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Sample records for acute dermal toxicity

  1. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Korani, M; Rezayat, S M; Gilani, K; Arbabi Bidgoli, S; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  2. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the vehicle on penetration of skin by the test substance should be taken into account. It is... of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of treated animals when applied to the skin... need to be considered. (2) (e) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method....

  3. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the vehicle on penetration of skin by the test substance should be taken into account. It is... of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of treated animals when applied to the skin... need to be considered. (2) (e) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method....

  4. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the vehicle on penetration of skin by the test substance should be taken into account. It is... of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of treated animals when applied to the skin... need to be considered. (2) (e) Conventional acute toxicity test—(1) Principle of the test method....

  5. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fixed rigidly. It should be determined by the toxic reactions, rate of onset, and length of recovery... substances are discussed in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i... to produce test groups with a range of toxic effects and mortality rates. The data must be...

  6. Safety of Pochonia chlamydosporia var catenulata in acute oral and dermal toxicity/pathogenicity evaluations in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    García, Liseth; Bulnes, Carlos; Melchor, Gleiby; Vega, Ernesto; Ileana, Miranda; de Oca, Nivian Montes; Hidalgo, Leopoldo; Marrero, Eva

    2004-10-01

    The nematophagous fungus, Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyschlco ex Barron & Onions) Zare & W-Gams, was investigated as a potential biocontrol agent in integrated pest management strategy for Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in vegetable crops in Cuba. An acute oral and dermal toxicity/patogenicity study was performed to determine the safety of this fungus in non-target organisms. In the first study, a 1-dose level of 5 x 10(8) units of the microbial pest control agent/treated rat was used. Mortality or clinical signs were not evident and no adverse effects on body weight, hematology, microbiology and gross or microscopic pathology were observed. Food and water consumption was not significantly different between control and treated groups. In the acute dermal toxicity study, there was neither mortality nor clinical signs of toxicity, and no toxic effects in gross and microscopic pathology were detected. Thus, Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulate (Vcc-108, IMI SD 187), administered oral and dermally to rats and rabbits respectively, was safe in toxicity/pathogenicity studies. PMID:15487645

  7. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Gutiérrez-Amezquita, Ricardo Alfonso; Abrego-Reyes, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate) with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P < 0.05) and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg) of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity. PMID:24883331

  8. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of "Zapote" Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist.

    PubMed

    Dutok, Carlos M S; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, "Mamey or Zapote," in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  9. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    PubMed Central

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  10. Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg−1 day−1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg−1 day−1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg−1 day−1, time of onset was ≤30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:21834090

  11. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... susceptible tissues. (c) Principle of the test method. The test substance is applied daily to the skin in... the vehicle on toxicity of and penetration of the skin by the test substance should be taken into... a life span. (2) Dose in a dermal test is the amount of test substance applied to the skin...

  12. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... susceptible tissues. (c) Principle of the test method. The test substance is applied daily to the skin in... the vehicle on toxicity of and penetration of the skin by the test substance should be taken into... a life span. (2) Dose in a dermal test is the amount of test substance applied to the skin...

  13. The acute toxicity of coal liquefaction-derived materials.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Biles, R W; Kapp, R W; Hinz, J P

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of a series of potential streams from the EDS coal liquefaction process have been assessed in animal bioassays. In general, the materials present minimal acute toxic hazards. However, there was some evidence of ocular and dermal irritation. These results indicate that eye and dermal contact should be minimized, particularly when the process streams contain high concentrations of phenolic materials.

  14. Evaluation of systemic and dermal toxicity and dermal photoprotection by sour cherry kernels.

    PubMed

    Bak, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Csepanyi, Evelin; Juhasz, Bela; Kalantari, Heibatullah; Najm, Khadija; Aghel, Nasreen; Varga, Balazs; Haines, David D; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-11-01

    The present report describes outcomes of animal studies conducted to determine the systemic and dermal toxicity of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel contents; and a separate evaluation of the photoprotective capacity of the kernel oil fraction. B6 mice and Hartley guinea-pigs were used for these experiments. Dosage groups of 6-8 animals were administered whole kernel meal in a dose range of 0-3000 mg/kg by gavage for 8 days, following which they were killed. The liver and kidney weights were recorded and histological examination performed on sections of these organs. Kidney function was assessed as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and liver function by measurement of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. Dermal toxicity was evaluated in a Hartley guinea-pig model by comparing UVB-irradiated shaved skin to which the kernel oil had been applied with distilled water controls. In conclusion, no evidence of toxicity was observed to result from the consumption or dermal application of sour cherry seed kernel in the dose range at which it is likely to be used in foods or healthcare. Moreover, it was shown to have a powerful capacity to protect skin from UV damage. These results suggest it will prove to be a highly safe and effective addition to a wide range of products for general use. PMID:21751269

  15. 40 CFR 798.2250 - Dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test. If a test at one dose level of at least 1,000 mg/kg body weight (expected human exposure may... dose levels for chronic studies and for establishing safety criteria for human exposure. (b... evidence of toxicity. Where there is a usable estimation of human exposure, the lowest dose level...

  16. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, E; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. PMID:8020435

  17. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R.D.

    1993-12-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these chemicals, particularly gasoline, is aspiration pneumonia, which occurs mainly in children. It is currently not clear whether aspiration pneumonia would still be a problem if gasoline were diluted with ethanol or methanol. During the normal use of gasoline or mixtures of gasoline and the other solvents as a fuel, exposures would be much lower than the doses that have resulted in poisoning. No acute toxic health effects would occur during the normal course of using automotive fuels. 128 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Dermal Toxicity of Flake-Like α-Alumina Pigments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, HyunJeong; Jang, Seongwan; Lee, Sang-Geun; Park, Sungkyun; Park, Kang Hyun; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used nonferrous metals and an important industrial material, especially for automotive coatings. However, potential toxicity caused by aluminum in humans limits the used of this metal. α-alumina is the most stable form of aluminum in various phases. Although the results of studies evaluating the dermal toxicity of α-alumina remained unclear, this compound can still be used as a pigment in cosmetics for humans. In the current study, we further evaluated the dermal cytotoxic effects of α-alumina on human skin cells and an in vivo mouse model. We also measured the in vitro penetration profile of flake-like α-alumina in porcine skin and assessed the degree of cellular metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrated that treatment with flake-like α-alumina did not significantly affect cell viability up to 24 h. This compound was found to have a non-penetration profile based on a Franz modified diffusion cell assay. In addition, flake-like α-alumina was not found to induce dermal inflammation as assessed by histology of epidermal architecture, hyperplasia, and the expression of Interleukin-1β and Cyclooxygenase-2. Results of the cellular metabolic disorder assay indicated that flake-like α-alumina does not exert a direct effect on human skin cells. Taken together, our findings provided not only evidence that flake-like α-alumina may serve as a pearlescent pigment in cosmetics but also experimental basis utilizing α-alumina for human application. Our results also obviously provide new insight of the further toxicity study to aluminum based nanoparticles for skin. PMID:26353706

  19. Toxicity of dermally applied alpha-cypermethrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Luty, S; Latuszyńska, J; Halliop, J; Tochman, A; Obuchowska, D; Przylepa, E; Korczak, E

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the immunotoxic effect of dermally applied alpha-cypermethrin in rats based on phagocytic and bactericidal activity of neutrophils of peripheral blood, and the general toxic effect based on histological and ultrastructural examination of internal organs. The preparation was dermally applied in doses of 50 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg. It was administered to the tail skin of female Wistar rats, 4 hours daily for 28 days. After the experiment, the animals were anaesthetized and heart blood was taken in order to evaluate the activity of granulocyte system. The following organs were taken for histological examinations: brain, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, thymus and lymphatic nodes. Lung, liver, kidney and heart were used for ultrastructural studies. The results of the study showed that bactericidal and phagocytic activity of neutrophils was stimulated after administration of 50 mg/kg alpha-cypermethrin. Dermal application of the preparation resulted in slight histological changes in liver, kidney, lung and brain. Pathological changes in heart were observed only on the level of ultrastructure.

  20. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  1. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner. PMID:25190461

  2. Acute systemic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-01-01

    Use of the test that aimed to identify the single lethal dose of a substance that kills half the animals in a test group (the LD50 test) should finally be discontinued by the end of 2002, after many years of controversy and debate. In its stead are three recently developed alternative animal tests that significantly improve animal welfare: the fixed dose procedure, the acute toxic class method, and the up and down procedure. These tests have already undergone revision, both to improve their scientific performance and, importantly, to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy of acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used (perhaps by mid-2002) as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests to improve dose level selection and reduce (at least modestly) the number of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, which will require at least 10 yr.

  3. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos.

  4. Extensive review of fish embryo acute toxicities for the prediction of GHS acute systemic toxicity categories.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Stefan; Ortmann, Julia; Klüver, Nils; Léonard, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Distribution and marketing of chemicals require appropriate labelling of health, physical and environmental hazards according to the United Nations global harmonisation system (GHS). Labelling for (human) acute toxicity categories is based on experimental findings usually obtained by oral, dermal or inhalative exposure of rodents. There is a strong societal demand for replacing animal experiments conducted for safety assessment of chemicals. Fish embryos are considered as alternative to animal testing and are proposed as predictive model both for environmental and human health effects. Therefore, we tested whether LC50s of the fish embryo acute toxicity test would allow effectively predicting of acute mammalian toxicity categories. A database of published fish embryo LC50 containing 641 compounds was established. For these compounds corresponding rat oral LD50 were identified resulting in 364 compounds for which both fish embryo LC50 and rat LD50 was available. Only a weak correlation of fish embryo LC50 and rat oral LD50 was obtained. Fish embryos were also not able to effectively predict GHS oral acute toxicity categories. We concluded that due to fundamental exposure protocol differences (single oral dose versus water-borne exposure) a reverse dosimetry approach is needed to explore the predictive capacity of fish embryos. PMID:24929227

  5. Interim report on the genetic and animal toxicity testing of SRC-I products, intermediates, and waste materials. Appendix D. Acute animal studies reports

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdowicz, B.Z.; Kelly, C.M.

    1983-09-01

    Appendix D is a collection of 25 individual reports on the toxicity of SRC-I products, intermediates and residues to rabbits, rats and guinea pigs with acute oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. It includes also eye and dermal irritation tests in rabbits and guinea pigs and dermal sensitization studies in albino guinea pigs. (LTN)

  6. Systemic toxicity of coal liquefaction products: results of a 14-day dermal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Yagminas, A.; De Vries, P.A.; Villeneuve, D.C.

    1988-03-01

    Increasing energy demands, coupled with rising prices and an unstable world oil market have stimulated international interest in developing alternative sources of fuel. Direct coal liquefaction processes (CLP) hold great potential for Canada because of its large coal reserves. The conversion of coal to liquefied fuels results in many fractions of differing hydrocarbon content and includes many toxic substances such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Since the major route of occupational exposure would be via the dermal route and since studies of systemic toxicity following dermal exposure are lacking, preliminary studies were conducted on the toxicity of SRC-II process coal liquefaction products applied dermally to the rat. Samples of the light (L), intermediate (I), and heavy, (H) fractions produced during the SRC-II coal liquefaction process, were kindly provided by the Sandwell Beak Research Group (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada). Diesel Fuel (D) was purchased from an Esso Gasoline Station. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 +/- 25 grams were used.

  7. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  8. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ratnaike, R N

    2003-07-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water.

  9. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Arsenic exerts its toxicity by inactivating up to 200 enzymes, especially those involved in cellular energy pathways and DNA synthesis and repair. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea. Encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. Arsenic is a well documented human carcinogen affecting numerous organs. There are no evidence based treatment regimens to treat chronic arsenic poisoning but antioxidants have been advocated, though benefit is not proven. The focus of management is to reduce arsenic ingestion from drinking water and there is increasing emphasis on using alternative supplies of water. PMID:12897217

  10. Estimation of in vivo dose of dermally applied chemicals leading to estrogen/androgen receptor-mediated toxicity from in vitro data--Illustration with four reproductive toxicants.

    PubMed

    Dancik, Yuri; Troutman, John A; Jaworska, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    We present a quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation framework enabling the estimation of the external dermal exposure dose from in vitro experimental data relevant to a toxicity pathway of interest. The framework adapts elements of the biological pathway altering dose (BPAD) method [Judson et al. Chem Res Toxicol 2011;24:451] to the case of dermal exposure. Dermal doses of four toxicants equivalent to concentrations characterizing their effect on estrogen receptor α or androgen receptor activity in chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assays are estimated. The analysis shows that dermal BPADs, calculated from one in vitro concentration, can differ by up to a factor of 55, due to the impact applied dose and dermal exposure scenarios can have on skin permeation kinetics. These features should therefore be taken into account in risk assessment of dermally applied chemicals.

  11. Improved method for in vitro assessment of dermal toxicity for volatile organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Rogers, James V; McDougal, James N

    2002-09-01

    Cell culture methods are being developed to assess the dermal toxicity (irritancy and corrosion) of chemicals. These in vitro methods are being validated to categorize chemicals as irritating or non-irritating to humans. Currently, these cell culture tests are useful to assist in the ranking of chemicals for irritancy, but they are not useful for quantitative risk assessment for two reasons. First, for volatile chemicals the amount of chemical in the media that the cells are exposed to may decrease with exposure time. Also, effective concentrations such as EC(50) and IC(50) are reported as the concentrations in the media not the skin tissue/cells. We have developed an in vitro approach for dermal toxicity testing of volatile chemicals that avoids these problems. Using sealed vials lacking a headspace, dermal equivalents (dermal fibroblasts in a collagen matrix) were exposed to culture medium containing a test chemical (m-xylene) and compared to a traditional open well culture system. We found that about 90% of the m-xylene was lost from the open well plates and the viability was 4-6 times greater than in the closed system. Partition coefficients were measured and used to estimate the m-xylene concentration in the fibroblasts. The EC(50) for m-xylene in the dermal equivalents was 833.13+/-35.33 microg m-xylene per gram of fibroblasts. This method will provide an effective approach to relate target cell chemical concentration to cellular responses. Based on this method, a biologically-based mathematical model could be used to determine an equivalent external dose for a specific toxic end point.

  12. Dermal toxicity of topical (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate in BALB/c and SKH1 mice.

    PubMed

    Stratton, S P; Bangert, J L; Alberts, D S; Dorr, R T

    2000-09-29

    (-)Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, inhibits experimental chemical and physical carcinogenesis, yet little toxicological data has been reported. Therefore, we performed studies on the dermal toxicity of EGCG applied in an ointment formulation in mice. Female BALB/c mice were dehaired with a topical depilatory and administered 75 microl EGCG in hydrophilic Ointment U.S.P. at three concentrations (10, 3, and 1%, all w/w) daily for 30 days. At the 10% concentration, gross toxicity was manifested by the formation of erythema and papular lesions by day 5. A 7% reduction in weight was observed by day 15. No toxicity was observed at the two lower concentrations or in the vehicle control group. Also, no toxicity was observed when mice were dehaired by shaving. This study was repeated in female SKH1 mice, an outbred hairless strain that does not require depilation. No toxicity was observed in the SKH1 mice, indicating that daily topical EGCG appears non-toxic in normal skin. However, use of topical depilatories may potentiate dermal toxicity of EGCG.

  13. In-vitro methods for testing dermal absorption and penetration of toxic gases.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Bromwich, David; Reed, Sue; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This technical note provides details of an experimental technique for in-vitro skin studies with atmospheric chemical challenge. There appear to be major evidence gaps in relation to dermal exposure of gases. We describe a modification of standard OECD protocols for an atmospheric delivery system which can be used to understand interaction of toxic gases and the skin. The system can be used to examine the mechanisms by which skin uptake occurs. Auxiliary components which allow for parameter variation such as temperature and relative humidity are also described. Methodology presented in this technical note uses examples of gas challenges (ammonia, chlorine) to illustrate its application to gases of differing physicochemical properties. This adapted protocol can be applied in the context of HAZMAT scenarios involving atmospheric toxic chemical release and dermal absorption potential under variable exposure conditions.

  14. In-vitro methods for testing dermal absorption and penetration of toxic gases.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Bromwich, David; Reed, Sue; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This technical note provides details of an experimental technique for in-vitro skin studies with atmospheric chemical challenge. There appear to be major evidence gaps in relation to dermal exposure of gases. We describe a modification of standard OECD protocols for an atmospheric delivery system which can be used to understand interaction of toxic gases and the skin. The system can be used to examine the mechanisms by which skin uptake occurs. Auxiliary components which allow for parameter variation such as temperature and relative humidity are also described. Methodology presented in this technical note uses examples of gas challenges (ammonia, chlorine) to illustrate its application to gases of differing physicochemical properties. This adapted protocol can be applied in the context of HAZMAT scenarios involving atmospheric toxic chemical release and dermal absorption potential under variable exposure conditions. PMID:24156547

  15. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin.

  16. Dermal toxicity elicited by phthalates: evaluation of skin absorption, immunohistology, and functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Yi-Yun; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-03-01

    The toxicity of phthalates is an important concern in the fields of environmental health and toxicology. Dermal exposure via skin care products, soil, and dust is a main route for phthalate delivery. We had explored the effect of topically-applied phthalates on skin absorption and toxicity. Immunohistology, functional proteomics, and Western blotting were employed as methodologies for validating phthalate toxicity. Among 5 phthalates tested, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) showed the highest skin reservoir. Only diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) could penetrate across skin. Strat-M(®) membrane could be used as permeation barrier for predicting phthalate penetration through skin. The accumulation of DEHP in hair follicles was ∼15nmol/cm(2), which was significantly greater than DBP and DEP. DBP induced apoptosis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via caspase-3 activation. This result was confirmed by downregulation of 14-3-3 and immunohistology of TUNEL. On the other hand, the HSP60 overexpression and immunostaining of COX-2 suggested inflammatory response induced by DEP and DEHP. The proteomic profiling verified the role of calcium homeostasis on skin inflammation. Some proteins investigated in this study can be sensitive biomarkers for dermal toxicity of phthalates. These included HSPs, 14-3-3, and cytokeratin. This work provided novel platforms for examining phthalate toxicity on skin. PMID:24384410

  17. Butachlor-induced acute toxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Daryani, Nasser Ebrahimi; Hosseini, Parviz; Bashashati, Mohammad; Haidarali, Mona; Sayyah, Alireza

    2007-01-01

    Butachlor is a highly effective herbicidal substance widely used by farmers. We report a 60-year-old man with exfoliative dermatitis, jaundice, increase in liver enzymes and eosinophilia one day after accidental dermal exposure to butachlor toxin. The diagnostic workup showed no other cause and liver histology was consistent with substance-induced toxic hepatitis. Within two weeks of conservative therapy, his liver function tests returned to normal.

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  20. Use of a statistical model to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity of dermally administered crude oil and relation to reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Nicolich, Mark; Roy, Timothy; White, Russell; Daughtrey, Wayne C

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum (commonly called crude oil) is a complex substance primarily composed of hydrocarbon constituents. Based on the results of previous toxicological studies as well as occupational experience, the principal acute toxicological hazards are those associated with exposure by inhalation to volatile hydrocarbon constituents and hydrogen sulfide, and chronic hazards are associated with inhalation exposure to benzene and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds. The current assessment was an attempt to characterize the potential for repeated dose and/or developmental effects of crude oils following dermal exposures and to generalize the conclusions across a broad range of crude oils from different sources. Statistical models were used to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity from compositional information. The model predictions indicated that the empirical data from previously tested crude oils approximated a "worst case" situation, and that the data from previously tested crude oils could be used as a reasonable basis for characterizing the repeated dose and developmental toxicological hazards of crude oils in general.

  1. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  2. Protective Effect of Tetracycline against Dermal Toxicity Induced by Jellyfish Venom

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changkeun; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kwak, Jeongsoo; Jung, Hongseok; Yoon, Won Duk; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity. Further, it is also well known that there is a positive correlation between the inflammatory reaction of dermal tissues and their tissue metalloproteinase activity. Based on these, the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of jellyfish envenomation. Methodology and Principal Findings Tetracycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor) has been examined for its activity to reduce or prevent the dermal toxicity induced by Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom (NnV) using in vitro and in vivo models. HaCaT (human keratinocyte) and NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast) incubated with NnV showed decreases in cell viability, which is associated with the inductions of metalloproteinase-2 and -9. This result suggests that the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as tetracycline, may prevent the jellyfish venom-mediated local tissue damage. In vivo experiments showed that comparing with NnV-alone treatment, tetracycline pre-mixed NnV demonstrated a significantly reduced progression of dermal toxicity upon the inoculation onto rabbit skin. Conclusions/Significance It is believed that there has been no previous report on the therapeutic agent of synthetic chemical origin for the treatment of jellyfish venom-induced dermonecrosis based on understanding its mechanism of action except the use of antivenom treatment. Furthermore, the current study, for the first time, has proposed a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for skin damages caused by jellyfish stings. PMID:23536767

  3. Evaluation of the dermal subchronic toxicity of phenoxyethyl isobutyrate in the rat.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie

    2004-02-01

    Phenoxyethyl isobutyrate (PEIB) is a fragrance and food ingredient that has been granted GRAS status and approved by the FDA for food use. The present studies investigated the dermal absorption parameters and subchronic toxicity of PEIB. For the absorption, distribution and elimination study, Sprague-Dawley rats received a dermal application of 2-[ring U 14C]-PEIB under occlusion for 6 h. PEIB was diluted in diethyl phthalate (DEP) to administer, a total application volume of 2 ml/kg, concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50% ( congruent with 10, 100 and 1000 mg PEIB/kgBW). Approximately 61-69% of the applied dose was recovered from the dressing and skin surface washing procedure performed after 6-h exposure. By 72 h post dose, systemic elimination of radioactivity was congruent with 18 to 19% of the absorbed dose via the urine with small amounts also found in the feces (<1.0%). Terminal (72 h) tissue analysis showed that 0.35-0.72% of the applied dose of radioactivity was retained in the carcass with low levels (dermally applied radioisotope. In a 13-week subchronic rat toxicity study, daily dermal applications of PEIB were made under occlusion for 6 h. All groups were dosed at a constant 2 ml/kgBW volume of PEIB in the DEP vehicle at concentrations calculated to administer 0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg PEIB/kgBW/day. Clinical observations, assessments of skin irritation, hematology, and blood chemistry, necropsy, and gross and histopathologic evaluation of tissues demonstrated no treatment-related effects. The local skin irritation and systemic toxicity no-observed-effect-levels (NOELs) for PEIB in this study were determined to be >1000 mg/kgBW/day.

  4. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  5. Determination of oxidative stress related toxicity on repeated dermal exposure of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Parayanthala Valappil, Mohanan; Santhakumar, Syama; Arumugam, Sabareeswaran

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) have numerous applications, such as substitute for bone grafting, bone fillers, bioceramic coating, and dental fillings. The toxicity of these nanomaterials is of growing concern despite their significant scientific interest and promising potential in many applications. In this study, an in-house synthesized, characterized HANP of size <50 nm was investigated for the dermal toxicity. A paste of HANPs was prepared in water and applied on the dorsal side of the rats for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, blood was subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis. Gross necropsy was conducted and major organs were collected for histopathological observations. Liver from the animals was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and antioxidant enzymes activity. It was observed that none of the animals showed any abnormality during the experimental period. Gross examination of carcasses did not reveal any abnormality in the organs examined. The results also demonstrated that there was no significant fluctuation in the level of antioxidant defense mechanisms, lipid peroxidation, and haematological and biochemical parameters. There was no histopathological lesion observed in any of the organs. Hence, it can be concluded that the synthesized HANPs were nontoxic at cellular level, when exposed dermally to rats.

  6. Determination of Oxidative Stress Related Toxicity on Repeated Dermal Exposure of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parayanthala Valappil, Mohanan; Santhakumar, Syama; Arumugam, Sabareeswaran

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) have numerous applications, such as substitute for bone grafting, bone fillers, bioceramic coating, and dental fillings. The toxicity of these nanomaterials is of growing concern despite their significant scientific interest and promising potential in many applications. In this study, an in-house synthesized, characterized HANP of size <50 nm was investigated for the dermal toxicity. A paste of HANPs was prepared in water and applied on the dorsal side of the rats for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, blood was subjected to haematological and biochemical analysis. Gross necropsy was conducted and major organs were collected for histopathological observations. Liver from the animals was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and antioxidant enzymes activity. It was observed that none of the animals showed any abnormality during the experimental period. Gross examination of carcasses did not reveal any abnormality in the organs examined. The results also demonstrated that there was no significant fluctuation in the level of antioxidant defense mechanisms, lipid peroxidation, and haematological and biochemical parameters. There was no histopathological lesion observed in any of the organs. Hence, it can be concluded that the synthesized HANPs were nontoxic at cellular level, when exposed dermally to rats. PMID:25587279

  7. Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Yu, Shuangying; Talent, Larry G; Maul, Jonathan D; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology, which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goals of the present study were 3-fold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. The authors first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 μL of water, propylene glycol, and acetone were not toxic. The authors then assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up-and-down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses ≤ 1750 μg/g. Under the "neat pesticide" oral exposure, endosulfan (median lethal dose [LD50] = 9.8 μg/g) was more toxic than λ-cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 μg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ-cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 μg/g; dermal LD50 = 17.5 μg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ-cyhalothrin LD50s, which highlights the importance of standardized methods. The authors combined data from the present study with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis, a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. The results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s. More research is needed, however, to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action. PMID:25760295

  8. Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Yu, Shuangying; Talent, Larry G; Maul, Jonathan D; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology, which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goals of the present study were 3-fold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. The authors first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 μL of water, propylene glycol, and acetone were not toxic. The authors then assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up-and-down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses ≤ 1750 μg/g. Under the "neat pesticide" oral exposure, endosulfan (median lethal dose [LD50] = 9.8 μg/g) was more toxic than λ-cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 μg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ-cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 μg/g; dermal LD50 = 17.5 μg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ-cyhalothrin LD50s, which highlights the importance of standardized methods. The authors combined data from the present study with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis, a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. The results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s. More research is needed, however, to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action.

  9. Acute arsenic toxicity--an opaque poison.

    PubMed

    Gray, J R; Khalil, A; Prior, J C

    1989-08-01

    We report a patient with fatal acute arsenic poisoning presenting as vomiting and diarrhea with the finding of intra-abdominal radiopacities on radiographs. These represent the classic features of acute arsenic toxicity and are detailed here as a reminder to others facing a similar puzzling patient with this potentially treatable poisoning.

  10. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances are discussed in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory Practice Standards. (3) Test procedures—(i...)(2)(ii) of this section. (C) Vehicle. Solids should be pulverized when possible. The test substance... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J,...

  11. Acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.; Haws, R.; Little, D.; Reese, D.; Peterson, C.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This study develops data on the acute aquatic toxicity of selected biodiesel fuels which may become subject to environmental effects test regulations under the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The test substances are Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Methyl Soyate (MS), a biodiesel mixture of 20% REE and 80% Diesel, a biodiesel mixture of 50% REE and diesel, and a reference substance of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel. The test procedure follows the Daphnid Acute Toxicity Test outlined in 40 CFR {section} 797.1300 of the TSCA regulations. Daphnia Magna are exposed to the test substance in a flow-through system consisting of a mixing chamber, a proportional diluter, and duplicate test chambers. Novel system modifications are described that accommodate the testing of oil-based test substances with Daphnia. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an EC50, an effective concentration producing immobility in 50% of the test specimen.

  12. Short-term dermal toxicity and mutagenicity of coal coprocessing products in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chu, I; Villeneuve, D C; Secours, V E; Otson, R; Valli, V E

    1991-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the dermal toxicity of coal coprocessing products and to assess their potential health hazards. Groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered dermally coal coprocessing products (light gas oil, LGO; heavy gas oil I, HGOI; heavy gas oil II, HGOII) at 1 g/kg body weight/d for 14 d. The control and positive control groups received normal saline and a coal liquefaction product (CLP) at the same dose level, respectively. Treatment with either the three fractions of coprocessing products or CLP caused decreased growth rate and food consumption in animals of both sexes. Liver enlargement occurred in groups treated with HGOI, HGOII, and CLP. Decreased serum glucose was observed in animals of both sexes treated with the three fractions and CLP. Treatment with HGOI and CLP caused an elevation of hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin deethylase activity in the rat of both sexes. The three fractions and CLP caused mild anemia. Mild treatment-related histological changes were observed in the liver, spleen, thyroid, bone marrow, and kidney. All three fractions of coprocessing products were tested for their mutagenicity in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium: TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and TA1538. HGOI, after metabolic activation, was found to be mutagenic in the strains of TA98, TA100, and TA1538. In contrast, HGOII was mutagenic in the five strains with or without metabolic activation. These data indicate that HGOI and HGOII are more toxic than LGO, and should be subjected to further studies to determine their long-term effects.

  13. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients.

  14. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    PubMed

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. PMID:26256397

  15. Evaluation of the dermal subchronic toxicity of diphenyl ether in the rat.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Ford, R A

    2003-02-01

    Diphenyl ether (DPE) was investigated to determine the dermal absorption parameters and subchronic toxicity of this fragrance ingredient. For the absorption, distribution and elimination study, Sprague-Dawley rats received a dermal application of [14C]DPE under a semi-occlusive dressing for 6 h. DPE was diluted in diethyl phthalate (DEP) to administer a total application volume of 2 ml/kg and concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50% (approximately equal to 10, 100 and 1000 mg DPE/kg body weight). Approximately 17.7% of the administered dose was eliminated in the urine, with small amounts also found in the feces (1.18-3.79%). At 72 h post-dosing, approximately 0.2% of the applied dose was retained in the body with low levels also measured in the liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract (approximately equal to 0.04, 0.02 and 0.3%, respectively). The 13-week subchronic toxicity study was performed with groups of 12 Sprague-Dawley rats/sex/dose that received semi-occluded daily dermal applications of DPE for 6 h/day. All groups were dosed at a constant 2 ml/kg body weight volume of DPE in the DEP vehicle at concentrations to administer 0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg DPE/kg body weight/day. At the high dose level, there was a slight reduction in body weight gain in males (13%), increase in albumin (5-6%) and phosphate (10-15%) levels in both sexes, a reduction of cholesterol in females (14%), an increase in kidney (17%) and brain (8%) weights in males, and an increase in liver weight (18-19%) in both sexes. No histopathological lesions were seen in any organ examined. At 300 mg/kg body weight/day, the only notable findings were an increase in liver weight (10%) in both sexes and a slight increase in albumin (5%) in females. In addition, skin irritation reactions at the site of application were observed in all DPE dose groups. The systemic no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in this study is 100 mg/kg body weight/day. Owing to mitigating factors, the systemic findings were judged to lack

  16. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposure of firefighters during suppression of structural burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposure...

  17. Bioactivation, protein haptenation, and toxicity of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaiya, Payal; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Vyas, Piyush M.; Doll, Mark A.; Hein, David W.; Svensson, Craig K. . E-mail: craig-svensson@uiowa.edu

    2006-09-01

    Cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) associated with sulfonamides are believed to be mediated through the formation of reactive metabolites that result in cellular toxicity and protein haptenation. We evaluated the bioactivation and toxicity of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Incubation of cells with DDS or its metabolite (D-NOH) resulted in protein haptenation readily detected by confocal microscopy and ELISA. While the metabolite of SMX (S-NOH) haptenated intracellular proteins, adducts were not evident in incubations with SMX. Cells expressed abundant N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) mRNA and activity, but little NAT2 mRNA or activity. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 protein was detected. Incubation of NHDF with S-NOH or D-NOH increased reactive oxygen species formation and reduced glutathione content. NHDF were less susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of S-NOH and D-NOH than are keratinocytes. Our studies provide the novel observation that NHDF are able to acetylate both arylamine compounds and bioactivate the sulfone DDS, giving rise to haptenated proteins. The reactive metabolites of SMX and DDS also provoke oxidative stress in these cells in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Further work is needed to determine the role of the observed toxicity in mediating CDRs observed with these agents.

  18. Liposome-containing Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract formulations with increased antioxidant activity, improved dermal penetration and reduced dermal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Ungphaiboon, Suwipa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, or Roselle, is a medicinal plant used extensively in traditional Thai medicine since ancient times. The extracts of Roselle calyces possess antioxidant activity and have potential for development as active ingredients in cosmetic products. However the limitations of using Roselle extracts in cosmetics are its low skin permeation and dermal irritation. Liposome technology is an obvious approach that might overcome these problems. Liposome formulations of standardized Roselle extracts were developed with various lipid components. The formulation showing the highest entrapment efficiency was selected for stability, skin permeation and dermal irritability studies. The liposome formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (83%) and smalôlest particle size (332 mm) was formulated with phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SPC): Tween 80: deoxycholic acid (DA); 84:16:2.5 weight ratio, total lipid of 200 g/mL and 10% w/v Roselle extract in final liposomal preparation. This liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 degrees C, protected from light, for 2 months. The in vitro skin permeation studies, using freshly excised pig skin and modified Franz-diffusion cells, showed that the liposome formulation was able to considerably increased the rate of permeation of active compounds in Roselle extracts compared to the Roselle extract solution. The in vivo dermal irritability testing on rabbit skin showed that the liposome formulation dramatically decreased skin irritability compared to the unformulated extract. These results showed that the liposomes containing Roselle extracts had good stability, high entrapment efficacy, increased skin permeation and low skin irritation. PMID:21294418

  19. Acute-toxicity evaluation of nitroaromatic compounds. Final report, 29 Sep 89-29 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, G.B.; Austin, A.; DiGuilio, N.

    1991-03-01

    The nitroaromatics 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), 1,2,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and N-methyl-n,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline (tetryl) have been detected as environmental contaminants of water and soil near production waste sites and at military test grounds. Acute toxicity evaluations were carried out with these compounds to develop environmental and health effects criteria. Dermal and eye irritation tests and acute dermal sensitization (Buehler) tests in guinea pigs were conducted according to EPA standard protocols. The sensitization tests showed that DNB and tetryl are not skin sensitizers while TNB caused a mild allergic reaction. None of these compounds produced skin irritation but positive (DNB) to severe (TNB, tetryl) eye irritation potentials were observed.

  20. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  1. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  2. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  3. Acute toxicity from baking soda ingestion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Stone, C K

    1994-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is an extremely well-known agent that historically has been used for a variety of medical conditions. Despite the widespread use of oral bicarbonate, little documented toxicity has occurred, and the emergency medicine literature contains no reports of toxicity caused by the ingestion of baking soda. Risks of acute and chronic oral bicarbonate ingestion include metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypertension, gastric rupture, hyporeninemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, intravascular volume depletion, and urinary alkalinization. Abrupt cessation of chronic excessive bicarbonate ingestion may result in hyperkalemia, hypoaldosteronism, volume contraction, and disruption of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The case of a patient with three hospital admissions in 4 months, all the result of excessive oral intake of bicarbonate for symptomatic relief of dyspepsia is reported. Evaluation and treatment of patients with acute bicarbonate ingestion is discussed.

  4. Massive strontium ferrite ingestion without acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Barbara M; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2006-11-01

    Ingestion of strontium ferrite is previously unreported. We document absorption of strontium without acute toxicity. A 22 year-old schizophrenic man was brought to hospital after he was witnessed to pulverize and ingest flexible adhesive magnets, which later were identified as strontium ferrite. Other than auditory hallucinations his vital signs, physical examination, ECG and routine laboratories were unremarkable. Abdominal radiographs revealed diffuse radiopaque material. He was treated with whole bowel irrigation with polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) until radiographically cleared. His initial blood and urine strontium levels were 2900 microg/l and 15,000 microg/l, respectively (reference range for urine: <240 microg/l, occupational threshold 800 microg/l). A repeat urine level one week later was 370 microg/l. His hospital course was complicated by bacteraemia secondary to a thrombophlebitis at the site of the intravenous catheter, and the patient was treated with intravenous and oral antibiotics. He remained otherwise asymptomatic and was discharged to a psychiatric unit approximately 3 weeks later. Although clearly absorbed, strontium ferrite does not appear to produce acute toxicity. Delayed, and or chronic toxicity cannot be excluded based on this report.

  5. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, T.H.; Swartz, R.C.; Lanberson, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    Estuarine sediments frequently are repositories and sources of anthropogenic contaminants. Toxicity is one method of assessing the environmental quality of sediments, yet because of the extreme range of salinities that characterize estuaries few infaunal organisms have both the physiological tolerance and sensitivity to chemical contaminants to serve in estuarine sediment toxicity tests. The study describes research on the estuarine burrowing amphipod, Eohaustorius estuarius Bosworth, 1973, whose survival was >95% in control sediments across a 2 to 28% salinity range over 10-d periods. E. estuarius also was acutely sensitive to low sediment concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (LC50 approximately = 10.6 mg/kg), and its sensitivity to fluoranthene was not affected by salinity. E. estuarius was almost as sensitive as Rhepoxynius abronius to fluoranthene and to field-collected sediments from Puget Sound urban and industrial bays. E. estuarius was also more tolerant of very fine, uncontaminated sediments than R. abronius. Furthermore, E. estuarius was more sensitive to sediments spiked with fluoranthene than the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca. E. estuarius, and possibly other estuarine haustoriid species, appears to be an excellent candidate for testing the acute toxicity if estuarine and marine sediments.

