCarty, Mark F; Lavie, Carl J; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; O'Keefe, James H

    2014-01-01

    Although the therapeutic strategies available for treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have evolved dramatically in recent decades, coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in our society, and the rates of recurrent myocardial infarction and mortality are still unacceptably high. Therefore, exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies for AMI is of utmost importance. One such strategy is to target metabolic pathways via L-carnitine supplementation. L-carnitine is a physiologically essential metabolic cofactor that has been shown to provide a plethora of benefits when administered after AMI. L-carnitine has been shown to lessen infarct size, to reduce ventricular arrhythmias, left ventricular dilation, and heart failure incidence, as well as improve survival. These benefits may, in part, be related to its ability to boost glucose oxidation in ischemic tissues, while moderating increases in fatty acyl-coenzyme A levels that can impair mitochondrial efficiency and promote oxidative stress and inflammation. This article summarizes the evidence pertinent to the therapeutic use of L-carnitine for AMI.

  14. Superoxide production after acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate in young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karin M; Inácio, Cecília G; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Boeck, Carina R; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2009-11-06

    The prescription of methylphenidate (MPH) has dramatically increased in this decade for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. The action mechanism of MPH is not completely understood and studies have been demonstrated that MPH can lead to neurochemical adaptations. Superoxide radical anion is not very reactive per se. However, severe species derived from superoxide radical anion mediate most of its toxicity. In this study, the superoxide level in submitochondrial particles was evaluated in response to treatment with MPH in the age-dependent manner in rats. MPH was administrated acutely or chronically at doses of 1, 2 or 10 mg/kg i.p. The results showed that the acute administration of MPH in all doses in young rats increased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum and only in the high dose (10mg/kg) in the hippocampus, while chronic treatment had no effect. However, acute treatment in adult rats had no effect on production of superoxide, but chronic treatment decreased the production of superoxide in the cerebellum at the lower doses. Our data suggest that the MPH treatment can influence on production of superoxide in some brain areas, but this effect depends on age of animals and treatment regime with MPH.

  15. Assessment, management and treatment of acute fingertip injuries.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Anthony; Canty, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Fingertip injuries with nail bed trauma can require specialist hand surgery, depending on severity. However, most of these injuries can be managed in well-equipped emergency departments by emergency nurses with an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the fingernail and surrounding structures, assessment and examination, pain management and treatment. This article describes the surface and underlying anatomy and physiology of the nail, the most common mechanisms of injury, relevant diagnostic investigations, and initial assessment and management. It also discusses treatment options, referral pathways, and patient discharge advice.

  16. [Intrapleural sorption detoxication in the combined treatment of acute destructive pneumonia in children].

    PubMed

    Kravchuk, B A; Sokur, P P; Makarov, A V; Spivak, N Ia; Nogareva, E M; Ganova, L A

    1993-01-01

    The pathogenetic substantiation and technique of intrapleural sorption detoxication (IPSD) based on the use of high-dispersed silicone dioxide (trade mark "AEROSIL") are presented. Use of IPSD in the complex of treatment of 25 children with complicated forms of acute destructive pneumonia permitted to shorten the duration of intoxication syndrome, sanation of suppurative foci, stay of the patients at a hospital.

  17. Graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants: a randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Anderson, C.B.; Etheredge, E.E.; Sicard, G.A.; Melzer, J.S.; Blum, J.

    1982-05-01

    A randomized study of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients developing clinical signs of an acute graft rejection received customary antirejection treatment in the form of intravenous administration of high-dose (1 gm per day) of methylprednisolone. They were at the same time randomized to either receive therapeutic irradiation (175 rad every other day to a total of 525 rad) or sham irradiation. Neither the patient nor the Transplant Service surgeons knew at any time whether the radiation treatment had been given. Eighty-three rejection episodes occurring in 64 grafts were entered into the study. Acute rejection was reversed in 84.5% of grafts in the control and 75% in the treated group. The incidence of recurrent rejection was higher in the treated group (66 vs. 46%) and graft survival was lower (22% vs. 54%). The study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, when used in conjunction with high dose steriods.

  18. Acute bilateral glaucoma and panuveitis as a side effect of topiramate for weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Yechezkel

    2014-04-17

    A 54-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with acute angle-closure glaucoma and panuveitis in both eyes after being treated with topiramate for binge eating and obesity. This case report emphasises the hazardous side effects of treatment with topiramate with unusual indication and the precaution a caretaker must take when treating a patient.

  19. Novel targeted drug therapies for the treatment of childhood acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick; Hunger, Stephen P; Smith, Franklin O; Carroll, William L; Reaman, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    The cure rates for childhood acute leukemia have dramatically improved to approximately 70% overal, with treatments that include intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy and, in some cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, many children still die of their disease or of treatment-related toxicities. Even in patients that are cured, there can be significant and, not uncommonly debilitating, acute and late complications of treatment. Improved understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of leukemia and the increasing availability of high-throughput genomic techniques have facilitated the development of molecularly targeted therapies that have the potential to be more effective and less toxic than the standard approaches. In this article, we review the progress to date with agents that are showing promise in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia, including monoclonal antibodies, inhibitors of kinases and other signaling molecules (e.g., BCR–ABL, FLT3, farnesyltransferase, mTOR and γ-secretase), agents that target epigenetic regulation of gene expression (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors) and proteasome inhibitors. For the specific agents in each of these classes, we summarize the published preclinical data and the clinical trials that have been completed, are in progress or are being planned for children with acute leukemia. Finally, we discuss potential challenges to the success of molecularly targeted therapy, including proper target identification, adequate targeting of leukemia stem cells, developing synergistic and tolerable combinations of agents and designing adequately powered clinical trials to test efficacy in molecularly defined subsets of patients. PMID:20126514

  20. A case of enoxaparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Snag Yup; Lee, Se Ryeon; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Jeong Chun; Song, Woo Hyuk

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia is a life-threatening complication, affecting the morbidity and mortality of the patient if not properly treated. We report a case of a 75-year-old female patient who experienced enoxaparininduced thrombocytopaenia during medical treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction due to thrombotic total occlusion in the large right coronary artery.

  1. [Acute appendicitis. Surgical and non-surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Souza-Gallardo, Luis Manuel; Martínez-Ordaz, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis represents a common disease for the surgeon with a relative risk between 7-8%. It was thought that if more time passed between diagnosis and treatment, the risk for complications, such as perforation or abscess formation, was higher; nevertheless; the evolution is variable, making necessary the development of different strategies such as antibiotic use only, interval surgery or endoscopic treatment. The purpose of this study is to make a revision in the management of appendicitis comparing conservative and surgical treatment. It is known that traditional management of appendicitis is appendectomy with a complication rate of 2.5% to 48%. Nowadays, laparoscopy is the approach of choice by many surgeons and there have proposed new invasive techniques such as endoscopic treatment with the use of prosthesis and ambulatory surgery. Antibiotic use is essential in the management of appendicitis. Its use as the only strategy to treat this disease has the purpose of lowering costs and diminishing complications related to surgery or the resection of the organ. We conclude that the ideal management of appendicitis remains controversial and it will depend of the clinical characteristics of each patient and the resources available.

  2. Assessing Compliance With Mercaptopurine Treatment in Younger Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in First Remission | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies compliance to a mercaptopurine treatment intervention compared to standard of care in younger patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. Assessing ways to help patients who have acute lymphoblastic leukemia to take their medications as prescribed may help them in taking their medications more consistently and may improve treatment outcomes. |

  3. Improved multitasking following prefrontal tDCS.

    PubMed

    Filmer, Hannah L; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    We have a limited capacity for mapping sensory information onto motor responses. This processing bottleneck is thought to be a key factor in determining our ability to make two decisions simultaneously - i.e., to multitask (Pashler, 1984, 1994; Welford, 1952). Previous functional imaging research (Dux, Ivanoff, Asplund, & Marois, 2006; Dux et al., 2009) has localised this bottleneck to the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (pLPFC) of the left hemisphere. Currently, however, it is unknown whether this region is causally involved in multitasking performance. We investigated the role of the left pLPFC in multitasking using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The behavioural paradigm included single- and dual-task trials, each requiring a speeded discrimination of visual stimuli alone, auditory stimuli alone, or both visual and auditory stimuli. Reaction times for single- and dual-task trials were compared before, immediately after, and 20 min after anodal stimulation (excitatory), cathodal stimulation (inhibitory), or sham stimulation. The cost of responding to the two tasks (i.e., the reduction in performance for dual- vs single-task trials) was significantly reduced by cathodal stimulation, but not by anodal or sham stimulation. Overall, the results provide direct evidence that the left pLPFC is a key neural locus of the central bottleneck that limits an individual's ability to make two simple decisions simultaneously.

  4. Acute Thrombotic Mesenteric Ischemia: Primary Endovascular Treatment in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gagniere, Johan; Favrolt, Gregory; Alfidja, Agaiecha; Kastler, Adrian; Chabrot, Pascal; Cassagnes, Lucie; Buc, Emmanuel; Pezet, Denis; Boyer, Louis

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience with initial percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) {+-} stenting as valuable options in the acute setting. Methods: Between 2003 and 2008, eight patients with abdominal angio-MDCT-scan proven thrombotic AMI benefited from initial PTA {+-} stenting. We retrospectively assessed clinical and radiological findings and their management. Seven patients presented thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery, and in one patient both mesenteric arteries were occluded. All patients underwent initial PTA and stenting, except one who had balloon PTA alone. One patient was treated by additional in situ thrombolysis. Results: Technical success was obtained in all patients. Three patients required subsequent surgery (37.5%), two of whom had severe radiological findings (pneumatosis intestinalis and/or portal venous gas). Two patients (25%) died: both had NIDD, an ASA score {>=}4, and severe radiologic findings. Satisfactory arterial patency was observed after a follow-up of 15 (range, 11-17) months in five patients who did not require subsequent surgery, four of whom had abdominal guarding but no severe CT scan findings. One patient had an ileocecal stenosis 60 days after the procedure. Conclusions: Initial PTA {+-} stenting is a valuable alternative to surgery for patients with thrombotic AMI even for those with clinical peritoneal irritation signs and/or severe radiologic findings. Early surgery is indicated if clinical condition does not improve after PTA. The decision of a subsequent surgery must be lead by early clinical status reevaluation. In case of underlying atherosclerotic lesion, stenting should be performed after initial balloon dilatation.

  5. World Health Organization Grade II Oligodendroglioma Occurring after Successful Treatment for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-In; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Park, Jung-Yul; Chung, Yong-Gu

    2016-01-01

    When treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), secondary neoplasms are a significant long term problem. Radiation is generally accepted to be a major cause of the development of secondary neoplasms. Following treatment for ALL, a variety of secondary tumors, including brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, sarcomas, thyroid cancers, and skin cancers have been reported. However, oligodendroglioma as a secondary neoplasm is extremely rare. Herein we present a case of secondary oligodendroglioma occurring 13 years after the end of ALL treatment. PMID:27867928

  6. The pros and cons of endovascular and open surgical treatments for patients with acute limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L

    2015-06-01

    The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.

  7. Dcs Data Viewer, an Application that Accesses ATLAS DCS Historical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchas, C.; Schlenker, S.; Dimitrov, G.; Jahn, G.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is one of the four Large Hadron Collider experiments. The Detector Control System (DCS) of ATLAS is responsible for the supervision of the detector equipment, the reading of operational parameters, the propagation of the alarms and the archiving of important operational data in a relational database (DB). DCS Data Viewer (DDV) is an application that provides access to the ATLAS DCS historical data through a web interface. Its design is structured using a client-server architecture. The pythonic server connects to the DB and fetches the data by using optimized SQL requests. It communicates with the outside world, by accepting HTTP requests and it can be used stand alone. The client is an AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) interactive web application developed under the Google Web Toolkit (GWT) framework. Its web interface is user friendly, platform and browser independent. The selection of metadata is done via a column-tree view or with a powerful search engine. The final visualization of the data is done using java applets or java script applications as plugins. The default output is a value-over-time chart, but other types of outputs like tables, ascii or ROOT files are supported too. Excessive access or malicious use of the database is prevented by a dedicated protection mechanism, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of inexperienced users. The current configuration of the client and of the outputs can be saved in an XML file. Protection against web security attacks is foreseen and authentication constrains have been taken into account, allowing the exposure of the tool to hundreds of users world wide. Due to its flexible interface and its generic and modular approach, DDV could be easily used for other experiment control systems.

  8. A Protocol for the Use of Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

    PubMed

    Kasschau, Margaret; Sherman, Kathleen; Haider, Lamia; Frontario, Ariana; Shaw, Michael; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Charvet, Leigh

    2015-12-26

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that uses low amplitude direct currents to alter cortical excitability. With well-established safety and tolerability, tDCS has been found to have the potential to ameliorate symptoms such as depression and pain in a range of conditions as well as to enhance outcomes of cognitive and physical training. However, effects are cumulative, requiring treatments that can span weeks or months and frequent, repeated visits to the clinic. The cost in terms of time and travel is often prohibitive for many participants, and ultimately limits real-world access. Following guidelines for remote tDCS application, we propose a protocol that would allow remote (in-home) participation that uses specially-designed devices for supervised use with materials modified for patient use, and real-time monitoring through a telemedicine video conferencing platform. We have developed structured training procedures and clear, detailed instructional materials to allow for self- or proxy-administration while supervised remotely in real-time. The protocol is designed to have a series of checkpoints, addressing attendance and tolerability of the session, to be met in order to continue to the next step. The feasibility of this protocol was then piloted for clinical use in an open label study of remotely-supervised tDCS in multiple sclerosis (MS). This protocol can be widely used for clinical study of tDCS.

  9. Emotional Distraction and Bodily Reaction: Modulation of Autonomous Responses by Anodal tDCS to the Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Philipp A; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Wolkenstein, Larissa; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Prefrontal electric stimulation has been demonstrated to effectively modulate cognitive processing. Specifically, the amelioration of cognitive control (CC) over emotional distraction by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) points toward targeted therapeutic applications in various psychiatric disorders. In addition to behavioral measures, autonomous nervous system (ANS) responses are fundamental bodily signatures of emotional information processing. However, interactions between the modulation of CC by tDCS and ANS responses have received limited attention. We here report on ANS data gathered in healthy subjects that performed an emotional CC task parallel to the modulation of left prefrontal cortical activity by 1 mA anodal or sham tDCS. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to negative and neutral pictures of human scenes were reduced by anodal as compared to sham tDCS. Individual SCR amplitude variations were associated with the amount of distraction. Moreover, the stimulation-driven performance- and SCR-modulations were related in form of a quadratic, inverse-U function. Thus, our results indicate that non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., anodal tDCS) can modulate autonomous responses synchronous to behavioral improvements, but the range of possible concurrent improvements from prefrontal stimulation is limited. Interactions between cognitive, affective, neurophysiological, and vegetative responses to emotional content can shape brain stimulation effectiveness and require theory-driven integration in potential treatment protocols.

  10. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Treatment of Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Tunkel, Allan R.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed as a result of the widespread use of conjugate vaccines and preventive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, accurate information is necessary regarding the important etiological agents and populations at risk to ascertain public health measures and ensure appropriate management. In this review, we describe the changing epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the United States and throughout the world by reviewing the global changes in etiological agents followed by specific microorganism data on the impact of the development and widespread use of conjugate vaccines. We provide recommendations for empirical antimicrobial and adjunctive treatments for clinical subgroups and review available laboratory methods in making the etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Finally, we summarize risk factors, clinical features, and microbiological diagnostics for the specific bacteria causing this disease. PMID:20610819

  11. [Extended hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute carbamazepine intoxication].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Azorín, S; Peces, C; Selgas, R

    2010-01-01

    Carbamazepine is used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed in neuralgic pain syndromes, and certain affective disorders. Carbamazepine intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively high molecular weight, elevated volume of distribution and intense protein-binding render it difficult to extracorporeal removal, but published experience with hemoperfusion or hemodialysis present variable results. We describe a case report involving carbamazepine intoxication who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of carbamazepine was reduced with rapid lowering of carbamazepine levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, extended charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious carbamazepine intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  12. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  13. Interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yong; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Fan, Qing-Sheng; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Peng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our methods and experience with interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV-SMV) thrombosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients (30 males, 16 females, aged 17-68 years) with symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis were accurately diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound scans, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. They were treated with interventional therapy, including direct thrombolysis (26 cases through a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 6 through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation) and indirect thrombolysis (10 through the femoral artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization; 4 through the radial artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization). RESULTS: The blood reperfusion of PV-SMV was achieved completely or partially in 34 patients 3-13 d after thrombolysis. In 11 patients there was no PV-SMV blood reperfusion but the number of collateral vessels increased significantly. Symptoms in these 45 patients were improved dramatically without severe operational complications. In 1 patient, the thrombi did not respond to the interventional treatment and resulted in intestinal necrosis, which required surgical treatment. In 3 patients with interventional treatment, thrombi re-formed 1, 3 and 4 mo after treatment. In these 3 patients, indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis was performed again and was successful. CONCLUSION: Interventional treatment, including direct or indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis, is a safe and effective method for patients with symptomatic acute-subacute PV-SMV thrombosis. PMID:19859995

  14. Medical treatment of acute poisoning with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jokanović, Milan

    2009-10-28

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are used as pesticides and developed as warfare nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin, VX and others. Exposure to even small amounts of an OP can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. The mechanism of OP poisoning involves inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to inactivation of the enzyme which has an important role in neurotransmission. AChE inhibition results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, producing continuous stimulation of cholinergic fibers throughout the nervous systems. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OP. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OP. However, they differ in their activity in poisoning with pesticides and warfare nerve agents and there is still no universal broad-spectrum oxime capable of protecting against all known OP. In spite of enormous efforts devoted to development of new pyridinium oximes as potential antidotes against poisoning with OP only four compounds so far have found its application in human medicine. Presently, a combination of an antimuscarinic agent, e.g. atropine, AChE reactivator such as one of the recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and HI-6) and diazepam are used for the treatment of OP poisoning in humans. In this article the available data related to medical treatment of poisoning with OP pesticides are reviewed and the current recommendations are presented.

  15. Advances in medical revascularisation treatments in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Asadi, H; Yan, B; Dowling, R; Wong, S; Mitchell, P

    2014-01-01

    Urgent reperfusion of the ischaemic brain is the aim of stroke treatment and there has been ongoing research to find a drug that can promote vessel recanalisation more completely and with less side effects. In this review article, the major studies which have validated the use and safety of tPA are discussed. The safety and efficacy of other thrombolytic and anticoagulative agents such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, ancrod, tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide, and argatroban are also reviewed. Tenecteplase and desmoteplase are both plasminogen activators with higher fibrin affinity and longer half-life compared to alteplase. They have shown greater reperfusion rates and improved functional outcomes in preliminary studies. Argatroban is a direct thrombin inhibitor used as an adjunct to intravenous tPA and showed higher rates of complete recanalisation in the ARTTS study with further studies which are now ongoing. Adjuvant thrombolysis techniques using transcranial ultrasound are also being investigated and have shown higher rates of complete recanalisation, for example, in the CLOTBUST study. Overall, development in medical therapies for stroke is important due to the ease of administration compared to endovascular treatments, and the new treatments such as tenecteplase, desmoteplase, and adjuvant sonothrombolysis are showing promising results and await further large-scale clinical trials.

  16. Tolerogenic pDCs: spotlight on Foxo3.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo

    2011-04-01

    Cancer creates a peculiar inflammatory environment enriched for transcription factors with a negative influence on adaptive immunity. In this issue of the JCI, Watkins and colleagues identify Foxo3 as a master regulator of the tolerogenic program in tumor-associated, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Foxo3 enables pDCs to induce tolerance in tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, turning them into regulatory lymphocytes capable of inhibiting nearby CD8+ T lymphocytes. Provision of tumor-specific CD4+ T helper cells interrupts this circuit by inhibiting Foxo3 expression and fully licensing the antigen-presenting ability of pDCs. These data identify a new target for therapeutic intervention and provide insight into the transcription factor interplay in myeloid cells recruited to the cancer microenvironment.

  17. Treatment of acute cerebral ischemia using animal models: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhou, Yu; Fang, Huang; Lin, Sen; Wang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Yong; Xia, Jun; Eslick, Guy D.; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background There are numerous potential treatments assessed for acute cerebral ischemia using animal models. This study aimed to assess the effect of these treatments in terms of infarct size and neurobehavioral change. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine if any of these treatments provide a superior benefit so that they might be used on humans. Methods A systematic search was conducted using several electronic databases for controlled animal studies using only nonsurgical interventions for acute cerebral ischemia. A random-effects model was used. Results After an extensive literature search, 145 studies were included in the analysis. These studies included 1408 treated animals and 1362 control animals. Treatments that had the most significant effect on neurobehavioral scales included insulin, various antagonists, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ACEA1021, calmodulin antagonist DY-9760e, and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist YM872, and antiviral agents. Treatments providing the greatest effect on infarct size included statins, sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist (fingolimod), alcohol, angiotensin, and leukotrienes. Treatments offering the greatest reduction in brain water content included various agonists, including sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist fingolimod, statins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Treatment groups with more than one study all had high heterogeneity (I2 > 80%), however, using meta-regression we determined several sources of heterogeneity including sample size of the treatment and control groups, the occlusion time, but not the year when the study was conducted. Conclusions Some treatments stand out when compared to others for acute cerebral ischemia in animals. Greater replication of treatment studies is required before any treatments are selected for future human trials. PMID:28123790

  18. Group vs. Individual Treatment for Acute Insomnia: A Pilot Study Evaluating a “One-Shot” Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Boullin, Pam; Ellwood, Christina; Ellis, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite undeniable evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I), the potential for its widespread dissemination and implementation has yet to be realised. A suggested reason for this is that traditional CBT-I is considered too burdensome for deployment, in its current form, within the context of where it would be most beneficial—Primary Care. One strategy, aimed to address this, has been to develop briefer versions of CBT-I, whilst another has been to deliver CBT-I in a group format. An alternative has been to attempt to address insomnia during its acute phase with a view to circumventing its progression to chronic insomnia. The aim of the present study was to compare a brief version of CBT-I (one-shot) when delivered individually or in groups to those with acute insomnia. Method: Twenty-eight individuals with acute insomnia (i.e., meeting full DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder for less than three months) self-assigned to either a group or individual treatment arm. Treatment consisted of a single one-hour session accompanied by a self-help pamphlet. Subjects completed measures of insomnia severity, anxiety and depression pre-treatment and at one-month post-treatment. Additionally, daily sleep diaries were compared between pre-treatment and at the one-month follow up. Results: There were no significant between group differences in treatment outcome on any sleep or mood measures although those in the group treatment arm were less adherent than those who received individual treatment. Furthermore, the combined (group and individual treatment arms) pre-post test effect size on insomnia symptoms, using the Insomnia Severity Index, was large (d = 2.27). Discussion: It appears that group treatment is as efficacious as individual treatment within the context of a “one shot” intervention for individuals with acute insomnia. The results are discussed with a view to integrating one-shot CBT-I in Primary

  19. Treatment Strategies for Acute Ischemic Stroke Caused by Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yin, Qin; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion usually has a poor prognosis, especially the T occlusion cases without functional collaterals. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) or intra-arterial (IA) thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) remains ambiguous in these patients. Eendovascular recanalization of the occluded carotid has been attempted in recent years as a potential strategy. However, the different etiologies of ICA occlusion pose a significant challenge to neurointerventionists. Recently, several endovascular evolvements have been reported in treating carotid occlusion-related stroke. This review summarizes the current status of treatment for acute ICA occlusion. PMID:27781043

  20. [Use of xenogenic lyophilized hepatocytes in the treatment of acute and chronic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Musselius, S G; Vasina, N V; Gladskikh, L V

    1998-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of lyophilized xenogenic hepatocytes was demonstrated on 30 dogs with acute hepatic failure and on white mice. The major biochemical values were corrected and the yeast fermentation test showed biological activity of isolated hepatocytes. Clinically, lyophilized hepatocytes were used in the treatment of patients with acute hepatic failure: orally in 47 and for extracorporeal dialysis in 8. The therapeutic effect of lyophilized hepatocytes is based on active detoxication and hemostasis correction. Clinical, laboratory, and instrumental studies showed improvement of the clinical status, decreased encephalopathy, and accelerated repair processes in the liver. Addition of lyophilized hepatocytes to combined therapy decreased the mortality by 2.5 times.

  1. Acupuncture Treatment for Acute Ankle Injury in the Emergency Department: A Preliminary Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tantivesruangdet, Nopmanee

    2016-02-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient medical treatment that is increasingly attracting the interest of the public. It is a complementary therapy that is widely used for management of pain, especially chronic discomfort caused by migraine, low-back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee(¹⁻³). The evidence base for the effectiveness of acupuncture and its clinical applications is controversial, and although its efficacy and safety in the management of acute pain have been demonstrated, the quality of this modality is still questionable. The present study reports a case of acute ankle injury, which was treated with acupuncture. A 33-year-old man presented with acute twisted ankle injury. He had pain with swelling around the ankle, and he was experiencing difficulty in walking. His clinical diagnosis was acute ankle sprain with severe pain. Several drug treatments are used for pain control, but in this case, we used acupuncture. After treatment, his pain diminished significantly with a decrease in VAS pain level from 8 to 4 in 20 minutes. At follow-up after one month, we found no skin infection in this case.

  2. Treatment Result in the Initial Stage of Kanazawa Mobile Embolectomy Team for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    UCHIYAMA, Naoyuki; MISAKI, Kouichi; MOHRI, Masanao; KAMIDE, Tomoya; HIROTA, Yuichi; HIGASHI, Ryo; MINAMIDE, Hisato; KOHDA, Yukihiko; ASAHI, Takashi; SHOIN, Katsuo; IWATO, Masayuki; KITA, Daisuke; HAMADA, Yoshitaka; YOSHIDA, Yuya; NAKADA, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Five recent multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have clearly shown the superiority of mechanical thrombectomy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke compared to systemic thrombolysis. Although 14 hospitals in Ishikawa prefecture have uninterrupted availability of systemic thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy is not available at all of these hospitals. Therefore, we established a Kanazawa mobile embolectomy team (KMET), which could travel to these hospitals and perform the acute reperfusion therapy. In this article, we report early treatment outcomes and validate the effectiveness of a network between affiliated hospitals and KMET. Between January 2014 and December 2015, 48 patients, aged 45–92 years (mean: 73.0 years), underwent acute reperfusion therapy provided by KMET in 10 affiliated hospitals of Kanazawa University Hospital. The pre-treatment NIHSS scores ranged from 5 to 39 (mean: 19.1). ASPECTS+W ranged from 1 to 11 (mean: 7.3). Successful revascularization, defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b or 3, was achieved in 38/48 cases (80%), and a good outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from 0 to 2 at 90 days after the treatment, was achieved in 24/48 cases (50%). There were two cases of intracranial bleeding (4%). Mean time from onset to recanalization was 297 min. These results, which are similar to those of five previous RCTs, suggest that a collaborative network between affiliated hospitals and KMET is effective for acute reperfusion therapy in local areas wherein experienced neuroendovascular specialists are insufficient. PMID:27725522

  3. Can the use of low-dose dopamine for treatment of acute renal failure be justified?

    PubMed

    Burton, C J; Tomson, C R

    1999-05-01

    The use of dopamine for the prevention and treatment of acute renal failure is widespread. Its use is based on physiology suggesting selective renal vasodilation when it is infused at low dose. This article reviews the available data on the clinical use of dopamine. When used to prevent acute renal failure in high-risk treatments there is no evidence of benefit of dopamine but, given the low incidence of significant renal failure, the studies are underpowered. In treatment of acute renal failure, the quality of the data is poor. Only in one small randomised trial of moderate acute renal failure in patients with malaria was a clinically significant benefit of dopamine shown. The rest of the data, in the form of case series, showed either no benefit of dopamine or small benefits of little clinical significance. Again, these studies are of insufficient power for conclusions to be drawn as to the overall benefits and risks. We conclude that benefits of dopamine use cannot be ruled out by currently available data but its use cannot be advised until trials examining clinically important endpoints in large numbers of patients have been performed.

  4. Is honey an effective treatment for acute cough in children?

    PubMed

    Nitsche, María Pía; Carreño, Mónica

    2016-05-30

    Cough represents one of the most common reasons for pediatrician consultations. There are many available treatments for symptomatic relief, including honey. Despite its wide availability, there is little knowledge about its benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of honey probably decreases the severity and frequency of cough, improves the quality of parent's and patient's sleep, and does not have side effects.

  5. [Neuroprotective therapy for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Naritomi, H

    2001-12-01

    Following cerebral ischemia, various biochemical reactions are provoked in a stepwise manner leading neuronal cells to ischemic death. The prevention of these biochemical reactions may exert neuroprotective actions and consequently reduce the magnitude of ischemic cerebral injury. On the basis of such a view, numerous neuroprotective drugs have been developed during the last decade. Quite a few drugs were found effective in reducing the infarct volume in experimental studies, and more than 15 of them were subjected to clinical phase III trials to see a therapeutic effectiveness. However, the results of phase III trials were disappointing in the majority drugs. Only three drugs, nicaravene, ebselen and edaravone, all radical scavengers, were judged effective by small-sized trials with a wide therapeutic window, 48-72 hours after stroke, in Japan. The fact suggests that a one-point prevention of biochemical reactions by single drug is unable to rescue ischemic neuronal cells. Ischemic insult causes damages of vascular wall including the endothelium which play an important role in the development of hemorrhagic changes or cerebral edema. Vascular protection is considered as important as neuroprotection in treatment of clinical stroke. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective and vascular protective actions and hence may be more effective than neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of stroke. The prevention of fever, which often occurs in severe stroke, may exert the similar effect as hypothermia in neuroprotection. Neuroprotective therapy in the future should proceed toward the simultaneous protections of neurons and vessels using combination of multiple drugs.

  6. Antidotal treatment of the acute cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O

    1984-09-01

    Rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital and ventilated artificially were infused with 0.15 mg/kg/min. verapamil; without antidotal treatment, they died after 51.1+/-7.1 min. The survival time more than trebled upon an additional infusion with calcium chloride, epinephrine, isoprenaline, orciprenaline or prenalterol and nearly doubled upon administration of a plasma expander. It was not increased, however, by treatment with angiotensin or atropine. The infusion of verapamil declined the arterial blood pressure by 75%, and heart rate, cardiac output and peripheral resistance by about 50%; in the ECG, sinus bradycardia followed by AV-dissociation with nodal rhythm occurred. All antidotes that raised the lethal dose of verapamil increased the cardiac output. Calcium and the sympathomimetics with alpha-adrenergic activity also counteracted the verapamil-induced hypotension. Calcium did not influence the ECG alterations produced by verapamil, while the sympathomimetics restored the sinus rhythm or accelerated the nodal pacemaker. Calcium, epinephrine and isoprenaline also antagonized the strong decrease of left-ventricular dp/dt max. induced by verapamil. In conclusion, calcium as well as sympathomimetic amines are potent antidotes against the cardiovascular toxicity of verapamil, the latter being superior to calcium in their ability to improve pacemaker activity and AV-conduction.