  6. Acute Toxic Neuropathy Mimicking Guillain Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Muhammed Jasim Abdul; Fernandez, Shirley Joan; Menon, Murali Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic PMID:25811007

  7. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Salkade, Parag R; Lim, Teh Aun

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX), as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced 'acute toxic leukoencephalopathy' has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted) and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery) sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted) sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up over a 2 year

  8. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration, crust or foreign body granuloma in rats were present as procedure-related underlying histological changes in the control animals. Four mechanical acts, (1) rubbing with gauze to remove an administered substance for reapplication, (2) use of a taut bandage to avoid slipping from the application site, (3) peeling a patch off as a preparation procedure for reapplication, and (4) clipping or shaving, were considered to cause injury to the skin. The degree of influence of the various application procedures was found to be as follows: sham, lotion < cream < ointment and tape in dogs; untreated control, sham < lotion < tape and poultice in rabbits; and sham, sodium carboxymethylcellulose < olive oil and lotion < ointment and tape in rats. The degree of ointment influence on rabbits is equivocal.

  9. Histological dermal changes caused by preparation and application procedures in percutaneous dose toxicity studies in dogs, rabbits and rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Mikio; Oshikata, Takafumi; Kumabe, Shino; Kobayashi, Azusa; Katoku, Koshiro; Kanno, Takeshi; Hamamura, Masao; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We reevaluated histological slides of dorsal skin in control animals from past percutaneous dose toxicity studies using dogs, rabbits and rats to provide background data concerning histological changes related to preparation and application procedures and vehicles or embrocations of every variety. Acanthosis, dermal or perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration in dogs; hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration or hemorrhage in rabbits; and acanthosis, dermal inflammatory cell infiltration, crust or foreign body granuloma in rats were present as procedure-related underlying histological changes in the control animals. Four mechanical acts, (1) rubbing with gauze to remove an administered substance for reapplication, (2) use of a taut bandage to avoid slipping from the application site, (3) peeling a patch off as a preparation procedure for reapplication, and (4) clipping or shaving, were considered to cause injury to the skin. The degree of influence of the various application procedures was found to be as follows: sham, lotion < cream < ointment and tape in dogs; untreated control, sham < lotion < tape and poultice in rabbits; and sham, sodium carboxymethylcellulose < olive oil and lotion < ointment and tape in rats. The degree of ointment influence on rabbits is equivocal. PMID:26023255

  10. Acute toxic effects of fragrance products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate whether fragrance products can produce acute toxic effects in mammals, we allowed groups of male Swiss-Webster mice to breathe the emissions of five commercial colognes or toilet water for 1 h. We used the ASTM-E-981 test method to evaluate sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation. We used a computerized version of this test to measure the duration of the break at the end of inspiration and the duration of the pause at the end of expiration. Decreases in expiratory flow velocity indicated airflow limitation. We subjected the mice to a functional observational battery to probe for changes in nervous system function. The emissions of these fragrance products caused various combinations of sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation, decreases in expiratory airflow velocity, as well as alterations of the functional observational battery indicative of neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity was more severe after mice were repeatedly exposed to the fragrance products. Evaluation of one of the test atmospheres with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed the presence of chemicals for which irritant and neurotoxic properties had been documented previously. In summary, some fragrance products emitted chemicals that caused a variety of acute toxicities in mice.

  11. Developmental toxicity study in rats exposed dermally to clarified slurry oil for a limited period of gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.

    1996-10-11

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO, CAS number 64741-62-4), a refinery stream produced by processing crude oil, is a developmental toxicant when administered dermally throughout gestation to pregnant rats. The manifestations of developmental toxicity observed included embryolethlity and growth retardation; evidence of teratogenicity was limited, and not conclusive. The present study was undertaken to further explore the teratogenic potential of CSO. In an attempt to limit emnbryolethality and thereby promote detection of terata, CSO was administered once daily for a limited period of gestation i[gestation days (GD) 9-12], via dermal application, to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed on GD 20. Detailed examination of the dams was performed. Due to the screening nature of this investigation, fetal evaluations were limited to body weight measurements, external examinations, and evaluation of select visceral endpoints. In the dams exposed to CSO, significant decreases in body weight [absolute and gain (GD 9-13, GD 0-20)] and in the amount of food consumed were observed at 100 and 1000 mg/kg. Additional evidence of maternal toxicity observed at 1000 mg/kg included decreased absolute and relative thymus weights, increased absolute and relative liver weights, and aberrant serum chemistry. Ingestion of the test material was evident at the high dose. Developmental toxicity was observed at 1000 mg/kg and included increased embryolethality, decreased body weight, and anomalous development (cleft palate, brachydactyly, edema). Although a low incidence of abnormal fetal development was observed at 100 mg/kg, it was not conclusive that the alterations were due to CSO exposure. It is likely that three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds present in CSO were responsible for the toxic effects observed. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Electrophiles and acute toxicity to fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hermens, J.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Effect concentrations in fish LC50 tests with directly acting electrophiles are lower than those of unreactive chemicals that act by narcosis. LC50 values of more hydrophobic reactive chemicals tend to approach those of unreactive chemicals. Quantitative studies to correlate fish LC50 data to physical-chemical properties indicate that LC50 values of reactive chemicals depend on hydrophobicity as well as chemical reactivity. In this paper, several examples will be given of chemical structures that are known as direct electrophiles. This classification might be useful to identify chemicals that are more effective at lower concentrations than unreactive compounds. Chemicals that require bioactivation are not included because almost no information is available on the influence of bioactivation on acute toxic effects in aquatic organisms.32 references.

  13. Exploring waiving opportunities for mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Graepel, Rabea; Asturiol, David; Prieto, Pilar; Worth, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    A survey was carried out to explore opportunities for waiving mammalian acute systemic toxicity tests. We were interested in finding out whether data from a sub-acute toxicity test could be used to predict the outcome of an acute systemic toxicity test. The survey was directed at experts in the field of toxicity testing, and was carried out in the context of the upcoming 2018 final registration deadline for chemicals under the EU REACH Regulation. In addition to the survey, a retrospective data analysis of chemicals that had already been registered with the European Chemicals Agency, and for which both acute and sub-acute toxicity data were available, was carried out. This data analysis was focused on chemicals that were administered via the oral route. The answers to the questionnaire showed a willingness to adopt waiving opportunities. In addition, the responses showed that data from a sub-acute toxicity test or dose-range finding study might be useful for predicting chemicals that do not require classification for acute oral toxicity (LD50 > 2000mg/kg body weight). However, with the exception of substances that fall into the non-classified category, it is difficult to predict current acute oral toxicity categories. PMID:27494626

  14. Toxicity and penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhong; Liu, Wei; Xue, Chenbing; Zhou, Shunchang; Lan, Fengli; Bi, Lei; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang; Zeng, Fan-Dian

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated the penetration and potential toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles following its dermal exposure in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, after exposure to isolated porcine skin for 24h, titanium dioxide nanoparticles of carious sizes cannot penetrate through stratum corneum. Interestingly, when studied in vivo, quite different results were obtained. After topically applied on pig ear for 30 days, TiO(2) nanomaterials (4 nm and 60 nm) can penetrate through horny layer, and be located in deep layer of epidermis. Furthermore, after 60 days dermal exposure in hairless mice, nano-TiO(2) particles can penetrate through the skin, reach different tissues and induce diverse pathological lesions in several major organs. Notably, P25 (21 nm) TiO(2) nanomaterials shows a wider tissue distribution, and can even be found in the brain without inducing any pathological changes. Among all of the organs examined, the skin and liver displayed the most severe pathological changes that correspond to the significant changes in SOD and MDA levels. These results suggest that the pathological lesions are likely to be mediated through the oxidative stress induced by the deposited nanoparticles. Accordingly, the collagen content expressed as HYP content are also significantly reduced in mouse skin samples, indicating that topically applied nano-TiO(2) in skin for a prolonged time can induce skin aging. Altogether, the present study indicates that nanosize TiO(2) may pose a health risk to human after dermal exposure over a relative long time period.

  15. Evaluation of the systemic toxicity of coal liquefaction-derived materials following repeated dermal exposure in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    McKee, R H; Kapp, R W; Ward, D P

    1985-12-01

    The subchronic toxicity of two materials produced by the EDS direct coal liquefaction process was investigated using adult New Zealand white rabbits as the test species. Recycle solvent (RS: 204-427 degrees C) and fuel oil (FO: 204-538 degrees C) were applied to the intact dorsal surface of rabbits, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Materials were applied as suspensions (2.5 and 10.0 g 100 ml-1) in white oil. White oil alone was administered to concurrent control groups. Both RS and FO elicited gross signs of toxicity including severe dermal irritation, loss of body weight (16-25%) and mortality (4/20 in the high-dose group treated with RS). Systemic effects included liver enlargement as evidenced by histologic findings of diffuse hepatocytomegaly, cytoplasmic degeneration and hepatocellular vacuolation as well as elevated serum cholesterol. There was also evidence of testicular, seminal vesicle and thymic atrophy. More pronounced effects were apparent in the high-dose groups. Testes and epididymides from four of the five FO-treated male rabbits were unremarkable at the microscopic level. The testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles of the fifth animal were atrophic. Three of ten RS treated rabbits showed testicular atrophy associated with hypospermatogenesis in the testes, aspermia in the epididymides and vesiculitis in the seminal vesicles. Four additional animals showed evidence of seminal vesicle atrophy. The liver enlargement was probably due to compensatory metabolism; however, exposure to similar materials at higher levels has resulted in liver toxicity. Thymic and testicular atrophy may have been a secondary response to dermal irritation, stress or body weight loss.

  16. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  17. Acute toxicity of dietary polybrominated biphenyls in Bobwhite Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.O.; Ringer, R.K.; Babish, J.G.

    1984-09-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the acute oral toxicity of PBB to Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). The median lethal dietary concentration (LC/sub 56/) of PBB was determined over 8 days and clinical signs of intoxication are described.

  18. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO{sub 2} and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD{sub 5} and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population.

  19. Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Muriale, L; Lee, E; Genovese, J; Trend, S

    1996-12-01

    A fatal accident involving concentrated hydrofluoric acid in a palynological laboratory is described. Similar deaths due to dermal exposure to concentrated hydrofluoric acid have been reported in the literature. It is evident that rigorous control measures including proper personal protective equipment and first aid are of utmost importance in the prevention of death and injury when handling hydrofluoric acid. Possible factors that may have contributed to the accident are reviewed.

  20. Acute and oral subchronic toxicity of D-003 in rats.

    PubMed

    Gámez, R; Mas, R; Noa, M; Menéndez, R; Alemán, C; Acosta, P; García, H; Hernández, C; Amor, A; Pérez, J; Goicochea, E

    2000-12-20

    D-003 is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax (Saccharum officinarum) with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects experimentally proven. The present work reports the results of two studies investigating the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of D-003 in rats. Oral acute toxicity of D-003 (2000 mg/kg) was investigated according to the Acute Toxic Class (ATC) method (an alternative for the classical LD(50) test), which was performed in Wistar rats. The results obtained in this study defined D-003 oral acute toxicity as unclassified. In the subchronic study, rats of both sexes were orally treated with D-003 at 50, 200 and 1250 mg/kg for 90 days. At this time, animals were sacrificed. No evidence of treatment-related toxicity was detected during the study. Thus, data analysis of body weight gain, food consumption, clinical observations, blood biochemical, haematology, organ weight ratios and histopathological findings did not show significant differences between control and treated groups. It is concluded that D-003 orally administered to rats was safe and that no drug-related toxicity was detected even at the highest doses investigated in both acute (2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (1250 mg/kg) studies.

  1. 90-day dermal toxicity study and neurotoxicity evaluation of nitromusks in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ford, R A; Api, A M; Newberne, P M

    1990-01-01

    Musk ketone, musk xylene, musk tibetene and moskene, synthetic musks used in fragrances, were applied dermally to rats in daily doses of 240 (musk ketone and musk xylene only), 75, 24 or 7.5 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. The chemically related musk ambrette, a known neurotoxin in rats, was used as a positive control. While musk ambrette was clearly neurotoxic and caused testicular atrophy, as had been previously reported, the other compounds tested caused neither effect. The only effects of application of these materials were some organ weight changes at the higher doses, but these were not associated with histopathological changes in any of the tissues. The no-effect levels were: musk ketone, 75 mg/kg for males and females; musk xylene, 75 mg/kg for males and 24 mg/kg for females; moskene, 24 mg/kg for males and 75 mg/kg (highest dose administered) for females; and musk tibetene, 75 mg/kg (highest dose) for males and females.

  2. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  3. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicity studies with monochlorobenzene in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahlich, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicity of monochlorobenzene (CB) was investigated in rainbow trout following acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration and chronic exposure via the water in a continuously flowing system for 15 or 30 days. In the acute study overt toxicity and hepatotoxicity were monitored over a 96-h time period. Variables measured to assess toxicity included weight changes, liver weight to body weight ratios, behavioral changes, alanine aminotransferase activity (GPT), sulfobromophthalein (BSP) retention, total plasma protein concentration and liver histopathology. In the chronic study the same measures of toxicity were followed as well as food consumption and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Upon acute i.p. exposure the toxicant (9.8 mmol/kg) caused behavioral changes in the fish which were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of CB in mammals. Elevations in BSP retention and GPT activity, and histopathology indicated that CB was hepatotoxic in fish. The LC50 of CB in trout exposed via the water for 96 h was 4.7 mg/l. Chronic exposure of trout to 2 or 3 mg/l CB resulted in similar behavioral changes as seen in the acute study. Liver toxicity was evident from elevations in GPT activity. BSP retention and AP activity appeared to be affected by the nutritional status of the trout as much as by the CB treatment. After 30 days of exposure to 3 mg/l CB, trout appeared to have developed some tolerance to the toxic effects.

  5. Acute toxicity of the herbicide bromoxynil to Daphnia magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Schmulbach, James C.

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicities of technical-grade bromoxynil octanoate (BO) and two commercial formulations, Buctril® and Bronate®, to < 24-h-old neonate Daphnia magna (Straus) were determined in soft, hard, and oligosaline water. In addition, effects of life stage, feeding, aging the herbicide, and exposure duration on BO toxicity to daphnids were investigated. Regardless of formulation, life stage, and water quality, BO was found to be extremely to highly toxic to daphnids in standard tests; 48-h EC50 values ranged from 41 to 161 m̈g/L. Bromoxynil octanoate was the most toxic to neonates in soft water and the least toxic in hard water. The acute toxicities of the three bromoxynil herbicides to a given age group of daphnids were similar within the same water type. Overall, neonates and 7-d-old adults were more sensitive than 14- or 15-d-old adults to each herbicide. Feeding daphnids during the toxicity test significantly decreased BO toxicity compared to not feeding them. Aging BO (as Buctril) in hard water decreased its toxicity, and the rate of deactivation was rapid, with an estimated half-life of biological activity of 13 h. Daphnids immobilized by exposures to toxic BO concentrations for ≤ 6 h recovered their mobility, whereas exposures of 18 and 24 h to BO produced toxic effects in daphnids similar to those exposed for 48 h. These results indicated that standard continuous exposure tests may not adequately predict the acute toxicity of BO to freshwater animals in the field.

  6. Acute Stress-Induced Changes in Follicular Dermal Papilla Cells and Mobilization of Mast Cells: Implications for Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyoseung; Choi, Soon-Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a known cause of hair loss in many species. Objective In this study, we investigated the role of acute stress on hair growth using a rat model. Methods Rats were immobilized for 24 hours and blood samples, and skin biopsies were taken. The effect of stress-serum on the in vitro proliferation of rat and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs), as well as serum cortisol and corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, were measured. Mast cell staining was performed on the biopsied tissue. In addition, Western blot and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess mast cell tryptase and cytokine expression, respectively in rat skin biopsies. Results Stress-serum treatment reduced significantly the number of viable hDPCs and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase, compared to serum from unrestrained rats (p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, restrained rats had significantly higher levels of cortisol in serum than unrestrained rats (p<0.01). Acute stress serum increased mast cell numbers and mast cell tryptase expression, as well as inducing interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β up-regulation. Conclusion These results suggest that acute stress also has an inhibitory effect on hair growth via cortisol release in addition to substance P-mast cell pathway. PMID:27746640

  7. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide: review of two fatal cases of dermal exposure and development of an animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Wang, Chao-Ling; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Chai, Chee-Yin; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2011-07-01

    To document two cases of patients who were fatally exposed to tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) on the skin and to establish a rat model to investigate the effects of dermal exposure to TMAH. The charts of two workers who died from occupational accidental exposure to TMAH were reviewed. The 4-hour lethal dose (LD₅₀) of TMAH was determined by applying solutions mimicking the two most common industrially used concentrations (2.38% and 25%) of TMAH to the skin of Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposure of the rat's skin to 2.38% or 25% TMAH generated LD₅₀ values of 85.9 mg/kg and 28.7 mg/kg, respectively. Application of either concentration of TMAH to the skin produced a rapid, significant increase in the rate of respiration. The serum concentrations of tetramethylammonium (TMA) also changed significantly with time of exposure to both concentrations of TMAH. The level of blood urea nitrogen decreased significantly in rats exposed to the 2.38% TMAH, and rats exposed to the 25% solution had a significant decrease in the serum concentration of sodium. Injection of atropine after 5 minutes of exposure did not significantly overcome any of the toxic effects observed with either solution of TMAH. The preliminary results in the rat model indicated that the lethality of TMAH cannot be fully explained by the severity of the patients' chemical burns, and the physiologic effects on respiratory and kidney functions were probably involved.

  8. On the performance of acute toxicity tests using the National Reference Toxicant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidhk, B.

    1995-12-31

    The US National Reference Toxicant Database was used to compile data from 158 Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 187 fathead minnow acute toxicity tests. The data are analyzed using the EPA flow-chart for acute toxicity tests to determine the distribution of test methods selected. The data are reanalyzed using maximum likelihood estimation assuming probit, logit and Gompertz tolerance distributions and non-parametrically using the Spearman-Karber method with and without trimming. The results of these analyses are compared with respect to mean square error for the parametric methods and confidence intervals for the point estimate for all analyses.

  9. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  10. Resolving some practical questions about Daphnia acute toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barera, Y.; Adams, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed with six age groups of Daphnia magna, ranging from less than or equal to6 h to 216 h, and with five chemicals, selected on the basis of their physical and chemical properties as well as their acute toxicity to D. magna. The age of the daphnids did not significantly alter the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values for the chemicals tested. The maximum difference observed in the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values between the 6-h and 216-h age groups was a factor of 3.9 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). For purposes of standardization, it appears that D. magna up to 48 h of age at the beginning of the test can be used to conduct acute toxicity tests with most chemicals. The results of static acute toxicity tests conducted with butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and D. magna in the presence and absence of several commonly used solvents indicate that the acute toxicity of this chemical is not altered by the use of a solvent carrier. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ value for BBP without a solvent was 1.0 mg/L, compared with a range of 1.6 to 2.2 mg/L when acetone, dimethylformamide, ethanol, or triethylene glycol were used as solvent carriers. The acute toxicities of the solvents in the absence of BBP were also determined for D. magna. The values ranged from 9.3 to 52.4 g/L. The results of static acute tests performed with D. magna and BBP in the presence of various concentrations of daphnid foods (algae or trout chow), indicate that the 48-h EC/sub 50/ values increase proportionally with an increase in food concentrations. These results suggest that acute toxicity tests with D. magna should be conducted in the presence of food with chemicals with a high Ksigma if the results are to be used to select the test concentrations for a chronic study with daphnids. The type of food and the concentration used in the acute test should be the same as those used in a chronic test.

  11. Acute toxicity of peracetic acid to fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid) is a promising new therapeutant for parasites and fungus. It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. This study determined the acute toxi...

  12. Acute toxicity and QSAR of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Chambon, P.

    1986-10-01

    Chlorophenols which are released into natural waters from various industrial processes and from agricultural uses have been recognized as a group of chemical substances potentially hazardous to the aquatic environment. Therefore it is important to estimate their toxic impact on biota. Thus, the scope of this research was to obtain acute toxicity data for seventeen chlorophenols towards Daphnia magna and to explore the possibilities of deriving QSAR's (quantitative structure-activity relationship) from the above values.

  13. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish.

    PubMed

    Exley, C; Chappell, J S; Birchall, J D

    1991-08-01

    Aluminium is acutely toxic to fish in acid waters. The gill is the principal target organ and death is due to a combination of ionoregulatory, osmoregulatory and respiratory dysfunction. The toxic mechanism has hitherto received little direct consideration and is unknown. In this paper the mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity is approached from a chemical perspective. Symptomatic evidence of toxicity is taken from the literature and combined with our own research to elucidate a biochemically sound model to describe a possible mechanism of acute aluminium toxicity in fish. The proposed model delineates the chemical conditions immediately adjacent to the gill surface and emphasizes their importance in aluminium's toxic mode of action. The mechanism is shown to be bipartite. Aluminium binding to functional groups both apically located at the gill surface and intracellularly located within lamellar epithelial cells disrupts the barrier properties of the gill epithelium. The concomitant iono- and osmoregulatory dysfunction results in accelerated cell necrosis, sloughing and death of the fish. The mechanism of epithelial cell death is proposed as a general mechanism of aluminium-induced accelerated cell death.

  14. Extrapolation of acute toxicity across bee species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen

    2016-10-01

    In applying cross-species extrapolation safety factors from honeybees to other bee species, some basic principles of toxicity have not been included, for example, the importance of body mass in determining a toxic dose. The present study re-analyzed published toxicity data, taking into account the reported mass of the individuals in the identified species. The analysis demonstrated a shift to the left in the distribution of sensitivity of honeybees relative to 20 other bee species when body size is taken into account, with the 95(th) percentile for contact and oral toxicity reducing from 10.7 (based on μg/individual bee) to 5.0 (based on μg/g bodyweight). Such an approach results in the real drivers of species differences in sensitivity-such as variability in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in and target-receptor binding-being more realistically reflected in the revised safety factor. Body mass can also be used to underpin the other parameter of first-tier risk assessment, that is, exposure. However, the key exposure factors that cannot be predicted from bodyweight are the effects of ecology and behavior of the different species on exposure to a treated crop. Further data are required to understand the biology of species associated with agricultural crops and the potential consequences of effects on individuals at the levels of the colony or bee populations. This information will allow the development of appropriate higher-tier refinement of risk assessments and testing strategies rather than extensive additional toxicity testing at Tier 1. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:622-626. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26595163

  15. Extrapolation of acute toxicity across bee species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen

    2016-10-01

    In applying cross-species extrapolation safety factors from honeybees to other bee species, some basic principles of toxicity have not been included, for example, the importance of body mass in determining a toxic dose. The present study re-analyzed published toxicity data, taking into account the reported mass of the individuals in the identified species. The analysis demonstrated a shift to the left in the distribution of sensitivity of honeybees relative to 20 other bee species when body size is taken into account, with the 95(th) percentile for contact and oral toxicity reducing from 10.7 (based on μg/individual bee) to 5.0 (based on μg/g bodyweight). Such an approach results in the real drivers of species differences in sensitivity-such as variability in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in and target-receptor binding-being more realistically reflected in the revised safety factor. Body mass can also be used to underpin the other parameter of first-tier risk assessment, that is, exposure. However, the key exposure factors that cannot be predicted from bodyweight are the effects of ecology and behavior of the different species on exposure to a treated crop. Further data are required to understand the biology of species associated with agricultural crops and the potential consequences of effects on individuals at the levels of the colony or bee populations. This information will allow the development of appropriate higher-tier refinement of risk assessments and testing strategies rather than extensive additional toxicity testing at Tier 1. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:622-626. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. A 6-month dermal toxicity test with dithranol and butantrone in miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Männistö, P T; Hanhijärvi, H; Kosma, V M; Collan, Y

    1986-07-01

    Continuous topical administration of dithranol and butantrone for 6 months caused different irritation profiles in miniature swine. In paraffin wax sticks in white petrolatum, butantrone gave rise to much less initial irritation than dithranol, but after 2-3 weeks the situation had equalized. In gel formulations, butantrone was initially more irritant than dithranol. The vehicles themselves induced significant irritation. Signs of skin hyperplasia (parakeratosis and acanthosis) and inflammation were frequent histopathological findings at the end of the study, but no malignant changes were found. Dithranol and butantrone did not produce any chemical, hematological or serious histological abnormalities during the treatment, suggesting a lack of systemic toxicity. No evidence of systemic absorption was found. This long-term study did not predict delayed irritation of butantrone observed in about 1/3 of the psoriatic patients after treatment for 1-2 months.

  17. Acute toxicity of pinnatoxins E, F and G to mice.

    PubMed

    Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andrew I; Rhodes, Lesley

    2012-11-01

    The acute toxicities to mice of pinnatoxins E, F and G, members of the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins, by intraperitoneal injection and/or oral administration, have been determined. These substances were all very toxic by intraperitoneal injection, with LD(50) values between 12.7 and 57 μg/kg. Pinnatoxin E was much less toxic by oral administration than by intraperitoneal injection, but this was not the case for pinnatoxin F. The median lethal doses of the latter substance by gavage and by voluntary intake were only 2 and 4 times higher than that by injection. The high oral toxicity of pinnatoxin F raises concerns as to the possibility of adverse effects of this substance in shellfish consumers, although it should be noted that no toxic effects in humans have been recorded with pinnatoxins or with any other compound of the cyclic imine group. PMID:22813782

  18. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PARA-NONYLPHENOL TO SALTWATER ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ?para-Nonylphenol (PNP), a mixture of alkylphenols used in producing nonionic surfactants, is distributed widely in surface waters and aquatic sediments, where it can affect saltwater species. This article describes a database for acute toxicity of PNP derived for calculating a n...

  19. Acute toxicity handbook of chemicals to estuarine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, F.L.

    1987-04-01

    All acute toxicity data developed by the Gulf Breeze Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, since 1961 were evaluated for quality. A data base was established for 1175 tests with 197 chemicals and 52 species of estuarine organisms. The chemicals represent all major groups of pesticides, as well as numerous industrial and inorganic chemicals.

  20. Acute toxicity value extrapolation with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Denny R.; Mayer, Foster L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Asfaw, Amha

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of risk posed by an environmental contaminant to an aquatic community requires estimation of both its magnitude of occurrence (exposure) and its ability to cause harm (effects). Our ability to estimate effects is often hindered by limited toxicological information. As a result, resource managers and environmental regulators are often faced with the need to extrapolate across taxonomic groups in order to protect the more sensitive members of the aquatic community. The goals of this effort were to 1) compile and organize an extensive body of acute toxicity data, 2) characterize the distribution of toxicant sensitivity across taxa and species, and 3) evaluate the utility of toxicity extrapolation methods based upon sensitivity relations among species and chemicals. Although the analysis encompassed a wide range of toxicants and species, pesticides and freshwater fish and invertebrates were emphasized as a reflection of available data. Although it is obviously desirable to have high-quality acute toxicity values for as many species as possible, the results of this effort allow for better use of available information for predicting the sensitivity of untested species to environmental contaminants. A software program entitled “Ecological Risk Analysis” (ERA) was developed that predicts toxicity values for sensitive members of the aquatic community using species sensitivity distributions. Of several methods evaluated, the ERA program used with minimum data sets comprising acute toxicity values for rainbow trout, bluegill, daphnia, and mysids provided the most satisfactory predictions with the least amount of data. However, if predictions must be made using data for a single species, the most satisfactory results were obtained with extrapolation factors developed for rainbow trout (0.412), bluegill (0.331), or scud (0.041). Although many specific exceptions occur, our results also support the conventional wisdom that invertebrates are generally more

  1. Assessing acute toxicity potential of persulfate ISCO treated water.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Wang, Chi-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Persulfate anion (S2O8(2-)), a widely used in situ chemical oxidation agent, is increasingly applied for environmental remediation. However, limited information on environmental and toxicological effects is available for the evaluation of the environmental risk of exposure to S2O8(2-), particularly after its application. In this study, the acute toxic effects on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were employed as a model to investigate S2O8(2-), sulfate ion (decomposition product of S2O8(2-)), hydrogen/hydroxide ions and also the mixtures of these ion species. Acute toxicity test results showed 96h median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 540±23mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 4100±110mgL(-1) for SO4(2-). S2O8(2-) was considerably more toxic than its decomposition product SO4(2-). Additionally, solution pH was also an important factor influencing toxicity, and S2O8(2-) posed reduced acute toxicity when pH was in the range of 6-10. Water conductivity up to approximately 8000μScm(-1) did not appear to significantly increase fish mortality. In the mixture toxicity test (i.e., S2O8(2-)/OH(-)), LC50 values of 130±10mgL(-1) for S2O8(2-) and 23±2mgL(-1) for OH(-) were lower than those obtained from the individual toxicity tests and therefore exhibited higher toxicity to fish. However, upon complete decomposition of S2O8(2-) in the mixture, a reduction in acute toxicity may be expected. The results of this study revealed that it may be necessary and/or desirable to control the residual S2O8(2-)and pH after S2O8(2-) addition when potential exposure to an aquatic system is a concern.

  2. Acute toxicity of cyanogen chloride to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.

    1988-09-01

    The destruction of cyanide in waste waters by chlorination has been shown to result in the formation of the extremely toxic compound, cyanogen chloride. Industrial cyanide-containing waste waters may be treated by a batch chlorination process under highly alkaline conditions prior to being discharged into a receiving water systems. Alternatively, if the concentration of cyanide is relatively low, and such waste waters may be diverted to municipal waste treatment facilities where they may be subjected to a process of chlorination which may not be sufficient for the complete oxidative destruction of the available cyanide. Although a large body of literature exists concerning the toxicity of HCN and metallic cyanide compounds to aquatic organisms, there is a comparative scarcity of information concerning cyanogen chloride toxicity. This study was designed to determine the acute toxicity of CNCl to Daphnia magna neonates under static bioassay conditions.

  3. Acute toxicity of 50 metals to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Akira; Yamamuro, Masumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-07-01

    Metals are essential for human life and physiological functions but may sometimes cause disorders. Therefore, we conducted acute toxicity testing of 50 metals in Daphnia magna: EC50s of seven elements (Be, Cu, Ag, Cd, Os, Au and Hg) were < 100 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 13 elements (Al, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Y, Rh, Pt, Tl and Pb) were between 100 and 1000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of 14 elements (Li, V, Mn, Fe, Ge, As, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, W and Ir) were between 1,001 and 100,000 µg l(-1) ; EC50s of six elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr and Mo) were > 100,000 µg l(-1) ; and. 7 elements (Ti, Zr, Bi, Nb, Hf, Re and Ta) did not show EC50 at the upper limit of respective aqueous solubility, and EC50s were not obtained. Ga, Ru and Pd adhered to the body of D. magna and physically retarded the movement of D. magna. These metals formed hydroxides after adjusting the pH. Therefore, here, we distinguished this physical effect from the physiological toxic effect. The acute toxicity results of 40 elements obtained in this study were not correlated with electronegativity. Similarly, the acute toxicity results of metals including the rare metals were also not correlated with first ionization energy, atomic weight, atomic number, covalent radius, atomic radius or ionic radius.

  4. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  5. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  6. Dermal toxicity of a high-boiling (bp 250-450 degrees C) coal liquefaction product in the rat--II.

    PubMed

    Chu, I; Villeneuve, D C; Côté, M; Secours, V; Otson, R; Valli, V E

    1988-01-01

    Coal liquefaction products have been considered as an alternate source of energy to replace conventional crude oil. The present study was designed to investigate the dermal toxicity of a heavy fraction of coal liquefaction product (CLP, bp 250-450 degrees C) in the rat. Groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were treated dermally with CLP at dose levels of 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg body weight.d for 6 wk. The controls were treated with 0.4 ml/kg of normal saline, while the positive control group received 400 mg/kg diesel fuel. Growth suppression was observed in all CLP-treated groups of males; in the females this effect occurred in the two highest dose groups. Diesel fuel at 400 mg/kg also caused growth suppression of a similar magnitude to that of CLP in male rats. Male animals treated with high doses of CLP or diesel fuel had severe skin lesions. Increased liver weights were observed in the diesel fuel-treated as well as all CLP-treated groups of females. The kidney weights of females treated with 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg CLP were also higher than control values. Decreased red cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit volume occurred in some CLP and diesel fuel groups of both sexes. There was mild bone marrow hyperplasia in rats of both sexes treated with CLP or diesel fuel. Mild histological changes were observed in the thyroid, liver, bone marrow, and skin of rats of both sexes treated with CLP and diesel fuel. Based on the data presented, dermal application of CLP produced systemic toxicity at the dose levels studied, and CLP and diesel fuel possess toxic effects of similar nature and magnitude.

  7. Acute systemic toxicity--prospects for tiered testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Botham, P A

    2004-04-01

    After many years of controversy and debate, the LD50 test was finally deleted by the end of 2002. Three alternative animal tests, the Fixed Dose Procedure, the Acute Toxic Class Method and the Up and Down Procedure have been developed which give rise to significant improvements in animal welfare. They have recently undergone revision to improve their scientific performance but more importantly to increase their regulatory acceptance. They can now be used within a strategy for acute toxicity testing for all types of test substances and for all regulatory and in-house purposes. In vitro cytotoxicity tests could be used as adjuncts to these alternative animal tests within the next year or so to improve dose level selection and thus give further modest improvements in the numbers of animals used. However, the total replacement of animal tests requires a considerable amount of further test development, followed by validation, and is at least 10 years away.

  8. Acute toxicity, biochemical and gene expression responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to polycyclic musks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Shuo; Xiu, Zongming

    2011-05-01

    AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (galaxolide) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and have potential adverse impacts on soil organisms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AHTN and HHCB on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) as an important soil animal with attention to the acute toxicity, biochemical and transcriptional changes of representative antioxidant enzymatic (SOD, CAT) and stress-response gene (Hsp70). The 48 h-LC(50) value was 20.76 μg cm(-2) for AHTN and 11.87 μg cm(-2) for HHCB respectively in the acute lethal studies. The time-dependent elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular oxidative injury of E. fetida might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB. SOD and CAT were both up-regulated at low exposure dose (0.6 μg cm(-2) AHTN and 0.3 μg cm(-2) HHCB) during 48 h testing period, which protected earthworms from oxidative stresses. However, the down-regulation of SOD and CAT after 48 h exposure to high dose contaminants might be caused by the extreme oxidative stress levels (maximum up-regulation 1.70-fold and 1.40-fold for MDA levels at 6.0 μg cm(-2) AHTN and 3.0 μg cm(-2) HHCB compared to the controls, respectively). The Hsp70 gene expression did not show variation during 48 h, except that it had a significant down-regulation (P<0.05) after 48 h of exposure to high doses of contaminants. These results showed that the dermal contact of AHTN and HHCB could result in pronounced biochemical and physiological responses to earthworms, and the transcriptional level changes in antioxidant genes could be potential molecular biomarkers for the stress of the pollutants.

  9. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Aquatic acute toxicity assessments of molybdenum (+VI) to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Wei; Liang, Chenju; Yeh, Hui-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Generally, molybdenum (Mo) metals in the environment are very rare, but wastewater discharges from industrial processes may contain high concentrations of Mo, which has the potential to contaminate water or soil if not handled properly. In this study, the impact of three common compounds of hexavalent Mo (sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4‧2H2O), ammonium molybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)) in an aquatic system were assessed based on 48-h exposure acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna). The LC50 toxicities for associated conjugate ions including Na(+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and NH4(+) were determined. Furthermore, the LC50 values for the three forms of hexavalent Mo were determined, and the acute toxicities of the Mo forms were found to follow the order: (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O > MoO3 > Na2MoO4‧2H2O in solution. (NH4)6Mo7O24‧4H2O exhibited the lowest LC50 of 43.3 mg L(-1) (corresponding to 23.5 mg Mo L(-1)) among the three molybdenum salts. The research confirmed that the toxicity of molybdenum in the aquatic system is highly dependent on the form of molybdenum salts used, and is also associated with the influence of the background water quality.

  11. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  12. Dermal toxicity of a medium-boiling (154-378 degrees C) coal liquefaction product in the rat--Part I.

    PubMed

    Chu, I; Villeneuve, D C; Côte, M; Valli, V E; Otson, R

    1988-01-01

    The subchronic dermal toxicity of a medium-boiling coal liquefaction product (CLP, 154-378 degrees C) was investigated in the rat. CLP was applied to the shaved backs of rats at dose levels of 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight.d, 7 d/wk for a period of 13 wk. Control groups received 0.4 ml/kg of normal saline. Signs of dermal irritation were observed at sites of application in males dosed at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and were characterized by thickened, focally necrotic and ulcerative skin. All animals survived the full length of the treatment period. Growth depression was observed in males at all dose levels, but no significant decrease in weight gain was observed in females. An increase in liver/body weight ratios was observed in all treatment groups of both sexes. The organ/body weight ratios for the spleen, heart, kidney, and brain were also increased in the upper dose groups of both sexes. Treatment with CLP caused a dose-dependent decrease in hemoglobin and packed cell volume in both sexes of all dose groups. The number of erythrocytes was decreased and that of neutrophils was increased in some CLP-treated groups of both sexes. There was a mild myeloid hyperplasia with increased myeloid/erythroid ratios in the 200- and 400-mg/kg groups of both sexes. Hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin deethylase activity was increased in all treatment groups of females, and in males dosed at 100 mg/kg and higher. In the renal tubules mild treatment-related histological changes occurred, which consisted of eosinophilic inclusions, increased cytoplasmic volume, and pyknosis. These changes were noted in the high-dose groups of both sexes. These data indicate that the medium-boiling CLP could produce systemic toxicity when applied dermally at 50 mg/kg body weight.d.

  13. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  14. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  15. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nimish B; Spann, James W; Hill, Elwood F

    2009-03-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex and Phos-Chek WD881) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881 and Silv-Ex were above the predetermined 2000mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R, Phos-Chek D-75F, and Fire-Trol LCG-R because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  16. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  17. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T.; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-01-01

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure–activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical–chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard. PMID:24639521

  18. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  20. Identifying and designing chemicals with minimal acute aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Jakub; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie Beth

    2015-05-19

    Industrial ecology has revolutionized our understanding of material stocks and flows in our economy and society. For this important discipline to have even deeper impact, we must understand the inherent nature of these materials in terms of human health and the environment. This paper focuses on methods to design synthetic chemicals to reduce their intrinsic ability to cause adverse consequence to the biosphere. Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or the environment. The approach presented herein builds on the important work in quantitative structure-activity relationships by linking toxicological and chemical mechanistic insights to the identification of critical physical-chemical properties needed to be modified. This in silico approach yields design guidelines using boundary values for physiochemical properties. Acute aquatic toxicity serves as a model endpoint in this study. Defining value ranges for properties related to bioavailability and reactivity eliminates 99% of the chemicals in the highest concern for acute aquatic toxicity category. This approach and its future implementations are expected to yield very powerful tools for life cycle assessment practitioners and molecular designers that allow rapid assessment of multiple environmental and human health endpoints and inform modifications to minimize hazard.

  1. Acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity after radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients: Consequential late damage

    SciTech Connect

    Heemsbergen, Wilma D. . E-mail: w.heemsbergen@nki.nl; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Koper, Peter; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy can be partly explained by late effects of acute toxicity (consequential late damage). We studied whether there is a direct relationship between acute and late GI toxicity. Patients and Methods: A total of 553 evaluable patients from the Dutch dose escalation trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy) were included. We defined three outcomes for acute reactions: 1) maximum Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity, 2) maximum acute mucous discharge (AMD), and 3) maximum acute proctitis. Within a multivariable model, late endpoints (overall toxicity and five toxicity indicators) were studied as a function of acute toxicity, pretreatment symptoms, and relevant dose parameters. Results: At multivariable analysis, AMD and acute proctitis were strong predictors for overall toxicity, 'intermittent bleeding,' and 'incontinence pads' (p {<=} 0.01). For 'stools {>=}6/day' all three were strong predictors. No significant associations were found for 'severe bleeding' and 'use of steroids.' The predictive power of the dose parameters remained at the same level or became weaker for most late endpoints. Conclusions: Acute GI toxicity is an independent significant predictor of late GI toxicity. This suggests a significant consequential component in the development of late GI toxicity.

  2. Accuracy of Chronic Aquatic Toxicity Estimates Determined from Acute Toxicity Data and Two Time–Response Models.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, chronic toxicity in aquatic organisms and wildlife has been determined from either toxicity test data, acute to chronic ratios, or application of safety factors. A more recent alternative approach has been to estimate chronic toxicity by modeling the time course of...

  3. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  4. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  5. Acute methyl salicylate toxicity complicating herbal skin treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony J; Duggin, Geoffrey

    2002-06-01

    We present an interesting case of salicylism arising from the use of methyl salicylate as part of a herbal skin cream for the treatment of psoriasis. A 40-year-old man became quite suddenly and acutely unwell after receiving treatment from an unregistered naturopath. Methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) is widely available in many over the counter topical analgesic preparations and Chinese medicated oils. Transcutaneous absorption of the methyl salicylate was enhanced in this case due to the abnormal areas of skin and use of an occlusive dressing. The presence of tinnitus, vomiting, tachypnoea and typical acid/base disturbance allowed a diagnosis of salicylate toxicity to be made. Our patient had decontaminated his skin prior to presentation, limiting the extent of toxicity and was successfully treated with rehydration and establishment of good urine flow.

  6. Comparative acute toxicities of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Suprenant, D.

    1983-06-01

    Investigations of the toxicity of surfactants to aquatic invertebrates have been limited primarily to determining the effects on a few species. In this study, the 48-hr LC50 values for three surfactants are reported for six species of aquatic invertebrates. The acute toxicities (LC50) for each surfactant (mg/liter) varied 159 to 580 X and were as follows: C11.8LAS (anionic), 1.7 (Dero sp.) to 270 (Asellus sp.); C14-15 alkylethoxylate (nonionic), 1.0 (Dugesia sp.) to 6.8 (Rhabditis sp.); CTAC (cationic), 0.1 (Gammarus sp.) to 58 (Asellus sp.). When compared to previously developed data, Daphnia magna was typically found to be the most sensitive of all species tested, including fish, to the surfactants.

  7. Acute methyl salicylate toxicity complicating herbal skin treatment for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anthony J; Duggin, Geoffrey

    2002-06-01

    We present an interesting case of salicylism arising from the use of methyl salicylate as part of a herbal skin cream for the treatment of psoriasis. A 40-year-old man became quite suddenly and acutely unwell after receiving treatment from an unregistered naturopath. Methyl salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen) is widely available in many over the counter topical analgesic preparations and Chinese medicated oils. Transcutaneous absorption of the methyl salicylate was enhanced in this case due to the abnormal areas of skin and use of an occlusive dressing. The presence of tinnitus, vomiting, tachypnoea and typical acid/base disturbance allowed a diagnosis of salicylate toxicity to be made. Our patient had decontaminated his skin prior to presentation, limiting the extent of toxicity and was successfully treated with rehydration and establishment of good urine flow. PMID:12147116

  8. Acute renal toxicity after ingestion of Lava light liquid.

    PubMed

    Erickson, T B; Aks, S E; Zabaneh, R; Reid, R

    1996-06-01

    A 65-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse and seizure disorder presented to the emergency department with altered mental status, increased anion gap acidosis, phenytoin toxicity, and acute kidney failure. The patient had ingested the liquid contents of a Lava light, which contained chlorinated paraffin, polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 200), kerosene, and micro-crystalline wax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of the patient's blood produced results consistent with the same analysis of the Lava light contents. After 3 days of declining mental status and worsening kidney function, the patient required hemodialysis. After a prolonged hospitalization, the patient was discharged home with residual renal insufficiency. Although multifactorial, the associated renal toxicity was most probably related to the low molecular weight polyethylene glycol content of the lamp's liquid contents. PMID:8644972

  9. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    PubMed

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration. PMID:9805821

  10. Indium-111 WBC scan in acute toxic centrilobular hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H. )

    1989-12-01

    In this case of prolonged fever and abnormal liver functions, dual tracer scintigraphy with In-111 WBCs and Tc-99m SC led to a biopsy-proven diagnosis of severe acute toxic hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis). Correlation of the Tc-99m SC scan findings with those previously reported for pseudotumors of the liver is discussed. A pseudonormal scan pattern is described for the In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Discordance between In-111 WBC and Tc-99m SC scintigraphy in this clinical setting should raise the possibility of hepatic necrosis as a diagnostic alternative to hepatic abscess.

  11. Soil ingestion: a concern for acute toxicity in children.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, E J; Stanek, E J; James, R C; Roberts, S M

    1997-01-01

    Several soil ingestion studies have indicated that some children ingest substantial amounts of soil on given days. Although the EPA has assumed that 95% of children ingest 200 mg soil/day or less for exposure assessment purposes, some children have been observed to ingest up to 25-60 g soil during a single day. In light of the potential for children to ingest such large amounts of soil, an assessment was made of the possibility for soil pica episodes to result in acute intoxication from contaminant concentrations the EPA regards as representing conservative screening values (i.e., EPA soil screening levels and EPA Region III risk-based concentrations for residential soils). For a set of 13 chemicals included in the analysis, contaminant doses resulting from a one-time soil pica episode (5-50 g of soil ingested) were compared with acute dosages shown to produce toxicity in humans in clinical studies or case reports. For four of these chemicals, a soil pica episode was found to result in a contaminant dose approximating or exceeding the acute human lethal dose. For five of the remaining chemicals, the contaminant dose from a soil pica episode was well within the reported dose range in humans for toxicity other than lethality. Because both the exposure episodes and the toxicological response information are derived from observations in humans, these findings are regarded as particularly relevant for human health risk assessment. They suggest that, for some chemicals, ostensibly conservative soil criteria based on chronic exposure using current EPA methodology may not be protective of children during acute soil pica episodes. PMID:9405323

  12. Acute and subacute toxicity of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine

    SciTech Connect

    Taniyama, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Kuno, T.; Saito, N.; Shuntoh, H.; Sakaue, M.; Tanaka, C. )

    1989-07-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) were investigated in the rat, according to the Good Laboratory Practice Standard for safety studies on drugs in Japan. In the acute toxicity test of 10B-BPA, LD50 values of acidic 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were 640 mg/kg for male and 710 mg/kg for female rats, and more than 1,000 mg/kg for male and female rats, respectively. The LD50 values of neutral 10B-BPA for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections were more than 3,000 mg/kg for male and female rats. The difference in LD50 values between acidic and neutral 10B-BPA may be attributed to the acidity of material. From the subacute toxicity test, in which the rats were injected daily subcutaneously for 28 days, the following toxic effects of 10B-BPA were observed. Increase in ketone level in the urine was induced in all rats treated with 10B-BPA. High dose of 10B-BPA (1,500 mg/kg) induced increase in spleen weight and reticulocyte count, and decrease in hemoglobin count, thereby suggesting that 10B-BPA causes hemolysis. Increases in the leukocyte count and the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes were also observed in rats treated with a high dose of 10B-BPA. This may be attributed to local reactions at the injection site. There were no significant differences in the findings between control rats and rats treated with a low dose of 10B-BPA (300 mg/kg). Thus, low doses of neutral 10B-BPA may be available for use as a drug.

  13. Dermal peels.

    PubMed

    Coleman, W P

    2001-07-01

    Dermal chemical peeling is a very satisfying procedure for patients and physicians alike. Although not providing the ablation of deep wrinkles and scars that dermabrasion and laser procedures may accomplish, trichloroacetic acid peels usually result in few complications and rapid recovery. Patients can usually expect photographic improvement in their skin. The results are usually long lasting, and most patients do not need to repeat dermal peels for at least 2 years. Of all resurfacing procedures, dermal peeling provides the best benefit-to-risk ratio. PMID:11599397

  14. RNA-Seq Transcriptomic Responses of Full-Thickness Dermal Excision Wounds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute and Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsute; Qian, Li-Wu; Fourcaudot, Andrea B.; Yamane, Kazuyoshi; Chen, Ping; Abercrombie, Johnathan J.; You, Tao; Leung, Kai P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection—first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection. The wounds were analyzed for bacterial counts, expression of P. aeruginosa virulence and biofilm-synthesis genes, biofilm morphology, infiltrating immune cells, re-epithelialization, and genome-wide gene expression (RNA-Seq transcriptome). This analysis revealed that 2 hrs after bacterial inoculation into day-3 wounds, the down-regulated genes (infected vs. non-infected) of the wound edge were nearly all non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprised of snoRNA, miRNA, and RNU6 pseudogenes, and their down-regulation preceded a general down-regulation of skin-enriched coding gene expression. As the active infection intensified, ncRNAs remained overrepresented among down-regulated genes; however, at 6 and 24 hrs they changed to a different set, which overlapped between these times, and excluded RNU6 pseudogenes but included snRNA components of the major and minor spliceosomes. Additionally, the raw counts of multiple types of differentially-expressed ncRNAs increased on post-wounding day 3 in control wounds, but infection suppressed this increase. After 5 and 9 days, these ncRNA counts in control wounds decreased, whereas they increased in the infected, healing-impaired wounds. These data suggest a sequential and coordinated change in the levels of transcripts of multiple

  15. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Acute Toxicity of Ochratoxins A and B in Chicks 1

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, John C.; Doupnik, Ben; Jones, Oscar H.

    1971-01-01

    Ochratoxins A and B were given to 1-day-old Babcock B-300 cockerels to evaluate acute toxic effects. Two trials with ochratoxin A gave 7-day oral median lethal dose estimates of 116 μg (3.3 mg/kg) and 135 μg (3.9 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given daily oral doses of 100 μg of ochratoxin A died on the second day. Single subcutaneous doses of 400 μg of ochratoxin A were also lethal. The 7-day oral median lethal dose of B was estimated at 1,890 μg (54 mg/kg) per chick. Chicks given oral doses of 100 μg of ochratoxin B daily for 10 days survived. Sublethal doses of both ochratoxins A and B resulted in growth suppression which was proportional to the amount of ochratoxin given. Visceral gout was the principal gross finding. Microscopic examinations revealed acute nephrosis, hepatic degeneration or focal necrosis, and enteritis. Suppression of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and depletion of lymphoid elements from the spleen and bursa of Fabricius were frequently seen. Both ochratoxins appeared to have similar pathological effects. This is the first report on the toxicity of ochratoxin B. PMID:4928604

  17. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26841628

  18. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals.

  19. Dexrazoxane Abrogates Acute Doxorubicin Toxicity in Marmoset Ovary1

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana M.; Ringelstetter, Ashley K.; Elsarrag, Mazin Z.; Abbott, David H.; Roti, Elon C. Roti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preservation of ovarian function following chemotherapy for nonovarian cancers is a formidable challenge. For prepubescent girls, the only option to prevent chemotherapy damage to the ovary is ovarian tissue cryopreservation, an experimental procedure requiring invasive surgeries to harvest and reimplant tissue, which carries the risk of cancer reintroduction. Drugs that block the primary mechanism of chemotherapy insult, such as dexrazoxane (Dexra) in the context of anthracycline chemotherapy, provide a novel approach for ovarian protection and have the potential to overcome current limitations to oncofertility treatment. Dexra is a catalytic topoisomerase 2 inhibitor that protects the mouse ovary from acute doxorubicin (DXR) chemotherapy toxicity in vitro by preventing DXR-induced DNA damage and subsequent gammaH2AX activation. To translate acute DXR ovarian insult and Dexra protection from mouse to nonhuman primate, freshly obtained marmoset ovarian tissue was cultured in vitro and treated with vehicle or 20 μM Dexra 1 h prior to 50 nM DXR. Cultured ovarian tissue was harvested at 2, 4, or 24 h post-DXR treatment. Dexra prevented DXR-induced DNA double-strand breaks as quantified by the neutral comet assay. DXR treatment for 24 h increased gammaH2AX phosphorylation, specifically increasing the number of foci-positive granulosa cells in antral follicles, while Dexra pretreatment inhibited DXR-induced gammaH2AX phosphorylation foci formation. Additionally, Dexra pretreatment trended toward attenuating DXR-induced AKT1 phosphorylation and caspase-9 activation as assayed by Western blots of ovarian tissue lysates. The combined findings suggest Dexra prevents primary DXR-induced DNA damage, the subsequent cellular response to DNA damage, and may diminish early apoptotic signaling in marmoset ovarian tissue. This study provides initial translation of Dexra protection against acute ovarian DXR toxicity from mice to marmoset monkey tissue. PMID:25609833

  20. Characterization of acute and long-term pathologies of superficial and deep dermal sulfur mustard skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Cohen, Maayan; Kamus-Elimeleh, Dikla; Fishbine, Eliezer; Sahar, Rita; Gez, Rellie; Brandeis, Rachel; Horwitz, Vered; Kadar, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard induces severe acute and prolonged damage to the skin and only partially effective treatments are available. We have previously validated the use of hairless guinea pigs as an experimental model for skin lesions. The present study aimed to characterize a model of a deep dermal lesion and to compare it with the previously described superficial lesion. Clinical evaluation of the lesions was conducted using reflectance colorimetry, trans-epidermal water loss and wound area measurements. Prostaglandin E(2) content, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activity, and histopathology were conducted up to 4 weeks post-exposure. Sulfur mustard skin injury, including erythema and edema, impairment of skin barrier and wounds developed in a dose-dependent manner. Prostaglandin E(2) content and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activities were elevated during the wound development and the healing process. Histological evaluation revealed severe damage to the epidermis and deep dermis and vesications. At 4 weeks postexposure, healing was not completed: significantly impaired stratum corneum, absence of hair follicles, and epidermal hyperplasia were observed. These results confirm the use of the superficial and deep dermal skin injuries in the hairless guinea pigs as suitable models that can be utilized for the investigation of the pathological processes of acute as well as long-term injuries. These models will be further used to develop treatments to improve the healing process and prevent skin damage and long-term effects. PMID:23082902

  1. Influence of water quality parameters on acute silver toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.; Forsythe, B. II; Wenholz, M.; Jeffers, R.; Waldrop, V.; La Point, T.; Bens, C.; Cobb, G.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The data to adequately characterize the influence of water quality on silver toxicity in freshwater are lacking or poorly developed. Current attempts to extrapolate existing data sets to many sites result in extremely low silver limits. The error associated with these extrapolations dictate that a silver toxicity data set, accounting for various water quality parameters, be generated. The interactive effects of chloride, hardness, alkalinity, total organic carbon, and pH on the acute toxicity of silver (AgNO{sub 3}) were measured using juvenile fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. The 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows at the lowest tested levels of water quality parameters was 1.4 ug/L. At the highest levels tested, the 96-hr LC50 for fathead minnows was 3.8 ug/L. Preliminary results suggest the 48-hr LC50 values for Daphnia magna were similar to those of the fish. These results indicate a mitigating effect of certain water quality parameters.

  2. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  3. Neutral red uptake cytotoxicity tests for estimating starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S; Casati, Silvia; Strickland, Judy; Paris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity assays can be used as alternative toxicity tests to reduce the total number of animals needed for acute oral toxicity tests. This unit describes two methods for determining the in vitro cytotoxicity of test substances using neutral red uptake (NRU) and using the in vitro data to determine starting doses for in vivo acute oral systemic toxicity tests, e.g., the up-and-down procedure or the acute toxic class method. The use of the NRU methods to determine starting doses for acute oral toxicity tests may reduce the number of animals required, and for relatively toxic substances, this approach may also reduce the number of animals that die or require humane euthanasia due to severe toxicity. An interlaboratory validation study has demonstrated that the methods are useful and reproducible for these purposes. Two standardized protocols provide details for performing NRU tests with rodent and human cells.

  4. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  5. Relatively spared central multifocal electroretinogram responses in acute quinine toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Noonan, Carmel; Hagan, Richard; Brown, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was investigated with electrodiagnostic testing 4 months after a deliberate quinine overdose. Initially he was admitted to intensive care unit with visual acuity (VA) of perception of light in both eyes. VA recovered to 6/6 right eye and 6/12 left eye, though severely constricted fields were noted. Slow stimulus (base period of 83 ms) multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) showed electronegative responses outside the inner 5 degrees, with a reduced but electropositive response seen in this central area. It appears that in this case of bilaterally negative ERGs that the macula/fovea (which has a vascular supply through the choroid) is relatively spared as is seen in bilateral vascular electronegative ERGs. This may indicate that quinine toxicity to the retina may be secondary to effects similar to vascular occlusion or severe ischemia during the acute phase of quinine poisoning. PMID:22693278

  6. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  7. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    PubMed

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  8. Influence of chemical and environmental stressors on acute cadmium toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, K.N.; Benson, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that the cytosolic protein metallothionein (MT) is induced not only by exposure to certain heavy metals but also by a variety of other factors, including environmental stress. While MT synthesis has been observed with exposure to cold temperatures, there is a paucity of data concerning the influence of cold on heavy-metal toxicity. The present investigation focused on the influence of metal and cold pretreatments on the acute toxicity of cadmium. Mortalities of 80% and 100% were observed for mice orally administered challenge doses of 100 mg Cd/kg and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. To determine a protective cadmium pretreatment dose, animals were administered 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 mg Cd/kg 24 h prior to cadmium challenge. In animals pretreated with 10 mg Cd/kg, mortalities of 20% and 70% were observed with the respective challenge doses. Immediately following cold stress (4/sup 0/C, 12 h), mortalities of 30% and 90% were observed with cadmium challenge doses of 100 and 150 mg Cd/kg, respectively. Significant correlations were demonstrated between induced hepatic MT concentrations and cadmium pretreatment, as well as cold pretreatment. The induced tolerance to cadmium was attributed, in part, to the induction of MT synthesis. Furthermore, the induced levels of MT resulting from cold stress may confound the simplistic approach of using MT as a biological monitor of occupational exposure to cadmium.

  9. Toxicity of white phosphorus to waterfowl: acute exposure in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Gustafson, M.; Klein, P.; Karouna-Renier, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand extensive, white phosphorus (P4)-induced waterfowl mortality at Eagle River Flats, Fort Richardson, Alaska, we conducted a number of acute toxicity tests using penned mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in 1993 and 1994. The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) for P4 dissolved in oil was 6.46 mg/kg in adult males and 6.96 mg/kg in adult females. Although the median lethal doses were not statistically different, the female dose-response curve had a statistically shallower slope than that of males. The LD50 for the ecologically more relevant pelletized form of P4 in adult males was 4.05 mg/kg. In mallards, one mechanism of P4 toxicity caused rapid (3 to 10 hr) mortality and had signs consistent with anoxia. A second, slower acting mechanism resulted in hepatic and renal pathology including extensive fat deposition in the liver and cellular necrosis. White phosphorus accumulated in adipose tissues, but only for a few days.

  10. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists.

    PubMed

    Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

    2006-05-01

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC50 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l(-1), LC50) and lead (0.12 mg l(-1), LC50), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l(-1), LC50). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies.

  11. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-15

    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent.

  12. Isolation and characterization of acutely toxic fractions in oil sands wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; MacKinnon, M.

    1995-12-31

    Extraction of oil from oil sand using the hot water flotation method results in the production of large volumes of wastewater that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Oil Sands Group Inc., this wastewater is stored in large tailings ponds that must eventually be reclaimed. The acute toxicity of these wastewaters was assessed and the acutely toxic fractions were identified. Samples were collected from the surface and fine tails zones of the Syncrude and Suncor tailings ponds during the summers of 1991 and 1992. The Microtox bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further acute toxicity tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox IC{sub 50} of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 26.5 and 46%. Daphnia LC{sub 50}s varied between 76 and 98% and a rainbow trout LC{sub 50} was 12.5 %. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, as removed by solid phase extraction with C{sub 18} sorbent, accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples. Organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also accounted for all the acute toxicity (100%) of all samples except those from pond 1A of Suncor. In pond 1A, organic ``acids`` accounted for approximately 55--60% of the acute toxicity, nonpolar organic volatile compounds accounted for approximately 20--35% and the balance of the acute toxicity was due to non-polar organic compounds that were neither volatile nor organic ``acids``, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5.

  13. Acute toxicity of methyl mercury to the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Mallatt, J.; Barron, M.G.; McDonough, C.

    1986-08-01

    Mercury compounds pollute many aquatic habitats and are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity of waterborne methyl mercury has been studied in several teleost species. Lampreys are taxonomically distant from teleosts and are used for comparative toxicological purposes. Landlocked sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, inhabit the Great Lakes region, and their larvae (ammocoetes) burrow in stream sediments. In this study, the authors present toxicity curves for ammocoetes exposed acutely to methyl mercuric chloride solutions. Susceptibility was related to temperature and animal size.

  14. Perfluoro-n-butyl iodide: acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Darol; Hoffman, Gary; Hardy, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Perfluoro-n-butyl iodide (PFBI) is a promising alternative to chlorofluorocarbon solvents used in aircraft ground maintenance operations and other military and commercial operations, because it cleans well, has zero ozone depletion potential, and has extremely low global warming properties. Toxicity tests were performed with PFBI to determine and evaluate its health hazard. Using standard testing guidelines (e.g., Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]), tests included acute (4-h) and 4-week (6 h/day, 5 days/week) inhalation (nose-only) toxicity studies in rats, acute (10-min) inhalation cardiac sensitization study in dogs, in vitro chromosomal aberrations experiments in human lymphocytes, and in vitro mutagenic experiments in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. There were no mortalities in rats (n = 10) exposed for 4 h to 10,000 ppm PFBI, but all rats (n = 10) died within 2 h when exposed to 20,000 ppm PFBI. The 4-h LC50 (95% confidence limits) was 14,000 ppm (13,000 ppm to 16,000 ppm). Signs (nasal discharge and labored breathing) observed in the rats exposed to 10,000 ppm returned to normal within 48 h. PFBI has the potential to cause cardiac sensitization in epinephrine-challenged dogs at 6200 ppm. A concentration of 3900 ppm was a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in the cardiac sensitization study. In the 4-week inhalation study (5 rats/sex/group), respiratory mucosal hypertrophy/hyperplasia was observed in rats of the 10,000-ppm group. A NOAEL of 1000 ppm was selected for the 4-week study on the basis that the mild increase in T4 observed at 1000 ppm was considered adaptive, not adverse, because of the absence of frank effects in the thyroid. In the in vitro studies, PFBI showed no evidence of either mutagenic or clastogenic activity. The toxicity profile of PFBI was compared to trifluoroiodomethane. In conclusion, the results of these studies indicate a low order of general toxicity and an absence of genotoxicity

  15. Comparative acute toxicity of twenty-four insecticides to earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Zhao, Xueping; Yu, Ruixian; Chen, Liping; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we used two different types of bioassay, a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay and a soil toxicity bioassay, to compare the acute toxicity of twenty-four insecticides belonging to six chemical categories on earthworm species, Eisenia fetida. Results of the contact filter paper toxicity bioassay indicated that neonicotinoids were super toxic to E. fetida (48 h-LC(50) value ranged from 0.0088 to 0.45 μg cm(-2)), pyrethroids were very toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 10.55 to 25.7 μg cm(-2)) and insect growth regulators (IGRs) were moderately toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 117.6 to 564.6 μg cm(-2)) to the worms. However, antibiotics, carbamates and organophosphates induced variable toxicity responses in E. fetida, and were very to extremely toxic (48 h-LC(50) values ranged from 3.64 to 75.75 μg cm(-2)). Results of the soil toxicity bioassays showed a different pattern of toxicity except that neonicotinoids were the most toxic even under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The acute toxicity of neonicotinoids was higher than those of antibiotics, carbamates, IGRs and organophosphates. In contrast, pyrethroids were the least toxic to the worms under the soil toxicity bioassay system. It was concluded that irrespective of bioassay systems, earthworms were more susceptible to neonicotinoids than other modern synthetic insecticides.

  16. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  17. Toxicological evaluation of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate chelate: Acute, Sub-acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Xie, Chunyan; Shu, Xugang; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Iron is an essential trace element that is vital important in various biological process. A deficiency in iron could induce public health problem e.g. anaemia, while an overload could induce ROS production, lipid peroxidation and DNA bases modifications. In the present study, a new iron fortifier was synthesized, and its acute/sub-acute toxicity was investigated. According to the improved Karber's method, the median lethal dose (LD50) of the ferrous N-carbamylglycinate in SD rat was 3.02 g/kg and the 95% confidence intervals were between 2.78 and 3.31 g/kg. No biologically significant or test substance-related differences were observed in body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, organ weights, histopathology, ophthalmology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters in any of the treatment groups of ferrous N-carbamylglycinate at target concentrations corresponding to 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for ferrous N-carbamylglycinate was at least 600 mg/kg b.w. day in rats. In addition, no evidence of mutagenicity was found, either in vitro in bacterial reverse mutation assay or in vivo in mice bone marrow micronucleus assay and sperm shape abnormality assay. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that ferrous N-carbamylglycinate is a low-toxic substance with no genotoxicity.

  18. Comparative acute and subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol monopropyl ether and ethylene glycol monopropyl ether acetate.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, G V; Krasavage, W J; Terhaar, C J

    1984-01-01

    The acute toxicity of ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE) and ethylene glycol monopropyl ether acetate (EGPEA) was determined in a series of standardized tests. The oral LD50 in rats was 3089 and 9456 mg/kg EGPE and EGPEA, respectively. Skin irritation was slight following an occluded single dose application of either compound to the guinea pig abdomen. The dermal LD50 for guinea pigs was 1 to 5 mL/kg and greater than 20 mL/kg EGPE and EGPEA, respectively. EGPE produced a very weak positive sensitization response in one of five guinea pigs. No positive response was elicited when 10 guinea pigs were similarly challenged with EGPEA. EGPE produced transient moderate to severe eye irritation in rabbits while EGPEA produced slight eye irritation. Subchronic toxicity was determined in a series of oral and inhalation studies. Groups of 10 male rats were dosed with 15, 7.5, 3.75 or 1.88 mmole/kg EGPE and 30, 15 or 7.5 mmole/kg EGPEA by gavage 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Hemoglobinuria was seen at least once at all dose levels of both compounds. EGPE had little effect on feed consumption or body weight gain, while body weight gain was reduced in the two high dose groups exposed to EGPEA and feed consumption was reduced at all dose levels. Hematologic changes were seen at all dose levels of both compounds. Absolute and/or relative spleen weights were increased at all but the lowest EGPE dose level and at all EGPEA dose levels. Gross and histopathologic examinations revealed significant effects on the spleen of animals exposed to EGPE and on the spleen, liver, kidney and testes of animals exposed to EGPEA. The no-observed effect level (NOEL) for splenic changes was 1.88 mmole/kg EGPE. A NOEL for hematology was not established. The NOEL for liver and testicular changes were 15 and 7.5 mmole/kg EGPEA, respectively while a NOEL for hematologic, splenic and renal changes was not established. Groups of 10 rats (5M, 5F) were exposed to 800, 400, 200 or 100 ppm EGPE or EGPEA 6 hr

  19. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:25694074

  20. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Acute toxicity of biodiesel to freshwater and marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, D.; Peterson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel fuels are reported to be nontoxic resulting in less potential hazard to fish and other aquatic life in case of accidental spills. This paper reports on static tests with rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) performed according to EPA/600/4-90/027. The acute aquatic toxicity tests were conducted with both rainbow trout and daphnia magna by CH2M Hill in Corvallis, Oregon under contract to the University of Idaho. The LC50 (the point at which 50% have died and 50% are still alive determined by interpolation) values for each of the substrates tested with daphnia magna in parts per million were as follows: control(table salt (NaCl)) = 3.7, D2 = 1.43, RME = 23, REE = 99, and Methyl Soyate = 332. Duplicate tests with rainbow trout were run with 10 organisms per replicate. LC50 numbers were not reported because of the failure to kill a sufficient number of fish at the concentrations tested, even with the diesel control fuel. The 20 percent and 50 percent blends had scattered losses of fish but none of the tests had less than 85 percent survival at any concentrations after 96 hours.

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  3. Results of acute and chronic toxicity tests conducted at SRS NPDES outfalls, July--October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Acute (48 hour LC50) and chronic (7-day reproductive impairment) toxicity tests were conducted on Ceriodaphnia dubia in water collected from 53 NPDES outfalls. All tests were conducted at the in-stream waste concentration. only 12 of the 53 outfalls showed no evidence of toxicity. Twenty-eight of the outfalls were acutely toxic, often producing 100% mortality during the first day of exposure. Fourteen outfalls had no discharge at the time of sampling and could not be tested. Three outfalls were not tested because their toxicity has been adequately characterized in other investigations. Elevated concentrations of total residual chlorine are suspected to be responsible for the observed toxicity of many NPDES outfalls, particularly the sanitary wastewater treatment plants. Chemical data from previous studies indicate that metals may also be present in toxic concentrations at many outfalls. Toxicity identification and reduction options are discussed.

  4. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera roots in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Prabu, P C; Panchapakesan, S; Raj, C David

    2013-08-01

    Withania somnifera is a widely used medicinal plant for several disorders. Toxicity studies on Withania somnifera are not available. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of Withania somnifera root extract in Wistar rats were evaluated in the present study. In the acute toxicity study, WSR extract was administered to five rats at 2000 mg/kg, once orally and were observed for 14 days. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. In the sub-acute study, WSR extract was administered once daily for 28 days to rats at 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, orally. No toxic signs/mortality were observed. There were no significant changes (P < 0.05) in the body weights, organ weights and haemato-biochemical parameters in any of the dose levels. No treatment related gross/histopathological lesions were observed. The present investigation demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level was 2000 mg/kg body weight per day of hydroalcoholic extract of W. somnifera in rats and hence may be considered as non-toxic.

  5. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  6. Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...

  7. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  8. Fish embryo toxicity test: identification of compounds with weak toxicity and analysis of behavioral effects to improve prediction of acute toxicity for neurotoxic compounds.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; König, Maria; Ortmann, Julia; Massei, Riccardo; Paschke, Albrecht; Kühne, Ralph; Scholz, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The fish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, but concerns have been raised for its predictivity given that a few compounds have been shown to exhibit a weak acute toxicity in the fish embryo. In order to better define the applicability domain and improve the predictive capacity of the fish embryo test, we performed a systematic analysis of existing fish embryo and acute fish toxicity data. A correlation analysis of a total of 153 compounds identified 28 compounds with a weaker or no toxicity in the fish embryo test. Eleven of these compounds exhibited a neurotoxic mode of action. We selected a subset of eight compounds with weaker or no embryo toxicity (cyanazine, picloram, aldicarb, azinphos-methyl, dieldrin, diquat dibromide, endosulfan, and esfenvalerate) to study toxicokinetics and a neurotoxic mode of action as potential reasons for the deviating fish embryo toxicity. Published fish embryo LC50 values were confirmed by experimental analysis of zebrafish embryo LC50 according to OECD guideline 236. Except for diquat dibromide, internal concentration analysis did not indicate a potential relation of the low sensitivity of fish embryos to a limited uptake of the compounds. Analysis of locomotor activity of diquat dibromide and the neurotoxic compounds in 98 hpf embryos (exposed for 96 h) indicated a specific effect on behavior (embryonic movement) for the neurotoxic compounds. The EC50s of behavior for neurotoxic compounds were close to the acute fish toxicity LC50. Our data provided the first evidence that the applicability domain of the fish embryo test (LC50s determination) may exclude neurotoxic compounds. However, neurotoxic compounds could be identified by changes in embryonic locomotion. Although a quantitative prediction of acute fish toxicity LC50 using behavioral assays in fish embryos may not yet be possible, the identification of neurotoxicity could trigger the conduction of a conventional fish

  9. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  10. Understanding how data triangulation identifies acute toxicity of novel psychoactive drugs.

    PubMed

    Wood, D M; Dargan, P I

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (also known as "legal highs"). There is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these novel psychoactive substances. Gold standard evidence, such as animal studies or human clinical trials, is rarely available to users or healthcare professionals. However, it is possible to use triangulation of data on the acute toxicity from multiple sources to describe the overall pattern of toxicity associated with a novel psychoactive substance. In this review, we will describe these potential data sources, which include self-reported toxicity on internet discussion fora, data from sub-population user surveys, data from regional and national poisons information services and published case reports and case series. We will then describe how pattern of acute toxicity associated with the use of the cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) was established using triangulation of these different data sources.

  11. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  12. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  13. Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Veith, G.D.; Call, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and the energy of the triplet state of a variety of PAHs. The authors have reexamined these data and propose a more mechanistic explanation for the prediction of photo-induced PAH toxicity. They sought a molecular descriptor which could be computed from structure rather than measured empirically.

  14. Study of acute toxicity of Ukrain in rats after intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    Kulik, G I; Deneka, E R; Todor, I N; Karmozina, L G

    1998-01-01

    The acute toxicity of i.v. Ukrain injection in rats was studied. The interrelation between toxicity (death of animals) and dosage was determined by nonlinear regression method. White blood count (WBC) in peripheral blood, weight of animals, and weight of major organs were determined in animals during all stages of investigation. Morphological studies of toxic changes in 40 different organs of rats were performed on macro- and microscopic levels.

  15. Acute toxicity of furazolidone on Artemia salina, Daphnia magna, and Culex pipiens molestus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Macri, A.; Stazi, A.V.; Dojmi di Delupis, G.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of evidence of the ecotoxicity of nitrofurans, the acute toxicity of furazolidone was tested in vivo on two aquatic organisms, Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, which are both crustaceans. Toxicity studies were also performed on larvae of Culex pipiens molestus. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the compound on Culex pipiens and Daphnia magna, while Artemia salina proved to be the least sensitive.

  16. Estimates of the spatial extent of acute toxicity in sediments of selected USA estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.; Robertson, A.; Sloane, G.; Boswell, H.

    1995-12-31

    Acute toxicity has been measured in sediments collected during surveys of 18 estuaries in the USA. The spatial patterns, severity, and magnitude of toxicity have been determined during these surveys. Also, by weighting the toxicity data to the sizes of the sampling strata, the spatial extent of toxicity (expressed in kilometers{sup 2}) was estimated. The data from a battery of tests with different sensitivities were used to identify the relative severity of toxicity and to identify those areas that were most degraded. Accordingly, the spatial scales of toxicity within each estuary differed according to the sensitivities of the different tests. The spatial extent of toxicity measured in each standardized test was compared among different areas. For example, the results of the amphipod survival tests indicated that the spatial extent of toxicity ranged from 0.0% to over 85% among the different study areas.

  17. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity.