  7. Acute Suppurative Parotitis Treatment by Diode Laser Combined with ER:YAG Laser

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jyuhn H.; Wang, Hong Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: The diode laser combined with Er:YAG laser is a new treatment modality for acute sialadenitis. A 78-year-old woman with acute suppurative parotitis was treated by traditional probe to the duct orifice with oral antibiotics for 2 weeks. The symptoms and signs did not subside after treatment. The Er:YAG laser was used to reduce severe infection and inflammation and low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied to relieve pain sensation during incision and drainage. Less scar formation and obstruction was observed after the laser treatments. Results: Purulent secretions from the Stensen duct was noted after milking the parotid gland. The symptoms and signs were significantly relieved after combined laser treatments. The patient experienced no pain during the course of treatment. No recurrence of the symptoms and signs was noted after 1-year follow-up, and the prognosis was very good. Conclusion: The hemostatic properties of the diode laser enable better control of the surgical field and faster healing of the wound lesions. The bactericidal effect of Er:YAG lasers has been proved by many researchers, and has been shown to reduce infection and inflammation for better wound healing. The combined laser therapy of diode and Er:YAG lasers is recommended in treating acute sialadenitis. PMID:24610980

  8. tDCS-Induced Analgesia and Electrical Fields in Pain-Related Neural Networks in Chronic Migraine

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva, Alexandre F.; Mendonca, Mariana E.; Zaghi, Soroush; Lopes, Mariana; DosSantos, Marcos Fabio; Spierings, Egilius L.; Bajwa, Zahid; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom; Fregni, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated in a sham-controlled trial the analgesic effects of a 4-week treatment of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex in chronic migraine. In addition, using a high-resolution tDCS computational model, we analyzed the current flow (electric field) through brain regions associated with pain perception and modulation. Methods Thirteen patients with chronic migraine were randomized to receive 10 sessions of active or sham tDCS for 20 minutes with 2 mA over 4 weeks. Data were collected during baseline, treatment and follow-up. For the tDCS computational analysis, we adapted a high-resolution individualized model incorporating accurate segmentation of cortical and subcortical structures of interest. Results There was a significant interaction term (time vs group) for the main outcome (pain intensity) and for the length of migraine episodes (ANOVA, P < .05 for both analyses). Post-hoc analysis showed a significant improvement in the follow-up period for the active tDCS group only. Our computational modeling studies predicted electric current flow in multiple cortical and subcortical regions associated with migraine pathophysiology. Significant electric fields were generated, not only in targeted cortical regions but also in the insula, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and brainstem regions. Conclusions Our findings give preliminary evidence that patients with chronic migraine have a positive, but delayed, response to anodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex. These effects may be related to electrical currents induced in pain-related cortical and subcortical regions. PMID:22512348

  9. Controlling the Emotional Bias: Performance, Late Positive Potentials, and the Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Faehling, Florian; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive control of emotional processing is essential for adaptive human behavior. Biased attention toward emotionally salient information is critically linked with affective disorders and is discussed as a promising treatment target. Anodal (activity enhancing) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to increase healthy and impaired cognitive control over emotional distraction and is therefore widely used for the investigation and experimental treatment of this disorder. In this study, event-related potential (ERP) were recorded parallel to tDCS to track its online effects. Healthy volunteers (n = 87) performed a delayed working memory paradigm with emotional salient and neutral distractors during stimulation with different intensities (sham, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mA). Measuring the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that indexes attention allocation, we found that a valence-specific increase of the early portion of the LPP (eLPP, 250-500 ms) was associated with less emotional distraction in the sham group. Of note, stimulation with tDCS exerted an intensity related effect on this correlation. The later part of the LPP (lLPP, 500-1000 ms) was found to be correlated with reaction time, regardless of valence. General effect of tDCS on LPPs and task performance were not observed. These findings demonstrate that ERP recordings parallel to tDCS are feasible to investigate the neuronal underpinnings of stimulation effects on executive functions. Furthermore, they support the notion that the LPP induced by a distractive stimulus during a working memory task mirrors the additional allocation of neuronal resources with a specific sensitivity of the early LPP for highly arousing negative stimuli. Finally, together with the variable magnitude and direction of the emotional bias, the lack of systematic modulations of LPPs and behavior by tDCS further underlines the important influence of the individual brain activity patterns on stimulation effects both on the

  10. Developing drug strategies for the neuroprotective treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Arnao, Valentina; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Developing new treatment strategies for acute ischemic stroke in the last twenty years has offered some important successes, but also several failures. Most trials of neuroprotective therapies have been uniformly negative to date. Recent research has reported how excitatory amino acids act as the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, other therapeutic targets such as free radical scavenger strategies and the anti-inflammatory neuroprotective strategy have been evaluated with conflicting data in animal models and human subjects with acute ischemic stroke. Whereas promising combinations of neuroprotection and neurorecovery, such as citicoline, albumin and cerebrolysin have been tested with findings worthy of further evaluation in larger randomized clinical trials. Understanding the complexities of the ischemic cascade is essential to developing pharmacological targets for acute ischemic stroke in neuroprotective or flow restoration therapeutic strategies.

  11. Users` demands narrow PLC-DCS gap

    SciTech Connect

    La Fauci, J.

    1997-02-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) operator interface (OI) software has propelled programmable logic controllers (PLCs) into areas where they can successfully compete with distributed control systems (DCSs) for many control applications. As a result, automation engineers are struggling to develop guidelines to help determine which is best for batch operations and other applications. There is no clear answer to this issue. There are, however, decision tools such as Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) that can be applied by engineers as a structured approach to decision analysis and system selection. Other factors such as business environment, pressure to reduce project cost, validation, and predicting new technology direction all play a critical role for engineers in choosing between a PLC- or DCS-based control system. Higher-level business issues, however, are seldom considered by engineers during control system selection. Engineers should try to better understand their company`s business objectives and mission statement and how company business direction may affect control system selection. For instance, the pharmaceutical industry can be broken up into the following five basic application groups: bulk chemicals, finishing, biotech, pilot plant, and utilities. Each has a unique set of functional and process-control requirements. Understanding needs and differences of these five basic application groups and applying the optimum control system solution will place the company in a more competitive position. A financial analysis should be one of the first steps in the control system evaluation process. This may include early agreement of contractual terms and conditions as well as a nondisclosure agreement. Other financial considerations may include requesting a financial report on the control system manufacturer or systems integrator that will be performing the work to determine its financial stability. 3 figs.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute or Persistent Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Sean W; Warren, Cirle Alcantara; Guerrant, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Studies of microbial pathogens and the toxins they produce are important for determining the mechanisms by which they cause disease and spread throughout a population. Some bacteria produce secretory enterotoxins (such as choleratoxin or the heat-labile or stable enterotoxins produced by E. coli) that invade cells directly. Others produce cytotoxins (such as those produced by Shigella, enteroinvasive E. coli, or C. difficile) that damage cells or trigger host responses that cause small or large bowel diseases (such as enteroaggregative or enteropathogenic E. coli or Salmonella). Viruses (such as noroviruses and rotaviruses) and protozoa (such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia or Entameba histolytica) disrupt cell functions and cause short- or long-term disease. Much epidemiological data about these pathogens have been collected from community- and hospital-acquired settings, as well from patients with traveler’s or persistent diarrhea. These studies have led to practical approaches for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19457416

  13. [Acute small bowel obstruction: conservative or surgical treatment?].

    PubMed

    Schwenter, F; Dominguez, S; Meier, R; Oulhaci-de Saussure, W; Platon, A; Gervaz, P; Morel, P

    2011-06-22

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common clinical syndrome caused mainly by postoperative adhesions. In complement to clinical and biological evaluations, CT scan has emerged as a valuable imaging modality and may provide reliable information. The early recognition of signs suggesting bowel ischemia is essential for urgent operation. However appropriate management of SBO remains a common clinical challenge. Although a conservative approach can be successful in a substantial percentage of selected patients, regular and close re-assessement is mandatory. Any persistance or progression of the critical symptoms and signs should indeed lead to surgical exploration. Here we review the principles of adhesive SBO management and suggest a decision procedure for conservative versus surgical treatment.

  14. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of dicentric chromosomes in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sarova, Iveta; Brezinova, Jana; Zemanova, Zuzana; Ransdorfova, Sarka; Izakova, Silvia; Svobodova, Karla; Pavlistova, Lenka; Berkova, Adela; Cermak, Jaroslav; Jonasova, Anna; Siskova, Magda; Michalova, Kyra

    2016-04-01

    Dicentric chromosomes (DCs) have been described in many hematological diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). They are markers of cancer and induce chromosomal instability, leading to the formation of other chromosomal aberrations and the clonal evolution of pathological cells. Our knowledge of the roles and behavior of human DCs is often derived from studies of induced DCs and cell lines. It is difficult to identify all the DCs in the karyotypes of patients because of the limitations of metaphase cytogenetic methods. The aim of this study was to revise the karyotypes of 20 AML patients in whom DCs were found with conventional G-banding or multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) with (multi)centromeric probes and to characterize the DCs at the molecular cytogenetic level. FISH analyses confirmed 23 of the 29 expected DCs in 18 of 20 patients and identified 13 others that had not been detected cytogenetically. Fourteen DCs were altered by other chromosomal changes. In conclusion, karyotypes with DCs are usually very complex, and we have shown that they often contain more than one DC, which can be missed with conventional or mFISH methods. Our study indicates an association between number of DCs in karyotype and very short survival of patients.

  15. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their combined use on pancreatic enzymes, activity of pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas on treatment of caerulin-induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Caerulin-induced acute pancreatitis model was created using a total of 58 male BALB-C mice of 25 gr in seven groups. Serum amylase, lipase levels and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity were examined as well as apoptotic values in pancreatic acinar cells through TUNNEL method. Histopathology of pancreas was evaluated for presence of edema, hemorrhage, parenchymal necrosis, fat necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and fibrosis. Results: In the diclofenac sodium group, apoptotic values in the pancreatic acinar cells were found to be statistically lower than in the acute pancreatitis group in terms of parenchymal necrosis and hemorrhage scores (P = 0.007, P = 0.002, and P = 0.052, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found in serum level of amylase, lipase, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and the other histopathological scores (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium, a cost-effective agent with a favorable side-effect profile, may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Findings of this study suggest a better efficacy for diclofenac sodium monotherapy as compared to octreotide alone or octreotide/diclofenac combination. PMID:26770346

  16. Pneumothorax in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: pathophysiology, detection, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Kenneth J; vanSonnenberg, Eric; Chon, Kenneth S; Loran, David B; Tocino, Irena M; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2003-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a frequent and potentially fatal complication of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prompt recognition and treatment of pneumothoraces is necessary to minimize morbidity and mortality. The radiologic and clinical signs of pneumothoraces in ARDS patients may have unusual and subtle features. Furthermore, small pneumothoraces in these patients can cause severe hemodynamic or pulmonary compromise. Sparse clinical literature exists on when or how to treat pneumothoraces once they develop in patients with ARDS. In this article, the authors review the pathogenesis, radiologic signs, clinical significance, and treatment of pneumothoraces in ARDS patients. Treatment options include traditional tube thoracostomy, open thoracotomy, and image-guided percutaneous catheters.

  17. Efficacy of citicoline as an acute stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Clark, Wayne M

    2009-04-01

    Citicoline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine or CDP-choline) is a precursor essential for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, one of the cell membrane components that is degraded during cerebral ischemia to free fatty acids and free radicals. Animal studies suggest that citicoline may protect cell membranes by accelerating resynthesis of phospholipids and suppressing the release of free fatty acids, stabilizing cell membranes, and reducing free radical generation. Numerous experimental stroke studies with citicoline have shown improved outcome and reduced infarct size in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke models. Citicoline has been studied worldwide in both ischemic and hemorrhagic clinical stroke with excellent safety and possibly efficacy found in several trials. A meta-analysis of four randomized US clinical citicoline trials concluded that treatment with oral citicoline within the first 24 h after a moderate to severe stroke is safe and increases the probability of complete recovery at 3 months. Citicoline clinical efficacy trials are now continuing outside of the US in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. A citicoline supplement is now available from several sources on the internet.

  18. [Complementary treatment of acute heart failure in patients with diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or anemia].

    PubMed

    Carrasco Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Recio Iglesias, Jesús; Grau Amorós, Jordi

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and anemia are comorbidities with a high prevalence and impact in heart failure (HF). The presence of these comorbidities considerably worsens the prognosis of HF. Diabetic patients have a higher likelihood of developing symptoms of HF and both the treatment of diabetes and that of acute HF are altered by the coexistence of both entities. The glycemic targets in patients with acute HF are not well-defined, but could show a U-shaped relationship. Stress hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with HF could also have a deleterious effect on the medium-term prognosis. The inter-relationship between COPD and HF hampers diagnosis due to the overlap between the symptoms and signs of both entities and complementary investigations. The treatment of acute HF is also altered by the presence of COPD. Anemia is highly prevalent and is often the direct cause of decompensated HF, the most common cause being iron deficiency anemia. Iron replacement therapy, specifically intravenous forms, has helped to improve the prognosis of acute HF.

  19. Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: suboptimal treatment when the 2008/2016 WHO classification is used

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Alan; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Demichelis-Gomez, Roberta; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benitez, Olga; Lopez-Karpovitch, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background Different criteria have been used to diagnose mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), which has impacted the number of individuals diagnosed with this pathology. Better outcomes have been reported when using acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type chemotherapy in the treatment of MPAL. Methods We compared the outcome of 4 groups of patients with MPAL. Group 1 included patients diagnosed using the 2008/2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification; group 2 included patients diagnosed using the European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL) criteria; group 3 included patients diagnosed using either the EGIL or the 2008/2016 WHO criteria; and group 4 was comprised of patients diagnosed with MPAL using the EGIL classification only. Results We found a significantly worse disease-free survival (groups 1-4) and overall survival (OS) (groups 2 and 3) when comparing MPAL patients to other acute leukemia (AL) patients. A significantly better OS was obtained in patients (groups 2-4) treated with ALL-type chemotherapy compared to acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-type regimens. Conclusion In light of these results, and because a trend (P=0.06) was found with regard to a better OS in group 4 when compared to other AL patients, an argument can be made that the 2008/2016 WHO classification is underpowered to diagnose all MPAL cases, potentially resulting in the suboptimal treatment of some individuals with AL. PMID:28090485

  20. Rescue Stenting in Endovascular Treatment of Acutely Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Thromboembolic events and major artery occlusion following cerebral aneurysm coiling may lead to serious complications and even death if not treated. The use of an intracranial stent in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is risky due to the need for antiplatelet therapy. However in some conditions it could be an effective solution for this major problem. This study describes a revascularization technique using a Solitaire stent for treatment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion following coiling of anterior communicating artery (Acom) aneurysms. Three cases of ruptured Acom aneurysms treated during the course of SAH underwent unplanned deployment of an intracranial stent. Complete occlusion of the ACA at the origin of the A2 segment developed during or shortly after coiling. Emergent CT brain scan was done in two cases to exclude rebleeding. Follow-up CT or MRI scans were performed 24 hours after stenting. Technical success was achieved in all cases. Complete revascularization of the Acom was achieved post stent deployment (TIMI grade 3). Time from onset of symptoms to full revascularization in the three cases was 35 minutes, one hour 50 minutes and two hours 40 minutes respectively. No intracranial bleeding occurred in any case following the procedure. No neurological changes occurred in case 1; mild neurological and radiological changes occurred in cases 2 and 3. Deployment of an intracranial stent achieved complete revascularization of the occluded Acom. Its use in a context of SAH is relatively risky but the technique resulted in a significant improvement of symptoms following flow restoration and probably helped prevent symptoms worsening, major disability or even death. A study on a larger patient sample with long-term follow-up will be of value. PMID:23472719

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Sauvaget, Anne; Trojak, Benoît; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Wolz, Ines; Menchón, José M.; Achab, Sophia; Vanelle, Jean-Marie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral addictions (BA) are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA. Methods: A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction). Study selection, data analysis, and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode/left prefrontal cathode) reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli. Conclusions: Despite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders. PMID:26500478

  2. Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Argyropoulos, Georgios P.; Bastian, Amy; Cortes, Mar; Davis, Nicholas J.; Edwards, Dylan J.; Ferrucci, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe; Galea, Joseph M.; Hamada, Masahi; Manto, Mario; Miall, R. Chris; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Pope, Paul A.; Priori, Alberto; Rothwell, John; Tomlinson, S. Paul; Celnik, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum is critical for both motor and cognitive control. Dysfunction of the cerebellum is a component of multiple neurological disorders. In recent years, interventions have been developed that aim to excite or inhibit the activity and function of the human cerebellum. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum (ctDCS) promises to be a powerful tool for the modulation of cerebellar excitability. This technique has gained popularity in recent years as it can be used to investigate human cerebellar function, is easily delivered, is well tolerated, and has not shown serious adverse effects. Importantly, the ability of ctDCS to modify behavior makes it an interesting approach with a potential therapeutic role for neurological patients. Through both electrical and non-electrical effects (vascular, metabolic) ctDCS is thought to modify the activity of the cerebellum and alter the output from cerebellar nuclei. Physiological studies have shown a polarity-specific effect on the modulation of cerebellar–motor cortex connectivity, likely via cerebellar–thalamocortical pathways. Modeling studies that have assessed commonly used electrode montages have shown that the ctDCS-generated electric field reaches the human cerebellum with little diffusion to neighboring structures. The posterior and inferior parts of the cerebellum (i.e., lobules VI-VIII) seem particularly susceptible to modulation by ctDCS. Numerous studies have shown to date that ctDCS can modulate motor learning, and affect cognitive and emotional processes. Importantly, this intervention has a good safety profile; similar to when applied over cerebral areas. Thus, investigations have begun exploring ctDCS as a viable intervention for patients with neurological conditions. PMID:25406224

  3. Can tDCS enhance item-specific effects and generalization after linguistically motivated aphasia therapy for verbs?

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Vânia; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Capasso, Rita; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Rossi, Giorgio; Miceli, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aphasia therapy focusing on abstract properties of language promotes both item-specific effects and generalization to untreated materials. Neuromodulation with transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance item-specific improvement, but its potential to enhance generalization has not been systematically investigated. Here, we test the efficacy of ACTION (a linguistically motivated protocol) and tDCS in producing item-specific and generalized improvement in aphasia. Method: Nine individuals with post-stroke aphasia participated in this study. Participants were pre-tested with a diagnostic language battery and a cognitive screening. Experimental tasks were administered over multiple baselines. Production of infinitives, of finite verbs and of full sentences were assessed before and after each treatment phase. Nonword repetition was used as a control measure. Each subject was treated in two phases. Ten daily 1-h treatment sessions were provided per phase, in a double-blind, cross-over design. Linguistically-motivated language therapy focusing on verb inflection and sentence construction was provided in both phases. Each session began with 20 min of real or sham tDCS. Stimulation site was determined individually, based on MRI scans. Results: Group data showed improved production of treated and untreated verbs, attesting the efficacy of behavioral treatment, and its potential to yield generalization. Each individual showed significant item-specific improvement. Generalization occurred in the first phase of treatment for all subjects, and in the second phase for two subjects. Stimulation effects at the group level were significant for treated and untreated verbs altogether, but a ceiling effect for Sham cannot be excluded, as scores between real tDCS and Sham differed only before treatment. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate the efficacy of ACTION and suggest that tDCS may enhance both item-specific effects and generalization. PMID

  4. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  5. Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Rimoli, Brunna P; Favoretto, Diandra B; Mazin, Suleimy C; Truong, Dennis Q; Leite, Joao P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Babyar, Suzanne R; Reding, Michael; Bikson, Marom; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic tilt of subjective visual vertical (SVV) frequently has adverse functional consequences for patients with stroke and vestibular disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the supramarginal gyrus can produce a transitory tilt on SVV in healthy subjects. However, the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on SVV has never been systematically studied. We investigated whether bilateral tDCS over the temporal-parietal region could result in both online and offline SVV misperception in healthy subjects. In a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind crossover pilot study, thirteen healthy subjects performed tests of SVV before, during and after the tDCS applied over the temporal-parietal region in three conditions used on different days: right anode/left cathode; right cathode/left anode; and sham. Subjects were blind to the tDCS conditions. Montage-specific current flow patterns were investigated using computational models. SVV was significantly displaced towards the anode during both active stimulation conditions when compared to sham condition. Immediately after both active conditions, there were rebound effects. Longer lasting after-effects towards the anode occurred only in the right cathode/left anode condition. Current flow models predicted the stimulation of temporal-parietal regions under the electrodes and deep clusters in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The present findings indicate that tDCS over the temporal-parietal region can significantly alter human SVV perception. This tDCS approach may be a potential clinical tool for the treatment of SVV misperception in neurological patients.

  6. Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E. G.; Rimoli, Brunna P.; Favoretto, Diandra B.; Mazin, Suleimy C.; Truong, Dennis Q.; Leite, Joao P.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.; Babyar, Suzanne R.; Reding, Michael; Bikson, Marom; Edwards, Dylan J.

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic tilt of subjective visual vertical (SVV) frequently has adverse functional consequences for patients with stroke and vestibular disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the supramarginal gyrus can produce a transitory tilt on SVV in healthy subjects. However, the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on SVV has never been systematically studied. We investigated whether bilateral tDCS over the temporal-parietal region could result in both online and offline SVV misperception in healthy subjects. In a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind crossover pilot study, thirteen healthy subjects performed tests of SVV before, during and after the tDCS applied over the temporal-parietal region in three conditions used on different days: right anode/left cathode; right cathode/left anode; and sham. Subjects were blind to the tDCS conditions. Montage-specific current flow patterns were investigated using computational models. SVV was significantly displaced towards the anode during both active stimulation conditions when compared to sham condition. Immediately after both active conditions, there were rebound effects. Longer lasting after-effects towards the anode occurred only in the right cathode/left anode condition. Current flow models predicted the stimulation of temporal-parietal regions under the electrodes and deep clusters in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The present findings indicate that tDCS over the temporal-parietal region can significantly alter human SVV perception. This tDCS approach may be a potential clinical tool for the treatment of SVV misperception in neurological patients. PMID:27031726

  7. Acute Osteochondral Fractures in the Lower Extremities - Approach to Identification and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, M.E; DaCambra, M.P; Jibri, Z; Dhillon, S; Jen, H; Jomha, N.M

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral fractures of the lower extremities are important injuries because they can cause pain and dysfunction and often lead to osteoarthritis. These injuries can be misdiagnosed initially which may impact on the healing potential and result in poor long-term outcome. This comprehensive review focuses on current pitfalls in diagnosing acute osteochondral lesions, potential investigative techniques to minimize diagnostic errors as well as surgical treatment options. Acute osteochondral fractures are frequently missed and can be identified more accurately with specific imaging techniques. A number of different methods can be used to fix these fractures but attention to early diagnosis is required to limit progression to osteoarthritis. These fractures are common with joint injuries and early diagnosis and treatment should lead to improved long term outcomes. PMID:26587063

  8. [SEIP-SERPE-SEOP Consensus document on the treatment of uncomplicated acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Lozano, J; Calvo, C; Huguet Carol, R; Rodrigo, C; Núñez, E; Obando, I; Rojo, P; Merino, R; Pérez, C; Downey, F J; Colino, E; García, J J; Cilleruelo, M J; Torner, F; García, L

    2015-04-01

    This is a Consensus Document of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (Sociedad Española de Infectología Pediatrica), Spanish Society of Paediatric Rheumatology (Sociedad Española de Reumatología Pediátrica) and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Orthopaedics (Sociedad Española de Ortopedia Pediátrica), on the treatment of uncomplicated acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. A review is presented on the medical and surgical treatment of acute osteoarticular infection, defined as a process with less than 14 days of symptomatology, uncomplicated and community-acquired. The different possible options are evaluated based on the best available scientific knowledge, and a number of evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice are provided.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus Mixture in Treatment of Children Hospitalized With Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jamie M; Petrova, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Despite unproven effectiveness, Lactobacillus acidophilus is a widely used probiotic in the treatment of pediatric diarrhea. In this report, we evaluated the association between length of stay (LOS) for 290 young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea and adjuvant therapy with a probiotic mixture containing 80% L acidophilus that was included in treatment for 22.4% of them. Overall, no association between LOS and use of L acidophilus was recorded after controlling for age, length of diarrhea symptoms, duration of intravenous fluids, and prior exposure to antibiotic. However, LOS was directly associated with use of L acidophilus in children with negative stool studies, and no such association was recorded in children with positive stool for rotavirus or other infections. We concluded that adjuvant therapy with L acidophilus mixture is not beneficial for young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea.

  10. Acute arsenic poisoning: absence of polyneuropathy after treatment with 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS).

    PubMed Central

    Moore, D F; O'Callaghan, C A; Berlyne, G; Ogg, C S; Davies, H A; House, I M; Henry, J A

    1994-01-01

    Two men aged 19 and 21 years ingested 1 g and 4 g respectively from 3 kg of a white crystalline powder that they thought was a substance of abuse. It was later identified as almost pure arsenic trioxide. Both had nausea and vomiting and one developed acute renal failure. Each was treated with 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS), and made a full recovery with no evidence of prolonged renal or neurological impairment. The DMPS-arsenic complex is probably associated with lower penetration into the CNS and as a consequence treatment with DMPS may result in lower acute and chronic neurotoxicity than treatment with the currently standard recommended chelating agent dimercaprol (British Anti-Lewisite; BAL). PMID:8089687

  11. [Comparative experimental study of antioxidant efficiency in treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kliuĭko, D A; Korik, V E; Zhidkov, S A

    2011-01-01

    The aims of our experiments on animals were (i) to evaluate by direct oximery the efficiency of various antioxidant drugs in a complex treatment of acute pancreatitis and (ii) to determine the diagnostic value of the direct oximetry method for estimation of the efficiency of medical treatment. The article presents data obtained in a group 75 outbred Guinea with a model acute pancreatitis, which were treated with mexibel (group 1), emoxipin (group 2), end cytoflavin (group 3), with subsequent investigation of the pancreatic tissues by the direct oximetry method. The obtained results confirmed that the intraperitoneal injection of cytoflavin to animals stimulates tissue respiration, improves metabolism, promotes pancreas recovery, and also improves the prognosis and reduces the lethal outcome. The efficiency of cytoflavin within the complex therapy exceeds the effect of other antioxidants (mexibel and emoxipin) under otherwise equal conditions.

  12. Refusal of treatment for acute leukemia in pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acute leukemia is rare in pregnancy. The importance of promptly diagnosing and treating this disease in pregnancy stems from its life-threatening potential, both to the mother and fetus. Case presentation We report a case of relapse of acute myeloid leukemia at 23 weeks of pregnancy in a 24-year-old Albanian woman. Our patient categorically refused chemotherapy treatment, and in her 35th week of gestation, severe hemorrhagic diathesis rapidly developed. The manifestation and course of this life-threatening complication posed therapeutic challenges for the attending medical team. Conclusion Based both on our experience and the results of other gynecological studies, there exists a strong indication that the earlier a patient’s chemotherapy treatment begins, the better the maternal outcome. We support chemotherapy for patients who are pregnant presenting with such illness. The present case report testifies that refusal of chemotherapy by such patients is a high-risk decision. PMID:23725005

  13. Role of somatostatin and its analogues in the treatment of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Büchler, M W; Binder, M; Friess, H

    1994-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is caused by the activation of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and a possible treatment, therefore, is the inhibition of enzyme secretion. This approach is somewhat controversial, however, as it is not clear whether pancreatic secretion continues to occur during the course of acute pancreatitis. Animal studies show an appreciable reduction of secretion in the inflamed pancreas, but studies in humans are not conclusive. The use of somatostatin or its analogue, octreotide, has been investigated in several clinical studies. A meta analysis of six individual studies in which somatostatin was given for acute pancreatitis showed that somatostatin significantly reduces mortality. A trial in patients with moderate to severe acute pancreatitis showed a lower rate (although not statistically significant) of complications in patients treated with 3 x 200 and 3 x 500 micrograms/day octreotide, compared with controls and patients receiving a lower dose of octreotide. A further study showed a significant reduction in patient controlled analgesics in patients treated with octreotide compared with controls. Pain is the important clinical symptom of chronic pancreatitis, possibly resulting from an increased intraductal pressure during secretion. The effect on pain of the inhibition of pancreatic secretion by octreotide has been investigated in two studies. One showed no significant reduction in pain after treatment with octreotide for three days. In the other, in which octreotide was used for three weeks, significantly less pain and analgesic use was recorded during octreotide treatment than during placebo. The most common complication of chronic pancreatitis is the formation of pseudocysts. There is some evidence that octreotide may be useful in their treatment. PMID:7911442

  14. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia in a child with acute myeloid leukemia: successful treatment with daptomycin.

    PubMed

    Büyükcam, Ayşe; Karadağ Öncel, Eda; Özsürekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali B; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Sancak, Banu

    2016-12-01

    Multiple-drug-resistant enterococcal infections canbe a serious problem in pediatric patients particularly concomitance with severe underlying diseases and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment options in children are limited compared with adults. We report a 3-year old-boy with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M7 and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia successfully treated with daptomycin. Daptomycin may be an alternative therapy for VRE infections in children; more studies are needed for extended usage.

  15. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2013-11-01

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm × 30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique.

  16. Treatment of acute cervical internal carotid artery dissection using the Solitaire FR revascularization device.

    PubMed

    To, Chiu Yuen; Badr, Yaser; Richards, Boyd

    2012-12-19

    During treatment of a right internal carotid artery terminus aneurysm, an acute iatrogenic flow limiting dissection was caused in the cervical internal carotid. The true lumen was catheterized using a Mirage 0.008 microwire over an Excelsior SL-10 microcatheter, which was exchanged for a Marksman microcatheter. A 6 mm×30 mm Solitaire FR revascularization device was then deployed across the dissection as a salvage technique.