  18. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  19. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  20. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pinn, Melva E.; Gold, Douglas G. M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Osborn, Thomas G.; Brown, Paul D.; Miller, Robert C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity.

  1. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    PubMed

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2013-09-15

    The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4-8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na(+) followed by K(+) (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na(+) and K(+). Overall, whole body Na(+) loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis may be a common mechanism underlying the acute additive toxicity of many contaminants in fish.

  2. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products.

  3. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively. PMID:24960624

  4. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test. If the toxicity of the test substance is not already known, a range finding test should be... analyzed. (F) If the measured concentrations of dissolved test substance are considerably lower (e.g., of the test substance.......

  5. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test. If the toxicity of the test substance is not already known, a range finding test should be... analyzed. (F) If the measured concentrations of dissolved test substance are considerably lower (e.g., of the test substance.......

  6. Acute toxicity of commonly used forestry herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Vickie L; Borton, Dennis L; Streblow, William R; Louch, Jeffrey; Shepard, James P

    2012-12-01

    Because many herbicides selectively control specific species or types of vegetation, they are often applied as mixtures to achieve better control over undesirable vegetation. When herbicides are applied in forest ecosystems, streams, ponds, and other bodies of water are typically protected by buffer zones in which no herbicide is applied. However, in some landscapes, small wetlands and streams are difficult to see and avoid, thus the potential acute toxicity of herbicide mixtures to aquatic organisms is of interest, yet it has not been well-studied. We examined the acute toxicity of 23 different herbicide mixtures to Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at environmentally relevant concentrations, and, where possible, characterized mixture interactions using Marking's Additive Index. Maximum exposure concentrations were equivalent to applying the maximum allowable rate for each component directly to the surface of a 6-in. deep pond with no dissipation following application. Under the conditions of this study, herbicide formulations containing Accord Concentrate (glyphosate), Arsenal AC (imazapyr), Chopper (imazapyr), Escort (metsulfuron methyl), Oust XP (sulfometuron methyl), and Velpar L (hexazinone) were not associated with appreciable acute toxicity to fathead minnows or C. dubia when used alone or in mixtures with each other and various surfactants and adjuvants. Herbicide mixtures for which Additive Indexes could be calculated exhibited primarily antagonistic or simple additive toxicity. In the few cases where synergistic toxicity was observed, the degree of synergism was slight, never exceeding approximately twice the effect estimated based on additive toxicity. Based on the results of this study, neither acute toxicity nor enhanced acute aquatic toxicity due to synergistic mixture effects appears to be a significant concern for applications of the herbicide mixtures most commonly used in forestry.

  7. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    PubMed

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  8. A comparison of acute toxicity of biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nalissa; Warith, Mostafa A; Luk, Grace

    2007-03-01

    The increased demand of alternative energy sources has created interest in biodiesel and biodiesel blends; biodiesel is promoted as a diesel substitute that is safer, produces less harmful combustion emissions, and biodegrades more easily. Like diesel spills, biodiesel can have deleterious effects on the aquatic environments. The effect of neat biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on Oncorhynchus mykiss and Daphnia magna was evaluated using acute toxicity testing. Static nonrenewal bioassays of freshwater organisms containing B100, B50, B20, B5, and conventional diesel fuel were used to compare the acute effects of biodiesel to diesel. Mortality was the significant end point measured in this study; percent mortality and lethal concentration (LC50) at different exposure times were determined from the acute toxicity tests performed. Trials were considered valid if the controls exhibited > 90% survival. Based on percentage of mortality and LC50 values, a toxicity ranking of fuels was developed.

  9. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  10. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers. PMID:26408031

  12. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers.

  13. Acute toxicity and accumulation of zinc in the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Zinc produces acute toxicity to freshwater organisms over a range of concentrations from 90 to 58, 100..mu..g Zn/L; with the range of acute median effect concentrations being similar for freshwater fish and invertebrates. The capacity to regulate internal zinc concentrations in decapod crustaceans has been described. Studies with the crayfish Austropotambius pallipes suggested a relatively high degree of tolerance to zinc by this animal. The present study is designed to describe the toxicity of zinc to the crayfish Orconectes virilis over a 2-wk exposure period. In addition, whole animal and tissue analyses were performed on the test organisms and compared to previous results.

  14. External validation of a QSAR for the acute toxicity of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Jonsson, J. . Dept. of Organic Chemistry); Berglind, R. . NBC-Defense Research)

    1993-07-01

    The validation of the predictive capability of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a significant step toward the construction of a reliable model. This point is discussed and illustrated with data for a class of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons. For this class of compounds, a QSAR concerning their acute toxicity toward rate was recently published. This QSAR is verified in this by selecting and testing an external validation set comprising six compounds. The QSAR is also used for predicting the acute toxicity of 28 nontested members of this class.

  15. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low. PMID:20335011

  16. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  17. Acute fibrinous organising pneumonia: a manifestation of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jamous, Fady; Ayaz, Syed Zain; Choate, Jacquelyn

    2014-10-29

    A 50-year-old man was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for acute arthritis of his right big toe. Within a few days, he developed dyspnoea, hypoxaemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Symptoms improved with discontinuation of the antibiotic but worsened again with its reintroduction. An open lung biopsy was performed. We describe the workup performed and the factors that pointed to a final diagnosis of TMP-SMX-related pulmonary toxicity in the form of acute fibrinous organising pneumonia.

  18. Toward a comparative overview of dependence potential and acute toxicity of psychoactive substances used nonmedically.

    PubMed

    Gable, R S

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for comparing dependence potential and acute toxicity across a broad range of abused psychoactive substances. Tentative results, based on an extensive literature review of 20 substances, suggested that the margin of safety ("therapeutic index") varied dramatically between substances. Intravenous heroin appeared to have the greatest risk of dependence and acute lethality; oral psilocybin appeared to have the least. Hazards due to behavioral deficits, perceptual distortion, or chronic illness were not factored into the assessments.

  19. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Sonja; Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin; Sterzing, Florian; Habl, Gregor; Edler, Lutz; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  20. Inadequate Processing of Decellularized Dermal Matrix Reduces Cell Viability In Vitro and Increases Apoptosis and Acute Inflammation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Aaron H.; Chang, Julie; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Decellularized tissue scaffolds are commonly used in the clinic because they can be used as substitutes for more traditional biomaterials, while imparting additional physiological effects. Nevertheless, reports of complications associated with their use are widespread and poorly understood. This study probes possible causes of these complications by examining cell viability and apoptosis in response to eluents from decellularized dermis. Using multiple sources of decellularized dermis, this study shows that typical decellularized scaffolds (prepared with commonly used laboratory techniques, as well as purchased from commercial sources) contain soluble components that are cytotoxic and that these components can be removed by extensive washes in cell culture media. In addition, this study demonstrates that these observed in vitro phenotypes correlate with increased apoptosis and acute inflammation when implanted subcutaneously in mice. PMID:27500014

  1. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Swapnil; Nicholls, Ian A.; Karlsson, Björn C. G.; Rosengren, Annika M.; Ballabio, Davide; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER) equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. PMID:25302621

  2. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reactions, rate of onset, and length of recovery period, and may thus be extended when considered necessary... carried out. (2) Substance to be tested. Test, control, and reference substances are described in 40 CFR... produce test groups with a range of toxic effects and mortality rates. The data collected must...

  3. Acute toxicity of organic solvents on Artemia salina

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona-Gomariz, M.V.; Sanz-Barrera, F.; Sanchez-Fortun, S. )

    1994-05-01

    Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes and components of pesticide formulation. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic formulations. In laboratory bioassays, the use of organic solvents is often unavoidable, since many pesticides and organic pollutants have low water solubility and must be dissolved in organic solvents prior to addition into experimental systems. In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species are of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian test systems. Toxic effects of organic solvents have been tested with a few aquatic species, but information on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards Artemia salina is not available. Artemia salina have, within recent years, gained popularity as test organisms for short-term toxicity testing. Because Artemia salina exhibit rapid development and growth within 48 hr after hatch, their potential as a model organism for toxicology screening has been considered. To do this, synchronous populations of Artemia salina at different development intervals must be available.

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity and teratogenic effects of plant growth regulators by Daphnia magna embryo assay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lu, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2011-06-15

    This study selected common plant growth regulators (Atonik, Cytokinin, Ethephon, Gibberellic acid and Paclobutrazol) to investigate their biological toxicity to the waters of the important biological indicator Daphnia magna. The methods used in this study included traditional neonate acute toxicity test, new Daphnia embryo toxicity test, and teratogenic embryo test. The study concluded that the acute toxicity of the five PGRs to Daphnia neonate had EC(50) value range of 1.9-130.5 mg l(-1), while acute toxicity of PGRs on Daphnia embryo had EC(50) value range of 0.2-125 mg l(-1); the Daphnia embryos' LOEC values (0.05-48 mg l(-1)) for the five PGRs were lower than embryo EC(50) values. The toxic ratios of 48 h EC(50) (neonate)/48 h LOEC (embryo) for 5 PGRs were 19-512 times. The study found that teratogenic effects of Paclobutrazol and Cytokinin induced in embryo were higher than those of most other PGRs. Microscopic observation of the teratogenic effects showed that all 5 PGRs induced malformations of the second antenna, rostrum, Malpighian tube, sensory bristles, and tail spine as well as function loss and death.

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil in mallards and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) were assessed in a battery of acute and subchronic toxicity tests using mallards, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferrets, Mustela putorius. Adult mallard acute oral toxicity study results indicated no mortalities or signs o toxicity, i.e., no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and median lethal dose (LD50) > 5,000 mg/kg. Acute oral feeding and food avoidance tests with ducklings also indicated no toxicity (NOAEL and LC50 > 50,000 mg/kg diet) with no evidence of food avoidance (FAC50 > 20,000 mg/kg diet). No mortalities or toxic signs were noted in a 14-d feeding study with adult birds at dietary concentrations up to 100,000 mg WEVC/kg diet. Among clinical and physiological end points evaluated, the only significant difference noted was an increase in liver: body weight ratios in the 100,000-mg WEVC/kg diet dose group. No differences in clinical chemistry or hematological parameters were noted, and there were no consistent differences in histological evaluations of organ tissues. Daily oral doses of up to 5,000 mg/kg of WEVC over 5 d resulted in minimal effects on ferrets. Increased serum albumin concentrations were observed in the 5,000-mg/kg dose group females and decreased spleen weights were noted in females of all WEVC treatment groups. No other significant observations were noted.

  6. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: Effects on survival and blood clotting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Johnston, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was slightly toxic (acute oral LD50 2014 mg/kg) to Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in a 14-day acute toxicity trial. Precise and sensitive assays of blood clotting (prothrombin time, Russell?s Viper venom time, and thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in quail, and this combination of assays is recommended to measure the effects of anticoagulant rodenticides. A single oral sublethal dose of diphacinone (434 mg/kg body weight) prolonged clotting time at 48 h post-dose compared to controls. At 783 mg/kg (approximate LD02), clotting time was prolonged at both 24 and 48 h post-dose. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and was detected before overt signs of toxicity were apparent at the greatest dosages (2868 and 3666 mg/kg) in the acute toxicity trial. These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species.

  7. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation. PMID:24377102

  8. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  9. Acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and estrogenicity of bisphenol-A and other bisphenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Yu; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2002-02-01

    Although abundant data are available on the toxicity of bisphenol-A (2,2-bis (4-hydroxydiphenyl)propane; BPA), little is known about the toxicities of the structurally similar compounds, namely bisphenols (BPs). A variety of BPs were examined for their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna, mutagenicity, and estrogenic activity using the Daphtoxkit (Creasel Ltd.), the umu test system, and the yeast two-hybrid system, respectively, in comparison with BPA. BPA was moderately toxic to D. magna (48-h EC50 was 10 mg/l) according to the current U.S. EPA acute toxicity evaluation standard, and it was weakly estrogenic with 5 orders of magnitude lower activity than that of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol in the yeast screen, while no mutagenicity was observed. All seven BPs tested here showed moderate to slight acute toxicity, no mutagenicity, and weak estrogenic activity as well as BPA. Some of the BPs showed considerably higher estrogenic activity than BPA, and others exhibited much lower activity. Among the tested BPs, two compounds, i.e., bisphenol-S (bis(4-hydroxydiphenyl)sulfone) and bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)sulfide, have never been reported for their estrogenic activity previously.

  10. Skin substitute-assisted repair shows reduced dermal fibrosis in acute human wounds validated simultaneously by histology and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Hodgkinson, Tom; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Skin substitutes are heterogeneous biomaterials designed to accelerate wound healing through provision of replacement extracellular matrix. Despite growing evidence for their use in chronic wounds, the role of skin substitutes in acute wound management and their influence on fibrogenesis remains unclear. Skin substitute characteristics including biocompatibility, porosity, and elasticity strongly influence cellular behavior during wound healing. Thus, we hypothesize that structural and biomechanical variation between biomaterials may induce differential scar formation after cutaneous injury. The following human prospective cohort study was designed to investigate this premise. Four 5-mm full thickness punch biopsies were harvested from 50 volunteers. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), and decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3 while tissue extracted from site 4 was replaced (autograft). Healing tissue was assessed weekly with optical coherence tomography (OCT), before being excised on days 7, 14, 21, or 28 depending on study group allocation for later histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Extracted RNA was used in microarray analysis and polymerase chain reaction of highlighted genes. Autograft treatment resulted in minimal fibrosis confirmed immunohistochemically and with OCT through significantly lower collagen I levels (p = 0.047 and 0.03) and reduced mean grayscale values (p = 0.038 and 0.015), respectively. DCD developed intermediate scar formation with partial rete ridge reformation and reduced fasiculonodular fibrosis. It was uniquely associated with late up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, oncostatin M, and interleukin-10 (p = 0.007, 0.04, 0.019, 0.019). Regenerated dermis was significantly thicker in DCD and autografts 28 days post-injury compared with control and CG samples (p = 0.003 and < 0.0001). In conclusion, variable fibrotic outcomes were

  11. Skin substitute-assisted repair shows reduced dermal fibrosis in acute human wounds validated simultaneously by histology and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Iqbal, Syed A; Hodgkinson, Tom; Morris, Julie; Benatar, Brian; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Baguneid, Mohamed; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Skin substitutes are heterogeneous biomaterials designed to accelerate wound healing through provision of replacement extracellular matrix. Despite growing evidence for their use in chronic wounds, the role of skin substitutes in acute wound management and their influence on fibrogenesis remains unclear. Skin substitute characteristics including biocompatibility, porosity, and elasticity strongly influence cellular behavior during wound healing. Thus, we hypothesize that structural and biomechanical variation between biomaterials may induce differential scar formation after cutaneous injury. The following human prospective cohort study was designed to investigate this premise. Four 5-mm full thickness punch biopsies were harvested from 50 volunteers. In all cases, site 1 healed by secondary intention, site 2 was treated with collagen-GAG scaffold (CG), and decellularised dermis (DCD) was applied to site 3 while tissue extracted from site 4 was replaced (autograft). Healing tissue was assessed weekly with optical coherence tomography (OCT), before being excised on days 7, 14, 21, or 28 depending on study group allocation for later histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Extracted RNA was used in microarray analysis and polymerase chain reaction of highlighted genes. Autograft treatment resulted in minimal fibrosis confirmed immunohistochemically and with OCT through significantly lower collagen I levels (p = 0.047 and 0.03) and reduced mean grayscale values (p = 0.038 and 0.015), respectively. DCD developed intermediate scar formation with partial rete ridge reformation and reduced fasiculonodular fibrosis. It was uniquely associated with late up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, oncostatin M, and interleukin-10 (p = 0.007, 0.04, 0.019, 0.019). Regenerated dermis was significantly thicker in DCD and autografts 28 days post-injury compared with control and CG samples (p = 0.003 and < 0.0001). In conclusion, variable fibrotic outcomes were

  12. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  13. Correlations of acute toxicity of metal ions and the covalent/ionic character of their bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Jacobson, K.B.; Hingerty, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have investigated correlations between physicochemical properties of 24 metal ions and their acute toxicity in mice and Drosophila. A high correlation for a softness parameter suggests that the relative covalent/ionic character of the bonds formed by the metal ions may be important in determining their toxicity. This hypothesis is reinforced by model calculations of metal binding to dinucleotides in water. Since the nature of bonds depends on ligand electronegativity, we searched for correlations involving this parameter. Although electronegativity is useful for interpreting some aspects of metal-ion behavior related to toxicity, it does not yield improved correlations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Reliability of Quantitative Ultrasonic Assessment of Normal-Tissue Toxicity in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Emi J.; Chen Hao; Torres, Mylin; Andic, Fundagul; Liu Haoyang; Chen Zhengjia; Sun, Xiaoyan; Curran, Walter J.; Liu Tian

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: We have recently reported that ultrasound imaging, together with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC), can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal-tissue toxicity. This study's purpose is to evaluate the reliability of our quantitative ultrasound technology in assessing acute and late normal-tissue toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy. Method and Materials: Our ultrasound technique analyzes radiofrequency echo signals and provides quantitative measures of dermal, hypodermal, and glandular tissue toxicities. To facilitate easy clinical implementation, we further refined this technique by developing a semiautomatic ultrasound-based toxicity assessment tool (UBTAT). Seventy-two ultrasound studies of 26 patients (720 images) were analyzed. Images of 8 patients were evaluated for acute toxicity (<6 months postradiotherapy) and those of 18 patients were evaluated for late toxicity ({>=}6 months postradiotherapy). All patients were treated according to a standard radiotherapy protocol. To assess intraobserver reliability, one observer analyzed 720 images in UBTAT and then repeated the analysis 3 months later. To assess interobserver reliability, three observers (two radiation oncologists and one ultrasound expert) each analyzed 720 images in UBTAT. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability. Ultrasound assessment and clinical evaluation were also compared. Results: Intraobserver ICC was 0.89 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.96 for glandular tissue toxicity. Interobserver ICC was 0.78 for dermal toxicity, 0.74 for hypodermal toxicity, and 0.94 for glandular tissue toxicity. Statistical analysis found significant changes in dermal (p < 0.0001), hypodermal (p = 0.0027), and glandular tissue (p < 0.0001) assessments in the acute toxicity group. Ultrasound measurements correlated with clinical Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity scores of patients

  15. Acute tellurium toxicity from ingestion of metal-oxidizing solutions.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Mark C; Curry, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    Tellurium is an element used in the vulcanization of rubber and in metal-oxidizing solutions to blacken or tarnish metals. Descriptions of human toxicity from tellurium ingestion are rare. We report the clinical course of 2 children who ingested metal-oxidizing solutions containing substantial concentrations of tellurium. Clinical features included vomiting, black discoloration of the oral mucosa, and a garlic odor to the breath. One patient developed corrosive injury to the esophagus secondary to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution. Both patients recovered without serious sequelae, which is typical of tellurium toxicity. An awareness of situations in which children may be exposed to tellurium and its clinical presentation may assist clinicians in the diagnosis of this rare poisoning. PMID:15995006

  16. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  18. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  19. Correlation Between Acute and Late Toxicity in 973 Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Three-Dimensional Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Zerini, Dario; Fodor, Cristiana

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the correlation between acute and late injury in 973 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and to evaluate the effect of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related variables on toxicity. Methods and Materials: Of the 973 patients, 542 and 431 received definitive or postprostatectomy radiotherapy, respectively. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy included a six-field technique and two-dynamic arc therapy. Toxicity was classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. The correlation between acute and late toxicity (incidence and severity) was assessed. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that age {<=}65 years (p = .06) and use of the three-dimensional, six-field technique (p <.0001) correlated significantly with greater acute rectal toxicity. The three-dimensional, six-field technique (p = .0002), dose >70 Gy (p = .014), and radiotherapy duration (p = .05) correlated with greater acute urinary toxicity. Acute rectal toxicity (p <.0001) was the only factor that correlated with late rectal injury on multivariate analysis. Late urinary toxicity correlated with acute urinary events (p <.0001) and was inversely related to the use of salvage radiotherapy (p = .018). A highly significant correlation was found between the incidence of acute and late events for both rectal (p <.001) and urinary (p <.001) reactions. The severity of acute toxicity (Grade 2 or greater) was predictive for the severity of late toxicity for both rectal and urinary events (p <.001). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the risk of acute reactions depends on both patient-related (age) and treatment-related (dose, technique) factors. Acute toxicity was an independent significant predictor of late toxicity. These findings might help to predict and prevent late radiotherapy-induced complications.

  20. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements.

    PubMed

    Breyre, Amelia; Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Use of traditional folkloric remedies not disclosed to the physician may be difficult to identify as a source of lead toxicity. This report illustrates the presentation of a 26-year-old man who, during his 1 month vacation in India, was treated for low back pain with Ayurvedic herbal medicine. On his return to the USA, he presented to the emergency department with epigastric pain, weight loss, dark stools, nausea and vomiting. He was admitted and noted to be anaemic with a blood lead level (BLL) of 94.8 µg/dL. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated basophilic stippling. Chelation therapy with succimer was initiated. The patient became asymptomatic within months. Three years later, he remained asymptomatic with BLL <20 µg/dL. Physicians should be cognisant of potential toxicity from these Ayurvedic medications and have a heightened level of suspicion for lead toxicity in the face of anaemia and abdominal pain without obvious cause. PMID:27364782

  1. Acute toxicity screening of sediments utilizing Chydorus sphaericus

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.G.S.; Crisman, T.; Bitton, G.; Delfino, J.

    1997-08-01

    Out of over 165 species of organisms that have been proposed for use in toxicity bioassays only a few are invertebrates and even fewer have ever been cultured in the laboratory. Many of the invertebrates that have been applied in sediment toxicity tests are not benthic organisms and possess few characteristics of the ideal sediment bioassay organism. Some tests species have limited ecological ranges; some may not be widely available for testing and many are not easily maintained in the laboratory. In addition, some traditional sediment toxicity tests utilize organisms that spend no part or only part of their life cycle in contact with sediment constituents, and therefore lack, in some degree, ecological relevance. The study reported involved the development and evaluation of a 48-hour lethality bioassay employing the benthic cladoceran, Chydorus sphaericus. The bioassay is ecologically relevant because the test organism is ubiquitous and it lives associated with sediments in freshwater aquatic environments. The bioassay was evaluated by direct comparison with standard bioassays using sediment samples collected from hazardous waste sites in Florida.

  2. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Artola-Garicano, Elsa; Sinnige, Theo L; van Holsteijn, Ineke; Vaes, Wouter H J; Hermens, Joop L M

    2003-05-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benthic organisms. Polycyclic musks are frequently used fragrances, and they have been detected in different compartments of the environment. The aim of this study was to fill some empirical data gaps for AHTN and HHCB for benthic organisms. Results show that differences exist between both organisms. Chironomus riparius exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for AHTN and HHCB substantially lower than predicted for nontransformed organics. The BCFs for both chemicals increased after coexposure of the organism to the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide. Thus, the low BCF values were the result of rapid biotransformation of AHTN and HHCB in the midge larvae. Bioconcentration kinetics indicated that both chemicals induced their own cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Acute toxicity of AHTN to midge larvae was reduced compared to predicted baseline toxicity and was similar for HHCB. Bioconcentration of AHTN and HHCB in the worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) is in agreement with predictions based on the octanol-water partition coefficients of these chemicals. Acute toxicity was found to be similar to predicted values for baseline toxicity. Summarizing, for AHTN and HHCB, acute toxicity and bioconcentration behavior in L. variegatus was in accordance with predicted data for nontransformed organics. In C. riparius, bioconcentration as well as toxicity were reduced.

  3. Acute toxicities of five commonly used antifouling booster biocides to selected subtropical and cosmopolitan marine species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lam, Michael H W

    2011-05-01

    Since 1990s, various booster biocides have been increasingly used as substitutes of organotins. However, knowledge about their toxicities on tropical/sub-tropical marine species is significantly lacking. This study comprehensively investigated the acute toxicities of copper, tributyltin (TBT), and five commonly used booster biocides including Irgarol, diuron, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), copper pyrithione (CuPT) and chlorothalonil on the growth or survival of 12 marine species in which eight of them are native species of subtropical Hong Kong. We found that Irgarol was more toxic than TBT on the growth of autotrophic species. The toxicity of CuPT was comparable to that of TBT on almost all test species, while it showed higher toxicity than TBT on medaka fish larvae. As the usage of these biocides is expected to further increase worldwide, accurate assessments of their ecological risks are required for better informed decision on their management. This study provided useful datasets for such purposes. PMID:21420693

  4. Primary chemical and physical characterization of acute toxic components in wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Svenson, A.; Linlin, Z.; Kaj, L. )

    1992-10-01

    A chemical and physical primary characterization work sheet was developed based on the Microtox test, a bacterial bioluminescence system used as a rapid estimate of acute aquatic toxic effects. Measurements of the variation in light reduction upon different pretreatments provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the main toxic component(s) in test wastewater samples. This primary characterization of a wastewater sample was performed within 1 day. Tests of pure toxic chemical compounds and wastewaters with known and unknown primary toxicants are presented. Outlines to the chemical analysis and identification of toxic components may be deduced from the primary characterization. The provisional characterization may also provide information on wastewater treatment techniques.

  5. Evaluation of electric arc furnace-processed steel slag for dermal corrosion, irritation, and sensitization from dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Troese, Matthew J; Hall, Debra A; Yasso, Blair; Yzenas, John J; Proctor, Debora M

    2014-12-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag is alkaline (pH of ~11-12) and contains metals, most notably chromium and nickel, and thus has potential to cause dermal irritation and sensitization at sufficient dose. Dermal contact with EAF slag occurs in many occupational and environmental settings because it is used widely in construction and other industrial sectors for various applications including asphaltic paving, road bases, construction fill, and as feed for cement kilns construction. However, no published study has characterized the potential for dermal effects associated with EAF slag. To assess dermal irritation, corrosion and sensitizing potential of EAF slag, in vitro and in vivo dermal toxicity assays were conducted based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. In vitro dermal corrosion and irritation testing (OECD 431 and 439) of EAF slag was conducted using the reconstructed human epidermal (RHE) tissue model. In vivo dermal toxicity and delayed contact sensitization testing (OECD 404 and 406) were conducted in rabbits and guinea pigs, respectively. EAF slag was not corrosive and not irritating in any tests. The results of the delayed contact dermal sensitization test indicate that EAF slag is not a dermal sensitizer. These findings are supported by the observation that metals in EAF slag occur as oxides of low solubility with leachates that are well below toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits. Based on these results and in accordance to the OECD guidelines, EAF slag is not considered a dermal sensitizer, corrosive or irritant.

  6. Evaluation of single and joint toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and zinc to Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri: Acute toxicity, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaoqin; Qu, Ruijuan; Yan, Liqing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-01-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and zinc have been detected in aquatic environment widely. In order to study the combined effects of PFOS and Zn, a series of experiments was conducted to explore the acute mortality, bioaccumulation and antioxidant status of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. The acute toxicity was evaluated by calculating 24h-EC50 values, and it was observed that 24h-EC50 values in single and joint treatments decreased with decreasing pH value or increasing exposure concentration. Toxic unit analysis suggested that the combined effects of the PFOS+Zn binary mixture were mostly simple addition, with 8 groups showing synergism and only one group showing antagonism. The analysis of internal Zn and PFOS concentration showed that the possible interaction between Zn and PFOS can affect the bioaccumulation of the two chemicals in L. hoffmeisteri. In addition, oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring oxidation-related biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, and the integrated biomarker response index was estimated to rank the toxicity order. Exposures to Zn and PFOS were found to evoke some changes in the antioxidant defense system, and a strong self-adaptive ability was noticed for L. hoffmeisteri after 10 d exposure.

  7. WEB-BASED INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (WEB-ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY: USER MANUAL V2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive toxicological models are integral to environmental risk Assessment where data for most species are limited. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) models are least square regressions that predict acute toxicity (LC50/LD50) of a chemical to a species, ...

  8. Studies on the acute toxicity of fluoride ion to stickleback, fathead minnow, and rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.; Holsen, T.M.; Ibay, N.C.; Block, R.M.; De Leon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have studied the acute toxicity of fluoride ion to Gasterosteus aculeatus, Fimephales promelas, and juvenile Salmo gairdneri. LC50 values varied with species and (due to precipitation) initial water hardness. Exposure to elevated fluoride levels in water resulted in increased blood fluoride levels in Salmo gairdneri.

  9. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  10. Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity associated with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nkanyezi N; Asarch, Adam; VanBeek, Marta; Swick, Brian L

    2013-06-01

    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity is not classically associated with prominent tissue eosinophilia. We present a case of acute methotrexate toxicity associated with pancytopenia and mucocutaneous erosion with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. A 79-year-old male, with a history of psoriasis vulgaris on methotrexate therapy, presented with blisters of the oral mucosa, groin, sacrum, and extremities after daily consumption of methotrexate. Examination revealed blisters and erosions localized to psoriatic plaques, the perineum, and the oral mucosa. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated pancytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, and elevated liver function tests. A skin biopsy of an eroded plaque revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia with epidermal erosion, parakeratosis, and loss of the granular cell layer. There was an underlying band-like lymphoid infiltrate with interface dermatitis, dyskeratotic keratinocytes, and numerous eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence studies were negative for the deposition of immunoreactants. Methotrexate was held, and the patient received leucovorin resulting in improvement of blood counts and cutaneous lesions. The histopathologic changes associated with acute mucocutaneous toxicity have been described as pauci-inflammatory erosions associated with dyskeratotic keratinocytes to interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes and occasionally associated eosinophils. Although these changes are most often superimposed on psoriatic plaques, they have been reported to occur on normal skin. Therefore, the differential diagnosis may include lichen planus, a lichenoid drug eruption, or a fixed drug eruption, and given the presence of mucosal ulceration, incipient pemphigus vulgaris or paraneoplastic pemphigus vulgaris. This case illustrates that acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity may be associated with both interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. PMID:23221488

  11. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  12. Partial Life-Cycle and Acute Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids to Freshwater Mussels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24–96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glo...

  13. AGE-RELATED TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental exposures is poorly understood. To investigate-the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of an acute exposure to the volatile organic compound, toluene (0.0 or 1.0 g/kg), i...

  14. EXTRAPOLATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AMONG AQUATIC SPECIES BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation provides inter-species QSARs for acute toxicity to ciliates, fish and daphnia...The inter-species QSARs can be also useful in the analysis of the relative species sensitivity to a variety of pollutants and will be useful in assisting in risk assessments of potential ...

  15. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exposure and to characterize toxicologic response following acute high exposures. The latter is of... pulmonary toxicity by examining biochemical and cytologic endpoints of material from the lungs of animals... additional functional and morphological evaluations may be necessary to assess completely the...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure and to characterize toxicologic response following acute high exposures. The latter is of... pulmonary toxicity by examining biochemical and cytologic endpoints of material from the lungs of animals... additional functional and morphological evaluations may be necessary to assess completely the...

  18. Acute toxicity of selenium compounds commonly found in selenium-accumulator plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) accumulating plants, such as Astragalus spp. and Aster spp., can accumulate up to 8,000 to 13,000 ppm selenium and can cause acute toxicity when consumed by livestock or wildlife. Recent research has shown that much of the selenium in some Se-accumulating plants is stored as selenate ...

  19. Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...

  20. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of... detailed microscopic examination to identify adverse effects of chemical substances on this organ system... histopathologic lesions, body weight changes, effects on mortality, and any other toxic effects. These acute...

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of lead in water and diet to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of waterborne and dietary lead (Pb) exposure on the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Test solutions were generated by a modified diluter with an extended (24-h) equilibration period. Acute (96-h) toxicity of Pb varied with water hardness in the range of 71 to 275 mg/L as CaCO3, despite similar dissolved Pb concentrations. Acute toxicity was greatest in soft test water, with less than 50% survival at the lowest dissolved Pb concentration (151 ??g/L). Survival also was significantly reduced in medium-hardness water but not in hard test water. In chronic (42-d) studies, amphipods were exposed to waterborne Pb and fed either a control diet or a diet equilibrated with waterborne Pb levels. For animals fed the control diet, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Pb was 24 ??g/L (as dissolved Pb), and significant reductions in survival occurred at 16 ??g/L. Exposure to Pb-treated diets significantly increased toxicity across a wide range of dissolved Pb concentrations, with a LC50 of 16 ??g/L and significant reductions in growth and reproduction at 3.5 ??g/L. Significant effects on growth and reproduction occurred at dissolved Pb concentrations close to the current U.S. chronic water-quality criterion. Our results suggest that both aqueous- and dietary-exposure pathways contribute significantly to chronic Pb exposure and toxic effects in aquatic biota. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  2. A summary of the acute toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to representative aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, W.J.; Biddinger, G.R.; Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Acute aquatic toxicity studies were performed with 14 commercial phthalate esters and representative freshwater and marine species. The 14 esters were dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; butyl benzyl phthalate; dihexyl phthalate; butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate; di-(n-hexy, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate; di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; diisooctyl phthalate; diisononyl phthalate; di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate; diisodecyl phthalate; diundecyl phthalate; and ditridecyl phthalate. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of four carbon atoms or fewer were determined to be actually toxic at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 377 mg/L depending on the ester and the solubility of the test chemical in water. Three was a general trend for the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters (C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl chain lengths: dimethyl phthalate; diethyl phthalate; di-n-butyl phthalate; and butyl benzyl phthalate) to become more toxic with decreasing water solubility for all species tested. There were only minor differences in species sensitivity to each of the phthalate esters. Phthalate esters with alkyl chain lengths of six carbon atoms or more were not acutely toxic at concentrations approaching their respective aqueous solubilities. Insufficient mortality occurred to calculate either LC50 or EC50 values or acute no-observed-effect concentrations for these higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters. The lack of toxicity observed for the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters resulted from their limited water solubility ({le}1.1 mg/L).

  3. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. PMID:22440551

  4. Toxicological assessment of combined lead and cadmium: acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guiping; Dai, Shujun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lu, Hongke; Jia, Renyong; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Shu, Yang; Zhao, Xinghong

    2014-03-01

    The exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and receives concern for their introduction by inhalation and ingestion. However, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to understand the health effects of chemical mixtures compared with single chemicals. In this study, the acute and 90day sub-chronic toxicity tests of combined Pb and Cd were conducted. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 value of Pb(NO3)2 and CdCl2 mixture by the oral route was 2696.54mg/kg by Bliss method. The sub-chronic treatment revealed that the low-dose combination of Pb and Cd exposures can significantly change the physiological and biochemical parameters of the blood of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with dose-response relationship and causes microcytic hypochromic anemia and the damages of liver and kidney of the SD rats to various degrees. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of Pb and Cd were testicle, liver, and kidneys. These observations suggest that Pb and Cd are practically additive-toxic for the SD rats in oral acute toxicity studies. The lowest observed adverse-effect level in rats may be lower than a dose of 29.96mg/(kgbwday) when administered orally for 90 consecutive days.

  5. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.

  6. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Methods (ICCVAM), is planning to convene an independent scientific peer review panel (Panel) to assess the... (2008-2012): A Plan to Advance Alternative Test Methods of High Scientific Quality to Protect and...), National Institutes of Health (NIH), HHS. ACTION: Request for Data; Request for Nominations of...

  7. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  8. Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, K. S.; Sri Nurestri, A. M.; Sinniah, S. K.; Kim, K. H.; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. PMID:20548939

  9. [Synthesis of new mandelic acid derivatives with preservative action. Synthesis and acute toxicity study].

    PubMed

    Stan, Cătălina; Năstase, V; Pavelescu, M; Vasile, Cornelia; Dumitrache, M; Gherase, Florenţa; Năstasă, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the antiseptic action of DL mandelic acid, there were synthesized a series of esters of the mandelic acid, esters which could have preservative action. This study present the synthesis, structure validation and the acute toxicity study, for the new synthesized compounds. The esters were obtained by acylating 4-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl, ethyl, methyl esters and salicylic acid with the DL mandelic chloride (that was protected initially by the hydroxylic group). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by quantitative elemental analysis and RMN 1H spectral measurements. The acute toxicity was determined for two of the esters, who proved to had a preservative action (previously studied) and indicated that these esters have a small toxicity.

  10. Prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals in mixtures: worms Tubifex tubifex and gas/liquid distribution.

    PubMed

    Tichý, M; Borek-Dohalský, V; Matousová, D; Rucki, M; Feltl, L; Roth, Z

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this contribution is to support our proposal of the procedure for predicting acute toxicity of binary mixtures by QSAR analysis techniques. The changes of a mixture composition are described by molar ratio R and visualized in the R-plot (QCAR--quantitative composition-activity relationships). The approach was inspired by Rault and Dalton's laws, their positive and negative deviations in the behavior of a mixture of real gases, by Loewe and Muischnek isoboles and by the Finney test of additivity. Acute toxicity was determined by the laboratory test with woms Tubifex tubifex. The additivity of the acute toxicity in the binary mixture benzene + nitrobenzene was confirmed and a new interaction is described: "mixed interaction" with the binary mixture aniline + ethanol. The "mixed interaction" means that depending on mixture composition, both potentiation and inhibition can occur. As the first physicochemical descriptor of the changes caused by the changing composition of binary mixtures, the gas/liquid equilibrium was studied and a composition of the gaseous phase was determined by a gas chromatographic method. The method for determination of concentrations in the gaseous phase was described. The gaseous phase composition of benzene + nitrobenzene. benzene + ethanol, benzene + aniline and ethanol + aniline mixtures was analyzed. It was found that if the concentrations of the mixture's components in the gaseous phase behave nonideally (they are not additive), the acute toxicity of the same mixture is not additive as well. Another descriptor to distinguish between potentiation and inhibition will be, however, necessary. The properties, both gaseous phase composition and the acute toxicity, of the benzene + nitrobenzene mixture are additive. In mixtures with the mixed interaction, the R-plot of the composition of the gaseous phase is complex with a large variation of results.

  11. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    PubMed

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios.

  12. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  13. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P < 0.05). Biochemical analysis of animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  17. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  18. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Swapnil; Friedman, Ran; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS)) database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50)-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL). We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77%) and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74%) to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity. PMID:26006240

  19. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity.

  20. Metallothionein does not sequester arsenic(III) ions in condition of acute arsenic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Ganger, Renuka; Mohanty, Biraja P; Verma, Shivcharan; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2016-07-29

    The major cause of toxicity of trivalent arsenicals is due to their interaction with the sulfhydryl groups in proteins. Because of its high content, Metallothionein (MT) provides one of the most favorable conditions for the binding of As(III) ions to it. MT has long been anticipated for providing resistance in case of arsenic (As) toxicity with similar mechanism as in case of cadmium toxicity. The present study investigates whether the sequestration of As ions by MT is one of the mechanisms in providing protection against acute arsenic toxicity. A rat model study on the metal stoichiometric analysis of MT1 isoform isolated from the liver of arsenic treated, untreated and zinc treated animals has been carried out using the combination of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results revealed the absence of arsenic bound MT1 in the samples isolated from arsenic treated animals. Although, both Cu and Zn ions were present in MT1 samples isolated from all the treatment groups. Moreover, only partially metallated MT1 with varying number of Zn ions were observed in all the groups. These results suggest that the role of MT during acute arsenic toxicity is different from its already established role in case of cadmium toxicity. PMID:27523482

  1. The Acute Toxicity of Tannic Acid Administered Intragastrically

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eldon M.

    1965-01-01

    The LD50 ± S.E. of tannic acid given orally to albino rats was found to be 2.26±0.083 g. per kg. body weight, which is higher than its apparent LD50 when given per rectum. The immediate cause of death was respiratory failure preceded by convulsions when death occurred early and by hypothermic cachexia when death was delayed. Death was associated with a progressively developing hepatic necrosis and nephritis and a temporary acute gastroenteritis. It was accompanied by loss of weight and edema in many organs, evidence of stimulation of the spleen, adrenal cortex and testes, and atrophy of the thymus. Recovery in survivors was associated with a temporary increase in weight of the spleen and testes and persistence of loss of weight in the adrenal, pyloric stomach, and skin. PMID:14291458

  2. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Li; SHAO, Wei-Wei; DING, Guo-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; YU, Miao-Ling; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas. PMID:25017745

  3. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-05-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver.

  4. Tigriopus fulvus: The interlaboratory comparison of the acute toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Faraponova, Olga; Giacco, Elisabetta; Biandolino, Francesca; Prato, Ermelinda; Del Prete, Francesco; Valenti, Alessandra; Sarcina, Stefania; Pasteris, Andrea; Montecavalli, Adele; Comin, Stefano; Cesca, Claudia; Francese, Marco; Cigar, Monica; Piazza, Veronica; Falleni, Fabrizio; Lacchetti, Ines

    2016-02-01

    The paper reports the results of an interlaboratory comparison involving 11 laboratories, with the objectives of apply and validate a new standardized ecotoxicological method on marine crustacean Tigriopus fulvus. Copper was chosen as reference toxicant as indicated in the official method. The results of two independent tests performed by all the participants, demonstrated that the new method is simple, fast and easy to learn. This is confirmed even by the values of z-score index calculated for each laboratory and the relative coefficient of variation (CV) which are 6.32% after 24h, 6.56 after 48h and 35.3% after 96h, mentioned in the ISO standards for the precision of interlaboratory assays. Therefore its use could be recommended in environmental studies and monitoring. PMID:26584461

  5. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV<30%) for most chemicals and laboratories. The reproducibility was lower (CV>30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes.

  6. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2014-04-01

    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  7. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds.

  8. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  9. Development of a salinity/toxicity relationship to predict acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms. Interim final report, June 1990-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Gulley, D.D.

    1992-04-01

    Discharge of produced water to surface waters is generally regulated as part of the NPDES permit problem and, therefore, may be subject to discharge limits for aquatic toxicity. Most produced waters contain elevated (relative to fresh water) concentrations of major ions (e.g., sodium, chloride) that can be toxic to fresh water organisms regardless of other organic and inorganic constituents. The objective of the research was to develop a Salinity/Toxicity Relationship (STR) that predicts the acute toxicity of saline waters to freshwater organisms based on the concentrations of major ions in solution. Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to measure the acute toxicity of major ions to three freshwater species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and fathead minnows). These laboratory toxicity data were then incorporated into multi-variate logistic regression equations that predict the acute toxicity of any combination of major ions. Logistic regression equations represented the toxicity data quite well, generally explaining in excess of 80 percent of the overall variance in survival. Application of the Ceriodaphnia STR to field data collected from surface waters receiving produced water discharges showed very strong correlation of STR predictions with the results of toxicity tests conducted on field-collected samples.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  11. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Darsana, R; Chandrasehar, G; Deepa, V; Gowthami, Y; Chitrikha, T; Ayyappan, S; Goparaju, A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95% confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L(-1), respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L(-1). Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea. PMID:26350898

  12. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    PubMed

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  13. Mitigation of acute toxicity of coal-derived liquids by hydrotreatment. [Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Dumont, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Acute toxicity of 12 coal-derived liquids representing 3 different technologies and 4 different severities of hydrotreatment has been examined with the Tetrahymena population growth bioassay. Tetrahymena were exposed to various concentrations of the organic materials and growth impairment was monitored. In addition, analyses of the major organic elements in the coal liquids are presented. Coal-derived liquids have a greater heteroatom and aromatic content than do natural crude oils. Hydrotreatment, the catalytic addition of hydrogen, concomitantly reduces toxicity as well as heteroatom content and aromaticity. Regression analysis of log toxicity vs. % weight of the major organic elements suggests hydrogen content may be a good indicator of relative toxicity of coal-derived liquids.

  14. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control.

  15. Assessment of acute toxicity of carbofuran in Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) at different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Edison; Moreira, Priscila; Luchini, Luiz Alberto; Hidalgo, Karla Ruiz; Muñoz, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate; C12H15NO3) is one of the most toxic carbamate pesticides. For acute toxicity of carbofuran, juveniles of Macrobrachium olfersii were exposed to different concentrations of carbofuran using the static renewal method at different temperature levels (15, 20 and 25°C) at pH 7.0. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of carbofuran to M. olfersii and investigate its effects on oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion; these tests have not been carried out in this species before. First, the acute toxicity - median lethal concentration - of carbofuran to M. olfersii for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h was examined, which resulted in the following values: 1.64, 1.22, 0.86 and 0.42 mg L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we also found that carbofuran caused an inhibition in oxygen consumption of 60.6, 65.3 and 66.2% with respect to the control. In addition, after separate exposures to carbofuran, elevations in ammonium excretion were more than 500% with respect to the control. PMID:23847016

  16. Nrf2-dependent protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Yuji; Nguyen, Vu Thanh; Kobayashi, Makoto

    2016-08-15

    Transcription factor Nrf2 induces a number of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins to confer protection against the toxic effects of a diverse range of chemicals including inorganic arsenicals. Although a number of studies using cultured cells have demonstrated that Nrf2 has a cell-protective function against acute and high-dose arsenic toxicity, there is no clear in vivo evidence of this effect. In the present study, we genetically investigated the protective role of Nrf2 against acute sodium arsenite toxicity using the zebrafish Nrf2 mutant, nrf2a(fh318). After treatment with 1mM sodium arsenite, the survival of nrf2a(fh318) larvae was significantly shorter than that of wild-type siblings, suggesting that Nrf2 protected the zebrafish larvae against high-dose arsenite exposure. To understand the molecular basis of the Nrf2-dependent protection, we analyzed the gene expression profiles after arsenite exposure, and found that the genes involved in the antioxidative function (prdx1 and gclc), arsenic metabolism (gstp1) and xenobiotic elimination (abcc2) were induced in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Furthermore, pre-treatment with sulforaphane, a well-known Nrf2 activator improved the survival of zebrafish larvae after arsenic exposure. Based on these results, we concluded that Nrf2 plays a fundamental and conserved role in protection against acute sodium arsenite toxicity.

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of six anticancer drugs on rotifers and crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Fiumano, Vittorio; Isidori, Marina

    2014-11-01

    The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mgL(-)(1), higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil showed the highest toxic potential in all test organisms, inducing 50% reproduction inhibition in crustaceans at concentrations on the order of μgL(-)(1). Rotifers were less susceptible to these pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low effective concentrations suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study could be an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances.

  18. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10mg/kg BW for 4weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140nm and -44mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p<0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. PMID:27612832

  19. Acute toxicity of vipoxin and its components: is the acidic component an "inhibitor" of PLA2 toxicity?

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Vasil N; Stoykova, Silviya; Goranova, Yana; Mitewa, Mariana; Petrova, Svetla

    2012-12-01

    Vipoxin is a heterodimeric neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Bulgarian long-nosed viper Vipera ammodytes meridionalis. Vipoxin represents a noncovalent association of two subunits - a basic and toxic phospholipase A2 enzyme, and an acidic non-enzymatic component (vipoxin's acidic component). It was postulated that the phospholipase A2 subunit was more toxic than the whole vipoxin complex and the function of the acidic component was to reduce the enzymatic and toxic activities of the basic phospholipase A2. In the present study, we report new data on the acute toxicity (LD50) of vipoxin and its individual separated components. Vipoxin LD50 (mice, i.p. and i.v.) values were found to be 0.7-1.2 mg/kg b.w. (i.p.) and 0.9-1.3 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.). The established LD50 values for the separated pure phospholipase A2 subunit are higher - 10.0-13.0 mg/kg b.w (i.p.) and 2.2-3.0 mg/kg b.w. (i.v.), i.e. the individual phospholipase A2 subunit displays less toxic activity than vipoxin, contrary to the data published in the literature. The reconstituted vipoxin complex (obtained after preliminary incubation of pure separated phospholipase A2 and acidic component showed enzyme activity and toxicity comparable to that of the native vipoxin complex. Addition of acidic component to the phospholipase A2 subunit showed a positive effect on the enzymatic activity, reaching maximal enzyme reaction rate of acidic component to phospholipase A2 molar ratio of 0.8:1 on using 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid as substrate. For the first time we showed that the acidic subunit was absolutely required for the toxic activity of vipoxin. Based on the obtained results, we assume that the function of the acidic component is to stabilize the neurotoxin's quaternary structure, required for its toxic and enzymatic activities, similarly to the role of the acidic component of crotoxin. PMID:23554559

  20. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  1. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, P H; Cook, L L; Dean, K F; Reiter, L W

    1983-04-01

    Motor activity and neuromotor function were examined in adult CD rats exposed to either carbaryl or propoxur, and behavioral effects were compared with the time course of cholinesterase inhibition. Rats received an IP injection of either 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 mg/kg propoxur or 0, 4, 8, 16 or 28 mg/kg carbaryl in corn oil 20 min before testing. All doses of propoxur reduced 2 hr activity in a figure-eight maze, and crossovers and rears in an open field. For carbaryl, dosages of 8, 16 and 28 mg/kg decreased maze activity whereas 16 and 28 mg/kg reduced open field activity. In order to determine the time course of effects, rats received a single IP injection of either corn oil, 2 mg/kg propoxur or 16 mg/kg carbaryl, and were tested for 5 min in a figure-eight maze either 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 min post-injection. Immediately after testing, animals were sacrificed and total cholinesterase was measured. Maximum effects of propoxur and carbaryl on blood and brain cholinesterase and motor activity were seen within 15 min. Maze activity had returned to control levels within 30 and 60 min whereas cholinesterase levels remained depressed for 120 and 240 min for propoxur and carbaryl, respectively. These results indicate that both carbamates decrease motor activity, but behavioral recovery occurs prior to that of cholinesterase following acute exposure.

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota. PMID:27448754

  3. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rat using local lazy learning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute toxicity means the ability of a substance to cause adverse effects within a short period following dosing or exposure, which is usually the first step in the toxicological investigations of unknown substances. The median lethal dose, LD50, is frequently used as a general indicator of a substance’s acute toxicity, and there is a high demand on developing non-animal-based prediction of LD50. Unfortunately, it is difficult to accurately predict compound LD50 using a single QSAR model, because the acute toxicity may involve complex mechanisms and multiple biochemical processes. Results In this study, we reported the use of local lazy learning (LLL) methods, which could capture subtle local structure-toxicity relationships around each query compound, to develop LD50 prediction models: (a) local lazy regression (LLR): a linear regression model built using k neighbors; (b) SA: the arithmetical mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (c) SR: the weighted mean of the activities of k nearest neighbors; (d) GP: the projection point of the compound on the line defined by its two nearest neighbors. We defined the applicability domain (AD) to decide to what an extent and under what circumstances the prediction is reliable. In the end, we developed a consensus model based on the predicted values of individual LLL models, yielding correlation coefficients R2 of 0.712 on a test set containing 2,896 compounds. Conclusion Encouraged by the promising results, we expect that our consensus LLL model of LD50 would become a useful tool for predicting acute toxicity. All models developed in this study are available via http://www.dddc.ac.cn/admetus. PMID:24959207

  4. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were <45 microg Cu/L or <12 mg N/L and were often at or below the final acute values (FAVs) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 acute water quality criterion (WQC) for copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    PubMed

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  6. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  7. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (p<0.05). The experimental results for mixtures containing unequal ratios of IBU and APAP indicated that mixtures with high APAP concentrations and low IBU concentrations exhibited markedly greater toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=4.78 mg/L) than APAP or IBU alone. However, mixtures with high IBU concentrations and low APAP concentrations exhibited lower toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=6.78 mg/L) than IBU or APAP alone. This study demonstrated that different mixtures of IBU and APAP were associated with different toxic effects in green neon shrimp. PMID:24860956

  8. Acute toxicity of mixture of acetaminophen and ibuprofen to Green Neon Shrimp, Neocaridina denticulate.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-Hung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Wang, Shu-Yin; Chen, Chien-Min; Huang, Da-Ji

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have indicated that various long-term use drugs, such as antibiotics or analgesics, not only cannot be completely decomposed via sewage treatment but also exhibit biological toxicity if they enter the environment; thus, the release of these drugs into the environment can damage ecological systems. This study sought to investigate the acute toxicity of two commonly utilized analgesics, ibuprofen (IBU) and acetaminophen (APAP), to aquatic organisms after these drugs have entered the water. To address this objective, the acute toxicity (median lethal concentration, LC₅₀, for a 96-h exposure) of IBU alone, APAP alone, and mixtures containing different ratios of IBU and APAP in green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata) were measured. The results of four tests revealed that the 96-h LC₅₀ values for IBU and APAP alone were 6.07 mg/L and 6.60 mg/L, respectively. The 96-h LC₅₀ for a 1:1 mixture of IBU and APAP was 6.23 mg/L, and the toxicity of this mixture did not significantly differ from the toxicity of either drug alone (p<0.05). The experimental results for mixtures containing unequal ratios of IBU and APAP indicated that mixtures with high APAP concentrations and low IBU concentrations exhibited markedly greater toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=4.78 mg/L) than APAP or IBU alone. However, mixtures with high IBU concentrations and low APAP concentrations exhibited lower toxicity in N. denticulata (LC₅₀=6.78 mg/L) than IBU or APAP alone. This study demonstrated that different mixtures of IBU and APAP were associated with different toxic effects in green neon shrimp.

  9. Polymorphic Variants in Oxidative Stress Genes and Acute Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Elisa Eugenia; Abba, Martín Carlos; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Fernánde, Eduardo; Güerci, Alba Mabel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as an indirect product of radiation therapy (RT). Genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism may influence the level of RT-induced adverse effects. We evaluated the potential association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–related response to radiotherapy injury in breast cancer patients undergoing RT. Materials and Methods Eighty patients receiving conventional RT were included. Acute effects were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scores. DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swab samples. SNPs were genotyped for GSTP1, GSTA1, SOD2, and NOS3 genes by polymerase chain reaction–based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate analysis (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) and principal component analysis were used for correlation of SNPs and factors related to risk of developing ≥ grade 2 acute effects. Results Sixty-five patients (81.2%) showed side effects, 32 (40%) presented moderate to severe acute skin toxicity, and 33 (41.2%) manifested minimal acute skin reactions by the end of treatment. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, nominally significant associations were found among body mass index (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 8.5338 to 1.1274; p=0.022), breast size (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 17.04 to 1.54; p=0.004), and grade ≥ 2 acute radiation skin toxicity. A significant association was also observed between NOS3 G894T polymorphism (OR, 9.8; 95% CI, 211.6 to 0.45; p=0.041) and grade ≥ 2 acute radiation skin toxicity in patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Conclusion The analysis of the factors involved in individual radiosensitivity contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this trait. PMID:26790968

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  12. Fish acute toxicity syndromes and their use in the QSAR approach to hazard assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Bradbury, S.P.; Niemi, G.J.

    1987-04-01

    Implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act of 1977 creates the need to reliably establish testing priorities because laboratory resources are limited and the number of industrial chemicals requiring evaluation is overwhelming. The use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models as rapid and predictive screening tools to select more potentially hazardous chemicals for in-depth laboratory evaluation has been proposed. Further implementation and refinement of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships in aqueous toxicology and hazard assessment requires the development of a mode-of-action database. With such a database, a qualitative structure-activity relationship can be formulated to assign the proper mode of action, and respective QSAR, to a given chemical structure. In this review, the development of fish acute toxicity syndromes (FATS), which are toxic-response sets based on various behavioral and physiological-biochemical measurements, and their projected use in the mode-of-action database are outlined. Using behavioral parameters monitored in the fathead minnow during acute toxicity testing, FATS associated with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors and narcotics could be reliably predicted. However, compounds classified as oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers or stimulants could not be resolved. Refinement of this approach by using respiratory-cardiovascular responses in the rainbow trout, enabled FATS associated with AChE inhibitors, convulsants, narcotics, respiratory blockers, respiratory membrane irritants, and uncouplers to be correctly predicted.

  13. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems. PMID:27539747

  14. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  15. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species.

  16. Amphiphilic poly-N-vynilpyrrolidone nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and acute toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Kuskov, A N; Kulikov, P P; Shtilman, M I; Rakitskii, V N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and acute intraperitoneal toxicity of amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles to confirm possibility of their application for creation of novel drug delivery systems. The effect of cellular uptake of polymeric nanoparticles on human cancer cell line MCF-7 cells was investigated by MTT assay. MTT analysis showed that tested amphiphilic polymers were essentially non-toxic. In acute toxicity studies, LD50 and other toxicity indexes were evaluated, under which no deaths or treatment related complications were observed even in high concentration treatment for 14 days of experiment. For histological analysis, organs of the animals were weighed and examined. No animal died during the study and no significant changes have been observed regarding body weight, feed consumption, organ weight or histological data. Obtained results show that amphiphilic poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles possessed no toxicity against cells and in animals after intraperitoneal administration. Thus, amphiphilic PVP nanoparticles demonstrate high potential as carriers for novel high-effective drug delivery systems.

  17. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  18. Species comparison of acute inhalation toxicity of ozone and phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Slade, R.; Stead, A.G.; Graham, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O/sub 3/) and phosgene (COCl/sub 2/) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation toxicity studies. The effect of 4-h exposures to ozone at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm, and to COCl/sub 2/ and 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm was determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, and mice. Lavage fluid protein (LFP) accumulation 18-20 h after exposure was used as the indicator of O3- and COCl/sub 2/-induced pulmonary edema. All species had similar basal levels of LFP (250-350 mg/ml) when a volume of saline that approximated the total lung capacity was used to lavage the collapsed lungs. Ozone effects were most marked in guinea pigs, which showed significant effects at 0.2 ppm and above. Mice, hamsters, and rats showed effects at 1.0 ppm O3 and above, while rabbits responded only at 2.0 ppm O3. Phosgene similarly affected mice, hamsters, and rats at 0.2 ppm and above, while guinea pigs and rabbits were affected at 0.5 ppm and above. Percent recovery of lavage fluid varied significantly between species, guinea pigs having lower recovery than other species with both gases. Lavage fluid recovery was lower following exposure to higher levels of O3 but not COCl/sub 2/. Results of this study indicate that significant species differences are seen in the response to low levels of O3 and COCl/sub 2/. These differences do not appear to be related in a simple manner to body weight.

  19. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Michaels, R A

    1999-08-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.

  20. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, R A

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared. Images Figure 1

  1. Effect of sulfate concentration on acute toxicity of selenite and selenate to invertebrates and fish. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, D.O.; McCauley, D.J.; McCool, P.; Winkler, N.; DeGraeve, M.

    1998-12-01

    The effect of sulfate concentration on the acute toxicity of selenite (Se IV) and selenate (Se VI) to freshwater organisms was evaluated using toxicity test data generated from this study and toxicity data obtained from the open literature. The acute toxicity of Se IV and Se VI to fathead minnows and two amphipod species, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Hyalella azteca, were determined in four different sulfate concentrations. The newly generated toxicity data combined with the data obtained from the literature were evaluated using analysis of covariance to determine if there was a significant relationship between acute toxicity and sulfate concentration. The analysis of the Se IV data indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the acute toxicity of Se IV and sulfate concentration. A significant relationship was found between the acute toxicity of Se VI to freshwater organisms and sulfate concentration. Statistically significant slopes describing the relationship between Se VI toxicity and sulfate concentration were determined for individual species and for the combined data. A sulfate-based equation was constructed using the pooled slope to modify the criterion maximum concentration (CMC) for selenate: CMC = e{sup [0.4259(ln[sulfate]) + 4.6305]}.

  2. Acute toxicity of cadmium and sodium pentachlorophenate to daphnids and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Paulson, R.L.; Hall, L.W. Jr.; Burton, D.T.

    1986-08-01

    When estimating the toxicity of effluents it is desirable to use organisms sensitive to a wide range of pollutants. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommends the use of Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas to assess the toxicity of freshwater effluents. Ceriodaphnia sp. has also received increased attention as a standard toxicity test organism due to its sensitivity, short generation time, and ubiquitous distribution. Comparison of toxicity data generated by different investigators is often difficult because of differences in test procedures, dilution waters, or nutritional history of test organisms. The primary objectives of this research were to compare the sensitivity of Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Ceriodaphnia reticulata, and Pimephales promelas to the reference toxicants CdCl/sub 2/ and sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP) and to compare results with those obtained by other investigators. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dilution waters on the acute toxicity of these reference toxicants to the above test organisms.

  3. Clinical & pathological features of acute toxicity due to Cassia occidentalis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, V M; John, T J; Kumar, Amod

    2009-07-01

    Cassia occidentalis is an annual shrub found in many countries including India. Although bovines and ovines do not eat it, parts of the plant are used in some traditional herbal medicines. Several animal studies have documented that fresh or dried beans are toxic. Ingestion of large amounts by grazing animals has caused serious illness and death. The toxic effects in large animals, rodents and chicken are on skeletal muscles, liver, kidney and heart. The predominant systems involved depend upon the animal species and the dose of the beans consumed. Brain functions are often affected. Gross lesions at necropsy consist of necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres and hepatic centrilobular necrosis; renal tubular necrosis is less frequent. Muscle and liver cell necrosis is reflected in biochemical abnormalities. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) is 1 g/kg for mice and rats. Toxicity is attributed to various anthraquinones and their derivatives and alkaloids, but the specific toxins have not been identified. Data on human toxicity are extremely scarce. This review summarizes information available on Cassia toxicity in animals and compares it with toxic features reported in children. The clinical spectrum and histopathology of C. occidentalis poisoning in children resemble those of animal toxicity, affecting mainly hepatic, skeletal muscle and brain tissues. The case-fatality rate in acute severe poisoning is 75-80 per cent in children. PMID:19700797

  4. [Acute toxicity of three typical pollutants to aquatic organisms and their water quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Two species of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and a red worm Chironomidae larvae were selected as test organisms in determining the acute toxicity effects of Cr (VI), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and nitrobenzene. The results were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. The 96 h-EC50 values of Cr (VI), TCP and nitrobenzene on C. pyrenoidosa were 1.34 mg x L(-1, 4.55 mg x L(-1) and 86.58 mg x L(-1), respectively, while those of S. obliqnus were 19.52 mg x L(-1), 3.71 mg x L(-1) and 74.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The mortality of C. larvae was 15% when the concentration of Cr(VI) was increased to 1,500 mg x L(-1). The 48 h-LC50 values of TCP and nitrobenzene on C. larvae were 9.29 mg x L(-1) and 98.34 mg x L(-1), respectively. These results indicated that Cr( VI) showed higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa, while only moderate toxicity to S. obliqnus; TCP had higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa and S. oblignus; while nitrobenzene was only moderately toxic to both species of microalgae. The toxicity among the three pollutants to C. larvae was in the order of TCP > nitrobenzene > Cr (VI). PMID:24720216

  5. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  6. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Shedd, T.R.; Widder, M.W.; Toussaint, M.W.; Sunkel, M.C.; Hull, E.

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.

  7. Investigation on acute toxicity and behavioral changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Atindra Kumar; Nagpure, N S; Trivedi, Sunil P; Kumar, Ravindra; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Lakra, Wazir S

    2011-10-01

    Acute toxicity of an organophosphate pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2- chlorophenyl-O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) to freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch), was studied in a static bioassay. Estimated 96-hour LC(50) of profenofos was found to be 2.68 μgL(-1). On the basis of the obtained LC(50) values for 96-hour exposure intervals, profenofos can be rated as highly toxic to C. punctatus. Fish exposed to profenofos showed hyper excitability, discoloration, erratic swimming, and secretion of excess amounts of mucus on the body and gills with eventual exhaustion and death. PMID:21770742

  8. Pharmacogenetics predictive of response and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Lin; Ontiveros, Evelena P.; Griffiths, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, James E.; Wang, Eunice S.; Wetzler, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively rare disease in adults accounting for no more than 20% of all cases of acute leukemia. By contrast with the pediatric population, in whom significant improvements in long term survival and even cure have been achieved over the last 30 years, adult ALL remains a significant challenge. Overall survival in this group remains a relatively poor 20–40%. Modern research has focused on improved pharmacokinetics, novel pharmacogenetics and personalized principles to optimize the efficacy of the treatment while reducing toxicity. Here we review the pharmacogenetics of medications used in the management of patients with ALL, including L-asparaginase, glucocorticoids, 6-mercaptopruine, methotrexate, vincristine and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Incorporating recent pharmacogenetic data, mainly from pediatric ALL, will provide novel perspective of predicting response and toxicity in both pediatric and adult ALL therapy. PMID:25614322

  9. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  11. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations.

  12. Acute Toxicity in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Androgen Suppression and Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pervez, Nadeem; Small, Cormac; MacKenzie, Marc; Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Ghosh, Sunita; Mihai, Alina; Amanie, John; Murtha, Albert; Field, Colin; Murray, David; Fallone, Gino; Pearcey, Robert

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.

  13. Acute rejection in low-toxicity regimens: clinical impact and risk factors in the Symphony study.

    PubMed

    Frei, Ulrich; Daloze, Pierre; Vítko, Stefan; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael; Titiz, Izzet; Fricke, Lutz; Bernasconi, Corrado; Ekberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The Symphony study assessed whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based regimens containing reduced doses of adjunct immunosuppressants could reduce toxicity while maintaining efficacy. Here, we examined the impact of acute rejection and associated risk factors. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection in the low-dose tacrolimus group was approximately half that of the standard-dose cyclosporine and low-dose cyclosporine groups, and a third of that in the low-dose sirolimus group. The low-dose cyclosporine group had more severe rejection episodes (≥grade II) compared with other groups. Acute rejection was associated with a 10 mL/min glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction and a 5.3% absolute increase in graft loss at 12 months. Overall, the highest GFR was found in both rejecters and non-rejecters receiving low-dose tacrolimus, both in an intent-to-treat analysis and in patients successfully treated according to the protocol. In Cox regression models, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches and expanded criteria donors increased the acute rejection risk, while recipient age, living related donor, and MMF dose were associated with a reduced risk. Acute rejection was associated with worse outcome but did not entirely explain the differences among the treatment groups. The 2 g MMF plus low-dose tacrolimus combination appears to be the most efficient of all regimens examined regardless of acute rejection.

  14. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  15. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency.

  16. Enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and dissipation in vegetables of the chiral triazole fungicide flutriafol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Hua, Xiu-de; Shi, Hai-yan; Liu, Ji-song; Tian, Ming-ming; Wang, Ming-hua

    2015-03-01

    The enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and stereoselective degradation of the chiral triazole fungicide flutriafol in vegetables were investigated for the first time using the (R)-, (S)- and rac-flutriafol. The order of the bioactivity against five target pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Pyricularia grisea, Gibberella zeae, Botrytis cinerea) was found to be (R)-flutriafol>rac-flutriafol>(S)-flutriafol. The fungicidal activity of (R)-flutriafol was 1.49-6.23 times higher than that of (S)-flutriafol. The (R)-flutriafol also showed 2.17-3.52 times higher acute toxicity to Eisenia fetida and Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-flutriafol. The stereoselective degradation of flutriafol in tomato showed that the active (R)-flutriafol degraded faster, resulting in an enrichment of inactive (S)-form, and the half-lives were 9.23 d and 10.18 d, respectively. Inversely, the (S)-flutriafol, with a half-life of 4.76 d, was preferentially degraded in cucumber. In conclusion, the systemic assessments of the triazole fungicide flutriafol stereoisomers on the enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and environmental behavior may have implications for better environmental and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25463219

  17. The acute whole effluent toxicity of storm water from an international airport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.J.; Turley, S.D.; Turley, B.S.; Yonkos, L.T.; Ziegler, G.P.; Knott, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    In October 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated application requirements with deadlines for storm-water discharges associated with industrial activity and certain municipal systems. Major airports have a number of hydrocarbon-based contaminants that could appear in storm-water runoff. In addition, ethylene, diethylene, and propylene glycol deicing and anti-icing mixtures are used during freezing and near-freezing weather. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential acute impact on aquatic life from industrial storm-water discharges from an international airport. Samples from winter storm events caused acute toxicity to both the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and the daphnid (Daphnia magna), with LC50 values for both species as low as 1.0 and 2.0% effluent. The toxicity of the samples was due to the various glycol-based deicer/anti-icer mixtures used during these events. High oxygen demands and elevated total nitrogen levels are other potential problems during anti-icing/deicing activities. Samples from rain events during the nonwinter months at the airport did not cause acute toxicity unless associated with fuel spills. As a result of this study, a new discharge permit has been issued for this airport, requiring the implementation of plans for the collection and recycling and/or disposal of the deicer/anti-icer mixtures.

  18. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-02-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes - lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye. Stizostedion vitreum vitreum. This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compound, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes. The author focuses on four of the classes. The PAHs are products of fuel combustion and components of fossil fuels. The other three classes principally originate from industrial applications (alkyl halides), as fossil fuels, insecticides, solvents, and in perfumes (cyclic alkanes); and as herbicides and insecticides (heterocyclic nitrogen compounds). The authors purpose is to report results of static acute toxicity tests in which larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used as the test fish and to compare results of acute toxicity tests with previous studies.

  19. [Alteration of the acute toxicity and various pharmacologic effects of streptomycin sulfate by calcium 4'-phosphopantothenate].

    PubMed

    Dorofeev, B F; Korablev, M V; Kopelevich, V M

    1983-10-01

    The effect of calcium 4'-phosphopantothenate (CPP) on acute toxicity of streptomycin and the decrease by the antibiotic of the muscle working capacity, "holes" reflex, body temperature and oxygen intake was studied on 258 albino mice weighing 22-26 g. Medical calcium pantothenate (CPA) was used for control purposes. CPP is an antagonist of streptomycin sulfate. In a dose of 1/10 or 1/5 of the LD50 injected intraperitoneally CPP lowered acute toxicity of streptomycin and prevented its effect in a dose of 0.11--1.1 g/kg injected subcutaneously on the muscle working capacity, "holes" reflex and body temperature. The spectrum index of the CPP antitoxic effect was equal to 22.5. By its acute toxicity CPP (LD50 1.18 +/- 0.07 g/kg) did not differ from CPA (LD50 1.25 +/- 0.08 g/kg). The efficacy of CPP, by its antitoxic spectrum, was 1.8 times higher than that of CPA. CPA lowered the streptomycin effect on the "holes" reflex and body temperature, while CPP prevented it. Both the drugs did not influence the decrease in the oxygen consumption induced by streptomycin. PMID:6651265

  20. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Sreeramanan, Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Despite Euphorbia hirta L. ethnomedicinal benefits, very few studies have described the potential toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta. The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of E. hirta was evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. In the repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study, the administration of 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg/day of E. hirta extract per body weight revealed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in food and water consumptions, body weight change, haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and gross findings compared to the control group. Macropathology and histopathology examinations of all organs including the liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Analyses of these results with the information of signs, behaviour, and health monitoring could lead to the conclusion that the long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days does not cause sub-chronic toxicity. PMID:24386634

  1. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions.

  2. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  3. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  4. A Microfluidic Device for Continuous Sensing of Systemic Acute Toxicants in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety. PMID:24300075

  5. Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan; Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Khonsung, Parirat; Jaijoy, Kanjana; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Chanchai, Monraudee

    2014-01-01

    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. has been used for traditional medicine, but few studies have described its potential toxicity. In this study, the acute and chronic oral toxicity of Z. cassumunar extract granules were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during the 14-day observation period. However, a decrease in body weights was observed in treated males (P < 0.05). The weights of lung and kidney of treated females were increased (P < 0.05). Treated males were increased in spleen and epididymis weights (P < 0.05). In repeated dose 270-day oral toxicity study, the administration of the extracts at concentrations of 0.3, 3, 30, 11.25, 112.5, and 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day revealed no-treatment toxicity. Although certain endpoints among those monitored (i.e., organ weight, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry) exhibited statistically significant effects, none was adverse. Gross and histological observations revealed no toxicity. Our findings suggest that the Z. cassumunar extract granules are well tolerated for both single and chronic administration. The oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the extract was 1,125 mg/kg body weight/day for males and females. PMID:27379341

  6. A microfluidic device for continuous sensing of systemic acute toxicants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao

    2013-12-01

    A bioluminescent-cell-based microfluidic device for sensing toxicants in drinking water was designed and fabricated. The system employed Vibrio fischeri cells as broad-spectrum sensors to monitor potential systemic cell toxicants in water, such as heavy metal ions and phenol. Specifically, the chip was designed for continuous detection. The chip design included two counter-flow micromixers, a T-junction droplet generator and six spiral microchannels. The cell suspension and water sample were introduced into the micromixers and dispersed into droplets in the air flow. This guaranteed sufficient oxygen supply for the cell sensors. Copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol were selected as typical toxicants to validate the sensing system. Preliminary tests verified that the system was an effective screening tool for acute toxicants although it could not recognize or quantify specific toxicants. A distinct non-linear relationship was observed between the zinc ion concentration and the Relative Luminescence Units (RLU) obtained during testing. Thus, the concentration of simple toxic chemicals in water can be roughly estimated by this system. The proposed device shows great promise for an early warning system for water safety.