  17. [Results of the surgical treatment of acute thrombosis of the major arteries of the limbs].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, V A; Vereshchagin, N A; Shavin, V V; Parakhoniak, N V

    1984-08-01

    An analysis of the surgical treatment of acute arterial trombosis of the extremities in 86 patients is presented. The causes of thrombosis were mainly obliterating atherosclerosis, artery trauma and postembolic occlusion. Best results of reconstructive operations were obtained in patients with postembolic occlusion of the arteries and their posttraumatic trombosis, worst results - in obliterating atherosclerosis. Thrombendarterectomy and autovenous shunts and prostheses were found to be the mos effective reconstructive operations.

  18. Extended-release morphine sulfate in treatment of severe acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Balch, Robert J; Trescot, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Morphine is the archetypal opioid analgesic. Because it is a short-acting opioid, its use has been limited to the management of acute pain. The development of extended-release formulations have resulted in the increased utilization of morphine in chronic pain conditions. This review documents the history of morphine use in pain treatment, and describes the metabolism, pharmacodynamics, formulations, and efficacy of the currently available extended-release morphine medications. PMID:21197323

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis After Liver Transplantation in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar Borges, Marcus Vinicius; Moreira, Airton Mota; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Maksoud, Joao Gilberto

    2006-06-15

    Although operative techniques in hepatic transplantation have reduced the time and mortality on waiting lists, the rate of vascular complications associated with these techniques has increased. Stenosis or thrombosis of the portal vein is an infrequent complication, and if present, surgical treatment is considered the traditional management. This article describes a case of acute portal vein thrombosis after liver transplantation from a living donor to a child managed by percutaneous techniques.

  20. The treatment of acute myocardial infarction: the Past, the Present, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Since Herrick's description of the clinical picture of acute myocardial infarction exactly one century ago (1912), there have been three phases of therapy: Phase 1 (1912-1961, bed rest and 'expectant' treatment); Phase 2 (1961-1974, the coronary care unit); and Phase 3 (1975-present, myocardial reperfusion). We are now on the cusp of Phase 4, which comprises efforts to reduce myocardial perfusion injury as well as regenerative medicine.

  1. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment.

  2. Calcium flux and metabolism in the pigeon heart following doxorubicin treatment: an acute study

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present studies were performed to determine in vivo the initial and secondary acute effects of doxorubicin on the influx of calcium into myocardial cells. Studies are also described showing the effect of doxorubicin on a calcium-activated neutral protease from cardiac tissue. These latter studies were performed in an attempt to explain the loss of myofibrilular structures in myocardial cells following doxorubicin treatment.

  3. Molecular imaging of stem cells for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Yi-Ning; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has a unique potential and promises hope for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Preclinical studies have identified barriers to clinical translation, one of which involves the monitoring of transplanted cells and the elucidation of their fates in vivo. Molecular imaging may help the solutions for these challenges. In this review, we illustrate the mechanisms by which molecular imaging enables insights into and the development of stem cell therapy. PMID:26309546

  4. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for acute fulminant inflammatory cardiomyopathy: Series of six patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Goland, Sorel; Czer, Lawrence SC; Siegel, Robert J; Tabak, Steven; Jordan, Stanley; Luthringer, Daniel; Mirocha, James; Coleman, Bernice; Kass, Robert M; Trento, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although an autoimmune mechanism has been postulated for myocarditis and acute-onset inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), immunomodulatory treatment strategies are still under investigation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clinical data of six patients with acute inflammatory DCM referred for evaluation for possible heart transplantation were reviewed. All patients were admitted with acute congestive heart failure and severely impaired left ventricular (LV) function and were treated with high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). The diagnosis of acute inflammatory DCM was based on recent onset of congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV) with severely depressed LV ejection fraction ([LVEF] 30% or lower) occurring shortly after viral-like illness. All patients had inflammation on endomyocardial biopsy or elevated cardiac enzymes, as well as a normal coronary angiogram. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I or II at the time of hospital discharge. The mean LVEF improved from 21.7±7.5% at baseline to 50.3±8.6% at discharge (P=0.005). Four patients had complete recovery (LVEF 50% or higher) and two patients had partial LV recovery. Patients were followed for a median 13.2 months (range two to 24 months) and had a mean LVEF of 53±6% (P not significant versus LVEF at discharge). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with intravenous high-dose IVIG may be a potentially useful treatment in selected patients if given early in the course of acute fulminant inflammatory DCM. A randomized, prospective trial is warranted to prove the real benefit of IVIG in this patient population. PMID:18612500

  5. Indwelling catheter and conservative measures in the treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome in fulminant acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhao-Xi; Huang, Hai-Rong; Zhou, Hong

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of combined indwelling catheter, hemofiltration, respiration support and traditional Chinese medicine (e.g. Dahuang) in treating abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Patients with fulminant acute pancreatitis were divided randomly into 2 groups of combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring and routine conservative measures group (group 1) and control group (group 2). Routine non-operative conservative treatments including hemofiltration, respiration support, gastrointestinal TCM ablution were also applied in control group patients. Effectiveness of the two groups was observed, and APACHE II scores were applied for analysis. RESULTS: On the second and fifth days after treatment, APACHE II scores of group 1 and 2 patients were significantly different. Comparison of effectiveness (abdominalgia and burbulence relief time, hospitalization time) between groups 1 and 2 showed significant difference, as well as incidence rates of cysts formation. Mortality rates of groups 1 and 2 were 10.0% and 20.7%, respectively. For patients in group 1, celiac drainage quantity and intra-abdominal pressure, and hospitalization time were positively correlated (r = 0.552, 0.748, 0.923, P < 0.01) with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSION: Combined indwelling catheter celiac drainage and intra-abdominal pressure monitoring, short veno-venous hemofiltration (SVVH), gastrointestinal TCM ablution, respiration support have preventive and treatment effects on abdominal compartment syndrome of fulminant acute pancreatitis. PMID:16937509

  6. [Morphological changes of the intestine in experimental acute intestinal infection in the treatment of colloidal silver].

    PubMed

    Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N

    2012-06-01

    At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.

  7. Profile of oritavancin and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subhashis; Saeed, Usman; Havlichek, Daniel H; Stein, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin, received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria in adults in August 2014. This novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Oritavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is rapidly bactericidal against many Gram-positive pathogens. The long half-life of this drug enables a single-dose administration. Oritavancin is not metabolized in the body, and the unchanged drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys. In two large Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trials, oritavancin was found to be non-inferior to vancomycin in achieving the primary composite end point in the treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections. Adverse effects noted were mostly mild with nausea, headache, and vomiting being the most common reported side effects. Oritavancin has emerged as another useful antimicrobial agent for treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by MRSA and VISA. PMID:26185459

  8. Pneumodescemetopexy with perfluoroethane (C2F6) for the treatment of acute hydrops secondary to keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Ting, D SJ; Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pneumodescemetopexy with intracameral perfluoroethane (C2F6) gas for the treatment of acute hydrops secondary to keratoconus. Methods Retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. Eight eyes of eight patients who presented with acute hydrops secondary to keratoconus between July 2009 and September 2013 were consecutively recruited. All were treated with intracameral 14% isoexpansile concentration of C2F6. Preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA), intraoperative and postoperative complications, and time taken for resolution of corneal oedema were assessed. Results All the patients, except for one, were followed up for 1 year. The mean age of the cohort was 29.1±13.5 years. BCVA at presentation was 6/60 or less in all patients. Improvement of BCVA was achieved postoperatively in seven (87.5%) patients, with three (37.5%) patients achieving a BCVA of 6/18. The average time between initial presentation and complete resolution of corneal oedema was 60.0±32.1 days. The C2F6 gas persisted in the anterior chamber between 6 and 8 days. All the patients required only one injection during the treatment period. There was no intraoperative or postoperative complication noted during the follow-up period. Conclusion Pneumodescemetopexy with intracameral isoexpansile concentration of C2F6 gas serves as a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with acute hydrops secondary to keratoconus. PMID:24833179

  9. The use of Bioptron light (polarized, polychromatic, non-coherent) therapy for the treatment of acute ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, Costas; Lamnisos, Dimitrios; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Bioptron light therapy for the treatment of acute ankle sprains. Method A parallel group, single-blind, controlled study was carried out in patients with grade II acute ankle sprains. Patients were randomly allocated into two treatment groups (n = 25 for each). Both groups received cryotherapy, and the test group also received Bioptron light therapy. All treatments were performed daily for 5 d. Evaluations included self-reported pain via a visual analogue scale, degree of ankle edema, and ankle range of motion via goniometry carried out before the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Results The test group showed the largest magnitude of improvement for all evaluations at treatment five, and the between-group differences observed were statistically significant (p < 0.0005 for each). Conclusions These data provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of Bioptron light therapy supplemented with cryotherapy for the treatment of acute ankle sprains; however, larger studies are required to confirm these results. Implications for Rehabilitation Ankle sprains are common acute injuries among professional and recreational sports players but also among people in general. Cryotherapy is the first-standard treatment of acute ankle sprains. Phototherapy such as Bioptron light has been recommended supplement to cryotherapy to reduce the symptoms of ankle sprains. The results of the present trial showed that using BIOPTRON LIGHT and cryotherapy the rehabilitation period of acute ankle sprains can be reduced.

  10. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  11. Acute Dystonia Following a Switch in Treatment from Atomoxetine to Low-dose Aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    Başay, Ömer; Basay, Burge Kabukcu; Öztürk, Önder; Yüncü, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    The present report describes the cases of a 17-year-old male patient and a 13-year-old female patient who developed acute dystonia following the administration of low-dose aripiprazole (5 mg/day) after the cessation of atomoxetine treatment. Although aripiprazole-induced dystonia has been previously reported in the literature, it is rare, and most of these cases were associated with doses higher than 5 mg/day. Furthermore, both of the patients in the present study discontinued atomoxetine prior to the initiation of aripiprazole treatment; thus, this report also discussed the possible mechanisms underlying the manifestation of dystonia from the perspective of neurotransmitter activity. PMID:27121436

  12. Carotid Artery Stenting for Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients after Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Neki, Hiroaki; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Tanahashi, Norio; Takao, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein report three ischemic stroke patients who underwent emergency carotid artery stenting after receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment. All patients received antiplatelet medications immediately before stent placement for loading as well as dual antiplatelet therapy after stenting. Under high-dose and dual antiplatelet therapy, none of the three patients showed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhaging. However, one case showed reocclusion of the placed stent after acute thrombosis. As a result, new treatment strategies for the use of antiplatelet agents during emergency stent placement must be developed, particularly for patients who have received intravenous t-PA therapy. PMID:27725550

  13. Lack of acute toxicity associated with a multimodality treatment of stage III ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Belch, R.Z.; Coughlin, C.T.; Cooney, L.C.; Forcier, R.J.; Maurer, L.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Eleven patients with advanced stage III ovarian epithelial carcinoma were treated primarily according to an aggressive multimodality plan utilizing cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy (high-dose cisplatin and Cytoxan), and consolidative radiation therapy (abdominopelvic bath plus pelvic boost). The treatment was tolerated remarkably well. There was no evidence of progressive disease during treatment, and all patients showed a positive response. There was a notable lack of significant acute morbidity, with the exception of a severe symptomatic peripheral neuropathy associated with cisplatin doses of 200 mg/m2. This was not evident with doses of cisplatin up to 150 mg/m2.

  14. [Levosimendan as a treatment for acute renal failure associated with cardiogenic shock after hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando

    Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery.

  15. Levosimendan as a treatment for acute renal failure associated with cardiogenic shock after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, Fabiola Quinteros; Revelo, Margarita; Salazar, Alexander; Maggi, Genaro; Schiraldi, Renato; Brogly, Nicolas; Gilsanz, Fernando

    Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery.

  16. Successful treatment of a young woman with acute complicated myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Serpytis, Pranas; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Katkus, Rimgaudas; Samalavicius, Robertas; Glaveskaite, Sigita; Rackauskas, Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is method used to improve the neurological status of patients who are at risk of ischaemia after myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who suffered acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. The patient was successfully resuscitated. Invasive and non-invasive medical treatment was applied including therapeutic hypothermia. Success was achieved due to adequate public reaction, fast transportation, blood vessel revascularization and application of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient was successfully discharged after one week of treatment, and just minor changes in heart function were present. PMID:24570755

  17. Nationwide survey of antihypertensive treatment for acute intracerebral hemorrhage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koga, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Naganuma, Masaki; Kario, Kazuomi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Okuda, Satoshi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumi; Okada, Yasushi; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2009-09-01

    Acute hypertension is associated with hematoma enlargement and poor clinical outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the method of controlling blood pressure (BP) during the acute phase of ICH remains unknown. The aim of this study is to show current strategies about this issue in Japan. Questionnaires regarding antihypertensive treatment (AHT) strategies were sent to neurosurgeons, neurologists and others responsible for ICH management in 1424 hospitals. Of 600 respondents, 550 (92%) worked at hospitals wherein acute ICH patients are managed and 548 (99.6%) of them agreed with the application of AHT within 24 h of ICH onset. Most answered that the systolic BP threshold for starting AHT was 180 mm Hg (36%) or 160 mm Hg (31%), which differed significantly between neurosurgeons (median, 160 mm Hg) and neurologists/others (180 mm Hg, P<0.001). The goal of lowering systolic BP was to reach a maximum of 140, 150 or 160 mm Hg according to 448 respondents (82%) and 209 (38%) intensively lowered systolic BP to acute ICH patients. Nicardipine was the most frequent choice of antihypertensive agent.

  18. Polymer-surfactant treatment of meconium-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, K W; William Taeusch, H; Robertson, B; Goerke, J; Clements, J A

    2000-08-01

    Substances (for example, serum proteins or meconium) that interfere with the activity of pulmonary surfactant in vitro may also be important in the pathogenesis or progression of acute lung injury. Addition of polymers such as dextran or polyethylene glycol (PEG) to surfactants prevents and reverses surfactant inactivation. The purpose of this study was to find out whether surfactant/polymer mixtures are more effective for treating one form of acute lung injury than is surfactant alone. Acute lung injury in adult rats was created by tracheal instillation of human meconium. Injured animals, which were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated with 100% oxygen and not treated with surfactant mixtures, remained hypoxic and required high ventilator pressures to maintain Pa(CO(2)) in the normal range over the 3 h of the experiment. Uninjured animals maintained normal values for oxygen and compliance of the respiratory system. The greatest improvement in both oxygenation (178%) and compliance (42%) occurred in animals with lung injury that were treated with Survanta and PEG (versus untreated control animals; p < 0.01), whereas little improvement was found after treatment with Survanta alone. Similar results were found when postmortem pulmonary pressure-volume curves and histology were examined. We conclude that adding PEG to Survanta improves gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and histologic appearance of the lungs in a rat model of acute lung injury caused by meconium.

  19. Risk factors for treatment failure in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, F; Tresoldi, S; Maggiolini, S; Bozzano, A; Bellani, G; Pesenti, A; Fumagalli, R

    2008-05-01

    Intubation is necessary in 7 to 20% of patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema despite optimal treatment. This study evaluated the usefulness of parameters largely available in clinical practice to predict the need for intubation in a population of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema patients treated with medical therapy and continuous positive airway pressure. The present retrospective cohort study involved 142 patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema who were admitted to coronary care or the intensive care unit of a university hospital and were treated by an in-hospital protocol. Physiological measurements and blood gas samples were evaluated at 'baseline' (just after admission), 'early' (one to three hours after beginning treatment) and 'late' (eight to 10 hours after beginning treatment). Twenty-two patients (15.5%) required intubation. A systolic blood pressure at admission lower than 140 mmHg was significantly associated with a higher risk for intubation, while hypercapnic patients or those with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction at admission did not show a worse prognosis. A simple score based on largely available parameters (1 point for each: age >78 years, systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg at admission, arterial blood gas acidosis and heart rate >95 bpm at early time) is proposed. The rate of intubation according to this score ranged from 0% (score of 0) to 90% (score of 3). Our study found that simple parameters available in clinical practice are significantly associated with the need for intubation in acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure and medical therapy. A simple score to evaluate the need for endotracheal intubation is proposed.

  20. The ABC of tDCS: Effects of Anodal, Bilateral and Cathodal Montages of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients with Stroke—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, A.; De Angelis, D.; Morone, G.; Maglione, L.; Paolucci, T.; Bragoni, M.; Venturiero, V.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that is emerging as a prospective therapy for different neurologic disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that anodal and cathodal stimulation can improve motor performance in terms of dexterity and manual force. The objective of this study was to determine whether different electrodes' setups (anodal, cathodal, and simultaneous bilateral tDCS) provide different motor performance and which montage was more effective. As secondary outcome, we have asked to the patients about their satisfaction, and to determine if the bilateral tDCS was more uncomfortable than unilateral tDCS. Nine patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled in this study and randomly divided in three groups. Our results showed that tDCS was an effective treatment if compared to Sham stimulation (P = 0.022). In particular, anodal stimulation provided the higher improvement in terms of manual dexterity. Cathodal stimulation seemed to have a little effect in terms of force improvement, not observed with other setups. Bipolar stimulation seemed to be the less effective. No significant differences have been noted for the different set-ups for patients' judgment. These results highlight the potential efficacy of tDCS for patients with stroke in subacute phase. PMID:23365790

  1. Potential Application of Viral Empty Capsids for the Treatment of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Prof. Ariella Oppenheim CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Hebrew University of Jerusalem...Lung / 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof. Ariella...mechanism elicited by VLPs that attenuate 2CLP-induced sepsis, to be performed as the project continues. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Acute Respiratory Distress

  2. Pediatric Medical Care System in China Has Significantly Reduced Abandonment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi; Hong, Dan; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Defei; Ashwani, Neetica

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed both administrative and clinical data from our hospital during 2002 to 2012 to evaluate the influence of government medical policies on reducing abandonment treatment in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two policies funding for the catastrophic diseases and the new rural cooperative medical care system (NRCMS) were initiated in 2005 and 2011, respectively. About 1151 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in our study during this period and 316 cases abandoned treatment. Statistical differences in sex, age, number of children in the family, and family financial status were observed. Of most importance, the medical insurance coverage was critical for reducing abandonment treatment. However, 92 cases abandoning treatment after relapse did not show significant difference either in medical insurance coverage or in duration from first complete remission. In conclusion, financial crisis was the main reason for abandoning treatment. Government-funded health care expenditure programs reduced families’ economic burden and thereby reduced the abandonment rate with resultant increased overall survival. PMID:25393454

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) - application in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Il; Foerster, Águida; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation is a versatile tool to modulate psychological processes via alterations of brain activity, and excitability. It is applied to explore the physiological basis of cognition and behavior, as well as to reduce clinical symptoms in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Neuromodulatory brain stimulation via transcranial direct currents (tDCS) has gained increased attention recently. In this review we will describe physiological mechanisms of action of tDCS, and summarize its application to modulate psychological processes in healthy humans and neuropsychiatric diseases. Furthermore, beyond giving an overview of the state of the art of tDCS, including limitations, we will outline future directions of research in this relatively young scientific field.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas: 10-year clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Qingsong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report our 10-year diagnosis and treatment experience of acute urogenital and genitalia tract traumas and outline the management of the traumatic injury. Methods: We reviewed the diagnoses and treatments of 208 cases of acute kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, or male genitalia injuries in our department between March 2002 and March 2012. The patient data including general information, injury position and mechanism, diagnosis and treatment, the follow-up information was analyzed and summarized. Results: Of 62 patients with renal injury examined by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) examination, 45 were treated conservatively, 9 with superselective arterial embolization, and 8 with nephrectomy. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) was conducted in two patients with ureteral injury, one was treated with cystoscopic ureteral catheterization and the other with ureteric reimplantation. Bladder injury (6 patients) confirmed with a waterflood susceptibility test combined with CT scans underwent laparotomy and the bladder suturing was done. Of 92 patients with urethral injury, 6 were treated with a nonoperative approach (indwelling catheter), 18 with urethral realignment, 35 with cystoscopic urethral realignment, 29 with end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty, and 4 with urethral repairmen. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. Of the 24 cases with penile injuries, 1 underwent conservative treatment, 8 were treated with debridement and suture ligation, and 15 were managed with suture repair of the penis white membrane. During the follow-up period, 62 patients with renal injury had normal renal function. Neither of the two patients with ureteral injury developed hydronephrosis. Twenty-nine patients with urethral injury suffered from urethral structure. All patients with vesical or genital injury recovered

  5. Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia Regarding Combined Treatment Regimens for Acute Uncomplicated Malaria, Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto; Piñeros, Juan-Gabriel; Ríos, Alexandra; Blair, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Selecting suitable anti-malarial treatment represents one of the best tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by this disease. Sexual and asexual parasite dynamics were thus evaluated in patients involved in antimalarial drug efficacy studies by using combined treatment with and without artemisinin derivatives for treating uncomplicated acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Antioquia, Colombia. All treatment doses were supervised and administered according to patients' weight; sexual and asexual parasitemia were evaluated during 28- or 42-days follow-up in 468 patients. Artemisinin-based combination therapy showed greater parasiticidal ability, showing a mean asexual parasitemia survival rate of one day and mean gametocyte survival rate of 1–2 days. Sexual and asexual parasitemias were eliminated more quickly and effectively in the group receiving artemisinin-based combination therapy. Adding 45 mg of primaquine to treatment with artesunate and mefloquine reduced gametocyte and asexual parasite survival by one day. PMID:20595483

  6. Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia regarding combined treatment regimens for acute uncomplicated malaria, Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto; Piñeros, Juan-Gabriel; Ríos, Alexandra; Blair, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Selecting suitable anti-malarial treatment represents one of the best tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by this disease. Sexual and asexual parasite dynamics were thus evaluated in patients involved in antimalarial drug efficacy studies by using combined treatment with and without artemisinin derivatives for treating uncomplicated acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Antioquia, Colombia. All treatment doses were supervised and administered according to patients' weight; sexual and asexual parasitemia were evaluated during 28- or 42-days follow-up in 468 patients. Artemisinin-based combination therapy showed greater parasiticidal ability, showing a mean asexual parasitemia survival rate of one day and mean gametocyte survival rate of 1-2 days. Sexual and asexual parasitemias were eliminated more quickly and effectively in the group receiving artemisinin-based combination therapy. Adding 45 mg of primaquine to treatment with artesunate and mefloquine reduced gametocyte and asexual parasite survival by one day.

  7. Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement for Predicting Treatment Outcome in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  8. Current and Future Percutaneous Strategies for the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Amat-Santos, Ignacio J; Varela-Falcón, Luis H; Abraham, William T

    2017-01-30

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) has risen in parallel with improved survival in patients after a myocardial infarction and an aging population worldwide. In recent years, new percutaneous therapies have been developed to complement current established treatments for acute/decompensated and chronic HF and minimize risks. In acute presentations, the failure of medical treatment is no longer the end of the road in refractory circulatory shock; the use of mechanical circulatory support devices may be the next milestone in well-resourced health settings. Although evidence in this area is difficult to generate, research networks can facilitate the volume and quality of data needed to further augment the clinician's knowledge. Pulsatile (intra-aortic balloon pump), axial continuous (Impella), or centrifugal continuous pumps (TandemHeart; HeartMate PHP) together with percutaneously implanted extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are radically changing the prognosis of acute HF. Newer percutaneous therapies for chronic HF are based on attractive hypotheses, including left atrial decompression with shunting devices, left ventricle restoration through partitioning devices, or pressure-guided implantable therapies that may help to promptly treat decompensations. To date, only the last has been proved effective in a randomized study. Therefore, thorough research is still needed in this dynamic and promising field.

  9. [Treatment of acute lithium intoxication with high-flux haemodialysis membranes].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Regidor, D; Peces, C; Sánchez, R; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2006-01-01

    Lithium carbonate is commonly prescribed for the treatment of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders. However, because of its narrow therapeutic index an excessive elevation of serum lithium concentration, either during chronic maintenance therapy or after an acute overdose, can result in serious toxicity. In addition to supportive care, the established treatment of severe lithium toxicity is haemodialysis. Conventional haemodialysis can reduce serum lithium rapidly, but post-dialysis rebound elevations with recurrent toxicity have been documented in old publications. High-flux membranes should be capable of removing more lithium per hour of haemodialysis, but published values are not available. We report here three patients with acute lithium intoxication who were treated successfully with bicarbonate and high-flux haemodialysis membranes. Our patients presented with a severe degree of intoxication, based on the amount of drug ingested, the initial serum lithium level, the severity of neurologic symptoms and systemic manifestations. Two patients developed acute renal failure probably as a result of volume depletion since it was rapidly reversible by haemodialysis and infusion therapy. In addition, consecutive haemodialysis sessions and improvement of renal function allowed a rapid decrease in serum lithium levels without haemodynamic instability or rebound elevations in lithium concentration. The effectiveness of the procedure in these cases can be attributed to the use of bicarbonate dialysate and high-efficiency dialysers. This is the first report describing the effect of high-efficiency dialysers on lithium pharmacokinetic. Using this technique the elimination rate of lithium was found to be greater than previously reported with haemodialysis.

  10. Evaluation of DCS III Transmission Alternatives, Phase II, Task 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-31

    be operated from -24/48 volt DC thus lending itself to battery operation. The battery charger , - therefore, will be powered by AC. The AC will be...Report 1-5 3-1 DCS Reference Configuration 3-7 3-2 Flow Diagram of ANA Computing Program 3-18 3-3 Flow Diagram of an Interactive Network 3-19 Design ...transmission subsystem. To provide a basis for the evolving architecture design of the third generation DCS for the years beyond 2000, it is necessary to

  11. Change in Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy after Treatment during Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, William; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chalermchai, Thep; DeGruttola, Victor; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Pothisri, Mantana; Busovaca, Edgar; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Jagodzinski, Linda; Spudich, Serena; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H.; Valcour, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Objective Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART. Results After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months. Interpretation We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury. PMID:23229129

  12. Effective Treatment of Acute and Chronic Murine Tuberculosis with Liposome-Encapsulated Clofazimine

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Linda B.; Sinha, Indu; Franzblau, Scott G.; Krahenbuhl, James L.; Mehta, Reeta T.

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of liposomal clofazimine (L-CLF) was studied in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. Groups of mice were treated with either free clofazimine (F-CLF), L-CLF, or empty liposomes twice a week for five treatments beginning on day 1 (acute), day 21 (established), or day 90 (chronic) postinfection. One day after the last treatment, the numbers of CFU of M. tuberculosis in the spleen, liver, and lungs were determined. F-CLF at the maximum tolerated dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight was ineffective; however, 10-fold-higher doses of L-CLF demonstrated a dose response with significant CFU reduction in all tissues without any toxic effects. In acutely infected mice, 50 mg of L-CLF/kg reduced CFU 2 to 3 log units in all three organs. In established or chronic infection, treated mice showed no detectable CFU in the spleen or liver and 1- to 2-log-unit reduction in the lungs. A second series of L-CLF treatments cleared M. tuberculosis in all three tissues. L-CLF appears to be bactericidal in the liver and spleen, which remained negative for M. tuberculosis growth for 2 months. Thus, L-CLF could be useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:10390215

  13. Acute nicotine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rat.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity.

  14. Surgical versus conservative treatment following acute rupture of the Achilles tendon: is there a pedobarographic difference?

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Fatih; Mermerkaya, Musa Uğur; Çıraklı, Alper; Karaoğlu, Sinan; Duygulu, Fuat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Controversy remains regarding the optimal treatment method and postoperative rehabilitation of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. In this study, pedobarographic assessments of surgical and conservative treatments were compared. Material and methods A prospective assessment was made of 16 patients (eight surgical, eight conservative) and eight healthy controls using a plantar pressure measurement system. Biomechanical gait parameters were obtained using the Footscan dynamic gait analysis system. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for the evaluation of data. Results Nineteen males and five females were assessed, with an average age of 42.0±11.9 years. Follow-up was completed in 16 patients. No statistically significant difference was determined between the two treatment groups with regard to the gait analysis, but a difference was observed with the control group (P<0.001). All patients were able to resume their prior activities after 6 months and regained normal ranges of motion, with a high rate of satisfaction. Most of the patients (75%) were able to return to their pre-injury level of activities. Conclusion Satisfactory results were obtained through conservative treatment of acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon. No significant differences or complications were observed in the group managed conservatively versus the group treated surgically. Further studies including 3D gait analyses and tendon biomechanical research are required to further investigate this issue. PMID:27621640

  15. Emerging strategies for the treatment of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; Iacoboni, Gloria; Montesinos, Pau; Venditti, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, and its incidence increases with age. Clinical outcomes in younger patients have improved over the years but, unfortunately, there is little evidence for an equivalent improvement in outcome for older patients. Approximately 50 % of older patients who are able to receive intensive chemotherapy will achieve a complete remission; however, they face a much higher relapse rate than younger patients, and survival rates for this group are low. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve outcomes in older patients with AML. In this article, we discuss current treatment paradigms for older patients with AML including the challenges faced when determining which patients are eligible for intensive chemotherapy. We then highlight new treatments in development that may benefit this patient group. Cytotoxic agents, hypomethylating agents, molecularly targeted agents, and cell cycle kinase inhibitors are discussed, with a focus on novel agents that have achieved an advanced stage of development. Overall, the treatment of AML in older patients remains a challenge and, whenever possible, treatment should be offered in the context of clinical trials and should be planned with curative intent.

  16. Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: An open labelled, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sunny; Upadhyay, Amit; Shah, Dheeraj; Teotia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Astha; Jaiswal, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Randomized controlled trials in developed countries have reported benefits of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea, but there is paucity of such data from India. The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus GG in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children from a semi-urban city in north India. Methods: In this open labelled, randomized controlled trial 200 children with acute watery diarrhoea, aged between 6 months to 5 years visiting outpatient department and emergency room of a teaching hospital in north India were enrolled. The children were randomized into receiving either Lactobacillus GG in dose of 10 billion cfu/day for five days or no probiotic medication in addition to standard WHO management of diarrhoea. Primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and time to change in consistency of stools. Results: Median (inter quartile range) duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter in children in LGG group [60 (54-72) h vs. 78 (72-90) h; P<0.001]. Also, there was faster improvement in stool consistency in children receiving Lactobacillus GG than control group [36 (30-36) h vs. 42 (36-48) h; P<0.001]. There was significant reduction in average number of stools per day in LGG group (P<0.001) compared to the control group. These benefits were seen irrespective of rotavirus positivity in stool tests. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the use of Lactobacillus GG in children with acute diarrhoea resulted in shorter duration and faster improvement in stool consistency as compared to the control group. PMID:24820831

  17. Bifidobacterium lactis in Treatment of Children with Acute Diarrhea. A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Said, Reem Nabil; Mosallam, Dalia Sayed; Barakat, Nahla Abdel Moniem; Sabry, Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatment for children diarrhea. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, researches were often limited to certain strains. AIM: To test Bifidobacterium lactis on morbidity of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 children (1 - 23 months) admitted with acute diarrhea to the Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University and were randomly assigned to receive in addition to usual treatment of diarrhea according to WHO guidelines; one of two treatments either milk formula non-supplemented (n = 25) or supplemented (n = 25) with Bifidobacterium lactis 14.5 × 106 CFU/100 ml daily for one week. Primary outcomes were frequency and duration of diarrhea and hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of fever and vomiting episodes. Safety and tolerance were also recorded. RESULTS: On admission, patients’ characteristics of both groups (50 cases) were similar. For children who received the probiotics for one week; mean duration of diarrhoea was shorter than in controls (3.12 ± 0.92 vs. 4.10 ± 0.94 days) (P = 0.02), number of motions per day was less than in controls (3.96 ± 0.62 vs. 4.46 ± 0.85) (P = 0.04) and discharge from hospital <2 days was more frequent than in controls (72% vs. 44%) (P = 0.048). There was no effect on fever (P = 0.63) or vomiting (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in supplemented milk formula decreased significantly frequency, duration of diarrhea, and hospital stay than usual treatment alone in children with acute diarrhea. Additional researches on other uncommon local probiotic species should be encouraged. PMID:27275258

  18. Treatment delay and the risk of relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Amelia; Collins, Anna; Fox, Kahlia; Shields, Sarah; Ritchie, Petra; Kirby, Maria; Revesz, Tamas

    2017-03-13

    Delays or interruptions in chemotherapy due to toxicity such as neutropenia or severe infections are common in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Based on the reports of worse outcomes in children with poorer compliance with therapy, there has been concern that toxicity-induced therapy interruptions could also compromise treatment outcome. In a retrospective study of treatment delays in our hospital between 2003 and 2013, the case notes of 141 patients were reviewed. The cumulative lengths of delays during the whole length of chemotherapy, during the intensive phase of treatment, and during maintenance treatment were analyzed. Within these categories, delays were split between less and more than the median value. The risk of relapse did not differ between patients with a longer or shorter delay during the total length of treatment or during the intensive phase. In addition, there was a trend when comparing patients above vs below the mean in length of treatment delays during maintenance, and there was a statistically significant difference in relapses when comparing patients in the lowest and highest quartiles of maintenance delays, with fewer relapses among those patients in the highest quartile for treatment delays.

  19. Focused transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates specific domains of self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Pripfl, Jürgen; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    Recent neuroscience theories suggest that different kinds of self-regulation may share a common psychobiological mechanism. However, empirical evidence for a domain general self-regulation mechanism is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether focused anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), facilitating the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), acts on a domain general self-regulation mechanism and thus modulates both affective and appetitive self-regulation. Twenty smokers participated in this within-subject sham controlled study. Effects of anodal left, anodal right and sham tDCS over the dlPFC on affective picture appraisal and nicotine craving-cue appraisal were assessed. Anodal right tDCS over the dlPFC reduced negative affect in emotion appraisal, but neither modulated regulation of positive emotion appraisal nor of craving appraisal. Anodal left stimulation did not induce any significant effects. The results of our study show that domain specific self-regulation networks are at work in the prefrontal cortex. Focused tDCS modulation of this specific self-regulation network could probably be used during the first phase of nicotine abstinence, during which negative affect might easily result in relapse. These findings have implications for neuroscience models of self-regulation and are of relevance for the development of brain stimulation based treatment methods for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with self-regulation deficits.

  20. Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Luiten, E J; Hop, W C; Lange, J F; Bruining, H A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial was undertaken in 102 patients with objective evidence of severe acute pancreatitis to evaluate whether selective decontamination reduces mortality. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Secondary pancreatic infection is the major cause of death in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Controlled clinical trials to study the effect of selective decontamination in such patients are not available. METHODS: Between April 22, 1990 and April 19, 1993, 102 patients with severe acute pancreatitis were admitted to 16 participating hospitals. Patients were entered into the study if severe acute pancreatitis was indicated, on admission, by multiple laboratory criteria (Imrie score > or = 3) and/or computed tomography criteria (Balthazar grade D or E). Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (control group) or standard treatment plus selective decontamination (norfloxacin, colistin, amphotericin; selective decontamination group). All patients received full supportive treatment, and surveillance cultures were taken in both groups. RESULTS: Fifty patients were assigned to the selective decontamination group and 52 were assigned to the control group. There were 18 deaths in the control group (35%), compared with 11 deaths (22%) in the selective decontamination group (adjusted for Imrie score and Balthazar grade: p = 0.048). This difference was mainly caused by a reduction of late mortality (> 2 weeks) due to significant reduction of gram-negative pancreatic infection (p = 0.003). The average number of laparotomies per patient was reduced in patients treated with selective decontamination (p < 0.05). Failure of selective decontamination to prevent secondary gram-negative pancreatic infection with subsequent death was seen in only three patients (6%) and transient gram-negative pancreatic infection was seen in one (2%). In both groups of patients, all gram-negative aerobic pancreatic infection was preceded by

  1. Treatment of acute periprosthetic infections with prosthesis retention: Review of current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Jesse WP; Willink, Robin Tjeenk; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; van den Bekerom, Michel PJ; Colen, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint arthroplasty, occurring in approximately 1%-2% of all cases. With growing populations and increasing age, PJI will have a growing effect on health care costs. Many risk factors have been identified that increase the risk of developing PJI, including obesity, immune system deficiencies, malignancy, previous surgery of the same joint and longer operating time. Acute PJI occurs either postoperatively (4 wk to 3 mo after initial arthroplasty, depending on the classification system), or via hematogenous spreading after a period in which the prosthesis had functioned properly. Diagnosis and the choice of treatment are the cornerstones to success. Although different definitions for PJI have been used in the past, most are more or less similar and include the presence of a sinus tract, blood infection values, synovial white blood cell count, signs of infection on histopathological analysis and one or more positive culture results. Debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) is the primary treatment for acute PJI, and should be performed as soon as possible after the development of symptoms. Success rates differ, but most studies report success rates of around 60%-80%. Whether single or multiple debridement procedures are more successful remains unclear. The use of local antibiotics in addition to the administration of systemic antibiotic agents is also subject to debate, and its pro’s and con’s should be carefully considered. Systemic treatment, based on culture results, is of importance for all PJI treatments. Additionally, rifampin should be given in Staphylococcal PJIs, unless all foreign material is removed. The most important factors contributing to treatment failure are longer duration of symptoms, a longer time after initial arthroplasty, the need for more debridement procedures, the retention of exchangeable components, and PJI caused by Staphylococcus (aureus or

  2. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  3. Role of Damage Control Surgery in the Treatment of Hinchey III and IV Sigmoid Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Arezzo, Alberto; Vettoretto, Nereo; Cavaliere, Davide; Farinella, Eriberto; Renzi, Claudio; Cannata, Gaspare; Desiderio, Jacopo; Farinacci, Federico; Barberini, Francesco; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare; Fingerhut, Abe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many of the treatment strategies for sigmoid diverticulitis are actually focusing on nonoperative and minimally invasive approaches. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the actual role of damage control surgery (DCS) in the treatment of generalized peritonitis caused by perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published from 1960 to July 2013. Comparative and noncomparative studies that included patients who underwent DCS for complicated diverticulitis were considered. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, duration of open abdomen, intensive care unit length of stay, reoperation, bowel resection performed at first operation, fecal diversion, method, and timing of closure of abdominal wall were the main outcomes of interest. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses algorithm for the literature search and review, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. DCS was exclusively performed in diverticulitis patients with septic shock or requiring vasopressors intraoperatively. Two surgical different approaches were highlighted: limited resection of the diseased colonic segment with or without stoma or reconstruction in situ, and laparoscopic washing and drainage without colonic resection. Despite the heterogeneity of patient groups, clinical settings, and interventions included in this review, DCS appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of Hinchey III and IV diverticulitis, complicated by septic shock. A tailored approach to each patient seems to be appropriate. PMID:25437034

  4. Acupuncture as a primary and independent treatment in the acute phases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuanyuan; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is an otological emergency defined as a rapid hearing loss, seriously affects patient's social life. To data, no study has reported the treatment by acupuncture alone in the acute phase. In this report, Acupuncture and Moxibustion therapy of excitation-focus transfer is outlined. The patient was a 26-year-old young woman who had an SSHL coupled with ear fullness. The patient had no past medical history, but she had undergone variable emotions and had a history of excessive noise exposure. The patient refused to receive any medicine especially steroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. She just only received acupuncture treatment. Her symptoms and outcome measurements were improved every week and completely recovered after the last week. Even though the article presents a single case and is based on self-reports, there are very clear trends on how patients with SSHL responded to acupuncture treatments. PMID:27368045

  5. Chronic but not acute Li+ treatment prevents behavioral depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, N A; Pereira, D G; Hermini, A H

    1995-09-01

    The effect of lithium administration on the learned helplessness model of depression was investigated. Female Wistar rats (190-210 g) received either tap water alone (N = 156) or 20 mM LiCL provided chronically (30 days; N = 127) or acutely (5 days; N = 22) in the drinking water. Three days before the end of treatment, each group was divided into two subgroups which received either inescapable shock (IS) or no shock (NS) treatment in shuttle boxes. All groups were subsequently submitted to an escape test on the following day and then sacrificed one day after the escape test, when blood samples were taken to measure serum Li+, Na+ and K+ concentrations by flame photometry. There were no significant differences in serum Na+ amongst the 4 groups. Chronically treated NS and IS rats both presented an increase in serum K+ compared to the control rats. The IS and not the NS chronically treated rats presented increased serum Li+ levels which cannot be accounted for in terms of differences in Li+ intake. The IS group treated chronically with lithium had a better escape performance than the IS group receiving either tap water or acute Li+ administration. We conclude that chronic but not acute Li+ treatment at a serum level within the prophylactic range (0.5 mEq/l) is able to prevent learned helplessness in the rat. These results agree with the data obtained in clinical practice indicating that Li+ is only effective after chronic administration and that Li(+)-induced hyperkalemia is a side effect.

  6. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction.

  7. Outcome and Treatment Effects in Stroke Associated with Acute Cervical ICA Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gliem, Michael; Lee, John-Ih; Barckhan, Aurica; Turowski, Bernd; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Jander, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Background Endovascular therapy (EVT) with stent retrievers in addition to i.v. thrombolysis (IVT) has proven effective in acute stroke patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA, M1 segment) and distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Limited data exist concerning acute cervical ICA occlusion, either alone or in combination with intracranial ICA occlusion (tandem occlusion). Therefore we analyzed outcome and treatment effects in stroke associated with cervical ICA occlusion, with specific focus on the impact of intracranial ICA or M1 patency. Methods Seventy-eight patients with cervical ICA occlusion from our local stroke unit registry were analyzed retrospectively. Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) classification, infarct size, modified Rankin scale (mRS), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and death were assessed as outcome parameters. Results Forty-three patients had isolated cervical ICA occlusion whereas 35 patients presented with extra-/intracranial tandem occlusion. Patients underwent IVT alone (n = 23), combined IVT/EVT (n = 28) or no treatment (n = 27). Treated and untreated patients with tandem occlusion had a worse outcome after 90 days compared to isolated cervical occlusion (OR for moderate outcome 0.29, 0.27–0.88, p = 0.01). Additional EVT improved outcome in patients with tandem occlusion (OR for moderate outcome: 15.43, 1.60–148.90, p = 0.008) but not isolated cervical occlusion (OR 1.33, 0.38–11.60, NS). Conclusions In contrast to tandem occlusion, stroke outcome in patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion was generally more benign and not improved by combined IVT/EVT compared to IVT alone. Intracranial vessel patency may be critical for treatment decision in acute cervical ICA occlusion. PMID:28081270

  8. Safety and efficacy of repeat thrombolytic treatment after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    White, H D; Cross, D B; Williams, B F; Norris, R M

    1990-01-01

    Thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction increases the risk of subsequent reocclusion of the infarct related artery. The efficacy and safety of repeat thrombolytic treatment was assessed in 31 patients treated with streptokinase (n = 13) or tissue plasminogen activator (n = 18) a median of five days (1-716) after the first infusion. The indication for readministration was prolonged chest pain with new ST segment elevation. Efficacy was assessed by infarct artery patency at angiography at a median of eight days after readministration in 22 patients and by non-invasive criteria in 23 patients (reperfusion was deemed to be likely if serum creatine kinase was not increased or reached a peak less than 12 hours after infarction). Angiography showed patency of 70% of the infarct arteries after readministration of streptokinase and of 75% after tissue plasminogen activator. The corresponding patency rates assessed noninvasively were 73% and 75%. Reinfarction was prevented in nine (29%) patients. Allergic reactions occurred in four of eight patients who received streptokinase twice (plasmacytosis and acute reversible renal failure developed in one patient). Two patients had major bleeding and two minor bleeding, all after tissue plasminogen activator, and one of them died of cerebral haemorrhage. Repeat thrombolytic treatment results in late patency rates similar to the rates after the initial administration. Allergic reactions were common in those treated twice with streptokinase. PMID:2119665

  9. Treatment of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a Canadian consensus

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, Joseph M; Geddes, Michelle; Kassis, Jeannine; Kew, Andrea K; Leber, Brian; Nevill, Thomas; Sabloff, Mitchell; Sandhu, Irwindeep; Schuh, Andre C; Storring, John M; Ashkenas, John

    2013-01-01

    Patients over age 60 comprise the majority of those diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but treatment approaches in this population are variable, with many uncertainties and controversies. Our group conducted a literature review to summarize the latest information and to develop a consensus document with practical treatment recommendations. We addressed five key questions: selection criteria for patients to receive intensive induction chemotherapy; optimal induction and post-remission regimens; allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); treatment of patients not suitable for induction chemotherapy; and treatment of patients with prior hematological disorders or therapy-related AML. Relevant literature was identified through a PubMed search of publications from 1991 to 2012. Key findings included the recognition that cytogenetics and molecular markers are major biologic determinants of treatment outcomes in the older population, both during induction therapy and following HSCT. Although disease-specific and patient-specific risk factors for poor outcomes are more common in the older population, age is not in itself sufficient grounds for withholding established treatments, including induction and consolidation chemotherapy. The role of HSCT and use of hypomethylating agents are discussed. Finally, suggested treatment algorithms are outlined, based on these recommendations. PMID:23675565

  10. Eosinophilic Fasciitis and Acute Encephalopathy Toxicity from Pembrolizumab Treatment of a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Leila; Maurice, Catherine; Chappell, MaryAnne; MacMillan, Leslie; Al-Habeeb, Ayman S; Al-Faraidy, Nada; Butler, Marcus O; Rogalla, Patrik; Mason, Warren; Joshua, Anthony M; Hogg, David

    2016-03-01

    Anti-PD-1 inhibitors have significant activity in metastatic melanoma. Responses often occur early and may be sustained. The optimal duration of treatment with these agents is unknown. Here, we report the case of a 51-year-old woman treated with pembrolizumab, as part of the Keynote-001 trial, as first-line treatment for metastatic disease. She experienced a complete response after 13.8 months of treatment with no adverse events. One month after the last drug infusion and 18 months from starting treatment, the patient presented with eosinophilic fasciitis. She then developed acute confusion and weakness, thought to be due to intracranial vasculitis. High-dose steroids were initiated with resolution of the fasciitis. Aspirin was commenced for presumed vasculitis with resolution of the neurologic symptoms. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of eosinophilic fasciitis or cerebral vasculitis due to anti-PD-1 agents. This case demonstrates that toxicity may occur in association with pembrolizumab treatment after a prolonged period of treatment without toxicity. Future trials should explore the optimal duration of treatment with pembrolizumab.

  11. Hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific novel treatment for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Cui, Jianguo; Sun, Quan; Cai, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, however, it is seldom regarded as a therapeutic gas. Recent studies show that inhaled hydrogen gas (H(2)) has antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities that protect the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury and stroke by selectively reducing hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. It is also well known that more than a half of the ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals. Studies have show that reducing hydroxyl radicals can significantly improve the protection of cells from radiation damage. In like manner, we hypothesize that hydrogen therapy may be an effective, specific and unique treatment for acute radiation syndrome.

  12. Treatment of acute non-lymphoid leukemias: comparison of two protocols.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, E; Stacher, A; Heinz, R; Jaksic, B

    1977-12-19

    The results of treatment of 57 patients suffering from acute non-lymphoid leukemia by two protocols are compared. The more aggressive Coap protocol rendered a higher remission rate (57.1%), than the mild Guyer protocol where the remission rate has been 25%. The best results have been achieved in the former group in the younger population; in the latter group there has been no age-effect relationship. Although the remission rate differed in both protocols there has been no statistically significant difference in survival.

  13. Diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media: report from International Primary Care Network.

    PubMed Central

    Froom, J; Culpepper, L; Grob, P; Bartelds, A; Bowers, P; Bridges-Webb, C; Grava-Gubins, I; Green, L; Lion, J; Somaini, B

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The relation between a history of disorders suggestive of acute otitis media, symptoms, and findings of an examination of the tympanic membrane and doctors' certainty of diagnosis. Also, to examine differences in prescribing habits for acute otitis media among doctors from different countries. DESIGN--Questionnaires were completed by participating doctors for a maximum of 15 consecutive patients presenting with presumed acute otitis media. SETTING--General practices in Australia, Belgium, Great Britain, Israel, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Canada, Switzerland, and the United States. PATIENTS--3660 Children divided into the three age groups 0-12 months, 13-30 months, and greater than or equal to 31 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--General practitioners' responses to questions on their diagnostic certainty and resolution of patients' symptoms after two months. RESULTS--The diagnostic certainty in patients aged 0-12 months was 58.0%. This increased to 66.0% in those aged 13-30 months and 73.3% in those aged greater than or equal to 31 months. In all age groups diagnostic certainty was positively associated with the finding of a tympanic membrane that was discharging pus or bulging. Redness of the membrane and pain were also associated with certainty in patients aged 13-30 months, and a history of decreased hearing or recent upper respiratory infection was positively associated in patients aged greater than or equal to 31 months. The proportion of patients prescribed antibiotics varied greatly among the countries, from 31.2% in The Netherlands to 98.2% in both Australia and New Zealand, as did the duration of treatment. Patients who did not take antibiotics had a higher rate of recovery than those who did; the rate of recovery did not differ between different types of antibiotic. CONCLUSIONS--Doctors' certainty of diagnosis of acute otitis media was linked to patient's age. Improved criteria or techniques for diagnosing acute otitis media, especially in

  14. Analysis of Recurrence Management in Patients Who Underwent Nonsurgical Treatment for Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu

    2016-03-01

    The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively.We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis.Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach.In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity.

  15. Treatments for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: a structured literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Study objective The acute management of patients on warfarin with spontaneous or traumatic intracranial hemorrhage continues to be debated in the medical literature. The objective of this paper was to conduct a structured review of the medical literature and summarize the advantages and risks of the available treatment options for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients who present to the emergency department with acute intracranial hemorrhage. Methods A structured literature search and review of articles relevant to intracranial hemorrhage and warfarin and treatment in the emergency department was performed. Databases for PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane EBM Reviews were electronically searched using keywords covering the concepts of anticoagulation drugs, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and treatment. The results generated by the search were limited to English- language articles and reviewed for relevance to our topic. The multiple database searches revealed 586 papers for review for possible inclusion. The final consensus of our comprehensive search strategy was a total of 23 original studies for inclusion in our review. Results Warfarin not only increases the risk of but also the severity of ICH by causing hematoma expansion. Prothrombin complex concentrate is statistically significantly faster at correcting the INR compared to fresh frozen plasma transfusions. Recombinant factor VIIa appears to rapidly reverse warfarin's effect on INR; however, this treatment is not FDA-approved and is associated with a 5% thromboembolic event rate. Slow intravenous dosing of vitamin K is recommended in patients with ICH. The 30-day risk for ischemic stroke after discontinuation of warfarin therapy was 3-5%. The risks of not reversing the anticoagulation in ICH generally outweigh the risk of thrombosis in the acute setting. Conclusions Increasing numbers of patients are on anticoagulation including warfarin. There is no uniform standard for reversing warfarin in intracranial

  16. Effect of Tamoxifen and Lithium on Treatment of Acute Mania Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Elham; Arman, Sorror; Najafi, Mostafa; Shayegh, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have supported the role of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors in the physiopathology and treatment of bipolar disorder in adults. Tamoxifen is one of the drugs with the effect of PKC inhibition. This study aimed to determine the effect of tamoxifen on the rate of improvement mania symptoms in the sample of children and adolescents with acute mania. Materials & Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial study, registered in www.irct.ir with the code of IRCT201410126418N3, overall 44 patients with bipolar disorder with acute manic episode were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The serum levels of lithium and tamoxifen among the participants in the treatment groups were 0.8 -1.1 mg and 20-40 mg per day respectively. Serum level of lithium among participants in the control group was similar. The main comparisons were made based on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Children Depression Inventory (CDI) scores of the participants at baseline and at the end of each study week. The pharmacological side effects of serum level of lithium were examined weekly. Analysis of Covariance(ANCOVA) test was used for the statistical analysis. Results There was no difference in the baseline score of YMRS and CDI in the treatment and control groups while a statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) in these scores was found between and within the groups. Conclusion The addition of tamoxifen to lithium causes a significant difference in reducing the symptoms of mania and depression in the treatment group compared to the control group. PMID:27247580

  17. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Domínguez, Guadalupe; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Aparicio-Trápala, María A; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Ble-Castillo, Deysi J; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Pérez-Pimienta, Bedelia; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C; Mendez, José D

    2015-07-06

    An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS) supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV) indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required.

  18. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Domínguez, Guadalupe; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trápala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Deysi J.; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Pérez-Pimienta, Bedelia; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.; Mendez, José D.

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS) supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV) indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required. PMID:26154657

  19. Relating Venous Gas Emboli (VGE) Scores to Altitude Decompression Sickness (DCS) Symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilmanis, A. A.; Kannan, N.; Krause, K. M.; Webb, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. It is generally accepted that DCS symptoms are caused by gas bubbles in tissues. However, current technology of bubble detection only permits monitoring of circulating bubbles, primarily intracardiac. Since the majority of DCS symptoms appear to be caused by extravascular bubbles, it has been suggested that current bubble detection techniques target bubbles that are of importance in only a minority of DCS cases. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between measured VGE and DCS symptoms in human subjects exposed to altitude. Methods. The AFRL DCS Research Database contains records on 2044 subject-exposures to simulated altitudes in a hypobaric chamber. VGE monitoring was accomplished using Doppler/Echo Imaging techniques. The Spencer Scale was used to score the VGE. Reporting of DCS symptoms by the subject was the primary end-point of the exposures. Results: The Mantel- Haenzel test indicated a strong correlation between DCS and bubble grade (p-value =0.001). Conclusions. A positive correlation between increasing VGE scores and DCS symptoms, does not imply causatinn. If all non-zero VGE grades are considered, 45.9% of the cases had VGE, but no DCS symptoms. Conversely, almost 1 in 5 subject-exposures resulted in DCS with NO VGE detected. VGE scores are not . good predictors of altitude DCS symptoms and field use of bubble detection for DCS prevention is not supported by this study.

  20. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  1. Strategies for the prevention of acute mountain sickness and treatment for large groups making a rapid ascent in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-10-30

    Approximately 26.8% of China's land area has an elevation of 3000 m above sea level or higher. Because of recent demands for economic development and new construction in highland areas, many people have relocated from the plains to high plateau regions and have to face the possibility of contracting acute mountain sickness. Therefore, prevention and treatment strategies are necessary to reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness in people who rapidly ascend to plateau areas. This paper describes the Chinese experience when large numbers of people moved to the plateau and the steps that were taken to deal with this illness. These steps included implementing basic prevention measures, increasing medical awareness among populations ascending to high altitudes, and installing standardized medical management systems to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness before, during, and after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness can be reduced by improving prevention and treatment and by implementing the recommendations described in this manuscript.

  2. Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Derek; Brown, Christina; Iland, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a unique morphological appearance, associated coagulopathy and canonical balanced translocation of genetic material between chromosomes 15 and 17. APL was first described as a distinct subtype of AML in 1957 by Dr Leif Hillestad who recognized the pattern of an acute leukemia associated with fibrinolysis, hypofibrinogenemia and catastrophic hemorrhage. In the intervening years, the characteristic morphology of APL has been described fully with both classical hypergranular and variant microgranular forms. Both are characterized by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 15 and 17, [t(15;17)(q24;q21)], giving rise to a unique fusion gene PML-RARA and an abnormal chimeric transcription factor (PML-RARA), which disrupts normal myeloid differentiation programs. The success of current treatments for APL is in marked contrast to the vast majority of patients with non-promyelocytic AML. The overall prognosis in non-promyelocytic AML is poor, and although there has been an improvement in overall survival in patients aged <60 years, only 30%–40% of younger patients are still alive 5 years after diagnosis. APL therapy has diverged from standard AML therapy through the empirical discovery of two agents that directly target the molecular basis of the disease. The evolution of treatment over the last 4 decades to include all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide, with chemotherapy limited to patients with high-risk disease, has led to complete remission in 90%–100% of patients in trials and rates of overall survival between 86% and 97%. PMID:28352191

  3. Multimodal CT versus MRI in Selecting Acute Stroke Patients for Endovascular Treatment

    PubMed Central

    García-Bermejo, Pablo; Castaño, Carlos; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arterial revascularization is the most effective therapy for acute stroke patients. Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator based on baseline non-contrast CT (NCCT) imaging criteria is the only treatment approved to date, which is limited by severe timing and medical restrictions, and a narrow efficacy. The simple imaging methodology required contrast with the current wide range of imaging modalities available, which permits the physician to rapidly obtain an estimation of the most relevant pathophysiological factors involved in an acute stroke, overcoming the limited capability of NCCT. Multimodal CT and MRI combine techniques that aim to depict the neurovasculature and the status of the brain parenchyma, including the presence of hemorrhage and infarction, as well as the viability of the cerebral ischemic areas involved. These additional imaging procedures have been explored in clinical studies and trials to guide intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke patients beyond the currently established time windows, with inconclusive results. However, emergent endovascular materials and techniques are evolving, showing promising results with increasing rates of arterial recanalization with an acceptable safety profile, therefore becoming a potential alternative and complimentary treatment, although the current lack of a high level of evidence is limiting their use in routine clinical practice. Nevertheless, these advanced neuroimaging methods can be used to improve the selection of candidates for these novel invasive therapies and, moreover, to help the interventionist to design a faster and safer procedure. In this article, we review the basic aspects of both CT and MRI modalities and the state of the evidence of these imaging tools to guide endovascular therapy, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each method. PMID:25187769

  4. Endovascular Acute Stroke Treatment Performed by Vascular Interventional Radiologists: Is It Safe and Efficacious?

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit; Kurz, Kathinka D.; Larsen, Jan Petter; Kurz, Martin W.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of neurointerventional procedures in acute stroke patients performed by a team of vascular interventional radiologists in close cooperation with diagnostic neuroradiologists and stroke neurologists and to compare the results with those of previous reports from centres with specialised interventional neuroradiologists. Material and Methods: A total of 39 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion not responding to or not eligible for intravenous thrombolysis were treated with either intra-arterial thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy (Penumbra System or solitaire FR thrombectomy system, respectively) and included in our prospective study. Outcomes were measured using the modified Rankin scale after 90 days, and recanalization was assessed by thrombolysis using the myocardial infarction score. Results: Mean patient age was 68.3 {+-} 14.2 years; the average National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at hospital admission was 17.2 (SD = 6.2 [n = 38]). Successful recanalization was achieved in 74.4 % of patients. Median time from clinical onset to recanalization was 5 h 11 min. Procedure-related complications occurred in 5 % of patients, and 7.5 % had a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Of the patients, 22.5 % died within the first 90 postprocedural days, 5 % of these from cerebral causes. Patients who were successfully recanalized had a clinical better outcome at follow-up than those in whom treatment failed. Of the patients, 35.9 % had an mRS score {<=}2 after 90 days. Conclusion: Our results are in line with those in the published literature and show that a treatment strategy with general interventional radiologists performing neurointerventional procedures in acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusions can be achieved to the benefit of patients.

  5. Comparison of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide versus salbutamol alone in the treatment of acute severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A S; Barua, U K; Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Rahman, I; Rahman, G

    2013-04-01

    The use of nebulized Ipratropium bromide, quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination with beta-agonist for the treatment of acute asthma in adults is controversial. In a view of different recommendation the present study is undertaken in Bangladeshi patients. Combination of inhaled Ipratropium bromide and Salbutamol provides greater bronchodilatation than mono therapy with Salbutamol alone in acute severe asthma. Patients of severe asthma (PEFR <50% of predicted) were enrolled into control group (Salbutamol only) and case (Salbutamol + Ipratropium bromide) group. After measurement of peak expiratory flow, patient received 3 doses of 2.5 mg Salbutamol (n=40) only or 3 doses of both 2.5mg Salbutamol and 500mcg Ipratropium bromide at an interval of 20 minutes (n=40) through a jet nebulizer. Peak flow was reassessed 30 & 60 minutes after treatment. Peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. Then at 30 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in combination group (60.01±35.01%) than Salbutamol group (44.47±25.03%) with difference of 16% (p=0.025). At 60 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was about 32% greater in combination group than Salbutamol group (94.44±33.70% vs. 62.57±29.26%, p=0.000) and combination group reached percentage predicted peak flow more than 60% while Sabutamol group did not. Ipratropium Bromide and Salbutamol nebulized combinedly have better bronchodilating effect than Salbultamol alone in acute severe asthma.

  6. Acute T3 treatment protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury via TRα1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Pantos, Constantinos; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Saranteas, Theodosios; Brozou, Vassiliki; Galanopoulos, Georgios; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Cokkinos, Dennis V

    2011-07-01

    We have previously shown that acute thyroid hormone treatment could limit reperfusion injury and increase post-ischemic recovery of function. In the present study, we further explore potential initiating mechanisms of this response. Thus, isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min zero-flow global ischemia (I) followed by 60-min reperfusion (R). Reperfusion injury was assessed by post-ischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP%) and LDH release. T3 at a dose of 60 nM which had no effect on contractile function of non-ischemic myocardium, significantly increased LVDP% [48% (2.9) vs. 30.2% (3.3) for untreated group, P < 0.05] and reduced LDH release [8.3 (0.3) vs. 10 (0.42) for untreated group, P < 0.05] when administered at R. T4 (60 and 400 nM) had no effect on contractile function either in non-ischemic or ischemic myocardium. Administration of debutyl-dronedarone (DBD), a TRα1 antagonist abolished the T3-limiting effect on reperfusion injury: Thus, co-administration of T3 and DBD resulted in significantly lower LVDP%, [23% (4.7) vs. 48% (2.9) for T3 group, P < 0.05] and higher LDH release [9.9 (0.3) vs. 8.3 (0.3), for T3 group, P < 0.05]. In conclusion, acute T3 and not T4 treatment will be able to protect against reperfusion injury. T3 can exert this beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium at a dose that has no effects on non-ischemic myocardium. Acute T3-limiting effect on reperfusion injury is mediated, at least in part, via TRα1 receptor.