  7. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. PMID:24934557

  8. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Shin; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yong Hwa; Kang, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris), a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna), and a fish (Oryzias latipes) based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203). According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50) of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish. PMID:25654094

  9. Acute photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics of single compounds and mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Willis, Alison M; Oris, James T

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined photo-induced toxicity and toxicokinetics for acute exposure to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in zebrafish. Photo-enhanced toxicity from co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and PAHs enhanced the toxicity and exhibited toxic effects at PAH concentrations orders of magnitude below effects observed in the absence of UV. Because environmental exposure to PAHs is usually in the form of complex mixtures, the present study examined the photo-induced toxicity of both single compounds and mixtures of PAHs. In a sensitive larval life stage of zebrafish, acute photo-induced median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were derived for 4 PAHs (anthracene, pyrene, carbazole, and phenanthrene) to examine the hypothesis that phototoxic (anthracene and pyrene) and nonphototoxic (carbazole and phenanthrene) pathways of mixtures could be predicted from single exposures. Anthracene and pyrene were phototoxic as predicted; however, carbazole exhibited moderate photo-induced toxicity and phenanthrene exhibited weak photo-induced toxicity. The toxicity of each chemical alone was used to compare the toxicity of mixtures in binary, tertiary, and quaternary combinations of these PAHs, and a predictive model for environmental mixtures was generated. The results indicated that the acute toxicity of PAH mixtures was additive in phototoxic scenarios, regardless of the magnitude of photo-enhancement. Based on PAH concentrations found in water and circumstances of high UV dose to aquatic systems, there exists potential risk of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  10. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  11. Consideration of reactivity to acute fish toxicity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Furuhama, A; Aoki, Y; Shiraishi, H

    2012-01-01

    To understand the key factor for fish toxicity of 11 α,β-unsaturated carbonyl aldehydes and ketones, we used quantum chemical calculations to investigate their Michael reactions with methanethiol or glutathione. We used two reaction schemes, with and without an explicit water molecule (Scheme-1wat and Scheme-0wat, respectively), to account for the effects of a catalytic water molecule on the reaction pathway. We determined the energies of the reactants, transition states (TS), and products, as well as the activation energies of the reactions. The acute fish toxicities of nine of the carbonyl compounds were evaluated to correlate with their hydrophobicities; no correlation was observed for acrolein and crotonaldehyde. The most toxic compound, acrolein, had the lowest activation energy. The activation energy of the reaction could be estimated with Scheme-1wat but not with Scheme-0wat. The complexity of the reaction pathways of the compounds was reflected in the difficulty of the TS structure searches when Scheme-1wat was used with the polarizable continuum model. The theoretical estimations of activation energies of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with catalytic molecules or groups including hydrogen-bond networks may complement traditional tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicities of compounds that cannot be easily obtained experimentally. PMID:22150015

  12. Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Chloroform to Four Species of Freshwater Fish

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1980-08-01

    Acute toxicity of chloroform to four species of freshwater fish was studied in flow-through 96-hr toxicity tests. Chloroform is toxic to fish in the tens of parts per million, a concentration well above that which would be expected to be produced under normal power plant chlorination conditions. Investigations of acute toxicity of chloroform and the bioaccumulation of chlorinated compounds in tissues of fish revealed differences in tolerance levels and tissue accumulations. Mean 96-hr LC{sub 50}s for chloroform were 18 ppm for rainbow trout and bluegill, 51 ppm for largemouth bass and 75 ppm for channel catfish. Mortalities of bluegill and largemouth bass occurred during the first 4 hr of exposure while rainbow trout and channel catfish showed initial tolerance and mortalities occurred during the latter half of the 96-hr exposure. Rainbow trout had the highest level of chloroform tissue accumulation, 7 {micro}g/g tissue, catfish the second highest, 4 {micro}g/g tissue, followed by bluegill and largemouth bass which each accumulated about 3 {micro}g/g tissue. Accumulation of chloroform was less than one order of magnitude above water concentrations for all species.

  13. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests. PMID:26370277

  14. Bupivacaine induced cardiac toxicity mimicking an acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ho Yoel; Kim, Jang-Young; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Yoon, Junghan; Yoo, Byung-Su; Choe, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2007-04-30

    Bupivacaine is widely used as a local anesthetic. Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular toxicity are well known side effects. However, there has been no report of bupivacaine-induced myocardial injury. We present a case of bupivacaine cardiac toxicity mimicking an acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, which was eventually diagnosed as bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity without CNS toxicity. As soon as a healthy young woman at a private clinic was given a spinal anesthesia of 6mg bupivacaine for hemorrhoidectomy, she developed arrhythmia and hypotension. She was transferred to our emergency room. There was an accelerated idioventricular rhythm with ST segment depression on electrocardiogram, coarse breathing sounds with rales on whole lung field and a butterfly sign on the chest radiograph. 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed reduced left ventricle systolic ejection fraction (approximately 27%). There was regional wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle on 2D TTE and the cardiac marker was increased. We diagnosed the patient as having acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction but her impaired cardiac function improved gradually. On the seventh day from admission, there was a complete spontaneous recovery of cardiac function, and coronary angiography revealed a normal coronary artery. Therefore, we firmly believe that bupivacaine directly injures the cardiac cell.

  15. Effect of copper status on acute toxicity of cocaine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Reddy, P.P.; Seung, S.K.; Combs, G.F.; Dulin, A.M.; Danford, D.E. )

    1989-02-09

    Both copper (Cu) nutriture and cocaine (Coc) ingestion have been shown to affect cardiovascular integrity. Therefore, the purpose of these studies was to determine if Cu status affects the acute toxicity of Coc. 20 weanling male rats (45 {plus minus} 5 g) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 1 fed a copper deficient (CuD) (<1ppmCu) and the other a copper supplemented (CuS) diet (ca.6ppm, Cu). After 7 wks, the rats, paired for Cu status, were injected (ip) with Coc-HCl at reported LD{sub 50} doses ranging from 80-90 mg/kg bw. The CuD was established by cardiac hypertrophy, depressed hematocrit, lowered serum, liver and heart Cu compared to the CuS controls. The acute toxicity resulted in tachycardia and hyperactivity followed by ataxia with isolated muscle twitchings and violent grand-mal type seizures. For those animals that died, death was apparently due to respiratory arrest followed by ventricular fibrillation; animals that survived were killed by exsanguination. The severity of toxicity was greater for the CuD rats as evidenced by 100% exhibiting seizures compared to 80% for the CuS group. In addition, the incidence of death was 60% for the CuD group compared to 20% for the CuS rats. Although these results suggest that CuD exacerbates the toxic effects of Coc, it is not established that the effects are specific for this essential nutrient.

  16. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.

  17. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats.

  18. Comparative analysis of acute toxic poisoning in 2003 and 2011: analysis of 3 academic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hak-Soo; Kim, Jung-Youn; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Hong, Yun-Sik; Lee, Sung-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Social factors may affect the available sources of toxic substances and causes of poisoning; and these factors may change over time. Additionally, understanding the characteristics of patients with acute toxic poisoning is important for treating such patients. Therefore, this study investigated the characteristics of patients with toxic poisoning. Patients visiting one of 3 hospitals in 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Data on all patients who were admitted to the emergency departments with acute toxic poisoning were retrospectively obtained from medical records. Total 939 patients were analyzed. The average age of patients was 40.0 ± 20 yr, and 335 (36.9%) patients were men. Among the elements that did not change over time were the facts that suicide was the most common cause, that alcohol consumption was involved in roughly 1 of 4 cases, and that there were more women than men. Furthermore, acetaminophen and doxylamine remained the most common poisoning agents. In conclusion, the average patient age and psychotic drug poisoning has increased over time, and the use of lavage treatment has decreased.

  19. Acute toxicity of some hydrazine compounds to salamander larvae, Ambystoma spp

    SciTech Connect

    Slonim, A.R.

    1986-11-01

    Although hydrazine compounds have been used extensively by industry for a very long time, they have become important in recent years as propellants for aerospace operations. The study of hydrazine compounds in this laboratory began about two decades ago and developed into a large pharmacological and toxicological research program that included also environmental considerations. Subsequently, acute toxicity studies were conducted on the common guppy (Lebistes reticulatus Peters) using four hydrazine compounds of interest. The toxicity of these propellants were evaluated next on other species of aquatic organisms such as mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) and amphibians. Two different studies were conducted on amphibians: One utilized amphibian eggs and the other amphibian larvae. The larvae of spotted and marbled salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum and A. opacum, respectively) were used primarily in numerous static bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of hydrazine, UDMH and Aerozine-50 on these organisms. The remaining larvae were used in other tests mainly to corroborate previous experimental results (e.g., to see whether toxicity is affected by organism size, aeration of test solutions, and water hardness). The results on the larvae are presented in this paper.

  20. Acute toxicity and in vivo biodistribution of monodispersed mesoporous bioactive glass spheres in intravenously exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Hu, Qing; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from laboratories to clinics requires exhaustive and elaborate studies involving the biodistribution, clearance, and biocompatibility of biomaterials for in vivo biomedical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity and biodistribution of intravenously administrated sub-micrometer mesoporous bioactive glass spheres (SMBGs) in mice. The lethal dose 50 (LD50) of SMBGs was higher than 250 mg/kg. The acute toxicity was evaluated at 14 days after intravenous injection of SMBGs at 20, 100 and 180 mg/kg in ICR mice. The mortality, coefficients of major organs, hematology data and blood biochemical indexes revealed the low in vivo toxicity of SMBGs at all doses. However, the histological examination showed lymphocytic infiltration and granuloma formation in hepatocyte and megakaryocyte hyperplasia in the spleen at high dose. The silicon content analysis using ICP-OES and TEM results indicated that SMBGs mainly distributed in the resident macrophages of the liver and spleen, and could be cleared from the body more than 2 weeks. These findings can be important for the toxicity assessment of sub-micrometer particles and the development of bioactive glass based drug delivery system for biomedical applications.

  1. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxicity of Carbendazim, Main Impurities and Metabolite to Earthworms (Eisenia foetida).

    PubMed

    Huan, Zhibo; Luo, Jinhui; Xu, Zhi; Xie, Defang

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity and genotoxicity of carbendazim, two impurities (3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine and 2,3-diaminophenazine) and one metabolite (2-aminobenzimidazole) to Eisenia foetida were assessed using artificial soil test and comet assay respectively. Acute toxicity results showed carbendazim was moderately toxic to the earthworms with 14 day-LC50 of 8.6 mg/kg dry soil while 3-amino-2-hydroxyphenazine, 2,3-diaminophenazine, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were of low toxicity with 14 day-LC50 values of 19.0, 14.9, and 27.7 mg/kg dry soil respectively (nominal concentration). The olive tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as genotoxicity indices, and carbendazim could significantly induce DNA damage to the earthworm coelomocytes with obviously positive dose- and duration-response relationships while the other three substances showed similar (p = 0.05) genotoxicity results to the negative controls in all of the tests.

  2. Acute toxicity and superficial damage to goldfish from the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Zeng, Shi-Hu; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Liu, Li; Ma, Shuai; Wang, Jian-Ji

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, goldfish toxicity and superficial damage from 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8 mim]Br) exposure were evaluated by an acute toxicity test. These results show that the 24-h 50% lethal concentration for [C8 mim]Br in goldfish is 244 mg L(-1) , and this indicates that [C8 mim]Br is a chemical with moderate or low toxicity to organisms. Scanning electronic microscope and histological observations revealed that acute exposure to [C8 mim]Br induced obvious superficial damage to the skin, gill filaments, and intestinal villi of the goldfish, and this suggests that the skin, gills, and intestines may be the first direct targets of the ionic liquid in this fish. Histological examination also indicated that [C8 mim]Br-exposure caused damage to the goldfish's hepatopancreas and kidney, consisting mainly of hepatic cords in a loose connection, hepatic cytoplasmic vacuolation, renal parenchyma vacuolization, and intumescence of the renal tubule. In addition, we found that [C8 mim]Br caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the hepatopancreases from these goldfish, and thus we suggest that the MDA level may be a biomarker of [C8 mim]Br-toxicity in goldfish.

  3. The Acute Inhalation Toxicity in Rats from the Pyrolysis Products of Four Fluoropolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, V. L., Jr.; Bafus, D. A.; Warrington, H. P.; Harris, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (225?250 g) were exposed to the thermal degradation products from four fluoropolymers. The three polymers containing vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) were pyrolyzed at 550? and 800?C, whereas polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was pyrolyzed at 625 and 800?C. At the lower temperatures, the pyrolysate from the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene (VF2/HFP) was less toxic than the pyrolysates from either the terpolymer of vinyidene fluoride, hexafluoropropene, and tetrafluoroethylene (VF2/HFP/TFE) or the copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropene with ?additives? (VF2/HFP-A). However, the pyrolysates from the VF2/HFP-containing materials produced less toxic products than the pyrolysate from PTFE at 625?C. When the pyrolysis temperature was increased to 800?C, very little difference was noted between the pyrolysis toxicity for any of the VF2/HFP-containing polymers with the most toxic pyrolysate again produced by PTFE. Carbon monoxide levels were all sublethal. No correlation could be established between hydrolyzable fluoride levels and the lethality of the pyrolysates. Death following exposure occurred within 48 hr due to acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. Survival of this acute phase was followed by alveolar lymphocytic infiltration and peribronchial tissue proliferation.

  4. Acute toxicity of vegetable oil factory effluent to some freshwater teleosts in relation to size.

    PubMed

    Kondal, J K; Gupta, S; Saxena, P K

    1984-05-01

    Specimens of Cirrhina mrigala (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Channa punctatus (Bl.) falling in the size (total length) range of 5.5 +/- 1.0 cm to 27.0 +/- 2.0 cm were exposed to different concentrations of the vegetable oil factory effluent for evaluating the influence of size on the acute toxicity of the factory effluent. The results suggest that relative toxicity of the effluent decreased with increase in the size of the fish. However, for specimens exceeding 20.0 +/- 1.6 cm in size, the toxicity of the effluent increased with an increase in size of the fish. The results also indicate that C. mrigala was most susceptible, while C. punctatus was least susceptible to the effluent.

  5. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed.

  6. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile < C. dubia < M. transversum < G. parvus < T. tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical.

  7. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, Paige L.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV

  8. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible.

  9. Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Ranville, James F; Pontasch, Mandee; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Adams, William J

    2015-04-01

    Standard static-exposure acute lethality tests were conducted with Daphnia magna neonates exposed to binary or ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn in moderately hard reconstituted water that contained 3 mg dissolved organic carbon/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. These experiments were conducted to test for additive toxicity (i.e., the response to the mixture can be predicted by combining the responses obtained in single-metal toxicity tests) or nonadditive toxicity (i.e., the response is less than or greater than additive). Based on total metal concentrations (>90% dissolved) the toxicity of the tested metal mixtures could be categorized into all 3 possible additivity categories: less-than-additive toxicity (e.g., Cd-Zn and Cd-Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cu was titrated into Cd-containing waters), additive toxicity (e.g., some Cu-Zn mixtures), or more-than-additive toxicity (some Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cd was titrated into Cu-containing waters). Exposing the organisms to a range of sublethal to supralethal concentrations of the titrated metal was especially helpful in identifying nonadditive interactions. Geochemical processes (e.g., metal-metal competition for binding to dissolved organic matter and/or the biotic ligand, and possibly supersaturation of exposure waters with the metals in some high-concentration exposures) can explain much of the observed metal-metal interactions. Therefore, bioavailability models that incorporate those geochemical (and possibly some physiological) processes might be able to predict metal mixture toxicity accurately.

  10. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  11. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).

    PubMed

    McDonald, S F; Hamilton, S J; Buhl, K J; Heisinger, J F

    1996-02-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposing Daphnia magna Straus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), and Selenastrum capricornutum Printz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Check WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC50 7 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50 848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC50 10 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC50 79 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50 or IC50 value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50 un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function. PMID:8744925

  12. Acute toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna(Straus) and Selenastrum capricornutum(Printz)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted exposingDaphnia magnaStraus (daphnid) in soft and hard reconstituted waters (hardness 42 and 162 mg/liter as CaCO3, respectively), andSelenastrum capricornutumPrintz (algae) in ASTM algal assay medium (hardness 15 mg/liter as CaCO3) to fire retardants Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F, and foam suppressants Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex. The chemicals were slightly toxic to practically harmless to daphnids and moderately toxic to algae. Water quality did not consistently alter the toxicity of the test chemicals to daphnids. The most toxic chemical to daphnids was Silv-Ex (48-hr EC507 mg/liter in soft and hard waters), whereas the least toxic chemical to daphnids was Fire-Trol LCG-R (48-hr EC50848 mg/liter in soft water, 813 mg/liter in hard water). The most toxic chemical to algae was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-hr IC5010 mg/liter), and the least toxic chemical was Phos-Chek D75-F (96-hr IC5079 mg/liter). Un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the EC50or IC50value in tests with the Fire-Trol compounds were frequently equal to or above reported LC50un-ionized ammonia concentrations. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations in tests with Phos-Chek D75-F were low, thus other toxic components present in the compounds probably contributed to the toxicity. When compared to the daphnids tested in ASTM soft water, the Fire-Trol compounds were most toxic to algae, whereas Phos-Chek D75-F and the foam suppressants were most toxic to daphnids. The results of these tests are comparable to those obtained from research conducted in other laboratories with the same species and similar chemicals. Accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect algae and aquatic invertebrates, thus disrupting ecosystem function.

  13. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  14. Beryllium metal I. experimental results on acute oral toxicity, local skin and eye effects, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  15. Beryllium Metal I. Experimental Results on Acute Oral Toxicity, Local Skin and Eye Effects, and Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal compounds is often different from that of the parent metal. Since no reliable data on acute toxicity, local effects, and mutagenicity of beryllium metal have ever been generated, beryllium metal powder was tested according to the respective Organisation for Economical Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Acute oral toxicity of beryllium metal was investigated in rats and local effects on skin and eye in rabbits. Skin-sensitizing properties were investigated in guinea pigs (maximization method). Basic knowledge about systemic bioavailability is important for the design of genotoxicity tests on poorly soluble substances. Therefore, it was necessary to experimentally compare the capacities of beryllium chloride and beryllium metal to form ions under simulated human lung conditions. Solubility of beryllium metal in artificial lung fluid was low, while solubility in artificial lysosomal fluid was moderate. Beryllium chloride dissolution kinetics were largely different, and thus, metal extracts were used in the in vitro genotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity was investigated in vitro in a bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a mammalian cell chromosome aberration assay, and an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. In addition, cell transformation was tested in a Syrian hamster embryo cell assay, and potential inhibition of DNA repair was tested by modification of the UDS assay. Beryllium metal was found not to be mutagenic or clastogenic based on the experimental in vitro results. Furthermore, treatment with beryllium metal extracts did not induce DNA repair synthesis, indicative of no DNA-damaging potential of beryllium metal. A cell-transforming potential and a tendency to inhibit DNA repair when the cell is severely damaged by an external stimulus were observed. Beryllium metal was also found not to be a skin or eye irritant, not to be a skin sensitizer, and not to have relevant acute oral

  16. How closely do acute lethal concentration estimates predict effects of toxicants on populations?

    PubMed

    Stark, John D

    2005-04-01

    Acute lethal dose/concentration estimates are the most widely used measure of toxicity and these data often are used in ecological risk assessment. However, the value of the lethal concentration (LC50) as a toxicological endpoint for use in ecological risk assessment recently has been criticized. A question that has been asked frequently is how accurate is the LC50 for prediction of longer-term effects of toxicants on populations of organisms? To answer this question, Daphnia pulex populations were exposed to nominal concentrations equal to the 48-h acute LC50 of 6 insecticides, Actara, Aphistar diazinon, pymetrozine, Neemix, and Spinosad; and 8 agricultural adjuvants, Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet, Sylgard 309, Water Maxx, and X-77; for 10 d. None of the D. pulex populations exposed to the acute LC50 of these insecticides were 50% lower than the control populations at the end of the study; exposure to diazinon resulted in populations that were higher than expected (91% of the control). Exposure to Actara and Aphistar resulted in populations that were < 1 and 29% of the control, respectively. Exposure to Fulfill, Neemix, and Spinosad resulted in extinction. Extinction occurred after exposure to all of the adjuvants, except Silwet L-77 where the population was 31% of the control. These results corroborate other studies that indicate that the LC50 is not a good predictor of effects on population growth. Although lethal concentration estimates have their place in toxicology, namely to compare intrinsic toxicity of chemicals among species or susceptibility of a species to different chemicals over short time periods, population growth and growth-rate studies are necessary to predict toxicant effects on populations.

  17. Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four life stages of fathead minnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steve J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with four early life stages of fathead minnow,Pimephales promelas,to determine the acute toxicity of five firefighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Egg, fry, 30-day posthatch, and 60-day posthatch life stages were tested with three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Ansul Silv-Ex). Fry were generally the most sensitive life stage tested, whereas the eggs were the least sensitive life stage. Formulation toxicity was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested. Fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-hr LC50s derived for fathead minnows were rank ordered from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows: Phos-Chek WD-881 (13a??32 mg/liter) > Silv-Ex (19a??32 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol GTS-R (135a??787 mg/liter) > Phos-Chek D75-F (168a??2250 mg/liter) > Fire-Trol LCG-R (519a??6705 mg/liter) (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-hr LC50for each formulation). (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  18. Acute toxicity of 54 industrial chemicals to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmuller, P.T.; Hollister, T.A.; Parrish, P.R.

    1981-12-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted with sheepshead minnows to develop a data base from which water quality criteria could be established and to help determine priorites for further reseach efforts. Chemicals were generally those used by industry in relatively large quantities that pose potential or suspected environmental hazards, such as, chlorinated benzenes, phenols, and phthalates. The acute toxicity of the 54 chemicals varied widely. The most toxic chemical groups were the chlorinated phenols and the chlorinated benzenes with 96-h LC50's (based on nominal concentrations) ranging from 1.7-5.4 ppm and 0.8-21 ppm, respectively. The most toxic chemical tested appeared to be 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene with a 96-h LC50 of 0.8 ppm (95% confidence limits of 0.7-1.1 ppm). The 96-h LC50 for pentachlorobenzene was the same (0.8 ppm; 95% confidence limits of 0.4-1.8 ppm), but its effect early in the exposure was not as severe as the effect of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The majority of the chemicals had 96-h LC50's in the range of 10-500 ppm and were considered to be slightly toxic to practically nontoxic. Ten of the chemicals had no apparent effect at highest concentrations tested. (JMT)

  19. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  20. Acute toxicity and aqueous solubility of some condensed thiophenes and their microbial metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, D.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M.; Verbeek, A.G.

    1997-04-01

    Petroleum or creosote contamination of surface waters, soils, or groundwaters introduces countless aromatic compounds to these environments. Among these are condensed thiophenes that were shown to be oxidized to sulfoxides, sulfones, and 2,3-diones by microbial cultures. In this study, the acute toxicities of 12 compounds (benzothiophene, benzothiophene sulfone, benzothiophene-2,3-diones, dibenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene sulfoxide, and dibenzothiophene sulfone) were determined by the Microtox{reg_sign} and Daphnia magna bioassays. To aid in determining the toxicities, the solubilities of many of these compounds were determined, which showed that the oxidized compounds were much more water soluble than the parent thiophenes. In nearly every case, the oxidized compounds were less toxic than their parent thiophenes. The Microtox method was more sensitive than the D. magna bioassay, but in general, there was a good correlation between toxicities measured by the two tests. Samples were removed from batch cultures of a Pseudomonas strain capable of oxidizing the thiophenes, and these samples were subjected to Microtox bioassays. These experiments showed that the toxicities of the culture supernatants decreased with incubation time.

  1. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  2. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  3. Acute, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and subchronic oral toxicity studies of diaveridine in rodents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan

    2015-09-01

    Diaveridine (DVD) is a member of the 2,4-pyrimidinediamine class of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. It is used in combination with sulfaquinoxaline as an antiprotozoal agent in animals for the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis and leucocytozoonosis. Herein, we report a complete toxicological safety assessment of DVD for clinical use. The study of toxicity, genetic toxicity (mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, mice sperm abnormality test and in vivo chromosome aberration test of mammalian bone marrow), 90-day sub-chronic toxicity and teratogenicity test were performed. In the acute oral toxicity tests, median lethal dose, LD50, was more than 2378mg/kg body weight in Sprague Dawley rats (1025mg/kg body weight in ICR mice). The testing results for three terms of mutagenicity toxicity (mouse chromosome aberration, erythrocyte micronucleus and sperm abnormality) were all negative at 128-512mg/kg body weight. For 90-day feeding of DVD at the dosage of 10mg/kg body weight in both male and female SD rats, no signs of toxicological effects were detected. Meanwhile, for teratogenicity test in female SD rats at the dosage of 37mg/kg body weight, there were no toxicological signs observed. Thus, our results suggested that the DVD is safe when administered orally in rats at 10mg/kg body weight per day. PMID:26397222

  4. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  5. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Elham; Shafaei, Armaghan; Hor, Sook Yee; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Yam, Mun Fei; Asmawi, Mohd Z.; Ismail, Zhari

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg. PMID:23778480

  6. Acute toxicity of lead, chromium, and other heavy metals to ciliates from activated sludge plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madoni, P.; Gorbi, G. ); Davoli, D. )

    1994-09-01

    Numerous papers deal with the occurrence of heavy metals in the various components of freshwater ecosystems and sewage treatment systems. However, few papers refer to the presence and effect of heavy metals in populations of aquatic cilated protozoa. In particular, the lethal concentrations (LC50) of heavy metals in ciliate populations that colonize the activated sludge or the biofilm of waste treatment plants. Ciliated protozoa are very numerous in all types of aerobic biological-treatment systems. They play an important role in the purification process removing, through predation, the major part of dispersed bacteria that cause high turbidity in the final effluent. Changes in the community structure and types of ciliate species may affect the food web of these artifical ecosystems, and may also influence the biological performance of plants. Heavy metals can limit growth of protozoa in aquatic environments. The toxicity of heavy metals in biological treatment depends mainly upon two factors, namely, metal species and concentration. Although the resistance of biological systems to metal toxicity may be enhanced greatly by proper acclimatization, a too-high metal concentration may cause serious upsets in the system. It is important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals causing lethal effects on ciliates. Madoni recently studied the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc on six species of ciliated protozoa from activated sludge plants. The present paper describes the toxic effects of lead and chromium (VI) on 6 cilate species. The acute toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn on two other ciliates (Drepanomonas revoluta and Spirostomum teres) is also reported. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels.

  8. Proton Therapy for Spinal Ependymomas: Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbaugh, Mark J.; Grosshans, David R.; McAleer, Mary Frances; Zhu, Ron; Wages, Cody; Crawford, Cody N.; Palmer, Matthew; De Gracia, Beth; Woo Shiao; Mahajan, Anita

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report acute toxicities and preliminary outcomes for pediatric patients with ependymomas of the spine treated with proton beam therapy at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Eight pediatric patients received proton beam irradiation between October 2006 and September 2010 for spinal ependymomas. Toxicity data were collected weekly during radiation therapy and all follow-up visits. Toxicities were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: All patients had surgical resection of the tumor before irradiation (7 subtotal resection and 1 gross total resection). Six patients had World Health Organization Grade I ependymomas, and two had World Health Organization Grade II ependymomas. Patients had up to 3 surgical interventions before radiation therapy (range, 1-3; median, 1). Three patients received proton therapy after recurrence and five as part of their primary management. The entire vertebral body was treated in all but 2 patients. The mean radiation dose was 51.1 cobalt gray equivalents (range, 45 to 54 cobalt gray equivalents). With a mean follow-up of 26 months from the radiation therapy start date (range, 7-51 months), local control, event-free survival, and overall survival rates were all 100%. The most common toxicities during treatment were Grade 1 or 2 erythema (75%) and Grade 1 fatigue (38%). No patients had a Grade 3 or higher adverse event. Proton therapy dramatically reduced dose to all normal tissues anterior to the vertebral bodies in comparison to photon therapy. Conclusion: Preliminary outcomes show the expected control rates with favorable acute toxicity profiles. Proton beam therapy offers a powerful treatment option in the pediatric population, where adverse events related to radiation exposure are of concern. Extended follow-up will be required to assess for late recurrences and long-term adverse effects.

  9. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds.

  10. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. PMID:27243931

  11. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24h old neonates for 48h in the case of D. pulex and with 2-9 days old offspring for 96h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5-2.0mM), Na (0.5-2.0mM) and Mg (0.125-0.5mM). The effect of pH (6.5-8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and

  12. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with <24h old neonates for 48h in the case of D. pulex and with 2-9 days old offspring for 96h tests with Hyalella. The potential protective effect of cationic competition was tested with Ca (0.5-2.0mM), Na (0.5-2.0mM) and Mg (0.125-0.5mM). The effect of pH (6.5-8.0) and Suwannee River DOM complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and

  13. Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Mattie, David R.

    2011-07-15

    The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.

  14. Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mukinda, J T; Syce, J A

    2007-05-30

    Artemisia afra (Jacq. Ex. Willd), "African Wormwood" is widely used traditionally in South Africa with no literature evidence substantiating its safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra by determining its pharmaco-toxicological effects after acute and chronic administration in mice and rats, respectively. The aqueous extract mimicked the traditional decoction dosage form of Artemisia afra. In mice, single intraperitoneal injections of Artemisia afra-extract (1.5-5.5g/kg) induced a regular dose-dependent increase in the death rate and incidence of general behaviour adverse effects, while with single oral doses (2-24g/kg) the increases in incidence of general behaviour adverse effects and mortality rate were dose-independent. The LD(50s) after acute intraperitoneal and oral doses were 2.45 and 8.96g/kg, respectively. Rats given oral doses of Artemisia afra-extract (0.1 or 1g/kg/day) survived the 3 months of dosing (i.e. LD(50) much higher than 1g/kg), experienced no significant changes in general behaviour and haematological and biochemical parameters, except for transient decrease in AST activity. No significant changes were observed in organ weights, and histopathological results showed normal profile suggesting no morphological alterations. Collectively, the results indicate that Artemisia afra-extract is non-toxic when given acutely, has low chronic toxicity potential and, in high doses, may have a hepatoprotective effect.

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Goudah, Ayman; Abdo-El-Sooud, Khaled; Yousef, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days) in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control) and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg. PMID:27047139

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies on safety assessment of Paecilomyces tenuipes N45 extracts.

    PubMed

    Du, Linna; Liu, Yan; Liu, Chungang; Meng, Qingfan; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Di; Lu, Jiahui; Teng, Lirong; Zhou, Yulin; Teng, Lesheng

    2015-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes, one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal fungus, has received much attention over the world, which possesses various active compounds and biological activities. However, little toxicological information is available. Therefore, the present study evaluated the potential toxicity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Paecilomyces tenuipes N45 via acute and subchronic administration in mouse and rat, respectively. For improving the extraction rate of aqueous extract, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction condition first in this paper. The obtained optimal extract conditions were temperature 80 °C, liquid-solid ratio 50 mL·g-1 and time 3 h. In the acute toxicity test, aqueous and ethanol extracts caused neither mortality nor toxicological signs, and the maximum tolerance dose was estimated over 15 g/kg. No mortality or adverse effects was observed in subchronic toxicity studies. No significant difference in bodyweight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters was noted during the experiment. Comparing with nontreated rats, ALT, K and BUN levels were changed in experimental group detecting via biochemical analysis. No abnormality of internal organs was noted between treatment and control groups in gross and histopathological examinations. Our present study suggested that the tolerance dose of the Paecilomyces tenuipes N45 extracts were more than 15 g/kg and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extracts for both male and female rats after 90-day adminstation. Additionally, the extracts may possess renal-protective and hepato-protective effects.

  17. Chemical composition, protoscolicidal effects and acute toxicity of Pistacia atlantica Desf. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Ghasemi Kia, Mehdi; Tavakoli Kareshk, Amir; Yarahmadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and scolicidal effects of Pistacia atlantica Desf. extract against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its acute toxicity in mice model. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (5-50 mg/mL) were used for 10-60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1%). Acute toxicity was also determined in mice model. The main components were β-myrcene (41.4%), α-pinene (32.48%) and limonene (4.66%). Findings demonstrated that P. atlantica extract at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL after 20 and 10 min of exposure killed 100% protoscoleces. The LD50 of the intraperitoneal injection of the P. atlantica methanolic extract was 2.43 g/kg and the maximum non-fatal dose was 1.66 g/kg. Obtained results showed the potential of P. atlantica extract as a natural source with no significant toxicity for the production of new scolicidal agent to use in hydatid cyst surgery. PMID:26252652

  18. Hypoglycemic activity and acute oral toxicity of chromium methionine complexes in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hai-yan; Xiao, Qing-gui; Xu, Hong-bin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of chromium methionine (CrMet) in alloxan-induced diabetic (AID) mice was investigated and compared with those of chromium trichloride hexahydrate (CrCl3·6H2O) and chromium nicotinate (CrNic) through a 15-day feeding experiment. The acute oral toxicity of CrMet was also investigated in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice by a single oral gavage. The anti-diabetic activity of CrMet was explored in detail from the aspects of body weight (BW), blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, liver glycogen levels, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. The obtained results showed that CrMet had beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, and might possess hepatoprotective efficacy for diabetes. Daily treatment with 500 and 1000μg Cr/kg BW of CrMet in AID mice for 15 days indicated that this low-molecular-weight organic chromium complex had better bioavailability and more beneficial effects on diabetics than CrCl3·6H2O. CrMet also had advantage over CrNic in the control of AST and ALT activities. Acute toxicity studies revealed that CrMet had low toxicity potential and relatively high safety margins in mice with the LD50 value higher than 10.0g/kg BW. These findings suggest that CrMet might be of potential value in the therapy and protection of diabetes.

  19. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects.

  20. The protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of depleted uranium in rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhui; Ren, Jiong; Liu, Jing; Luo, Shenglin; Ma, Ting; Li, Rong; Su, Yongping

    2012-12-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely used in both civilian and military activities and contributes to health problems. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of zinc against acute toxicity of DU. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with DU (10 mg/kg, i.p.) to create a toxicity model (DU group). Before and after the injection of DU, zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once a day for 2 days. The survival rates at 30 days post DU administration and the effects of zinc at 4 days post DU administration were evaluated. Our data indicate that zinc has obvious protective effects, especially pre-treatment with zinc. Rats pre-treated with zinc had significantly higher survival rates than rats in the DU group, with 60.03% more surviving. In addition, at 4 days post DU administration, the former had lower kidney uranium content, insignificant renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis and less transparent tubes. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine N-acethyl-β-d-glucosaminidase concentrations were significantly decreased; the gene expression levels of metallothionein (MT) in kidney tissues were significantly increased; and catalase levels were increased and malondialdehyde levels were decreased. In conclusion, pre-treatment with zinc significantly alleviated acute toxicity of DU, and the mechanism appeared to be related to the induction of MT synthesis and enhancement of the antioxidant function.

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of atrazine and its metabolites deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Ralston-Hooper, Kimberly; Hardy, Jeff; Hahn, Leighanne; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; Lee, Linda S; Mollenhauer, Robert; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the toxicity of the atrazine (ATRZ) metabolites desethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA). We evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of ATRZ, DEA, and DIA on the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Diporeia spp., and the unicellular algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In general, acute and chronic toxicity was ranked ATRZ > DEA > DIA. All 96-h median inhibition concentrations (IC(50)) were above concentrations found in the environment (>1,500 microg/L), and sensitivity was highest for the algae. When amphipods were exposed chronically (21 days), Diporeia was several orders of magnitude more sensitive compared to H. azteca. Neither ATRZ nor DEA altered H. azteca sex ratios. In conclusion, our results suggest that short-term exposures of these chemicals to algae and amphipods to concentrations routinely detected in surface waters are unlikely to be a cause of concern. However, the unexpected high sensitivity of Diporeia spp. to these herbicides deserves further attention considering the declining status of this amphipod in the Great Lakes basin.

  2. Acute toxic effects of fenpyroximate acaricide on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859).

    PubMed

    Doğan, Nesli; Yazıcı, Zehra; Şişman, Turgay; Aşkin, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Fenpyroximate (FP), an acaricide, is widely used in the prevention of acarids (mites) in fruit plant gardens. In this study, the acute toxic effects of different concentrations of FP were investigated using adult guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Guppy adults were exposed to a range of FP concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/L) during 48 h. Static method, which is one of the acute toxicity experiments, has been used in this study. According to probit analysis, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) value of FP at 26°C was found to be 72.821 µg/L. Sublethal exposures were predetermined based on 48-h LC50 value. Guppies were exposed to low concentrations (15, 25, and 50 µg/L) of FP for 48 h. Signs of paralysis and behavior deformations were monitored every 12 h in a number of live and dead adults. Low concentrations of FP were also responsible for erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and being lethargic. Liver histology revealed several pathological damages including congestion, picnotic nucleus, sinusoidal dilatation, increase in melanomacrophagic centers, and endothelial degeneration. Finally, the toxicity test results provided 48-h LC50 value for FP, and low concentrations of FP can be highly detrimental to guppy adults with clear evidence of behavioral and histologic effects. PMID:22508399

  3. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera.

  4. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  5. Accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan R; Paul, Kai B; Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2015-04-01

    Frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (BLM) and tissue residue approach (TRA)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of PVP-, PEG-, and citrate-AgNPs, in comparison to dissolved Ag, in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether parameters of bioavailability and accumulation predict acute toxicity. In both species, uptake rate constants for AgNPs were ∼ 2-10 times less than for dissolved Ag and showed significant rank order concordance with acute toxicity. Ag elimination by L. variegatus fitted a 1-compartment loss model, whereas elimination in D. magna was biphasic. The latter showed consistency with studies that reported daphnids ingesting NPs, whereas L. variegatus biodynamic parameters indicated that uptake and efflux were primarily determined by the bioavailability of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs. Thus, principles of BLM and TRA frameworks are confounded by the feeding behavior of D. magna where the ingestion of AgNPs perturbs the relationship between tissue concentrations and acute toxicity, but such approaches are applicable when accumulation and acute toxicity are linked to dissolved concentrations. The uptake rate constant, as a parameter of bioavailability inclusive of all available pathways, could be a successful predictor of acute toxicity.

  6. Acute toxicities of pharmaceuticals toward green algae. mode of action, biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system and quantile regression models.

    PubMed

    Villain, Jonathan; Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2016-02-01

    The acute toxicities of 36 pharmaceuticals towards green algae were estimated from a set of quantile regression models representing the first global quantitative structure-activity relationships. The selection of these pharmaceuticals was based on their predicted environmental concentrations. An agreement between the estimated values and the observed acute toxicity values was found for several families of pharmaceuticals, in particular, for antidepressants. A recent classification (BDDCS) of drugs based on ADME properties (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) was clearly correlated with the acute ecotoxicities towards algae. Over-estimation of toxicity from our QSAR models was observed for classes 2, 3 and 4 whereas our model results were in agreement for the class 1 pharmaceuticals. Clarithromycin, a class 3 antibiotic characterized by weak metabolism and high solubility, was the most toxic to algae (molecular stability and presence in surface water).

  7. Acute toxicities of pharmaceuticals toward green algae. mode of action, biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system and quantile regression models.

    PubMed

    Villain, Jonathan; Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2016-02-01

    The acute toxicities of 36 pharmaceuticals towards green algae were estimated from a set of quantile regression models representing the first global quantitative structure-activity relationships. The selection of these pharmaceuticals was based on their predicted environmental concentrations. An agreement between the estimated values and the observed acute toxicity values was found for several families of pharmaceuticals, in particular, for antidepressants. A recent classification (BDDCS) of drugs based on ADME properties (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) was clearly correlated with the acute ecotoxicities towards algae. Over-estimation of toxicity from our QSAR models was observed for classes 2, 3 and 4 whereas our model results were in agreement for the class 1 pharmaceuticals. Clarithromycin, a class 3 antibiotic characterized by weak metabolism and high solubility, was the most toxic to algae (molecular stability and presence in surface water). PMID:26590695

  8. Comparative acute toxicity and primary irritancy of the ethylidene and vinyl isomers of norbornene.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Myers, R C; Klonne, D R

    1997-01-01

    The acute toxicity and primary irritancy of the industrial chemicals 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) and 5-vinyl-2-norbornene (VNB) were studied. They are of moderate acute peroral toxicity in the rat, with LD50 values for ENB of 2.54 (male) and 5.66 (female) ml kg(-1), and for VNB of 5.90 (male) and 11.9 (female) ml kg(-1). Percutaneous toxicity is slight in the rabbit by 24-h occluded contact, with no mortalities for ENB up to 8.0 ml kg(-1) and only one mortality (male) at 16.0 ml kg(-1) VNB. Dynamically generated saturated vapor atmosphere LT50 values for ENB in the rat were 75 (male) and 125 (female) min, and for VNB they were 28 (male) and 37 (female) min. The 4-h LC50 values for ENB were 2717 (male) and 3015 (female) ppm, and for VNB they were 2231 (male) and 2518 (female) ppm. Intravenously, the ENB LD50 ranged from 0.09 (male rabbit) to 0.11 ml kg(-1) (female); corresponding LD50 values for VNB were 0.10-0.05 mg kg(-1). Acute neurotoxic signs were seen by the intravenous and inhalation routes of exposure, including tremors, ataxia and convulsions; the latter were sufficient to cause vertebral column luxation or fracture, producing spinal cord compression and resultant hindlimb paralysis. Both ENB and VNB are moderately irritating to the skin (rabbit), causing erythema and edema, but not necrosis. Both materials cause slight conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis in rabbits, but not corneal injury. PMID:9285533

  9. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity after Drug Holiday: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaid, Ahmed; Saad, Marwan; Ayan, Mohamed; Kabach, Amjad; Mahfood Haddad, Toufik; Smer, Aiman; Arouni, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone is reported to cause a wide continuum of serious clinical effects. It is often challenging to detect Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT). Typically, the diagnosis is made based on the clinical settings and may be supported by histopathology results, if available. We describe a 57-year-old patient who developed severe rapidly progressive respiratory failure secondary to AIPT with acute bilateral infiltrates and nodular opacities on chest imaging. Interestingly, Amiodarone was discontinued 3 weeks prior to his presentation. He had normal cardiac filling pressures confirmed by echocardiography. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated acute lung injury induced by Amiodarone, three weeks after therapy cessation, with adequate clinical improvement after supportive management and high dose steroid therapy. PMID:26075108

  10. MTHFR polymorphisms' influence on outcome and toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Chiusolo, Patrizia; Reddiconto, Giovanni; Farina, Giuliana; Mannocci, Alice; Fiorini, Alessia; Palladino, Mariangela; La Torre, Giuseppe; Fianchi, Luana; Sorà, Federica; Laurenti, Luca; Leone, Giuseppe; Sica, Simona

    2007-12-01

    Recently the influence of polymorphisms of different genes involved in metabolism of chemoterapic agents have been studied especially in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated the influence of C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms on time to relapse and survival and on methotrexate (MTX) toxicity in 82 ALL adult patients. Relapse free survival and event free survival between homozygous wild-type and variant patients in both polymorphisms were not significantly different. However, we observed an association between 677TT variant and survival in a subset of ALL patients homogenously treated with MTX-based maintenance (p=0.02). In the same subgroup we confirmed the role of 677TT variant on toxicity during MTX treatment (p=0.003). PMID:17512587

  11. Nanosilica and Polyacrylate/Nanosilica: A Comparative Study of Acute Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chang, Bing; Tong, Zhao-Hui; Cao, Wen; Qiao, Pei-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Song, Yu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We compared the acute toxicity of nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica instillation in Wistar rats (n = 60). Exposure to nanosilica and polyacrylate/nanosilica showed a 30% mortality rate. When compared with saline-treated rats, animals in both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of PO2 (P < 0.05) at both 24 and 72 hr. after exposure. Both exposure groups exhibited a significant reduction of neutrophils in arterial blood compared to saline controls (P < 0.05) 24 hr. after exposure. The levels of blood ALT and LDH in exposed groups were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.05) 24 hr. following exposure. The exposed groups exhibited various degrees of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. Our findings indicated respiratory exposure to polyacrylate/nanosilica and nanosilica is likely to cause multiple organ toxicity. PMID:26981538

  12. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  13. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  14. Correlation between heavy metal acute toxicity values in Daphnia magna and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In the toxicant bioassays, invertebrates with special reference to aquatic arthropod species have been of recent interest as test models due to the need for developing nonmammalian tests system. The cladoceran Daphnia magna bioassays have several practical advantages. D. magna has been used as a useful test species and its sensitivity to environmental pollutants have been recognized as a general representative of other freshwater zooplankton species. The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of various heavy metals to Daphnia magna for 48 h of exposure and to compare these values with the existing LC50 values for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); which is commonly used as a test animal in aquatic bioassay studies.

  15. Acid volatile sulfide predicts the acute toxicity of cadmium and nickel in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, D.M.; Mahony, J.D.; Hansen, D.J.; Scott, K.J.; Carlson, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory toxicity tests using amphipods, oligochaetes, and snails with spiked freshwater and marine sediments and with contaminated sediments collected from an EPA Superfund site demonstrate that no significant mortality occurs relative to controls if the molar concentration of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in the sediment is greater than the molar concentration of simultaneously extracted cadmium and/or nickel. Although it is well-known that these metals can form insoluble sulfides, it apparently has not been realized that AVS is a reactive pool of solid-phase sulfide that is available to bind metals and render that portion unavailable and nontoxic to biota. Thus, the AVS concentration of a sediment establishes the boundary below which these metals cease to exhibit an acute toxicity in freshwater and marine sediments.

  16. Acute toxicity of T2 mycotoxin to the guinea-pig by inhalation and subcutaneous routes.

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, T. C.; Edginton, J. A.; Price, P. N.; Upshall, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    The acute inhalation and subcutaneous toxicity of T2 mycotoxin has been investigated in guinea-pigs. The toxicity by the two routes was quantitatively and qualitatively similar. The LCt50 was 5749 mg min m-3 and the subcutaneous LD50 1-2 mg kg-1. Histological changes in the decedents which were similar by both routes of administration were most marked in the lymphoreticular system but also occurred in the gut. Lymphocytolysis and phagocytosis occurred in both the cortex of the thymus and of the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were more severely affected in the decedents among the animals dosed with T2 by the subcutaneous route. The small intestine exhibited dead and dying cells throughout the lamina propria after T2 by either route. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3707855

  17. Acute toxicity of hydrazine hydrate to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and daphnid (Daphnia pulex)

    SciTech Connect

    Velte, J.S.

    1984-11-01

    Utilities that depend on steam generation for the production of electricity have benefitted greatly from the use of hydrazine (H/sub 2/NNH/sub 2/). The chemical is a strong antioxidant that reacts with oxygen in water to form water and nitrogen gas. Deoxygenated boiler water helps reduce oxidation inside boilers and steam systems, thereby increasing their efficiency and longevity. Idle boilers are protected with layup solutions of hydrazine in concentrations as high as 200 mg/L. Hydrazine may enter the aquatic environment as controlled industrial discharge or as a result of an accidental spill. Data on the aquatic toxicity of hydrazine hydrate, however, are lacking. This paper addresses the acute toxicity of hydrazine hydrate to a freshwater fish (fathead minnow, Pimephalas promelas) and invertebrate (daphnid, Daphnia pulex).

  18. Acute toxic effects of two lampricides on twenty-one freshwater invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert P.; King, Everett Louis

    1976-01-01

    We conducted laboratory static bioassays to determine acute toxicity of two lampricides -- a 70% 2-aminoethanol salt of 5,2'dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide (Bayer 73) and a mixture containing 98% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2% Bayer 73 (TFM-2B) -- to 21 freshwater invertebrates. LC50 values were determined for 24-h exposure periods at 12.8 C. Organisms relatively sensitive to Bayer 73 were a turbellarian (Dugesia tigrina), aquatic earthworms (Tubifex tubifex and Lumbriculus inconstans), snails (Physa sp.) and (Pleurocera sp.), a clam (Eliptio dilatatus), blackflies (Simulium sp.), leeches (Erpobdellidae), and a daphnid (Daphnia pulex). The invertebrates most sensitive to TFM-2B were turbellarians, aquatic earthworms (Tubifex), snails (Physa), blackflies, leeches, and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia sp.). Bayer 73 was generally much more toxic to the test organisms than TFM-2B. At lampricidal concentrations, TFM-2B was more highly selective than Bayer 73 against larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

  19. Evaluation of the anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and in vivo acute toxicity of Annona sylvatic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The recent emergence of extensively multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains has further complicated the control of tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for the development of new molecular candidates antitubercular drugs. Medicinal plants have been an excellent source of leads for the development of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of 28 alcoholic extracts and essential oils of native and exotic Brazilian plants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to further study these extracts through chemical fractionation, the isolation of their constituents, and an evaluation of the in vivo acute toxicity of the active extracts. To the best of our knowledge this is the first chemical characterization, antituberculosis activity and acute toxicity evaluation of Annona sylvatica. Methods The anti-mycobacterial activity of these extracts and their constituent compounds was evaluated using the resazurin reduction microtiter assay (REMA). To investigate the acute toxicity of these extracts in vivo, female Swiss mice were treated with the extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg · kg-1 of body weight. The extracts were characterized by LC-MS, and the constituents were isolated and identified by chromatographic analysis of spectroscopic data. Results Of the 28 extracts, the methanol extract obtained from the leaves of Annona sylvatica showed anti-mycobacterial activity with an minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 184.33 μg/mL, and the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) resulting from liquid-liquid partitioning of the A. sylvatica extract showed an MIC of 115.2 μg/mL. The characterization of this extract by LC-MS identified flavonoids and acetogenins as its main constituents. The phytochemical study of the A. sylvatica EAF resulted in the isolation of quercetin, luteolin, and almunequin. Conclusions Among the compounds isolated from the EAF, luteolin and almunequin were the most promising, with MICs of 236.8

  20. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vesprini, Danny; Catton, Charles; Jacks, Lindsay; Lockwood, Gina; Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Nichol, Alan; Skala, Marketa; Warde, Padraig; Bristow, Robert G.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6-79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of {>=}2 were considered 'sensitive' (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered 'nonsensitive' (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70-82%) of the 'nonsensitive' patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43-62%) of the 'sensitive' patients (log-rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; 'nonsensitive' 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74-86%) vs. 'sensitive' BFFR was 68% (CI 58-76%; log-rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop {>=}Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further study and, if validated in other large IGRT cohorts

  1. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  2. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    PubMed

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  3. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  4. Quantitative comparisons of acute toxicity of organic chemicals to rat and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Janardan, S.K.; Olson, C.S.; Schaeffer, D.J.

    1984-12-01

    Relationships between the acute toxicity of chemicals to fish (LC50) and rat (LD50) were analyzed using a Model II regression analysis after logarithmic transformation. (Model II regression assumes errors in both variables.) Significant correlations were found among bluegill and fathead minnow LC50S and rat LD50 values for the priority pollutants. Fathead minnow and bluegill LC50S for 48 pesticides were highly correlated. No correlations were found between fishes and rats for carbamate plus organophosphate pesticides. Correlations were obtained among all species for the combined priority pollutant plus pesticide data and for chlorinated pesticides.

  5. Toxic acute hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis after consumption of chaparral tablets.

    PubMed

    Kauma, H; Koskela, R; Mäkisalo, H; Autio-Harmainen, H; Lehtola, J; Höckerstedt, K

    2004-11-01

    In this report we describe a young, previously healthy woman who developed severe acute hepatitis after consumption of chaparral tablets, a commonly used herbal product. In this case, the elimination-rechallenge event and the exclusion of other possible aetiologic factors strongly supported true causality between the herbal product and the liver damage. Primary liver biopsy showed severe toxic hepatitis consistent with previous reports of chaparral-induced liver damage. Later, 6 months after the liver function tests had normalized, permanent hepatic fibrosis could still be seen.

  6. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. In vitro Anthelmintic activity was tested against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Relaxant activities were tested on spontaneous rabbits’ jejunal preparations. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to elucidate possible mode of action of the extract. Results LD 50 of the extract for acute toxicity studies was 887.75 ± 9.22 mg/ml. While CC 50 of the extract for Brine shrimps cytotoxicity assay was 13.28 ± 2.47 μg/ml. Test samples of crude methanolic extract of R. fruticosus (Rf.Cr) at concentration 20 mg/ml showed excellent anthelmintic activity against Raillietina spiralis. Anthelmintic activity was 1.37 times of albendazole against the Raillietina spiralis at concentration 40 mg/ml. At higher concentration (40 mg/ml), Rf.Cr has 89. 83% parasiticidal activity. The mean EC50 relaxation activity for spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions was 7.96 ± 0.1 and 6.45 ± 0.29 mg/ml, respectively. EC 50 (Log[Ca++]M) for control calcium chloride curves was −1.75 ± 0.01 vs. EC 50 −1.78 ± 0.06 in the presence of 3.0 mg/ml of Rf.Cr. Similarly, EC 50(Log[Ca++]M) in the absence and presence of verapamil (0.1 μM) were −2.46 ± 0.01 and −1.72 ± 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The anthelmintic and relaxant activities explained traditional uses of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Relaxant activity follows the inhibition of voltage gated channels. Although the plant extract has cytotoxic effects, yet it is

  7. Reduction in organic effluent static acute toxicity to fathead minnows by various aeration techniques.

    PubMed

    Belanger, S E; Farris, J L; Cherry, D S

    1988-01-01

    This study compared results of no aeration, intermittent aeration, and constant aeration strategies in determining the static acute (48-h) toxicity of phenolic-based effluents to adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Toxicity was greatest in no aeration tests followed by intermittent aeration and constant aeration. Two factors were considered responsible for the observed patterns of toxicity. First, in side-by-side tests of no versus intermittent aeration and intermittent versus constant aeration, toxicity reductions were directly attributed to maintenance of dissolved oxygen above 5.0 mg litre(-1) in aerated containers. Secondly, toxicity was reduced when treatment system temperatures were warmest, probably due to increased microbial activity and volatilisation during late spring to early autumn (temperatures > 16 degrees C). Effluent was slightly more toxic on- than off-site, presumably due to degradation of phenolic compounds during transport and set-up at the off-site laboratory (approximately 4.5 h). Gill tissue ultrastructure and histopathology were used to determine the extent of effluent-induced damage and the recovery of minnows to short (6-h) effluent exposures. After a 48-h exposure to the approximate LC(50) level, gill tissue lamellae were characteristically desquamated with epithelium lifting from the basement membrane. Gill tissue was similarly damaged after a 6-h exposure to 100% effluent and had recovered to pre-exposure conditions after 42 h in clean water. Aeration strategies in these studies demonstrated potential air-stripping of volatile compounds, although stress to test organisms from low dissolved oxygen was relieved.

  8. Acute lethal toxicity of some reference chemicals to freshwater fishes of Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.O.J.

    1987-07-01

    Relevance of the choice of a test organism intended to be representative for a given environment seems to be under continual debate in aquatic ecotoxicology. For instance, it is commonly argue that acute toxicity tests with rainbow trout, the species most often recommended as a standard cold water teleost, were not representative for Nordic countries because the species is an alien in local faunas. A comparative study with several freshwater species was therefore initiated to clarify the validity of this assumption. As a first approximation, standard LC 50 assays were conducted. The species used were chosen only on the basis of their local availability, i.e, they randomly represented the fish fauna of Nordic inland waters. Furthermore, inter-species variation of toxicity response was compared with certain other, quantitatively more important, intra-species sources of variability affecting the toxicity of chemicals. Use of reference toxicants has been recommended as a means of standardizing bioassays. Compounds, characteristic of effluents from the pulp and paper industry, were selected for the present study. The toxicity of organic acids such a phenols and resin acids, as well as that of pupmill effluents, strongly depends on water pH. Because of the possibility that species differences could exist in this respect, effects of water acidity on toxicity of these types of substances to a randomly selected local species was investigated. Finally, as an example of the biological source of assay variability, the effect of yolk absorption was studied with a subsequent crisis period due to moderate starvation under laboratory conditions.

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of Acute Skin Toxicity among Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Green, Sheryl; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives One of the most common acute side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy is treatment induced skin changes, referred to as skin toxicity. Yet no research to date has focused expressly on skin toxicity-related quality of life in breast cancer radiotherapy patients. Therefore, our aim was to use qualitative approaches to better understand the impact of skin toxicity on quality of life. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women (Stage 0-III breast cancer), during their last week of external beam radiotherapy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. Results Three themes were identified based on the interview responses: First, skin changes affect multiple dimensions of quality of life. They cause physical discomfort, body image disturbance, emotional distress, and impair both day-to-day functioning and satisfaction with radiation treatment. Second, individual differences affect women’s experiences. Generally African-American women, younger women, women who are not currently in a relationship, women who are being treated during the summer, and women who are more invested in their appearance are more distressed by skin toxicity. Third, women use a variety of symptom management strategies including self-medication, complementary/alternative medicine approaches, and psychological strategies. Conclusions Implications of results are: 1) Skin toxicity affects numerous dimensions of quality of life, and assessment approaches and psychosocial interventions should address this; 2) individual differences may affect the experience of skin toxicity, and should be considered in treatment and education approaches; and 3) participants’ own creativity and problem-solving should be used to improve the treatment experience. PMID:20238306

  10. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment.

  11. [Acute Toxicity and Safety Assessment of Three Typical Organic Pollutants to Two Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ya-jie; Cui, Yi-bin; Li, Mei

    2015-08-01

    Acute toxic effects of three typical organic pollutants 1 ,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB), nitrobenzene and chlorpyrifos were investigated using Tetrahymena thermophila and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri as living test organisms under laboratory conditions. The results showed that with the increase of pollutants' concentration and the extension of time, toxicity of the three kinds of pollutants significantly enhanced, and the mortality of two kinds of aquatic organisms also had a rising trend, and an obvious dose-effect relationship. The 96 h-LC50. values of 1 ,2, 4-TCB, nitrobenzene and chlorpyrifos were 71.88, 285.76, and 5.50 mg x L(-1) for L. hoffmeisteri and 15.58, 140.22, and 14.69 mg x L(-1) for T. thermophila. These results showed that the toxicity among the three typical pollutants to T. thermophila was 1 , 2,4-TCB > chlorpyrifos > nitrobenzene. Findings were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. PMID:26592043

  12. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  13. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization. PMID:21072022

  14. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management.

  15. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  16. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  17. Acute toxicity evaluation of JP-8 jet fuel and JP-8 jet fuel containing additives. Final report, November 1995-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.E.; Kinead, E.R.; Feldmann, M.L.; Leahy, H.F.; Jederberg, W.W.

    1996-11-01

    To reduce fuel fouling in current U.S Navy and Air Force aircraft systems and to provide additional heat sink and thermal stability for future systems, the Air Force is developing an improved JP-8 jet fuel (JP-8 + 100). Two companies (Betz and Mobil) have developed additive packages that are currently being tested in aircraft systems. To determine if the additive packages will produce health effects for flightline personnel, acute testing was performed on JP-8 and the two JP-8 + 100 jet fuels. A single oral dose at 5 mg jet fuel/kg body weight to five male and five female F-344 rats, and a single dermal application of 2 g jet fuel/kg body weight applied to five male and five female NZW rabbits resulted in no deaths. No signs of toxic stress were observed, and all animals gained weight over the 14-day observation periods. Single treatment of 0.5 mL neat jet fuel to rabbit skin produced negative results for skin irritation. Guinea pigs tailed to elicit a sensitization response following repeated applications of the jet fuels. Inhalation vapor exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 (Mobil) were determined to be >3.43, >3.52, and >3.57 mg/L, respectively. LD% values for aerosol exposure to JP-8, JP-8 + 100 (Betz), and JP-8 + 100 (Mobil) were >4.44, >4.39, and >4.54 mg/L, respectively. Under the conditions of these tests, the additive packages did not potentiate the acute effects normally associated with JP-8 jet fuel exposures.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  19. Protectiveness of species sensitivity distribution hazard concentrations for acute toxicity used in endangered species risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Delos, Charles; Barron, Mace G

    2008-12-01

    A primary objective of threatened and endangered species conservation is to ensure that chemical contaminants and other stressors do not adversely affect listed species. Assessments of the ecological risks of chemical exposures to listed species often rely on the use of surrogate species, safety factors, and species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of chemical toxicity; however, the protectiveness of these approaches can be uncertain. We comprehensively evaluated the protectiveness of SSD first and fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC1, HC5) relative to the application of safety factors using 68 SSDs generated from 1,482 acute (lethal concentration of 50%, or LC50) toxicity records for 291 species, including 24 endangered species (20 fish, four mussels). The SSD HC5s and HCls were lower than 97 and 99.5% of all endangered species mean acute LC50s, respectively. The HC5s were significantly less than the concentrations derived from applying safety factors of 5 and 10 to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) toxicity data, and the HCls were generally lower than the concentrations derived from a safety factor of 100 applied to rainbow trout toxicity values. Comparison of relative sensitivity (SSD percentiles) of broad taxonomic groups showed that crustaceans were generally the most sensitive taxa and taxa sensitivity was related to chemical mechanism of action. Comparison of relative sensitivity of narrow fish taxonomic groups showed that standard test fish species were generally less sensitive than salmonids and listed fish. We recommend the use of SSDs as a distribution-based risk assessment approach that is generally protective of listed species.

  20. Predictors of Severe Acute and Late Toxicities in Patients With Localized Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Francois; Fortin, Andre; Wang, Chang Shu; Liu, Geoffrey

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) causes acute and late toxicities that affect various organs and functions. In a large cohort of patients treated with RT for localized head and neck cancer (HNC), we prospectively assessed the occurrence of RT-induced acute and late toxicities and identified characteristics that predicted these toxicities. Methods and Materials: We conducted a randomized trial among 540 patients treated with RT for localized HNC to assess whether vitamin E supplementation could improve disease outcomes. Adverse effects of RT were assessed using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute Radiation Morbidity Criteria during RT and one month after RT, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme at six and 12 months after RT. The most severe adverse effect among the organs/tissues was selected as an overall measure of either acute or late toxicity. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were considered as severe. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify all independent predictors (p < 0.05) of acute or late toxicity and to estimate odds ratios (OR) for severe toxicity with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed in 23% and 4% of patients, respectively, for acute and late toxicity. Four independent predictors of severe acute toxicity were identified: sex (female vs. male: OR = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-2.80), Karnofsky Performance Status (OR = 0.67 for a 10-point increment, 95% CI: 0.52-0.88), body mass index (above 25 vs. below: OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.22-2.90), TNM stage (Stage II vs. I: OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.25-2.92). Two independent predictors were found for severe late toxicity: female sex (OR = 3.96, 95% CI: 1.41-11.08) and weight loss during RT (OR = 1.26 for a 1 kg increment, 95% CI: 1.12-1.41). Conclusions: Knowledge of these predictors easily collected in a clinical setting could help

  1. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Liang; Liu, Sihua; He, Qian; Wang, Qianqian; Ye, Xuting; Liu, Guoyan; Nie, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50) of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B), decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (%) had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity. PMID:21731547

  2. Comprehensive mollusk acute toxicity database improves the use of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models to predict toxicity of untested freshwater and endangered mussel species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models extrapolate acute toxicity data from surrogate test species to untested taxa. A suite of ICE models developed from a comprehensive database is available on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s web-based application, Web-I...

  3. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  4. Acute toxicity of arsenic to Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox bioassay) as influenced by potential competitive-protective agents.

    PubMed

    Rubinos, David A; Calvo, Valeria; Iglesias, Luz; Barral, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of some potential alleviative compounds against the acute toxicity of arsenic (As(V), As(III) and DMA(V)) on Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri), a bioluminescent model bacterium, through the Microtox bioassay. The compounds studied differed in their mechanism of action, and they included the following: phosphate and glycerol, as chemical analogues (and potential competitors) of As(V) or As(III), respectively; citrate, a weak natural organic ligand; and the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Special attention was paid to phosphate effects, a widespread pollutant in natural environments. As(V) was found to be more acutely toxic than As(III) to A. fischeri, in accordance with its higher interaction with the bacteria. Both As(V) and As(III) were found to be much more acutely toxic than DMA(V), which was essentially non-acutely toxic even at very high concentrations. Phosphate presence (at equimolar P/As ratios or higher) resulted in the almost total suppression of bioluminescence inhibition, suggesting it exerts an alleviative effect against As(V) acute toxicity on A. fischeri. Interestingly, the uptake and the percentage of extracellular As(V) were not affected by the addition of phosphate, suggesting that such protective effect does not result from the competition for their common transporters. In contrast, the acute toxicity of As(III) was essentially unaffected by phosphate. Glycerol did not decrease the acute toxicity or the uptake of As(III) by A. fischeri, denoting the likely occurrence of an additional mechanism for As(III) uptake in such bacteria. Similarly, citrate and ascorbic acid essentially did not caused alleviation of As(V) or As(III) acute toxicity. As for environmental and operational implications, P could beneficially protect aquatic microorganisms against acute detrimental effects of As(V), whilst its presence could mask the toxicity due to As(V) when assessed using the Microtox bioassay, thus leading to

  5. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in soft surface waters.

    PubMed

    Van Genderen, Eric J; Ryan, Adam C; Tomasso, Joseph R; Klaine, Stephen J

    2005-02-01

    The hardness-based regulatory approach for Cu prescribes an extrapolation of the toxicity-versus-hardness relationship to low hardness (< or =50 mg/L as CaCO3). Hence, the objective of the present research was to evaluate the influences of water quality on acute Cu toxicity to larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) in low-hardness surface waters. Seasonal water sampling was conducted at 24 sites throughout South Carolina, USA, to determine the site-specific influences of soft surface-water conditions on acute Cu toxicity. Concurrent toxicity tests in laboratory water, matched for hardness and alkalinity (modified method), also were conducted to allow calculation of water-effect ratios (WERs). In addition, tests were conducted at recommended hardness levels (recommended method) for comparison of WER methodology in soft water. Surface-water conditions (average+/-standard deviation, n = 53) were hardness of 16+/-8 mg/L as CaCO3, alkalinity of 18+/-11 mg/L as CaCO3, and dissolved organic carbon of 6+/-4 mg/L. Dissolved Cu 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values varied nearly 45-fold across the dataset and greater than four-fold at individual sites. Spatial (p < 0.0001) and seasonal (p = 0.026) differences among LC50 values were determined for eight sites that had multiple toxicity results for one year. All modified WERs were greater than 1.0, suggesting that the site waters were more protective of Cu toxicity than the matched laboratory water. Some WERs generated using recommended methods were less than 1.0, suggesting limited site-specific protection. Based on these observations, extrapolation of the hardness-based equation for Cu at 50 mg/L or less as CaCO3 would adequately protect fathead minnow populations in soft surface waters. The WER results presented here demonstrate the inconsistency between hardness-based criteria and the methodology for deriving site-specific water-quality criteria in low-hardness waters.

  6. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  7. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA.

  8. Influence of dissolved organic matter on acute toxicity of zinc to larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Bringolf, Robert B; Morris, Brady A; Boese, Connie J; Santore, Robert C; Allen, Herbert E; Meyer, Joseph S

    2006-10-01

    We conducted laboratory toxicity tests in support of the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of zinc (Zn) to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). To test the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on Zn toxicity, we exposed larval fathead minnows to Zn in water containing elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in 96-h static-renewal toxicity tests. We tested DOM isolated from four surface waters: Cypress Swamp, Delaware; Edisto River, South Carolina; Suwannee River, Georgia; and Wilmington, Delaware, wastewater treatment effluent. The DOM isolates from the Edisto River and Wilmington wastewater treatment effluent contained elevated concentrations of NaCl (20-110x control NaCl) due to the use of a Na+-exchange resin to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ during the DOM isolation process. Therefore, we also performed Zn toxicity tests in which we added up to 20 mM NaCl to exposure solutions containing Cypress Swamp and Suwannee River DOM. A threshold concentration of 11 mg DOC/L was needed to decrease Zn toxicity, after which the 96 h Zn LC50 was positively correlated with DOC concentration. Elevated NaCl concentrations did not alter Zn toxicity in the presence of DOM. In conjunction with data from other studies with fish and invertebrates, results of this study were used to calibrate Version 2.1.1 of the Zn BLM. BLM-predicted LC50s for our exposure waters containing elevated DOM concentrations were within the range of acceptable deviation relative to the observed LC50s (i.e., 0.5-2x observed LC50s); however, BLM-predicted LC50s for our exposure waters containing < 1 mg DOC/L were 2-3x lower than the observed LC50s (i.e., the BLM over-predicted the toxicity). Therefore, the current composite-species BLM for Zn could be improved for fathead minnows if that species were modeled separately from the other species used to calibrate Version 2.1.1. PMID:16788742

  9. Acute Skin Toxicity Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Who's at Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Laser, Benjamin; Kowalski, Alex V.; Fontenla, Sandra C.; Pena-Greenberg, Elizabeth; Yorke, Ellen D.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Hunt, Margie A.; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: We examined the rate of acute skin toxicity within a prospectively managed database of patients treated for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigated factors that might predict skin toxicity. Methods: From May 2006 through January 2008, 50 patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with 60 Gy in three fractions or 44-48 Gy in four fractions. Patients were treated with multiple coplanar beams (3-7, median 4) with a 6 MV linac using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and dynamic multileaf collimation. Toxicity grading was performed and based on the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin reactions were calculated by Fisher's exact test. Results: After a minimum 3 months of follow-up, 19 patients (38%) developed Grade 1, 4 patients (8%) Grade 2, 2 patients (4%) Grade 3, and 1 patient Grade 4 acute skin toxicity. Factors associated with Grade 2 or higher acute skin toxicity included using only 3 beams (p = 0.0007), distance from the tumor to the posterior chest wall skin of less than 5 cm (p = 0.006), and a maximum skin dose of 50% or higher of the prescribed dose (p = 0.02). Conclusions: SBRT can be associated with significant skin toxicity. One must consider the skin dose when evaluating the treatment plan and consider the bolus effect of immobilization devices.

  10. Safety evaluation of turmeric polysaccharide extract: assessment of mutagenicity and acute oral toxicity.

    PubMed

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Balasubramanian, Murali; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  11. Chlorosilane acute inhalation toxicity and development of an LC50 prediction model.

    PubMed

    Jean, Paul A; Gallavan, Robert H; Kolesar, Gary B; Siddiqui, Waheed H; Oxley, Jon A; Meeks, Robert G

    2006-07-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of 10 chlorosilanes was investigated in Fischer 344 rats using a 1-h whole-body vapor inhalation exposure and a 14-day recovery period. The median lethal concentration (LC50(1)) for each material was calculated from the nominal exposure concentrations and mortality. Experimentally derived LC50(1) values for monochlorosilanes (4257-4478 ppm) were greater than those for dichlorosilanes (1785-2092 ppm), which were greater than those for trichlorosilanes (1257-1611 ppm). Apparent was a strong structure-activity relationship (r2 = .97) between chlorine content and LC50(1) value. Estimated LC50(1) values for mono-, di-, and trichlorosilanes were determined to be 3262, 1639, and 1066 ppm, respectively, utilizing this relationship and the lower limit of the 95% prediction interval. The LC50(1) values determined in this series of studies were greater than that reported for hydrogen chloride (3124 ppm), when expressed on a chlorine equivalence basis (3570-5248 ppm), demonstrating that the acute toxicity of these chlorosilanes is similar to or less than that for hydrogen chloride. The good correlation between chlorine content and LC50(1) provides a sound basis for estimation of LC50(1) for chlorosilanes not already evaluated. The use of structure-activity relationships is consistent with the chemical industry and federal agency initiatives to reduce, refine, and/or replace the use of animals in testing without compromising the quality of health and safety assessments.

  12. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties.

  13. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  14. Acute and sublethal toxicity tests to monitor the impact of leachate on an aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M C; Banks, C J; Krivtsov, V

    2005-02-01

    In this study, a specific landfill leachate (1200 mg l(-1) COD and 600 mg l(-1) BOD(5)) was used to develop a standardised short-term acute and longer-term sublethal ex-situ toxicity testing programme, in order to determine the potential ecological implications of leaching contaminants reaching the water table. Bioassays were undertaken with juvenile Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus macro-invertebrates. Preliminary acute test variables included static and static renewed flow rates for 96-h, starved and fed specimens, and aerobic and oxygen depleting conditions. However, regardless of any test variable, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for A. aquaticus remained at 12.3% v/v leachate in deionized water, whilst that for G. pulex was only 1%. Sublethal toxicity was judged on the basis of frequency of births and the growth rate of newly born individuals. Tests showed that even a dilution as high as 1:66- would influence the fecundity of a Gammarus population, whilst a dilution of 1:20 would affect the size of an Asellus breeding colony.

  15. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    PubMed Central

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Yusof, Mohd Yasim

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24790603

  16. Acute and subacute toxicity assessment of lutein in lutein-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nidhi, Bhatiwada; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2013-10-01

    Dietary lutein consumption is lower than the actual recommended allowances to prevent macular degeneration; thus dietary lutein supplements have been recommended. This study aimed to investigate potential adverse effect of lutein from Tagetes erecta in lutein-deficient (LD) male mice. Preliminary acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 exceeded the highest dose of 10000 mg/kg BW. In a subacute study, male mice were gavaged with 0, 100, 1000 mg/kg BW/day for a period of 4 wk. Plasma lutein levels increased dose dependently (P < 0.01) after acute and subacute feeding of lutein in LD mice. Compared to the control (peanut oil without lutein) group, no treatment-related toxicologically significant effects of lutein were prominent in clinical observation, ophthalmic examinations, body, and organ weights. Further, no toxicologically significant findings were eminent in hematological, histopathological, and other clinical chemistry parameters. In the oral subacute toxicity study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for lutein in LD mice was determined as 1000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested.

  17. Acute toxicity of runoff from sealcoated pavement to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoated pavement is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles to surface waters. We investigated acute toxicity of simulated runoff collected from 5 h to 111 days after application of CT sealcoat and from 4 h to 36 days after application of asphalt-based sealcoat containing about 7% CT sealcoat (AS/CT-blend). Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladocerans) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) were exposed in the laboratory to undiluted and 1:10 diluted runoff for 48 h, then transferred to control water and exposed to 4 h of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Mortality following exposure to undiluted runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement and UVR was ≤10% in all treatments. Test organisms exposed to undiluted CT runoff samples collected during the 3 days (C. dubia) or 36 days (P. promelas) following sealcoat application experienced 100% mortality prior to UVR exposure; with UVR exposure, mortality was 100% for runoff collected across the entire sampling period. Phototoxic-equivalent PAH concentrations and mortality demonstrated an exposure-response relation. The results indicate that runoff remains acutely toxic for weeks to months after CT sealcoat application.

  18. A Market-Basket Approach to Predict the Acute Aquatic Toxicity of Munitions and Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-06-01

    An ongoing challenge in chemical production, including the production of insensitive munitions and energetics, is the ability to make predictions about potential environmental hazards early in the process. To address this challenge, a quantitative structure activity relationship model was developed to predict acute fathead minnow toxicity of insensitive munitions and energetic materials. Computational predictive toxicology models like this one may be used to identify and prioritize environmentally safer materials early in their development. The developed model is based on the Apriori market-basket/frequent itemset mining approach to identify probabilistic prediction rules using chemical atom-pairs and the lethality data for 57 compounds from a fathead minnow acute toxicity assay. Lethality data were discretized into four categories based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Apriori identified toxicophores for categories two and three. The model classified 32 of the 57 compounds correctly, with a fivefold cross-validation classification rate of 74 %. A structure-based surrogate approach classified the remaining 25 chemicals correctly at 48 %. This result is unsurprising as these 25 chemicals were fairly unique within the larger set.