  7. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  8. Fewer acute respiratory infection episodes among patients receiving treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) present with comorbid complications with implications for healthcare utilization. To date, little is known about the effects of GERD treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) on patients’ subsequent healthcare utilization for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). This population-based study compared ARI episodes captured through outpatient visits, one year before and one year after GERD patients received PPI treatment. We used retrospective data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 in Taiwan, comparing 21,486 patients diagnosed with GERD from 2010 to 2012 with 21,486 age-sex matched comparison patients without GERD. Annual ARI episodes represented by ambulatory care visits for ARI (visits during a 7-day period bundled into one episode), were compared between the patient groups during the 1-year period before and after the index date (date of GERD diagnosis for study patients, first ambulatory visit in the same year for their matched comparison counterpart). Multiple regression analysis using a difference-in-difference approach was performed to estimate the adjusted association between GERD treatment and the subsequent annual ARI rate. We found that the mean annual ARI episode rate among GERD patients reduced by 11.4%, from 4.39 before PPI treatment, to 3.89 following treatment (mean change = -0.5 visit, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (-0.64, -0.36)). In Poisson regression analysis, GERD treatment showed an independent association with the annual ARI rate, showing a negative estimate (with p<0.001). The study suggests that GERD treatment with PPIs may help reduce healthcare visits for ARIs, highlighting the importance of treatment-seeking by GERD patients and compliance with treatment. PMID:28222168

  9. Evaluation of the routine use of amoxicillin as part of the home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether the inclusion of amoxicillin correlates with better recovery rates in the home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition with ready-to-use therapeutic food. This retrospective cohort study compared data from the treatment of two groups of children in Malawi aged 6-59 months w...

  10. Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Perfectionism: A Predictor and Partial Mediator of Acute Treatment Outcome among Clinically Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rachel H.; Silva, Susan G.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents (12-17 years of age) enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures…

  11. Availability of Diagnostic and Treatment Services for Acute Stroke in Frontier Counties in Montana and Northern Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okon, Nicholas J.; Rodriguez, Daniel V.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Oser, Carrie S.; Blades, Lynda L.; Burnett, Anne M.; Russell, Joseph A.; Allen, Martha J.; Chasson, Linda; Helgerson, Steven D.; Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Rapid diagnosis and treatment of ischemic stroke can lead to improved patient outcomes. Hospitals in rural and frontier counties, however, face unique challenges in providing diagnostic and treatment services for acute stroke. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the availability of key diagnostic technology and programs for acute…

  12. Behavioral Treatment of Acute Onset School Refusal in a 5-year Old Girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosschalk, Philip O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the behavioral treatment of acute onset school refusal in a 5-year old girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A functional classification was used to select a treatment approach that involved the parent and teacher using shaping, positive reinforcement and extinction. Results showed that by the end of the fifth week of…

  13. A controlled Nordic multicentre study of zuclopenthixol acetate in oil solution, haloperidol and zuclopenthixol in the treatment of acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Baastrup, P C; Alhfors, U G; Bjerkenstedt, L; Dencker, S J; Fensbo, C; Gravem, A; Pedersen, V; Elgen, K; Brekke, B; Fredslund-Andersen, K

    1993-01-01

    Zuclopenthixol acetate--a new injectable formulation with a duration of action of 2-3 days--was compared with conventional intramuscular and oral formulations of haloperidol and zuclopenthixol in the initial treatment of acutely disturbed, psychotic patients. The patients were stratified into 3 diagnostic categories: acute psychoses (48 patients), mania (22 patients), and exacerbation of chronic psychoses (73 patients). The patients were rated on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMAS) (only manic patients) and globally on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). The study was an open, randomized multicentre trial with a 6-day treatment period. The zuclopenthixol acetate patients received 1-4 doses, the haloperidol patients 1-26 and the zuclopenthixol patients 1-22 doses. The assessments on the CGI showed that all 3 treatments caused a clear reduction of the severity of illness scores in all 3 diagnostic categories, with no differences between treatments. The ratings of the acute and chronic psychotic patients on the BPRS also showed significant reductions in scores with no differences between treatments. All 3 treatments caused a rapid remission of symptoms on the BRMAS. Haloperidol induced hypokinesia in significantly more patients than zuclopenthixol acetate after 24 h. Later there were no significant differences between treatments. Zuclopenthixol acetate fulfils many desires for an amended neuroleptic formulation for the initial treatment of acutely disturbed psychotic patients.

  14. Modifications of excitatory and inhibitory transmission in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons by acute lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahito; Nagami, Hideaki; Takase, Yuko; Nakanishi, Ryoji; Kotani, Naoki; Akaike, Norio

    2015-08-01

    The acute effects of high-dose Li(+) treatment on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmissions were studied in the "synaptic bouton" preparation of isolated rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons by using focal electrical stimulation. Both action potential-dependent glutamatergic excitatory and GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eEPSC and eIPSC, respectively) were dose-dependently inhibited in the external media containing 30-150 mM Li(+), but the sensitivity for Li(+) was greater tendency for eEPSCs than for eIPSCs. When the effects of Li(+) on glutamate or GABAA receptor-mediated whole-cell responses (IGlu and IGABA) elicited by an exogenous application of glutamate or GABA were examined in the postsynaptic soma membrane of CA3 neurons, Li(+) slightly inhibited both IGlu and IGABA at the 150 mM Li(+) concentration. Present results suggest that acute treatment with high concentrations of Li(+) acts preferentially on presynaptic terminals, and that the Li(+)-induced inhibition may be greater for excitatory than for inhibitory transmission.

  15. Evaluation of Early Cholecystectomy versus Delayed Cholecystectomy in the Treatment of Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sanjuán, Juan C.; Martín-Acebes, Fernando; Llorca-Díaz, Francisco J.; Gómez-Fleitas, Manuel; Zambrano Muñoz, Rocío; Sánchez-Manuel, F. Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if early cholecystectomy (EC) is the most appropriate treatment for acute cholecystitis compared to delayed cholecystectomy (DC). Patients and Methods. A retrospective cohort study of 1043 patients was carried out, with a group of 531 EC cases and a group of 512 DC patients. The following parameters were recorded: (1) postoperative hospital morbidity, (2) hospital mortality, (3) days of hospital stay, (4) readmissions, (5) admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), (6) type of surgery, (7) operating time, and (8) reoperations. In addition, we estimated the direct cost savings of implementing an EC program. Results. The overall morbidity of the EC group (29.9%) was significantly lower than the DC group (38.7%). EC demonstrated significantly better results than DC in days of hospital stay (8.9 versus 15.8 days), readmission percentage (6.8% versus 21.9%), and percentage of ICU admission (2.3% versus 7.8%), which can result in reducing the direct costs. The patients who benefited most from an EC were those with a Charlson index > 3. Conclusions. EC is safe in patients with acute cholecystitis and could lead to a reduction in the direct costs of treatment. PMID:27803512

  16. Single dose vitamin A treatment in acute shigellosis in Bangladesh children: randomised double blind controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, S.; Biswas, R.; Kabir, I.; Sarker, S.; Dibley, M.; Fuchs, G.; Mahalanabis, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Randomised double blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 83 children aged 1-7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomised to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group. INTERVENTION: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure on study day 5 and bacteriological cure. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the subjects in the two treatment groups were similar. Significantly more children in the vitamin A group than in the control group achieved clinical cure (19/42 (45%) v 8/14 (20%); chi 2 = 5.14, 1 df, P = 0.02; risk ratio = 0.68 (95% confidence interval; 0.50 to 0.93)). When cure was determined bacteriologically, the groups had similar rates (16/42 (38%) v 16/41 (39%); chi 2 = 0.02, 1 df, P = 0.89; risk ratio = 0.98 (0.70 to 1.39)). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A reduces the severity of acute shigellosis in children living in areas where vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem. PMID:9492664

  17. Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing five contemporary treatment strategies for newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Wu, Di; Ren, Yong; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2016-07-26

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients. According to the results, the ranking efficacy of the treatment, including early death and complete remission in the induction stage, was the following: 1. ATO/RIF + ATRA; 2. ATRA + CT; 3. ATO, and 4. ATRA. For long-term benefit, ATO/RIF + ATRA significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 0.35, 95%CI 0.15-0.82, p = 0.02) and event-free survival (EFS) (hazard ratio = 0.32, 95%CI 0.16-0.61, p = 0.001) over ATRA + CT regimen for the low-to-intermediate-risk patients. Thus, ATO + ATRA and RIF + ATRA might be considered the optimum treatments for the newly diagnosed APL and should be recommended as the standard care for frontline therapy.

  18. [Consensus document on the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Martín, F; Baquero Artigao, F; de la Calle Cabrera, T; López Robles, M V; Ruiz Canela, J; Alfayate Miguelez, S; Moraga Llop, F; Cilleruelo Ortega, M J; Calvo Rey, C

    2012-11-01

    This is the consensus document on acute otitis media (AOM) of the Sociedad Española de Infectología Pediatrica (SEIP), Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria (SEPEAP), Sociedad Española de Urgencias Pediátricas (SEUP) and Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria (AEPAP). It discusses the aetiology of the disease and its potential changes after the introduction of the pneumococcal 7-valent, 10-valent and 13-valent vaccines. A proposal is made based on diagnostic classification of otitis media as either confirmed or likely. AOM is considered confirmed if 3 criteria are fulfilled: acute onset, signs of occupation of the middle ear (or otorrhea) and inflammatory signs or symptoms, such as otalgia or severe tympanic hyperaemia. Oral amoxicillin is the antibiotic treatment of choice (80mg/kg/day divided every 8hours). Amoxicillin-clavulanate (80mg/kg/day) is indicated in the following cases: when the child is under 6 months, in infants with severe clinical manifestations (fever>39°C or severe pain), there is family history of AOM sequels, and after amoxiciline treatment failure.

  19. [APPLICATION OF PRESEPSIN IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PURULENT-SEPTIC COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE NECROTIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Rotar, O V

    2016-01-01

    In 70 patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP), and 10 practically healthy persons a content of presepsin in a blood plasm, using immunochemiluminescent method and conducted bacteriological investigations, were analyzed. The infection occurrence is accompanied by plausible upgrading of a presepsin level in a blood plasm, depending on activity and severity of a septic process: in local infection--up to (677 ± 30) pg/ml, sepsis--up to (988 ± 47) pg/ml, severe sepsis--up to 2668 pg/ml; in an ANP without infection it have constituted (332 ± 38) pg/mI at average, in practically healthy persons--(184 ± 16) pg/mI. A presepsin level correlates with a state severity in accordance to APACHE I scale, what permits to estimate the patients state severity objectively, to prognosticate a favorable and unfavorable consequences of treatment, rapidly changing, depending on efficacy of treatment.

  20. Developments in mechanical thrombectomy devices for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mordasini, Pasquale; Gralla, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several recent prospective randomized controlled trials of endovascular stroke therapy using latest generation thrombectomy devices, so called stent-retrievers, have shown significantly improved clinical outcome compared to the standard treatment with intra-venous thrombolysis using r-tPA alone. Despite some differences in inclusion criteria between these studies, all required non-invasive vessel imaging to proof occlusion of a major brain supplying vessel. Furthermore, in most studies additional imaging techniques were used to exclude patients with already established large cerebral infarction or unfavorable collateral or penumbral status. Patients with small infarct volume, severe neurological deficits and in whom thrombectomy can be initiated within the first 6 hours after symptom onset seem to benefit the most. Therefore, mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retrievers in addition to intra-venous thrombolysis is recommended for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with proven major vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation.

  1. Simplifying the treatment of acute bacterial bone and joint infections in children.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Peltola, Heikki

    2011-12-01

    The treatment of acute hematogenous bone and joint infections of children - osteomyelitis (OM), septic arthritis (SA) and OM-SA combination (OM+SA) - has simplified over the past years. The old approach included months-long antibiotic treatment, started intravenously for at least a week, followed by oral completion of the course. Recent prospective randomized trials show that most cases heal with a total course of 3 weeks (OM, OM+SA) or 2 weeks (SA) of an appropriate antibiotic, provided the clinical response is good and C-reactive protein level has normalized. If the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Kingella kingae is low, clindamycin and a first-generation cephalosporin are safe, inexpensive and effective alternatives. They should be administered in large doses and four times a day. Clindamycin, vancomycin and expensive linezolid are options against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Extensive surgery beyond a diagnostic sample by aspiration is rarely needed in uncomplicated cases.

  2. The relationship between executive functions and capacity to consent to treatment in acute psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Mandarelli, Gabriele; Parmigiani, Giovanna; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Frati, Paola; Biondi, Massimo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Despite the acknowledged influence of cognition on patients' capacity to consent to treatment, the specific neuropsychological domains involved remain elusive, as does the role of executive functions. We investigated possible associations between executive functions and decisional capacity in a sample of acute psychiatric inpatients. Patients were recruited and evaluated through the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Patients with poor executive functioning performed worse in MacCAT understanding, appreciation, and expression of a choice, compared with good performers. These findings point to the importance of cognition in decisional capacity processes. In addition, the strong association found between learning abilities and informed consent decision-making provide empirical evidence indicating possible cognitive enhancement strategies that may improve psychiatric patients' competency.

  3. Current Approaches in the Treatment of Relapsed and Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Nestor R.; Mo, Clifton C.; Karp, Judith E.; Hourigan, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The limited sensitivity of the historical treatment response criteria for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has resulted in a different paradigm for treatment compared with most other cancers presenting with widely disseminated disease. Initial cytotoxic induction chemotherapy is often able to reduce tumor burden to a level sufficient to meet the current criteria for “complete” remission. Nevertheless, most AML patients ultimately die from their disease, most commonly as clinically evident relapsed AML. Despite a variety of available salvage therapy options, prognosis in patients with relapsed or refractory AML is generally poor. In this review, we outline the commonly utilized salvage cytotoxic therapy interventions and then highlight novel investigational efforts currently in clinical trials using both pathway-targeted agents and immunotherapy based approaches. We conclude that there is no current standard of care for adult relapsed or refractory AML other than offering referral to an appropriate clinical trial. PMID:25932335

  4. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    SciTech Connect

    Fjetland, Lars Roy, Sumit Kurz, Kathinka D.; Solbakken, Tore; Larsen, Jan Petter Kurz, Martin W.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  5. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  6. Adjunctive agomelatine therapy in the treatment of acute bipolar II depression: a preliminary open label study

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; McCarthy, Michael J; De Berardis, Domenico; De Pasquale, Concetta; Tabaton, Massimo; Martino, Matteo; Colicchio, Salvatore; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; D’Angelo, Emanuela; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The circadian rhythm hypothesis of bipolar disorder (BD) suggests a role for melatonin in regulating mood, thus extending the interest toward the melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine as well as type I (acute) or II cases of bipolar depression. Patients and methods Twenty-eight depressed BD-II patients received open label agomelatine (25 mg/bedtime) for 6 consecutive weeks as an adjunct to treatment with lithium or valproate, followed by an optional treatment extension of 30 weeks. Measures included the Hamilton depression scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Clinical Global Impression Scale–Bipolar Version, Young Mania Rating Scale, and body mass index. Results Intent to treat analysis results demonstrated that 18 of the 28 subjects (64%) showed medication response after 6 weeks (primary study endpoint), while 24 of the 28 subjects (86%) responded by 36 weeks. When examining primary mood stabilizer treatment, 12 of the 17 (70.6%) valproate and six of the 11 (54.5%) lithium patients responded by the first endpoint. At 36 weeks, 14 valproate treated (82.4%) and 10 lithium treated (90.9%) subjects responded. At 36 weeks, there was a slight yet statistically significant (P = 0.001) reduction in body mass index and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores compared to respective baseline values, regardless of mood stabilizer/outcome. Treatment related drop-out cases included four patients (14.28%) at week 6 two valproate-treated subjects with pseudo-vertigo and drug-induced hypomania, respectively, and two lithium-treated subjects with insomnia and mania, respectively. Week 36 drop outs were two hypomanic cases, one per group. Conclusion Agomelatine 25 mg/day was an effective and well-tolerated adjunct to valproate/lithium for acute depression in BD-II, suggesting the need for confirmation by future double blind, controlled clinical trials. PMID:23430979

  7. Acute appendicitis: Epidemiology, treatment and outcomes- analysis of 16544 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Ceresoli, Marco; Zucchi, Alberto; Allievi, Niccolò; Harbi, Asaf; Pisano, Michele; Montori, Giulia; Heyer, Arianna; Nita, Gabriela E; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of acute appendicitis (AA) in a large population study. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study derived from the administrative dataset of the Bergamo district healthcare system (more than 1 million inhabitants) from 1997 to 2013. Data about treatment, surgery, length of stay were collected. Moreover for each patients were registered data about relapse of appendicitis and hospital admission due to intestinal obstruction. RESULTS From 1997 to 2013 in the Bergamo district we collected 16544 cases of AA, with a crude incidence rate of 89/100000 inhabitants per year; mean age was 24.51 ± 16.17, 54.7% were male and the mean Charlson’s comorbidity index was 0.32 ± 0.92. Mortality was < 0.0001%. Appendectomy was performed in 94.7% of the patients and the mean length of stay was 5.08 ± 2.88 d; the cumulative hospital stay was 5.19 ± 3.36 d and 1.2% of patients had at least one further hospitalization due intestinal occlusion. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 48% of cases. Percent of 5.34 the patients were treated conservatively with a mean length of stay of 3.98 ± 3.96 d; the relapse rate was 23.1% and the cumulative hospital stay during the study period was 5.46 ± 6.05 d. CONCLUSION The treatment of acute appendicitis in Northern Italy is slowly changing, with the large diffusion of laparoscopic approach; conservative treatment of non-complicated appendicitis is still a neglected option, but rich of promising results. PMID:27830041

  8. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-01-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver. PMID:9125564

  9. Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: effects of acyclovir and outcome of treatment with amitriptyline.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1992-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to assess the effects of acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster on subsequent postherpetic neuralgia, and to examine the effects of amitriptyline in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Eighty seven patients with postherpetic neuralgia of three or more months' duration were studied: 24 of them had had their herpes zoster treated with oral acyclovir. At first presentation, only 25% of the 24 patients who had had their herpes zoster treated with acyclovir selected the word group containing burning on the McGill pain questionnaire compared with 76% of the 63 patients who had not received acyclovir. A higher proportion of patients who had had acyclovir than had not selected the word group which contains the word aching (63% versus 49%). Acyclovir thus appears to change the nature of postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia was treated with amitriptyline, alone or in combination with distigmine and/or sodium valproate. There was a strong correlation between pain relief and the interval between the occurrence of herpes zoster and the initiation of treatment with amitriptyline--early treatment is almost twice as likely to be successful as late. Since conventional analgesics and sympatholytic drugs are of no benefit in the treatment of established postherpetic neuralgia, the sequelae of herpes zoster must, therefore, be recognized and treated with amitriptyline as soon as possible. PMID:1419247

  10. Treatment of Acute Aortic Type B Dissection with Stent-Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Hausegger, K.A.; Tiesenhausen, K.; Schedlbauer, P.; Oberwalder, P.; Tauss, J.; Rigler, B.

    2001-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of endoluminal stent-grafts in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissections.Methods: In five patients with acute aortic type B dissections, sealing of the primary intimal tear with an endoluminal stent-graft was attempted. Indication for treatment was aneurysm formation in two patients and persistent pain in three patients. One of the latter also had an unstable dissection flap compromising the ostium of the superior mesenteric artery. The distance from the intimal tear to the left subclavian artery was <0.5 cm in four patients, who had typical type B dissections. In one patient with an atypical dissection the distance from the primary tear to the left subclavian artery was 4 cm. This patient had no re-entry tear. Talent tube grafts (World Medical Manufacturing Cooperation, Sunrise, FL, USA) were used in all patients.Results: Stent-graft insertion with sealing of the primary tear was successful in all patients. The proximal covered portion of the stent-graft was placed across the left subclavian artery in four patients (1x transposition of the left subclavian artery). Left arm perfusion was preserved via a subclavian steal phenomenon in the patients in whom the stent-graft covered the orifice of the left subclavian artery. The only procedural complication we observed was an asymptomatic segmental renal infarction in one patient. In the thoracic aorta thrombosis of the false aortic lumen occurred in all patients. In one patient the false lumen of the abdominal aorta thrombosed after 4 weeks; in the other three patients the status of the abdominal aorta remained unchanged compared with the situation prior to stent-graft insertion. As a late complication formation of a secondary aneurysm of the thoracic aorta was observed at the distal end of the stent-graft 3 months after the primary intervention. This aneurysm was treated by coaxial insertion of an additional stent-graft without complications.Conclusion: Endoluminal treatment

  11. Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes: an acute, iatrogenic complication of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes (also referred to as insulin neuritis) is considered a rare iatrogenic small fibre neuropathy caused by an abrupt improvement in glycaemic control in the setting of chronic hyperglycaemia. The prevalence and risk factors of this disorder are not known. In a retrospective review of all individuals referred to a tertiary care diabetic neuropathy clinic over 5 years, we define the proportion of individuals that present with and the risk factors for development of treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes. Nine hundred and fifty-four individuals were evaluated for a possible diabetic neuropathy. Treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes was defined as the acute onset of neuropathic pain and/or autonomic dysfunction within 8 weeks of a large improvement in glycaemic control—specified as a decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) of ≥2% points over 3 months. Detailed structured neurologic examinations, glucose control logs, pain scores, autonomic symptoms and other microvascular complications were measured every 3–6 months for the duration of follow-up. Of 954 patients evaluated for diabetic neuropathy, 104/954 subjects (10.9%) met criteria for treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes with an acute increase in neuropathic or autonomic symptoms or signs coinciding with a substantial decrease in HbA1c. Individuals with a decrease in HbA1c had a much greater risk of developing a painful or autonomic neuropathy than those individuals with no change in HbA1c (P < 0.001), but also had a higher risk of developing retinopathy (P < 0.001) and microalbuminuria (P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the magnitude of decrease in HbA1c, the severity of neuropathic pain (R = 0.84, P < 0.001), the degree of parasympathetic dysfunction (R = −0.52, P < 0.01) and impairment of sympathetic adrenergic function as measured by fall in blood pressure on tilt-table testing (R = −0.63, P < 0.001). With a decrease in HbA1c of 2

  12. Treatment-induced neuropathy of diabetes: an acute, iatrogenic complication of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Freeman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes (also referred to as insulin neuritis) is considered a rare iatrogenic small fibre neuropathy caused by an abrupt improvement in glycaemic control in the setting of chronic hyperglycaemia. The prevalence and risk factors of this disorder are not known. In a retrospective review of all individuals referred to a tertiary care diabetic neuropathy clinic over 5 years, we define the proportion of individuals that present with and the risk factors for development of treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes. Nine hundred and fifty-four individuals were evaluated for a possible diabetic neuropathy. Treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes was defined as the acute onset of neuropathic pain and/or autonomic dysfunction within 8 weeks of a large improvement in glycaemic control-specified as a decrease in glycosylated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) of ≥2% points over 3 months. Detailed structured neurologic examinations, glucose control logs, pain scores, autonomic symptoms and other microvascular complications were measured every 3-6 months for the duration of follow-up. Of 954 patients evaluated for diabetic neuropathy, 104/954 subjects (10.9%) met criteria for treatment-induced neuropathy in diabetes with an acute increase in neuropathic or autonomic symptoms or signs coinciding with a substantial decrease in HbA1c. Individuals with a decrease in HbA1c had a much greater risk of developing a painful or autonomic neuropathy than those individuals with no change in HbA1c (P < 0.001), but also had a higher risk of developing retinopathy (P < 0.001) and microalbuminuria (P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the magnitude of decrease in HbA1c, the severity of neuropathic pain (R = 0.84, P < 0.001), the degree of parasympathetic dysfunction (R = -0.52, P < 0.01) and impairment of sympathetic adrenergic function as measured by fall in blood pressure on tilt-table testing (R = -0.63, P < 0.001). With a decrease in HbA1c of 2

  13. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO2/FiO2), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (P<0.05), of which TBIL and ALT were decreased more significantly (P<0.01) in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups. Only changes in the PE+HP+CVVHDF and PE+CVVHDF groups were statistically significant after prothrombin time and albumin treatment (P<0.05). The difference between the decrease in TBIL in the PE+HP+CVVHDF group and that in the HP+CVVHDF group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment of the 61 patients using the artificial liver support system yielded a survival rate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure. PMID:28105119

  14. Time to treatment response in first episode schizophrenia: should acute treatment trials last several months?

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Juan A.; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sevy, Serge M.; Napolitano, Barbara; McCormack, Joanne; Lesser, Martin L.; Kane, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Response patterns may differ between patients with first episode and multi-episode schizophrenia. This analysis explored trial duration with first episode patients and whether early limited improvement predicts ultimate lack of treatment response with first episode patients as it does with multi-episode patients. Methods 112 subjects (mean age=23.3 years [SD=5.1]) who presented between November 1998 and October 2004 with a first episode of psychosis and had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder, were randomly assigned to treatment with olanzapine or risperidone for 16 weeks. Treatment response, the primary outcome measure, was defined as a rating of mild or better on all of the positive symptom items on the SADS-C + PD. Response rates were calculated for each study week. A logistic regression analysis examined the association between percent reduction in symptom severity scores from baseline values at weeks 2, 4 or 8 and response by week 16. Results The estimated cumulative response rate by week 8 was 39.59% (95% CI: 29.77% – 49.41%) and 65.19% (95% CI: 55.11% – 75.27%) by week 16. The confidence intervals for estimated response at weeks 10, 12, 14 and 16 were not distinct. Response rates increased approximately 5 to 6 percentage points each 2 week interval between week 10 and 16. Percent reduction in symptom severity score at week 4 (but not 2 or 8) was associated (Chi-square = 3.96; df = 1, p<0.05) with responder status at week 16 (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00;1.05). However, receiver operating characteristic curves did not suggest any level of percent symptom reduction that would be clinically useful as a predictor of response by week 16. Conclusions Many first episode patients respond between weeks 8 and 16 of treatment with a single antipsychotic medication. Limited early symptom improvement does not identify with enough accuracy to be clinically useful those first episode patients who will not

  15. Randomised pragmatic comparison of UK and US treatment of acute asthma presenting to hospital

    PubMed Central

    Innes, N; Stocking, J; Daynes, T; Harrison, B

    2002-01-01

    Background: Systemic corticosteroids and inhaled ß2 agonists are accepted first line treatments for acute severe asthma, but there is no consensus on their optimum dosage and frequency of administration. American regimens include higher initial dosages of ß2 agonists and corticosteroids than UK regimens. Methods: In a prospective, pragmatic, randomised, parallel group study, 170 patients of mean (SD) age 37 (12) years with acute asthma (peak expiratory flow (PEF) 212 (80) l/min) presenting to hospital received treatment with either high dose prednisolone and continuous nebulised salbutamol as recommended in the US or lower dose prednisolone and bolus nebulised salbutamol as recommended in the UK by the BTS. Results: Outcome measures were: ΔPEF at 1 hour (BTS 89 l/min, US 106 l/min, p=0.2, CI –8 to 41) and at 2 hours (BTS 49 l/min, US 101 l/min, p<0.0001, CI 28 to 77); time to discharge if admitted (BTS 4 days, US 4 days); rates of achieving discharge PEF (>60%) at 2 hours (BTS 64%, US 78%, p=0.04); time to regain control of asthma as measured by PEF ≥80% best with ≤20% variability (BTS 3 days, US 4 days, p=0.6); PEF at 24 hours in patients admitted (BTS 293 l/min, US 288 l/min, p=0.8); and control of asthma in the subsequent month (no significant differences). Conclusions: Treatment with higher doses of continuous nebulised salbutamol leads to a greater immediate improvement in PEF but the degree of recovery at 24 hours and speed of recovery thereafter is achieved as effectively with lower corticosteroid doses as recommended in the British guidelines. PMID:12454298

  16. Antidiabetic-drug combination treatment for glucose intolerance in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Boyda, Heidi N; Procyshyn, Ric M; Asiri, Yahya; Wu, Claire; Wang, Cathy K; Lo, Ryan; Pang, Catherine C Y; Honer, William G; Barr, Alasdair M

    2014-01-03

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs are routinely used as treatment for psychotic disorders. Many of these compounds, including olanzapine, cause metabolic side-effects such as impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Individual antidiabetic drugs can help control elevated glucose levels in patients treated with antipsychotics, but the effects of combining antidiabetics, which routinely occurs with Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, have never been studied. Presently, we compared the effects of the three different antidiabetics metformin (500mg/kg, p.o.), rosiglitazone (30mg/kg, p.o.) and glyburide (10mg/kg, p.o.) on metabolic dysregulation in adult female rats treated acutely with olanzapine. In addition, dual combinations of each of these antidiabetics were compared head-to-head against each other and the individual drugs. The animals received two daily treatments with antidiabetics and were then treated acutely with olanzapine (10mg/kg, i.p.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured, followed by a 2h glucose tolerance test. Olanzapine caused a large and highly significant glucose intolerance compared to vehicle treated rats. Rosiglitazone decreased glucose levels non-significantly, while both metformin and glyburide significantly decreased glucose levels compared to olanzapine-only treated animals. For antidiabetic dual-drug combinations, the rosiglitazone-metformin group showed an unexpected increase in glucose levels compared to all of the single antidiabetic drugs. However, both the metformin-glyburide and rosiglitazone-glyburide groups showed significantly greater reductions in glucose levels following olanzapine than with single drug treatment alone for metformin or rosiglitazone, bringing glucose levels down to values equivalent to vehicle-only treated animals. These findings indicate that further study of antidiabetic dual-drug combinations in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs is warranted.