  19. Acute toxicity of runoff from sealcoated pavement to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Van Metre, Peter C; Kunz, James L; Little, Edward E

    2015-04-21

    Runoff from coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoated pavement is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles to surface waters. We investigated acute toxicity of simulated runoff collected from 5 h to 111 days after application of CT sealcoat and from 4 h to 36 days after application of asphalt-based sealcoat containing about 7% CT sealcoat (AS/CT-blend). Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladocerans) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) were exposed in the laboratory to undiluted and 1:10 diluted runoff for 48 h, then transferred to control water and exposed to 4 h of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Mortality following exposure to undiluted runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement and UVR was ≤10% in all treatments. Test organisms exposed to undiluted CT runoff samples collected during the 3 days (C. dubia) or 36 days (P. promelas) following sealcoat application experienced 100% mortality prior to UVR exposure; with UVR exposure, mortality was 100% for runoff collected across the entire sampling period. Phototoxic-equivalent PAH concentrations and mortality demonstrated an exposure-response relation. The results indicate that runoff remains acutely toxic for weeks to months after CT sealcoat application.

  20. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Velusami, Chandrasekaran Chinampudur; Boddapati, Srinivasa Rao; Hongasandra Srinivasa, Srikanth; Richard, Edwin Jothie; Balasubramanian, Murali

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin). The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9). In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight. PMID:24455673

  1. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    PubMed

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50<5.000mg/kg). Therefore, this compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties. PMID:27208746

  2. Pediatric Craniospinal Axis Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: Patient Outcome and Lack of Acute Pulmonary Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter; Saylors, Robert; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To present the patient outcomes and risk of symptomatic acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) in 18 pediatric patients treated with helical tomotherapy to their craniospinal axis for a variety of neoplasms. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 patients received craniospinal axis irradiation with helical tomotherapy. The median age was 12 years (range, 2.5-21). The follow-up range was 3-48 months (median, 16.5). Of the 18 patients, 15 received chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or concomitant setting. Chemotherapy was tailored to the particular histologic diagnosis; 10 of 18 patients underwent surgical removal of the gross primary tumor. The patients were followed and evaluated for ARP starting at 3-6 months after completion of craniospinal axis irradiation. ARP was graded using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3. Results: At the last follow-up visit, 14, 2, and 2 patients were alive without disease, alive with disease, and dead of disease, respectively. The cause-specific survival rate was 89% (16 of 18), disease-free survival rate was 78% (14 of 18), and overall survival rate was 89% (16 of 18). No patient had treatment failure at the cribriform plate. No patient developed symptoms of ARP. Conclusion: Craniospinal axis irradiation using helical tomotherapy yielded encouraging patient outcomes and acute toxicity profiles. Although large volumes of the lung received low radiation doses, no patient developed symptoms of ARP during the follow-up period.

  3. Acute Oral Toxicity and Histopathological Study of Combination of Endosulfan and Cypermethrin in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Jaya; Mohineesh; Ray, Ruma; Dogra, T. D.; Raina, Anupuma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out to investigate the acute oral toxicity, behavioral and histopathological changes of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin in albino rats. According to Miller and Tainter analysis method, at 48 h, LD50 value of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin (ratio 1:1) in rats was found to be 691.83 mg/kg bw by oral gavage. Results: When combination of both these pesticides was administered orally at concentration of 103.72 mg/kg bw, 172.95 mg/kg bw and 207.50 mg/kg bw, respectively, as a single dose, no significant changes in behavior of rats was observed, neither in dosed nor in control group of rats. Combination of endosulfan- and cypermethrin-treated rats showed mild histopathological changes in liver and kidney in group IV (207.50 mg/kg BW) as compared to the control. However, no significant changes were observed in brain and small intestine at either dose of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin with respect to control. Conclusion: Thus, the present study, first of its kind in India, demonstrated the oral toxicity, behavioral, and histo-architectual alterations after induction of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin at acute doses in Wistar rats. PMID:23833440

  4. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Schmidt, Stine N; Stinckens, Evelyn; Maho, Walid; Blust, Ronny; Mayer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Knapen, Dries

    2015-11-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear dilution series. We report effect values for both mortality and sublethal morphological effects based on (1) measured exposure concentrations, (2) (lipid normalized) body residues and (3) chemical activity. The LC50 for 120hpf was 310μg/L, CBR50 (critical body residue) was 2.72mmol/kg fresh wt and La50 (lethal chemical activity) was 0.047. All values were within ranges expected for baseline toxicity. Impaired swim bladder inflation was the most pronounced morphological effect and swimming activity was reduced in all exposure concentrations. Further analysis showed that the effect on swimming activity was not attributed to impaired swim bladder inflation, but rather to baseline toxicity. We conclude that silicone O-rings (1) produce a linear dilution series of phenanthrene in the 120hpf FET test, (2) generate and maintain aqueous concentrations for reliable determination of effect concentrations, and allow for obtaining mechanistic toxicity information, and (3) cause no toxicity, demonstrating its potential as an extension of the FET test when testing hydrophobic chemicals. PMID:26026258

  5. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Radiation Toxins (SRD-1)had been isolated from Central Lymph of irradiated animals (cows, sheep, pigs). Experiments to study toxicity of Radiation Neurotoxins had been performed. Intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of RT SRD-1 to radiation naive animals had induced acute toxicity which referred to the harmful effects generated by high doses of radiation. In-jection of toxic doses of RT SRD-1 (Toxic doses: 0,1 mg/kg, 0,5mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10mg/kg,30 mg/kg, 50mg/kg,70 mg/kg,100 mg/kg, 110mg/kg)were compared to the similar effects caused by high doses of radiation. Results: Injection of SRD-1 ( Neurotoxin Cv ARS)of all ten tested toxic doses had caused a death of radiation naive animals within the first hours after admin-istration of toxins. For all animals in all experiments, a short period of extreme agitation was replaced by deep coma, and suppression of blood circulation and breathing. The results of postmortem section had showed characteristics of intra-cortical hemorrhage. Conclusions: Acute radiation injury induces a disorder of blood supply of the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, administration of SRD-1 Radiation Toxins to radiation naive animals produces crit-ically important inflammatory reactions with hemorrhagic stroke development. Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity are two stages of the pathological processes resulted in damaging and killing nerve cells thorough apoptotic necrosis. Excitotoxicity is well known as a pathological process that occurs when important excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate, serotonin) over-activate the receptors -NMDA, AMPA, 5HT1, 5HT2, 5H3. Radiation Neurotoxins possibly act on the same receptors and activate the cell death mechanisms through direct or indirect excessive activation of same receptors.

  6. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  7. In vitro studies of acute toxicity mechanisms and structure-activity relationships of nonionic surfactants in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Bodishbauah, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    In fish, gills are believed to be a primary target for a number of toxicants. Gills perform the essential systemic functions of gas exchange, waste elimination, and ion/pH balance, and are exposed to ambient environmental toxicant levels. Qualitative gill morphology changes are easily observed, but quantitative measures of impaired function are difficult. This in vitro technique utilizes the opercular epithelium of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as a surrogate for gill epithelium in mechanistic toxicity and structure-activity studies. This model has long been used by electrophysiologists studying osmoregulation in marine fish. Effects on trans-epithelial potential (TEP) and/or short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) across the opercular epithelium can be made for any pollutant of interest, using an epithelial voltage clamp and Ussing chamber. The nonionic synthetic surfactant class, alkylphenol ethoxylates, were chosen as a model toxicant class to test this experimental model. Synthetic surfactants are ubiquitous waterborne pollutants, with annual North American usage approaching eight billion pounds. Surfactants are recognized as potent, acute gill toxicants in fish. The exact mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated. These compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of both TEP and I{sub sc} in vitro, at dose levels comparable to those causing lethality, suggesting that impaired osmoregulation plays a role in their acute toxicity. Similar structure-activity relationships were found for the endpoints of acute lethality to F. heteroclitus and impaired in vitro epithelial transport.

  8. Transformation pathways and acute toxicity variation of 4-hydroxyl benzophenone in chlorination disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Qi; Du, Yuguo

    2016-07-01

    Benzophenones compounds (BPs) are widely used as UV filters, and have been frequently found in multiple environmental matrices. The residual of BPs in water would cause potential threats on ecological safety and human health. Chlorination disinfection is necessary in water treatment process, in which many chemicals remained in water would react with disinfectant chlorine and form toxic by-products. By using ultra performance liquid phase chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the transformation of 4-hydroxyl benezophenone (4HB) with free available chlorine (FAC) was characterized. Eight major products were detected and seven of them were identified. Transformation pathways of 4HB under acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions were proposed respectively. The transformation mechanisms involved electrophilic chlorine substitution of 4HB, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, hydrolysis of esters and oxidative breakage of benzene ring. The orthogonal experiments of pH and dosages of disinfectant chlorine were conducted. The results suggested that pH conditions determined the occurrence of reaction types, and the dosages of disinfectant chlorine affected the extent of reactions. Photobacterium assay demonstrated that acute toxicity had significant increase after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. It was proved that 3,5-dichloro-4HB, one of the major transformation products, was responsible for the increasing acute toxicity after chlorination. It is notable that, 4HB at low level in real ambient water matrices could be transformed during simulated chlorination disinfection practice. Especially, two major products 3-chloro-4HB and 3,5-dichloro-4HB were detected out, implying the potential ecological risk after chlorination disinfection of 4HB.

  9. Developmental and acute toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos. PMID:27399156

  10. Transformation pathways and acute toxicity variation of 4-hydroxyl benzophenone in chlorination disinfection process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Qi; Du, Yuguo

    2016-07-01

    Benzophenones compounds (BPs) are widely used as UV filters, and have been frequently found in multiple environmental matrices. The residual of BPs in water would cause potential threats on ecological safety and human health. Chlorination disinfection is necessary in water treatment process, in which many chemicals remained in water would react with disinfectant chlorine and form toxic by-products. By using ultra performance liquid phase chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the transformation of 4-hydroxyl benezophenone (4HB) with free available chlorine (FAC) was characterized. Eight major products were detected and seven of them were identified. Transformation pathways of 4HB under acid, neutral, and alkaline conditions were proposed respectively. The transformation mechanisms involved electrophilic chlorine substitution of 4HB, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, hydrolysis of esters and oxidative breakage of benzene ring. The orthogonal experiments of pH and dosages of disinfectant chlorine were conducted. The results suggested that pH conditions determined the occurrence of reaction types, and the dosages of disinfectant chlorine affected the extent of reactions. Photobacterium assay demonstrated that acute toxicity had significant increase after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. It was proved that 3,5-dichloro-4HB, one of the major transformation products, was responsible for the increasing acute toxicity after chlorination. It is notable that, 4HB at low level in real ambient water matrices could be transformed during simulated chlorination disinfection practice. Especially, two major products 3-chloro-4HB and 3,5-dichloro-4HB were detected out, implying the potential ecological risk after chlorination disinfection of 4HB. PMID:27085063

  11. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1991-02-01

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m{sup 3} for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m{sup 3} (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Prediction of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to zebrafish larvae by using a refined toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongfei; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhu, Lin

    2015-12-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) and the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TK-TD) model are essential in predicting the acute toxicity of metals in various species and exposure conditions; however, these models are usually separately utilized. In this study, a mechanistic TK-TD model was developed to predict the acute toxicity of 10(-6)M Cd and 10(-6)M Pb to zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. The novel approach links the BLM with relevant TK processes to simulate the bioaccumulation processes of Cd or Pb as a function of the maximum uptake rate of each metal, the affinity constants, and the concentrations of free metal ions and H(+) in test solutions. Results showed that the refined TK-TD model can accurately predict the accumulation and acute toxicity of Cd and Pb to zebrafish larvae at pH 5.5, 6.5, and 7.0.

  13. Acute toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 13 nm-sized PEG-coated gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Cho, Minjung; Jeong, Jinyoung; Choi, Mina; Cho, Hea-Young; Han, Beom Seok; Kim, Sheen Hee; Kim, Hyoung Ook; Lim, Yong Taik; Chung, Bong Hyun Jeong, Jayoung

    2009-04-01

    In general, gold nanoparticles are recognized as being as nontoxic. Still, there have been some reports on their toxicity, which has been shown to depend on the physical dimension, surface chemistry, and shape of the nanoparticles. In this study, we carry out an in vivo toxicity study using 13 nm-sized gold nanoparticles coated with PEG (MW 5000). In our findings the 13 nm sized PEG-coated gold nanoparticles were seen to induce acute inflammation and apoptosis in the liver. These nanoparticles were found to accumulate in the liver and spleen for up to 7 days after injection and to have long blood circulation times. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that numerous cytoplasmic vesicles and lysosomes of liver Kupffer cells and spleen macrophages contained the PEG-coated gold nanoparticles. These findings of toxicity and kinetics of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles may have important clinical implications regarding the safety issue as PEG-coated gold nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical applications.

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of 30 reference chemicals to predict acute human and animal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Barile, F.A.; Arjun, S.; Borges, L. )

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted in cooperation with the Scandinavian Society of Cell Toxicology, as part of the Multicenter Evaluation for In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC), and was designed to develop an in vitro model for predicting acute human and animal toxicity. The technique relies on the ability of cultured transformed rat lung epithelial cells (L2) to incorporate radiolabled amino acids into newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing doses of the test chemical, during a 24-hr incubation. IC50 values were extrapolated from the dose-response curves after linear regression analysis. Human toxic blood concentrations estimated from rodent LD50 values suggest that our experimental IC50's are in close correlation with the former. Validation of the data by the MEIC committee shows that our IC50 values predicted human lethal dosage as efficient as rodent LD50's. It is anticipated that this and related procedures may supplement or replace currently used animal protocols for predicting human toxicity.

  15. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight.

  16. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  17. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  18. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Pariyani, Raghunath; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight. PMID:26819955

  19. Acute toxicity, histopathology, and coagulopathy in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following administration of the rodenticie diphacinone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Warner, Sarah E.; Day, Daniel D.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Voler, Steven F.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The acute oral toxicity of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone was found to be over 20 times greater in American kestrels (Falco sparverius; median lethal dose 96.8 mg/kg body weight) compared with Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Modest evidence of internal bleeding was observed at necropsy, although histological examination of heart, liver, kidney, lung, intestine, and skeletal muscle revealed hemorrhage over a wide range of doses (35.1-675 mg/kg). Residue analysis suggests that the half-life of diphacinone in the liver of kestrels that survived was relatively short, with the majority of the dose cleared within 7 d of exposure. Several precise and sensitive clotting assays (prothrombin time, Russell's viper venom time, thrombin clotting time) were adapted for use in this species, and oral administration of diphacinone at 50 mg/kg increased prothrombin time and Russell?s viper venom time at 48 and 96 h postdose compared with controls. Prolongation of in vitro clotting time reflects impaired coagulation complex activity, and generally corresponded with the onset of overt signs of toxicity and lethality. In view of the toxicity and risk evaluation data derived from American kestrels, the involvement of diphacinone in some raptor mortality events, and the paucity of threshold effects data following short-term dietary exposure for birds of prey, additional feeding trials with captive raptors are warranted to characterize more fully the risk of secondary poisoning.

  20. Toxic Megacolon and Acute Ischemia of the Colon due to Sigmoid Stenosis Related to Diverticulitis

    PubMed Central

    Antonopoulos, P.; Almyroudi, M.; Kolonia, V.; Kouris, S.; Troumpoukis, N.; Economou, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case of toxic megacolon accompanied by necrosis of the colon due to chronic dilation caused by stenosis of the sigmoid colon as a complication of diverticulitis. The patient presented at the emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, fever (38.8°C) and tachycardia (120 beats/min). Physical examination revealed distension and tenderness on deep palpation on the left lower quadrant without peritoneal signs. Abdominal computed tomography showed located stenosis in the sigmoid colon and marked dilation of the descending (12 cm diameter) and transverse (7.5 cm diameter) colon. A few hours later, the patient developed severe septic shock with electrolyte abnormalities. He had a history of two prior admissions to our hospital due to crises of acute diverticulitis. Based on Jalan's criteria the diagnosis was compatible with toxic megacolon. The patient's condition deteriorated suddenly and an emergency colectomy was performed. The operative findings revealed a necrotic colon. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of ischemia of the colon. To our knowledge this is the first published report in the literature which refers to a rare complication of diverticulitis, namely chronic stenosis which complicated to colonic ischemia and toxic megacolon. PMID:24163654

  1. Protective activity of hesperidin and lipoic acid against sodium arsenite acute toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Ricardo N Pires; Carvalho, Félix; Carvalho, Márcia; Fernandes, Eduarda; Soares, Elisa; de Bastos, Maria Lourdes; de Pereira, Maria Lourdes

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the toxic effects of sodium arsenite, As(III), in mice and the protective effect of 2 antioxidants, hesperidin and lipoic acid, against the observed As(III)-induced toxicity. In each study, mice were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control, antioxidant, antioxidant + arsenite, and arsenite. Animals were first injected with the vehicle or 25 mg antioxidant/kg BW. After 30 minutes they received an injection of 10 mg arsenite/kg BW or 0.9% NaCl. Two hours after the first injection, the liver, kidney, and testis were collected for histological evaluation. Liver samples were also taken for quantification of arsenic. In mice exposed only to As(III), various histopathological effects were observed in the liver, kidneys, and testes. In mice pretreated with either hesperidin or lipoic acid, a reduction of histopathologic effects on the liver and kidneys was observed. No protective effects were observed in the testes for either of the 2 studied antioxidants. In conclusion, hesperidin and lipoic acid provided protective effects against As(III)-induced acute toxicity in the liver and kidneys of mice. These compounds may potentially play an important role in the protection of populations chronically exposed to arsenic.

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Java Tea Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Safinar Ismail, Intan; Azam, Amalina Ahmad; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan

    2015-01-01

    The term Java tea refers to the decoction of Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves, which are widely consumed by the people in Europe and South East Asian countries. The OS leaves are known for their use in traditional medicinal systems as a prophylactic and curative agent for urinary stone, diabetes, and hypertension and also as a diuretic agent. The present study was aimed at evaluating its possible toxicity. Herein, the major phytochemical constituents of microwave dried OS leaf, which is the common drying process for tea sachets in the market, were also identified. The acute oral toxicity test of aqueous, 50% aqueous ethanolic, and ethanolic extracts of OS was performed at a dose of 5000 mg/Kg body weight of Sprague-Dawley rats. During the 14-day study, the animals were observed for any mortality, behavioral, motor-neuronal abnormalities, body weight, and feed-water consumption pattern. The hematological and serum biochemical parameters to assess the kidney and liver functions were carried out, along with the histological analysis of these organs. It was found that all microwave dried OS leaf extracts did not cause any toxic effects or mortality at the administered dose. No abnormality was noticed in all selected parameters in rats of both sexes as compared with their respective control groups. Thus, the possible oral lethal dose for microwave dried Java tea leaves is more than 5000 mg/Kg body weight. PMID:26819955

  3. Changes in food (Chlorella) levels and the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia carinata and Eschinisca triserialis

    SciTech Connect

    Chandini, T.

    1988-09-01

    Inasmuch as cadmium is known to be toxic to both fish and aquatic invertebrates due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential, the present study was initiated to determine the acute effects of cadmium on two cladoceran species - Daphnia carinata and Echinisca triserialis commonly found in fresh waters of Delhi. The two species in the extreme ends of the size continuum and were chosen to determine the magnitude of toxicity in relation to body size. As extraneous abiotic and biotic factors such as temperature, pH, food have been shown to greatly modify a pollutant stress, the present study was conducted with the objective of determining if differences in food levels could modify the acute toxicity effects of cadmium on these cladocerans. An attempt has also been made to compare these results with previous studies on cadmium toxicity.

  4. Acute and chronic toxicities of Irgarol alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert C S; Lam, Michael H W

    2013-01-01

    Irgarol 1051 has been widely used as a booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints. The combined toxicity of Irgarol with Cu on marine organisms, however, has not been fully investigated. This study investigated the acute and chronic toxicities of binary mixtures of Irgarol and CuSO(4) to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The acute combined toxicity of Irgarol and Cu was simple additive as revealed by two response surface models and their contours. However, based on chronic full life-cycle tests, when Irgarol was combined with Cu at an environmentally realistic concentration (10 μg L(-1)), a slightly synergistic effect was observed at a high Irgarol concentration (940 μg L(-1)), as shown by a significant increase in larval mortality. As Cu contamination is widespread in coastal environments, our results entail the importance of considering the combined toxic effect of the booster biocide and Cu for setting ecologically realistic water quality criteria.

  5. Acute toxicity and risk assessment of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to larval butterflies via ingestion of contaminated foliage.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2015-02-01

    Three Florida native larval butterflies (Junonia coenia, Anartia jatrophae, Eumaeus atala) were used in the present study to determine the acute toxicity, hazard, and risk of a 24h ingestion of leaves contaminated with the adult mosquito control insecticides permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to late 4th and early 5th in-star caterpillars. Based on 24-h LD50s for ingestion, naled was more acutely toxic than permethrin and dichlorvos to caterpillars. Hazard quotients using the ratio of the highest doses and the 90th percentile doses from field measurements in host plant foliage following actual mosquito control applications to the toxicological benchmarks from laboratory toxicity tests indicate potential high acute hazard for naled compared to permethrin and dichlorvos. Based on probabilistic ecological risk methods, naled exposure doses in the environment also presented a higher acute risk to caterpillars than permethrin and dichlorvos. The acute toxicity laboratory results and ecological risk assessment are based only on dietary ingestion and single chemical doses. It does not include other typical exposure scenarios that may occur in the environment. It is thus plausible to state that the ecological risk assessment presented here underestimates the potential risks in the field to caterpillars. However, one assumption that is scientifically feasible and certainly real from the results - if the environmental exposure doses of mosquito control operations are similar or higher to those presented here in leaves from the field, after applications, there will likely be significant mortalities and other adverse effects on caterpillar populations. PMID:25462317

  6. Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Yun Liang; Messer, Karen; Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R{sup 2}, 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

  7. [Analysis on the dermal irritation caused by imported cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xing, S; Yuan, L; Song, R; Xu, F

    2001-11-01

    Dermal irritation tests on 902 kinds of cosmetics were conducted. The acute dermal irritation/corrosion tests for 175 samples showed no irritation in 65.1% of them, and 34.9% of them were considered as slight irritation. The chronic dermal irritation/corrosion tests for another 727 samples showed no irritation for 32.2% of them, and 67.8% of them were considered as slight irritation, most of which are lipsticks, eye shadows, fluid powder foundations and powder foundations.

  8. Acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Swami, D; Kumar, P; Meena, M K; Maurya, C K; Gupta, P K; Ganesan, K; Jain, A K; Bhattacharya, R

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide) is a synthetic, potent narcotic analgesic agent. However, it is known to have several side effects, which led to synthesis and evaluation of its new analogs for the management of pain. We have earlier reported the comparative bioassay of fentanyl and its eight 1-substituted analogs (1-8) in mice. Three compounds, viz., N-(1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide (2), N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), and N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6) were found to be more effective and less toxic compared to fentanyl. The present study reports the comparative acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its three analogs, viz., 2, 5, and 6 in mice. Animals were exposed to different concentrations of smoke generated by heating the compounds. Exposure was performed in a head only all glass static exposure assembly for 15 min to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50). The breathing pattern and various respiratory parameters of the animals were also monitored online using a polygraph. Out of three compounds tested, analog 5 was found to be most toxic (LC50 = 2820 mg/m3) while 2 was least toxic (LC50 = >8000 mg/m3). All the compounds caused long lasting respiratory depression in a dose-dependent manner, which did not completely resolve even after discontinuation of exposure. Aerodynamic median diameter and geometric standard deviation of smoke particles was determined employing eight-stage Andersen sampler. The particles were found to be within the respirable range. The study, however, concludes that due to possible decomposition of the compounds by heating or its poor absorption by the alveolar surface, the present inhalation technique cannot be employed to generate smoke of fentanyl and its analogs for any medical or surreptitious use. PMID:25208041

  9. Development of miniaturized acute toxicity tests for Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.; McKee, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard EPA methods for conducting static, 48-hour, acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) can be miniaturized to successfully yield accurate LC50/EC50 values. The screening procedure involves exposing the test organisms to 1 mL of test solution, in test chambers which consist of the wells on 48-well microliter plates. Toxicity of the microliter plates and solvent, DO concentration, organism biomass to test solution ratio, partitioning of the chemicals and dilution of the test solution during transfer of the test organisms were examined. Survival and exposure were not significantly altered using non-standard test chambers. Toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), pentachlorophenol (PCP), kepone, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was determined using D. magna and fathead minnows. Serial dilutions were made and 1 mL aliquots pipetted into the wells. Daphnia magna, < 24 hours old, and newly hatched fathead minnows, were transferred into the wells, twenty individuals per concentration, one per well. Dose-response curves were established for all test compounds. LC50/EC50`s values obtained using miniaturized methods strongly correlated with those obtained using standard EPA procedures. The tests were repeated a number of times with coefficient of variances for D. magna ranging from 10% with kepone to 64% with SLS. For fathead minnows CVs ranged from 0% with PCP to 23% with kepone. It was concluded that current methods can be miniaturized, yet still provide accurate information regarding toxicity for compounds in limited supply. This method may also be amenable to effluent testing i.e. TIE fractions. Other benefits include reducing the amount of equipment and space needed to conduct a test and the time involved.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and

  11. Acute and chronic toxicities of zinc pyrithione alone and in combination with copper to the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Bao, Vivien W W; Lui, Gilbert C S; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a widely used booster biocide in combination with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The co-occurrence of ZnPT and Cu in coastal marine environments is therefore very common, and may pose a higher risk to marine organisms if they can result in synergistic toxicity. This study comprehensively investigated the combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu, on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus, for the first time, based on both 96-h acute toxicity tests using adult copepods and chronic full-life cycle tests (21 d) using nauplii <24-h old. As ZnPT has been reported to be easily trans-chelated to copper pyrithione (CuPT) in the presence of Cu, the acute toxicities of CuPT alone and in combination with Cu on adult copepods were also assessed. Our results showed that ZnPT and Cu exhibited a strong synergistic toxic effect on the copepod in both acute and chronic tests. During the acute test, the mortalities of adult copepods increased dramatically even with an addition of Cu at concentrations as low as 1-2 μg/L compared with those exposed to ZnPT alone. Severe chronic toxicities were further observed in the copepods exposed to ZnPT-Cu mixtures, including a significant increase of naupliar mortality, postponing of development from naupliar to copepodid and from copepodid to adult stage, and a significant decrease of intrinsic population growth when compared with those of copepods exposed to ZnPT or Cu alone. Such synergistic effects might be partly attributable to the formation of CuPT by the trans-chelation of ZnPT and Cu, because CuPT was found to be more toxic than ZnPT based on the acute toxicity results. Mixtures of CuPT and Cu also led to synergistic toxic effects to the copepod, in particular at high Cu concentrations. A novel non-parametric response surface model was applied and it proved to be a powerful method for analysing and predicting the acute binary mixture toxicities of the booster biocides (i.e., ZnPT and

  12. Chitosan-glycolipid nanogels loaded with anti-obese marine carotenoid fucoxanthin: Acute and sub-acute toxicity evaluation in rodent model.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Hindupur; Arunkumar, Ranganathan; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2015-10-01

    Fucoxanthin (FUCO) is a light- and heat-sensitive marine xanthophyll carotenoid, present in brown algae that render physiological properties as anti-oxidants. In this study, nanoencapsulation is an approach adopted to improve bioavailability of FUCO by using ionic-gelation method with polymeric chitosan (CS) dispersed in glycolipid (GL), as a carrier. Further, the aim was to investigate adverse effect of acute and sub-acute toxicity of chitosan nanogels (CS-NGs) loaded with FUCO+GL in rats. In the acute toxicity study, FUCO was fed to rats at doses of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW). In the sub-acute toxicity study, FUCO was fed at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 28 days. In both the studies, no mortality and abnormalities in gross morphology were observed. Acute toxicity study revealed that the LD50 of FUCO in CS-NGs is higher than 100 mg/kg BW. No postprandial plasma levels of FUCO were detected. However, fucoxanthinol (FUOH), a hydrolytic metabolite of FUCO was detected in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). Compared to the control group(s), no dose-related toxic effects of CS-NGs with FUCO + GL were found in haematological, histopathological, plasma biochemical indices, etc. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for CS-NGs with FUCO + GL in rats was 10 mg/kg/day. To conclude, no apparent adverse effect of CS-NGs with FUCO + GL demonstrating CS could be a promising polymer matrix for safe delivery of FUCO. This is the first study to demonstrate the safety assessment of CS-NGs with FUCO + GL.

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology of eucalyptus oil-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Ruizhang; Xiang, Fa; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xinghong; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Li; Yin, Lizi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Shu, Gang; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil has performed a variety of indirect services used as insect/pest repellent. The present study investigated the acute and subchronic toxicity of eucalyptus oil emulsion in water (EOE). In addition, we conduct safety pharmacology evaluation of EOE to supplement the toxicity tests and provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the toxicity of EOE. Acute administration of EOE was done as single dose from 2772 mg to 5742 mg of EOE per kg/bodyweight (b.wt.) and subchronic toxicity study for thirty days was done by daily oral administration of EOE at doses of 396, 792 and 1188 mg/kg b.wt. In SPF SD rats. The acute toxicity study showed the LD50 of EOE was 3811.5 mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study suggested the high-dose and middle-dose EOE slowed down the growth of male rats. The clinical pathology showed the high-dose and middle-dose EOE could cause damage to liver and kidney. The safety pharmacology indicated that EOE had no side effects on rats. These results suggest that EOE is a safe veterinary medicine for external use.

  14. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology of eucalyptus oil-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Ruizhang; Xiang, Fa; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xinghong; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Li; Yin, Lizi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Shu, Gang; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil has performed a variety of indirect services used as insect/pest repellent. The present study investigated the acute and subchronic toxicity of eucalyptus oil emulsion in water (EOE). In addition, we conduct safety pharmacology evaluation of EOE to supplement the toxicity tests and provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the toxicity of EOE. Acute administration of EOE was done as single dose from 2772 mg to 5742 mg of EOE per kg/bodyweight (b.wt.) and subchronic toxicity study for thirty days was done by daily oral administration of EOE at doses of 396, 792 and 1188 mg/kg b.wt. In SPF SD rats. The acute toxicity study showed the LD50 of EOE was 3811.5 mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study suggested the high-dose and middle-dose EOE slowed down the growth of male rats. The clinical pathology showed the high-dose and middle-dose EOE could cause damage to liver and kidney. The safety pharmacology indicated that EOE had no side effects on rats. These results suggest that EOE is a safe veterinary medicine for external use. PMID:25663980

  15. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology of eucalyptus oil-water emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Ruizhang; Xiang, Fa; Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xinghong; Jia, Renyong; Chen, Zhenzhen; Li, Li; Yin, Lizi; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Shu, Gang; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil has performed a variety of indirect services used as insect/pest repellent. The present study investigated the acute and subchronic toxicity of eucalyptus oil emulsion in water (EOE). In addition, we conduct safety pharmacology evaluation of EOE to supplement the toxicity tests and provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the toxicity of EOE. Acute administration of EOE was done as single dose from 2772 mg to 5742 mg of EOE per kg/bodyweight (b.wt.) and subchronic toxicity study for thirty days was done by daily oral administration of EOE at doses of 396, 792 and 1188 mg/kg b.wt. In SPF SD rats. The acute toxicity study showed the LD50 of EOE was 3811.5 mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study suggested the high-dose and middle-dose EOE slowed down the growth of male rats. The clinical pathology showed the high-dose and middle-dose EOE could cause damage to liver and kidney. The safety pharmacology indicated that EOE had no side effects on rats. These results suggest that EOE is a safe veterinary medicine for external use. PMID:25663980

  16. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B.

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  17. Anxiety and depression propensities in patients with acute toxic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jeong Ill; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Kwan; Lee, Yong Kook; Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Dong Joon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Lee, Jae Dong; Ko, Soon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Byung Seok; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Heon Ju; Kim, In Hee; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Ahn, Byung Min

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate anxiety and depression propensities in patients with toxic liver injury. METHODS: The subjects were divided into three groups: a healthy control group (Group 1, n = 125), an acute non-toxic liver injury group (Group 2, n = 124), and a group with acute toxic liver injury group caused by non-commercial herbal preparations (Group 3, n = 126). These three groups were compared and evaluated through questionnaire surveys and using the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the hypochondriasis scale. RESULTS: The HADS anxiety subscale was 4.9 ± 2.7, 5.0 ± 3.0 and 5.6 ± 3.4, in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The HADS depression subscale in Group 3 showed the most significant score (5.2 ± 3.2, 6.4 ± 3.4 and 7.2 ± 3.4 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). The BAI and BDI in Group 3 showed the most significant score (7.0 ± 6.3 and 6.9 ± 6.9, 9.5 ± 8.6 and 8.8 ± 7.3, 10.7 ± 7.2 and 11.6 ± 8.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (BAI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2) (BDI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1 and 2). Group 3 showed a significantly higher hypochondriasis score (8.2 ± 6.0, 11.6 ± 7.5 and 13.1 ± 6.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). CONCLUSION: Psychological factors that present vulnerability to the temptation to use alternative medicines, such as herbs and plant preparations, are important for understanding toxic liver injury. PMID:24379633

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

    1993-03-31

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

  19. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. PMID:21615960

  20. Hydrazine: acute toxicity to bluegills and sublethal effects on dorsal light response and agression

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.W.; Harrah, C.B.; Berry, W.O.

    1980-05-01

    The effects of hydrazine on bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, were assessed in terms of acute toxicity and by examining the alterations hydrazine induced in the dorsal light response and agressiveness. The static 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of hydrazine was 1.08 mg/liter and the 96-hour continuous-flow no-lethal-effect concentration was 0.43 mg/liter. The dorsal light response in the presence of an artificial prey was significantly decreased within 15 minutes of exposure to hydrazine concentrations well below the 96-hour static LC50. This was true both in static and in continuous-flow conditions. In addition, aggresiveness, as measured by the number of attacks on the prey, was increased in a dose-related manner. Control fish made no attacks, but attacks increased as the hydrazine concentrations increased. These behavioral measurements offer some promise as monitors of subtle, sublethal effects of hydrazine and possibly other aquatic pollutants on fish.

  1. Acute toxicity and anti acetylcholinesterase potential of some biphenyl derivatives to non target species.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Anjum, F; Qadri, S S; Sidky, M M; Osman, F H

    1989-02-01

    Five newly synthesised biphenyl derivatives were evaluated for their acute contact toxicity (LC50) against rice weevil and honey bee and anti acetylcholinesterase potential (I50) against honey bee, fish, pigeon and rat. Amongst, O,O-dimethyl-O, p-Nitro-biphenyl phosphate was most potent against rice weevil, whereas p-(4-Nitrophenyl) phenyl-N-methyl carbamate against honey bee. Based on I50 values the biphenyl derivatives of phosphoric acid esters were more potent anti acetylcholinesterase (AChE) agents against rat and fish brain AChE while derivative of carbamic esters towards pigeon brain AChE. The anti AChE potency of both groups appear to be of the same order towards bee head AChE.

  2. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri

    Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally

  3. Acute, aquatic toxicity of selected mineral particles. Technical report, September 1985-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Landis, W.G.

    1988-11-01

    Graphite fibers, nickel-graphite fibers, polycrystalline iron whiskers, and graphite Mirco-260 (M-260) were tested to determine their toxicities to Daphnia magna. The graphite fibers and nickel-graphite fibers were ground with a mortar and pestle before testing. The M-260 had an EC50 of 80.6 mg/L for four pooled replicates. None of the other compounds caused any deaths at concentrations up to 100 mg/L. All the bioassays were 48-hr acute studies. A 96-hr growth inhibition assay using Ankistrodesmus falcatus was performed with the graphite. No inhibition of A. falcatus was observed; however, the growth of the algae was enhanced by the two lowest test concentrations.

  4. Multivariate correlations between properties of metal ions and their acute toxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.E.; Williams, M.W.; Hingerty, B.E.; Hayden, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper extends our earlier study of correlations of acute metal-ion toxicity (14-day LD50) in mice and physicochemical properties of the ions. Here we put metal ions into two main groups as defined by Kaiser. Using most of the metals in the periodic system, we find the least redundant linear combinations W/sub i/ of the ionic radius, sum of ionization potentials, atomic weight, Williams softness parameter, and electronegativity for each of Kaiser's two groups. Information is provided so that the W/sub i/ can be evaluated for any metal from these five quantities. For the two groups of metals we then tested for multivariate correlations between the S/sub i/ having the highest sample variance and our mouse LD50. For our LD50 involving the five metal ions in Kaiser's group (1) the correlation is poor, whereas a good correlation is found for the 14 ions in group (2). 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by hydroxychloroquine.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Aisha; Tan, Kong-Bing; Lau, Tang Ching

    2009-12-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are both severe cutaneous adverse reactions, mostly to drugs. Although predominantly involving skin, they differ significantly in presentations, prognosis, pathology, immunogenesis, and treatment. They have very rarely been described to occur simultaneously in a patient, manifesting as AGEP-TEN overlap. We describe a 67-year-old Chinese lady with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with features of AGEP but evolved to AGEP-TEN overlap as an adverse reaction to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment. This case is the first reported case of AGEP-TEN overlap secondary to HCQ and highlights the need for constant surveillance for rare adverse events that may manifest even after decades of use of the drug worldwide.