  17. Treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal with gabapentin: results from a controlled two-center trial.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Udo; Banger, Markus; Leweke, F Markus; Specka, Michael; Müller, Bernhard W; Hashemi, Thilo; Nyhuis, Peter W; Kutscher, Sven; Burtscheidt, Wilhelm; Gastpar, Markus

    2003-10-01

    A few case reports and data from animal experiments point to a possible efficacy of gabapentin (GP) in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Because of ethical considerations, the efficacy of GP in acute AWS was tested in an add-on fashion to clomethiazole (CLO). Given that the symptom-triggered amount of CLO required to limit AWS within the first 24 hours is related to the severity of AWS, we tested this amount of CLO during placebo (P) or GP (400 mg qid) under double blind, randomized conditions. Sixty-one patients (P = 29/GP = 32) suffering from alcohol dependence (ICD-10) and without any other psychiatric condition or psychotropic medication were included. The groups were not significantly different in baseline characteristics (eg, demographic data, severity of AWS). Both ITT and completer analyses revealed no significant differences between the groups considering the primary effectiveness measure: amount of CLO required in the first 24 hours (P = 6.1 +/- 5.4/GP = 6.2 +/- 4.7 capsules). In addition, premature discontinuations (P = 3/GP = 2) and decreases in Mainz Alcohol Withdrawal Scores were not significantly different in the first 48 hours of AWS (secondary effectiveness measures). Tolerability of combined CLO/GP was studied throughout the whole treatment comprising a 5-day lasting reduction part subsequent to the first 48 hours. Throughout the whole 7-day treatment a total of 5 and 2 patients dropped out and 6 and 5 patients reported adverse clinical events in the P and GP groups, respectively. All together, GP (400 mg qid) was no better than P in saving initial consumption of CLO or decreasing initial Mainz Alcohol Withdrawal Scores suggesting that GP was ineffective in the management of acute AWS in this model. The combination of GP and CLO was safe.

  18. Cost and Utilization of Retail Clinics vs. Other Providers for Treatment of Pediatric Acute Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ian; Clark, Kara; Wang, Stacy

    2016-10-01

    A common acute condition seen by providers in retails clinics is the evaluation and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children younger than age 20. Annual direct treatment costs for AOM were US $5.3 billion in 1998 dollars. Based on the experience of a large retail pharmacy employer, the authors compared AOM episodes in covered dependents younger than age 20 in retail clinic states to those in states without retail clinic access. Relative costs as well as frequency of visits and antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed for both retail clinic-based, and non-retail clinic-based episodes. Rates of AOM episodes were lower in retail clinic than in non-retail clinic states (62.5 vs. 76.9 per 1000 members per year; P < .0001). The average number of visits per episode was similar between retail clinic and non-retail clinic states (1.417 vs. 1.430, respectively; P = 0.657), suggesting that retail clinics do not result in an increase in overall utilization. On a risk-adjusted basis, retail clinic episodes cost approximately $30-$130 less than community episodes, depending on year. In retail clinic states, the antibiotic prescription fill rate was 95.4% for retail clinic episodes and 82.8% for community episodes, consistent with rates in the literature. This study confirms results of earlier studies that retail clinics are a less costly setting than the community for the treatment of episodes of otitis media There also is little evidence that retail clinics lead to duplication of services (patients receiving follow-up care in other settings).

  19. Mesotherapy versus Systemic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Cosimo; Marangio, Emilio; Coruzzi, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological therapy of back pain with analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs is frequently associated with adverse effects, particularly in the elderly. Aim of this study was to compare mesotherapic versus conventional systemic administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids in patients with acute low back pain. Eighty-four patients were randomized to receive anti-inflammatory therapy according to the following protocols: (a) mesotherapy group received the 1st and 4th day 2% lidocaine (1 mL) + ketoprofen 160 mg (1 mL) + methylprednisolone 40 mg (1 mL), then on 7th, 10th, and 13th day, 2% lidocaine (1 mL) + ketoprofen 160 mg (1 mL) + methylprednisolone 20 mg (1 mL) (b) conventional therapy group received ketoprofen 80 mg × 2/die and esomeprazole 20 mg/die orally for 12 days, methylprednisolone 40 mg/die intramuscularly for 4 days, followed by methylprednisolone 20 mg/die for 3 days, and thereafter, methylprednisolone 20 mg/die at alternate days. Pain intensity and functional disability were assessed at baseline (T0), at the end of treatment (T1), and 6 months thereafter (T2) by using visual analogic scale (VAS) and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ). In both groups, VAS and RMDQ values were significantly reduced at the end of drug treatment and after 6 months, in comparison with baseline. No significant differences were found between the two groups. This suggests that mesotherapy may be a valid alternative to conventional therapy in the treatment of acute low back pain with corticosteroids and NSAIDs. PMID:20953425

  20. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia following treatment of lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, Sarah; Sterin, Arthur; Tavitian, Suzanne; Oberic, Lucie; Ysebaert, Loïc; Bouabdallah, Reda; Vergez, François; Sarry, Audrey; Bérard, Emilie; Huguet, Françoise; Laurent, Guy; Prébet, Thomas; Vey, Norbert; Récher, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a heterogeneous entity most frequently related to breast cancer or lymphoproliferative diseases (LD). Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of t-AML after treatment of lymphomas. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of 80 consecutive cases of t-AML following treatment of LD. t-AML accounted for 2.3% of all AML cases, occurred 60 months after LD diagnosis, and were characterized by a high frequency of FAB M6 AML and poor-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. Time to t-AML diagnosis was influenced by patient age, type of LD, and treatment. Among the 48 t-AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy, median overall survival (OS) was 7.7 months compared to 26.1 months in de novo, 4.2 months in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm, 9.4 months in post-myelodysplastic syndrome, 8.6 months in post-chronic myelomonocytic leukemia AML, 13.4 months in t-AML secondary to the treatment of solid cancer, and 14.7 months in breast cancer only. OS of post-LD t-AML patients was significantly influenced by age, performance status, myelodysplastic syndrome prior to LD/t-AML, and treatment regimen for LD. Thus, t-AML following lymphoid malignancies treatment should be considered as very high-risk secondary AML. New treatment strategies in patients with LD/t-AML are needed urgently. PMID:27852053

  1. Paradigm Shift in Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy: From in vitro Generated Monocyte-Derived DCs to Naturally Circulating DC Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers, Florian; Schreibelt, Gerty; Sköld, Annette E.; Figdor, Carl G.; De Vries, I. Jolanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy employs the patients’ immune system to fight neoplastic lesions spread over the entire body. This makes it an important therapy option for patients suffering from metastatic melanoma, which is often resistant to chemotherapy. However, conventional cellular vaccination approaches, based on monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), only achieved modest response rates despite continued optimization of various vaccination parameters. In addition, the generation of moDCs requires extensive ex vivo culturing conceivably hampering the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Recent studies, thus, focused on vaccines that make use of primary DCs. Though rare in the blood, these naturally circulating DCs can be readily isolated and activated thereby circumventing lengthy ex vivo culture periods. The first clinical trials not only showed increased survival rates but also the induction of diversified anti-cancer immune responses. Upcoming treatment paradigms aim to include several primary DC subsets in a single vaccine as pre-clinical studies identified synergistic effects between various antigen-presenting cells. PMID:24782868

  2. Decongestive treatment of acute decompensated heart failure: cardiorenal implications of ultrafiltration and diuretics.

    PubMed

    Freda, Benjamin J; Slawsky, Mara; Mallidi, Jaya; Braden, Gregory L

    2011-12-01

    In patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), treatment aimed at adequate decongestion of the volume overloaded state is essential. Despite diuretic therapy, many patients remain volume overloaded and symptomatic. In addition, adverse effects related to diuretic treatment are common, including worsening kidney function and electrolyte disturbances. The development of decreased kidney function during treatment affects the response to diuretic therapy and is associated with important clinical outcomes, including mortality. The occurrence of diuretic resistance and the morbidity and mortality associated with diuretic therapy has stimulated interest to develop effective and safe treatment strategies that maximize decongestion and minimize decreased kidney function. During the last few decades, extracorporeal ultrafiltration has been used to remove fluid from diuretic-refractory hypervolemic patients. Recent clinical studies using user-friendly machines have suggested that ultrafiltration may be highly effective for decongesting patients with ADHF. Many questions remain regarding the comparative impact of diuretics and ultrafiltration on important clinical outcomes and adverse effects, including decreased kidney function. This article serves as a summary of key clinical studies addressing these points. The overall goal is to assist practicing clinicians who are contemplating the use of ultrafiltration for a patient with ADHF.

  3. Post-learning REM sleep deprivation impairs long-term memory: reversal by acute nicotine treatment.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, A M; Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-07-15

    Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) is associated with spatial learning and memory impairment. During REM-SD, an increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by non-smokers have been reported. We have shown recently that nicotine treatment prevented learning and memory impairments associated with REM-SD. We now report the interactive effects of post-learning REM-SD and/or nicotine. The animals were first trained on the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, then they were REM-sleep deprived using the modified multiple platform paradigm for 24h. During REM-SD period, the rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1mg/kg s.c. every 12h: a total of 3 injections). The animals were tested for long-term memory in the RAWM at the end of the REM-SD period. The 24h post-learning REM-SD significantly impaired long-term memory. However, nicotine treatment reversed the post-learning REM-SD-induced impairment of long-term memory. On the other hand, post-learning treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24h enhanced long-term memory. These results indicate that post-learning acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of REM-SD on cognitive abilities.

  4. Thiopurine methyltransferase and treatment outcome in the UK acute lymphoblastic leukaemia trial ALL2003.

    PubMed

    Lennard, Lynne; Cartwright, Cher S; Wade, Rachel; Vora, Ajay

    2015-08-01

    The influence of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genotype on treatment outcome was investigated in the United Kingdom childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia trial ALL2003, a trial in which treatment intensity was adjusted based on minimal residual disease (MRD). TPMT genotype was measured in 2387 patients (76% of trial entrants): 2190 were homozygous wild-type, 189 were heterozygous for low activity TPMT alleles (166 TPMT*1/*3A, 19 TPMT*1/*3C, 3 TPMT*1/*2 and 1 TPMT*1/*9) and 8 were TPMT deficient. In contrast to the preceding trial ALL97, there was no difference in event-free survival (EFS) between the TPMT genotypes. The 5-year EFS for heterozygous TPMT*1/*3A patients was the same in both trials (88%), but for the homozygous wild-type TPMT*1/*1 patients, EFS improved from 80% in ALL97% to 88% in ALL2003. Importantly, the unexplained worse outcome for heterozygous TPMT*1/*3C patients observed in ALL97 (5-year EFS 53%) was not seen in ALL2003 (5-year EFS 94%). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis the only significant factor affecting EFS was MRD status (hazard ratio for high-risk MRD patients 4·22, 95% confidence interval 2·97-5·99, P < 0·0001). In conclusion, refinements in risk stratification and treatment have reduced the influence of TPMT genotype on treatment outcome in a contemporary protocol.

  5. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Ramsay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ??? 150 ??l/l without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 100 ??l/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ??? 50 ??l/l.

  6. L-asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Egler, Rachel A.; Ahuja, Sanjay P.; Matloub, Yousif

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematologic malignancy that predominantly occurs in children between 2 and 10 years of age. L-asparaginase is an integral component of treatment for patients with ALL and since its introduction into pediatric treatment protocols in the 1960s, survival rates in children have progressively risen to nearly 90%. Outcomes for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, aged 15-39 years and diagnosed with ALL, have historically been less favorable. However, recent reports suggest substantially increased survival in AYA patients treated on pediatric-inspired protocols that include a greater cumulative dose of asparaginase. All  currently available asparaginases share the same mechanism of action - the deamination and depletion of serum asparagine levels - yet each displays a markedly different pharmacokinetic profile. Pegylated asparaginase derived from the bacterium Escherichia coli is used as first-line therapy; however, up to 30% of patients develop a treatment-limiting hypersensitivity reaction. Patients who experience a hypersensitivity reaction to an E. coli-derived asparaginase can continue treatment with Erwinia chrysanthemi asparaginase. Erwinia asparaginase is immunologically distinct from E. coli-derived asparaginases and exhibits no cross-reactivity. Studies have shown that with adequate dosing, therapeutic levels of Erwinia asparaginase activity can be achieved, and patients switched to Erwinia asparaginase due to hypersensitivity can obtain outcomes similar to patients who do not experience a hypersensitivity reaction. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be required to ensure that therapeutic levels of asparaginase activity are maintained. PMID:27440950

  7. [Venous treatment with streptase in acute myocardial infarct and unstable stenocardia (a new method)].

    PubMed

    Atanasov, K; Dzhurdzhev, A; Kichukov, N; Ivanov, I; Mineva, Zh

    1987-01-01

    Streptokinase treatment was carried out in the intensive care unit of III Internal Clinic, the Higher Medical Institute--Plovdiv, on 54 patients, 51 of them with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 3 with intermediary coronary syndrome, making use of the preparations streptase (GFR) and avelysin (GDR). A control group of 35 patients with AMI was used. The treatment was initiated with stream administration of heparin 10,000 U and urbazon 20 mg, whereafter streptokinase 1,250,000 U per 1 h was included on that background. The results were determined according to ECG in 30 leads, recorded by 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, according to creatine-phosphokinase activity and the outcome of the disease. The treatment was uninterrupted up to 24 h with the determination of the individual fibrinolytic activity. Normalization of S-T segment was established by 4 h with restoration of ECG in 10 patients, and in the rest--maintaining QS or QR forms. Re-perfusion arrhythmias were observed in 66.67% and data about re-thrombosis--in 13.61%. Lethality was 5.89%. The method is emphasized to be a reliable means for the treatment of AMI.

  8. Acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to selected lifestages of cold-, cool-, and warmwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Rach, Jeffery J.; Ramsay, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery personnel depend on therapeutant treatments to control diseases. Currently, hatchery managers in the United States are limited to one approved therapeutant (formalin) and three compounds of Low Regulatory Priority (sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic acid) to control external diseases of cultured fish. Hydrogen peroxide has been used to effectively control external columnaris and bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout, however, definitive safe treatment concentrations for hydrogen peroxide are lacking for a variety of species. We report the acute toxicity of hydrogen peroxide treatments to 11 species of fry and 13 species of fingerling freshwater fish. Most mortality occurred within the first 30 h after the first exposure to hydrogen peroxide with little change in the overall shape of survival curves over time. Our data predict that in an actual therapeutic application of hydrogen peroxide, most treatment-related mortalities would be observed shortly after the initial exposure. Coolwater species were more sensitive than coldwater species but were generally similar to warmwater species tested. Based on our mortality data, coldwater species and largemouth bass may be treated for 60 min at concentrations of ≤ 150 (μl/1 without harmful effects; all muskellunge, walleye, bluegill, channel catfish, yellow perch, pallid sturgeon fingerlings, fathead minnow fingerlings, white sucker fingerlings, and northern pike fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 100 μl/l; and northern pike fingerlings and white sucker, yellow perch and fathead minnow fry may be treated for 60 min at ≤ 50μl/l.

  9. Continuous blood purification treatment for endotoxin-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Y.; Lin, R.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Cui, K.; Zhu, M.; Li, A.; Chen, C.; Yang, J.; Yang, W.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of continuous blood purification (CBP) treatment in pigs affected with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A total of 12 healthy male pigs, weighing 12±1.8 kg, were randomly and equally assigned to the control and experimental groups. The ARDS pig model was prepared by intravenous injections of endotoxin (20 µg/kg). The control group was given conventional supportive therapy, while the experimental group was given continuous veno-venous hemofiltration therapy. During the treatment process, the variations in dynamic lung compliance, oxygenation index, hemodynamics, and urine volume per hour at different times (Baseline, 0, 2, 4, and 6 h) were recorded. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histomorphological changes of the lung, heart, and kidney were visualized using a light microscope. The nuclear factor κB p65 protein content of the heart, lung, and kidney tissues was also detected using western blot. The experimental group outperformed the control group in both respiratory and hemodynamic events. CBP treatment cleared TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 partially from serum and BALF. The pathological examination of the heart, lung, and kidney tissues revealed that the injury was less severe in the experimental group. CBP treatment can improve the organ functions of pigs affected with endotoxin-induced ARDS and protect these organs to some extent. PMID:28225865

  10. DCS-Neural-Network Program for Aircraft Control and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements a dynamic-cell-structure (DCS) artificial neural network that can perform such tasks as learning selected aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane from wind-tunnel test data and computing real-time stability and control derivatives of the airplane for use in feedback linearized control. A DCS neural network is one of several types of neural networks that can incorporate additional nodes in order to rapidly learn increasingly complex relationships between inputs and outputs. In the DCS neural network implemented by the present program, the insertion of nodes is based on accumulated error. A competitive Hebbian learning rule (a supervised-learning rule in which connection weights are adjusted to minimize differences between actual and desired outputs for training examples) is used. A Kohonen-style learning rule (derived from a relatively simple training algorithm, implements a Delaunay triangulation layout of neurons) is used to adjust node positions during training. Neighborhood topology determines which nodes are used to estimate new values. The network learns, starting with two nodes, and adds new nodes sequentially in locations chosen to maximize reductions in global error. At any given time during learning, the error becomes homogeneously distributed over all nodes.

  11. Dorsal duct sphincterotomy is effective long-term treatment of acute pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Keith, R G; Shapero, T F; Saibil, F G; Moore, T L

    1989-10-01

    Nonbiliary, nonalcoholic pancreatic inflammatory disease was investigated by biochemical investigation, ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and secretin tests. Twenty-five consecutive cases were followed up for 12 months to 10 years after treatment of disease associated with pancreas divisum, diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Thirteen patients had no recurrence of acute pancreatitis after dorsal duct sphincterotomy alone, during long-term follow-up (mean, 54 months); one patient had recurrent pancreatitis during 33 months after failed sphincterotomy. Eight patients had variable results 12 months to 8 years (mean, 49 months) after dorsal duct sphincterotomy for pancreatic pain syndrome (without amylase elevation), three were pain free, and one had recurrent pancreatitis. For 10 years after dorsal duct sphincterotomy for chronic pancreatitis, one patient had no pain relief; after subtotal pancreatectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy of the dorsal duct, both for chronic pancreatitis, one patient each was pain free and normoglycemic after 54 and 12 months, respectively. Dorsal duct sphincterotomy alone is successful in achieving long-term freedom from recurrence of acute pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum. Pancreatic pain syndrome is not consistently improved by dorsal duct sphincterotomy. Chronic pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum should be treated by resection or drainage procedures, not by dorsal duct sphincterotomy.

  12. Catheter-Based Approaches for the Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Victor F; Jimenez, David

    2017-02-01

    Except when contraindicated, anticoagulation should be initiated when pulmonary embolism (PE) is strongly suspected and the bleeding risk is perceived to be low, even if the evaluation has not been completed. Low-risk patients with acute PE are simply continued on anticoagulation. Severely ill patients with high-risk (massive) PE require aggressive therapy, and if the bleeding risk is acceptable, systemic thrombolysis should be considered. However, despite clear evidence that parenteral thrombolytic therapy leads to more rapid clot resolution than anticoagulation alone, the risk of major bleeding including intracranial bleeding is significantly higher with thrombolytic therapy. It has been demonstrated that right ventricular dysfunction as well as abnormal biomarkers (troponin and brain natriuretic peptide) are associated with increased mortality in acute PE. In spite of this, intermediate-risk (submassive) PE comprises a fairly broad clinical spectrum so that there is not a solid evidence base permitting a consistent algorithm for clinicians to follow. Thus, for several decades, thromboembolism basic scientists, clinical trialists, and clinicians have worked toward a lower risk solution for treatment of patients with more than simply low-risk PE. Catheter-based therapy, consisting of various devices and techniques, with or without low-dose thrombolytic therapy, offers one potential solution and continues to evolve.

  13. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

    PubMed Central

    Rodgerson, Denis O; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, among the victims of Chernobyl, and the two cases described so far from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi disaster. The data supporting the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the new efforts to expand stem cell populations ex vivo for infusion to treat bone marrow failure are reviewed. Hematopoietic stem cells derived from bone marrow or blood have a broad ability to repair and replace radiation induced damaged blood and immune cell production and may promote blood vessel formation and tissue repair. Additionally, a constituent of bone marrow-derived, adult pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic like stem cells, are highly resistant to ionizing radiation and appear capable of regenerating radiation damaged tissue including skin, gut and lung. PMID:24520532

  14. Acute Methotrexate Ingestions in Adults: A Report of Serious Clinical Effects and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S.; Hensley, Matthew D.; Borys, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Limited reported data have reports effects after acute ingestion of methotrexate. Treatment recommendations do not differentiate between exposure routes. Our objective was to determine the frequency of significant toxicity effects and use of therapy after methotrexate ingestion in adults. Methods. We performed a retrospective study on adult cases reported to 6 poison centers over 6 years (2000–2005) which exceed 180,000 exposures/year. Variables collected included demographics, dosages ingested, coingestions, clinical effects, and therapies with outcomes. Results. Sixty-three patients examined over the 6-year period met inclusion criteria. No patient in the series received dialysis or died. The mean dose ingested for all patients was 24 mg (range 2.5–100 mg) and the mean dose for suicidal ingestions was 47.5 mg (12.5–100 mg). The most common clinical effects were abdominal pain, oral irritation, throat irritation, nausea, dizziness, and headache. Nine patients received folinic acid and 3 patients received sodium bicarbonate. No patient developed renal failure, bone marrow suppression, seizure, or coma. No patient died or received dialysis. Conclusion. In our series of patients from 6 poison centers over six years, 63 cases of acute adult methotrexate ingestions were reported. Methotrexate toxicity from ingestion in adults was uncommon and rarely toxic. PMID:24829573

  15. Isocitrate Treatment of Acute Anemia of Inflammation in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Airie; Fung, Eileen; Parikh, Sona G.; Gabayan, Victoria; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Acute and severe anemia of inflammation (AI) is a common complication of various clinical syndromes, including fulminant infections, critical illness with multiorgan failure, and exacerbations of autoimmune diseases. Building on recent data showing beneficial results with isocitrate treatment for chronic low-grade AI in a rat model, we used a mouse model of acute and severe AI induced by intraperitoneal heat-killed Brucella abortus to determine if isocitrate would be effective in this more stringent application. Inflamed mice treated with isocitrate developed an early but transient improvement in hemoglobin compared to solvent-treated controls, with a robust improvement on day 7, and only a trend towards improvement by day 14. Reticulocyte counts were increased in treated mice transiently, with no significant difference by day 21. Serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar in treated versus control mice, indicating that isocitrate increased sensitivity to EPO. Serum and tissue iron levels showed no significant differences between the treated and control mice, ruling out improved iron availability as the cause of the increased response to endogenous EPO. Compared to the milder rat model, much higher doses of isocitrate were required for a relatively modest benefit. PMID:26603720

  16. Relaxin: a novel agent for the treatment of acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Suprat S; Ayaz, Syed I; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-03-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is defined by a constellation of signs and symptoms that manifest when new or decompensated ventricular dysfunction is triggered by an acute precipitant such as excessive preload, afterload, or myocardial ischemia. Despite being one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality, little to no progress has been made over the last few decades to advance the treatment of AHF. Current mainstays of pharmacotherapy for AHF including diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropes can improve symptoms; however, no currently approved agent has been shown to provide lasting outcome benefit for patients with AHF. First discovered in pregnant women where it is known to help with growth of the cervix and assist with the maternal cardiovascular and renovascular responses to pregnancy, relaxin is an endogenous neurohormone that has novel vasoactive properties. In particular, relaxin is a potent vasodilator with a number of pleiotropic effects that may affect cardiac remodeling, making relaxin an attractive compound for use in the management of AHF. Indeed, in two randomized controlled trials, a single 48-hour infusion of relaxin relieved symptoms of AHF with no evidence of major adverse effects. A signal of mortality benefit at 180 days was noted in both trials, prompting a third trial of relaxin powered for 180-day mortality that is currently under way. The pharmacology that underscores the potential benefit of relaxin is discussed and insight is provided into future clinical application of this novel drug should it prove to be the first therapy capable of reducing mortality in AHF.

  17. Effects of Liver × receptor agonist treatment on signal transduction pathways in acute lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Liver × receptor α (LXRα) and β (LXRβ) are members of the nuclear receptor super family of ligand-activated transcription factors, a super family which includes the perhaps better known glucocorticoid receptor, estrogen receptor, thyroid receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. There is limited evidence that LXL activation may reduces acute lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T0901317, a potent LXR receptor ligand, in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Methods Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity of mice elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by: accumulation of fluid containing a large number of neutrophils (PMNs) in the pleural cavity, infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and subsequent lipid peroxidation, and increased production of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Furthermore, carrageenan induced the expression of iNOS, nitrotyrosine and PARP, as well as induced apoptosis (TUNEL staining and Bax and Bcl-2 expression) in the lung tissues. Results Administration of T0901317, 30 min after the challenge with carrageenan, caused a significant reduction in a dose dependent manner of all the parameters of inflammation measured. Conclusions Thus, based on these findings we propose that LXR ligand such as T0901317, may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:20175894

  18. Monochloramine induces acute and protracted colitis in the rat: response to pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Isabel; González, Raquel; Nieto, Ana; Zarzuelo, Antonio; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez

    2005-05-06

    Monochloramine is a powerful oxidative molecule that is produced in inflammatory sites. We investigated the effect of intrarectally administered monochloramine (3.2 mg) in the rat. A single enema induced after 24 h an intense inflammatory reaction characterized by mucosal necrosis, submucosal edema, hemorrhage and colonic thickening, as well as induction of nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor and an increase in the interferon gamma/interleukin 4 ratio. The inflammatory response peaked 3-5 days after monochloramine administration and then followed a extended recovery phase. At 1 week there was substantial but incomplete mucosal repair, submucosal edema, neutrophil/macrophage infiltration and increased myeloperoxydase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Oxidative stress, as determined by malonyldialdehyde levels, was prominent only in the acute phase (3-5 days). Monochloramine colitis was amenable to pharmacological treatment with sulphasalazine or prednisolone, suggesting that it may be used as an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion, monochloramine induces acute and protracted colonic inflammation in the rat. Locally produced monochloramine might contribute to the perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Breanndan

    2006-05-01

    The term transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was coined in 1983 to describe a constellation of clinical and laboratory features seen within 6 hrs of the transfusion of plasma-containing blood products. These products contain antibodies directed to human leukocyte antigens (and subsequently described to nonhuman leukocyte antigens) found on white blood cells. In the intervening 2 decades, other cases not associated with antibodies have been reported as TRALI and an association with passive infusion of lipids accumulated in stored cellular blood products has been made in those cases. This has led to confusion as to what should be considered to constitute TRALI. Therefore, the true incidence of this pulmonary reaction to blood products is currently conjectural at best. Recent consensus development conferences have been held to develop and standardize definitions of TRALI so that epidemiologic and research aspects of this condition can be explored in a scientific manner. These conferences have set out criteria by which TRALI is distinguished from other causes of acute lung injury. This review outlines the widely accepted clinical (mainly pulmonary) features of TRALI, the treatment options, and the excellent long-term prognosis for patients who survive the initial pulmonary insult.

  20. [Neurologic complications induced by the treatment of the acute renal allograft rejection with the monoclonal antibody OKT3].

    PubMed

    Fernández, O; Romero, F; Bravo, M; Burgos, D; Cabello, M; González-Molina, M

    1993-10-01

    The treatment of the acute renal allograft rejection with the monoclonal antibody orthoclone OKT3 produces both systemic and neurologic alterations. In a series of 21 patients with an acute renal allograft rejection treated with this monoclonal antibody, 20 with a renal allograft transplantation and one with a renal and pancreatic allograft transplantation, 29% referred headache associated with fever and vomiting, and 14.2% presented severe neurological alterations induced by the treatment. We stress the need to know these secondary effects to differentiate them from other central nervous system disorders, particularly those of infectious origin.

  1. Are parenting behaviors associated with child sleep problems during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maria C; Bastiani, Jessica; Williams, Lauren K

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a recognized common side effect in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although associated with treatment factors such as hospitalization and corticosteroids, sleep problems may also be influenced by modifiable environmental factors such as parenting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine sleep problems in children undergoing treatment for ALL compared to healthy children and whether parenting practices are associated with sleep difficulties. Parents of 73 children aged 2-6 years who were (1) in the maintenance phase of ALL treatment (ALL group, n = 43) or (2) had no major medical illness (healthy control group, n = 30) participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires measuring their child's sleep behavior and their own parenting practices. Parents of children undergoing ALL treatment reported significantly more child sleep problems; 48% of children with ALL compared to 23% of healthy children had clinical levels of sleep disturbance. Parents of the ALL group also reported significantly more lax parenting practices and strategies associated with their child's sleep including co-sleeping, comforting activities, and offering food and drink in the bedroom. Results of multivariate regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for illness status, parent-child co-sleeping was significantly associated with child sleep difficulties. Strategies employed by parents during ALL treatment may be a potential modifiable intervention target that could result in improved child sleep behaviors. Future research aimed at developing and testing parenting interventions aimed to improve child sleep in the context of oncology treatment is warranted.

  2. Short-Term Outcomes of Acute Low-Tone Sensorineural Hearing Loss According to Treatment Modality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jinkyung; Yum, Gunhwee; Im, Ha-Young; Jung, Jong Yoon; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We compared improvements in hearing thresholds in acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL) patients after two different treatments: steroid alone and steroid and diuretic combined. We analyzed how the duration between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment affected hearing loss improvement and investigated the relation between presence of vertigo in ALHL patients and ALHL progression to Ménière's disease (MD). Subjects and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 47 ALHL patients aged 21 to 76 years. Patients received either orally administered steroid alone (n=12) or steroid and diuretic combined (n=35). We compared improvements in the two groups' hearing thresholds at three lower frequencies (125, 250, and 500 Hz) after participants had received one month of each respective treatment. Results Our two treatments did not show any statistical difference in hearing loss improvement after one month. Forty percent of ALHL patients with vertigo developed MD, which was a significantly higher rate than the 12.5% of ALHL patients without vertigo who developed MD. The shorter duration between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment significantly increased improvement in the sum of lower frequency hearing threshold after one month. Conclusions The current study suggests that steroid and diuretic administered together and steroid alone similarly improve the hearing threshold in ALHL patients after one month. We concluded that patients should initiate ALHL treatment as soon as they experience symptoms. ALHL patients should also be notified of their higher risk of developing MD. PMID:27144234

  3. Current treatment options for adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stock, Wendy

    2010-02-01

    The clinical management of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been challenging primarily due to the aggressive nature of the disease and limited effective treatment options. The outcome for patients who receive conventional chemotherapy alone is poor, with remission duration of around 12 months and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of not more than 10%. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) has been the only known curative treatment option, but is limited by the availability of a matched donor and the risk of treatment-related mortality. Given the role of BCR-ABL in the leukemogenesis of Ph+ ALL, current treatments have focused on inhibition of this oncogenic tyrosine kinase. Early studies demonstrate that the use of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), imatinib, before alloSCT results in improved response rates and DFS when combined with standard chemotherapy regimens. Remission duration also is improved when combination chemotherapy and imatinib are administered intensively, even in the absence of allogeneic stem cell transplant. However, resistant disease remains an important problem, and the mechanisms underlying resistance in Ph+ ALL are multifactorial. Novel TKIs are currently under development and are effective in some patients with imatinib-resistant disease. The dual BCR-ABL/SRC family kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, has shown promising activity in the treatment of Ph+ ALL after imatinib failure and has recently been approved in this indication. Other TKI-based therapies are also showing potential in imatinib-resistant disease. This article reviews current and emerging treatments in Ph+ ALL.

  4. Treatment of Adenoviral Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Using Cidofovir With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhyeok; Kim, Seulgi; Kwon, Oh Jung; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeong, Inbeom; Son, Ji Woong; Na, Moon Jun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Park, Hyun Woong; Kwon, Sun Jung

    2017-03-01

    Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, severe lower respiratory adenovirus infections including pneumonia are reported in specific populations, such as military recruits and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral treatment is challenging due to limited clinical experience and lack of well-controlled randomized trials. Several previously reported cases of adenoviral pneumonia showed promising efficacy of cidofovir. However, few reports discussed the efficacy of cidofovir in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We experienced 3 cases of adenoviral pneumonia associated with ARDS and treated with cidofovir and respiratory support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). All 3 patients showed a positive clinical response to cidofovir and survival at 28 days. Cidofovir with early ECMO therapy may be a therapeutic option in adenoviral ARDS. A literature review identified 15 cases of adenovirus pneumonia associated with ARDS.

  5. Plastic isolators for treatment of acute leukaemia patients under "germ-free" conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, P C; Spiers, A S; Gaya, H

    1975-01-01

    A gnotobiotic isolation system based on those developed in veterinary research has been constructed for hospital use. Fifteen patients with leukaemia and neutropenia spent a total of 110 weeks in plastic isolators, and none acquired any infection. Endogenous flora was effectively suppressed by topical antiseptics and gastrointestinal decontamination effected with nonabsorbable antibiotics. The isolator system was acceptable to patients and staff and much cheaper than the use of sterile rooms. Other advantages of the system are portability, easy storage, and use on ordinary open wards without prejudice to the microbiological protection afforded. It is as yet uncertain whether protective environments of this type will substantially improve the outcome of treatment for the acute leukaemias. PMID:1203666

  6. [Prognostication of course and treatment of peripancreatic infiltrate in patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Susak, Ia M; Tkachenko, O A; Malysh, I R; Dirda, O O; Fedorchuk, O H

    2014-04-01

    Results of treatment of 229 patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis, complicated by peripancreatic infiltrate, were analyzed. To all the patients antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic therapy were conducted. In 63 (27.5%) patients the methods of extracorporal hemocorrection were applied, and in 108 (47.1%)--the "four--catheters" rule (catheter for epidural anesthesia, installment of the feeding intestinal probe further than the Treitz ligament level, the central vein catheterization, the programmed laparocentesis). In 31 (13.5%) patients there were determined the activity of mononuclear phagocytes and production of ROS (the oxygen active forms) by them in peripheral blood with objective for the purulent-septic complications prognostication. In 14 (6.1%) patients purulent--septic complications have occurred, postoperative lethality was 21.4%, general lethality--3.4%.

  7. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation syndrome: a concise review.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Komůrková, Denisa; Hoferová, Zuzana

    2014-04-16

    This article concisely summarizes data on the action of one of the principal and best known growth factors, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), in a mammalian organism exposed to radiation doses inducing acute radiation syndrome. Highlighted are the topics of its real or anticipated use in radiation accident victims, the timing of its administration, the possibilities of combining G-CSF with other drugs, the ability of other agents to stimulate endogenous G-CSF production, as well as of the capability of this growth factor to ameliorate not only the bone marrow radiation syndrome but also the gastrointestinal radiation syndrome. G-CSF is one of the pivotal drugs in the treatment of radiation accident victims and its employment in this indication can be expected to remain or even grow in the future.

  8. Hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome transformed in acute myeloid leukemia after androgens and cyclosporin. A treatment.

    PubMed

    Gologan, R; Ostroveanu, Daniela; Dobrea, Camelia; Gioadă, Liliana

    2003-01-01

    The apparent contradiction between clonal expansion and marrow failure encountered in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is more evident in hypocellular forms at presentation. Hypoplastic MDS (hMDS) appears to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity, accounting for about 15% from all MDS. The pathogeny is supposed to result from immunosupressive mechanisms and some observations on successful treatment with Cyclosporine A (CsA) are reported. The case of a young female patient diagnosed by bone marrow core biopsy with hMDS - refractory anemia (FAB and WHO classification) with normal karyotype and scarce CD34(+) cells by immunohistophenotyping is presented. She was treated with androgens followed by CsA for a few months and shortly after she developed an acute myeloid leukemia (M4) which responded to low-doses of daily oral melphalan. This is one of the first few reports on such an event during the immunosuppressive therapy in MDS and the possible explanations for this unusual evolution are discussed.

  9. Isolated testicular relapse in boys with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: treatment and outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, J; Chessells, J M; Sandland, R M

    1982-01-01

    In 22 boys among a group of 169 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia the first relapse occurred in the testis. In 14 of these late isolated testicular relapse was detected on routine biopsy or became apparent after treatment was electively stopped. Eleven of these boys were treated with reinduction, irradiation of 2400 rads to both testicles, intrathecal methotrexate, and two years of chemotherapy; 10 remained well and were in second complete remission from two and a half to five and a half years later. It is concluded that boys with late isolated testicular relapse fare better than those with late marrow relapse and may have a change of long-term disease-free survival. Images p1616-a PMID:6814673

  10. Nonviolent resistance: a treatment for parents of children with acute behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Weinblatt, Uri; Omer, Haim

    2008-01-01

    Nonviolent resistance (NVR) is a new training model aimed at helping parents deal effectively with their helplessness, isolation, and escalatory interactions with their children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate training in NVR with the parents of children with acute behavior problems. Seventy-three parents (41 families) were randomly assigned to a treatment group and wait-list control group. Measures were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 1-month follow-up. In comparison with the wait-list group, parents who received training in NVR showed a decrease in parental helplessness and escalatory behaviors, and an increase in perceived social support. The children's negative behaviors as assessed by the parents also decreased significantly.

  11. [Gallstone ileus as a cause of acute abdomen. Importance of early diagnosis for surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Martín-Pérez, Jesica; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Medina-Arana y, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon type of mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by an intraluminal gallstone, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult in the Emergency department. This study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation of 5 patients with gallstone ileus treated between 2000-2010. Clinical features, diagnostic testing, and surgical treatment were analyzed. Five patients were included: 2 cases showed bowel obstruction; 2 patients presented a recurrent gallstone ileus with prior surgical intervention; and one patient presented acute peritonitis due to perforation of an ileal diverticula. In all cases CT confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. In our experience, gallstone ileus may present with clinical features other than intestinal obstruction. In suspicious cases CT may be useful to decrease diagnostic delay, which is associated with more complications.

  12. Successful treatment of disseminated mucormycosis in a neutropenic patient with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Guymer, Chelsea; Khurana, Sanjeev; Suppiah, Ram; Hennessey, Iain; Cooper, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare angioinvasive fungal infection, more commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients, with reported mortality rates of 95% in disseminated disease. We present a case report of a patient with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed disseminated infection with mucormycosis (involving the pancreas, left occipital lobe, right lower lobe of lung, appendix and right kidney) after having completed induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Growth of Lichtheimia corymbifera was initially isolated following a right pleural tap with fungal elements identified repeatedly on subsequent pathology specimens. Following radical surgical debridement and concurrent treatment with combination antifungal therapy, the patient survived. This case demonstrates that aggressive multisite surgical de-bulking of disseminated fungal foci, in conjunction with combination antifungal therapy and reversal of immunosuppression, can result in survival despite the grave prognosis associated with disseminated mucormycosis. PMID:23904418

  13. Acute Effect of Treatment of Mitral Stenosis on Left Atrium Function

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Atooshe; Kargar, Shahram; Fazlinejad, Afsoon; Ghaderi, Fereshte; Vakili, Vida; Falsoleiman, Homa; Bagheri, Ramin Khamene

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) is used to evaluate left atrium (LA) function in patients with mitral stenosis (MS), before and after percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and mitral valve replacement (MVR). Methods: Patients with severe symptomatic MS, who were referred to our echocardiographic laboratory for a diagnostic examination before cardiac surgery or PTMC from October of 2014 to October of 2015, were included in the study. Result: The peak systolic global LA strain improved post-PTMC (P < 0.001) and post-MVR (P = 0.012). This difference was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: PALS is impaired in patients with severe symptomatic MS and improved acutely after treatment and may be a good indicator of LA function and may predict the right time for intervention on mitral valve. PMID:28074794

  14. Acute forensic medical procedures used following a sexual assault among treatment-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Hester; Brazeau, Paulette; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Despite the negative physical and mental health outcomes of sexual assault, a minority of sexually assaulted women seek immediate post-assault medical and legal services. This study identified the number and types of acute forensic medical procedures used by women presenting at a hospital-based urgent care centre between 1997 and 2001 within 72 hours following a reported sexual assault. The study also examined assault and non-assault factors associated with the use of procedures. It was hypothesized that assault characteristics resembling the stereotype of rape would be associated with the use of more procedures. The multiple regression indicated that injury severity, coercion severity, homelessness, and delay in presentation were significantly associated with the number of procedures received. Findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that post-assault procedures would be associated with the stereotype of rape, and highlight homeless women as a group particularly at risk for not receiving adequate medical treatment following a sexual assault.

  15. Treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism by streptokinase during labour and delivery.

    PubMed

    Hall, R J; Young, C; Sutton, G C; Cambell, S

    1972-12-16

    A 29-year-old woman sustained an acute massive pulmonary embolism in the 32nd week of pregnancy. Rapid clinical improvement followed the use of streptokinase. Treatment was continued for 41 hours, including labour and the first three hours after delivery. There was slow but severe postpartum haemorrhage. Partial uterine atony occurred, and may have been due, at least in part, to fibrin degradation products arising from thrombolysis. No adverse effects were noted in the baby.Our experience suggests that streptokinase may be given during labour but that an oxytocic agent may be needed; and that reversal of fibrinolysis before delivery is best achieved by the use of aprotinin (Trasylol) rather than aminocaproic acid.

  16. Urinary tract analgesics for the treatment of patients with acute cystitis: where is the clinical evidence?

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, Vassilis; Arnos, Pantelis; Mavros, Michael N; Pitsouni, Eleni; Athanasiou, Stavros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-08-01

    Acute cystitis is one of the most common health-related problems in the female population. Over the last few decades, a number of drugs labeled as 'urinary tract analgesics' were released; these are available over the counter and are gaining widespread resonance among the North American population. The main representatives of this class of drugs are phenazopyridine and methenamine hippurate. Methenamine's efficacy and side effects have been well studied in a recent systematic review. On the other hand, in contrast to its widespread use, the published clinical evidence regarding phenazopyridine's effectiveness and safety is scarce. In addition, consumers (potentially patients) appear to ignore the limitations of this kind of treatment. In this article, concerns regarding the use of over-the-counter uroanalgesics, with a focus on the relevant clinical evidence, are discussed.

  17. Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment Costs from the Perspective of the Supplementary Health System

    PubMed Central

    Teich, Vanessa; Piha, Tony; Fahham, Lucas; Squiassi, Haline Bianca; Paloni, Everton de Matos; Miranda, Paulo; Araújo, Denizar Vianna

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is defined as a “group of clinical symptoms compatible with acute myocardial ischemia”, representing the leading cause of death worldwide, with a high clinical and financial impact. In this sense, the development of economic studies assessing the costs related to the treatment of ACS should be considered. Objective To evaluate costs and length of hospital stay between groups of patients treated for ACS undergoing angioplasty with or without stent implantation (stent+ / stent-), coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and treated only clinically (Clinical) from the perspective of the Brazilian Supplementary Health System (SHS). Methods A retrospective analysis of medical claims of beneficiaries of health plans was performed considering hospitalization costs and length of hospital stay for management of patients undergoing different types of treatment for ACS, between Jan/2010 and Jun/2012. Results The average costs per patient were R$ 18,261.77, R$ 30,611.07, R$ 37,454.94 and R$ 40,883.37 in the following groups: Clinical, stent-, stent+ and CABG, respectively. The average costs per day of hospitalization were R$ 1,987.03, R$ 4,024.72, R$ 6,033.40 and R$ 2,663.82, respectively. The average results for length of stay were 9.19 days, 7.61 days, 6.19 days and 15.20 days in these same groups. The differences were significant between all groups except Clinical and stent- and between stent + and CABG groups for cost analysis. Conclusion Hospitalization costs of SCA are high in the Brazilian SHS, being significantly higher when interventional procedures are required. PMID:26559980

  18. Acute promyelocytic leukemia and differentiation therapy: molecular mechanisms of differentiation, retinoic acid resistance and novel treatments.

    PubMed

    Özpolat, Bülent

    2009-06-05

    Incorporation of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) into the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), revolutionized the therapy of cancer in the last decade and introduced the concept of differentiation therapy. ATRA, a physiological metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), induces complete clinical remissions (CRs) in about 90% of patients with APL. In contrast to the cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, ATRA can selectively induce terminal differentiation of promyelocytic leukemic cells into normal granulocytes without causing bone marrow hypoplasia or exacerbation of the frequently occurring fatal hemorrhagic syndromes in patients with APL. However, remissions induced by ATRA alone are transient and the patients commonly become resistant to the therapy, leading to relapses in most patients and thus limiting the use of ATRA as a single agent. Therefore, ATRA is currently combined with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and this regimen dramatically improves patient survival compared to chemotherapy alone, curing about 70% of the patients. However, 30% of APL patients still relapse and die in five years. Recently, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) was proven to be highly effective in inducing CRs not only in APL patients relapsed after ATRA treatment and conventional chemotherapy but also in primary APL patients. Despite the well-documented clinical efficacy of ATRA, molecular mechanisms responsible for development of ATRA resistance are not well understood. Based on in vitro and clinical observations, several mechanisms, including induction of accelerated metabolism of ATRA, decreased bioavailability and plasma drug levels, point mutations in the ATRA-binding domain of promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARα) and other molecular events have been proposed to explain ATRA resistance. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ATRA-induced myeloid cell differentiation and resistance are discussed, together with novel

  19. Acute treatment with 17beta-estradiol attenuates astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-neuron communication.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shilpa P; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Astrocytes are now recognized as dynamic signaling elements in the brain. Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes involves integration of neuronal inputs by astrocytes and release of gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. The ovarian steroid hormone, 17beta-estradiol, in addition to its rapid actions on neuronal electrical activity can rapidly alter astrocyte intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) through a membrane-associated estrogen receptor. Using calcium imaging and electrophysiological techniques, we investigated the functional consequences of acute treatment with estradiol on astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-neuron communication in mixed hippocampal cultures. Mechanical stimulation of an astrocyte evoked a [Ca2+]i rise in the stimulated astrocyte, which propagated to the surrounding astrocytes as a [Ca2+]i wave. Following acute treatment with estradiol, the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i elevation in astrocytes around the stimulated astrocyte was attenuated. Further, estradiol inhibited the [Ca2+]i rise in individual astrocytes in response to the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid. Mechanical stimulation of astrocytes induced [Ca2+]i elevations and electrophysiological responses in adjacent neurons. Estradiol rapidly attenuated the astrocyte-evoked glutamate-mediated [Ca2+]i rise and slow inward current in neurons. Also, the incidence of astrocyte-induced increase in spontaneous postsynaptic current frequency was reduced in the presence of estradiol. The effects of estradiol were stereo-specific and reversible following washout. These findings may indicate that the regulation of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission by astrocytes is sensitive to rapid estradiol-mediated hormonal control.

  20. Treatment-related toxicities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia predisposition syndromes.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2016-12-01

    Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) do not harbor germline mutations that strongly predispose them to development of this malignancy, large syndrome registries and detailed mapping of exomes or whole genomes of familial leukaemia kindreds have revealed that 3-5% of all childhood ALL cases are due to such germline mutations, but the figure may be higher. Most of these syndromes are primarily characterized by their non-malignant phenotype, whereas ALL may be the dominating or even only striking manifestation of the syndrome in some families. Identification of such ALL patients is important in order to adjust therapy and offer genetic counseling and cancer surveillance to mutation carriers in the family. In the coming years large genomic screening projects are expected to reveal further hitherto unrecognised familial ALL syndromes. The treatment of ALL cases harboring cancer predisposing mutations can be challenging for both the physician and the patient due to their preexisting symptoms, their reduced tolerance to radio- and/or chemotherapy with enhanced risk of life-threatening organ toxicities, and the paucity of data from ALL patients with the same or similar syndromes being treated by contemporary protocols. Recent studies clearly indicate that many of these patients stand a good chance of cure, and that they should be offered chemotherapy with the intention to cure. Some of these syndromes are characterized by reduced tolerance to radiotherapy and/or specific anticancer agents, while others are not. This review summarises our current knowledge on the risk of acute toxicities for these ALL patients and provides guidance for treatment adjustments.

  1. Repetitive hyperbaric oxygen treatment increases insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Wei, Yi-ting; Fan, Shuang-bo; Wang, Liang; Zhou, Xiao-ping

    2017-01-01

    Aim The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is controversial. This study aims to investigate whether the peripheral insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetes patients suffering from intracerebral hemorrhage can be increased after HBOT. Methods Fifty-two type 2 diabetes participants were recruited after being diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage in our hospital. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (80 mU m−2 min−1) at baseline and 10 and 30 days after HBOT sessions. Serum insulin, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1C were measured in fasting serum at baseline and after HBOT sessions. In addition, early (∼10 days after onset) and late (1 month after onset) outcomes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS scores) and efficacy (changes of NIHSS scores) of HBOT were evaluated. Results In response to HBOT, the glucose infusion rate was increased by 37.8%±5.76% at 1 month after onset compared with baseline. Reduced serum insulin, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1C were observed after HBOT. Both early and late outcomes of the HBOT group were improved compared with baseline (P<0.001). In the control group, there was significant difference only in the late outcome (P<0.05). In the assessment of efficacy, there were statistically significant differences between the groups when comparing changes in NIHSS scores at 10 days and 1 month after onset (P<0.05). Conclusion Peripheral insulin sensitivity was increased following HBOT in type 2 diabetes patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. The HBOT used in this study may be effective for diabetes patients with acute stroke and is a safe and harmless adjunctive treatment. PMID:28228657

  2. Acute-phase protein concentration and metabolic status affect the outcome of treatment in cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, M; Mohri, M; Fallah-Rad, A H; Dehghan Shahreza, F; Mohammadi, M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of acute-phase protein concentration and metabolic status in the establishment and resistance of clinical endometritis (CE) and subclinical endometritis (SE) in dairy cows. We also characterised the treatment-related changes in the concentration of acute-phase proteins and metabolic variables in dairy cows affected by CE and SE. Cows of the SE and CE groups presented a significantly higher β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), haptoglobin and total sialic acid (TSA) concentrations compared with a healthy group of animals. A significantly lower serum calcium concentration, and a significantly higher serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the CE group, were observed when compared with SE and healthy groups. The comparison of parameters before treatment indicated that cows suffering from CE or SE with lower concentrations of hepatic and inflammatory markers showed a better response to further treatment, and endometritis was not detected in the second examination. Moreover, decreased concentrations of BHB, acute-phase proteins and hepatic markers were observed after successful treatment for endometritis in CE and SE cows. The results obtained in this study suggest that improved liver function and a decrease in the acute-phase protein concentration might favour the resolution of endometritis after treatment.

  3. NANOG Expression as a Responsive Biomarker during Treatment with Hedgehog Signal Inhibitor in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kakiuchi, Seiji; Minami, Yosuke; Miyata, Yoshiharu; Mizutani, Yu; Goto, Hideaki; Kawamoto, Shinichiro; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Kurata, Keiji; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Minami, Hironobu

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of leukemic stem cell (LSCs) populations. PF-0444913 (PF-913) is a novel inhibitor that selectively targets Smoothened (SMO), which regulates the Hh pathway. Treatment with PF-913 has shown promising results in an early phase study of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, a detailed mode of action for PF-913 and relevant biomarkers remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined bone marrow samples derived from AML patients under PF-913 monotherapy. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that PF-913 treatment affected the self-renewal signature and cell-cycle regulation associated with LSC-like properties. We then focused on the expression of a pluripotency factor, NANOG, because previous reports showed that a downstream effector in the Hh pathway, GLI, directly binds to the NANOG promoter and that the GLI-NANOG axis promotes stemness and growth in several cancers. In this study, we found that a change in NANOG transcripts was closely associated with GLI-target genes and NANOG transcripts can be a responsive biomarker during PF-913 therapy. Additionally, the treatment of AML with PF-913 holds promise, possibly through inducing quiescent leukemia stem cells toward cell cycling. PMID:28245563

  4. Aminophylline treatment in meconium-induced acute lung injury in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Mokra, D; Mokry, J; Tatarkova, Z; Redfors, B; Petraskova, M; Calkovska, A

    2007-11-01

    Administration of methylxanthines may diminish meconium-induced acute lung injury. Meconium-instilled rabbits intravenously received aminophylline (2.0 mg/kg) at two doses 0.5 h and 2.5 h after meconium instillation or were left without treatment, and were oxygen-ventilated for additional 5 h. At the end of experiment, lungs and trachea were excised. Within 5 h after the first dose of treatment, aminophylline significantly improved gas exchange and decreased right-to-left pulmonary shunts, central venous pressure, and ventilatory pressures. Moreover, aminophylline reduced meconium-induced lung edema formation, airway hyperreactivity to histamine, count of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid associated with higher total white blood cells and neutrophils in the blood, and diminished oxidative modifications of proteins and lipids in lung tissue compared with the non-treated meconium-instilled group. In a rabbit model of the meconium aspiration syndrome, aminophylline treatment enhanced pulmonary functions and alleviated oxidative injury and changes in airway reactivity related to lung inflammation.

  5. Central nervous system complications during treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a single pediatric institution.

    PubMed

    Parasole, Rosanna; Petruzziello, Fara; Menna, Giuseppe; Mangione, Argia; Cianciulli, Emilio; Buffardi, Salvatore; Marchese, Luciano; Nastro, Anna; Misuraca, Aldo; Poggi, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications during treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remain a challenging clinical problem. Outcome improvement with more intensive chemotherapy has significantly increased the incidence and severity of adverse events. This study analyzed the incidence of neurological complications during ALL treatment in a single pediatric institution, focusing on clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological findings. Exclusion criteria included CNS leukemic infiltration at diagnosis, therapy-related peripheral neuropathy, late-onset encephalopathy, or long-term neurocognitive defects. During a 9-year period, we retrospectively collected 27 neurological events (11%) in as many patients, from 253 children enrolled in the ALL front-line protocol. CNS complications included posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (n = 10), stroke (n = 5), temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 2), high-dose methotrexate toxicity (n = 2), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (n = 1), and other unclassified events (n = 7). In conclusion, CNS complications are frequent events during ALL therapy, and require rapid detection and prompt treatment to limit permanent damage.

  6. Complete Treatment Versus Residual Lesion - Long-Term Evolution After Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Scanavini Filho, Marco Antônio; Bossa, Aline Siqueira; Zullino, Cindel Nogueira; Soeiro, Maria Carolina F. Almeida; Leal, Tatiana Carvalho Andreucci T; Serrano Jr, Carlos Vicente; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Oliveira Jr, Múcio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A recently published study raised doubts about the need for percutaneous treatment of nonculprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods Retrospective, unicentric, observational study. Objective To analyze the long-term outcomes in patients undergoing treatment of the culprit artery, comparing those who remained with significant residual lesions in nonculprit arteries (group I) versus those without residual lesions in other coronary artery beds (group II). The study included 580 patients (284 in group I and 296 in group II) between May 2010 and May 2013. We obtained demographic and clinical data, as well as information regarding the coronary treatment administered to the patients. In the statistical analysis, the primary outcome included combined events (reinfarction/angina, death, heart failure, and need for reintervention). The comparison between groups was performed using the chi-square test and ANOVA. The long-term analysis was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method, with a mean follow-up of 9.86 months. Results The mean ages were 63 years in group I and 62 years in group II. On long-term follow-up, there was no significant difference in combined events in groups I and II (31.9% versus 35.6%, respectively, p = 0.76). Conclusion The strategy of treating the culprit artery alone seems safe. In this study, no long-term differences in combined endpoints were observed between patients who remained with significant lesions compared with those without other obstructions.

  7. Pregnancy-induced hypertension caused by all-trans retinoic acid treatment in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    SONG, KUI; LI, MIN

    2015-01-01

    A 23-year-old pregnant female presented with fever and diarrhea during the sixth month of gestation. The patient was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) at 26 weeks gestation and was treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at an initial dose of 45 mg/m2/day, which was reduced to 25 mg/m2/day 14 days later. The patient experienced chest distress, polypnea, hypertension, general dropsy and dysfunction of the kidneys and heart on day 3 of the treatment, which suggested pregnancy-induced hypertension. Intrauterine fetal demise was apparent on day 8. A cesarean delivery was performed, however, intrauterine fetal mortality had occurred. A favorable outcome was achieved for the patient following treatment, although hematological complete remission was slow. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe an APL patient with pregnancy-induced hypertension following treatment with ATRA, and thus ATRA remains a suitable for therapy for APL during pregnancy. PMID:26171031

  8. Clinical efficacy of dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI)

    PubMed Central

    Leuthner, Kimberly D; Buechler, Kristin A; Kogan, David; Saguros, Agafe; Lee, H Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a common disease causing patients to seek treatment through the health care system. With the continued increase of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, these infections are becoming more difficult to successfully cure. Lipoglycopeptides have unique properties that allow the drug to remain active toward both common and challenging pathogens at the infected site for lengthy periods of time. Dalbavancin, a new lipoglycopeptide, provides two unique dosing regimens for the treatment of ABSSSI. The original regimen of 1,000 mg intravenous infusion followed by a 500 mg intravenous infusion after a week has been shown as safe and effective in multiple, randomized noninferiority trials. These studies also demonstrated that dalbavancin was similar to standard regimens in terms of both safety and tolerability. Recently a single 1,500 mg dose was demonstrated to be equivalent to the dalbavancin two-dose regimen for treating ABSSSI. With the introduction of dalbavancin, clinicians have the option to provide an intravenous antimicrobial agent shown to be as effective as traditional therapies, without requiring admission into the hospitals or prescribing a medication which may not be utilized optimally. Further understanding of dalbavancin and its unusual properties can provide unique treatment situations with potential benefits for both the patient and the overall health care system, which should be further explored. PMID:27354809

  9. Effects of Acute Lithium Treatment on Brain Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Poststroke Rats.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Matthew; Nassar, Ahmad; Kaplanski, Jacob; Zlotnik, Alexander; Sharon-Granit, Yael; Azab, Abed N

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Few therapeutic options with proven efficacy are available for the treatment of this disabling disease. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder. Moreover, lithium has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects and therapeutic efficacy as a treatment of other neurological disorders. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of lithium on brain inflammatory mediators levels, fever, and mortality in postischemic stroke rats. Ischemic stroke was induced by occlusion of the mid cerebral artery (MCAO). Pretreatment with a single dose of lithium at 2 hours before MCAO induction significantly reduced the elevation in interleukin- (IL-) 6 and prostaglandin E2 levels in brain of post-MCAO rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. On the other hand, lithium did not affect the elevation in IL-1α, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in brain of post-MCAO rats. Moreover, pretreatment with lithium did not alter post-MCAO fever and mortality. These results suggest that acute pretreatment with a single dose of lithium did not markedly affect post-MCAO morbidity and mortality in rats.

  10. Thoracic epidural analgesia: a new approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Windisch, Olivier; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Giraud, Raphaël; Morel, Philippe; Bühler, Léo

    2016-05-04

    This review article analyzes, through a nonsystematic approach, the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) with a focus on the effects of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the disease. The benefit-risk balance is also discussed. AP has an overall mortality of 1 %, increasing to 30 % in its severe form. The systemic inflammation induces a strong activation of the sympathetic system, with a decrease in the blood flow supply to the gastrointestinal system that can lead to the development of pancreatic necrosis. The current treatment for severe AP is symptomatic and tries to correct the systemic inflammatory response syndrome or the multiorgan dysfunction. Besides the removal of gallstones in biliary pancreatitis, no satisfactory causal treatment exists. TEA is widely used, mainly for its analgesic effect. TEA also induces a targeted sympathectomy in the anesthetized region, which results in splanchnic vasodilatation and an improvement in local microcirculation. Increasing evidence shows benefits of TEA in animal AP: improved splanchnic and pancreatic perfusion, improved pancreatic microcirculation, reduced liver damage, and significantly reduced mortality. Until now, only few clinical studies have been performed on the use of TEA during AP with few available data regarding the effect of TEA on the splanchnic perfusion. Increasing evidence suggests that TEA is a safe procedure and could appear as a new treatment approach for human AP, based on the significant benefits observed in animal studies and safety of use for human. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the clinical benefits observed in animal studies.

  11. Evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics published clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in children. The technical report accompanying those guidelines included 21 studies that assessed the diagnosis and management of ABS in children. This update to that report incorporates studies of pediatric ABS that have been performed since 2001. Overall, 17 randomized controlled trials of the treatment of sinusitis in children were identified and analyzed. Four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antimicrobial therapy have been published. The results of these studies varied, likely due to differences in inclusion and exclusion criteria. Because of this heterogeneity, formal meta-analyses were not performed. However, qualitative analysis of these studies suggests that children with greater severity of illness at presentation are more likely to benefit from antimicrobial therapy. An additional 5 trials compared different antimicrobial therapies but did not include placebo groups. Six trials assessed a variety of ancillary treatments for ABS in children,and 3 focused on subacute sinusitis. Although the number of pediatric trials has increased since 2001, there are still limited data to guide the diagnosis and management of ABS in children. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines focusing on severity of illness at the time of presentation have the potential to identify those children most likely to benefit from antimicrobial therapy and at the same time minimize unnecessary use of antibiotics

  12. Impact of DSM-5 Changes on the Diagnosis and Acute Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Taina; Koeter, Maarten; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Storosum, Jitschak; van den Brink, Wim; de Haan, Lieuwe; Derks, Eske; Leufkens, Hubertus; Denys, Damiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the consequences and validity of changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, eg, omission of subtypes, using a large dataset of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trials. Methods: Data from 22 short-term efficacy registration trials of second generation antipsychotics for the treatment of acute psychotic episodes in patients with schizophrenia (N = 5233), submitted to the Dutch regulatory authority were analyzed. We examined whether patients in these pre-DSM-5 trials met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to DSM-5. Using linear regression, we examined differences in effect size between DSM-IV subtypes and between DSM-5 symptom dimensions. Results: Over 99.5% of the patients met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and no differences in effect size were found between schizophrenia subtypes (P = .65). Symptom dimensions that respond best to treatment with second generation antipsychotics were hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and mania (Hedge’s g −0.23 to −0.31). Conclusions: Results of clinical trials in patients with pre-DSM-5 schizophrenia also apply to patients diagnosed with DSM-5 schizophrenia. Omission of the classic subtypes is justified as they are not predictive of response to treatment. The DSM-5 C-RDPSS scale adds valuable information to the categorical diagnosis of schizophrenia, which is relevant for antipsychotic response. PMID:25528758

  13. Successful Salvage Treatment of Resistant Acute Antibody-Mediated Kidney Transplant Rejection with Eculizumab.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saif A; Al-Riyami, Dawood; Al-Mula Abed, Yasser W; Mohammed, Saja; Al-Riyami, Marwa; Al-Lawati, Nabil M

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) jeopardises short- and long-term transplant survival and remains a challenge in the field of organ transplantation. We report the first use of the anticomplement agent eculizumab in Oman in the treatment of a 61-year-old female patient with ABMR following a living unrelated kidney transplant. The patient was admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in 2013 on the eighth day post-transplantation with serum creatinine (Cr) levels of 400 µmol/L which continued to rise, necessitating haemodialysis. A biopsy indicated ABMR with acute cellular rejection. No improvement was observed following standard ABMR treatment and she continued to require dialysis. Five doses of eculizumab were administered over six weeks with a subsequent dramatic improvement in renal function. The patient became dialysis-free with serum Cr levels of 119 µmol/L within four months. This case report indicates that eculizumab is a promising agent in the treatment of ABMR.

  14. A Systematic Review of the Evidence for the Treatment of Acute Depression in Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cerullo, Michael A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examined evidence for the acute treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder, focusing on double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with a definite primary outcome measure and published in peer review journals. Quetiapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of bipolar depression and a number of additional agents (including other atypical antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and novel compounds) have been studied with varying degrees of efficacy. The medication with the most evidence for efficacy in bipolar depression is quetiapine with five studies showing positive efficacy compared to placebo. In contrast five studies of lamotrigine were negative although meta-analyses of the pooled have found some treatment effects. Two studies of olanzapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine and three small studies of divalproex showed significant efficacy in treating bipolar depression. Two studies of aripiprazole found no differences compared to placebo. Early research on lithium in bipolar depression had significant methodological flaws and only one study of lithium met our primary search criteria. To better understand the role of anti-depressants we also examined studies of antidepressants as adjunctive treatment of bipolar depression in participants taking mood stabilizers or atypical antipsychotics. These studies reported mixed results for a variety of antidepressants but the majority found no differences compared to placebo. Other studies of adjunctive treatment were also discussed. There has been one positive adjunctive study each of lamotrigine, omega-3 fatty acids, modafinil, and Armodafinil while there was one negative trial each of omega-3 fatty acids, ziprasidone, and levetiracetam. PMID:23507138

  15. A systematic review of the evidence for the treatment of acute depression in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Michael A; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we examined evidence for the acute treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder, focusing on double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with a definite primary outcome measure and published in peer review journals. Quetiapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine are currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of bipolar depression, and a number of additional agents (including other atypical antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and novel compounds) have been studied with varying degrees of efficacy. The medication with the most evidence for efficacy in bipolar depression is quetiapine, with five studies showing positive efficacy compared to placebo. In contrast, five studies of lamotrigine were negative, although meta-analyses of the pooled have found some treatment effects. Two studies of olanzapine and olanzapine/fluoxetine and three small studies of divalproex showed significant efficacy in treating bipolar depression. Two studies of aripiprazole found no differences compared to placebo. Early research on lithium in bipolar depression had significant methodological flaws, and only one study of lithium met our primary search criteria. To better understand the role of antidepressants, we also examined studies of antidepressants as adjunctive treatment of bipolar depression in participants taking mood stabilizers or atypical antipsychotics. These studies reported mixed results for a variety of antidepressants, but the majority found no differences compared to placebo. Other studies of adjunctive treatment were also discussed. There has been one positive adjunctive study each of lamotrigine, omega-3 fatty acids, modafinil, and armodafinil, while there was one negative trial each of omega-3 fatty acids, ziprasidone, and levetiracetam.

  16. Antibiotic Treatment for First Episode of Acute Otitis Media Is Not Associated with Future Recurrences

    PubMed Central

    te Molder, Marthe; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Smit, Henriette A.; Schilder, Anne G. M.; Damoiseaux, Roger A. M. J.; Venekamp, Roderick P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) has been suggested to increase the risk of future AOM episodes by causing unfavorable shifts in microbial flora. Because current evidence on this topic is inconclusive and long-term follow-up data are scarce, we wanted to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatment for a first AOM episode occurring during infancy on AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. Methods We obtained demographic information and risk factors from data of the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn, a prospective birth cohort study in which all healthy newborns born in Leidsche Rijn (between 2001 and 2012), The Netherlands, were enrolled. These data were linked to children’s primary care electronic health records up to the age of four. Children with at least one family physician-diagnosed AOM episode before the age of two were included in analyses. The exposure of interest was the prescription of oral antibiotics (yes vs no) for a child’s first AOM episode before the age of two years. Results 848 children were included in analyses and 512 (60%) children were prescribed antibiotics for their first AOM episode. Antibiotic treatment was not associated with an increased risk of total AOM recurrences (adjusted rate ratio: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.78–1.13), recurrent AOM (≥3 episodes in 6 months or ≥4 in one year; adjusted risk ratio: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.57–1.11), or with increased AOM-related health care utilization during children’s first four years of life. Conclusions Oral antibiotic treatment of a first AOM episode occurring during infancy does not affect the number of AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. This information can be used when weighing the pros and cons of various AOM treatment options. PMID:27632355

  17. Treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection using bortezomib: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yong-Hun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Oh, Joon Seok; Lee, Jin Ho; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Joong Kyung

    2015-07-01

    Here we report the successful treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) with bortezomib. Bortezomib rescue treatment was administered after a 42-year-old woman failed to respond to steroid pulse and plasmapheresis with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). The patient underwent a second renal transplantation with a deceased donor kidney. She was treated pre-operatively with rituximab (200 mg/body) and underwent plasmapheresis twice (day-1 and operation day) because ELISA screening revealed that her pre-operative peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) composition was 100% class I and 100% class II and 15 times of cross-match positive history during the waiting period for transplantation. The patients received induction therapy with Simulect (an IL-2-blocking agent). A 1-hour protocol biopsy revealed C4d-positivity and mild peritubular capillary inflammation. This was suggestive of early AMR-associated changes. After transplantation, the patient underwent plasmaphereses (nine times) with low-dose IVIG (2 mg/kg). Despite this treatment regimen, serum creatinine levels increased to 3.4 mg/dL on post-transplant day 15. A second graft biopsy was performed, which showed overt AMR with glomerulitis, peritubular capillary inflammation and no C4d deposition. On post-operative day (POD) 22, treatment with four doses of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2) ) was initiated with the patient's consent. On POD 55, renal function had recovered and serum creatinine was 1.5 mg/dL. In summary, bortezomib was administered as a rescue treatment for a patient who developed AMR that was refractory to a combination of plasmaphereses with low-dose IVIG and preemptive administration of rituximab.

  18. Impact of Advanced Health Care Directives on Treatment Decisions by Physicians in Patients with Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A.; Connelly, Bo; Abott, Emily; Janjua, Tariq; Kim, Stanley H.; Miley, Jefferson T.; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Uzun, Guven; Watanabe, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    of directives). Intravenous medication and defibrillation for cardiac arrest was withheld in 29% (compared with 19%) of the treatment decisions in the presence of advance health care directives. The two attorney raters found the description of acceptable outcome inadequate in 14 and 21 of 28 advance health care directives reviewed, respectively. The overall mean kappa for agreement regarding adequacy of documentation was modest (43%) for “does the advance health care directive specify which treatments the patient would choose, or refuse to receive if they were diagnosed with an acute, terminal condition?” and lowest (3%) for “description of acceptable outcome”. Conclusions We did not find any prominent differences in most “routine complexity,” “moderate complexity,” or “high complexity” treatment decisions in patient management in the presence of advance health care directives. Presence of advance health care directives also did not reduce the prominent variance among physicians in treatment decisions. PMID:23552508

  19. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Methimazole Treatment in a 51-Year-Old Korean Man: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Methimazole (MMI)-induced acute pancreatitis is very rare but severe adverse reaction. A 51-yr-old male developed a high fever, chills, and abdominal pain, two weeks after commencement on MMI for the treatment of Graves' disease. There was no evidence of agranulocytosis, and fever subsided soon after stopping MMI treatment. However, 5 hr after taking an additional dose of MMI, abdominal pain and fever developed again. His symptoms, biochemical, and imaging studies were compatible with acute pancreatitis. After withdrawal of MMI, he showed clinical improvement. This is the first case of MMI-induced acute pancreatitis in Korea. Clinicians should be aware of the rare but possible MMI-induced pancreatitis in patients complaining of fever and abdominal pain. Graphical Abstract PMID:25120331

  20. Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole treatment in a 51-year-old korean man: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Sungsu; Kim, Kyong Young; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hong Jun; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Sun Joo

    2014-08-01

    Methimazole (MMI)-induced acute pancreatitis is very rare but severe adverse reaction. A 51-yr-old male developed a high fever, chills, and abdominal pain, two weeks after commencement on MMI for the treatment of Graves' disease. There was no evidence of agranulocytosis, and fever subsided soon after stopping MMI treatment. However, 5 hr after taking an additional dose of MMI, abdominal pain and fever developed again. His symptoms, biochemical, and imaging studies were compatible with acute pancreatitis. After withdrawal of MMI, he showed clinical improvement. This is the first case of MMI-induced acute pancreatitis in Korea. Clinicians should be aware of the rare but possible MMI-induced pancreatitis in patients complaining of fever and abdominal pain.

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up After Endovascular Treatment of Acute Aortic Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, M. B. Herber, S.; Schmiedt, W.; Neufang, A.; Dorweiler, B.; Dueber, C.

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To investigate the long-term outcome and efficacy of emergency treatment of acute aortic diseases with endovascular stent-grafts. Methods. From September 1995 to April 2007, 37 patients (21 men, 16 women; age 53.9 {+-} 19.2 years, range 18-85 years) with acute complications of diseases of the descending thoracic aorta were treated by endovascular stent-grafts: traumatic aortic ruptures (n = 9), aortobronchial fistulas due to penetrating ulcer or hematothorax (n = 6), acute type B dissections with aortic wall hematoma, penetration, or ischemia (n = 13), and symptomatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta (n = 9) with pain, penetration, or rupture. Diagnosis was confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT. Multiplanar reformations were used for measurement of the landing zones of the stent-grafts. Stent-grafts were inserted via femoral or iliac cut-down. Two procedures required aortofemoral bypass grafting prior to stent-grafting due to extensive arteriosclerotic stenosis of the iliac arteries. In this case the bypass graft was used for introduction of the stent-graft. Results. A total of 46 stent-grafts were implanted: Vanguard/Stentor (n = 4), Talent (n = 31), and Valiant (n = 11). Stent-graft extension was necessary in 7 cases. In 3 cases primary graft extension was done during the initial procedure (in 1 case due to distal migration of the graft during stent release, in 2 cases due to the total length of the aortic aneurysm). In 4 cases secondary graft extensions were performed-for new aortic ulcers at the proximal stent struts (after 5 days) and distal to the graft (after 8 months) and recurrent aortobronchial fistulas 5 months and 9 years after the initial procedure-resulting in a total of 41 endovascular procedures. The 30-day mortality rate was 8% (3 of 37) and the overall follow-up was 29.9 {+-} 36.6 months (range 0-139 months). All patients with traumatic ruptures demonstrated an immediate sealing of bleeding. Patients with aortobronchial fistulas also

  2. A novel acute lethal liver injury mouse model with visualization of NF-κB activity for treatment of severe acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Huanjin; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lifang; Peng, Yanxia; Wu, Ping; Xie, Tong; Pan, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    Acute lethal inflammation, especially that related to liver injury, is an important clinical issue. To date, however, there is no model that can be used to assess this serious condition. This study was designed to establish a novel lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute lethal liver injury model in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transgenic mice. The results show that a high dose of LPS (500 μg/kg) plus D-GalN (800 mg/kg) successfully established a novel mouse model of acute lethal liver injury with a lifespan of 8-10 h. Significantly increased NF-κB activity, detected with an in vivo imaging system (IVIS), peaked at approximately 4 h post-LPS/D-GalN challenge in NF-κB transgenic mice. Moreover, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 were significantly increased and peaked at approximately 4 h post-i.p. injection of LPS/D-GalN. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) also sharply increased. Correlation analyses showed that NF-κB activity was significantly correlated with serum levels of ALT and AST. The mouse model livers showed marked congestion and hemorrhage, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining confirmed the destruction of the lobular structure and severe hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. None of these changes were observed in the control mice. In summary, a novel LPS/D-GalN-induced acute lethal liver injury model with visualization of NF-κB activity was established in NF-κB transgenic mice. This model will provide the technology for developing new therapeutic strategies for treatment of severe acute liver injury complicated by endotoxemia or septicemia. PMID:28386325

  3. The added value of auditory cortex transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) after bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    To, Wing Ting; Ost, Jan; Hart, John; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms. Targeting two core regions of the tinnitus network by tES might establish a promising strategy to enhance treatment effects. This proof-of-concept study aims to investigate the effect of a multisite tES treatment protocol on tinnitus intensity and distress. A total of 40 tinnitus patients were enrolled in this study and received either bifrontal tDCS or the multisite treatment of bifrontal tDCS before bilateral auditory cortex tRNS. Both groups were treated on eight sessions (two times a week for 4 weeks). Our results show that a multisite treatment protocol resulted in more pronounced effects when compared with the bifrontal tDCS protocol or the waiting list group, suggesting an added value of auditory cortex tRNS to the bifrontal tDCS protocol for tinnitus patients. These findings support the involvement of the auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas in the pathophysiology of tinnitus and demonstrate the idea of the efficacy of network stimulation in the treatment of neurological disorders. This multisite tES treatment protocol proved to be save and feasible for clinical routine in tinnitus patients.

  4. Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). Diagnosis and treatment of adults in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Georg

    2014-02-01

    relevant diagnose will be based on use of CRP alone, as the test can be made easily and fast while the patient is in the clinic compared to the use of ESR. The disease is over-diagnosed in general practice. In only 53% of patients, who the GP suspected of having acute sinusitis, was there detected pus or mucopus at the sinus puncture, furthermore the patients' statements that they had had sinusitis was significantly negatively associated with current acute maxillary sinusitis. Almost all patients are prescribed topical treatment to the nose in the form of vasoconstrictor, and 50-70% also antibiotics. The most common bacteria that can be isolated are S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. For many years the first drug of choice has been penicillin V, and treatment with penicillin V has followed Scandinavian recommendations. However, the resistance patterns in respect of H. influenzae have changed over the years and if the dominant flora is H. influenzae, then oral penicillin is not sufficient anymore, and should be replaced by amoxicillin with or without clavulanate. It is reported that the MIC of penicillin V is too high, such that oral dosage cannot provide sufficiently high concentrations. However, in daily clinical practice the doctor does not have the possibility to decide whether the infection is caused by either S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae, unless a sinus puncture is performed and it is not considered as a standard procedure. The recommended treatment is therefore starting with penicillin V, and at treatment failure switching to amoxicillin with or without clavulanate. It is well known that URTI's can exacerbate a chronic pulmonary disease - like asthma - in allergic patients, but this influence is also demonstrated as described in article 6 where ARS in adults without any sign of chronic lung disease or allergy is accompanied by a temporary reduction lung function. Future research should focus on the use of CRP in general practice, analysing cost-effectiveness of the

  5. Acute and prolonged treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin therapy in patients with unstable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Husted, S; Kher, A

    2000-12-01

    Unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) are known as unstable coronary artery disease (UCAD). They are syndromes that share a common pathobiology and represent a frequently encountered and potentially life-threatening medical condition. Acute-phase treatment with aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in death and non-fatal MI in patients with UCAD. This benefit is enhanced by the addition of unfractionated heparin (UFH) to the treatment strategy; however, UFH requires careful monitoring and titration. In contrast, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), produced by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of UFH, yield a predictable and consistent pharmacokinetic profile and anticoagulant response making them an attractive alternative treatment to UFH in patients with UCAD. In several studies, acute-phase treatment with LMWH has been shown to be at least as effective and safe as UFH. The optimal duration of treatment with LMWH is an important question that has been influenced by the observation that reactivation of coagulation occurs following the early and abrupt discontinuation of heparin treatment. In early trials, such as FRISC (Fragmin during instability in coronary artery disease) and FRIC (Fragmin in unstable coronary artery disease), the results of extended treatment were inconclusive; however, the trial populations included patients of relatively low risk and used a once-daily dosing regimen. In the TIMI 11B (Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) extended treatment beyond the few days of acute treatment with enoxaparin did not add to the beneficial LMWH effect, but in this study 40% of the high-risk patients did not continue on extended treatment. The findings derived from the FRISC II trial, which used a twice-daily dose of dalteparin sodium, suggest a benefit for up to 45 days with extended treatment in high-risk UCAD patients. Although an early invasive treatment strategy is particularly beneficial, patients in

  6. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cossio, Eliana; Witkowski, Matthias; Robinson, Stephen E; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not be confirmed due to the difficulty to record such activity simultaneously during tDCS. The aim of this proof-of-principal study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-head source localization and reconstruction of neuromagnetic brain activity during tDCS and to confirm the direct effect of tDCS on ongoing neuromagnetic activity in task-related brain areas. Here we show for the first time that tDCS has an immediate impact on slow cortical magnetic fields (SCF, 0-4Hz) of task-related areas that are identical with brain regions previously described in metabolic neuroimaging studies. 14 healthy volunteers performed a choice reaction time (RT) task while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Task-related source-activity of SCFs was calculated using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) in absence of stimulation and while anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS was delivered over the right primary motor cortex (M1). Source reconstruction revealed task-related SCF modulations in brain regions that precisely matched prior metabolic neuroimaging studies. Anodal and cathodal tDCS had a polarity-dependent impact on RT and SCF in primary sensorimotor and medial centro-parietal cortices. Combining tDCS and whole-head MEG is a powerful approach to investigate the direct effects of transcranial electric currents on ongoing neuromagnetic source activity, brain function and behavior.

  7. [Efficacy of surgical treatment of patients for an acute lactational mastitis using radiofrequency scalpel and ozono-ultrasonic method].

    PubMed

    Ioffe, I V; Chernova, N V

    2013-01-01

    According to microbial investigation data, conducted preoperatively, intraoperatively, in 7 days postoperatively for an acute purulent lactational mastitis, there was noted significant reduction of the wound microbial soiling while application of radiofrequency scalpel and ozono-ultrasonic method in comparison with such while application of conventional methods of treatment.

  8. A randomised controlled trial comparing Triadcortyl with 10% glycerine-ichthammol in the initial treatment of severe acute otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Masood, Ajmal; Moumoulidis, Ioannis; Ray, Shalina; Chawla, Om; Panesar, Jaan

    2008-08-01

    Acute otitis externa is a common clinical condition accounting for a large proportion of patients attending the otolaryngology department, although milder cases are often managed in primary care. Treatment of the most severe forms of otitis externa involves aural toilet, followed by the application of a topical preparation, commonly in the form of an ear canal dressing. A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy of 10% glycerine-ichthammol (GI) solution and Triadcortyl (TAC) ointment, both applied as ear canal dressings, in the initial management of severe acute otitis externa. A total of 64 patients were studied. Both treatment modalities were proven efficacious in the treatment of severe acute otitis externa. Although there was a statistically significant improvement of pain parameters in the TAC group, we found no significant differences in clinical findings between the two groups. Therefore, it is recommended that GI dressing can be used instead of an antibiotic dressing as an initial treatment of severe acute otitis externa on the basis of cost, avoidance of resistance and toxicity.

  9. Development of Graves’ disease after long-standing hypothyroidism on treatment, with acute toxicity to thionamides and lithium

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Singh, Sandeep; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hyperfunction in a patient with long-standing hypothyroidism is uncommon. Here, we describe and discuss the unusual scenario of development of severe skin rash to carbimazole, with subsequent acute toxicity to lithium in clinically indicated doses, in a patient who manifested hyperthyroidism after being on treatment for hypothyroidism for 7 years. PMID:22854236

  10. [The treatment of acute and chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities by using Lioton-1000 gel].

    PubMed

    Sukharev, I I; Vlaĭkov, G G

    1999-01-01

    The results of treatment of 110 patients with an acute and chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities were analysed. The original access to the v. saphena magna opening of the leg and the vein stripper are proposed. The necessity of the concomitant veins excision was substantiated, and the expediency of the antibiotics, antiaggregants and the heparin-containing preparations administration also.

  11. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    PubMed

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  12. How to Assess Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Mania?

    PubMed Central

    Bourin, Michel; Thibaut, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty is with a comparison between anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes). No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well as that of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (not sure where the paradox is). In Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate, or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents, and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several clusters of manic symptoms can

  13. Inositol Depletion Induced by Acute Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder Drug Valproate Increases Levels of Phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shyamalagauri; Russo, Sarah; Cowart, L Ashley; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2017-03-24

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ∼1% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms activated during acute VPA treatment, we performed a genome-wide expression study in yeast treated with VPA for 30 min. We observed increased mRNA and protein levels of RSB1, which encodes an exporter of long chain bases dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), and further saw that VPA increased sensitivity of an rsb1Δ mutant to PHS, suggesting that VPA increases long chain base levels. Consistent with this, PHS levels were elevated in wild type and, to a greater extent, in rsb1Δ cells. Expression of ORM genes (negative regulators of PHS synthesis) and of fatty acid elongase genes FEN1 and SUR4 were decreased, and expression of YOR1 (exporter of PHS-1P) and DPL1 (lyase that degrades DHS-1P and PHS-1P) was increased. These effects were more pronounced in medium lacking inositol, and were mirrored by inositol starvation of an ino1Δ mutant. These findings provide a metabolic explanation as to how VPA-mediated inositol depletion causes increased synthesis of PHS and further support the therapeutic relevance of inositol depletion as a bipolar disorder treatment.

  14. Comparison of two monitoring and treatment strategies for cows with acute puerperal metritis.

    PubMed

    Sannmann, I; Burfeind, O; Voigtsberger, R; Heuwieser, W

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two strategies for screening and subsequent treatment of acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows. Therefore, we conducted a study on 79 cows with APM (cows with an enlarged uterus with fetid watery red-brown vaginal discharge and fever >39.5 °C) and 114 healthy control cows. Cows with APM were divided into two groups (treated, N = 67 cows; not treated, N = 12 cows). The treated animals were further subdivided into two groups (treated between Day 1 and 4 post partum, N =12 and treated between Day 5 and 10, N = 55). Serum haptoglobin concentrations, milk yield, cure rate, prevalence of endometritis, and cervical diameter on days in milk (DIM) 21 to 27 were compared between the groups. Cows were defined as cured when their rectal temperature was <39.5 °C 4 days after treatment and fever did not rebound over 39.4 °C until the end of the screening period which was DIM 10. The results of this study did not show any significant differences in cure rates, milk yield, or serum haptoglobin concentrations on DIM 2, 5, and 10 and subsequent uterine health (DIM 21-27). Considering this study as a proof of concept study, we conclude that there might not be a negative effect after a screening and treatment protocol beginning at DIM 5 and leaving early APM cows untreated. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by a larger field study. Furthermore, antimicrobial therapy could be avoided in 12 of 55 cows (21.8%) in group 2 because of the protocol implementing treatments after DIM 5. These cows did not show signs of APM during the following 5 days. Therefore, these animals were considered as self-recovered leading to a cure rate of at least 21.8% (12 of 55 cows).

  15. Significance of AZD1152 as a potential treatment against Aurora B overexpression in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh-Vesali, Samad; Zekri, Ali; Zaker, Farhad; Zaghal, Azam; Yousefi, Meysam; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Ghaffari, Seyed H

    2016-06-01

    Aurora B kinase as a chromosomal passenger protein plays multiple roles in regulating mitosis and cytokinesis. The function of Aurora B in leukemic cells has made it an important treatment target. In this study, we explored the expressions of Aurora (A, B, and C) kinases in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. In addition, we investigated the effects of AZD1152 as a specific inhibitor of Aurora B on cell survival, DNA synthesis, nuclear morphology, apoptosis induction, cell cycle distribution, and gene expression in an APL-derived NB4 cell line. Our results showed that Aurora B was overexpressed in 88 % of APL patients. AZD1152 treatment of NB4 cells led to viability reduction and G2/M arrest followed by an increase in cell size and polyploidy induction. These giant cells showed morphological evidence of mitotic catastrophe. AZD1152 treatment induced activation of G2/M checkpoint which in turn led to transient G2/M arrest in a p21-independent manner. Lack of functional p53 in NB4 cells might provide an opportunity to escape from G2/M block and to endure repeated rounds of replication and polyploidy. Treated cells were probably eliminated via p73-mediated overexpression of BAX, PUMA, and APAF1 and downregulation of survivin and MCL-1. In summary, AZD1152 treatment led to endomitosis and polyploidy in TP53-mutated NB4 cells. These giant polyploid cells might undergo mitotic catastrophe and p73-mediated apoptosis. It seems that induction of polyploidy via AZD1152 could be a novel form of anti-cancer therapy for APL that may be clinically accessible in the near future.

  16. Thrombolytic treatment (alteplase; rt-Pa) in acute massive pulmonary embolism and cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Adem; Ozkaya, Sevket; Atas, Ali Ekber; Ulu, Esra Kayahan; Kitapci, Ilknur; Ece, Ferah

    2014-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) often decompensate suddenly, and once hemodynamic compromise has developed, mortality is extremely high. Currently, thrombolytic therapy for PE is still controversial. We retrospectively evaluated 34 patients with PE between January 2010 and December 2013 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. The demographic and disease characteristics of patients who received thrombolytic treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The female to male ratio was 19/15 and the mean age was 63.1±13.2 years. PE diagnosis was made using echocardiography (64.7%) or contrast-enhanced thorax computed tomography with echocardiography (32.4%). Twenty-two (64.7%) patients went into the cardiopulmonary arrest due to massive PE and 17 (50%) patients recovered without sequelae. Eleven (32.4%) patients were diagnosed with massive PE during cardiopulmonary arrest with clinical and echocardiographic findings. Alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) was administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and four (36.3%) patients responded and survived without sequelae. The complications of rt-PA treatment were hemorrhage in five (14.7%) patients and allergic reactions in two (5.9%) patients. There was no mortality due to rt-PA treatment complications. In conclusion, mortality due to massive PE is much more than estimated and alteplase can be used safely in patients with massive PE. This thrombolytic treatment was not associated with any fatal hemorrhage complication. If there is any sign of acute PE, echocardiography should be used during cardiopulmonary arrest/instability. Alteplase should be given to patients with suspected massive PE.

  17. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia after treatment with temozolomide in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Jung; Park, Tae Sung; Lee, Seung Tae; Song, Jaewoo; Suh, Borum; Kim, Se Hoon; Jang, Seon Jung; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Jong Rak

    2009-01-01

    Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia after treatment with temozolomide have rarely been described in the literature. Only 10 cases in association with temozolomide have been documented. The cases included anaplastic astrocytoma (4 cases), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (2 cases), low grade astrocytoma (2 cases), low grade oligodendroglioma (1 case), and one case of secondary Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Here we report a novel case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia associated with der(1;7)(q10;p10) in a glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with temozolomide. Results of bone marrow morphology, chromosome, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, as well as the clinical history, strongly suggest a treatment-related etiology in our case. In past reports, karyotypes in cases of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia mostly demonstrated abnormalities in chromosomes 5 and 7. However, we report a case of temozolomide-related myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with der(1;7)(q10;p10), possibly the first reported case, to the authors' knowledge.

  18. Early initiation of renal replacement treatment in patients with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwei; Li, Liwei; Chu, Qinjun; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhisong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Lanlan; He, Long; Ai, Yanqiu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a substantially increased risk of mortality for many hospitalized patients. It has been suggested that early initiation of renal replacement treatment has a favorable outcome in critically ill patients complicated with AKI. However, results of studies evaluating the effect of early initiation strategy of renal replacement treatment on AKI have been controversial and contradictory. The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine the effect of early initiation of renal replacement treatment on patients with AKI. Methods: The authors searched relevant studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through August 2016. We searched for all eligible randomized controlled trials with regard to the role of early initiation of renal replacement treatment in mortality among patients with AKI. We extracted the following information from each study: mortality, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU), and length of stay in hospital. Random and fixed effect models were used for pooling data. Results: Twelve trials including 1756 patients were included. The results of this meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the mortality of early and delayed strategy for the initiation of renal replacement treatment using the random effect model (odds ratio = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52–1.19; P = 0.25), with wild heterogeneity (chi2 = 33.50; I2 = 67%). Analyses from subgroup sepsis and postsurgery came to similar results. In addition, compared with delayed initiation strategy, early initiation showed no significant advantage in length of stay in ICU (mean difference = −0.80; 95% CI, −2.59 to 0.99; P = 0.56) and length of stay in hospital (mean difference = −7.69; 95% CI, −16.14 to 0.76; P = 0.07). Conclusion: According to the results from present meta-analysis, early initiation of renal replacement treatment showed no survival benefits in

  19. Historical overview and review of current day treatment in the management of acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rajoriya, Neil; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2014-01-01

    Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past. PMID:24914369

  20. Cannabis Extract Treatment for Terminal Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with a Philadelphia Chromosome Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yadvinder; Bali, Chamandeep

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30–40% in adults. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation. PMID:24474921

  1. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yadvinder; Bali, Chamandeep

    2013-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30-40% in adults. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without